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1

Autonomous microexplosives subsurface tracing system final report.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the autonomous micro-explosive subsurface tracing system is to image the location and geometry of hydraulically induced fractures in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This system is based on the insertion of a swarm of autonomous micro-explosive packages during the fracturing process, with subsequent triggering of the energetic material to create an array of micro-seismic sources that can be detected and analyzed using existing seismic receiver arrays and analysis software. The project included investigations of energetic mixtures, triggering systems, package size and shape, and seismic output. Given the current absence of any technology capable of such high resolution mapping of subsurface structures, this technology has the potential for major impact on petroleum industry, which spends approximately $1 billion dollar per year on hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States alone.

Engler, Bruce Phillip; Nogan, John; Melof, Brian Matthew; Uhl, James Eugene; Dulleck, George R., Jr.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Rivas, Raul R.; Cooper, Paul W.; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Kravitz, Stanley H.

2004-04-01

2

Design, implementation and results of an autonomous hydrogeophysical monitoring system to monitor subsurface flow at the Hanford 300 area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time lapse electrical data (both self potential and electrical resistivity data) can provide information on subsurface flow, and over the last several years there has been an increase in the interest of automating hydrogeophysical data acquisition systems. Such systems require both adaptations to hardware and system setup, and a well designed computational backend allowing for the management and processing of

R. J. Versteeg; A. Ward

2007-01-01

3

Thermal Imaging of Subsurface Coal Fires by means of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the Autonomous Province Xinjiang, PRC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous combustion of coal and resulting coal fires lead to very high temperatures in the subsurface. To a large amount the heat is transferred to the surface by convective and conductive transport inducing a more or less pronounced thermal anomaly. During the past decade satellite-based infrared-imaging (ASTER, MODIS) was the method of choice for coal fire detection on a local

Margarete Vasterling; Stefan Schloemer; Christian Fischer; Christoph Ehrler

2010-01-01

4

Anisotropic properties of ultrafast laser-driven microexplosions in lithium niobate crystal  

SciTech Connect

Smooth voids are achieved in an anisotropic Fe:LiNbO{sub 3} crystal with a high refractive index by use of a femtosecond laser-driven microexplosion method. Due to the anisotropy of the crystal, the maximum fabrication depth and the fabrication power threshold are different in different crystal directions, indicating that the direction perpendicular to the crystal axis is more suitable for thick three-dimensional structure fabrication. The dependence of the threshold power on the illumination wavelength shows that the microexplosion mechanism is caused by a two-photon absorption process. As a result, a near threshold fabrication method can be used to generate quasispherical voids.

Zhou Guangyong; Gu Min [center for Micro-Photonics and center for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

2005-12-12

5

Auto-ignition and micro-explosion behaviors of droplet arrays of water-in-fuel emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of auto-ignition and micro-explosion behaviors of one-dimensional arrays of fuel droplets suspended in\\u000a a chamber with high surrounding temperature were investigated experimentally with various droplet spacings, numbers of droplet\\u000a and surrounding temperatures. The fuels used were pure n-decane and emulsified n-decane with varied water contents ranging\\u000a from 10 to 30%. All experiments were performed under atmospheric conditions with

I. C. Jeong; K. H. Lee

2008-01-01

6

Fabrication of three-dimensional void photonic crystals using ultrafast-laser-driven microexplosion in a solid polymer material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micron-sized void dots have been generated in a solidified resin by using ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosion method. Side view confocal images of the void dots show that the void dots are almost spherical. The diameter of the void dots can be controlled by adjusting the laser power and exposure time. Three-dimensional (3D) structures, stacked in the [100] lattice direction, of diamond,

Guangyong Zhou; Michael J. Ventura; Michael R. Vanner; Min Gu

2005-01-01

7

Treatment of peri-implantitis around TiUnite-surface implants using Er:YAG laser microexplosions.  

PubMed

Implant therapy can lead to peri-implantitis, and none of the methods used to treat this inflammatory response have been predictably effective. It is nearly impossible to treat infected surfaces such as TiUnite (a titanium oxide layer) that promote osteoinduction, but finding an effective way to do so is essential. Experiments were conducted to determine the optimum irradiation power for stripping away the contaminated titanium oxide layer with Er:YAG laser irradiation, the degree of implant heating as a result of Er:YAG laser irradiation, and whether osseointegration was possible after Er:YAG laser microexplosions were used to strip a layer from the surface of implants placed in beagle dogs. The Er:YAG laser was effective at removing an even layer of titanium oxide, and the use of water spray limited heating of the irradiated implant, thus protecting the surrounding bone tissue from heat damage. PMID:23342343

Yamamoto, Atsuhikp; Tanabe, Toshiichiro

8

Autonomous Sample Acquisition for Planetary and Small Body Explorations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Robotic drilling and autonomous sample acquisition are considered as the key technology requirements in future planetary or small body exploration missions. Core sampling or subsurface drilling operation is envisioned to be off rovers or landers. These su...

A. R. Ghavimi F. Serricchio B. Dolgin F. Y. Hadaegh

2000-01-01

9

Autonomic Computing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines selected aspects of autonomic computing, explores some of its strengths and weaknesses, and outlines some of the current research projects being undertaken in this area. It also makes connections between this area and current work in ...

H. A. Mueller L. Brien M. Klein B. Wood

2006-01-01

10

Autonomic hyperreflexia  

MedlinePLUS

... a form of brain bleeding) Use of illegal stimulant drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines The following conditions share many symptoms with autonomic hyperreflexia, but have a different cause: ...

11

Autonomic neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

... or nurse examines you. Your blood pressure or heart rate may change when lying down, sitting, and standing. Special tests to measure sweating and heart rate may be done. This is called "autonomic testing." ...

12

Radar sensor for an autonomous Antarctic explorer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localization and identification of antarctic meteorites is a task of great scientific interest and with implications to planetary exploration. Autonomous search for antarctic meteorites presents a profound technical challenge. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) holds the prospect to safeguard antarctic robot from terrain dangers and detect subsurface objects. In January 1998, we validated a 500 MHz GPR sensor as part

Alex Foessel; Dimi Apostolopoulos; William L. Whittaker

1999-01-01

13

Autonomous pedestrians  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the difficult open problem of emulating the rich complexity of real pedestrians in urban environments. Our artificial life approach integrates motor, perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive components within a model of pedestrians as individuals. Our comprehensive model feature innovations in these components, as well as in their combination, yielding results of unprecedented fidelity and complexity for fully autonomous multi-human

Wei Shao; Demetri Terzopoulos

2005-01-01

14

Autonomous pedestrians  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the difficult open problem of emulating the rich complexity of real pedestrians in urban environments. Our artificial life approach integrates motor, perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive components within a model of pedestrians as individuals. Our comprehensive model features innovations in these components, as well as in their combination, yielding results of unprecedented fidelity and complexity for fully autonomous multi-human

Wei Shao; Demetri Terzopoulos

2007-01-01

15

Detection of geological structure using gamma logs for autonomous mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is motivated by the need to develop new perception and modeling capabilities to support a fully autonomous, remotely operated mine. The application differs from most existing robotics research in that it requires a detailed world model of the sub-surface geological structure. This in-ground geological information is then used to drive many of the planning and control decisions made

Katherine L. Silversides; Arman Melkumyan; Derek A. Wyman; Peter J. Hatherly; Eric Nettleton

2011-01-01

16

Autonomous Sample Acquisition for Planetary and Small Body Explorations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotic drilling and autonomous sample acquisition are considered as the key technology requirements in future planetary or small body exploration missions. Core sampling or subsurface drilling operation is envisioned to be off rovers or landers. These supporting platforms are inherently flexible, light, and can withstand only limited amount of reaction forces and torques. This, together with unknown properties of sampled

Ali R. Ghavimi; Frederick Serricchio; Ben Dolgin; Fred Y. Hadaegh

1999-01-01

17

Autonomous Sample Acquisition for Planetary and Small Body Explorations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotic drilling and autonomous sample acquisition are considered as the key technology requirements in future planetary or small body exploration missions. Core sampling or subsurface drilling operation is envisioned to be off rovers or landers. These supporting platforms are inherently flexible, light, and can withstand only limited amount of reaction forces and torques. This, together with unknown properties of sampled

Ali R. Ghavimi; Frederick Serricchio; Ben Dolgin; Fred Y. Hadaegh

2000-01-01

18

Subsurface Contamination Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are two objectives of this report. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second ...

Y. Yuan

2001-01-01

19

Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements.

J.M. Calle

2000-11-01

20

Ceramic subsurface marker prototypes  

SciTech Connect

The client submitted 5 sets of porcelain and stoneware subsurface (radioactive site) marker prototypes (31 markers each set). The following were determined: compressive strength, thermal shock resistance, thermal crazing resistance, alkali resistance, color retention, and chemical resistance.

Lukens, C.E. [Rockwell International Corp., Richland, WA (United States). Rockwell Hanford Operations

1985-05-02

21

Deep subsurface microbial processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of other habitats, the study of deep subsurface microbiology is still in its infancy.

Lovley, Derek R.; Chapelle, Francis H.

1995-01-01

22

Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to develop a Subsurface Facility layout that is capable of accommodating the statutory capacity of 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU), as well as an option to expand the inventory capacity, if authorized, to 97,000 MTU. The layout configuration also requires a degree of flexibility to accommodate potential changes in site conditions or program requirements. The objective of this analysis is to provide a conceptual design of the Subsurface Facility sufficient to support the development of the Subsurface Facility System Description Document (CRWMS M&O 2000e) and the ''Emplacement Drift System Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 2000i). As well, this analysis provides input to the Site Recommendation Consideration Report. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Evaluation of the existing facilities and their integration into the Subsurface Facility design. (2) Identification and incorporation of factors influencing Subsurface Facility design, such as geological constraints, thermal loading, constructibility, subsurface ventilation, drainage control, radiological considerations, and the Test and Evaluation Facilities. (3) Development of a layout showing an available area in the primary area sufficient to support both the waste inventories and individual layouts showing the emplacement area required for 70,000 MTU and, if authorized, 97,000 MTU.

C.L. Linden

2000-06-28

23

Subsurface Contamination Control  

SciTech Connect

There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the subsurface repository; (2) provides a table of derived LRCL for nuclides of radiological importance; (3) Provides an as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) evaluation of the derived LRCL by comparing potential onsite and offsite doses to documented ALARA requirements; (4) Provides a method for estimating potential releases from a defective WP; (5) Provides an evaluation of potential radioactive releases from a defective WP that may become airborne and result in contamination of the subsurface facility; and (6) Provides a preliminary analysis of the detectability of a potential WP leak to support the design of an airborne release monitoring system.

Y. Yuan

2001-12-12

24

Autonomic Nervous System Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

25

The Serpentinite Subsurface Microbiome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial habitats hosted in ultramafic rocks constitute substantial, globally-distributed portions of the subsurface biosphere, occurring both on the continents and beneath the seafloor. The aqueous alteration of ultramafics, in a process known as serpentinization, creates energy rich, high pH conditions, with low concentrations of inorganic carbon which place fundamental constraints upon microbial metabolism and physiology. Despite their importance, very few studies have attempted to directly access and quantify microbial activities and distributions in the serpentinite subsurface microbiome. We have initiated microbiological studies of subsurface seeps and rocks at three separate continental sites of serpentinization in Newfoundland, Italy, and California and compared these results to previous analyses of the Lost City field, near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In all cases, microbial cell densities in seep fluids are extremely low, ranging from approximately 100,000 to less than 1,000 cells per milliliter. Culture-independent analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed low-diversity microbial communities related to Gram-positive Firmicutes and hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria. Interestingly, unlike Lost City, there has been little evidence for significant archaeal populations in the continental subsurface to date. Culturing studies at the sites yielded numerous alkaliphilic isolates on nutrient-rich agar and putative iron-reducing bacteria in anaerobic incubations, many of which are related to known alkaliphilic and subsurface isolates. Finally, metagenomic data reinforce the culturing results, indicating the presence of genes associated with organotrophy, hydrogen oxidation, and iron reduction in seep fluid samples. Our data provide insight into the lifestyles of serpentinite subsurface microbial populations and targets for future quantitative exploration using both biochemical and geochemical approaches.

Schrenk, M. O.; Nelson, B. Y.; Brazelton, W. J.

2011-12-01

26

Subsurface electrical centrifugal pumps  

SciTech Connect

The first subsurface electrical centrifugal pump for oilwell service in the U.S. was installed in the Russell field, KS, in 1926. Since that time many improvements have increased the efficiency of the pump at various pumping rates and depths in a variety of casing sizes. Each oil well has a different producing environment that the design engineer must consider to optimize the pumping installation for maximum service life. This paper discusses the major items involved in selection of a subsurface electrical centrifugal pump for a specific application. Additionally, installation, operating, and servicing practices are discussed.

Coltharp, E.D.

1984-04-01

27

Subsurface Remote Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface remote sensing measurements are widely used for oil and gas exploration, for oil and gas production monitoring, and for basic studies in the earth sciences. Radiation sensors, often including small accelerator sources, are used to obtain bulk properties of the surrounding strata as well as to provide detailed elemental analyses of the rocks and fluids in rock pores. Typically,

Jeffrey S. Schweitzer; Joel L. Groves

2002-01-01

28

Subsurface Onondaga reefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven subsurface Onondaga reefs have been found in southwestern New York (6) and northwestern Pennsylvania (1). These reefs have had a maximum thickness of about 200 feet and cover an area of a few hundred acres. They are similar to nearly 30 smaller reefs in the same geologic section which have previously been found along the Onodaga outcrop. The discovery

Van Tyne

1995-01-01

29

SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES).

T. Wilson; R. Novotny

1999-11-22

30

Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters  

SciTech Connect

A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Bass, Ronald Marshall (Houston, TX); Kim, Dong Sub (Sugar Land, TX); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX); Keltner, Thomas Joseph (Spring, TX); Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon (Houston, TX)

2010-12-28

31

MAGIC (Mobile Autonomous Generic Instrument Carrier): Environment Specification & Requirements Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents first results of the DLR MAGIC (Mobile Autonomous Generic Instrument Carrier) study. MAGIC, a small robotic landing system that can autonomously relocate and upright, shall allow carrying variable suites of innovative instrumentation (up to a limit of ca. 3kg) for in-situ exploration to a broad, but defined, range of small bodies (such as asteroids, Near Earth Objects (NEO) and small moons). The instrumentation delivered shall allow studying the body's physical properties, internal, surface and subsurface structure and its chemical composition, thus being a complement to any rendezvous or sample return missions to small bodies.

Wagenbach, S.; Biele, J.; Ho, T.-M.; Lange, C.; Ulamec, S.; Witte, L.; Zoest, T. V.

2011-10-01

32

Subsurface contaminants focus area  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

NONE

1996-08-01

33

Control of autonomous airship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific research and development on the control of autonomous airship have shown a significant growth in recent years. New applications appear in the areas such as freight carrier, advertising, monitoring, surveillance, transportation, military and scientific research. The control of Autonomous airship is a very important problem for the aerial robots research. In this paper, the previous research on the control

Yiwei Liu; Zengxi Pan; David Stirling; Fazel Naghdy

2009-01-01

34

Subsurface Drainage Contribution to Streamflow in Subsurface Drained Agricultural Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In intensively subsurface drained agricultural watersheds, subsurface drainage influences both the streamflow pattern and the water quality of the receiving streams. Quantification of subsurface drainage volume may improve flood forecasting, enable estimation of contaminant loading through subsurface drains and assist in identification of target areas for load reduction and water conservation measures. The streamflow in a typical subsurface drained watershed consists of direct runoff (surface and subsurface runoff), drain flow (subsurface drainage) and base flow. During and immediately following storm events, drain flow can be considered part of both direct runoff and base flow, and in between the storms, drain flow can be part of base flow. As a first step, we explore quantifying the subsurface drainage contribution to observed streamflow using traditional hydrograph separation combined with surface runoff estimation. Annual average base flow contribution is estimated using average base flow during the driest two months of the year (August and September), when the drain flow can be considered negligible. The methodology was first evaluated using observations of drain flow from two experimental study sites in the Hoagland watershed in west central Indiana, USA and predictions of total watershed drain flow from a distributed application of the DRAINMOD drainage model. The methodology was then applied to other gauged rivers throughout the Wabash River basin in Indiana and compared to maps of estimated subsurface drainage extent.

Ale, S.; Bowling, L. C.

2010-12-01

35

Autonomous multifunctional nanobrushes-autonomous materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, taking advantage of carbon nanotubes' small size, and exceptional mechanical, chemical and electrical properties, we report on a series of nano-synthesis procedures that combine conventional chemical vapor deposition and selective substrate area growth followed by chemical functionalizations to fabricate functionalized nano-brushes from aligned carbon nanotube arrays and chemically selective functional groups. The high aspect ratio and small dimension, mechanical stability and flexibility, surface chemical and adhesive characteristics of carbon nanotubes provide opportunities to create nano-brushes with selected chemical functionalities. The nano-brushes are made from aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube bristles grafted onto long SiC fiber handles in various configurations and functionalized with various chemical functional groups. These nano-brushes can easily be manipulated physically, either manually or with the aid of motors. Here, we explain the autonomous characteristics of the functionalized nano-brushes employing functional chemical groups such that the nano-brush can potentially collect various metal particles, ions, and contaminants from liquid solutions and the air environment, autonomously. These functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube based nano-brushes can work swiftly in both liquid and air environments. With surface modification and functionalization, the nanotube nano-brushes can potentially become a versatile nano-devices in many chemical and biological applications, where they can autonomously pick up the particles they encounter since they can be chemically programmed to function as Autonomous Chemical Nano Robots (ACNR).

Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.; Tius, Marcus A.

2007-04-01

36

Explicit Substitution Internal Languages for Autonomous and *Autonomous Categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a family of explicit substitution type theories as internal languagesfor autonomous (or symmetric monoidal closed) and -autonomous categories, inthe same sense that the simply-typed -calculus with surjective pairing is the internallanguage for cartesian closed categories. We show that the eight equalityand three commutation congruence axioms of the -autonomous type theory characterise -autonomous categories exactly. The associated rewrite systems

T. W. Koh; C. h L. Ong

1999-01-01

37

Pain-autonomic interactions.  

PubMed

There are extensive interactions between the neural structures involved in pain sensation and autonomic control. The insular and anterior cingulate cortices, amygdala, hypothalamus, periaqueductal grey, parabrachial nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, ventrolateral medulla and raphe nuclei receive converging nociceptive and visceral inputs from the spinal and trigeminal dorsal horns and initiate arousal, affective, autonomic, motor and pain modulatory responses to painful stimuli. This review will focus on some central pain-autonomic interactions potentially relevant for the pathophysiology of primary headache. PMID:16688616

Benarroch, E E

2006-05-01

38

Subsurface fracture spacing  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken in order to document and analyze the unique set of data on subsurface fracture characteristics, especially spacing, provided by the US Department of Energy's Slant Hole Completion Test well (SHCT-1) in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Two hundred thirty-six (236) ft (71.9 m) of slant core and 115 ft (35.1 m) of horizontal core show irregular, but remarkably close, spacings for 72 natural fractures cored in sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde Group. Over 4200 ft (1280 m) of vertical core (containing 275 fractures) from the vertical Multiwell Experiment wells at the same location provide valuable information on fracture orientation, termination, and height, but only data from the SHCT-1 core allow calculations of relative fracture spacing. Within the 162-ft (49-m) thick zone of overlapping core from the vertical and deviated wellbores, only one fracture is present in vertical core whereas 52 fractures occur in the equivalent SHCT-1 core. The irregular distribution of regional-type fractures in these heterogeneous reservoirs suggests that measurements of average fracture spacing'' are of questionable value as direct input parameters into reservoir engineering models. Rather, deviated core provides data on the relative degree of fracturing, and confirms that cross fractures can be rare in the subsurface. 13 refs., 11 figs.

Lorenz, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Hill, R.E. (CER Corp., Las Vegas, NV (USA))

1991-01-01

39

Autonomous Flight Safety System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the ne...

B. Bull B. Ferrell J. Lanzi J. Simpson R. Zoerner S. Santuro

2004-01-01

40

Dysautonomia (Autonomic Dysfunction)  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Dysautonomia Information Page Synonym(s): Autonomic Dysfunction, Familial Dysautonomia, Riley-Day Syndrome Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Dysautonomia? Is there any treatment? ...

41

Autonomous RC Car Controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Embedded Computing Systems Laboratory is equipped with the Vanderbilt Embedded Computing Plat- form for Autonomous Vehicles (VECPAV)-an infrastructure designed to allow for system design in Simulink during design time and for automatic C-code generation and distribution onto real-time QNX computational nodes. The system was formerly used to control the autonomous motion of small helicopters. Our task was to use

Jessica Kane; Thao Nguyen

42

SUBSURFACE FACILITY WORKER DOES ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this design calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the subsurface facility of the repository performing emplacement, maintenance, and retrieval operations under normal conditions. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the subsurface facilities and provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application.

V. Arakali; E. Faillace; A. Linden

2004-02-27

43

Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible

1995-01-01

44

Containment of subsurface contaminants  

DOEpatents

A barrier for reducing the spread of a plume of subsurface contaminants. The apparatus includes a well system for injecting a fluid, such as air, just outside and below the periphery of the plume. The fluid is injected at a pressure sufficient to lower the hydraulic conductivity of the soil from the point of injection to the surface thus establishing a curtain-like barrier to groundwater movement. The barrier is established upgradient of the plume to divert groundwater away, or preferably completely around the plume to reduce the flow of groundwater into or out of the plume. The barrier enables the remediation of the confined contamination and then, when the injection of the fluid is halted, the barrier quickly dissipates.

Corey, John C. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01

45

Nonintrusive subsurface surveying capability  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes the capabilities of a ground-pentrating radar (GPR) system developed by EG&G Energy Measurements (EM), a prime contractor to the Department of Energy (DOE). The focus of the presentation will be on the subsurface survey of DOE site TA-21 in Los Alamos, New Mexico. EG&G EM developed the system for the Department of Defense. The system is owned by the Department of the Army and currently resides at KO in Albuquerque. EM is pursuing efforts to transfer this technology to environmental applications such as waste-site characterization with DOE encouragement. The Army has already granted permission to use the system for the waste-site characterization activities.

Tunnell, T.W.; Cave, S.P.

1994-06-01

46

Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document  

SciTech Connect

The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

NONE

2000-10-12

47

Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document  

SciTech Connect

The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

Eric Loros

2001-07-25

48

Subsurface Facility System Description Document  

SciTech Connect

The Subsurface Facility System encompasses the location, arrangement, size, and spacing of the underground openings. This subsurface system includes accesses, alcoves, and drifts. This system provides access to the underground, provides for the emplacement of waste packages, provides openings to allow safe and secure work conditions, and interfaces with the natural barrier. This system includes what is now the Exploratory Studies Facility. The Subsurface Facility System physical location and general arrangement help support the long-term waste isolation objectives of the repository. The Subsurface Facility System locates the repository openings away from main traces of major faults, away from exposure to erosion, above the probable maximum flood elevation, and above the water table. The general arrangement, size, and spacing of the emplacement drifts support disposal of the entire inventory of waste packages based on the emplacement strategy. The Subsurface Facility System provides access ramps to safely facilitate development and emplacement operations. The Subsurface Facility System supports the development and emplacement operations by providing subsurface space for such systems as ventilation, utilities, safety, monitoring, and transportation.

Eric Loros

2001-07-31

49

Subsurface Remote Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface remote sensing measurements are widely used for oil and gas exploration, for oil and gas production monitoring, and for basic studies in the earth sciences. Radiation sensors, often including small accelerator sources, are used to obtain bulk properties of the surrounding strata as well as to provide detailed elemental analyses of the rocks and fluids in rock pores. Typically, instrument packages are lowered into a borehole at the end of a long cable, that may be as long as 10 km, and two-way data and instruction telemetry allows a single radiation instrument to operate in different modes and to send the data to a surface computer. Because these boreholes are often in remote locations throughout the world, the data are frequently transmitted by satellite to various locations around the world for almost real-time analysis and incorporation with other data. The complete system approach that permits rapid and reliable data acquisition, remote analysis and transmission to those making decisions is described.

Schweitzer, Jeffrey S.; Groves, Joel L.

2002-10-01

50

Electromagnetic subsurface measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1974, personnel at the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) began using an impulse radar system to profile accumulations of ice forms. The system was modified for effective use as a profiling system in a ground or airborne configuration, in certain high-noise environments. The system can penetrate fresh water and media with a high water content. Frazil and brash ice accumulations with approximately 50% water were profiled to a depth of 25 to 35 ft. As a result of the CRREL modifications, the system has found extensive and varied applications as a low-level remote sensing tool. Applications include profiling ice accumulations (including ice jams), river beds, sheet ice, permafrost, subsurface ice masses, river bank revetments through air-entrained water, snow covers, sea ice, icebergs, and peat bogs. Limited laboratory work has also shown that the impulse radar system may be able to detect oil and gas under sea ice. Selected applications and data are presented. Since it was used mainly for research, the CRREL system needs further development to make it useful to operational units. Additional development of hardware and software is recommended.

Dean, A. M., Jr.

1981-10-01

51

Autonomic innervation in multiple system atrophy and pure autonomic failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPure autonomic failure (PAF) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are both characterised by chronic dysautonomia although presenting different disability and prognosis. Skin autonomic function evaluation by indirect tests has revealed conflicting results in these disorders. Here, the authors report the first direct analysis of skin sympathetic fibres including structure and function in PAF and MSA to ascertain different underlying autonomic

V. Donadio; P. Cortelli; M. Elam; V. Di Stasi; P. Montagna; B. Holmberg; M. P. Giannoccaro; E. Bugiardini; P. Avoni; A. Baruzzi; R. Liguori

2010-01-01

52

Subsurface Deployment of Naval Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents a study designed to determine which Navy facilities and functions appear to be best suited for subsurface deployment in light of anticipated improvements in excavation capability within the next twenty years. Five categories of Naval ...

R. Hibbard L. Pietrzak S. Rubens

1972-01-01

53

Autonomous Aerobraking for Mars Orbiters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous Aerobraking is a developing technology that will reduce cost and increase flexibility of an aerobraking orbiter around Mars. Currently in its second phase of development, autonomous aerobraking could be implemented for a 2018 Mars orbiter.

Prince, J. L.

2012-06-01

54

The Future of Subsurface Characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing monitoring and characterization technologies can cover only a small fraction of the subsurface, and the information collected cannot be used to effectively manage current and future drought and other water- related problems. Subsurface sciences need a breakthrough "instrument" to greatly expand and deepen our ability to "see into the groundwater basin." The theme of this talk is to promote the idea of collecting data intelligently and analyzing data smartly for characterization of the subsurface at high resolutions beyond the capabilities of current technology. Specifically, we argue that tomographic surveying is a smart approach, which collects data more cost-effectively and less invasively than existing technologies to characterize the subsurface environments. Limitations of a single type (hydrologic, chemical or geophysical) of tomographic survey then motivate fusion of different types of tomographic surveys such that each survey takes advantage of others to overcome its weakness to reach its optimal capability in a reciprocal manner. A basin is an appropriate scale for the purpose of water resources management. Therefore, the field-scale data collection and fusion concept/technology is expanded to basin-scale characterizations. In order to facilitate these basin-scale tomographic surveys, fusion of passive basin-scale tomographys are suggested that exploit recurrent natural stimuli (e,g., lightning, earthquakes, storm events, barometric variations, river- stage variations, etc.) as sources of excitations, along with implementation of sensor networks that provide long-term and spatially distributed monitoring of signals on the land surface and in the subsurface. This vision for basin-scale subsurface characterization undoubtedly faces unprecedented technological challenges and requires interdisciplinary collaborations (e.g., surface and subsurface hydrology, geophysics, geology, geochemist, information technology, applied mathematics, atmospheric science, etc.). A call for the interdisciplinary collaboration to advance subsurface sciences is another aim of this presentation.

Yeh, T. J.

2006-12-01

55

Distributed computing using autonomous objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous objects is a new computing and coordination paradigm for distributed systems, based on the concept of intelligent messages that carry their own behavior and that propagate autonomously through the underlying computational network. We survey and classify several existing systems that fall into this general category of autonomous objects and present a unifying view of the paradigm by describing the

Lubomir F. Bic

1995-01-01

56

Autonomic determinism: The modes of autonomic control, the doctrine of autonomic space, and the laws of autonomic constraint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary findings reveal that the multiple modes of autonomic control do not lie along a single continuum extending from parasympathetic to sympathetic dominance but rather distribute within a 2-dimensional space. The physiological origins and empirical documentation for the multiple modes of autonomic control are considered. Then a formal 2-dimensional conception of autonomic space is proposed, and a quantitative model for

Gary G. Berntson; John T. Cacioppo; Karen S. Quigley

1991-01-01

57

Autonomic Determinism: The Modes of Autonomic Control, the Doctrine of Autonomic Space, and the Laws of Autonomic Constraint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary findings reveal that the multiple modes of autonomic control do not lie along a single continuum extending from parasympathetic to sympathetic dominance but rather distribute within a 2-dimensional space. The physiological origins and empirical documentation for the multiple modes of autonomic control are considered. Then a formal 2-dimensional conception of autonomic space is proposed, and a quantitative model for

Gary G. Berntson; John T. Cacioppo; Karen S. Quigley

1991-01-01

58

Subsurface Onondaga reefs  

SciTech Connect

Seven subsurface Onondaga reefs have been found in southwestern New York (6) and northwestern Pennsylvania (1). These reefs have had a maximum thickness of about 200 feet and cover an area of a few hundred acres. They are similar to nearly 30 smaller reefs in the same geologic section which have previously been found along the Onodaga outcrop. The discovery well for Onodaga reef gas, although not recognized as such at the time, was the No. 1 Quinlan Oil. The well was drilled in 1933 in the Town of Olean, Cattaraugus County, New York near the New York-Pennsylvania State line. The first of the more recent Onondaga reef discoveries occurred in 1967 at Wyckoff in the Town of Jasper, Steuben County, New York. This discovery touched off a leasing and seismic exploration boom in this area of New York. As a result of these studies, two more reefs were discovered in 1971, two in 1974 and the last so far in 1981. These seven reefs have produced 7.1 billion cubic feet of gas. The smallest, Flatstone, has production to data of about 700 million cubic feet. The Onondaga reefs are of basal Onondaga, or Edgecliff, age. The Edgecliff is a light gray, coarsely crystalline, biostromal limestone. Onondaga reefs may have begun forming on somewhat higher parts of the sea floor in crinoid thickets. Because the Onondaga is considerably thicker in that area these so-called {open_quotes}reefs{close_quotes} are buried entirely within the total Onondaga section. They have been called reefs mainly because gas shows have been encountered in the lower Onondaga when it was drilled through by wells aiming for deeper Medina sandstones gas production. Nevertheless, gas production from them has been minimal. The seal consists of surrounding and overlapping black and gray middle Devonian Hamilton shales. The basal portions are surrounded by onlapping upper Onondaga limestones. The source of the gas is believed to be the highly organic Hamilton shale.

Van Tyne, A.M. [Van Tyne Consulting, Wellsville, NY (United States)

1995-09-01

59

Transparent autonomization in CORBA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, software systems are constructed by integrating and composing multiple existing applications. The resulting complexity increases the need for self-management of the system. However, adding autonomic behavior to composite systems is difficult, espe- cially when the constituent components are heterogeneous and they were not originally designed to support such interactions. Moreover, entangling the code for self-management with the code for

Seyed Masoud Sadjadi; Philip K. Mckinley

2009-01-01

60

Towards Wearable Autonomous Microsystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents our work towards a wearable autonomous microsystem for context recognition. The design process needs to take into account the properties ofa wearable environment in terms ofsen- sor placement for data extraction, energy harvesting, comfort and easy integration into clothes and accessories. We suggest to encapsulate the system in an embroidery or a button. The study ofa microsystem

Nagendra Bhargava Bharatula; Stijn Ossevoort; Mathias Stäger; Gerhard Tröster

2004-01-01

61

Autonomous driving goes downtown  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most computer-vision systems for vehicle guidance are for highway scenarios. Developing autonomous or driver-assistance systems for complex urban traffic poses new algorithmic and system-architecture challenges. To address these issues, the authors introduce their intelligent Stop&Go system and discuss appropriate algorithms and approaches for vision-module control

U. Franke; D. Gavrila; S. Gorzig; F. Lindner; F. Puetzold; C. Wohler

1998-01-01

62

Autonomous LHD loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machine vision is used for guidance of the autonomous loading of ore during underground mining. Three dimensional spatial data of the ore pile is derived in real-time from camera images and is used for planning the scooping process. A sensory integration technique combines feedforward from the same vision system with wheel odometry to guide the vehicle to and from the

M. K. Petty; J. Billingsley; T. Tran-Cong

1997-01-01

63

Efficient autonomous heliostat system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, an efficient autonomous solar energy system has been implemented for domestic use. It concentrates the solar heat to turn water into steam which in turn is channelled to drive an electricity turbine-generator. The prototype utilizes two heliostat reflector units, each of which has been designed to accurately and independently track the sun throughout the day and reflect

Nazar T. Ali; Kahtan A. Mezher; Ahmed Al Qayed; Neil McEwan; Abdul Muhsin M. Altimimi

2012-01-01

64

Autonomous formation flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes an approach to close-formation flight of autonomous aircraft. A standard LQ-based structure was synthesized for each vehicle and for formation position error control using linearized equations of motion and a lifting line model of the aircraft wake. We also consider the definition of a formation management structure, capable of dealing with a variety of generic transmission and

F. Giulietti; L. Pollini; M. Innocenti

2000-01-01

65

Autonomous Soccer Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Robocup 97 competition provides an excellent opportunity to demonstrate the techniques and methods of artificial i ntelligence, autonomous agents and computer vision. On a soccer field the core capabilities a player must have are to navigate the field, track the ball and other agents, recognize the difference between agents, collaborate with other agents, and hit the ball in the

Wei-min Shen; Jafar Adibi; Rogelio Adobbati; Bonghan Cho; Ali Erdem; Hadi Moradi; Behnam Salemi; Sheila Tejada

1997-01-01

66

Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce conclusions derived from the pool of data gathered within a full QA-controlled domain. An evaluation of the completeness of the current data is provided with respect to the requirements for geotechnical data to support design and performance assessment.

D. Rigby; M. Mrugala; G. Shideler; T. Davidsavor; J. Leem; D. Buesch; Y. Sun; D. Potyondy; M. Christianson

2003-12-17

67

ESF Subsurface Standby Generator Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to outline and recommend two standby generator systems. These systems shall provide power during a utility outage to critical Alcove No.5's thermal test loads and to subsurface flow through ventilation loads. Critical loads that will be supported by these generator systems will be identified and evaluated. Additionally, other requirements from the Exploratory Studies Facilities Design Requirements (ESFDR) document will be evaluated. Finally, the standby generator systems will be integrated into the existing ESF subsurface distribution system. The objective of this analysis is to provide design inputs for an efficient and reliable standby generator systems which will provide power for critical loads during a power outage; specifically, Alcove No.5's thermal test loads and the subsurface flow through ventilation loads. Additionally, preliminary one-line diagrams will be developed using this analysis as a primary input.

L. Fernandez

1998-04-17

68

Autonomous Sample Acquisition for Planetary and Small Body Explorations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robotic drilling and autonomous sample acquisition are considered as the key technology requirements in future planetary or small body exploration missions. Core sampling or subsurface drilling operation is envisioned to be off rovers or landers. These supporting platforms are inherently flexible, light, and can withstand only limited amount of reaction forces and torques. This, together with unknown properties of sampled materials, makes the sampling operation a tedious task and quite challenging. This paper highlights the recent advancements in the sample acquisition control system design and development for the in situ scientific exploration of planetary and small interplanetary missions.

Ghavimi, Ali R.; Serricchio, Frederick; Dolgin, Ben; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

2000-01-01

69

Autonomic Nervous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autonomic nervous system coordinates involuntary control of viscera and other tissues throughout the body, with the exception\\u000a of skeletal muscle. This branch of the central nervous system, organized into parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions, integrates\\u000a efferent and afferent fibers that regulate the activities of the majority of organs, glands, and smooth musculature found\\u000a in the body. The presynaptic cell bodies

Kevin Fitzgerald; Robert F. Wilson; Paul A. Iaizzo

70

SIRTF autonomous star tracker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two redundant AST-301 autonomous star trackers (AST) serve as the primary attitude sensors for JPL's space infrared telescope facility (SIRTF). These units, which employ a 1553B interface to output their attitude quaternions and uncertainty at a 2 Hz rate, provide a 1 sigmaaccuracy of better than 0.18, 0.18, and 5.1 arcsec about their X, Y, and Z axes, respectively. This

Roelof W. H. van Bezooijen

2003-01-01

71

Autonomous mobile platform II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents design of autonomous mobile platform based on the all terrain 1\\/8th scale four wheel drive radio control model. In this paper was considered problem of automatic control of mobile platform using information from GPS system, electronic compass and encoder. The mobile platform is equipped in two-stroke glow engine, heavy-duty drive train and wide-track suspension and controller based

Krzysztof Jaskot; Artur Babiarz

2011-01-01

72

Autonomous Mobile Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. Autonomous mobile networks are distributed ad-hoc networks of nodes that can sense, actuate, compute and communicate with each other using point-to-point multi-hop communication. The nodes in such networks include static sensors, mobile sensors, robots, and humans. Such systems combine the most advanced concepts in perception, communication and control to create computational systems capable of

Daniela Rus

2004-01-01

73

Pharmacotherapy of autonomic failure  

PubMed Central

The clinical picture of autonomic failure is characterized by severe and disabling orthostatic hypotension. These disorders can develop as a result of damage of central neural pathways or peripheral autonomic nerves, caused either by a primary autonomic neurodegenerative disorder or secondary to systemic illness. Treatment should be focused on decreasing presyncopal symptoms instead of achieving blood pressure goals. Non-pharmacologic strategies such as physical counter-maneuvers, dietary changes (i.e. high salt diet, rapid water drinking or compression garments) are the first line therapy. Affected patients should be screened for co-morbid conditions such as post-prandial hypotension and supine hypertension that can worsen orthostatic hypotension if not treated. If symptoms are not controlled with these conservative measures the next step is to start pharmacological agents; these interventions should be aimed at increasing intravascular volume either by promoting water and salt retention (fludrocortisone) or by increasing red blood cell mass when anemia is present (recombinant erythropoietin). When pressor agents are needed, direct pressor agents (midodrine) or agents that potentiate sympathetic activity (atomoxetine, yohimbine, pyridostigmine) can be used. It is preferable to use short-acting pressor agents that can be taken on as needed basis in preparation for upright activities.

Shibao, Cyndya; Okamoto, Luis; Biaggioni, Italo

2012-01-01

74

Pharmacotherapy of autonomic failure.  

PubMed

The clinical picture of autonomic failure is characterized by severe and disabling orthostatic hypotension. These disorders can develop as a result of damage of central neural pathways or peripheral autonomic nerves, caused either by a primary autonomic neurodegenerative disorder or secondary to systemic illness. Treatment should be focused on decreasing pre-syncopal symptoms instead of achieving blood pressure goals. Non-pharmacologic strategies such as physical counter-maneuvers, dietary changes (i.e. high salt diet, rapid water drinking or compression garments) are the first line therapy. Affected patients should be screened for co-morbid conditions such as post-prandial hypotension and supine hypertension that can worsen orthostatic hypotension if not treated. If symptoms are not controlled with these conservative measures the next step is to start pharmacological agents; these interventions should be aimed at increasing intravascular volume either by promoting water and salt retention (fludrocortisone) or by increasing red blood cell mass when anemia is present (recombinant erythropoietin). When pressor agents are needed, direct pressor agents (midodrine) or agents that potentiate sympathetic activity (atomoxetine, yohimbine, pyridostigmine) can be used. It is preferable to use short-acting pressor agents that can be taken on as needed basis in preparation for upright activities. PMID:21664375

Shibao, Cyndya; Okamoto, Luis; Biaggioni, Italo

2011-06-12

75

VIRUS TRANSPORT IN THE SUBSURFACE  

EPA Science Inventory

The importance of virus transport in the subsurface is highlighted by implications to human health as well as drinking water regulations. The structure of virus particles is defined along with their colloidal physiochemical properties and a discussion of their more prominent sou...

76

High temperature subsurface safety valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes in a subsurface well safety valve for controlling the fluid flow through a well conduit and including a housing having a bore and a valve closure member moving between open and closed positions for controlling the fluid flow through the bore. A flow tube telescopically moves in the housing for controlling the movement of the valve closure

1987-01-01

77

Intelligent Autonomous Decentralized System (IADS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, Intelligent Autonomous Decentralized Systems (IADS) is proposed. It is the development based on the combination of autonomous decentralized systems (ADS) and distributed artificial intelligence (DAI). The concept, model, architecture, performance, methodology and technology for design and implementation of IADS are discussed. The IADS based on Agent (Union-IADS, Market-IADS, Group-IADS) are presented. They have not only autonomous controllability

Tu Xu-yan; Tang Tao

2002-01-01

78

SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of difficulty and complexity in determining requirements in adapting existing data communication highways to support the subsurface visual alarm system. These requirements would include such things as added or new communication cables, added Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Inputs and Outputs (I/O), and communication hardware components, and human machine interfaces and their software operating system. (4) Select the best data communication highway system based on this review of adapting or integrating with existing data communication systems.

D.W. Markman

2001-08-06

79

Microbial communities in the deep subsurface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of microbial populations and microbial communities within the earth's subsurface is summarized in this review. Scientists are currently exploring the subsurface and addressing questions of microbial diversity, the interactions among microorganisms, and mechanisms for maintenance of subsurface microbial communities. Heterotrophic anaerobic microbial communities exist in relatively permeable sandstone or sandy sediments, located adjacent to organic-rich deposits. These microorganisms

Lee R. Krumholz

2000-01-01

80

Dysr?flexie autonome  

PubMed Central

Résumé Objectif Sensibiliser davantage les médecins de famille à la dysréflexie autonome (DA) chez les patients victimes d’une lésion médullaire (LM) et proposer certaines interventions. Sources de l’information On a fait une recension dans MEDLINE de 1970 à juillet 2011 à l’aide des expressions en anglais autonomic dysreflexia et spinal cord injury, ainsi que family medicine ou primary care. On a aussi passé en revue et utilisé d’autres ressources et guides de pratique pertinents. Message principal Il arrive souvent que les médecins de famille ne se sentent pas confiants de traiter des patients ayant une LM dont les problèmes sont complexes et exigent beaucoup de temps. Les médecins de famille ont l’impression de n’avoir pas la formation nécessaire pour répondre à leurs besoins. Pourtant, ils offrent une composante essentielle des soins à de tels patients et il est important qu’ils comprennent les problèmes médicaux particuliers aux LM. La dysréflexie autonome est un important et fréquent problème potentiellement sérieux que connaissent mal de nombreux médecins de famille. Cet article passe en revue les signes et les symptômes de la DA et présente certaines options de prise en charge aiguë, ainsi que des stratégies de prévention à l’intention des médecins de famille. Conclusion Les médecins de famille devraient savoir quels patients traumatisés médullaires sont susceptibles d’avoir une DA et surveiller ceux qui sont touchés par ce problème. Une explication est donnée dans cet article quant à l’approche à suivre pour la prise en charge aiguë. Les médecins de famille jouent un rôle essentiel dans la prévention de la DA, notamment par l’éducation (du patient et des autres professionnels de la santé) et la consignation dans le dossier médical de stratégies comme les soins appropriés de la vessie, de l’intestin et de la peau, d’avertissements et de plans de prise en charge.

Milligan, James; Lee, Joseph; McMillan, Colleen; Klassen, Hilary

2012-01-01

81

Autonomous interplanetary constellation design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to NASA's integrated space technology roadmaps, space-based infrastructures are envisioned as necessary ingredients to a sustained effort in continuing space exploration. Whether it be for extra-terrestrial habitats, roving/cargo vehicles, or space tourism, autonomous space networks will provide a vital communications lifeline for both future robotic and human missions alike. Projecting that the Moon will be a bustling hub of activity within a few decades, a near-term opportunity for in-situ infrastructure development is within reach. This dissertation addresses the anticipated need for in-space infrastructure by investigating a general design methodology for autonomous interplanetary constellations; to illustrate the theory, this manuscript presents results from an application to the Earth-Moon neighborhood. The constellation design methodology is formulated as an optimization problem, involving a trajectory design step followed by a spacecraft placement sequence. Modeling the dynamics as a restricted 3-body problem, the investigated design space consists of families of periodic orbits which play host to the constellations, punctuated by arrangements of spacecraft autonomously guided by a navigation strategy called LiAISON (Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation). Instead of more traditional exhaustive search methods, a numerical continuation approach is implemented to map the admissible configuration space. In particular, Keller's pseudo-arclength technique is used to follow folding/bifurcating solution manifolds, which are otherwise inaccessible with other parameter continuation schemes. A succinct characterization of the underlying structure of the local, as well as global, extrema is thus achievable with little a priori intuition of the solution space. Furthermore, the proposed design methodology offers benefits in computation speed plus the ability to handle mildly stochastic systems. An application of the constellation design methodology to the restricted Earth-Moon system, reveals optimal pairwise configurations for various L1, L2, and L5 (halo, axial, and vertical) periodic orbit families. Navigation accuracies, ranging from O (10+/-1) meters in position space, are obtained for the optimal Earth-Moon constellations, given measurement noise on the order of 1 meter.

Chow, Cornelius Channing, II

82

Image analysis for water surface and subsurface feature detection in shallow waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carefully collected airborne imagery demonstrates the ability to see water surface features as well as shallow bottom features such as submerged vegetation and manmade targets. Traditional photogrammetric imagery and airborne digital imagery both suffer from a loss in image clarity due to a number of factors, including capillary and small gravity waves, the water column or in-situ constituents. The use of submerged as well as surface man-made calibration targets deployed during airborne or in-situ subsurface image acquisitions forms a preliminary basis for correcting imagery in order to improve subsurface and surface features and their detection. Methods presented as well as imagery at 490 nm, 532 nm and 698-700 nm clearly show subsurface features in shallow waters. The techniques utilized include the use of large frame cameras with photogrammetric films in combination of special filters, such as a Wratten # 70, in order to provide narrower spectral features near the vegetative "red edge" to be used to improve interpretation of hyperspectral push broom imagery. Combined imagery from several sensors and platforms, including autonomous underwater vehicles, form the basis of data fusion for surface and subsurface automatic feature extraction. Data presented from a new hyperspectral imaging system demonstrates the utility of sub-meter hyperspectral imagery for use in subsurface feature detection.

Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Jones, James; Frystacky, Heather; Kovacs, Mate; Jozsa, Oszkar

2010-10-01

83

UVOT autonomous operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SWIFT/UVOT has a requirement for on-board autonomous control of exposures, health and safety. It is anticipated that the optimal form of control may not emerge until after launch and may change during the course of the mission. A flexible and readily re-configurable system is therefore required. Two schemes have been adopted. As well as the more usual approach of tables of experimental configurations, action tables mapping command sequences to key events have been implemented. The command sequences, consisting of a series of command words located in EEPROM, are executed using a stack-based software 'virtual CPU.' Each command word, analogous to hardware CPU assembler instructions, results in the execution of well-checked Ada code fragments. As well as implementing the UVOT commands, the code includes functionality such as delaying a specified time, awaiting action completion, 'subroutine' calls and simple flow control. These permit the construction of complex control sequences. A C-like language is used to describe the required sequences. A translator converts them to the required command word sequence that is then validated on a simulator. Reloading the command sequence or the tables referring to it alters the autonomous behavior of the instrument.

Huckle, Howard E.; Smith, Philip J.

2004-02-01

84

Autonomic Computing Panacea or Poppycock.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Autonomic Computing arose out of a need for a means to cope with rapidly growing complexity of integrating, managing, and operating computer-based systems as well as a need to reduce the total cost of ownership of today's systems. Autonomic Computing (AC)...

R. Sterritt M. Hinchey

2005-01-01

85

Method of installing subsurface barrier  

DOEpatents

Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

Nickelson, Reva A. (Shelley, ID); Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sloan, Paul A. (Rigby, ID)

2007-10-09

86

INL Subsurface Wireless Sensor Platform  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory is developing a versatile micro-power sensor interface platform for periodic subsurface sensing of environmental variables important to waste disposal sites such as volumetric moisture, water potential, and temperature. The key characteristics of the platform architecture are that the platform is passive until externally energized --no internal power source is required -- and that it communicates with a "reader" via short-range telemetry - no wires penetrate the subsurface. Other significant attributes include the potential for a long service life and a compact size that makes it well suited for retrofitting existing landfill structures. Functionally, the sensor package is "read" by a short-range induction coil that activates and powers the sensor platform as well as detects the sensor output via a radio frequency signal generated by the onboard programmable interface controller microchip. As a result, the platform has a functional subsurface communication range of approximately 10 to 12 ft. and can only accept sensors that require low power to operate.

Dennis C. Kunerth; John M. Svoboda; James T. Johnson

2005-10-01

87

Detection of Subsurface Liquid Water Using Magnetotellurics on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of past or present water on Mars remains a core goal of the Mars exploration program, representing a cross-cutting theme that ties together investigations relevant to life, climate, geology, and the identification of sites for future exploratory landed missions. Passive, low frequency electromagnetic (EM) soundings of the subsurface can identify salinated liquid water at depths ranging from hundreds of meters to ~10 km in an environment such as Mars. Among the tools necessary to perform these soundings are low frequency electric and magnetic field sensors capable of being deployed from a lander or rover. With support from both the NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP) and Mars Instrument Development Program (MIDP), we are currently developing an autonomous sensor platform that can perform magnetotelluric soundings in environments such as Mars within the constraints of current lander or rover architectures. Once fully developed, this technique will represent both a complementary and alternative method to orbital radar sounding investigations, performing deep soundings at sites identified as high priority areas by orbital radars or detecting subsurface water in environments that render radar methods ineffective. In either case, the sensitivity and depth of penetration inherent in low-frequency EM exploration makes this tool a compelling candidate method to identify subsurface liquid water from a landed platform on Mars or other targets of interest. We will describe current results obtained with our prototype systems from various terrestrial field sites, discuss sources of passive EM energy on Mars, and how these measurements might be conducted on future missions.

Delory, G. T.; Grimm, R. E.; Nielsen, T.; Farrell, W. M.

2005-12-01

88

Autonomous magnetocumulative power supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helical magnetocumulative generators (MCGs) fed from explosive piezo generators (EPGs) are the most compact power supplies with an output energy of 1-10 kJ. EPGs are successfully coupled with MCGs in the operation mode and in structural parameters; these generators are easy to operate and do not require transformers or commutators. We report on the results of designing an autonomous small-size power supply based on EPGs and MCGs. Owing to bidirectional impact loading of the piezoceramic block of an EPG, the energy at the piezo generator output attains values of ˜25 J and is transferred to the helical MCG with an initial inductance of ˜1000 ?H. The power supply is constructed in the form of a monoblock with a volume of ˜2 dm3 or in the form of two separate devices connected by a high-voltage cable.

Demidov, V. A.; Sadunov, V. D.; Kazakov, S. A.; Boriskin, A. S.; Golosov, S. N.; Vlasov, Yu. V.; Utenkov, A. A.; Antipov, M. V.; Blinov, A. V.

2013-08-01

89

Cardiac autonomic balance versus cardiac regulatory capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of autonomic balance views autonomic states along a bipolar continuum from sympathetic (S) to parasympathetic (P) dominance, whereas regulatory capacity models emphasize overall autonomic flexibility as a marker of the capacity for regulation. These two concepts were evaluated for their utility in characterizing patterns of autonomic control. Measures of P (high frequency heart rate variability, HF) and S

Gary G. Berntson; Greg J. Norman; Louise C. Hawkley; JOHN T. CACIOPPOb

2008-01-01

90

Cognition and emotion in autonomous cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to increase the acceptance of vehicles that drive (partly) autonomously, it seems advantageous that the driving style of autonomous cars is human-like. Furthermore, the acceptance of autonomous cars is believed to be increased when their actions and current state becomes more transparent to the passengers. These aspects can be tackled by implementing emotions to an autonomous car which

Sven Kraus; Matthias Althoff; B. Heissing; Martin Buss

2009-01-01

91

Evolutionary framework for test of autonomous systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DoD mission and challenge is to enable a high percentage of autonomous vehicles in the warfighter fleet by 2015. These systems will need to display a high degree of autonomous capabilities. The capabilities of these autonomous systems must be acceptable to the warfighter and his\\/her logistical support structure. Autonomous systems of the future will need to be tested so

Raj Subbu; Nikita Visnevski; Philipp Djang

2009-01-01

92

Autonomic nervous system function in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic dysfunction causes significant disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Abnormalities of bladder, bowel and sexual function have been well documented in previous studies but cardiovascular and sudomotor autonomic changes have been less frequently reported. The present study has documented autonomic symptoms and results of cardiovascular and sudomotor autonomic function tests in 63 MS patients and correlated these changes

A. J. McDougall; J. G. McLeod

2003-01-01

93

Are subsurface flows and coronal holes related?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study synoptic maps of solar subsurface flows covering six Carrington rotations (2050 to 2055). The subsurface flows are determined with a ring-diagram analysis of GONG high-resolution Doppler data. We identify the locations of coronal holes in synoptic maps of EUV images at 195Å from the EIT instrument and determine the characteristics of associated subsurface flows. We study two long-lived coronal holes that are present during this epoch. We find that large-scale patterns are present in the subsurface flows but appear to be unrelated to these coronal holes. The horizontal subsurface flows associated with the two long-lived coronal holes are weakly divergent (upflows) with small cyclonic vorticity. These flows are thus similar to subsurface flows of quiet regions with regard to the vertical flows and similar to flows of active regions with regard to vorticity.

Komm, R.; Howe, R.; González Hernández, I.; Harra, L.; Baker, D.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.

2013-06-01

94

Subsurface well apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

Subsurface well apparatus and method of operating same, wherein a controlled ball valve or closure means is provided, with means for mounting same in a well tubing for normally opening and closing flow through the well tubing, and wherein a fluid flow control assembly having a replacement ball valve therewith is adapted to be dropped in or otherwise lowered through the well tubing so as to position same above said controlled ball valve for subsequent operation of said replacement valve to thereafter serve as a replacement for said controlled valve.

Mott, J.D.

1981-08-18

95

Autonomous Computer Controlled Ice Drill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An unmanned autonomous system, designed ultimately for air deployment, has been developed for drilling holes in the Arctic ice. The system is intended to facilitate the collection of oceanographic data in inaccessible regions of the Arctic as part of the ...

C. N. Beverly A. S. Westneat

1982-01-01

96

Towards a cooperating autonomous car  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the main challenges in engineering a cooperating autonomous car (we will refer to it as a CoopACar), presents possible approaches to the problem, and briefly describes a Cooperating Cars Simulator we are currently developing

Paulo Sousa; Paulo Ver ´ issimo

2002-01-01

97

Technique for Coordinating Autonomous Robots.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a technique for coordinating the subsystems of autonomous robots which takes advantage of a distributed blackboard mechanism and a high degree of functional distribution between subsystems to minimize communications and simplify the i...

S. Y. Harmon W. A. Aviles D. W. Gage

1986-01-01

98

APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detecto...

R. G. Langlois S. Brown K. Burris B. Colston L. Jones

2002-01-01

99

Measures of Autonomic Nervous System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mind-body health practices aim to regulate activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to maintain homeostasis within the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The activation of the SNS is directly related to stress response, which, if persistent or prol...

D. Brown M. Bates P. Brierley-Bowers S. Sexton

2011-01-01

100

Autonomous power system brassboard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the brassboard hardware and intelligent controlling software, fault circuits have been developed and integrated as part of the brassboard. A description of these fault circuits and their function is included. The brassboard has become an extremely useful test facility, promoting artificial intelligence (AI) applications for power distribution systems.

Merolla, Anthony

1992-10-01

101

Autonomic and Trusted Computing Paradigms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging autonomic computing technology has been hailed by world-wide researchers and professionals in academia and in- dustry. Besides four key capabilities, well known as self-CHOP, we pro- pose an additional self-regulating capability to explicitly emphasize the policy-driven self-manageability and dynamic policy derivation and en- actment. Essentially, these five capabilities, coined as Self-CHROP, define an autonomic system along with other

Xiaolin Li; Hui Kang; Patrick Harrington; Johnson Thomas

2006-01-01

102

A survey of autonomic communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic communications seek to improve the ability of network and services to cope with unpredicted change, including changes in topology, load, task, the physical and logical characteristics of the networks that can be accessed, and so forth. Broad-ranging autonomic solutions require designers to account for a range of end-to-end issues affecting programming models, network and contextual modeling and reasoning, decentralised

Simon Dobson; Spyros G. Denazis; Antonio Fernández; Dominique Gaïti; Erol Gelenbe; Fabio Massacci; Paddy Nixon; Fabrice Saffre; Nikita Schmidt; Franco Zambonelli

2006-01-01

103

Phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

This project involves the development of group specific 16S ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the rapid detection of specific types of subsurface organisms (e.g., groups of microbes that share certain physiological traits). Major accomplishments for the period of 6/91 to 12/1/91 are described. Nine new probes have been synthesized on the basis of published 16S rRNA sequence data from the Ribosomal Database Project. We have initiated rapid screening of many of the subsurface microbial isolates obtained from the P24 borehole at the Savannah River Site. To date, we have screened approximately 50% of the isolates from P24. We have optimized our {und in situ} hybridization technique, and have developed a cell blot hybridization technique to screen 96 samples on a single blot. This is much faster than reading 96 individual slides. Preliminary experiments have been carried out which indicate specific nutrients can be used to amplify rRNA only in those organisms capable of metabolizing those nutrients. 1 tab., 2 figs.

Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.

1991-01-01

104

The autonomous ocean profiler  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development and initial field test results of the Autonomous Ocean Profiler (AOP). The AOP is an oceanographic instrument platform for measuring profiles of physical, thermodynamic, and biological properties in the ocean. The profiler employs a hydrodynamic lift device to ''fly'' the instrument package up and down the water column along a taut vertical cable. Because the local currents drive the platform's vertical motion, power requirements are low, and therefore long, unattended deployments are possible. By using ARGOS or GOES satellite retrieval networks, the system can supply near real-time data. The system provides profile data at very high vertical resolution in contrast to conventional buoys, which gather data at only fixed sensor depths. Because only a single set of sensors is required to cover the vertical range desired, the system is low cost and, for many applications, expendable. The initial deployment configuration is as an Arctic drifting buoy. A satellite retransmission buoy is placed on the sea-ice surface with the cable suspended below the ice. Conductivity, temperature, and depth information are gathered over a depth range of 0 to 300 m. Data are internally recorded and relayed to the surface buoy through an inductive communications link for transmission via satellite.

Echert, D.C.; White, G.B.; Geller, E.W.; Morison, J.H.

1989-04-01

105

Autonomous mission operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an empirical investigation of the impact of time delay on today's mission operations, and of the effect of processes and mission support tools designed to mitigate time-delay related impacts. Mission operation scenarios were designed for NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH), an analog spacecraft habitat, covering a range of activities including nominal objectives, DSH system failures, and crew medical emergencies. The scenarios were simulated at time delay values representative of Lunar (1.2-5 sec), Near Earth Object (NEO) (50 sec) and Mars (300 sec) missions. Each combination of operational scenario and time delay was tested in a Baseline configuration, designed to reflect present-day operations of the International Space Station, and a Mitigation configuration in which a variety of software tools, information displays, and crew-ground communications protocols were employed to assist both crews and Flight Control Team (FCT) members with the long-delay conditions. Preliminary findings indicate: 1) Workload of both crewmembers and FCT members generally increased along with increasing time delay. 2) Advanced procedure execution viewers, caution and warning tools, and communications protocols such as text messaging decreased the workload of both flight controllers and crew, and decreased the difficulty of coordinating activities. 3) Whereas crew workload ratings increased between 50 sec and 300 sec of time delay in the Baseline configuration, workload ratings decreased (or remained flat) in the Mitigation configuration.

Frank, J.; Spirkovska, L.; McCann, R.; Wang, Lui; Pohlkamp, K.; Morin, L.

106

Autonomous landing guidance program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Autonomous Landing Guidance program is partly funded by the US Government under the Technology Reinvestment Project. The program consortium consists of avionics and other equipment vendors, airlines and the USAF. A Sextant Avionique HUD is used to present flight symbology in cursive form as well as millimeter wave radar imagery from Lear Astronics equipment and FLIR Systems dual-channel, forward-looking, infrared imagery. All sensor imagery is presented in raster form. A future aim is to fuse all imagery data into a single presentation. Sensor testing has been accomplished in a Cessna 402 operated by the Maryland Advanced Development Laboratory. Development testing is under way in a Northwest Airlines simulator equipped with HUD and image simulation. Testing is also being carried out using United Airlines Boeing 727 and USAF C-135C (Boeing 707) test aircraft. The paper addresses the technology utilized in sensory and display systems as well as modifications made to accommodate the elements in the aircraft. Additions to the system test aircraft include global positioning systems, inertial navigation systems and extensive data collection equipment. Operational philosophy and benefits for both civil and military users are apparent. Approach procedures have been developed allowing use of Category 1 ground installations in Category 3 conditions.

Brown, John A.

1996-05-01

107

Is paramecium swimming autonomic?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We seek to explore if the swimming of paramecium has an underlying autonomic mechanism. Such robotic elements may be useful in capturing the disturbance field in an environment in real time. Experimental evidence is emerging that motion control neurons of other animals may be present in paramecium as well. The limit cycle determined using analog simulation of the coupled nonlinear oscillators of olivo-cerebellar dynamics (ieee joe 33, 563-578, 2008) agrees with the tracks of the cilium of a biological paramecium. A 4-motor apparatus has been built that reproduces the kinematics of the cilium motion. The motion of the biological cilium has been analyzed and compared with the results of the finite element modeling of forces on a cilium. The modeling equates applied torque at the base of the cilium with drag, the cilium stiffness being phase dependent. A low friction pendulum apparatus with a multiplicity of electromagnetic actuators is being built for verifying the maps of the attractor basin computed using the olivo-cerebellar dynamics for different initial conditions. Sponsored by ONR 33.

Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Toplosky, Norman; Hansen, Joshua

2010-11-01

108

Autonomous underwater barcode recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide area symbol recognition is a task that plagues many autonomous vehicles. A process is needed first to recognize if the symbol is present, and if so where it is. Once the symbol"s position is detected it must be analyzed and recognized. In this scenario we have a submersible attempting to locate man made objects on the bottom of a large water basin. These man made objects have bar codes on them that need to be read and the position of the code needs to be recorded relative to where it is in the entire pond. A two step process has been developed to allow the position recognition within a frame to be dealt with on a separate DSP associated with one of three total cameras. The object recognition is then dealt with on a high speed computer aboard the vehicle to read the proper code. The reading is done using a statistics based approach that assumes a noisy, but contrasting background. This approach has proven to be effective in environments in which the background has very little ordered noise, such as the bottom of lakes and ponds, but requires very high clarity in order to capture a suitable image.

Schulze, Karl R.

2003-11-01

109

Autonomic failure in neurodegenerative disorders.  

PubMed

Autonomic failure with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, bowel and bladder disturbances, and sexual dysfunction are frequent, disabling features in patients with the three most prevalent neurodegenerative movement disorders: Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy (MSA), and the related neurodegenerative Lewy-body disorder characterized by isolated severe autonomic failure (pure autonomic failure, PAF). All of these disorders have in common the presence of alpha-synuclein in the cytoplasmic precipitates found in neurons in Lewy body disorders or glia in MSA. Autonomic failure with disabling orthostatic hypotension is the clinical hallmark of PAF. It may also be the initial presentation of MSA, making diagnosis difficult. Within a few years, however, MSA patients develop movement disorders, which are differentiated from PD by the paucity of unilateral resting tremor, the lack of response to levodopa, and their rapidly progressive nature, resulting in disability and death in 7 to 8 years. Moderately effective treatment is available for autonomic symptoms, but management of movement disorders remains unsuccessful. Discoveries relevant to physiology and common pathological conditions were initially made in patients with autonomic failure. Meals induce profound hypotension in these patients. Conversely, commonly used nasal decongestants can produce substantial pressor effects. Even 500 mL of water can increase blood pressure by a previously unrecognized sympathetic reflex. Residual sympathetic tone is able to induce sustained supine hypertension in MSA, because it is resolved after ganglionic blockade. These phenomena were not previously recognized because of the buffering capacity of the baroreflex, but were unmasked in autonomic failure patients. PMID:15088256

Kaufmann, Horacio; Biaggioni, Italo

2003-12-01

110

Dual aquafer electrical heating of subsurface hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described of electrically heating a viscous hydrocarbon-bearing subsurface formation which consists of: a. applying an electric voltage to a first electrode well extending into a subsurface first aquifer. The first aquifer contains flowable mobile water and having sufficiently high permeability to permit water to be flowed into and out of the first aquifer. The first aquifer extends

Segalman

1986-01-01

111

Subsurface Drainage Processes and Management Impacts 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Abstract: Abstract: Abstract: Storm-induced streamflow in forested upland watersheds is linked to rainfall by transient, variably saturated flow through several different flow paths. In the absence of exposed bedrock, shallow flow-restrictive layers, or compacted soil surfaces, virtually all of the infiltrated rainfall reaches the stream as subsurface flow. Subsurface runoff can occur within micropores (voids between soil grains), various

Elizabeth Keppeler; David Brown

112

Subsurface geology of the Seminole area. [Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study area includes N. Seminole County and portions of Pottawatomie and Okfuskee counties, which are in the Greater Seminole District of central Oklahoma and in the NW. part of the Arkoma Basin. The subsurface stratigraphy, structure, and conditions of oil accumulation of Desmoinesian and older rocks in the Seminole Area are discussed. Subsurface structure maps, isopach maps, and cross

Cutolo-Lozano

1969-01-01

113

Radar Soundings of the Subsurface of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The martian subsurface has been probed to kilometer depths by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding instrument aboard the Mars Express orbiter. Signals penetrate the polar layered deposits, probably imaging the base of the deposits. Data from the northern lowlands of Chryse Planitia have revealed a shallowly buried quasi-circular structure about 250 kilometers in diameter that is

Giovanni Picardi; Jeffrey J. Plaut; Daniela Biccari; Ornella Bombaci; Diego Calabrese; Marco Cartacci; Andrea Cicchetti; Stephen M. Clifford; Peter Edenhofer; William M. Farrell; Costanzo Federico; Alessandro Frigeri; Donald A. Gurnett; Tor Hagfors; Essam Heggy; Alain Herique; Richard L. Huff; Anton B. Ivanov; William T. K. Johnson; Rolando L. Jordan; Donald L. Kirchner; Wlodek Kofman; Carlton J. Leuschen; Erling Nielsen; Roberto Orosei; Elena Pettinelli; Roger J. Phillips; Dirk Plettemeier; Ali Safaeinili; Roberto Seu; Ellen R. Stofan; Giuliano Vannaroni; Thomas R. Watters; Enrico Zampolini

2005-01-01

114

Fabricating spatially-varying subsurface scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many real world surfaces exhibit translucent appearance due to subsurface scattering. Although various methods exists to measure, edit and render subsurface scattering effects, no solution exists for manufacturing physical objects with desired translucent appearance. In this paper, we present a complete solution for fabricating a material volume with a desired surface BSSRDF. We stack layers from a fixed set of

Yue Dong; Jiaping Wang; Fabio Pellacini; Xin Tong; Baining Guo

2010-01-01

115

Monitoring subsurface barrier integrity using perfluorocarbon tracers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface barriers are an extremely promising remediation option to many waste-management problems. It is recognized that monitoring of the barrier is necessary to provide confidence in the ability of the barrier to contain the pollutants. However, the large size and deep placement of subsurface barriers make detection of leaks a challenging task. Therefore, typical geophysical methods are not suitable for

T. M. Sullivan; J. Heiser; A. Gard; G. Senum

1998-01-01

116

Possible subsurface production of carbon-14  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subsurface origin of 14C is rarely considered by researchers interested in dating groundwater. Theoretically, nuclear reactions induced by emissions from U and Th nuclei can produce measurable concentrations of 14C in groundwater. Under very special conditions, calculations indicate that subsurface production might cause significant errors in dates of less that 1×104 years, although normally such errors showld not be

Richard Zito; Douglas J. Donahue; Stanley N. Davis; Harold W. Bentley; Peter Fritz

1980-01-01

117

Method of fracturing subsurface formations  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of fracturing a subsurface formation which is traversed by a borehole comprising: positioning within the borehole a quantity of a first composition which includes a mixture of a propellant and a granular propping agent, the first composition as positioned forming a first section; positioning a second composition, which includes a propellant, in the borehole so as to occupy a volume separate from and closely adjacent to that volume occupied by the first composition. The second composition as so positioned forms a second section; the first and second sections being positioned in the borehole by introducing the first and second compositions simultaneously into the borehole; igniting the first composition and the second composition to form multiple fissures radiating from the borehole into the formation.

Broade, R.R.

1987-05-05

118

Efficient Method for Subsurface Treatments, Including Squeeze Treatments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for delivering encapsulated materials to a subsurface environment, for the treatment of the subsurface environment, has the steps of: (a) loading the lumen of hollow microtubules with an active agent selected for treating the subsurface environme...

R. R. Price

2000-01-01

119

Autonomous and Remote-Controlled Airborne and Ground-Based Robotic Platforms for Adaptive Geophysical Surveying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-cost autonomous and remote-controlled robotic platforms have opened the door to precision-guided geophysical surveying. Over the past two years, the U.S. Geological Survey, Senseta, NASA Ames Research Center, and Carnegie Mellon University Silicon Valley, have developed and deployed small autonomous and remotely controlled vehicles for geophysical investigations. The purpose of this line of investigation is to 1) increase the analytical capability, resolution, and repeatability, and 2) decrease the time, and potentially the cost and map-power necessary to conduct near-surface geophysical surveys. Current technology has advanced to the point where vehicles can perform geophysical surveys autonomously, freeing the geoscientist to process and analyze the incoming data in near-real time. This has enabled geoscientists to monitor survey parameters; process, analyze and interpret the incoming data; and test geophysical models in the same field session. This new approach, termed adaptive surveying, provides the geoscientist with choices of how the remainder of the survey should be conducted. Autonomous vehicles follow pre-programmed survey paths, which can be utilized to easily repeat surveys on the same path over large areas without the operator fatigue and error that plague man-powered surveys. While initial deployments with autonomous systems required a larger field crew than a man-powered survey, over time operational experience costs and man power requirements will decrease. Using a low-cost, commercially available chassis as the base for autonomous surveying robotic systems promise to provide higher precision and efficiency than human-powered techniques. An experimental survey successfully demonstrated the adaptive techniques described. A magnetic sensor was mounted on a small rover, which autonomously drove a prescribed course designed to provide an overview of the study area. Magnetic data was relayed to the base station periodically, processed and gridded. A target was located in the subsurface, and a second, higher-resolution survey was programmed and executed to give detailed data over the newly-found target.

Spritzer, J. M.; Phelps, G. A.

2011-12-01

120

Miniature Autonomous Robotic Vehicle (MARV)  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has recently developed a 16 cm{sup 3} (1 in{sup 3}) autonomous robotic vehicle which is capable of tracking a single conducting wire carrying a 96 kHz signal. This vehicle was developed to assess the limiting factors in using commercial technology to build miniature autonomous vehicles. Particular attention was paid to the design of the control system to search out the wire, track it, and recover if the wire was lost. This paper describes the test vehicle and the control analysis. Presented in the paper are the vehicle model, control laws, a stability analysis, simulation studies and experimental results.

Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Spletzer, B.L.; Weber, T.M.

1996-12-31

121

Autonomic Modulation of Olfactory Signaling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The olfactory epithelium is extensively innervated by sympathetic nerve endings, which release norepinephrine, and parasympathetic nerve endings, which release acetylcholine. Because olfactory sensory neurons have adrenergic and muscarinic receptors in addition to odorant receptors, autonomic stimulation can modulate the responses of olfactory sensory neurons to odorants. Recent studies have shed light on the molecular mechanisms that underlie crosstalk between muscarinic and odorant receptor signaling. The emerging view is that the stimulation of odorant receptor signaling by odorants, which is the earliest step in olfaction, can be substantially regulated by the autonomic nervous system.

Randy A. Hall (Emory University School of Medicine;Department of Pharmacology REV)

2011-01-11

122

Classification and Enumeration of Autonomous Sequential Machines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study is reported of the structure of the state transition graphs of autonomous sequential machines. (An autonomous sequential machine can be viewed as an isolated, discrete information processing system). The structural properties of the graphs are for...

H. F. Ryan

1967-01-01

123

Autonomous Robotic Following Using Vision Based Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Intelligent Systems And Autonomous Controls (ISAAC) robot is an experimental autonomous research platform being developed to advance current dismount following applications. Specifically, vision based following using pedestrian detection. The current ...

R. T. Kania P. A. Frederick M. Del Rose

2006-01-01

124

Autonomous Robotic Following Using Vision Based Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Intelligent Systems And Autonomous Controls (ISAAC) robot is an experimental autonomous research platform being developed to advance current dismount following applications. Specifically, vision based following using pedestrian detection. The current ...

R. T. Kania M. Del Rose

2005-01-01

125

Possible subsurface production of carbon-14  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A subsurface origin of 14C is rarely considered by researchers interested in dating groundwater. Theoretically, nuclear reactions induced by emissions from U and Th nuclei can produce measurable concentrations of 14C in groundwater. Under very special conditions, calculations indicate that subsurface production might cause significant errors in dates of less than 1 × 104 years, although normally such errors should not be important until after 5 × 104 years. However, some anomalous 14C concentrations reported recently for deep groundwater may possibly be caused in part by subsurface production of 14C.

Zito, Richard; Donahue, Douglas J.; Davis, Stanley N.; Bentley, Harold W.; Fritz, Peter

1980-04-01

126

Autonomic Function Tests: Some Clinical Applications  

PubMed Central

Modern autonomic function tests can non-invasively evaluate the severity and distribution of autonomic failure. They have sufficient sensitivity to detect even subclinical dysautonomia. Standard laboratory testing evaluates cardiovagal, sudomotor and adrenergic autonomic functions. Cardiovagal function is typically evaluated by testing heart rate response to deep breathing at a defined rate and to the Valsalva maneuver. Sudomotor function can be evaluated with the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test and the thermoregulatory sweat test. Adrenergic function is evaluated by the blood pressure and heart rate responses to the Valsalva maneuver and to head-up tilt. Tests are useful in defining the presence of autonomic failure, their natural history, and response to treatment. They can also define patterns of dysautonomia that are useful in helping the clinician diagnose certain autonomic conditions. For example, the tests are useful in the diagnosis of the autonomic neuropathies and distal small fiber neuropathy. The autonomic neuropathies (such as those due to diabetes or amyloidosis) are characterized by severe generalized autonomic failure. Distal small fiber neuropathy is characterized by an absence of autonomic failure except for distal sudomotor failure. Selective autonomic failure (which only one system is affected) can be diagnosed by autonomic testing. An example is chronic idiopathic anhidrosis, where only sudomotor function is affected. Among the synucleinopathies, autonomic function tests can distinguish Parkinson's disease (PD) from multiple system atrophy (MSA). There is a gradation of autonomic failure. PD is characterized by mild autonomic failure and a length-dependent pattern of sudomotor involvement. MSA and pure autonomic failure have severe generalized autonomic failure while DLB is intermediate.

Tomalia, Victoria A.; Park, Ki-Jong

2013-01-01

127

Autonomic function tests: some clinical applications.  

PubMed

Modern autonomic function tests can non-invasively evaluate the severity and distribution of autonomic failure. They have sufficient sensitivity to detect even subclinical dysautonomia. Standard laboratory testing evaluates cardiovagal, sudomotor and adrenergic autonomic functions. Cardiovagal function is typically evaluated by testing heart rate response to deep breathing at a defined rate and to the Valsalva maneuver. Sudomotor function can be evaluated with the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test and the thermoregulatory sweat test. Adrenergic function is evaluated by the blood pressure and heart rate responses to the Valsalva maneuver and to head-up tilt. Tests are useful in defining the presence of autonomic failure, their natural history, and response to treatment. They can also define patterns of dysautonomia that are useful in helping the clinician diagnose certain autonomic conditions. For example, the tests are useful in the diagnosis of the autonomic neuropathies and distal small fiber neuropathy. The autonomic neuropathies (such as those due to diabetes or amyloidosis) are characterized by severe generalized autonomic failure. Distal small fiber neuropathy is characterized by an absence of autonomic failure except for distal sudomotor failure. Selective autonomic failure (which only one system is affected) can be diagnosed by autonomic testing. An example is chronic idiopathic anhidrosis, where only sudomotor function is affected. Among the synucleinopathies, autonomic function tests can distinguish Parkinson's disease (PD) from multiple system atrophy (MSA). There is a gradation of autonomic failure. PD is characterized by mild autonomic failure and a length-dependent pattern of sudomotor involvement. MSA and pure autonomic failure have severe generalized autonomic failure while DLB is intermediate. PMID:23346153

Low, Phillip A; Tomalia, Victoria A; Park, Ki-Jong

2013-01-03

128

Lateral Path Controller Design for Autonomous Airship  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the path control problem for unmanned autonomous airship, the lateral path mathematic model was introduced based on the scheme of control system and a kind of lateral path design method of autonomous airship is proposed based on fuzzy logic and adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC). The movement model and dynamic model of autonomous airship is derived from considering

Guo Jian-guo; Zhou Jun

2010-01-01

129

Autonomous object identification in mine countermeasure missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a planning algorithm for identification missions in an autonomous mine countermeasure scenario using AUVs. The concept of autonomous MCM identification missions is to first perform an autonomous survey of the mission area, during which an automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithm is run on the collected side-scan data. The ATR software detects possible contacts in the

Thomas R. Krogstad; Martin Wiig; Patrick Cleophas; Oivind Midtgaard

2011-01-01

130

A SemiAutonomous Reactive Control Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel intelligent control architecture for semi-autonomous systems. A semi-autonomous system is defined here as that autonomous system (machine) which interacts intelligently with a human user (collaborator) who might command, modify, or override its behavior. This work has been motivated by the need for a control architecture that can interact with human users of different perceptual and

Karim A. Tahboub

2001-01-01

131

An Autonomous Control Concept for Production Logistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The German Collaborative Research Centre 637 'Autonomous Cooperating Logistic Processes' tries to make a paradigm shift from central planning to autonomous control in the field of logistics. Among other things, autonomous routing algorithms based on internet routing protocols are developed. The Distributed Logistics Routing Protocol (DLRP) was originally designed for transport networks to match goods and vehicles and to continuously

Henning Rekersbrink; Bernd Scholz-Reiter; Christian Zabel

2010-01-01

132

Autonomous Agent Navigation Based on Textural Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Navigating an autonomous agent outdoors can be a challenging task. As a basis for this research, the autonomous agent in question is that of an autonomous robotic lawnmower. Mowing a lawn can be a difficult, tedious, and sometimes hazardous chore for the human operator. The goal of this paper is to report on ongoing research of using the visual property

Rand C. Chandler; A. A. Arroyo; M. Nechyba; E. M. Schwartz

2002-01-01

133

Autonomic Nervous System Activity Distinguishes among Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion-specific activity in the autonomic nervous system was generated by constructing facial prototypes of emotion muscle by muscle and by reliving past emotional experiences. The autonomic activity produced distinguished not only between positive and negative emotions, but also among negative emotions. This finding challenges emotion theories that have proposed autonomic activity to be undifferentiated or that have failed to address

Paul Ekman; Robert W. Levenson; Wallace V. Friesen

1983-01-01

134

The EO1 Autonomous Science Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Autonomous Science Agent is currently flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and respond to science events occurring on the Earth. The package includes software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. Because of the deployment to a remote spacecraft, this Autonomous Science Agent has stringent

Steve A. Chien; Rob Sherwood; Daniel Tran; Benjamin Cichy; Gregg Rabideau; Rebecca Castano; Ashley Davies; Rachel Lee; Dan Mandl; Stuart Frye; Bruce Trout; Jerry Hengemihle; Jeff D'Agostino; Seth Shulman; Stephen Ungar; Thomas Brakke; Darrell Boyer; Jim Van Gaasbeck; Ronald Greeley; Thomas Doggett; Victor R. Baker; James M. Dohm; Felipe Ip

2004-01-01

135

The EO1 autonomous science agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Autonomous Science Agent is currently flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and respond to science events occurring on the Earth. The package includes software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. Because of the deployment to a remote spacecraft, this Autonomous Science Agent has stringent

Steve Chien; Rob Sherwood; Daniel Tran; Benjamin Cichy; Gregg Rabideau; Rebecca Castano; Ashley Davies; Rachel Lee; Dan Mandl; Stuart Frye; Bruce Trout; Jerry Hengemihle; J. D'Agostino; S. Shulman; S. Ungar; T. Brakke; D. Boyer; J. Van Gaasbeck; R. Greeley; T. Doggett; V. Baker; J. Dohm; F. Ip

2004-01-01

136

Modeling subsurface contamination at Fernald  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s Fernald site is located about 20 miles northwest of Cincinnati. Fernald produced refined uranium metal products from ores between 1953 and 1989. The pure uranium was sent to other DOE sites in South Carolina, Tennessee, Colorado,and Washington in support of the nation`s strategic defense programs. Over the years of large-scale uranium production, contamination of the site`s soil and groundwater occurred.The contamination is of particular concern because the Fernald site is located over the Great Miami Aquifer, a designated sole-source drinking water aquifer. Contamination of the aquifer with uranium was found beneath the site, and migration of the contamination had occurred well beyond the site`s southern boundary. As a result, Fernald was placed on the National Priorities (CERCLA/Superfund) List in 1989. Uranium production at the site ended in 1989,and Fernald`s mission has been changed to one of environmental restoration. This paper presents information about computerized modeling of subsurface contamination used for the environmental restoration project at Fernald.

Jones, B.W.; Flinn, J.C.; Ruwe, P.R.

1994-09-13

137

Autonomous computer controlled ice drill  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unmanned autonomous system, designed ultimately for air deployment, has been developed for drilling holes In the Arctic Ice. The system is intended to facilitate the collection of oceanographic date in inaccessible regions of the Arctic as part of the Air Deployed Oceanographic Mooring (ADOM) program. This paper describes the design of the drill, the microcomputer control system, and the

C. Beverly; A. Westneat

1982-01-01

138

Autonomous renewable energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly reviews the need for renewable power generation and describes a medium-power Autonomous Renewable Energy Conversion System (ARECS), integrating conversion of wind and solar energy sources. The objectives of the paper are to extract maximum power from the proposed wind energy conversion scheme and to transfer this power and the power derived by the photovoltaic system in a

Ventzislav Valtchev; Alex Van den Bossche; Jozef Ghijselen; Jan Melkebeek

2000-01-01

139

Simulated Visual Perception for Autonomous  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of robots in the world increases, from automatic vacuum cleaners, to toy robot dogs, to autonomous vehicles for the military, the need for effective algorithms to control these agents is becoming increasingly more important. Conventional path finding techniques have relied on having a representation of the world that could be analysed mathematically to find the best path.

Daniel Flower; Burkhard Wünsche; Werner Guesgen

140

APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts

R G Langlois; S Brown; L Burris; B Colston; L Jones; T Makarewicz; R Mariella; D Masquelier; M McBride; F Milanovich; S Masarabadi; K Venkateswaran; G Marshall; D Olson; D Wolcott

2002-01-01

141

Autonomous Behavior of Computational Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an architecture for decision making of software agents that allows the agent to be-have autonomously. Our target area is computational agents — encapsulating various neural networks, genetic algorithms, and similar methods — that are expected to solve problems of different nature within an environment of a hybrid computational multi-agent system. The architecture is based on

Roman Vaculín; Roman Neruda

142

Autonomic Computing in SQL Server  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing size of enterprise data, the task of managing a database is becoming more and more complex as well as time-consuming. A database administrator spends most of his time in activities that can be made automatic. Also, scarcity of skilled database administrators have motivated the database industry to develop autonomic database management systems (ADBMS) which can alleviate many

Abdul Mateen; Basit Raza; Tauqeer Hussain; Mian M. Awais

2008-01-01

143

Neural control of autonomous vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral control of an autonomous road vehicle by a neural network is presented. The inputs into the controller such as relative vehicle position and yaw angle are delivered by dynamical video scene processing. Nonlinear conflicting requirements of safety and comfort have to be satisfied by the controller. The controller has been trained by the model-based training algorithm. In contrast to

Klaus Mecklenburg; Tomas Hrycej; Uwe Franke; Hans Fritz

1992-01-01

144

The Functioning of Autonomous Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The college gets separated from the university, though not completely, when it is an autonomous college, which is practice in India. Academic package will become flexible and the decision-making is internalized, changes and updating could be easily carried out, depending on the need as reflected from the feedback taken from alumni, user sectors,…

Rao, V. Pala Prasada; Rao, Digumarti Bhaskara

2012-01-01

145

A Power Autonomous Monopedal Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and initial results of a power-autonomous planar monopedal robot. The robot is a gasoline powered, two degree of freedom robot that runs in a circle, constrained by a boom. The robot uses hydraulic Series Elastic Actuators, force-controllable actuators which provide high force fidelity, moderate bandwidth, and low impedance. The actuators are mounted in the body of

Benjamin T. Krupp; Jerry E. Pratt

146

ISS Update: Autonomous Mission Operations  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Jeff Mauldin, Simulation Supervisor for Autonomous Mission Operations at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit http://www.nasa.gov/station.

Russell Todd D

2012-06-15

147

Autonomic energy management in clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, computer clusters are widely used in many areas (scientific computing, commercial web servers, databases, etc). Energy management in such infrastructures is becoming increasingly important as their energy consumption is continuing to raise. In this paper, we report on our experiments in using an autonomic management system to provide energy aware management in a cluster. We improve energy management by

Aeiman Gadafi; Alain Tchana; Daniel Hagimont; Laurent Broto

2010-01-01

148

From smart to autonomous phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

As smart phones offer more options, driving new applications development, we need to establish appropriate new standards. Here, we review existing related standards, focusing on two missing features that fully autonomous phones will require. The common Java standard for building enterprise class applications is the Java 2 platform, Enterprise Edition. J2EE supports a rich set of APIs, and many vendors

N. Islam

2004-01-01

149

An Autonomous Seafloor Recording Capsule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for a general purpose, seafloor mounted oceanographic recording package has prompted the development of an instrument capable of long-term autonomous data acquisition. An electronics package is described that contains a microprocessor-based data acquisition and storage system. The flexible nature of the electronics design allows for the inclusion of several appropriate kinds of mass storage including both disk and

R. Currier; R. Harriss; C. Nickles; W. Hodgkiss

1991-01-01

150

Autonomous rendezvous in elliptical orbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important feature of the autonomous terminal rendezvous of spacecraft in an elliptical orbit is a periodic motion (limit cycle) in the system variables. Unstable limit cycle involves an instability of the system. This paper addresses a mathematical model of the system, a range rate control algorithm, a numerical iterative method for computing the limit cycle, its stability and domain

Y. Shaohua

1997-01-01

151

MONTHLY HIGHLIGHTS (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division (SPRD) produces monthly highlights describing research accomplishments, involvement in current technical assistance activities, and staff participation in scientific meetings and conferences. Announcements of the release and avai...

152

Subsurface Microbial Habitats on Mars (Abstract Only).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We developed scenarios for shallow and deep subsurface cryptic niches for microbial life on Mars. Such habitats could have considerably prolonged the persistence of life on Mars as surface conditions became increasingly inhospitable. The scenarios rely on...

P. J. Boston C. P. Mckay

1991-01-01

153

Component-Based Framework for Subsurface Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Simulations in the subsurface environment represent a broad range of phenomena covering an equally broad range of scales. Developing modelling capabilities that can integrate models representing different phenomena acting at different scales present formidable challenges both from the algorithmic and computer science perspective. This paper will describe the development of an integrated framework that will be used to combine different models into a single simulation. Initial work has focused on creating two frameworks, one for performing smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of fluid systems, the other for performing grid-based continuum simulations of reactive subsurface flow. The SPH framework is based on a parallel code developed for doing pore scale simulations, the continuum grid-based framework is based on the STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) code developed at PNNL. Future work will focus on combining the frameworks together to perform multiscale, multiphysics simulations of reactive subsurface flow.

Palmer, Bruce J.; Fang, Yilin; Hammond, Glenn E.; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya

2007-08-01

154

Subsurface Pollution Problems in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sources of subsurface water contamination can generally be assigned to one of three basic categories: The direct introduction of pollutants deep within the earth by injection through wells; Percolation of pollutants from surface and near surface sources s...

R. K. Ballentine S. R. Reznek C. W. Hall

1972-01-01

155

CONTINUOUS SUBSURFACE INJECTION OF LIQUID DAIRY MANURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The research has involved the development and evaluation of an efficient, economical, continuous subsurface injection machine. The application site was instrumented so the quality of water percolating beneath the injection zone could be measured. Wells located around the sites we...

156

Evaluating Subsurface Damage in Optical Glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hard brittle materials (e.g. glasses and ceramics) increasingly appeal to general interests because of their excellent physical, mechanical and chemical properties such as super hardness and strength at extreme temperature and chemical stability. The precision manufacturing of these materials is primarily achieved by grinding and polishing, which generally employs abrasives to wear the materials. With this manufacturing technology, the materials are removed due principally to the fracture of brittle materials, which will leave a cracked layer on the surface of manufactured components, namely subsurface damage (SSD). The subsurface damage affects the strength, performance and lifetime of components. As a result, investigation into the subsurface damage is needed. A host of characterizing techniques have been developed during the past several decades. These techniques based on different mechanisms provide researchers with invaluable information on the subsurface damage in various materials. In this article the typical SSD evaluation techniques are reviewed, which are regularly used in optical workshops or laboratories.

Lee, Y.

2011-02-01

157

Lidar equation for ocean surface and subsurface.  

PubMed

The lidar equation for ocean at optical wavelengths including subsurface signals is revisited using the recent work of the radiative transfer and ocean color community for passive measurements. The previous form of the specular and subsurface echo term are corrected from their heritage, which originated from passive remote sensing of whitecaps, and is improved for more accurate use in future lidar research. A corrected expression for specular and subsurface lidar return is presented. The previous formalism does not correctly address angular dependency of specular lidar return and overestimates the subsurface term by a factor ranging from 89% to 194% for a nadir pointing lidar. Suggestions for future improvements to the lidar equation are also presented. PMID:20940981

Josset, Damien; Zhai, Peng-Wang; Hu, Yongxiang; Pelon, Jacques; Lucker, Patricia L

2010-09-27

158

DOE UST interim subsurface barrier technologies workshop  

SciTech Connect

This document contains information which was presented at a workshop regarding interim subsurface barrier technologies that could be used for underground storage tanks, particularly the tank 241-C-106 at the Hanford Reservation.

NONE

1992-09-01

159

Continuous Subsurface Injection of Liquid Dairy Manure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research has involved the development and evaluation of an efficient, economical, continuous subsurface injection machine. The application site was instrumented so the quality of water percolating beneath the injection zone could be measured. Wells lo...

J. L. Smith D. B. McWhorter R. C. Ward

1977-01-01

160

Microbial life in the deep terrestrial subsurface  

SciTech Connect

The distribution and function of microorganisms is a vital issue in microbial ecology. The US Department of Energy`s Program, ``Microbiology of the Deep Subsurface,`` concentrates on establishing fundamental scientific information about organisms at depth, and the use of these organisms for remediation of contaminants in deep vadose zone and groundwater environments. This investigation effectively extends the Biosphere hundreds of meters into the Geosphere and has implications to a variety of subsurface activities.

Fliermans, C.B. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Lab.; Balkwill, D.L. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Beeman, R.E. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)] [and others

1988-12-31

161

Hierarchy modeling of subsurface palaeochannel reservoir architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies on fluvial reservoir architecture are mainly aimed at outcrop and modern deposition, but rarely at the subsurface\\u000a reservoir, so there are few effective methods to predict the distribution of subsurface reservoir architectures. In this paper,\\u000a taking the meandering river reservoir of Guantao formation Gudao Oilfield, Jiyang depression, Baohai Gulf Basin, East China\\u000a as an example, the architectural modeling

ShengHe Wu; DaLi Yue; JianMin Liu; QingLin Shu; Zheng Fan; YuPeng Li

2008-01-01

162

Subsurface barrier integrity verification using perfluorocarbon tracers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface barriers are an extremely promising remediation option to many waste management problems. Gas phase tracers include perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT`s) and chlorofluorocarbon tracers (CFC`s). Both have been applied for leak detection in subsurface systems. The focus of this report is to describe the barrier verification tests conducted using PFT`s and analysis of the data from the tests. PFT verification tests

T. M. Sullivan; J. Heiser; L. Milian; G. Senum

1996-01-01

163

Possible subsurface production of carbon-14  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subsurface origin of ¹⁴C is rarely considered by researchers interested in dating groundwater. Theoretically, nuclear reactions induced by emissions from U and Th nuclei can produce measurable concentrations of ¹⁴C in groundwater. Under very special conditions, calculations indicate that subsurface production might cause significant errors in dates of less that 1 x 10⁴ years, although normally such errors showld

Richard Zito; Douglas J. Donahue; Stanley N. Davis; Harold W. Bentley; Peter Fritz

1980-01-01

164

Autonomic Computing: Freedom or a Threat?  

SciTech Connect

No longer is the question whether autonomic computing will gain general acceptance but when. Experts expect autonomic computing to be widely used within 10 years. When it does become mainstream, how will autonomics change system administration and corporations, and will the change be for better or worse? The answer depends on how well we anticipate the limitations of what autonomic systems are suited to do, whether we can collectively address the vulnerabilities of autonomic approaches as we draw upon the advantages, and whether administrators, companies, partners, and users are prepared for the transition. This article presents some design considerations to address the first two issues and some suggested survival techniques for the third.

Fink, Glenn A.; Frincke, Deb

2007-12-01

165

Dual aquafer electrical heating of subsurface hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of electrically heating a viscous hydrocarbon-bearing subsurface formation which consists of: a. applying an electric voltage to a first electrode well extending into a subsurface first aquifer. The first aquifer contains flowable mobile water and having sufficiently high permeability to permit water to be flowed into and out of the first aquifer. The first aquifer extends laterally more than 100 feet from the first electrode well in at least one direction and overlaying the viscous hydrocarbon-bearing subsurface formation; b. applying an electric voltage to a second electrode well extending into a subsurface second aquifer, the second aquifer containing flowable mobile water and having sufficiently high permeability to permit water to be flowed into and out of the second aquifer, the second aquifer extending laterally more than 100 feet from the second electrode well in at least one direction and underlaying the viscous hydrocarbon-bearing subsurface formation; and c. causing electric current to flow between the first and second electrode wells and through the viscous hydrocarbon subsurface formation.

Segalman, D.J.

1986-09-23

166

An intelligent subsurface buoy design for measuring ocean ambient noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A type of ultra-low power subsurface buoy system is designed to measure and record ocean ambient noise data. The buoy utilizes a vector hydrophone (pass band 20Hz-1.2kHz) and a 6-element vertical hydrophone array (pass band 20Hz-2kHz) to measure ocean ambient noise. The acoustic signals are passed through an automatically modified gain, a band pass filter, and an analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion module. They are then stored in high-capacity flash memory. In order to identify the direction of noise source, the vector sensor measuring system has integrated an electric-magnetic compass. The system provides a low-rate underwater acoustic communication system which is used to report the buoy state information and a high-speed USB interface which is used to retrieve the recorded data on deck. The whole system weighs about 125kg and can operate autonomously for more than 72 hours. The system's main architecture and the sea-trial test results are provided in this paper.

Li, Bing; Wang, Lei

2012-11-01

167

Experiences in Benchmarking of Autonomic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomic computing promises improvements of systems quality of service in terms of availability, reliability, performance, security, etc. However, little research and experimental results have so far demonstrated this assertion, nor provided proof of the return on investment stemming from the efforts that introducing autonomic features requires. Existing works in the area of benchmarking of autonomic systems can be characterized by their qualitative and fragmented approaches. Still a crucial need is to provide generic (i.e. independent from business, technology, architecture and implementation choices) autonomic computing benchmarking tools for evaluating and/or comparing autonomic systems from a technical and, ultimately, an economical point of view. This article introduces a methodology and a process for defining and evaluating factors, criteria and metrics in order to qualitatively and quantitatively assess autonomic features in computing systems. It also discusses associated experimental results on three different autonomic systems.

Etchevers, Xavier; Coupaye, Thierry; Vachet, Guy

168

Autonomic neuropathy in Fabry disease: a prospective study using the Autonomic Symptom Profile and cardiovascular autonomic function tests  

PubMed Central

Background Fabry patients have symptoms and signs compatible with autonomic dysfunction. These symptoms and signs are considered to be due to impairment of the peripheral nervous system, but findings indicative of autonomic neuropathy in other diseases, such as orthostatic intolerance and male sexual dysfunction, are infrequently reported in Fabry disease. The aim of our study was to investigate autonomic symptoms and cardiovascular autonomic function in a large cohort of male and female Fabry patients. Methods Forty-eight Fabry patients (15 male, 30 treated with enzyme replacement therapy) and 48 sex- and age-matched controls completed a questionnaire on autonomic symptoms (the Autonomic Symptom Profile). Thirty-six Fabry patients underwent cardiovascular function tests. Results The Autonomic Symptom Profile revealed a significantly higher sum score in Fabry patients than in healthy control subjects (22 versus 12), but a relatively low score compared to patients with proven autonomic neuropathy. Fabry patients scored worse than healthy controls in the orthostatic intolerance domain. Scores in the male sexual dysfunction domain were comparable between healthy controls and male Fabry patients. The cardiovascular autonomic function tests revealed only mild abnormalities in seven patients. None of these seven patients showed more than one abnormal test result. Enzyme replacement therapy was not associated with less severe disease, lower ASP scores or less frequent abnormal cardiovascular function test results. Conclusions Male sexual function and autonomic control of the cardiovascular system are nearly normal in Fabry patients, which cast doubt on the general accepted assumption that autonomic neuropathy is the main cause of symptoms and signs compatible with autonomic dysfunction in Fabry disease. Possibly, end-organ damage plays a key role in the development of symptoms and signs in Fabry patients. An exceptional kind of autonomic neuropathy is another but less likely explanation.

2010-01-01

169

Subsurface clade of Geobacteraceae that predominates in a diversity of Fe(III)-reducing subsurface environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are distinct differences in the physiology of Geobacter species available in pure culture. Therefore, to understand the ecology of Geobacter species in subsurface environments, it is important to know which species predominate. Clone libraries were assembled with 16S rRNA genes and transcripts amplified from three subsurface environments in which Geobacter species are known to be important members of the

Dawn E Holmes; Regina A O'Neil; Helen A. Vrionis; Lucie A N'Guessan; Irene Ortiz-Bernad; Maria J. Larrahondo; Lorrie A. Adams; Joy A. Ward; Julie S. Nicoll; Kelly P. Nevin; Milind A. Chavan; Jessica P. Johnson; Philip E. Long; Derek R. Lovely

2007-01-01

170

The subsurface investigation by Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) will fly aboard the European Space Agency Mars Express orbiter, launching in 2003, to perform subsurface, surface and ionosphere soundings on a global scale. The authors describe the main features of the radar sounder and have shown the expected penetration performance according to simplified models of the Martian crust composition

G. Picardi; S. Sorge; R. Seu; R. Orosei; C. Zelli; E. Zampolini

2000-01-01

171

Experiments on autonomous Boolean networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We realize autonomous Boolean networks by using logic gates in their autonomous mode of operation on a field-programmable gate array. This allows us to implement time-continuous systems with complex dynamical behaviors that can be conveniently interconnected into large-scale networks with flexible topologies that consist of time-delay links and a large number of nodes. We demonstrate how we realize networks with periodic, chaotic, and excitable dynamics and study their properties. Field-programmable gate arrays define a new experimental paradigm that holds great potential to test a large body of theoretical results on the dynamics of complex networks, which has been beyond reach of traditional experimental approaches.

Rosin, David P.; Rontani, Damien; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Schöll, Eckehard

2013-06-01

172

Autonomous Generator for Technical Oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Autonomous Generator of Technical Oxygen(AGTO)has been achieved at ICMET Craiova, in cooperation with ICSI Rm. Valcea. It represents a product finalizing a scientific research theme financed by the romanian Ministry of Education and Research.The AGTO is intended to the brazing, welding and oxygas flame cutting processes, technical fields which can be actually found in all industrial applications. The presented

A. T. Rosca; V. Stanciu; V. Cimpoiasu; R. Scorei; D. Rosca

2004-01-01

173

Autonomous Robotic Vehicle Road Following  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the system architecture of an autonomous vehicle and its real-time adaptive vision system for road-following. The vehicle is a 10-ton armored personnel carrier modified for robotic control. A color transformation that best discriminates road and nonroad regions is derived from labeled data samples. A maximum-likelihood pixel classification technique is then used to classify pixels in

Darwin T. Kuan; Gary Phipps; A.-CHUAN HSUEH

1988-01-01

174

Adaptive Behavior in Autonomous Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the bottom-up approach to artificial intelligence (AI), commonly referred to as behavior-oriented AI. The behavior-oriented approach, with its focus on the interaction between autonomous agents and their environments, is introduced by contrasting it with the traditional approach of knowledge-based AI. Different notions of autonomy are discussed, and key problems of generating adaptive and complex

Tom Ziemke

1998-01-01

175

Autonomic Computing - Panacea or Poppycock?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic computing arose out of a need for a means to cope with rapidly growing complexity of integrating, managing, and operating computer-based systems as well as a need to reduce the total cost of ownership of today's systems. The vision is to create selfware through self-* properties. The initial set of properties, in terms of objectives, were self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing

Roy Sterritt; Michael G. Hinchey

2005-01-01

176

Autonomous Optimization of Business Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we introduce the intelligent Executable Product Model (iEPM) approach for the autonomous optimization of service\\u000a industry’s business processes. Instead of using a process model, we use an Executable Product Model (EPM). EPMs provide a\\u000a compact representation of the set of possible execution paths of a business process by defining information dependencies instead\\u000a of the order of activities.

Markus Kress; Detlef Seese

2009-01-01

177

Creating adaptive affective autonomous NPCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports work to create believable autonomous Non Player Characters in Video games in general and educational role\\u000a play games in particular. It aims to increase their ability to respond appropriately to the player’s actions both cognitively\\u000a and emotionally by integrating two models: the cognitive appraisal-based FAtiMA architecture, and the drives-based PSI model.\\u000a We discuss the modelling of adaptive

Mei Yii Lim; João Dias; Ruth Aylett; Ana Paiva

178

Subsurface photodisruption in scattering biological tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately five million people worldwide are blind due to complications from glaucoma. Current surgical techniques often fail due to infection and scarring. Both failure routes are associated with damaging surface tissues. Femtosecond lasers allow a method to create a highly precise incision beneath the surface of the tissue without damaging any of the overlying layers. However, subsurface surgery can only be performed where the beam can be focused tightly enough to cause optical breakdown. Under normal conditions, subsurface surgery is not possible since sclera is highly scattering. Using two independent methods, we show completely subsurface surgery in human sclera using a femtosecond laser. The first method is to make the sclera transparent by injecting a dehydrating agent. The second method is to choose a wavelength that is highly focusable in the sclera. Both methods may be applied in other tissues, such as skin. We show highly precise incisions in in vitro tissues. Subsurface femtosecond photodisruption may be useful for in vivo surgical technique to perform a completely subsurface surgery.

Sacks, Zachary S.; Spooner, Greg J.; Kurtz, Ron M.; Juhasz, Tibor; Mourou, Gerard A.

2000-11-01

179

Wave-Based Subsurface Guide Star  

SciTech Connect

Astronomical or optical guide stars are either natural or artificial point sources located above the Earth's atmosphere. When imaged from ground-based telescopes, they are distorted by atmospheric effects. Knowing the guide star is a point source, the atmospheric distortions may be estimated and, deconvolved or mitigated in subsequent imagery. Extending the guide star concept to wave-based measurement systems to include acoustic, seismo-acoustic, ultrasonic, and radar, a strong artificial scatterer (either acoustic or electromagnetic) may be buried or inserted, or a pre-existing or natural sub-surface point scatterer may be identified, imaged, and used as a guide star to determine properties of the sub-surface volume. That is, a data collection is performed on the guide star and the sub-surface environment reconstructed or imaged using an optimizer assuming the guide star is a point scatterer. The optimization parameters are the transceiver height and bulk sub-surface background refractive index. Once identified, the refractive index may be used in subsequent reconstructions of sub-surface measurements. The wave-base guide star description presented in this document is for a multimonostatic ground penetrating radar (GPR) but is applicable to acoustic, seismo-acoustic, and ultrasonic measurement systems operating in multimonostatic, multistatic, multibistatic, etc., modes.

Lehman, S K

2011-07-26

180

Subsurface Shielding Source Term Specification Calculation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation is to establish appropriate and defensible waste-package radiation source terms for use in repository subsurface shielding design. This calculation supports the shielding design for the waste emplacement and retrieval system, and subsurface facility system. The objective is to identify the limiting waste package and specify its associated source terms including source strengths and energy spectra. Consistent with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M&O 2001, p. 15), the scope of work includes the following: (1) Review source terms generated by the Waste Package Department (WPD) for various waste forms and waste package types, and compile them for shielding-specific applications. (2) Determine acceptable waste package specific source terms for use in subsurface shielding design, using a reasonable and defensible methodology that is not unduly conservative. This calculation is associated with the engineering and design activity for the waste emplacement and retrieval system, and subsurface facility system. The technical work plan for this calculation is provided in CRWMS M&O 2001. Development and performance of this calculation conforms to the procedure, AP-3.12Q, Calculations.

S.Su

2001-04-12

181

Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area annual report 1997  

SciTech Connect

In support of its vision for technological excellence, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) has identified three strategic goals. The three goals of the SCFA are: Contain and/or stabilize contamination sources that pose an imminent threat to surface and ground waters; Delineate DNAPL contamination in the subsurface and remediate DNAPL-contaminated soils and ground water; and Remove a full range of metal and radionuclide contamination in soils and ground water. To meet the challenges of remediating subsurface contaminants in soils and ground water, SCFA funded more than 40 technologies in fiscal year 1997. These technologies are grouped according to the following product lines: Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids; Metals and Radionuclides; Source Term Containment; and Source Term Remediation. This report briefly describes the SCFA 1997 technologies and showcases a few key technologies in each product line.

NONE

1997-12-31

182

MSTS - Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator theory manual  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, through the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office, has designated the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada for detailed study as the candidate US geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Site characterization will determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for the potential waste repository. If the site is determined suitable, subsequent studies and characterization will be conducted to obtain authorization from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to construct the potential waste repository. A principal component of the characterization and licensing processes involves numerically predicting the thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment of the Yucca Mountain site to the potential repository over a 10,000-year period. The thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment to the repository is anticipated to include complex processes of countercurrent vapor and liquid migration, multiple-phase heat transfer, multiple-phase transport, and geochemical reactions. Numerical simulators based on mathematical descriptions of these subsurface phenomena are required to make numerical predictions of the thermal and hydrologic response of the Yucca Mountain subsurface environment The engineering simulator called the Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator (MSTS) was developed at the request of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office to produce numerical predictions of subsurface flow and transport phenomena at the potential Yucca Mountain site. This document delineates the design architecture and describes the specific computational algorithms that compose MSTS. Details for using MSTS and sample problems are given in the {open_quotes}User`s Guide and Reference{close_quotes} companion document.

White, M.D.; Nichols, W.E.

1993-05-01

183

Improving the biodegradative capacity of subsurface bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The continual release of large volumes of synthetic materials into the environment by agricultural and industrial sources over the last few decades has resulted in pollution of the subsurface environment. Cleanup has been difficult because of the relative inaccessibility of the contaminants caused by their wide dispersal in the deep subsurface, often at low concentrations and in large volumes. As a possible solution for these problems, interest in the introduction of biodegradative bacteria for in situ remediation of these sites has increased greatly in recent years (Timmis et al. 1988). Selection of biodegradative microbes to apply in such cleanup is limited to those strains that can survive among the native bacterial and predator community members at the particular pH, temperature, and moisture status of the site (Alexander, 1984). The use of microorganisms isolated from subsurface environments would be advantageous because the organisms are already adapted to the subsurface conditions. The options are further narrowed to strains that are able to degrade the contaminant rapidly, even in the presence of highly recalcitrant anthropogenic waste mixtures, and in conditions that do not require addition of further toxic compounds for the expression of the biodegradative capacity (Sayler et al. 1990). These obstacles can be overcome by placing the genes of well-characterized biodegradative enzymes under the control of promoters that can be regulated by inexpensive and nontoxic external factors and then moving the new genetic constructs into diverse groups of subsurface microbes. ne objective of this research is to test this hypothesis by comparing expression of two different toluene biodegradative enzymatic pathways from two different regulatable promoters in a variety of subsurface isolates.

Romine, M.F.; Brockman, F.J.

1993-04-01

184

Autonomic Networking in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we address autonomic networking in termsof wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a typical example of wirelessnetworks\\u000a in pervasive computing. In order to investigate the stateof the art of autonomic networking in sensor networks and its futureprospects,\\u000a we start with a short summary of autonomic networking andSensor networks. It follows the discussion of the appliance ofautonomic\\u000a networking in WSNs

Mengjie Yu; Hala Mokhtar; Madjid Merabti

185

Characterizing maintainability concerns in autonomic element design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic computing has become more prevalent in recent years for its vision of developing applications with self-adaptive and self-managing behavior. Due to the inherent complexity of such applications and the nature of the built-in closed-loop feedback control, maintainability issues of autonomic systems are emerging as significant concerns in autonomic system designs. This paper identifies and categorizes types of common forms

Qin Zhu; Lei Lin; Holger M. Kienle; Hausi A. Müller

2008-01-01

186

The EO1 Autonomous Science Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— An Autonomous ,Science Agent is currently flying onboard ,the Earth Observing One Spacecraft. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously,detect and respond,to science ,events occurring on the ,Earth. The package includes software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. Because ,of the ,deployment ,to a ,remote spacecraft, this Autonomous Science Agent has stringent constraints

S. Chien; R. Sherwood; D. Tran; B. Cichy; G. Rabideau; R. Castano; A. Davies; R. Lee; D. Mandl; S. Frye; B. Trout; J. Hengemihle; S. Shulman Agostino; S. Ungar; T. Brakke; D. Boyer; J. Vangaasbeck; R. Greeley; T. Doggett; V. Baker; J. Dohm; F. Ip

2005-01-01

187

Mechanistic Process Modeling for Subsurface Remediation  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop the first generation of models that fully address the coupling of dominant processes controlling the behavior of fluid, chemical and biological components in the subsurface. The large memory and computational performance of multiprocessor computing architectures would be exploited to provide modeling capabilities with unprecedented process detail and resolution to assess new scientific hypotheses, assist with experimental design, and to evaluate environmental technologies and remediation design. Moreover, the proposed capability developments would advance the scientific agenda for the subsurface through the realized advances in complex multiple-phase reaction modeling.

Yabusaki, Steven B.; Bryant, Steven L.; Chen, Shi-Yi; Fann, George I.; Flach, Gregory P.; Gray, William G.; Holland, Jeffery P.; Jordan, Kirk E.; Maier, Robert S.; Malard, Joel M.; Rector, David R.; Soll, Wendy E.; Steefel, Carl I.; Thompson, Andrew F.; Trease, Harold E.; Wheeler, Mary F.; Wood, Brian D.

2002-08-30

188

Radar soundings of the subsurface of Mars.  

PubMed

The martian subsurface has been probed to kilometer depths by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding instrument aboard the Mars Express orbiter. Signals penetrate the polar layered deposits, probably imaging the base of the deposits. Data from the northern lowlands of Chryse Planitia have revealed a shallowly buried quasi-circular structure about 250 kilometers in diameter that is interpreted to be an impact basin. In addition, a planar reflector associated with the basin structure may indicate the presence of a low-loss deposit that is more than 1 kilometer thick. PMID:16319122

Picardi, Giovanni; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Biccari, Daniela; Bombaci, Ornella; Calabrese, Diego; Cartacci, Marco; Cicchetti, Andrea; Clifford, Stephen M; Edenhofer, Peter; Farrell, William M; Federico, Costanzo; Frigeri, Alessandro; Gurnett, Donald A; Hagfors, Tor; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Huff, Richard L; Ivanov, Anton B; Johnson, William T K; Jordan, Rolando L; Kirchner, Donald L; Kofman, Wlodek; Leuschen, Carlton J; Nielsen, Erling; Orosei, Roberto; Pettinelli, Elena; Phillips, Roger J; Plettemeier, Dirk; Safaeinili, Ali; Seu, Roberto; Stofan, Ellen R; Vannaroni, Giuliano; Watters, Thomas R; Zampolini, Enrico

2005-11-30

189

Apparatus for passive removal of subsurface contaminants  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided which passively removes contaminated gases from a subsurface. The apparatus includes a riser pipe extending into a subsurface which has an exterior end in fluid communication with a valve. When well pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure, the valve opens to release contaminants into the atmosphere, and when well pressure is less than atmospheric pressure, the valve closes to prevent flow of air into the well. The valve assembly of the invention comprises a lightweight ball which is lifted from its valve seat with a slight pressure drop between the well and the atmosphere. 7 figs.

Pemberton, B.E.; May, C.P.; Rossabi, J.

1997-06-24

190

Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations  

DOEpatents

A heating system for a subsurface formation includes an elongated electrical conductor located in the subsurface formation. The electrical conductor extends between at least a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact. A ferromagnetic conductor at least partially surrounds and at least partially extends lengthwise around the electrical conductor. The electrical conductor, when energized with time-varying electrical current, induces sufficient electrical current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor such that the ferromagnetic conductor resistively heats to a temperature of at least about 300.degree. C.

Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Bass, Ronald M. (Houston, TX)

2012-04-24

191

Subsurface clade of Geobacteraceae that predominates in a diversity of Fe(III)-reducing subsurface environments  

SciTech Connect

There are distinct differences in the physiology of Geobacter species available in pure culture. Therefore, to understand the ecology of Geobacter species in subsurface environments, it is important to know which species predominate. Clone libraries were assembled with 16S rRNA genes and transcripts amplified from three subsurface environments in which Geobacter species are known to be important members of the microbial community: (1) a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, CO, USA undergoing in situ bioremediation; (2) an acetate-impacted aquifer that serves as an analog for the long-term acetate amendments proposed for in situ uranium bioremediation and (3) a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which Geobacter species play a role in the oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons coupled with the reduction of Fe(III). The majority of Geobacteraceae 16S rRNA sequences found in these environments clustered in a phylogenetically coherent subsurface clade, which also contains a number of Geobacter species isolated from subsurface environments. Concatamers constructed with 43 Geobacter genes amplified from these sites also clustered within this subsurface clade. 16S rRNA transcript and gene sequences in the sediments and groundwater at the Rifle site were highly similar, suggesting that sampling groundwater via monitoring wells can recover the most active Geobacter species. These results suggest that further study of Geobacter species in the subsurface clade is necessary to accurately model the behavior of Geobacter species during subsurface bioremediation of metal and organic contaminants

Holmes, Dawn; O'Neil, Regina; Vrionis, Helen A.; N'guessan, Lucie A.; Ortiz-Bernad, Irene; Larrahondo, Maria J.; Adams, Lorrie A.; Ward, Joy A.; Nicoll, Julie S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Chavan, Milind A.; Johnson, Jessica P.; Long, Philip E.; Lovely, Derek R.

2007-12-01

192

Spirituality and Autonomic Cardiac Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Spirituality has been suggested to be associated with positive health, but potential biological mediators have not been well\\u000a characterized.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose and Methods  The present study examined, in a population-based sample of middle-aged and older adults, the potential relationship between\\u000a spirituality and patterns of cardiac autonomic control, which may have health significance. Measures of parasympathetic (high-frequency\\u000a heart rate variability) and sympathetic (pre-ejection

Gary G. Berntson; Greg J. Norman; Louise C. Hawkley; John T. Cacioppo

2008-01-01

193

Artificial Intelligence in Autonomous Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is key to the natural evolution of today's automated telescopes to fully autonomous systems. Based on its rapid development over the past five decades, AI offers numerous, well-tested techniques for knowledge based decision making essential for real-time telescope monitoring and control, with minimal - and eventually no - human intervention. We present three applications of AI developed at CFHT for monitoring instantaneous sky conditions, assessing quality of imaging data, and a prototype for scheduling observations in real-time. Closely complementing the current remote operations at CFHT, we foresee further development of these methods and full integration in the near future.

Mahoney, William; Thanjavur, Karun

2011-03-01

194

BLAST autonomous daytime star cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed two redundant daytime star cameras to provide the fine pointing solution for the balloon-borne submillimeter telescope, BLAST. The cameras are capable of providing a reconstructed pointing solution with an absolute accuracy < 5". They are sensitive to stars down to magnitudes ~ 9 in daytime float conditions. Each camera combines a 1 megapixel CCD with a 200mm f/2 lens to image a 2° × 2.5° field of the sky. The instruments are autonomous. An internal computer controls the temperature, adjusts the focus, and determines a real-time pointing solution at 1 Hz. The mechanical details and flight performance of these instruments are presented.

Rex, Marie; Chapin, Edward; Devlin, Mark J.; Gundersen, Joshua; Klein, Jeff; Pascale, Enzo; Wiebe, Donald

2006-07-01

195

Subsurface manure application to reduce ammonia emissions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation into soil is generally recommended to reduce ammonia volatilization and nutrient runoff following land application of manures. A range of subsurface applicators are available for manure incorporation with minimal soil disturbance in reduced tillage systems, but none have been widely a...

196

MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF THE TERRESTRIAL SUBSURFACE  

EPA Science Inventory

A current view is presented of the microbial ecology of the terrestrial subsurface by considering primarily the ecology of shallow aquifer sediments. The properties of the aquifer sediments and groundwater determine their ability to support microbial life and control the abundanc...

197

Analysis of Moorings for Subsurface Buoy System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of moorings for subsurface buoy system is complex because of large changes in configuration, load dependence on the position, shape and orientation of the system, nonlinear load behaviour of cable, mooring boundary etc. This paper presents the details of the parametric study carried out on mooring using an indigenously developed finite element program 'MOOR'. Incremental method and Newton

R. Sundaravadivelu; K. Prasad; P. Gopu

1987-01-01

198

Liquid cryobrines in the subsurface of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid cryobrines in the subsurface of Mars D. Mühlmann, DLR Institut für Planetenforschung, Berlin (dirk.moehlmann@dlr.de) Thermodynamics shows that undercooled liquid interfacial water must necessarily exist in the upper surface of Mars, at least temporarily. In case of a given presence of soluble salt grains in the soil with attached interfacial water (of atmospheric-or ice-origin) there must evolve liquid brines ("cryobrines"). The eutectic temperature of cryobrines can be far below 0 C and numerous known brines will remain liquid at martian temperatures. Liquid cryobrines are therefore expected to exist at appropriate sites in the subsurface of Mars, at least temporarily but also at present. Properties like eutectic phase diagrams, related water activity and stability of "Mars-relevant" salts and brines under current martian atmospheric conditions are presented and discussed. It is described that the presence of at least temporarily liquid cryobrines in the subsurface soil can be related to rheological phenomena of viscous liquid brines, and that liquid cryobrines are a current challenge in view of their possible support to a habitability of the subsurface of Mars.

Möhlmann, Diedrich

199

Subsurface cracks under tensile and shear loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of a subsurface crack parallel and close to the surface of a semi-infinite medium was studied by dislocation modeling and finite element analysis. The loading is applied over the surface of the semi-infinite medium. For tensile loading the dislocation model gives the same result as the finite element method. For shear loading, the crack faces penetrate each other

Fuqian Yang; Caifu Qian; James C. Li

1995-01-01

200

Subsurface signatures of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-surface signatures of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) are identified using expendable bathythermograph (XBT) measurements of temperature from the surface down to a depth of 400 m. Basin averaged temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic at different depths display multidecadal variability with a phase shift between temperature anomalies at the surface and at depth. Westward propagation of temperature anomalies is

L. M. Frankcombe; H. A. Dijkstra; A. von der Heydt

2008-01-01

201

Subsurface fracture measurement with polarimetric borehole radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-polarimetric borehole radar system is presented with combinations of dipole antennas and axial slot antennas and is applied to subsurface fracture measurement. First, to determine a scattering matrix from measurements with antennas having different antenna transfer functions between orthogonal polarizations, the authors present an antenna compensation algorithm that is achieved by an inverse filtering method with the antenna transfer

Takashi Miwa; Motoyuki Sato; Hiroaki Niitsuma

1999-01-01

202

Subsurface Tectonics and Pingos of Northern Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe preliminary results of a two-phase study that investigated links between subsurface structural and stratigraphic controls, and distribution of hydrostatic pingos on the central coastal plain of Arctic Alaska. Our 2300 km2 study area is underlain by a complete petroleum system that supports gas, oil and water production from 3 of the largest oil fields in North America. In

S. Skirvin; R. Casavant; D. Burr

2008-01-01

203

High resolution shallow seismic subsurface characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical imaging and characterization methods of the shallow subsurface are underutilized. In many cases this underutilization stems from the difficulty in relating the geophysical image to the environmental problem. To that end, the objective of this research is to integrate surface geophysical imaging techniques to resolve the \\

Ran Bachrach

1999-01-01

204

OVERVIEW -- SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division located in Ada, Oklahoma, conducts EPA-investigator led laboratory and field research to provide the scientific basis to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground and surface water q...

205

Increasing permeability of deep subsurface formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a method and composition for propping fractures in subsurface formations to thereby improve the ease with which fluids may be produced or injected into such formations. Fractures can be suitably propped by using manufactured, formable materials which do not deform appreciably under loads of up to 20,000 psi. The propping agent is suspended in a fluid carrier and

W. J. Jr. McGuire; L. R. Kern; H. F. Dunlop

1966-01-01

206

Methods for forming long subsurface heaters  

DOEpatents

A method for forming a longitudinal subsurface heater includes longitudinally welding an electrically conductive sheath of an insulated conductor heater along at least one longitudinal strip of metal. The longitudinal strip is formed into a tubular around the insulated conductor heater with the insulated conductor heater welded along the inside surface of the tubular.

Kim, Dong Sub

2013-09-17

207

MANIPULATING SUBSURFACE COLLOIDS TO ENHANCE CLEANUPS OF DOE WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Colloidal phases, such as submicrometer iron oxyhydroxides, aluminosilicate clays, and humic macromolecules, are important subsurface sorbents for the low-solubility chemicals in DOE wastes. Recent research we have performed as part of DOE's Subsurface Science Program has demonst...

208

Microbial ecology of the terrestrial subsurface.  

PubMed

We have presented a current view of the microbial ecology of the terrestrial subsurface by considering primarily the ecology of shallow aquifer sediments. The properties of the aquifer sediments and groundwater determine their ability to support microbial life and control the abundance and activities of microorganisms. Pore size, nutrient limitations, availability of electron acceptors, and large surface area for attachment all may have major effects on microbial abundance and activities in aquifer material. Microorganisms are the predominant forms of life in the subsurface. They will be found wherever enough space, nutrients, and water are available for them to live. Environmental factors such as pH, temperature, hydrostatic pressure, and dissolved salts also may influence subsurface microbial populations, but these factors do not exhibit great extremes in shallow water table aquifers, and thus only in very deep formations might they limit diversity or preclude the existence of microorganisms. Although the presence and activity of microorganisms in most subsurface environments are predictable, only recently have subsurface microbial populations in shallow subsurface zones been characterized. Aseptic sampling methods have been employed and microbiological and biochemical methods have been adapted to determine the types, abundance, and metabolic activities of microorganisms in subsurface material. Bacteria dominate, but eukaryotic microorganisms also are present. Vertical profile studies of a shallow aquifer in Oklahoma showed that active microbial biomass declined with depth to the unsaturated zone, but was variable in saturated sediments. Such a distribution of active biomass may be common in shallow aquifers. Studies on the lateral distribution of microorganisms in shallow and deep aquifers suggest that microorganisms are transported or migrate over fairly long distances in aquifer sediments. Surficial aquifers may be colonized by vertical or lateral transport and migration of surface microorganisms from recharge areas, but microorganisms could also have colonized when sediments were originally deposited. The biological and physical mechanisms controlling the migration of microorganisms in aquifers are not well understood. The function of shallow aquifers was considered with regard to nutritional ecology. Most pristine aquifers are oligotrophic. Heterotrophic life in these unique ecosystems is supported by secondary organic compounds that filter down from the soil above. The quantity and quality of organic nutrients depend on the age of water and rate of recharge of the aquifer.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3041739

Ghiorse, W C; Wilson, J T

1988-01-01

209

Microbial communities in the deep subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity of microbial populations and microbial communities within the earth's subsurface is summarized in this review. Scientists are currently exploring the subsurface and addressing questions of microbial diversity, the interactions among microorganisms, and mechanisms for maintenance of subsurface microbial communities. Heterotrophic anaerobic microbial communities exist in relatively permeable sandstone or sandy sediments, located adjacent to organic-rich deposits. These microorganisms appear to be maintained by the consumption of organic compounds derived from adjacent deposits. Sources of organic material serving as electron donors include lignite-rich Eocene sediments beneath the Texas coastal plain, organic-rich Cretaceous shales from the southwestern US, as well as Cretaceous clays containing organic materials and fermentative bacteria from the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Additionally, highly diverse microbial communities occur in regions where a source of organic matter is not apparent but where igneous rock is present. Examples include the basalt-rich subsurface of the Columbia River valley and the granitic subsurface regions of Sweden and Canada. These subsurface microbial communities appear to be maintained by the action of lithotrophic bacteria growing on H2 that is chemically generated within the subsurface. Other deep-dwelling microbial communities exist within the deep sediments of oceans. These systems often rely on anaerobic metabolism and sulfate reduction. Microbial colonization extends to the depths below which high temperatures limit the ability of microbes to survive. Energy sources for the organisms living in the oceanic subsurface may originate as oceanic sedimentary deposits. In this review, each of these microbial communities is discussed in detail with specific reference to their energy sources, their observed growth patterns, and their diverse composition. This information is critical to develop further understanding of subsurface geochemical processes and to develop new approaches to subsurface remediation. Résumé La diversité des populations et des communautés microbiennes dans le sol et le sous-sol est présentée dans cet article. Les chercheurs s'interrogent fréquemment sur la diversité microbienne du sous-sol, sur les interactions entre organismes et sur les mécanismes qui permettent le maintien des communautés microbiennes souterraines. Il existe des communautés microbiennes anérobies hétérotrophes dans des grès ou dans des sédiments sableux relativement perméables, à proximité de dépôts riches en matières organiques. Ces micro-organismes semblent se maintenir grâce à la consommation de composés organiques provenant des dépôts organiques voisins. Les sources de matériel organique jouant le rôle de donneur d'électrons sont constituées par des sédiments éocènes riches en lignite situés sous la plaine littorale du Texas, les schistes riches en matières organiques du Crétacé du sud-ouest des États-Unis, ainsi que les argiles contenant des matériaux organiques et des bactéries de fermentation de la plaine littorale atlantique. En outre, il existe des communautés fortement diversifiées dans des régions où aucune source de matière organique n'existe, mais où sont présentes des roches ignées. Le sous-sol riche en basalte de la vallée de la Columbia au Canada et les régions granitiques de Suède en sont des exemples. Ces communautés microbiennes souterraines semblent se maintenir par l'action de bactéries lithotrophes se développant grâce à l'hydrogène qui est produit par réactions chimiques dans le sous-sol. Il existe d'autres communautés microbiennes de profondeur dans les sédiments profonds des océans. Ces systèmes sont souvent associés à un métabolisme anérobie et à une réduction des sulfates. La colonisation microbienne s'étend jusqu'à des profondeurs où les températures élevées limitent leur capacité de survie. Les sources d'énergie pour ces organismes vivant dans les fonds des océans peuvent être les dépôts

Krumholz, Lee R.

210

Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS): Subsurface Performances Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

According to the Mars Express mission, the MARSIS primary scientific objectives are to map the distribution of water, both liquid and solid, in the upper portions of the crust of Mars. Three secondary objectives are also defined: subsurface geologic probi...

G. Picardi D. Biccari A. Bazzoni F. Fois P. Melacci

2005-01-01

211

Quantifying nonisothermal subsurface soil water evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate quantification of energy and mass transfer during soil water evaporation is critical for improving understanding of the hydrologic cycle and for many environmental, agricultural, and engineering applications. Drying of soil under radiation boundary conditions results in formation of a dry surface layer (DSL), which is accompanied by a shift in the position of the latent heat sink from the surface to the subsurface. Detailed investigation of evaporative dynamics within this active near-surface zone has mostly been limited to modeling, with few measurements available to test models. Soil column studies were conducted to quantify nonisothermal subsurface evaporation profiles using a sensible heat balance (SHB) approach. Eleven-needle heat pulse probes were used to measure soil temperature and thermal property distributions at the millimeter scale in the near-surface soil. Depth-integrated SHB evaporation rates were compared with mass balance evaporation estimates under controlled laboratory conditions. The results show that the SHB method effectively measured total subsurface evaporation rates with only 0.01-0.03 mm h-1difference from mass balance estimates. The SHB approach also quantified millimeter-scale nonisothermal subsurface evaporation profiles over a drying event, which has not been previously possible. Thickness of the DSL was also examined using measured soil thermal conductivity distributions near the drying surface. Estimates of the DSL thickness were consistent with observed evaporation profile distributions from SHB. Estimated thickness of the DSL was further used to compute diffusive vapor flux. The diffusive vapor flux also closely matched both mass balance evaporation rates and subsurface evaporation rates estimated from SHB.

Deol, Pukhraj; Heitman, Josh; Amoozegar, Aziz; Ren, Tusheng; Horton, Robert

2012-11-01

212

Autonomous uninterruptable power supply apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This invention relates broadly to a power supply apparatus, and in particular to an autonomous uninterruptable power supply apparatus. The purpose of an uninterruptable power supply (UPS) is to protect critical electrical loads from transient or steady stage outages or disturbances in the primary power source. The basic configuration of a typical, commercially available, uninterruptable power supply is comprised at a minimum of a standby battery and a battery charger and may also include an inverter for AC applications. Systems of this type can be found in most computer installations and laboratory systems which cannot tolerate even momentary disturbances of input power. This document describes an autonomous uninterruptable power supply apparatus utilizing a digital processor unit as a control and monitor unit to measure and control input and output parameters in the power supply. A battery charger is utilized to maintain the voltage and current levels with the backup battery supply source which powers an inverter unit that converts the DC power to an AC output.

Masson, J. H.

1984-12-01

213

Autonomous navigation of USAF spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U. S. Air Force is developing satellite-borne sensors to enable autonomous navigation of spacecraft in the near future. This study compares the observations from several medium-accuracy space sensors, such as the existing telescopic space sextant, with those of future matrix-type sensors. The large field of view of matrix sensors will allow them to determine the Earth horizon to approximately an order of magnitude better than current infrared sensors by observing atmospheric refraction of stellar light. This horizon determination will give the matrix sensors an accuracy of less than 1 km. The limiting factor in Earth-horizon determination is the modeling of atmospheric refraction effects. For high-accuracy requirements (100 meters or less), the Global Positioning System (GPS) offers the only near-term solution. A relative navigation technique using range and Doppler data is proposed for autonomous navigation of the GPS satellites. The navigation accuracy of this technique is evaluated by consider covariance analysis and by processing corrupted data through a reduced-order onboard Sequentially Partitioned Algorithm. The algorithm is stable and for the GPS system produces in-plane accuracy of 40 meters over twenty days. However, out-of-plane motion is shown to be unobservable in the GPS-to-GPS tracking mode, and errors of up to 1.5 km over 60 days are experienced. For this reason, a supplemental transmitter on the ground or in a different orbit is recommended.

Ferguson, J. R., Jr.

1983-12-01

214

Autonomous pathogen detection system 2001  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and field-demonstrate a fully Autonomous Pathogen Detector (identifier) System (APDS). This will be accomplished by integrating a proven flow cytometer and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detector with sample collection, sample preparation and fluidics to provide a compact, autonomously operating instrument capable of simultaneously detecting multiple pathogens and/or toxins. The APDS will be designed to operate in fixed locations, where it continuously monitors air samples and automatically reports the presence of specific biological agents. The APDS will utilize both multiplex immuno and nucleic acid assays to provide ''quasi-orthogonal'', multiple agent detection approaches to minimize false positives and increase the reliability of identification. Technical advancements across several fronts must first be made in order to realize the full extent of the APDS. Commercialization will be accomplished through three progressive generations of instruments. The APDS is targeted for domestic applications in which (1) the public is at high risk of exposure to covert releases of bioagent such as in major subway systems and other transportation terminals, large office complexes, and convention centers; and (2) as part of a monitoring network of sensors integrated with command and control systems for wide area monitoring of urban areas and major gatherings (e.g., inaugurations, Olympics, etc.). In this latter application there is potential that a fully developed APDS could add value to Defense Department monitoring architectures.

Langlois, R G; Wang, A; Colston, B; Masquelier, D; Jones, L; Venkateswaran, K S; Nasarabadi, S; Brown, S; Ramponi, A; Milanovich, F P

2001-01-09

215

[Microgravity and autonomic nervous system].  

PubMed

How microgravity influences autonomic function is still under investigation. Microgravity induces neuro-vestibular alterations and body fluid shift, and these two changes cause "space motion sickness(SMS)" and cardiovascular deconditioning. "Space motion sickness" is a autonomic syndrome that exhibits nausea, vomiting, headache, anorexia, pallor etc., whose incidence in Space Shuttle mission reaches 67.1%. There are several hypotheses for SMS mechanism: 1) sensory conflict, 2) fluid shift, 3) otolith asymmetry, 4) space orientation readaptation, 5) otolith tilt-translation reinterpretation, and these hypotheses are considered to be combined together to cause SMS. After space flight, 64% of the astronauts suffer from orthostatic intolerance, which is defined as incompletion of 15 min of 70 degrees head-up tilt. Several causes for the deconditioning have been hypothesized, dehydration followed by fluid shift, altered gain for baroreflex sensitivity, decreased venous capacitance, etc. In our previous studies, we recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity(MSNA) by microneurography under simulated and actual microgravity conditions. Parabolic flight, which induces 20 sec of actual microgravity, suppressed MSNA to 50%. Head-out water immersion suppressed MSNA to 20% while gradual recovery was observed during 3 hours of immersion. Dry immersion for 3 days revealed that MSNA was enhanced after simulated microgravity while the response to orthostasis was unchanged. Bed rest for 6, 14, and 120 days and Neurolab Project clarified the same tendency for longer duration of simulated microgravity. These alterations in MSNA might be attributed to the development of cardiovascular deconditioning after microgravity exposure. PMID:10944920

Iwase, S; Mano, T

2000-08-01

216

Mapping planetary caves with an autonomous, heterogeneous robot team  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caves on other planetary bodies offer sheltered habitat for future human explorers and numerous clues to a planet's past for scientists. While recent orbital imagery provides exciting new details about cave entrances on the Moon and Mars, the interiors of these caves are still unknown and not observable from orbit. Multi-robot teams offer unique solutions for exploration and modeling subsurface voids during precursor missions. Robot teams that are diverse in terms of size, mobility, sensing, and capability can provide great advantages, but this diversity, coupled with inherently distinct low-level behavior architectures, makes coordination a challenge. This paper presents a framework that consists of an autonomous frontier and capability-based task generator, a distributed market-based strategy for coordinating and allocating tasks to the different team members, and a communication paradigm for seamless interaction between the different robots in the system. Robots have different sensors, (in the representative robot team used for testing: 2D mapping sensors, 3D modeling sensors, or no exteroceptive sensors), and varying levels of mobility. Tasks are generated to explore, model, and take science samples. Based on an individual robot's capability and associated cost for executing a generated task, a robot is autonomously selected for task execution. The robots create coarse online maps and store collected data for high resolution offline modeling. The coordination approach has been field tested at a mock cave site with highly-unstructured natural terrain, as well as an outdoor patio area. Initial results are promising for applicability of the proposed multi-robot framework to exploration and modeling of planetary caves.

Husain, Ammar; Jones, Heather; Kannan, Balajee; Wong, Uland; Pimentel, Tiago; Tang, Sarah; Daftry, Shreyansh; Huber, Steven; Whittaker, William L.

217

Myasthenia gravis with autoimmune autonomic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autoantibodies that impair neuromuscular junction transmission in myasthenia gravis are specific for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) of muscle. Antibodies specific for AChRs in ganglionic neurons are found in a majority of patients with subacute autonomic neuropathy. Dysautonomia is not a recognized feature of myasthenia gravis, but there have been rare reports of myasthenia gravis coexisting with autonomic failure,

Steven Vernino; William P. Cheshire; Vanda A. Lennon

2001-01-01

218

A solar-powered autonomous underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the rapidly expanding requirements for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), Falmouth Scientific, Inc. (FSI) is working in cooperation with the Autonomous Undersea Systems Institute (AUSI) and Technology Systems Inc. (TSI) to develop a vehicle capable of long-term deployment and station-keeping duties. It has long been considered that AUV platforms, in principle, could provide an effective solution for surveillance (security

J. Jalbert; J. Baker; J. Duchesney; P. Pietryka; W. Dalton; D. R. Blidberg; S. Chappell; R. Nitzel; K. Holappa

2003-01-01

219

Autonomous Military Robotics: Risk, Ethics, and Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Imagine the face of warfare with autonomous robotics: Instead of our soldiers returning home in flag-draped caskets to heartbroken families, autonomous robots-mobile machines that can make decisions, such as to fire upon a target, without human interventi...

G. Bekey K. Abney P. Lin

2008-01-01

220

AUTONOMIC DYSFUNCTION AND PROGRESSION OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exact quantitative evaluation method of autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) for everyday clinical use has not been developed yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomic cardiovascular regulation in mild and advanced stages of PD with the use of heart rate variability (HRV) examination. Twenty-five patients entered the study and passed short-term HRV examination in supine

221

Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in advanced cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) innervates every organ in the body and is largely involuntary. There have been reports of autonomic dysfunction in cancer patients, but most are case reports. There are suggestions that this abnormality may be common in advanced cancer. Inpatients and outpatients with advanced cancer were enrolled. Patients were excluded if they had a previous diagnosis of

Declan Walsh; Kristine A. Nelson

2002-01-01

222

Evolutionary testing of autonomous software agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system built in terms of autonomous agents may require even greater correctness assurance than one which is merely reacting to the immediate control of its users. Agents make substantial decisions for themselves, so thorough testing is an important consideration. However, autonomy also makes testing harder; by their nature, autonomous agents may re- act in dierent ways to the same

Cu D. Nguyen; Anna Perini; Paolo Tonella; Simon Miles; Mark Harman; Michael Luck

2009-01-01

223

Technologies for highly miniaturized autonomous sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent results of the autonomous sensor research program HUMAN++ will be summarized in this paper. The research program aims to achieve highly miniaturized and (nearly) autonomous sensor systems that assist our health and comfort. Although the application examples are dedicated to human monitoring\\/assistance, the necessary technology development for this program is generic and can serve many wireless sensor applications. This

K. Baert; Bert Gyselinckx; T. Torfs; V. Leonov; F. Yazicioglu; S. Brebels; S. Donnay; J. Vanfleteren; M. Pastreen; E. Beyne; C. Van Hoof

2006-01-01

224

Enabling autonomous capabilities in underwater robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater operations present unique challenges and opportunities for robotic applications. These can be at- tributed in part to limited sensing capabilities, and to lo- comotion behaviours requiring control schemes adapted to specific tasks or changes in the environment. From enhancing teleoperation procedures, to providing high-level instruction, all the way to fully autonomous operations, enabling autonomous capabilities is fundamental for the

Junaed Sattar; Gregory Dudek; Olivia Chiu; Ioannis M. Rekleitis; Philippe Giguère; Alec Mills; Nicolas Plamondon; Chris Prahacs; Yogesh Girdhar; Meyer Nahon; John-paul Lobos

2008-01-01

225

Advances in autonomous GPS Lagrangian buoys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drifting buoys with onboard position receivers have provided valuable Lagrangian current data since their introduction in the mid-1980s. Current autonomous buoys with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers provide data with quality and quantity unobtainable with ARGOS-only positioning. Advances in hardware, software, and pricing are rapidly broadening the range of applications for these buoys. The author has been constructing autonomous GPS

1995-01-01

226

Defining Autonomic Computing: A Software Engineering Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a rapidly growing field, autonomic computing is a promising new approach for developing large scale distributed systems. However, while the vision of achieving self-management in computing systems is well established, the field still lacks a commonly accepted definition of 'what' an autonomic computing system is. Without a common definition to dictate the direction of development, it is not possible

Paul Lin; Alexander Macarthur; John Leaney

2005-01-01

227

Optimal fuzzy control of autonomous robot car  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the design of the fuzzy control system for an autonomous robot car which operates in unknown, unpredictable, and dynamic environment. The fuzzy control system must provide the fusing of data from multiple sensors and must ensure navigation of the autonomous robot car. Both - an obstacle avoidance control strategy and a target tracking control strategy - are

Ovid Farhi; Yordan Chervenkov

2008-01-01

228

The C2000 autonomous model car  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the development of an electrical model car on a scale of 1:10, which is able to drive autonomously at a race course, to find parking spaces and to use it for autonomous parking. The electronic design is based on a set of C28x Digital Signal Controllers for steering, to control the electrical motor, for image processing and

Frank Bormann; Erik Braune; Marcel Spitzner

2010-01-01

229

Clavileño: Evolution of an autonomous car  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cars capable of driving in urban environments autonomously are today one of the most challenging topics in the intelligent transportation systems (ITS) field. This paper deals with the evolution of Clavileño -a gas propelled vehicle-in its automation process towards a fully autonomous car driving in a real word. So, the required modifications for a mass-produced car in order to equip

Vicente Milanés; David F. Llorca; Blas M. Vinagre; Carlos González; Miguel A. Sotelo

2010-01-01

230

Smart Cars as Autonomous Intelligent Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study on the behavior of smart cars by considering them as autonomous intelligent agents. In particular, a smart car could behave as autonomous agent by extracting information from the surrounding environment (road, highway) and determining its position in it, detecting the motion and tracking the behavioral patterns of other moving objects (automobiles) in its own surrounding

Nikolaos G. Bourbakis; Michael Findler

2001-01-01

231

A self-modeling autonomous airship  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self modeling airship with a parametric autonomous controller is introduced in this paper. Modeling of airships for autonomous control is a detailed and often time-taking process if some of the parameters are unknown. Although it is possible to make reasonable assumptions in some restricted case, a model generally consists of parameters such as, weight, coordinates of the center of

Halit Bener SUAY; Takehisa YAIRI; Kazuo MACHIDA

2009-01-01

232

Autonomous Motivation, Controlled Motivation, and Goal Progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the self-concordance of goals has been repeat- edly shown to predict better goal progress, recent research suggests potential problems with aggregating autonomous and controlled moti- vations to form a summary index of self-concordance ( Judge, Bono, Erez, & Locke, 2005). The purpose of the present investigation was to further examine the relations among autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and goal

Richard Koestner; Nancy Otis; Theodore A. Powers; Luc Pelletier; Hugo Gagnon

2008-01-01

233

Autonomic Physiological Response Patterns Related to Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined autonomic physiological responses induced by six different cognitive ability tasks, varying in complexity, that were selected on the basis of on Guilford's Structure of Intellect model. In a group of 52 participants, task performance was measured together with nine different autonomic response measures and respiration rate. Weighted…

Melis, Cor; van Boxtel, Anton

2007-01-01

234

Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in HIV infected patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence and extent of autonomic dysfunction in HIV infected individuals of one ethnic group. DESIGN: Prospective, age-sex matched study. METHODS: 25 patients (seven asymptomatic (HIV), eight AIDS related complex (ARC), 10 AIDS) and 25 controls were recruited from patients and staff at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. Autonomic function was assessed by measurement of pulse rate

K. E. Rogstad; R. Shah; G. Tesfaladet; M. Abdullah; I. Ahmed-Jushuf

1999-01-01

235

Developing Autonomic Management Systems in Federated Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic Systems aim to reduce the costs of operating information and communication technology systems through employing knowledge-driven control loops to ensure that the systems operate within a defined behavioral envelope that conforms to business goals. However, as autonomic system implementations become more flexible and as the business environments within which they operate become more dynamic, with less clearly defined management

David Lewis; Kevin Feeney; Jose A Lozano

2009-01-01

236

Using collaborative Autonomous Vehicles in Mine Countermeasures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes concepts evaluated at NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC) recent experiment as the part of Autonomous Mine Countermeasures (MCM) Program. We investigated the possibility of reacquisition of the target with the Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV), the possibility of controlling the position of the ASV relative to the target location, and tested the concept of guiding a neutralization weapon

Vladimir Djapic; Dula Nad

2010-01-01

237

Autonomic involvement in extrapyramidal and cerebellar disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed the clinical and autonomic features of all patients with extrapyramidal and cerebellar disorders studied in the Mayo Autonomic Reflex Laboratory from 1983 to 1989. Patients were grouped into the following categories (number in parentheses): Parkinson's disease (35); parkinsonism-plus (54); multiple system atrophy (75); hereditary multisystem degenerations (eleven); progressive supranuclear palsy (32); non-familial cerebellar degeneration (eleven); nonspecific sporadic multisystem

Paola Sandroni; J. Eric Ahlskog; Robert D. Fealey; Phillip A. Low

1991-01-01

238

ajME: making game engines autonomic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic Computing is now showing its value as a solution to the increased complexities of maintaining computer systems and has been applied to many different fields. In this paper, we demonstrate how a gaming application can benefit from autonomic principles. Currently, minimal adaptivity has been used in games and is typically manifested as bespoke mechanisms that cannot be shared, extended,

Pedro Martins; Julie A. McCann

2010-01-01

239

Autonomic dysfunction in gastrointestinal motility disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The records of 113 consecutive patients with a suspected gastrointestinal motility disorder referred between January 1988 and July 1991 were retrospectively reviewed. The aims were to identify the prevalence of autonomic dysfunction in those with or without associated neurological disease and to determine the diagnostic value of testing for autonomic dysfunction. All patients had gastrointestinal manometry (3 hours fasting, 2

A E Bharucha; M Camilleri; P A Low; A R Zinsmeister

1993-01-01

240

Autonomous buoyancy-driven underwater gliders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of small (50 kg, 2 m length), reusable autonomous underwater vehicles capable of operating at speeds of 20-30 cm\\/s with ranges several thousand kilometers and durations of months has been developed and tested. The vehicles, essentially autonomous profiling floats with wings, execute sawtooth patterns between the surface, where they are located and communicate to shore, and depths of

Russ E. Davis; Charles C. Eriksen; Clayton P. Jones

2002-01-01

241

Bortezomib-induced severe autonomic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Peripheral neuropathy is a known side effect of bortezomib therapy. Acute autonomic neuropathy may also follow treatment with this cytotoxic agent used for treatment of multiple myeloma. Here, we report clinical characteristics and patterns of autonomic involvement in a 75-year-old patient who presented with recurring syncopes. PMID:22532274

Stratogianni, A; Tosch, M; Schlemmer, H; Weis, J; Katona, I; Isenmann, S; Haensch, C A

2012-04-25

242

An Internal Language for Autonomous Categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an internal language for symmetric monoidal closed (autonomous) categories analogous to the typed lambda calculus as an internal language for cartesian closed categories. The language we propose is the term assignment to the multiplicative fragment of Intuitionistic Linear Logic, which possesses exactly the right structure for an autonomous theory. We prove that this language is an internal language

Ian Mackie; Leopoldo Román; Samson Abramsky

1993-01-01

243

Basic and Clinical Pharmacology of Autonomic Drugs  

PubMed Central

Autonomic drugs are used clinically to either imitate or inhibit the normal functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. A large number of additional drug classes also interact with these systems to produce a stunning number of possible side effects. This article reviews the basic function of the autonomic nervous system and the various drug classes that act within these neural synapses.

Becker, Daniel E.

2012-01-01

244

Digital Libraries and Autonomous Citation Indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Wide Web is revolutionizing the way that researchers access scientific information. Articles are increasingly being made available on the homepages of authors or institutions, at journal Web sites, or in online archives. However, scientific information on the Web is largely disorganized. This article introduces the creation of digital libraries incorporating Autonomous Citation Indexing (ACI). ACI autonomously creates citation

Steve Lawrence; C. Lee Giles; Kurt D. Bollacker

1999-01-01

245

Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems  

SciTech Connect

Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

2007-11-30

246

A cognitive system for autonomous robotic welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, there is a high demand for autonomous industrial production systems. This paper outlines the development of a cognitive system for autonomous robotic welding. This system is based on dimensionality reduction techniques and Support Vector Machines, allowing the system to learn to separate between acceptable and unacceptable welding results within one batch, and to transfer this ability to a batch

Georg Schroth; Ingo Stork; Klaus Diepold

2009-01-01

247

New Small Autonomous Schools District Policy. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Inspired by the gains in student achievement realized by the small schools movement in New York City, the Oakland Unified School District (California) has proposed creating a network of 10 new, small autonomous (NSA) schools over the next 3 years. School size will range between 250 and 500 students, depending on grade level. "Autonomous" means…

Oakland Unified School District, CA.

248

L'Espagne des Communautés régionales autonomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

[eng] Spain and Regional Autonomous Communities Roland Colin The Spanish nation was built up from many historic components, often antagonistic (Islam, Judaism, Christianity). In the XVIth century, after Reconquest, Castile, united with Aragon, started upon constructing national unification. Ever since, Spanish policy has been torn between federalist temptation and Unitarian affirmation. The 1978 Constitution recognized the right to Autonomous Communities

Roland Colin

1988-01-01

249

Towards Autonomous, Perceptive, and Intelligent Virtual Actors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains methods to provide autonomous virtual humans with the skills necessary to perform stand-alone role in films, games and interactive television. We present current research developments in the Virtual Life of autonomous synthetic actors. After a brief description of our geometric, physical, and auditory Virtual Environments, we introduce the perception action principles with a few simple examples. We

Daniel Thalmann; Hansrudi Noser

1999-01-01

250

Autonomous Daylight Detection of Life by Fluorescence Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated fluorescence imaging system was used to detect biomarkers from extant microbial colonies and biofilms during autonomous rover exploration. Chlorophyll and other biomarkers were visualized autonomously.

Weinstein, S.; Pane, D.; Ernst, L. A.; Minkley, E.; Lanni, F.; Wettergreen, D. S.; Wagner, M.; Heys, S.; Teza, J.; Waggoner, A. S.

2006-03-01

251

Pathology of emesis: its autonomic basis.  

PubMed

Vagal and non-vagal pathways as well as several brainstem nuclei participate in vomiting in response to different emetic stimuli. Autonomic pathways involved in nausea are less well understood. Numerous gastrointestinal disorders with prominent nausea and vomiting including gastroparesis, cyclic vomiting syndrome, and motion sickness have associated autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Autonomic disturbances are also seen with non-gastrointestinal diseases with gut manifestations such as migraine headaches, orthostatic intolerance, and familial dysautonomia. Stimulation of emetic pathways involves activation of a range of receptor subtypes. Agents acting on these receptors form the basis for antiemetic therapies. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, a prevalent and severe consequence of anticancer treatment, is preventable in many instances by agents acting on the autonomic nervous system. Likewise, non-medication therapies may act in part via modulation of some of these same autonomic pathways. PMID:24095137

Hasler, William L

2013-01-01

252

Autonomous navigation system and method  

DOEpatents

A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.

Bruemmer, David J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Few, Douglas A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2009-09-08

253

Sign detection for autonomous navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile robots currently cannot detect and read arbitrary signs. This is a major hindrance to mobile robot usability, since they cannot be tasked using directions that are intuitive to humans. It also limits their ability to report their position relative to intuitive landmarks. Other researchers have demonstrated some success on traffic sign recognition, but using template based methods limits the set of recognizable signs. There is a clear need for a sign detection and recognition system that can process a much wider variety of signs: traffic signs, street signs, store-name signs, building directories, room signs, etc. We are developing a system for Sign Understanding in Support of Autonomous Navigation (SUSAN), that detects signs from various cues common to most signs: vivid colors, compact shape, and text. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our approach on a variety of signs in both indoor and outdoor locations.

Goodsell, Thomas G.; Snorrason, Magnús S.; Cartwright, Dustin; Stube, Brian; Stevens, Mark R.; Ablavsky, Vitaly X.

2003-09-01

254

Autonomous caregiver following robotic wheelchair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, a variety of robotic/intelligent wheelchairs have been proposed to meet the need in aging society. Their main research topics are autonomous functions such as moving toward some goals while avoiding obstacles, or user-friendly interfaces. Although it is desirable for wheelchair users to go out alone, caregivers often accompany them. Therefore we have to consider not only autonomous functions and user interfaces but also how to reduce caregivers' load and support their activities in a communication aspect. From this point of view, we have proposed a robotic wheelchair moving with a caregiver side by side based on the MATLAB process. In this project we discussing about robotic wheel chair to follow a caregiver by using a microcontroller, Ultrasonic sensor, keypad, Motor drivers to operate robot. Using camera interfaced with the DM6437 (Davinci Code Processor) image is captured. The captured image are then processed by using image processing technique, the processed image are then converted into voltage levels through MAX 232 level converter and given it to the microcontroller unit serially and ultrasonic sensor to detect the obstacle in front of robot. In this robot we have mode selection switch Automatic and Manual control of robot, we use ultrasonic sensor in automatic mode to find obstacle, in Manual mode to use the keypad to operate wheel chair. In the microcontroller unit, c language coding is predefined, according to this coding the robot which connected to it was controlled. Robot which has several motors is activated by using the motor drivers. Motor drivers are nothing but a switch which ON/OFF the motor according to the control given by the microcontroller unit.

Ratnam, E. Venkata; Sivaramalingam, Sethurajan; Vignesh, A. Sri; Vasanth, Elanthendral; Joans, S. Mary

2011-12-01

255

Microbial methanogenesis in subsurface oil and coal.  

PubMed

It is now clear that active methanogens are present in the deep-subsurface. This paper reviews microbial population structures and the biodegradation of organic compounds to methane in situ within oil reservoirs and coal deposits. It summarizes our current knowledge of methanogenes and methanogenesis, fermenters, synthrophs and microbial metabolism of complex organic compounds in these two widely occurring organic-rich subsurface environments. This review is not intended to be an exhaustive report of microbial diversity. Rather, it illustrates the similarities and differences between the two environments with specific examples, from the nature of the organic molecules to the methanogenic metabolic pathways and the structure of the microbial populations to demonstrate that widely diverging microbial populations show surprisingly similar metabolic capabilities. PMID:23872511

Meslé, Margaux; Dromart, Gilles; Oger, Philippe

2013-07-19

256

Spreadsheet log analysis in subsurface geology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most of the direct knowledge of the geology of the subsurface is gained from the examination of core and drill-cuttings recovered from boreholes drilled by the petroleum and water industries. Wireline logs run in these same boreholes generally have been restricted to tasks of lithostratigraphic correlation and thee location of hydrocarbon pay zones. However, the range of petrophysical measurements has expanded markedly in recent years, so that log traces now can be transformed to estimates of rock composition. Increasingly, logs are available in a digital format that can be read easily by a desktop computer and processed by simple spreadsheet software methods. Taken together, these developments offer accessible tools for new insights into subsurface geology that complement the traditional, but limited, sources of core and cutting observations.

Doveton, J. H.

2000-01-01

257

Management Approaches to Hypertension in Autonomic Failure  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Supine hypertension is a common finding in autonomic failure that can worsen orthostatic hypotension and predispose to end-organ damage. This review focuses on non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches to manage hypertension in these patients, in the face of disabling orthostatic hypotension. Recent Findings The hypertension of autonomic failure can be driven by sympathetic dependent or independent mechanisms, depending on the site of autonomic lesions. Management of supine hypertension should include simple non-pharmacologic approaches including avoiding the supine position during the daytime and head-up tilt at night. Most patients, however, require pharmacologic treatment. Several antihypertensive therapies lower night-time pressure in autonomic failure, but none improve nocturnal volume depletion or morning orthostatic tolerance. Regardless, treatment may still be beneficial in some patients but must be determined on an individual basis, considering disease type and overnight monitoring. Further, doses must be carefully titrated as these patients are hypersensitive to depressor agents due to loss of baroreceptor reflexes. Summary Autonomic failure provides a unique opportunity to study blood pressure regulation independent of autonomic influences. Understanding mechanisms driving supine hypertension will have important implications for the treatment of autonomic failure and will improve our knowledge of cardiovascular regulation in other populations, including essential hypertension and elderly hypertensives with comorbid orthostatic hypotension.

Arnold, Amy C.; Biaggioni, Italo

2013-01-01

258

Yucca Mountain Project Subsurface Facilities Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four units of the Topopah Springs formation (volcanic tuff) are considered for the proposed repository: the upper lithophysal, the middle non-lithophysal, the lower lithophysal, and the lower non-lithophysal. Yucca Mountain was recently designated the site for a proposed repository to dispose of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Work is proceeding to advance the design of subsurface facilities to

A. Linden; R. S. Saunders; R. J. Boutin; P. G. Harrington; K. D. Lachman; L. J. Trautner

2002-01-01

259

Yucca Mountain Project Subsurface Facilities Design  

SciTech Connect

Four units of the Topopah Springs formation (volcanic tuff) are considered for the proposed repository: the upper lithophysal, the middle non-lithophysal, the lower lithophysal, and the lower non-lithophysal. Yucca Mountain was recently designated the site for a proposed repository to dispose of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Work is proceeding to advance the design of subsurface facilities to accommodate emplacing waste packages in the proposed repository. This paper summarized recent progress in the design of subsurface layout of the proposed repository. The original Site Recommendation (SR) concept for the subsurface design located the repository largely within the lower lithophysal zone (approximately 73%) of the Topopah The Site Recommendation characterized area suitable for emplacement consisted of the primary upper block, the lower block and the southern upper block extension. The primary upper block accommodated the mandated 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) at a 1.45 kW/m hear heat load. Based on further study of the Site Recommendation concept, the proposed repository siting area footprint was modified to make maximum use of available site characterization data, and thus, reduce uncertainties associated with performance assessment. As a result of this study, a modified repository footprint has been proposed and is presently being review for acceptance by the DOE. A panel design concept was developed to reduce overall costs and reduce the overall emplacement schedule. This concept provides flexibility to adjust the proposed repository subsurface layout with time, as it makes it unnecessary to ''commit'' to development of a large single panel at the earliest stages of construction. A description of the underground layout configuration and influencing factors that affect the layout configuration are discussed in the report.

A. Linden; R.S. Saunders; R.J. Boutin; P.G. Harrington; K.D. Lachman; L.J. Trautner

2002-11-19

260

Radionuclide Sensors for Subsurface Water Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of the subsurface by radionuclides is a persistent and vexing problem for the Department of Energy. These radionuclides must be measured in field studies and monitoed in the long term when they cannot be removed. However, no radionuclide sensors existed for groundwater monitoring prior to this team's research under the EMSP program Detection of a and b decays from radionuclides in water is difficult due to their short ranges in condensed media.

Timothy DeVol

2006-06-30

261

Ensemble Subsurface Modeling Using Grid Computing Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) uses a randomized ensemble of subsurface models for error and uncertainty estimation. However, the complexity of geological models and the requirement of a large number of simulation runs make routine applications extremely difficult due to expensive computation cost. Grid computing technologies provide a cost-efficient way to combine geographically distributed computing resources to solve large-scale data and

Xin Li; Zhou Lei; Christopher D White; Gabrielle Allen; Guan Qin; F. T.-C. Tsai

2007-01-01

262

ASSESSMENT OF THE SUBSURFACE FATE OF MONOETHANOLAMINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burial of amine reclaimer unit sludges and system filters has resulted in contamination of soil at the CanOxy Okotoks decommissioned sour gas-processing plant with amines, amine byproducts, and salts. A three-phase research program was devised to investigate the natural attenuation process that controls the subsurface transport and fate of these contaminants and to apply the results toward the development of

James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Lori G. Kays

2000-01-01

263

Satellite, surface, and subsurface optical communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical communication in the atmosphere, space, the marine boundary layer, and underwater are being investigated for a variety of applications. Three classes of optical communications systems will be addressed: OCULT (optical communications using laser transceivers), ELOS (extended line-of-sight) optical communications, and satellite to subsurface optical communications. OCULT is a 10.6 micron high rate reciprocal tracking heterodyne laser communications system designed

G. C. Mooradian

1978-01-01

264

Chronic progressive autonomic dysfunction in a dog.  

PubMed

A 3.5-year-old intact male American Pit Bull was presented because of urinary incontinence and dysuria. Constipation, followed by diarrhoea, ocular disturbances and finally regurgitation developed over the next 4 years. Autonomic dysfunction was evidenced by clinical presentation, as well as positive ophthalmic pilocarpine test and subnormal Schirmer tear test. Diagnosis, however, was established through histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. Lesions attributable to inflammatory degenerative neuropathy of the autonomic ganglia, which represents one of the various types of human autonomic failure, were detected. PMID:16466461

Adamama-Moraitou, K K; Brellou, G D; Rallis, T S; Zavros, N; Pardali, D; Dinopoulos, A; Vlemmas, I

2006-03-01

265

Apoptosis and Self-Destruct: A Contribution to Autonomic Agents?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic Computing (AC), a self-managing systems initiative based on the biological metaphor of the autonomic nervous system, is increasingly gaining momentum as the way forward in designing reliable systems. Agent technologies have been identified as a key enabler for engineering autonomicity in systems, both in terms of retrofitting autonomicity into legacy systems and designing new systems. The AC initiative provides

Roy Sterritt; Michael G. Hinchey

2004-01-01

266

Autonomous Towed Vehicle for Underwater Inspection in a Port Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses an autonomous towed vehicle for underwater inspection in a port area, in which a sea current is so fast and complex. The autonomous towed vehicle has three different navigation modes; towed mode, autonomous mode and kite mode, to assure safe and reliable inspection in such a port area. An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is employed as a

Jin-kyu Choi; Hiroshi Sakai; Toshinari Tanaka

2005-01-01

267

Autonomous Robotics Laboratory: Hardware Demonstration of Cooperative Formation Control Laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous robots are expected to be a key part of future space exploration, and for- mation control of robotic vehicles may be one autonomous task used in lunar or Martian exploration. This paper presents a cooperative control law to drive a group of autonomous robots to a desired formation. The cooperative control laws were implemented using the Autonomous Robotics Laboratory

Kristen E. Holmstrom; R oy Palacios; Brock Spratlen; Cynthia Ochoa; Lisa Warren; Lesley A. Weitz

268

Changes in cerebral morphology consequent to peripheral autonomic denervation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure autonomic failure (PAF) is characterized by an acquired, selective, peripheral denervation of the autonomic nervous system. Patients with PAF fail to generate bodily states of arousal via the autonomic nervous system in response to physical or cognitive effort. We used voxel-based morphometry to test the hypothesis that changes in the morphology of brain regions involved in autonomic control would

Hugo D Critchley; Catriona D Good; John Ashburner; Richard S Frackowiak; Christopher J Mathias; Raymond J Dolan

2003-01-01

269

Development of Autonomous Drills for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Honeybee Robotics has developed science driven drill systems to allow scientific instruments direct access to the subsurface. Embedded drill segment electronics accommodate sensors and actuators for high rate data transmission to the surface.

Paulsen, G. L.; Mumm, E.; Kennedy, T.; Chu, P.; Davis, K.; Frader-Thompson, S.; Petrich, K.; Glass, B.

2006-03-01

270

Subsurface planetary investigation techniques and their role for assessing subsurface planetary composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface planetary investigation techniques are of high interest and importance for the scientific community. Not only they can enhance our knowledge of the history of planetary formation but also can lead to information about its future. Whether the investigation is being conducted remotely using imagers, radars or physically using penetrometers or drills, a pre-existed knowledge of the mechanical and electrical properties of the subsurface regolith should be acquired for better data interpretation and analysis. Therefore, the main objective of this work is to investigate the mechanical and electrical properties of planetary analogs, understand their role for assessing the subsurface structure and identify their character for subsurface investigation techniques. Through-out this research, we investigated the mechanical and electrical properties of regolith analogs with emphasis on testing the feasibility of using penetrometer to explore the subsurface of planetary bodies and estimate their structure and layering. We found probe's diameter and regolith density are the most dominant factors which affect penetration forces. We correlated the mechanical and electrical properties of regolith analogs to geomorphological shape formation. An increase in gully total length corresponds to an increase in dielectric constant, friction angle and formation bulk density which will enhance previous, current and future modelling, interpretation and analysis of optical imagery and radar data. We performed dielectric permittivity and hardness measurements for volcanic rocks in order to provide a cross relation between the dielectric constant of the investigated material and its hardness property. A linear increase in dielectric constant observed along with an increase in rock hardness. This will enhance characterization of the shallow subsurface when investigated using radar and drill/penetrometer.

ElShafie, Ahmed Mohamed

271

Cooperative Autonomic Management in Dynamic Distributed Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The centralized management of large distributed systems is often impractical, particularly when the both the topology and status of the system change dynamically. This paper proposes an approach to application-centric self-management in large distributed systems consisting of a collection of autonomic components that join and leave the system dynamically. Cooperative autonomic components self-organize into a dynamically created overlay network. Through local information sharing with neighbors, each component gains access to global information as needed for optimizing performance of applications. The approach has been validated and evaluated by developing a decentralized autonomic system consisting of multiple autonomic application managers previously developed for the In-VIGO grid-computing system. Using analytical results from complex random network and measurements done in a prototype system, we demonstrate the robustness, self-organization and adaptability of our approach, both theoretically and experimentally.

Xu, Jing; Zhao, Ming; Fortes, José A. B.

272

Autonomous Support for Microorganism Research in Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary design for performing on orbit, autonomous research on microorganisms and cultured cells/tissues is presented. An understanding of gravity and its effects on cells is crucial for space exploration as well as for terrestrial applications. The...

M. L. Fleet M. S. Miller D. Shipley J. D. Smith

1992-01-01

273

Autonomous Legged Hill and Stairwell Ascent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper documents near-autonomous negotiation of synthetic and natural climbing terrain by a rugged legged robot,achieved through sequential composition of appropriate perceptually triggered locomotion primitives. The first, simple composition achieves...

A. M. Johnson D. E. Koditschek G. C. Haynes M. T. Hale

2011-01-01

274

Tracked robot controllers for climbing obstacles autonomously  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research in mobile robot navigation has demonstrated some success in navigating flat indoor environments while avoiding obstacles. However, the challenge of analyzing complex environments to climb obstacles autonomously has had very little success due to the complexity of the task. Unmanned ground vehicles currently exhibit simple autonomous behaviours compared to the human ability to move in the world. This paper presents the control algorithms designed for a tracked mobile robot to autonomously climb obstacles by varying its tracks configuration. Two control algorithms are proposed to solve the autonomous locomotion problem for climbing obstacles. First, a reactive controller evaluates the appropriate geometric configuration based on terrain and vehicle geometric considerations. Then, a reinforcement learning algorithm finds alternative solutions when the reactive controller gets stuck while climbing an obstacle. The methodology combines reactivity to learning. The controllers have been demonstrated in box and stair climbing simulations. The experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for crossing obstacles.

Vincent, Isabelle

2009-05-01

275

Interdisciplinary Applications of Autonomous Observation Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our long-term goal is to develop improved autonomous observation systems and analytical capabilities for describing the distributions and activities of marine microbes in relation to their physical, chemical, and optical environment in support of multidis...

J. J. Cullen M. R. Lewis

2009-01-01

276

Autonomous Support for Microorganism Research in Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary design for performing on-orbit, autonomous research on microorganisms and cultured cells/tissues is presented. An understanding of gravity and its effects on cells is crucial for space exploration as well as for terrestrial applications. The...

M. W. Luttges D. M. Klaus M. L. Fleet M. S. Miller D. E. Shipley

1992-01-01

277

Exploring Mars via Autonomously Networked Spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enabling multiple assets to coordinate their activities autonomously via space networking techniques can significantly improve the way we explore Mars by enabling collaborative observations to improve science return and flexibility to reduce risk.

Wyatt, E. J.; Burleigh, S. C.; Clare, L. P.; Torgerson, J. L.; Wagstaff, K. L.

2012-06-01

278

Khepera robots applied to highway autonomous mobiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents simulation models of autonomous Khepera robots which are assumed to be running on a highway. Each robot\\u000a acts by following the fish-school algorithm. Although a school of fish does not need a special individual to lead it, an autonomous\\u000a movement emerges from interactions among neighboring bodies. Our goal is multirobots which behave safely, with no accidents,\\u000a solely

Tatsuro Shinchi; Masayoshi Tabuse; Tetsuro Kitazoe; Akinobu Todaka

2003-01-01

279

Evolutionary testing of autonomous software agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system built in terms of autonomous software agents may require even greater correctness assurance than one that is merely\\u000a reacting to the immediate control of its users. Agents make substantial decisions for themselves, so thorough testing is an\\u000a important consideration. However, autonomy also makes testing harder; by their nature, autonomous agents may react in different\\u000a ways to the same

Cu D. Nguyen; Simon Miles; Anna Perini; Paolo Tonella; Mark Harman; Michael Luck

280

Cardiac ectopy in chronic autonomic failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Chronic autonomic failure (CAF), as in Parkinson disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and pure autonomic failure (PAF),\\u000a typically entails baroreflex failure, neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (NOH), and supine hypertension. The combination might\\u000a predispose to cardiac ectopy, which in turn might predispose to syncope and falls during manipulations decreasing venous return\\u000a to the heart. This study assessed whether CAF is associated

David S. Goldstein

2010-01-01

281

Vision based controller for autonomous aerial refueling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous aerial refueling is an important capability for unmanned aerial vehicles. This paper develops a candidate autonomous probe-and-drogue aerial refueling controller for an existing vision based relative position sensor and navigation system. The feasibility of the combined sensor-navigator-controller is demonstrated by a simulated UAV docking maneuver to a moving drogue in light turbulence. Results indicate that the controller can provide

Jennifer Kimmett; John Valasek; John L. Junkins

2002-01-01

282

The Techsat-21 autonomous space science agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat-21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2004. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. In this paper we

Steve A. Chien; Rob Sherwood; Gregg Rabideau; Rebecca Castano; Ashley Davies; Michael C. Burl; Russell Knight; Timothy M. Stough; Joseph Roden; Paul Zetocha; Ross Wainwright; Pete Klupar; Jim Van Gaasbeck; Pat Cappelaere; Dean Oswald

2002-01-01

283

An Architectural Approach to Autonomic Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We describe an architecturalapproach,to achieving the goals of autonomic ,computing. The architecture that we outline ,describes interfaces and behavioral requirements for individual system components, describes how ,interactions among ,components ,are established, and recommends design patterns that engender,the desired system-level properties of self- configuration, self-optimization, self-healing and self- protection. We have ,validated many ,of these ideas in two prototype autonomic,computing,systems.

Steve R. White; James E. Hanson; Ian Whalley; David M. Chess; Jeffrey O. Kephart

2004-01-01

284

Tele-robotic/autonomous control using controlshell  

SciTech Connect

A tele-robotic and autonomous controller architecture for waste handling and sorting has been developed which uses tele-robotics, autonomous grasping and image processing. As a starting point, prior work from LLNL and ORNL was restructured and ported to a special real-time development environment. Significant improvements in collision avoidance, force compliance, and shared control aspects were then developed. Several orders of magnitude improvement were made in some areas to meet the speed and robustness requirements of the application.

Wilhelmsen, K.C.; Hurd, R.L.; Couture, S.

1996-12-10

285

Autonomic Computing Paradigm to Support System's Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information infrastructure is witnessing an evolution with the advent of Autonomic computing paradigm. Autonomic Computing Systems (ACS) is becoming more real and visible in present-day computing world, thus creating a context-aware-ubiquitous computing environment. Established IT Industry leaders have embraced this approach and a great deal of research and development is happening upon this area. Today, systems have grown large accommodating

Shenin Hassan; Dhiya Al-Jumeily; Abir Jaafar Hussain

2009-01-01

286

Color machine vision for autonomous vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color can be a useful feature in autonomous vehicle systems that are based on machine vision, for tasks such as obstacle detection, lane\\/road following, and recognition of miscellaneous scene objects. Unfortunately, few existing autonomous vehicle systems use color to its full extent, largely because color-based recognition in outdoor scenes is complicated, and existing color machine-vision techniques have not been shown

Shashi D. Buluswar; Bruce A. Draper

1998-01-01

287

Software control architecture for autonomous vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Strategic-Tactical-Execution Software Control Architecture (STESCA) is a tri-level approach to controlling autonomous vehicles. Using an object-oriented approach, STESCA has been developed as a generalization of the Rational Behavior Model (RBM). STESCA was initially implemented for the Phoenix Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (Naval Postgraduate School -- Monterey, CA), and is currently being implemented for the Pioneer AT land-based wheeled vehicle. The

Michael L. Nelson; Juan R. Deanda; Richard K. Fox; Xiannong Meng

1999-01-01

288

Autonomous Synchronization of Chemically Coupled Synthetic Oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic biology has recently provided functional single-cell oscillators. With a few exceptions, however, synchronization\\u000a across a population has not been achieved yet. In particular, designing a cell coupling mechanism to achieve autonomous synchronization\\u000a is not straightforward since there are usually several different design alternatives. Here, we propose a method to mathematically\\u000a predict autonomous synchronization properties, and to identify the network

Moritz Lang; Tatiana T. Marquez-Lago; Jörg Stelling; Steffen Waldherr

289

Autonomous support for microorganism research in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary design for performing on orbit, autonomous research on microorganisms and cultured cells\\/tissues is presented. The payload is designed to be compatible with the COMercial Experiment Transporter (COMET), an orbiter middeck locker interface and with Space Station Freedom. Uplink\\/downlink capabilities and sample return through controlled reentry are available for all carriers. Autonomous testing activities are preprogrammed with in-flight reprogrammability.

M. L. Fleet; J. D. Smith; D. M. Klaus; M. W. Luttges

1993-01-01

290

Autonomous intelligent cruise control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous intelligent cruise control (AICC) systems are not only controlling vehicles' speed but acting on the throttle and eventually on the brakes they could automatically maintain the relative speed and distance between two vehicles in the same lane. And more than just for comfort it appears that these new systems should improve the safety on highways. By applying a technique issued from the space research carried out by MATRA, a sensor based on a charge coupled device (CCD) was designed to acquire the reflected light on standard-mounted car reflectors of pulsed laser diodes emission. The CCD is working in a unique mode called flash during transfer (FDT) which allows identification of target patterns in severe optical environments. It provides high accuracy for distance and angular position of targets. The absence of moving mechanical parts ensures high reliability for this sensor. The large field of view and the high measurement rate give a global situation assessment and a short reaction time. Then, tracking and filtering algorithms have been developed in order to select the target, on which the equipped vehicle determines its safety distance and speed, taking into account its maneuvering and the behaviors of other vehicles.

Baret, Marc; Bomer, Thierry T.; Calesse, C.; Dudych, L.; L'Hoist, P.

1995-01-01

291

Autonomous navigation of USAF spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations from several medium-accuracy space sensors, such as the existing telescopic space sextant are compared with those of future matrix-type sensors. The large field of view of matrix sensors should permit determining the Earth horizon to approximately an order of magnitude better than current infrared sensors by observing atmospheric refraction of stellar light. This horizon determination will give the matrix sensors an accuracy of less than 1 km. The limiting factor in Earth-horizon determination is the modeling of atmospheric refraction effects. For high-accuracy requirements (100 meters or less), the Global Positioning System (GPS) offers the only near-term solution. A relative navigation technique using range and Doppler data is proposed for autonomous navigation of the GPS satellites. The navigation accuracy of this technique is evaluated by considering covariance analysis and by processing corrupted data through a reduced-order onboard sequentially partitioned algorithm. The algorithm is stable and for the GPS system produces in-plane accuracy of 40 meters over twenty days. However, out-of-plane motion is shown to be unobservable in the GPS-to-GPS tracking mode, and errors of up to 1.5 km over 60 days are experienced. For this reason, a supplemental transmitter on the ground or in a different orbit is recommended.

Ferguson, J. R., Jr.

292

Autonomic disturbances in cluster headache.  

PubMed

Ocular sympathetic function, facial flushing and the presence or absence of lachrymation and rhinorrhoea were examined in 30 patients during spontaneous or nitroglycerin-induced cluster headache. In 27 cases measurements were also obtained during the headache-free interval. Ocular sympathetic function was impaired on the symptomatic side between cluster attacks and function was reduced further during cluster headache. Greater heat loss from the orbital region on the symptomatic side was associated with ocular sympathetic dysfunction both during and between attacks, and with lachrymation during attacks. Heat loss from the cheek and side of the nose was greater on the symptomatic side in patients whose attack was accompanied by lachrymation, but heat loss from these areas was unrelated to the extent of ocular sympathetic deficit. These findings suggest that parasympathetic overactivity in the greater superficial petrosal nerve provokes facial flushing and lachrymation. Parasympathetic overactivity could also cause dilatation of the internal carotid artery and compression of the periarterial plexus of sympathetic fibres, producing a sympathetic deficit with release of vasoconstrictor tone in the eye. Thus autonomic disturbances in cluster headache may be explained by the unitary hypothesis of parasympathetic hyperactivity being responsible for ocular sympathetic deficit. PMID:3179690

Drummond, P D

1988-10-01

293

Autonomic and Coevolutionary Sensor Networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(WSNs) applications are often required to balance the tradeoffs among conflicting operational objectives (e.g., latency and power consumption) and operate at an optimal tradeoff. This chapter proposes and evaluates a architecture, called BiSNET/e, which allows WSN applications to overcome this issue. BiSNET/e is designed to support three major types of WSN applications: , and hybrid applications. Each application is implemented as a decentralized group of, which is analogous to a bee colony (application) consisting of bees (agents). Agents collect sensor data or detect an event (a significant change in sensor reading) on individual nodes, and carry sensor data to base stations. They perform these data collection and event detection functionalities by sensing their surrounding network conditions and adaptively invoking behaviors such as pheromone emission, reproduction, migration, swarming and death. Each agent has its own behavior policy, as a set of genes, which defines how to invoke its behaviors. BiSNET/e allows agents to evolve their behavior policies (genes) across generations and autonomously adapt their performance to given objectives. Simulation results demonstrate that, in all three types of applications, agents evolve to find optimal tradeoffs among conflicting objectives and adapt to dynamic network conditions such as traffic fluctuations and node failures/additions. Simulation results also illustrate that, in hybrid applications, data collection agents and event detection agents coevolve to augment their adaptability and performance.

Boonma, Pruet; Suzuki, Junichi

294

Subsurface sequence stratigraphic correlation using well logs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given hard copies of a subsurface section containing gamma and resistivity logs of nine closely-spaced (well distance varies from 1 to 3 km) wells from Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico for an interval of ~ 200 m clastic succession of Morrow sandstone of Pennsylvanian age. Core sedimentology of one of these wells is also provided. Students' task is to correlate the well logs to generate a stratigraphic cross-section of the area using sequence stratigraphic approach. As the data are from Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico, student should first gather the knowledge of regional setting of the basin, with a particular emphasis to the paleo-eustasy. (Clue: in Delaware Basin, Morrow sandstones deposited in a low accommodation settings with high-amplitude fluctuations of sea-level.) When correlating the well logs students should start with the well which has lithological information. Students should try to correlate the mudstones first. The two most prominent sequence stratigraphic surfaces with comparatively higher correlation-length are 'sequence boundary' produced by pronounced fall of sea-level, and 'maximum flooding surface' generated at the time of highest stand of sea-level. Students should pay particular attention to incised-valley-fill deposits. After completing the correlation, students should check whether their correlation satisfy our prevailing ideas of sequence stratigraphy and stratal packaging. Student should prepare a brief description of overall depositional environments and sea-level history of the area substantiating their subsurface correlation. By doing this exercise, students will learn how to apply sequence stratigraphic principles in interpreting subsurface data, particularly from well logs.

Gani, M. R.

295

Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers  

SciTech Connect

A system for monitoring temperature of a subsurface low temperature zone is described. The system includes a plurality of freeze wells configured to form the low temperature zone, one or more lasers, and a fiber optic cable coupled to at least one laser. A portion of the fiber optic cable is positioned in at least one freeze well. At least one laser is configured to transmit light pulses into a first end of the fiber optic cable. An analyzer is coupled to the fiber optic cable. The analyzer is configured to receive return signals from the light pulses.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); McKinzie, II. Billy John (Houston, TX)

2009-08-18

296

Nonisothermal multiphase subsurface transport on parallel computers  

SciTech Connect

We present a numerical method for nonisothermal, multiphase subsurface transport in heterogeneous porous media. The mathematical model considers nonisothermal two-phase (liquid/gas) flow, including capillary pressure effects, binary diffusion in the gas phase, conductive, latent, and sensible heat transport. The Galerkin finite element method is used for spatial discretization, and temporal integration is accomplished via a predictor/corrector scheme. Message-passing and domain decomposition techniques are used for implementing a scalable algorithm for distributed memory parallel computers. An illustrative application is shown to demonstrate capabilities and performance.

Martinez, M.J.; Hopkins, P.L.; Shadid, J.N.

1997-10-01

297

Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface  

SciTech Connect

This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

1991-06-01

298

Subsurface Interactions of Actinide Species with Microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface microbiological processes have an important role in defining the speciation and mobility of actinide contaminants in groundwater. The relative importance of these processes, especially when groundwater conditions support high microbiological activity, has, however, only been recognized by researchers in the field since the early 1990s. The need to mechanistically understand the key interactions between actinide species and microbial processes becomes greater as we increasingly rely on more passive, long-term containment strategies, such as natural attenuation, where microbial processes are likely to predominate (NRC, 2000a).

Reed, Donald T.; Deo, Randhir P.; Rittmann, Bruce E.

299

Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2010-01-04

300

Airborne Electromagnetic Mapping of Subsurface Permafrost  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns over the impacts of climate change have recently energized research on the potential impacts thawing permafrost may have on groundwater flow, infrastructure, forest health, ecosystems, energy production, CO2 release, and contaminant transport. There is typically little knowledge about subsurface permafrost distributions, such as thickness and where groundwater-surface-water connections may occur through taliks. In June of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook an airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey in the area of Fort Yukon, Alaska in order to map the 3-D distribution of permafrost and provide information for the development of groundwater models within the Yukon River Basin. Prior to the development of these models, information on areas of groundwater-surface water interaction was extremely limited. Lithology determined from a borehole drilled in Fort Yukon in 1994 agrees well with the resistivity depth sections inferred from the airborne survey. In addition to lithology, there a thermal imprint appears on the subsurface resistivity values. In the upper 20-50 m, the sections show continuous areas of high electrical resistivity, consistent with alluvial gravel deposits that are likely frozen. At depth, unfrozen gravel deposits have intermediate-to-high resistivity; frozen silts have intermediate resistivity; and unfrozen silts have low resistivity. Under the Yukon River and lakes where the subsurface is not frozen, zones of moderate resistivity intermix with areas of low resistivity. The areas of loess hills on the margins of the Yukon Flats have very-high electrical resistivity, indicating higher ice content, and are associated with the some of the greatest thickness of permafrost in the survey area. This work provides the first look into the 3-D distribution of permafrost in the areas around Fort Yukon and is a demonstration of the application of AEM to permafrost mapping. The AEM survey provides unprecedented 3-D images of subsurface electrical properties that reveal changes in lithology and the presence or absence of permafrost. These geophysical data fill an important gap between sparsely sampled boreholes, regional hydrogeologic measurements, and remote sensing data. Interpretations of the AEM data are being integrated with other remotely sensed data to supply critical hydrogeological information needed for developing an improved understanding of groundwater-surface-water interactions in permafrost terrains. More specifically, the interpretations of the AEM data help to refine groundwater flow models in the Yukon Flats Basin. Because of the success of this study we now know that there are many other uses for this data. For example, airborne surveys can provide baseline data for estimating the 3-D distribution of permafrost that can be compared to future surveys in order to estimate volumetric changes over time.

Abraham, J. D.; Minsley, B. J.; Cannia, J. C.; Smith, B. D.; Walvoord, M. A.; Voss, C. I.; Jorgenson, T. T.; Wylie, B. K.; Anderson, L.

2011-12-01

301

Instrumented Moles for Planetary Subsurface Regolith Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil-like materials, or regolith, on solar system objects provide a record of physical and/or chemical weathering processes on the object in question and as such possess significant scientific relevance for study by landed planetary missions. In the case of Mars, a complex interplay has been at work between impact gardening, aeolian as well as possibly fluvial processes. This resulted in regolith that is texturally as well as compositionally layered as hinted at by results from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions which are capable of accessing shallow subsurface soils by wheel trenching. Significant subsurface soil access on Mars, i.e. to depths of a meter or more, remains to be accomplished on future missions. This has been one of the objectives of the unsuccessful Beagle 2 landed element of the ESA Mars Express mission having been equipped with the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO) subsurface soil sampling Mole system capable of self-penetration into regolith due to an internal electro-mechanical hammering mechanism. This lightweight device of less than 900 g mass was designed to repeatedly obtain and deliver to the lander regolith samples from depths down to 2 m which would have been analysed for organic matter and, specifically, organic carbon from potential extinct microbial activity. With funding from the ESA technology programme, an evolved Mole system - the Instrumented Mole System (IMS) - has now been developed to a readiness level of TRL 6. The IMS is to serve as a carrier for in situ instruments for measurements in planetary subsurface soils. This could complement or even eliminate the need to recover samples to the surface. The Engineering Model hardware having been developed within this effort is designed for accommodating a geophysical instrument package (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package, HP3) that would be capable of measuring regolith physical properties and planetary heat flow. The chosen design encompasses a two-body Mole consisting of a 'tractor' element containing the hammering mechanism jointed to a trailed compartment housing the instruments as well as some front-end electronics, tethered to surface controls and instruments. This presentation will highlight the design of the IMS and will describe results of comprehensive functional and environmental tests that included soil penetration to depths beyond 2 m, thermal vacuum functional tests, as well as vibration testing of the stowed system. Mission scenarios that are being considered for the IMS are discussed (including the ExoMars mission of ESA), and an update is given on parallel tests of the HP3 instrument package that is being developed in a dedicated, ESA-funded effort.

Richter, L. O.; Coste, P. A.; Grzesik, A.; Knollenberg, J.; Magnani, P.; Nadalini, R.; Re, E.; Romstedt, J.; Sohl, F.; Spohn, T.

2006-12-01

302

Surface modification by subsurface pressure induced diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycrystalline Ag, covered with a nm thin siloxane layer, was irradiated with ultraviolet light in vacuum at 500 K. Ag particles of different aspect ratios, 50-1000 nm in size, formed on the surface, including a small fraction of nanorods. Pressurized water vapor bubbles are created in the subsurface region by hydrogen radicals photo-chemically released by the siloxane layer. They provide the driving force for a diffusive material flux along grain boundaries to the surface. This mechanism was modeled and found to agree with the experimental timescale: approximately 300 h are required for a 1000 nm particle to form.

Zimmermann, Claus G.

2012-01-01

303

Parallel heater system for subsurface formations  

SciTech Connect

A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

2011-10-25

304

Weathering regime associated with subsurface circulation on volcanic islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volcanic islands, being characterized by highly porous basaltic\\/andesitic lava flows and pyroclastic deposits, are subject\\u000a to important chemical weathering by subsurface waters. Moreover, such subsurface weathering is impacted by hydrothermal springs\\u000a in both active and non-active volcanic areas, thus increasing dissolved load concentrations. Here, we focus on the subsurface\\u000a water chemistry in the volcanic islands of the Lesser Antilles and

Sétareh Rad; Karine Rivé; Claude Jean Allègre

2011-01-01

305

Self-Consciousness and Self-Presentation: Being Autonomous Versus Appearing Autonomous  

Microsoft Academic Search

Privately self-conscious people may resist social pressures because (a) they tune out the social matrix and express their beliefs irrespective of how they make them appear to an audience (the social obliviousness hypothesis) or (b) they prefer to create an identity of being autonomous and will monitor and control their self-presentations to construct this image for audiences (the autonomous identity

Barry R. Schlenker; Michael F. Weigold

1990-01-01

306

Agency Autonomization in Korea: Some Issues in Cross-polity Transfer of Agency Autonomization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes some of the issues surrounding South Korea's introduction of autonomous executive agencies as one component of its new public management (NPM) reform. Particular emphasis is given to some problems and critiques surrounding implementation. The research defines the concept of autonomous public agencies, explains why South Korea's government embraced the concept, and analyzes some critiques of its deployment.

Dong-Young Rhee; Hindy Lauer Schachter

2010-01-01

307

PRIMUS: an autonomous driving robot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the experimental program PRIMUS (PRogram of Intelligent Mobile Unmanned Systems) there shall be shown the autonomous driving of an unmanned robot in open terrain. The goal is to achieve the most possible degree of autonomy. A small tracked vehicle (Wiesel 2) is used as a robot vehicle. This tank is configured as a 'drive by wire'-system and is therefore well suited for the adaption of control computers. For navigation and orientation in open terrain a sensor package is integrated. To detect obstacles the scene in the driving corridor of the robot is scanned 4 times per second by a 3D- Range image camera (LADAR). The measured 3D-range image is converted into a 2D-obstacle map and used as input for calculation of an obstacle free path. The combination of local navigation (obstacle avoidance) and global navigation leads to a collision free driving in open terrain to a predefined goal point with a velocity of up to 25 km/h. In addition a contour tracker with a TV-camera as sensor is implemented which allows to follow contours (edge of a meadow) or to drive on paved and unpaved roads with a velocity up to 50 km/h. Because of the driving in open terrain there are given high demands on the real time implementation of all the sub-functions in the system. For the most part the described functions will be coded in the programming language Ada. The software will be embedded in a distributed VMEbus-based multicomputer- /multiprocessor system. Up to 20 PowerP 603 and some 68030/40- CPUs are used to build up a high performance computer system. The Hardware (HW) is adapted to the environmental conditions of the tracked vehicle.

Schwartz, Ingo

1999-07-01

308

Human utilization of subsurface extraterrestrial environments.  

PubMed

Caves have been used in the ancient past as shelter or habitat by many organisms (including humans). Since antiquity, humans have explored caves for the minerals they contain and sometimes for ceremonial purposes. Over the past century, caves have become the target of increasing exploration, scientific research, and recreation. The use of caves on extraterrestrial bodies for human habitation has been suggested by several investigators. Lunar lava tube bases received early attention because lava tubes were clearly visible in lunar images from the Apollo Era. More recently, Mars Observer Camera data has shown us clear evidence of large tubes visible in a number of volcanic regions on Mars. The budding field of cave geomicrobiology has direct application to questions about subsurface life on other planets. Caves contain many unusual organisms making their living from unlikely materials like manganese, iron, and sulfur. This makes caves and other subsurface habitats prime targets for astrobiological missions to Mars and possibly other bodies. We present the results of a completed Phase I and on-going Phase II NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) study that intensively examines the possibilities of using extraterrestrial caves as both a resource for human explorers and as a highly promising scientific target for both robotic and future human missions to Mars and beyond. PMID:12959139

Boston, P J; Frederick, R D; Welch, S M; Werker, J; Meyer, T R; Sprungman, B; Hildreth-Werker, V; Thompson, S L; Murphy, D L

2003-06-01

309

Robotics subsurface mapping demonstration technology test plan  

SciTech Connect

The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) contains an estimated 2 million cubic feet of contaminated, hazardous, radioactive buried waste. The waste was received in cardboard boxes, steel drums plywood boxes, and as loose material. Possible leaching of the buried waste may have created mixed hazardous fill dirt, with an estimated volume of 6 million cubic feet. The Department of Energy has committed to clean up the SDA. Cleanup efforts will include characterizing and removing the waste. Waste characterization provides information on what, where, and how much waste is buried. This information will be used to determine how the waste will be removed and treated. Limited historical data of the waste buried within the SDA exist, but have not been verified and are believed to be incorrect or incomplete in many cases. There are two objectives to the Robotics Subsurface Mapping Demonstration. The first is to demonstrate the feasibility of using a remotely operated platform to perform characterization operations. In the demonstration, the Soldier Robot Interface Project (SRIP) platform will be equipped with multiple sensors to provide data for buried waste characterization and will be remotely controlled and tracked by the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS). The second objective of the demonstration is to characterize the waste in locations within the SDA, as specified by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Project.

Griebenow, B.E.

1991-06-01

310

Phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microorganisms. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This project involves the development of group specific 16S ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the rapid detection of specific types of subsurface organisms (e.g., groups of microbes that share certain physiological traits). Major accomplishments for the period of 6/91 to 12/1/91 are described. Nine new probes have been synthesized on the basis of published 16S rRNA sequence data from the Ribosomal Database Project. We have initiated rapid screening of many of the subsurface microbial isolates obtained from the P24 borehole at the Savannah River Site. To date, we have screened approximately 50% of the isolates from P24. We have optimized our {und in situ} hybridization technique, and have developed a cell blot hybridization technique to screen 96 samples on a single blot. This is much faster than reading 96 individual slides. Preliminary experiments have been carried out which indicate specific nutrients can be used to amplify rRNA only in those organisms capable of metabolizing those nutrients. 1 tab., 2 figs.

Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.

1991-12-31

311

Geophysical data fusion for subsurface imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A geophysical data fusion methodology is under development to combine data from complementary geophysical sensors and incorporate geophysical understanding to obtain three dimensional images of the subsurface. The research reported here is the first phase of a three phase project. The project focuses on the characterization of thin clay lenses (aquitards) in a highly stratified sand and clay coastal geology to depths of up to 300 feet. The sensor suite used in this work includes time-domain electromagnetic induction (TDEM) and near surface seismic techniques. During this first phase of the project, enhancements to the acquisition and processing of TDEM data were studied, by use of simulated data, to assess improvements for the detection of thin clay layers. Secondly, studies were made of the use of compressional wave and shear wave seismic reflection data by using state-of-the-art high frequency vibrator technology. Finally, a newly developed processing technique, called 'data fusion' was implemented to process the geophysical data, and to incorporate a mathematical model of the subsurface strata. Examples are given of the results when applied to real seismic data collected at Hanford, WA, and for simulated data based on the geology of the Savannah River Site.

Hoekstra, P.; Vandergraft, J.; Blohm, M.; Porter, D.

1993-08-01

312

Autonomic involvement in subacute and chronic immune-mediated neuropathies.  

PubMed

Autonomic function can be impaired in many disorders in which sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric arms of the autonomic nervous system are affected. Signs and symptoms of autonomic involvement are related to impairment of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, urogenital, thermoregulatory, sudomotor, and pupillomotor autonomic functions. Availability of noninvasive, sensitive, and reproducible tests can help to recognize these disorders and to better understand specific mechanisms of some, potentially treatable, immune-mediated autonomic neuropathies. This paper describes autonomic involvement in immune-mediated neuropathies with a subacute or chronic course. PMID:23853716

Mazzeo, Anna; Stancanelli, Claudia; Di Leo, Rita; Vita, Giuseppe

2013-06-18

313

Diabetic Autonomic Imbalance and Glycemic Variability  

PubMed Central

Diabetic autonomic neural imbalance is a severe complication of long-term diabetes patients and may progress to diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). The prevalence of DAN is reported to be between 20 and 70%, depending on the studies. The pathogenesis of DAN remains unresolved. However, emerging evidence suggests that glycemic variability (GV) may be associated with autonomic imbalance in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. As symptoms are initially weak and uncharacteristic, the condition often remains undiagnosed until late manifestations present themselves. Predominant symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, gastroparesis, involuntary diarrhea, postural hypotension, voiding difficulties, and sexual dysfunction. Analyzing the patterns of heart rate variability carries the potential for detection of autonomic imbalance in the subclinical and asymptomatic stages. In this context, GV may affect the sympathovagal balance by increasing oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines. Establishing a GV risk profile could therefore be important in determining risk factors in diabetes patients. This review addresses the issues above and in particular the possible association between diabetic autonomic imbalance and GV.

Fleischer, Jesper

2012-01-01

314

Detection of microbial Life in the Subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years microbial communities were detected, which dwell in rocks, soil and caves deep below the surface of the Earth. This has led to a new view of the diversity of the terrestrial biosphere and of the physico-chemical boundaries for life. Two types of subterranean environments are Permo-Triassic salt sediments and thermal radioactive springs from igneous rocks in the Alps. Viable extremely halophilic archaea were isolated from ancient salt sediments which are estimated to be about 250 million years old (1). Chemotaxonomic and molecular characterization showed that they represent novel species, e. g. Halococcus salifodinae, Hcc. dombrowskiiand Halobacterium noricense. Simulation experiments with artificial halite suggested that these microorganisms probably survived while embedded in fluid inclusions. In the thermal springs, evidence for numerous novel microorganisms was found by 16S rDNA sequencing and probing for some metabolic genes; in addition, scanning electron microscopy of biofilms on the rock surfaces revealed great diversity of morphotypes (2). These communities appear to be active and growing, although their energy and carbon sources are entirely unknown. The characterization of subsurface inhabitants is of astrobiological relevance since extraterrestrial halite has been detected (3) and since microbial life on Mars, if existent, may have retreated into the subsurface. As a long-term goal, a thorough census of terrestrial microorganisms should be taken and their survival potential be determined in view of future missions for the search for extraterrestrial life, including planning precautions against possible forward contamination by space probes. (1) Fendrihan, S., Legat, A., Gruber, C., Pfaffenhuemer, M., Weidler, G., Gerbl, F., Stan-Lotter, H. (2006) Extremely halophilic archaea and the issue of long term microbial survival. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/technology 5, 1569-1605. (2) Weidler, G.W., Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, M., Gerbl, F.W., Heinen, W., Stan- Lotter, H. (2007) Communities of Archaea and Bacteria in a subsurface radioactive thermal spring in the Austrian Central Alps and evidence for ammonia oxidizing Crenarchaeota. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73, 259-270. (3) Stan-Lotter, H., Radax, C., McGenity, T.J., Legat, A., Pfaffenhuemer, M.,Wieland, H., Gruber, C., Denner, E.B.M. (2004) From Intraterrestrials to Extraterrestrials - Viable haloarchaea in ancient salt deposits. In: Halophilic Microorganisms. Ventosa A. (Ed.), Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 89-102.

Stan-Lotter, H.; Fendrihan, S.; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, M.; Legat, A.; Gruber, C.; Weidler, G.; Gerbl, F.

2007-08-01

315

ASSESSMENT OF THE SUBSURFACE FATE OF MONOETHANOLAMINE  

SciTech Connect

Burial of amine reclaimer unit sludges and system filters has resulted in contamination of soil at the CanOxy Okotoks decommissioned sour gas-processing plant with amines, amine byproducts, and salts. A three-phase research program was devised to investigate the natural attenuation process that controls the subsurface transport and fate of these contaminants and to apply the results toward the development of a strategy for the remediation of this type of contamination in soils. Phase I experimental activities examined interactions between monoethanolamine (MEA) and sediment, the biodegradability of MEA in soils at various concentrations and temperatures, and the biodegradability of MEA sludge contamination in a soil slurry bioreactor. The transport and fate of MEA in the subsurface was found to be highly dependant on the nature of the release, particularly MEA concentration and conditions of the subsurface environment, i.e., pH, temperature, and oxygen availability. Pure compound biodegradation experiments in soil demonstrated rapid biodegradation of MEA under aerobic conditions and moderate temperatures (>6 C). Phase II landfarming activities confirmed that these contaminants are readily biodegradable in soil under ideal laboratory conditions, yet considerable toxicity was observed in the remaining material. Examination of water extracts from the treated soil suggested that the toxicity is water-soluble. Phase II activities led to the conclusion that landfarming is not the most desirable bioremediation technique; however, an engineered biopile with a leachate collection system could remove the remaining toxic fraction from the soil. Phase III was initiated to conduct field-based experimental activities to examine the optimized remediation technology. A pilot-scale engineered biopile was constructed at a decommissioned gas-sweetening facility in Okotoks, Alberta, Canada. On the basis of a review of the analytical and performance data generated from soil and leachate samples, the biopile operation has successfully removed all identified amines and removed significant amounts of organic nitrogen and organic carbon. Salts initially present in the soil and salts generated during the biodegradation of contaminants remain to be flushed from the soil. Laboratory data show that these salts are readily removable with a simple soil leach.

James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Lori G. Kays

2000-05-01

316

The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica  

SciTech Connect

Managing subsurface damage during the shaping process and removing subsurface damage during the polishing process is essential in the production of low damage density optical components, such as those required for use on high peak power lasers. Removal of subsurface damage, during the polishing process, requires polishing to a depth which is greater than the depth of the residual cracks present following the shaping process. To successfully manage, and ultimately remove subsurface damage, understanding the distribution and character of fractures in the subsurface region introduced during fabrication process is important. We have characterized the depth and morphology of subsurface fractures present following fixed abrasive and loose abrasive grinding processes. At shallow depths lateral cracks and an overlapping series of trailing indentation fractures were found to be present. At greater depths, subsurface damage consists of a series of trailing indentation fractures. The area density of trailing fractures changes as a function of depth, however the length and shape of individual cracks remain nearly constant for a given grinding process. We have developed and applied a model to interpret the depth and crack length distributions of subsurface surface damage in terms of key variables including abrasive size and load.

Miller, P E; Suratwala, T I; Wong, L L; Feit, M D; Menapace, J A; Davis, P J; Steele, R A

2005-11-21

317

Crude-oil biodegradation via methanogenesis in subsurface petroleum reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradation of crude oil in subsurface petroleum reservoirs has adversely affected the majority of the world's oil, making recovery and refining of that oil more costly. The prevalent occurrence of biodegradation in shallow subsurface petroleum reservoirs has been attributed to aerobic bacterial hydrocarbon degradation stimulated by surface recharge of oxygen-bearing meteoric waters. This hypothesis is empirically supported by the likelihood

D. M. Jones; I. M. Head; N. D. Gray; J. J. Adams; A. K. Rowan; C. M. Aitken; B. Bennett; H. Huang; A. Brown; B. F. J. Bowler; T. Oldenburg; M. Erdmann; S. R. Larter

2008-01-01

318

Stability and exchange of subsurface ice on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We seek a better understanding of the distribution of subsurface ice on Mars, based on the physical processes governing the exchange of vapor between the atmosphere and the subsurface. Ground ice is expected down to ?49° latitude and lower latitudes at poleward facing slopes. The diffusivity of the regolith also leads to seasonal accumulation of atmospherically derived frost at latitudes

Norbert Schorghofer; Oded Aharonson

2005-01-01

319

Reverse osmosis brine staging treatment of subsurface water  

Microsoft Academic Search

An earlier Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) study on subsurface water rise problems in residential areas of Kuwait recommended drainage by deep wells to lower levels and maintain the subsurface water at a desired level. A large quantity of water needs to be permanently pumped for this purpose. The quality of the pumped water is likely to prohibit its

Y. Al-Wazzan; M. Safar; A. Mesri

2003-01-01

320

Impact Excavation and the Search for Subsurface Life on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the ubiquity of subsurface microbial life on Earth, examination of the subsurface of Mars could provide an answer to the question of whether microorganisms exist or ever existed on that planet. Impact craters provide a natural mechanism for accessing the deep substrate of Mars and exploring its exobiological potential. Based on equations that relate impact crater diameters to

Charles S Cockell; Nadine G Barlow

2002-01-01

321

Geochemical characterization of subsurface sediments in the netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, the Netherlands' subsurface is mainly used to obtain good quality drinking and industrial waters from the different aquifers. Due to the lack of space on the surface, increasing environmental problems and demand for energy, the subsurface will be used increasingly for other activities, including large underground infrastructural projects, underground storage of waste and greenhousegasses and underground storage capacity for

D. J. Huisman

1998-01-01

322

Efficiency of subsurface flow constructed wetland with trickling filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective wastewater purification in subsurface flow constructed wetlands must include adequate pretreatment and ensure a sufficient amount of dissolved oxygen. In a pilot-scale operation, a subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW) consisted of a primary settlement tank, a trickling filter for pretreatment and two serially assembled basins. The trickling filter was added to ensure sufficient aeration, increase purification of the wastewater

Aleksandra Anic Vucinic; Jasna Hrenovic; Predrag Tepes

2011-01-01

323

Efficiency of subsurface flow constructed wetland with trickling filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective wastewater purification in subsurface flow constructed wetlands must include adequate pretreatment and ensure a sufficient amount of dissolved oxygen. In a pilot-scale operation, a subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW) consisted of a primary settlement tank, a trickling filter for pretreatment and two serially assembled basins. The trickling filter was added to ensure sufficient aeration, increase purification of the wastewater

Aleksandra Anic Vucinic; Jasna Hrenovic; Predrag Tepes

2012-01-01

324

On Water Detection in the Martian Subsurface Using Sounding Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several radar experiments are planned to map the martian subsurface down to several kilometers, searching for subsurface liquid water reservoirs, using different concepts and techniques, all based on the penetration property of radio frequency waves in arid soils. The penetration depth of low-frequency radar is mainly related to the electromagnetic properties of the investigated medium. Thus a good knowledge of

E. Heggy; P. Paillou; G. Ruffie; J. M. Malezieux; F. Costard; G. Grandjean

2001-01-01

325

DETERMINATION OF MICROBIAL CELL NUMBERS IN SUBSURFACE SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ground-water pollution by organic compounds has become a major environmental concern. Because the transport and fate of the organic pollutants may be influenced by microorganisms present in subsurface material, reliable measurements of the number of organisms in subsurface sample...

326

Radar Detectability of a Subsurface Ocean on Europa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spacecraft in orbit around Jupiter's moon Europa can use ice penetrating radar to probe for a possible liquid water ocean beneath Europa's surface ice and to characterize other important subsurface structure. Consideration of available constraints on the properties of Europa's ice, possible subsurface temperature gradients, and possible impurities in the ice places an upper limit of about 10 km

Christopher F. Chyba; Steven J. Ostro; Bradley C. Edwards

1998-01-01

327

MARSIS subsurface investigation approach and preliminary material compatibility identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MARSIS Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounder is presently collecting data on Mars surface and subsurface The subsurface echoes signal can be hidden by synchronous echoes coming from off nadir surface reflections surface clutter moreover this clutter arriving from the across track direction can be interpreted as a signal coming from a subsurface interface In the along track direction the clutter is naturally filtered by the synthetic antenna principle at least up to the compressed Doppler chirp Presently in absence of the monopole antenna that contribute to the clutter cancellation the analysis is primarily addressed to the return echoes from MARS south polar regions focusing the attention on the areas where the surface can be considered flat This limitation has been assumed to avoid the risk of wrong interpretation of the echoes signals In fact once detected a potential subsurface signal on the processed data at a depth delta in order to confirm that the interface is present is necessary to perform the following processing and verifications - Subsurface return echoes estimation depth level and spatial correlation - Analysis of surface within a range sqrt 2 cdot h cdot delta h satellite height delta interface potential height where clutter can hidden subsurface echoes or can be confused with the searched subsurface signal Auxiliary tool for identification of the surface backscattering level is the ensemble of the maps of the slope m and the angles alpha x and

Picardi, Giovanni; Cartacci, Marco; Seu, Roberto; Masdea, Arturo; Plaut, J. P.; Jordan, R. L.; Safaeinili, Ali; Calabrese, Diego; Zampolini, Enrico; Melacci, Pietro Tito

328

A Collaborative Knowledge Plane for Autonomic Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomic networking aims to give network components self-managing capabilities. Several autonomic architectures have been proposed. Each of these architectures includes sort of a knowledge plane which is very important to mimic an autonomic behavior. Knowledge plane has a central role for self-functions by providing suitable knowledge to equipment and needs to learn new strategies for more accuracy.However, defining knowledge plane's architecture is still a challenge for researchers. Specially, defining the way cognitive supports interact each other in knowledge plane and implementing them. Decision making process depends on these interactions between reasoning and learning parts of knowledge plane. In this paper we propose a knowledge plane's architecture based on machine learning (inductive logic programming) paradigm and situated view to deal with distributed environment. This architecture is focused on two self-functions that include all other self-functions: self-adaptation and self-organization. Study cases are given and implemented.

Mbaye, Maïssa; Krief, Francine

329

Autonomic regulation in fragile X syndrome.  

PubMed

Autonomic reactivity was studied in individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS), a genetic disorder partially characterized by abnormal social behavior. Relative to age-matched controls, the FXS group had faster baseline heart rate and lower amplitude respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). In contrast to the typically developing controls, there was a decrease in RSA with age within the FXS group. Moreover, within the FXS group heart rate did not slow with age. The FXS group also responded with an atypical increase in RSA to the social challenge, while the control group reduced RSA. In a subset of the FXS group, the autonomic profile did not change following 2 months and 1 year of lithium treatment. The observed indices of atypical autonomic regulation, consistent with the Polyvagal Theory, may contribute to the deficits in social behavior and social communication observed in FXS. PMID:21547900

Heilman, Keri J; Harden, Emily R; Zageris, Danielle M; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Porges, Stephen W

2011-05-05

330

Technology readiness level six and autonomous mobility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During FY03, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory undertook a series of experiments designed to assess the maturity of autonomous mobility technology for the Future Combat Systems Armed Robotic Vehicle concept. The experiments assessed the technology against a level 6 standard in the technology readiness level (TRL) maturation schedule identified by a 1999 Government Accounting Office report. During the course of experimentation, 646 missions were conducted over a total distance of ~560 km and time of ~100 hr. Autonomous operation represented 96% and 88% of total distance and time, respectively. To satisfy the TRL 6 "relevant environment" standard, several experimental factors were varied over the three-site test as part of a formal, statistical, experimental design. This paper reports the specific findings pertaining to relevant-environment questions that were posed for the study and lends additional support to the Lead System Integrator decision that TRL 6 has been attained for the autonomous navigation system.

Bodt, Barry A.; Camden, Rick S.

2004-09-01

331

Spontaneous brain activity relates to autonomic arousal  

PubMed Central

Although possible sources and functions of the resting state networks (RSN) of the brain have been proposed, most evidence relies on circular logic and reverse inference. We propose that autonomic arousal provides an objective index of psychophysiological states during rest that may also function as a driving source of the activity and connectivity of RSN. Recording blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal using functional magnetic resonance imaging and skin conductance simultaneously during rest in human subjects, we found that the spontaneous fluctuations of BOLD signals in key nodes of RSN are associated with changes in non-specific skin conductance response, a sensitive psychophysiological index of autonomic arousal. Our findings provide evidence of an important role for the autonomic nervous system to the spontaneous activity of the brain during ‘rest’.

Fan, Jin; Xu, Pengfei; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Eilam-Stock, Tehila; Gu, Xiaosi; Luo, Yuejia; Hof, Patrick R.

2012-01-01

332

Quantification of subsurface heat storage in a GCM simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow bottom boundary conditions (BBCs) in the soil components of general circulation models (GCMs) impose artificial limits on subsurface heat storage. To assess this problem we estimate the subsurface heat content from two future climate simulations and compare to that obtained from an offline soil model (FDLSM) driven by GCM skin temperatures. FDLSM is then used as an offline substitute for the subsurface of the GCM ECHO-G. With a 600-m BBC and driven by ECHO-G future temperatures, the FDLSM subsurface absorbs 6.2 (7.5) times more heat than the ECHO-G soil model (10 m deep) under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A2 (B2) emission scenario. This suggests that shallow BBCs in GCM simulations may underestimate the heat stored in the subsurface, particularly for northern high latitudes. This effect could be relevant in assessing the energy balance and climate change in the next century.

MacDougall, Andrew H.; González-Rouco, J. Fidel; Stevens, M. Bruce; Beltrami, Hugo

2008-07-01

333

Understanding the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the subsurface environment  

SciTech Connect

To achieve effective remediation of subsurface petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, definite scientific and technical knowledge of their fate after they are spilled onto the ground surface or leaked from underground storage tanks is essential. The paper provides extensive details of the parameters that affect the fate of petroleum products in the underground environment. These include: the character of the subsurface environment; the composition, physical and chemical properties of petroleum products; and the mechanisms of their mobilization, immobilization and transformation in the subsurface. Data on the physical and chemical properties of soil, groundwater and petroleum hydrocarbons are identified. The mechanisms that affect the fate of these contaminants in the subsurface include vaporization and condensation, diffusion, advection, dispersion, dissolution, adsorption, biodegradation, and abiotic reactions. The relation between these mechanisms and the properties of soil, groundwater and petroleum hydrocarbons is described. The distribution of the contaminated petroleum products in the subsurface as affected by these parameters and principles is also described.

Chen, C.T.

1992-01-01

334

The temperature of Europa's subsurface water ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 100 km deep liquid water ocean probably underlies the icy exterior of Jupiter's satellite Europa. The long-term persistence of a liquid ocean beneath an ice shell presents a thermal conundrum: Is the temperature of the ocean equal to the freezing point of water at the bottom of the ice shell, or is it equal to the somewhat warmer temperature at which water attains its maximum density? We argue that most of the ocean is at the temperature of maximum density and that the bulk of the vigorously convecting ocean is separated from the bottom of the ice shell by a thin "stratosphere" of stably stratified water which is at the freezing point, and therefore buoyant. If Europa's subsurface water ocean is warm, it could explain the widespread geologic evidence for apparent melt-through events observed on its surface and may constrain the overall age of its surface.

Melosh, H. J.; Ekholm, A. G.; Showman, A. P.; Lorenz, R. D.

2004-04-01

335

Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface  

SciTech Connect

A variety of different media were used to isolate facultatively (FAB) and obligately anaerobic bacteria (OAB). These bacteria were isolated from core subsamples obtained from boreholes at the Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) or at the Hanford Lab. (Yakima). Core material was sampled at various depths to 600 feet below the surface. All core samples with culturable bacteria contained at least FAB making thisthe most common physiological type of anaerobic bacteria present in the deep subsurface at these two sites. INEL core samples are characterized by isolates of both FAB and OAB. No isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, or sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. Yakima core samples are characterized by a marked predominance of FAB in comparison to OAB. In addition, isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, and sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. The Yakima site has the potential for complete anaerobic mineralization of organic compounds whereas this potential appears to be lacking at INEL.

Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

1992-06-01

336

Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M&O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents.

Richard C. Logan

2001-07-30

337

Delineate subsurface structures with ground penetrating radar  

SciTech Connect

High resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were conducted at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina in late 1991 to demonstrate the radar techniques in imaging shallow utility and soil structures. Targets of interest at two selected sites, designated as H- and D-areas, were a buried backfilled trench, buried drums, geologic stratas, and water table. Multiple offset 2-D and single offset 3-D survey methods were used to acquire high resolution radar data. This digital data was processed using standard seismic processing software to enhance signal quality and improve resolution. Finally, using a graphics workstation, the 3D data was interpreted. In addition, a small 3D survey was acquired in The Woodlands, Texas, with very dense spatial sampling. This data set adequately demonstrated the potential of this technology in imaging subsurface features.

Wyatt, D.E. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Hu, L.Z. (New Wave Technology, Houston, TX (United States)); Ramaswamy, M. (Houston Advanced Research Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)); Sexton, B.G. (Microseeps, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1992-01-01

338

Delineate subsurface structures with ground penetrating radar  

SciTech Connect

High resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were conducted at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina in late 1991 to demonstrate the radar techniques in imaging shallow utility and soil structures. Targets of interest at two selected sites, designated as H- and D-areas, were a buried backfilled trench, buried drums, geologic stratas, and water table. Multiple offset 2-D and single offset 3-D survey methods were used to acquire high resolution radar data. This digital data was processed using standard seismic processing software to enhance signal quality and improve resolution. Finally, using a graphics workstation, the 3D data was interpreted. In addition, a small 3D survey was acquired in The Woodlands, Texas, with very dense spatial sampling. This data set adequately demonstrated the potential of this technology in imaging subsurface features.

Wyatt, D.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Hu, L.Z. [New Wave Technology, Houston, TX (United States); Ramaswamy, M. [Houston Advanced Research Center, Woodlands, TX (United States); Sexton, B.G. [Microseeps, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1992-10-01

339

Final Technical Report. Origins of subsurface microorganisms: Relating laboratory microcosm studies to a geologic time scale.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was conducted as part of the Department of Energy's Deep Subsurface Science Program. It was part of a larger effort to determine the origins of subsurface microorganisms. Two hypotheses have been suggested for the origins of subsurface microo...

T. Kieft P. S. Amy F. M. Phillips

1998-01-01

340

30 CFR 550.122 - What effect does subsurface storage have on the lease term?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What effect does subsurface storage have on the lease term? ...Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...What effect does subsurface storage have on the lease term? ...a lease area for subsurface storage of gas, it does not...

2013-07-01

341

30 CFR 550.119 - Will BOEM approve subsurface gas storage?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...BOEM approve subsurface gas storage? 550.119 Section...Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT...BOEM approve subsurface gas storage? The Regional Supervisor may authorize subsurface storage of gas on the...

2013-07-01

342

NEURON: Enabling Autonomicity in Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Future Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) will be ubiquitous, large-scale networks interconnected with the existing IP infrastructure. Autonomic functionalities have to be designed in order to reduce the complexity of their operation and management, and support the dissemination of knowledge within a WSN. In this paper a novel protocol for energy efficient deployment, clustering and routing in WSNs is proposed that focuses on the incorporation of autonomic functionalities in the existing approaches. The design of the protocol facilitates the design of innovative applications and services that are based on overlay topologies created through cooperation among the sensor nodes.

Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Gouvas, Panagiotis; Liakopoulos, Athanassios; Mentzas, Gregoris; Mitrou, Nikolas

2010-01-01

343

Advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles is presented. The hierarchical architecture consists of four levels: a vehicle level, a control level, a rule-based level and a knowledge-based level. A special focus is on forms of internal representation, which have to be chosen adequately for each level. The control scheme is applied to VaMP, a Mercedes passenger car which autonomously performs missions on German freeways. VaMP perceives the environment with its sense of vision and conventional sensors. It controls its actuators for locomotion and attention focusing. Modules for perception, cognition and action are discussed.

Maurer, Markus; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

1997-06-01

344

Thermal, Autonomous Replicator Made from Transfer RNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolving systems rely on the storage and replication of genetic information. Here we present an autonomous, purely thermally driven replication mechanism. A pool of hairpin molecules, derived from transfer RNA replicates the succession of a two-letter code. Energy is first stored thermally in metastable hairpins. Thereafter, energy is released by a highly specific and exponential replication with a duplication time of 30 s, which is much faster than the tendency to produce false positives in the absence of template. Our experiments propose a physical rather than a chemical scenario for the autonomous replication of protein encoding information in a disequilibrium setting.

Krammer, Hubert; Möller, Friederike M.; Braun, Dieter

2012-06-01

345

Sensorpedia: Information Sharing Across Autonomous Sensor Systems  

SciTech Connect

The concept of adapting social media technologies is introduced as a means of achieving information sharing across autonomous sensor systems. Historical examples of interoperability as an underlying principle in loosely-coupled systems is compared and contrasted with corresponding tightly-coupled, integrated systems. Examples of ad hoc information sharing solutions based on Web 2.0 social networks, mashups, blogs, wikis, and data tags are presented and discussed. The underlying technologies of these solutions are isolated and defined, and Sensorpedia is presented as a formalized application for implementing sensor information sharing across large-scale enterprises with incompatible autonomous sensor systems.

Gorman, Bryan L [ORNL; Resseguie, David R [ORNL; Tomkins-Tinch, Christopher H [ORNL

2009-01-01

346

An autonomous shunt circuit for vibration damping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the implementation of an autonomous switching resistor-inductor (R-L) shunt circuit for the control of structure vibration. The resulting switch shunt circuit, compared to present shunt circuit techniques, does not require a power for its operation and is almost as effective. Moreover, experiments show that the damping performance is robust against temperature variations due to environmental conditions, whereas present shunt circuits lose their damping performance. The proposed autonomous switching R-L shunt circuit requires a small number of electronic components, therefore making it a viable and effective solution for the control of structural vibration.

Niederberger, Dominik; Morari, Manfred

2006-04-01

347

Mapping Subsurface Remediation With Ground Penetrating Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful remediation of sites contaminated with dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) would be substantially assisted by characterisation of the evolving volume and extent of the DNAPL source zone. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical tool that has the ability to continuously and non-invasively sample the subsurface distribution of DNAPLs over time; however, its effectiveness for real applications remains elusive due to challenges in successful interpretation of data from contaminated sites - in either a qualitative or quantitative way. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of GPR to map realistic, evolving DNAPL source zones within complex subsurface environments, during remedial efforts. Power et al. 2008 (Eos Trans. AGU, 89(53), Fall Meeting Suppl., H51G-0923) reported on the development of a novel numerical simulator that integrated a multiphase flow model and GPR simulator: DNAPL3D-MT generates realistic DNAPL release scenarios, while GPRMAX simulates GPR responses. In this study, this simulator is employed to explore the ability of GPR to track DNAPL source zone evolution during remediation at the site scale. Two- dimensional, surface releases of chlorinated solvent DNAPL into heterogeneous silty sand aquifers have been conducted, including DNAPL migration, redistribution and remediation, and its continuous mapping by time- lapsed surface GPR scans. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results reveal that, in favourable environments, DNAPL volume reduction may be readily monitored as a function of surface location. In addition, simulations reveal that DNAPL migration into previously uncontaminated regions (e.g., as a result of DNAPL remobilization induced by pumping or surfactant flushing) may be observable. Sensitivity simulations explore the influence of site and operational parameters that may limit a GPR exploration of DNAPL sites.

Power, C.; Gerhard, J.; Giannopoulos, A.

2009-05-01

348

Apoptosis and Self-Destruct: A Contribution to Autonomic Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Autonomic Computing (AC), a self-managing systems initiative based on the biological metaphor of the autonomic nervous system, is increasingly gaining momentum as the way forward in designing reliable systems. Agent technologies have been identiiied as a ...

R. Sterritt M. Hinchey

2005-01-01

349

Battle Management Algorithms for Autonomous Unmanned Systems (BMAAUS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Autonomous agents are self-directed, independent entities that interact with an environment by in-taking percepts through sensing devices and by acting on the environment through effectors. This work centers on autonomous entities in an adversarial enviro...

J. Seitzer

2003-01-01

350

Control of Artificial Hearts Using Autonomic Nervous Signals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to develop an artificial heart system capable of being controlled by autonomic nervous signals, we have studied the methods of long- term stable recording of autonomic nervous signals and algorithms to utilize those signals to control an artifici...

T. Suzuki M. Mitsui F. Inagaki M. Ohkura T. Saito

2001-01-01

351

Vision-Based Navigation for Autonomous Ground Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project to date has focused on three tasks: (1) Support of Martin Marietta as the Autonomous Land Vehicle (ALV) integrating contractor, (2) development of a vision system for autonomous navigation of roads and road networks, and (3) experiments using ...

L. Davis

1986-01-01

352

A Multi-Agent Systems Approach to Autonomic Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of autonomic computing is to create computing systems capable of managing themselves to a far greater extent than they do today. This paper presents Unity, a decentralized architecture for autonomic computing based on multiple interacting agents called autonomic elements. We illustrate how the Unity architecture realizes a number of desired autonomic system behaviors including goal-driven self-assembly, self-healing, and

Gerald Tesauro; David M. Chess; William E. Walsh; Rajarshi Das; Alla Segal; Ian Whalley; Jeffrey O. Kephart; Steve R. White

2004-01-01

353

Autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease: a comprehensive symptom survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Autonomic dysfunction occurs in Parkinson's disease (PD), but few studies have addressed it in a comprehensive manner.Methods: Autonomic symptoms were evaluated by a questionnaire in sixty-eight subjects (44 patients and 24 controls).Results: PD patients experienced higher frequency and severity of autonomic dysfunction. When all autonomic symptoms were pooled into an aggregate score, differences between patients and controls were highly

M. F Siddiqui; S Rast; M. J Lynn; A. P Auchus; R. F Pfeiffer

2002-01-01

354

Quantitative autonomic testing in the management of botulism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even with mild neurological signs, patients with botulism frequently complain of autonomic symptoms. This study aimed at the\\u000a evaluation of sudomotor and cardiovascular reflex functions by quantitative autonomic testing (QAT), which may identify patients\\u000a with autonomic involvement but otherwise benign clinical presentation. Five patients with food-borne botulism were subjected\\u000a to a structured questionnaire on autonomic symptoms, cardiac and neurological examination,

Raffi Topakian; Christoph Heibl; Karl Stieglbauer; Bettina Dreer; Markus Nagl; Peter Knoflach; Franz Thaddäus Aichner

2009-01-01

355

Clinical laboratory evaluation of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy: Preliminary observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several forms of chronic autonomic failure manifest as neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, including autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) and pure autonomic failure (PAF). AAG and PAF are thought to differ in pathogenesis, AAG reflecting decreased ganglionic neurotransmission due to circulating antibodies to the neuronal nicotinic receptor and PAF being a Lewy body disease with prominent loss of sympathetic noradrenergic nerves. AAG therefore

David S. Goldstein; Courtney Holmes; Richard Imrich

2009-01-01

356

Development of a control system for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work proposes the development of a control system for an autonomous underwater vehicle dedicated to the observation of the oceans. The vehicle, a hybrid between Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) and Autonomous Surface Vehicles (ASV), moves on the surface of the sea and makes vertical immersions to obtain profiles of a water column, according to a pre-established plan. The displacement

I. Masmitja; G. Masmitja; J. Gonzalez; S. Shariat-Panahi; S. Gomariz

2010-01-01

357

Research issues in autonomous control of tactical UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the enabling technologies for an autonomous tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Current technologies are adequate for semi-autonomous UAVs that operate in a relatively structured environment. For tactical UAVs in a rapidly changing uncertain environment the present techniques are inadequate. The essence of autonomous control is rapid in-flight replanning under uncertainty. This is cast as a large optimization

P. R. Chandler; M. Pachter

1998-01-01

358

Pediatric Autonomic Testing: Retrospective Review of a Large Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To describe the reasons for referral, autonomic diagnoses, test results, and patient management in a large pediatric population referred for testing for an autonomic disorder. Design. The authors reviewed autonomic testing data and medical records for patients aged 18 years and younger who underwent testing between 1993 and 2007 and who had adequate clinical data. Relevance of test results

Devraj Sukul; Thomas C. Chelimsky; Gisela Chelimsky

2012-01-01

359

A Comprehensive Evaluation on China's EFL Learners' Autonomous Learning Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been numerous studies on autonomous learning competence, but most of them deal principally with the introduction and analysis of the theoretical background, application, strategy implementation and course design principles for autonomous language learning. So far no effort has been made to construct an evaluation index system and evaluation model to evaluate EFL learners' autonomous English learning competence in

Weiping Wu; Jinfen Xu

2010-01-01

360

Sliding mode control for a near space autonomous airship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The near space autonomous airship represents a unique and promising solution for many applications ranging from surveillance, communication utilities and scientific exploration. In attempt to complete the various missions, the near space airship first requires an accurate control system for autonomous flight. This paper presents an improved sliding mode control method for autonomous flight, considering the characteristics of nonlinearity, strong

Yueneng Yang; Wei Zheng; Jie Wu

2011-01-01

361

Emergence as a General Architecture for Distributed Autonomic Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's systems are becoming more and more complex, i.e. dis- tributed, situated, open, and dynamic. Autonomic computing aims to deal with the complexity autonomously. Hence, distributed auto- nomic computing systems tend to consist out of autonomous entities because of the increased distribution. This increased complexity and autonomy makes it dicult to build systems with a global coherent behaviour as a

Tom De Wolf; Tom Holvoet

362

Semantic-Based Policy Engineering for Autonomic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some important directions in the use of ontology- based semantics in achieving the vision of Autonomic Communications. We examine the requirements of Autonomic Communication with a focus on the demanding needs of ubiquitous computing environments, with an emphasis on the requirements shared with Autonomic Computing. We observe that ontologies provide a strong mechanism for addressing the heterogeneity

David Lewis; Kevin Feeney; Kevin Carey; Thanassis Tiropanis; Simon Courtenage

2004-01-01

363

Development of a visually-guided autonomous underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing autonomous underwater vehicles for exploration and inspection tasks. Our objectives are to enable these submersible robots to autonomously search in regular patterns, follow along fixed natural and artificial features, and swim after dynamic targets. We have developed a method of visually-guiding autonomous land vehicles using correlation-based feature tracking to follow targets of interest. We have used this

David Wettergreen; Chris Gaskett; Alex Zelinsky

1998-01-01

364

A transportable neural-network approach to autonomous vehicle following  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development and testing of a neural-network module for autonomous vehicle following. Autonomous vehicle following is defined as a vehicle changing its own steering and speed while following a lead vehicle. The strength of the developed controller is that no characterization of the vehicle dynamics is needed to achieve autonomous operation. As a result, it can be

Nasser Kehtarnavaz; N. Groswold; Kelly Miller; P. Lascoe

1998-01-01

365

Template-based autonomous navigation in urban environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous navigation is a fundamental task in mobile robotics. In the last years, several approaches have been addressing the autonomous navigation in outdoor environments. Lately it has also been extended to robotic vehicles in urban environments. This paper focus in the road identification problem, which is an important capability to autonomous vehicle drive. Our approach is based on image processing,

Jefferson R. Souza; Daniel O. Sales; Patrick Yuri Shinzato; Fernando Santos Osório; Denis F. Wolf

2011-01-01

366

Monitoring the greater San Pedro Bay region using autonomous underwater gliders during fall of 2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glider surveys of the greater San Pedro Bay region in the Southern California Bight during the fall of 2006 demonstrated the utility of autonomous underwater gliders in a coastal region with complex flow and significant anthropogenic inputs. Three Spray gliders repeatedly surveyed between Santa Catalina Island and the coast of Southern California collecting profiles of temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll fluorescence and estimates of vertically averaged currents. These observations provided context for shelf transport studies during the Huntington Beach 2006 experiment and showed the transition from summer to winter conditions. Vertically averaged currents were predominantly poleward following topography with horizontal scales of approximately 20 km. The gliders surveyed a small cyclonic eddy near Santa Catalina Island and provided a unique view of the structure of the eddy. Nitrate concentration within the euphotic zone was estimated to be 19% greater within the eddy and led to significantly elevated chlorophyll concentrations at the subsurface maximum. Glider observations of salinity reliably detected the distinctly fresh signature of the effluent plume from an ocean outfall near Huntington Beach, California. The salinity anomaly caused by the plume was used to track the spread of the plume as it was advected poleward and away from the coast while remaining subsurface.

Todd, Robert E.; Rudnick, Daniel L.; Davis, Russ E.

2009-06-01

367

Tethered Operation of Autonomous Aerial Vehicles to Provide Extended Field of View for Autonomous Ground Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis was part of the ongoing research conducted at the Naval Postgraduate School to achieve greater collaboration between heterogeneous autonomous vehicles. The research addresses optimal control issues in the collaboration between an Unmanned Aeri...

N. S. Phang

2006-01-01

368

Autonomic dysfunction in Guillain-Barré syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following tests of autonomic function were performed on seven patients with the Guillain-Barré syndrome and compared with controls: (1) measurement of heart rate and blood pressure in the supine and erect positions, (2) measurement of baroreflex sensitivity, (3) Valsalva's manoeuvre, (4) sweat test. In two patients the heart rates were fixed and greater than 100\\/min and in three there

R R Tuck; J G McLeod

1981-01-01

369

Autonomous Computer Controlled Ice Drill Perfomance Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of tests of the Advanced Development Model (ADM) thermal ice drill, were conducted at the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, New Hampshire, during August of 1982, as part of the Arctic Air Deployed Oceanographic Mooring (ADOM) project. The drill is part of an autonomous system intended to facilitate the collection of oceanographic data in

C. Beverly

1983-01-01

370

Love Alters Autonomic Reactivity to Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periods of bond formation are accompanied by physiological and emotional changes, yet, little is known about the effects of falling in love on the individual's physiological response to emotions. We examined autonomic reactivity to the presentation of negative and positive films in 112 young adults, including 57 singles and 55 new lovers who began a romantic relationship 2.5 months prior

Inna Schneiderman; Yael Zilberstein-Kra; James F. Leckman; Ruth Feldman

2011-01-01

371

Organ Transplantation in the Madrid Autonomous Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Madrid Autonomous Region, a Spanish area with 6,200,000 inhabitants, has 7 hospitals authorized for organ transplantation, with 25 active programs for carrying out various transplantations: 18 for adults and 7 for children. Most of these hospitals are reference transplant centers for other Spanish regions. Between 715 and 760 transplantations are performed annually, which represents between 19% and 22% of

C. Chamorro; M. Aparicio; G. Marmisa; J. L. Martinez-Urrialde

2009-01-01

372

An autonomous bladder pressure monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the development of an autonomous monitoring system, capable of continuously measuring the pressure inside the bladder. The capsule features wireless bi-directional communication and can be inductively powered anywhere inside the bladder. Short-circuiting the resonant LC tank for the data transmission maximizes the operating range of the passive telemetry. A novel clock extraction method is presented, based

J. Coosemans; R. Puers

2005-01-01

373

Longitudinal headway control of autonomous vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the development of a longitudinal controller for headway regulation of autonomous vehicles on highways. A supervisory hybrid controller is developed to switch between different control actions to implement a smooth intelligent cruise control (ICC) structure. Different decision regions are defined on the phase plane such that human driver actions are emulated as closely as possible.

C. Hatipoglu; U. Ozguner; Martin Sommerville

1996-01-01

374

Autonomic control of cardiovascular reflexes in narcolepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six male patients with narcolepsy for several years, were studied without and with amphetamine in order to evaluate possible abnormalities in autonomic control of the cardiovascular system. Studies were made of (1) heart rate and blood flow in the resting forearm during contralateral isometric handgrip, (2) respiratory sinus arrhythmia and (3) heart rate response to the Valsalva manoeuvre. The patients

C Sachs; L Kaijser

1980-01-01

375

Autonomous biomorphic robots as platforms for sensors  

SciTech Connect

The idea of building autonomous robots that can carry out complex and nonrepetitive tasks is an old one, so far unrealized in any meaningful hardware. Tilden has shown recently that there are simple, processor-free solutions to building autonomous mobile machines that continuously adapt to unknown and hostile environments, are designed primarily to survive, and are extremely resistant to damage. These devices use smart mechanics and simple (low component count) electronic neuron control structures having the functionality of biological organisms from simple invertebrates to sophisticated members of the insect and crab family. These devices are paradigms for the development of autonomous machines that can carry out directed goals. The machine then becomes a robust survivalist platform that can carry sensors or instruments. These autonomous roving machines, now in an early stage of development (several proof-of-concept prototype walkers have been built), can be developed so that they are inexpensive, robust, and versatile carriers for a variety of instrument packages. Applications are immediate and many, in areas as diverse as prosthetics, medicine, space, construction, nanoscience, defense, remote sensing, environmental cleanup, and biotechnology.

Tilden, M.; Hasslacher, B.; Mainieri, R.; Moses, J.

1996-10-01

376

A fully autonomous microrobotic endoscopy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, design of an autonomous microrobotic endoscopy system is presented. The proposed microrobotic endoscope is a vision-guided device, developed to facilitate navigation inside a human colon. The design of the entire system is divided into three areas viz. design of a microrobotic carrier, path planning and guidance, and an off-board control system. A microrobotic design based on pneumatic

Vijayan K. Asari; Sanjiv Kumar; Irwan M. Kassim

2000-01-01

377

Pedestrian injury mitigation by autonomous braking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to calculate the potential effectiveness of a pedestrian injury mitigation system that autonomously brakes the car prior to impact. The effectiveness was measured by the reduction of fatally and severely injured pedestrians. The database from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) was queried for pedestrians hit by the front of cars from 1999 to

Erik Rosén; Jan-Erik Källhammer; Dick Eriksson; Matthias Nentwich; Rikard Fredriksson; Kip Smith

2010-01-01

378

An autonomous race car design competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an innovative collaboration between industry and academia in creating a meaningful design experience for undergraduate electrical engineering students. The design project involves designing, building and testing an autonomous model race car. The course culminates in a competition. The competition included students from UC Davis, San Jose State University, and UC Berkeley and is sponsored by National Semiconductor.

T. W. Matthews; R. R. Spencer

1997-01-01

379

Autonomous all-wheel car steering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autonomous car steering problem is defined as a regulation task of yaw and relative lateral position dynamics along a given path trajectory. Therefore a control structure based on vehicle dynamics inversion is proposed to decouple the two regulation tasks. The inversion structure assumes all-wheel (joint front- and rear-axle) steering actuation. The resulting algorithm exhibits additionally integrated robust yaw stabilization

Naim Bajcinca

2006-01-01

380

Autonomous Automobiles: Developing Cars That Drive Themselves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every year, hundreds of thousands of people are killed in road accidents, with millions more injured. The vast majority of these accidents are due to human error, with less than 10% caused by vehicle defects. Such staggering findings motivate the use of driver assistant systems and fully autonomous vehicles to increase driver and passenger safety. This talk will explore developments

Dave Ferguson

2007-01-01

381

An autonomous race car design competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an innovative collaboration between industry and academia in creating a meaningful design experience for undergraduate electrical engineering students. The design project involves designing, building and testing an autonomous model racecar. The course culminates in a competition. A primary goal of the competition is to provide undergraduates with a meaningful design experience with an emphasis on electronic circuits.

T. W. Matthews; R. R. Spencer

2001-01-01

382

Autonomous automobiles: developing cars that drive themselves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every year, hundreds of thousands of people are killed in road accidents, with millions more injured. The vast majority of these accidents are due to human error, with less than 10% caused by vehicle defects [1]. Such staggering findings motivate the use of driver assistant systems and fully autonomous vehicles to increase driver and passenger safety. This talk will explore

Dave Ferguson

2007-01-01

383

Developing autonomous maneuvering capabilities for future cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing intelligent transportation systems which take into consideration the socio-economical, environmental, and safety factors of the modern society, is one of the grand challenges of the next century. Progress in the fields of mobile robots, control architectures, and computer vision allows us to now envisage the integration of autonomous and driving-assistance capabilities within future vehicles. The paper presents the concept

C. Laugier; I. Paromtchik; M. Parent

1999-01-01

384

Self-organizing autonomic computing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently a great deal of research has been under- taken in the area of automating the enterprise IT Infrastructure. For enterprises with a large number of computers the IT Infrastructure operation represents a considerable amount of the enterprise budget. Autonomic Computing Systems are systems which were created for minimizing this budget component. They were meant to correct and optimize the

Bogdan Solomon; Dan Ionescu; Marin Litoiu; Gabriel Iszlai

2011-01-01

385

Adaptive region control for autonomous underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new control concept called adaptive region control, for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). In this new control concept, the desired objective can be specified as a region instead of a point. The proposed control law does not require any knowledge of the inertia matrix, Coriolis and centripetal force, hydrodynamic damping, and parameters of the gravity

C. C. Cheah; Y. C. Sun

2004-01-01

386

Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy: clinical implications.  

PubMed

Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DCAN), the impairment of the autonomic balance of the cardiovascular system in the setting of diabetes mellitus (DM), is frequently observed in both Type 1 and 2 DM, has detrimental effects on the quality of life and portends increased mortality. Clinical manifestations include: resting heart rate disorders, exercise intolerance, intraoperative cardiovascular lability, orthostatic alterations in heart rate and blood pressure, QT-interval prolongation, abnormal diurnal and nocturnal blood pressure variation, silent myocardial ischemia and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Clinical tests for autonomic nervous system evaluation, heart rate variability analysis, autonomic innervation imaging techniques, microneurography and baroreflex analysis are the main diagnostic tools for DCAN detection. Aldose reductase inhibitors and antioxidants may be helpful in DCAN therapy, but a regular, more generalized and multifactorial approach should be adopted with inclusion of lifestyle modifications, strict glycemic control and treatment of concomitant traditional cardiovascular risk factors, in order to achieve the best therapeutic results. In the present review, the authors provide aspects of DCAN pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and an algorithm regarding the evaluation and management of DCAN in DM patients. PMID:22894631

Karayannis, Georgios; Giamouzis, Gregory; Cokkinos, Dennis V; Skoularigis, John; Triposkiadis, Filippos

2012-06-01

387

Autonomous flight trajectory generation via attractor dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of non-linear attractor dynamics to generate trajectories free of collisions for an autonomous vehicle moving in 3D. Computer simulations are used to test the behaviour and stability of the airship motion during the task of flying toward a target destination while simultaneously avoiding collisions with (static or moving) obstacles. Results indicate that if parameter values

Estela Bicho; Andre Moreira; Manuel Carvalheira; Wolfram Erlhagen

2005-01-01

388

DYNAMIC MODELLING OF SMALL AUTONOMOUS BLIMPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are interested in blimps. A blimp is a small airship that has no metal framework and collapses when deflated. In this paper, dynamic modeling of autonomous blimps is presented, using the Newton-Euler approach. This study discusses the motion in 6 degrees of freedom since 6 independent coordinates are necessary to determine the position and orientation of this vehicle.

Yasmina BESTAOUI; Tarek HAMEL

389

Tardigrada of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively little is known of the Tardigrada fauna of China, and there are no previous tardigrade records for Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China's largest administrative division. Moss specimens of the Missouri Botanical Garden Herbarium (St. Louis, U.S.A.) were used as a source of tardigrades from this region. Of the 270 moss specimens sampled, 78 yielded tardigrades. Species found were Bryodelphax

Clark W. BEASLEY; William R. MILLER

390

Control algorithms for autonomous robot navigation  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines control algorithm requirements for autonomous robot navigation outside laboratory environments. Three aspects of navigation are considered: navigation control in explored terrain, environment interactions with robot sensors, and navigation control in unanticipated situations. Major navigation methods are presented and relevance of traditional human learning theory is discussed. A new navigation technique linking graph theory and incidental learning is introduced.

Jorgensen, C.C.

1985-09-20

391

Expressive autonomous cinematography for interactive virtual environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have created an automatic cinematography system for interactive virtual environments. This system controls a virtual camera and lights in a three-dimensional virtual world inhabited by a group of autonomous and user-controlled characters. By dynamically changing the camera and the lights, our system facilitates the interaction of human participants with this world and displays the emotional content of the digital

Bill Tomlinson; Bruce Blumberg; Delphine Nain

2000-01-01

392

Usable autonomic computing systems: the administrator's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the primary motivations behind autonomic computing (AC) is the problem of administrating highly complex systems. AC seeks to solve this problem through increased automation, relieving system administrators of many burdensome activities. However, the AC strategy of managing complexity through automation runs the risk of making management harder. We performed field studies of current administrator work practices to inform

Rob Barrett; Paul P. Maglio; Eser Kandogan; John Bailey

2004-01-01

393

Love alters autonomic reactivity to emotions.  

PubMed

Periods of bond formation are accompanied by physiological and emotional changes, yet, little is known about the effects of falling in love on the individual's physiological response to emotions. We examined autonomic reactivity to the presentation of negative and positive films in 112 young adults, including 57 singles and 55 new lovers who began a romantic relationship 2.5 months prior to the experiment Autonomic reactivity was measured by Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) to two baseline emotionally neutral films, two negative films, and two positive films. Results demonstrated that RSA in singles decreased during the presentation of negative emotions, indicating physiological stress response. However, no such decrease was found among new lovers, pointing to more optimal vagal regulation during the period of falling in love. Autonomic reactivity, indexed by RSA decrease from the positive to the negative films, was greater among singles as compared to lovers, suggesting that love buffers against autonomic stress and facilitates emotion regulation. Findings suggest that vagal regulation may be one mechanism through which love and attachment reduce stress and promote well-being and health. PMID:22142209

Schneiderman, Inna; Zilberstein-Kra, Yael; Leckman, James F; Feldman, Ruth

2011-12-01

394

Autonomous Rovers for Human Exploration of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Autonomous rovers are a critical element for the success of human exploration of Mars The robotic tasks required for human presence on Mars are beyond the ability of current rovers; these tasks include landing - site scouting and mining, as well as emplacement and maintenance of a habitat, fuel production facility, and power generator These tasks are required before

David E. Smith; Gregory A. Dorais; John Bresina; Keith Golden; Richard Washington

1998-01-01

395

OCTOPUS: AN AUTONOMOUS WHEELED CLIMBING ROBOT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an innovative off-road wheeled mobile robot, named Octopus, able to deal autonomously with obstacles in rough terrain without getting stuck. To achieve such a performance, the robot is equipped with tilt sensors and tactile wheels. The sophisticated locomotion mechanism of Octopus has 8 motorized wheels and a total of 15 degrees of freedom (14 of them are

M. Lauria; Y. Piguet; R. Siegwart

2002-01-01

396

Global Positioning System (GPS) autonomous navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system description, a discussion of design issues, and performance results obtained from the Aerospace Corporation simulation of the GPS autonomous navigation system (ANS) concept are given. Analysis methods, physical models, and pertinent equations are presented. Measurement data are realistically simulated and include the effects of all known environmental and hardware phenomena affecting performance. Performance under nominal and anomalous conditions

M. P. Ananda; H. Bernstein; K. E. Cunningham; W. A. Feess; E. G. Stroud

1990-01-01

397

Synthesis of autonomous robots through evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary robotics is the attempt to develop robots through a self-organized process based on artificial evolution. This approach stresses the importance of the study of systems that have a body and that are situated in a physical environment, and which autonomously develop their own skills in close interaction with the environment. In this review we briefly illustrate the method and

Stefano Nolfi; Dario Floreano

2002-01-01

398

Schedule execution in autonomic manufacturing execution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a manufacturing execution system (MES) that prefers and attempts to follow a given schedule. The MES performs this task in an autonomic manner, filling in missing details, providing alternatives for unfeasible assignments, handling auxiliary tasks, and so on. The paper presents the research challenge, depicts the MES design, and gives experimental results. The research contribution resides in

Paul Valckenaers; Hendrik Van Brussel; Paul Verstraete; Bart Saint Germain; Hadeli

2007-01-01

399

An autonomous ice-cream serving robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomous ice cream serving robot is pre- sented in this video. The video was filmed during the Automatica 2010 trade fair in Munich. Within four days, approximately 250 scoops of different kinds of ice cream have been served to visitors during the fair. Using the KUKA light-weighted robotic arms and the DLR\\/HIT robotic hands, two scientific aspects are shown

Zhixing Xue; Steffen Ruehl; Andreas Hermann; Thilo Kerscher; Ruediger Dillmann

2011-01-01

400

On the Development of Autonomous Powered Parachute  

Microsoft Academic Search

The powered parachute (PPC)is now the most popular ultra-light flight equipments. The PPC has excellent self stability and is very simple to fly. To extend the PPC's application to some special area, for example, in long time cruise, precision airdrop, and dangerous mission, autonomous flight is required. This paper aims to fulfill such a design. The flight principle of the

Bian Yongqing; Jiang Tao; He Wei

2007-01-01

401

Autonomicity in Oracle Database Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human world is becoming more and more dependent on computers and information technology (IT). The autonomic capabilities in computers and IT have become the need of the day. These capabilities in software and systems increase performance, accuracy, availability and reliability with less or no human intervention (HI). Database has become the integral part of information system in most of the

Basit Raza; Abdul Mateen; Muhammad Sher; Mian Muhammad Awais; Tauqeer Hussain

2010-01-01

402

Autonomicity in Universal Database DB2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functionality, complexity, heterogeneity and dynamism in computing environment are increasing day by day. This enhanced utility of computers has a profound impact on the systempsilas brittleness, manageability and security. Self-management is important in systems, networks, communication as well as in Database Management Systems (DBMSs). Autonomic computing reduces the problems and increases accuracy and efficiency of the DBMSs. Recent years have

Abdul Mateen; Basit Raza; Tauqeer Hussain; Mian M. Awais

2009-01-01

403

Autonomous vehicle navigation using evolutionary reinforcement learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reinforcement learning schemes perform direct on-line search in control space. This makes them appropriate for modifying control rules to obtain improvements in the performance of a system. The effectiveness of a reinforcement learning strategy is studied here through the training of a learning classifier system (LCS) that controls the movement of an autonomous vehicle in simulated paths including left and

A. Stafylopatis; K. Blekas

1998-01-01

404

Operating management of intelligent & autonomous MIMO vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a dynamic graphical model of operating modes of intelligent and autonomous multi inputs multi outputs (MIMO) vehicles is presented. This study shows the feasibility of improving the traffic management and decision inside confined space according to the operating situation of each involved vehicle. The proposed dynamic graphical model depends on the on-line monitoring outputs of the vehicles'

Wissam KHALIL; Rochdi MERZOUKI; Belkacem OULD-BOUAMAMA

2010-01-01

405

Black knight: An autonomous vehicle for competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black Knight, the University of Central Florida's vehicle in the 11th Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) competed in 2003. Completing in 5th place in the naviga- tional challenge and 10th in the autonomous challenge in its first competition has proven our vehicle to be a strong competitor in this competition. The vehicle has many interesting features that allow it to

Fernando G. Gonzalez; Richard Andres; David Deal; Frank Goergen; Matt Rhodes; Tim Roberts; Gary Stein; Josh Wilson; Sarah Wong

2004-01-01

406

Coordination and control of multiple autonomous vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DARPA SIMNET project allows hundreds of soldiers to train together in a virtual air, land, and sea environment through a network of interactive simulators. In addition to the manned simulators, the virtual environment is also populated by a large number of autonomous vehicles called semi-automated forces, which are controlled by an operator at a single workstation. The authors address

David L. Brock; David J. Montana; Andrew Z. Ceranowicz

1992-01-01

407

Autonomous collision avoidance: the technical requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous collision avoidance is necessary if Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are to “blacken the sky” in massed attacks, accompany manned fighters on combat missions, and transition civil airspace. These vehicles will, in some manner, have to “see and avoid” other aircraft. An automated air collision avoidance system will fulfill a part of this need. It will automatically maneuver an aircraft,

F. Barfield

2000-01-01

408

Evolutionary autonomous agents: A neuroscience perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I discuss the use of neurally driven evolutionary autonomous agents (EAAs) in neuroscientific investigations. Two fundamental questions are addressed. Can EAA studies shed new light on the structure and function of biological nervous systems? And can these studies lead to the development of new tools for neuroscientific analysis? The value and significant potential of EAA modelling in

Eytan Ruppin

2002-01-01

409

Autonomic neuropathy: a marker of cardiovascular risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

C ardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) represents a serious complication as it carries an approximately five-fold risk of mortality in patients with diabetes just as in those with chronic liver diseases. The high mortality rate may be related to silent myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory instability and to other causes not yet explained. Resting tachycardia due to parasympathetic damage

PETER KEMPLER

2010-01-01

410

Malicious Hubs: Detecting Abnormally Malicious Autonomous Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many attacks are distributed across botnets, investigators and network operators have recently targeted malicious networks through high profile autonomous system (AS) de-peerings and network shut-downs. In this paper, we explore whether some ASes indeed are safe havens for malicious activity. We look for ISPs and ASes that exhibit disproportionately high malicious behavior using 12 popular blacklists. We find that

Andrew J. Kalafut; Craig A. Shue; Minaxi Gupta

2010-01-01

411

Artificial immune systems: application to autonomous agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of the immune system is to protect the living body against invaders through the use of defensive mechanisms. Some previous researchers have used artificial immune systems (AIS) to solve diverse engineering problems. The purpose of the paper is to apply the AIS technique to a distributed autonomous robotics system (DARS) problem. One of the classic problems in DARS

Hossam Meshref; Hugh VanLandingham

2000-01-01

412

Autonomous Dialogue for Interactive Story Telling  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are investigating techniques for supporting autonomous dialogue in interactive story telling. That is, instead of writing a script for every possible sequence of events, we would like to develop an approach in which story characters have more autonomy in deciding what to say when. We describe our current research on applying dialogue games theory to interactive story telling. We

Nancy L. Green

2001-01-01

413

An architecture for reflexive autonomous vehicle control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a software architecture to support the planning and control requirements of an autonomous land vehicle. This architecture is designed specifically to handle diverse terrain with maximal speed, efficacy and versatility through the use of a library of reflexive strategies specialized to particular needs. A hierarchy of control is built in which lower level modules perform tasks requiring greatest

David W. Payton

1986-01-01

414

Precision Autonomous Landing Adaptive Control Experiment (PALACE).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the development, flight-testing and demonstration of technologies for the autonomous landing of a Yamaha RMAX helicopter at noncooperative sites without the aid of GPS. The Yamaha RMAX used for these flight trials has been modified in...

C. T. Theodore M. B. Tischler

2006-01-01

415

Dependence relations among autonomous agents (abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main thesis of this work is that human interactions are neither unpredictable nor bounded, but they are undertaken autonomously on the grounds of a number of basic principles and conditions. Among these, a crucial role is played by the objective dependence relationships holding among agents. In this paper we report about a first step in providing a computational theory

Cristiano Castlefranchi; Maria Miceli; Amedeo Cesta

1992-01-01

416

Autonomic Arousal in the Presence of Psychopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors analyzed 584 questionnaires from mental health and criminal justice professionals in 12 U.S. cities concerning their physical reaction while interviewing a psychopathic subject. Of the respondents who had interviewed a psychopathic subject, 77.3% reported a physical reaction. Their narratives describe a physiological change, most often dermatological and least often pulmonary, due to likely sympathetic activation of their autonomic

J. Reid Meloy; M. J. Meloy

2003-01-01

417

Autonomic Function in Manganese Alloy Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observation of orthostatic hypotension in an index case of manganese toxicity lead to this prospective attempt to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function and cognitive and emotional neurotoxicity in eight manganese alloy welders and machinists. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample consisting of an index case of manganese dementia, his four co-workers in a “frog shop” for gouging, welding, and

William W. Barrington; Carol R. Angle; Nancy K. Willcockson; Marjorie A. Padula; Thomas Korn

1998-01-01

418

The Baker Observatory Robotic Autonomous Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the Baker Observatory Robotic Autonomous Telescope project. The hardware includes a 16 inch Meade LX-200 telescope, an AstroHaven 7 feet dome, an Apogee U47 CCD camera and filter wheel, a Boltwood Cloud Sensor II, and various other minor hardware. We are implementing RTS2 for the Telescope Control System and incorporating custom drivers for ancillary systems.

Hicks, L. L.; Reed, M. D.; Thompson, M. A.; Gilker, J. T.

419

RCUBE - a platform for intelligent autonomous systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intelligent robot platform for autonomous systems with vision capabilities has been developed by the University of Applied Sciences Brandenburg in cooperation with SME's. The system is suitable as a research and education platform for universities, a basis for industrial applications and for private developers of robots. This paper presents an architecture overview and application details of the RCUBE system.

Ingo Boersch; Jochen Heinsohn; Harald Loose; Kai-Uwe Mrkor

2003-01-01

420

Advanced sonar technologies for autonomous mine countermeasures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Office of Naval Research is developing synthetic aperture sonars for the detection, localization, and classification of mines, for protection of sea lines of communication and Naval operating areas, and for support of amphibious operations. This paper reviews several evolving mine countermeasures sonars deployed on autonomous undersea vehicles that operate stand-alone and in coordination with complementary sensors, including the

Daniel D. Sternlicht; Jose E. Fernandez; Richard Holtzapple; Daniel P. Kucik; Thomas C. Montgomery; Charles M. Loeffler

2011-01-01

421

Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This slide presentation reviews the effects of corrosion on various structures at the Kennedy Space Center, and the work to discover a corrosion control coating that will be autonomous and will indicate corrosion at an early point in the process. Kennedy ...

J. W. Buhrow L. M. Calle P. E. Hintze S. T. Jolley W. Li

2011-01-01

422

An Arctic Remote Autonomous Measurement Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perpetual ice cover in the Arctic inhibits broad analysis of the region. Ice camps and research ships do not provide sufficient temporal and spatial coverage. Satellites expand the coverage, but only within the limits of on-board sensors. A multidisciplinary data collection tool is needed to expand coverage in ice covered regions. The Arctic Remote Autonomous Measurement Platform (ARAMP) is a

K. Prada; D. Koelsch; W. Witzell; R. Singer

1987-01-01

423

The Design of an Autonomous Sumo Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report will present a quick overview of the design, implementation, and results of an Autonomous Sumo Robot (TITAN) developed with an intent to compete in a sumo competition competition. Using artificial intelligence to perform several tasks, such as boundary detection, long and short range object detection, and driving in an enclosed ring, the robot ultimately executes combat tactics to

S. Chow; M. Hui; S. Merryfield; N. Schwinghamer

424

Autonomic Correlates of Meditation and Hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral autonomic responses during meditation and autohypnosis are compared with controls. HR, Resp, and GSR were assessed during a meditation\\/hypnosis period and compared to both pre- and post-baseline conditions for three groups of 10 Ss each: Transcendental Meditators, Ss trained in autohypnosis, and control Ss. All Ss were selected for high susceptibility to hypnosis. There were no significant differences between

Larry C. Walrath; David W. Hamilton

1975-01-01

425

Autonomic dysfunction in a Jack Russell terrier.  

PubMed

A 4-year-old Jack Russell terrier was presented with an array of clinical signs suggestive of autonomic dysfunction. Many of the clinical signs were consistent with a diagnosis of dysautonomia; however, both chronicity and resolution of signs contradicted a diagnosis of this disease. PMID:21629424

Caines, Deanne; Pinard, Chantale L; Kruth, Stephen; Orr, Jeremy; James, Fiona

2011-03-01

426

Autonomic dysfunction in a Jack Russell terrier  

PubMed Central

A 4-year-old Jack Russell terrier was presented with an array of clinical signs suggestive of autonomic dysfunction. Many of the clinical signs were consistent with a diagnosis of dysautonomia; however, both chronicity and resolution of signs contradicted a diagnosis of this disease.

Caines, Deanne; Pinard, Chantale L.; Kruth, Stephen; Orr, Jeremy; James, Fiona

2011-01-01

427

Autonomous millimeter-wave radar guidance systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hercules Defense Electronics Systems, Incorporated has applied millimeter wave technologies to a variety of guidance and control problems. This presentation documents the development and integration of an autonomous millimeter wave seeker to the AGM-65(D) (Maverick) air- to-ground missile. The resulting system was successfully demonstrated to search a large area for potential targets, prioritize detections, and guide the missile to the

Kevin S. Schweiker

1992-01-01

428

Vision-based method for autonomous landing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents eight visual cues to be used as part of a control loop for autonomous landing. The idea is based on fixating the camera at the vanishing point of the projection of the runway in the image. Two-dimensional geometrical cues are used to derive the visual cues. The visual cues that are extracted are the relative location of

Huseyin H. Yakali; Daniel Raviv

1992-01-01

429

Modular hardware infrastructure for autonomous underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are taking on increasingly visible and valuable roles in oceanographic research institutions, the offshore industry, and the military (Podder et al., 2004 and Yongkuan, 2002). AUV research, especially at the university level, is hindered by the lack of flexible and affordable platforms suitable for a wide range of applications. This paper presents an electrical and mechanical

Ian Wang; Bradley Factor; Sam Fladung; Ryan Stenson

2005-01-01

430

Vehicle diagnosis - an application for autonomous driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the cooperate research project “Autonomous Driving” is the automation of an ordinary mass-produced car in such a way that it can be moved without a human driver. A possible application of such a system is the automated durability test of a vehicle, which nowadays is usually done by a human test driver under extreme stress on man

Thorsten Michler; T. Ehlers; J.-U. Varchmin

2000-01-01

431

Design of an Autonomous Jumping Microrobot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and initial results for an autonomous jumping microrobot. At the millimeter size scale, jumping can offer numerous advantages for efficient locomotion, including dealing with obstacles and potentially even latching onto other larger mobile hosts. Robot design is divided into four primary areas: energy storage, actuation, power, and control. Like its biological inspiration, the flea, a

Sarah Bergbreiter; Kristofer S. J. Pister

2007-01-01

432

Autonomous Inverted Helicopter Flight via Reinforcement Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicopters have highly stochastic, nonlinear, dynamics, and autonomous helicopter flight is widely regarded to be a challenging control problem. As heli- copters are highly unstable at low speeds, it is particularly difficult to design con- trollers for low speed aerobatic maneuvers. In this paper, we describe a successful application of reinforcement learning to designing a controller for sustained in- verted

Andrew Y. Ng; Adam Coates; Mark Diel; Varun Ganapathi; Jamie Schulte; Ben Tse; Eric Berger; Eric Liang

2004-01-01

433

TECHNOLOGY NEEDS FOR AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the technology needs for autonomous underwater vehicles as the middle layer of a three-layer process. The first layer is the high level User Requirement, which may be stated in the form of business objectives such as 'competitive running cost' or 'less than 1 hour per week downtime'. These business objectives map on to the middle layer of

Gwyn Griffiths

434

Autonomous Virtual Actors Based on Virtual Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present current research developments in the Virtual Life of autonomous synthetic actors. After a brief description of the perception action principles with a few simple examples, we emphasize the concept of virtual sensors for virtual humans. In particular, we describe in details our experiences in implementing virtual vision, tactile and audition. We then describe perception-based locomotion,

Daniel Thalmann; Hansrudi Noser; Zhiyong Huang

1997-01-01

435

An intelligent robot vision for autonomous navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vision system for an autonomous robotic vehicle is described in detail. The vision system utilizes fuzzy logic and artificial neural network technologies. This go-cart sized vehicle guided itself through an obstacle course in an international competition held at Disney World mid-July of 1996. A brief history of the competition an overview of the vehicle itself and the vision system's

K. Ashenayi

1997-01-01

436

Autonomic seizures and autonomic status epilepticus peculiar to childhood: diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic seizures and autonomic status epilepticus in children have a high prevalence, manifest with dramatic clinical symptoms, and have important clinical and management implications. They probably affect ?13% of children aged 3–6 years with one or more nonfebrile seizures, or 6% in the age group 1–15. The primary cause is an idiopathic age-dependent epileptogenic susceptibility (Panayiotopoulos syndrome), but 10–20% are

Chrysostomos P. Panayiotopoulos

2004-01-01

437

Autonomic Nervous System Function in Infants and Adolescents: Impact of Autonomic Tests on Heart Rate Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) shows information on the functional state of the autonomic nervous system (ANS).\\u000a In adults there are standardized autonomic tests and well-established ranges of normal values, which is not the case in children.\\u000a The aim of the present study was (1) to introduce an ANS test battery, especially for children and adolescents; (2) to establish

Elke Longin; Carmen Dimitriadis; Samina Shazi; Thorsten Gerstner; Tamara Lenz; Stephan König

2009-01-01

438

Advanced Autonomous Systems for Space Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New missions of exploration and space operations will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Inherently high levels of complexity, cost, and communication distances will preclude the degree of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of not only meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, but simultaneously dramatically reducing the design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health management capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of advanced space operations, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints will limit the current practice of monitoring and controlling missions by a standing army of ground-based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such on-board systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communication` distances as are not otherwise possible, as well as many more efficient and low cost applications. In addition, utilizing component and system modeling and reasoning capabilities, autonomous systems will play an increasing role in ground operations for space missions, where they will both reduce the human workload as well as provide greater levels of monitoring and system safety. This paper will focus specifically on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operations. Topics to be presented will include a brief description of key autonomous control concepts, the Remote Agent program that commanded the Deep Space 1 spacecraft to new levels of system autonomy, recent advances in distributed autonomous system capabilities, and concepts for autonomous vehicle health management systems. A brief description of teaming spacecraft and rovers for complex exploration missions will also be provided. New on-board software for autonomous science data acquisition for planetary exploration will be described, as well as advanced systems for safe planetary landings. A new multi-agent architecture that addresses some of the challenges of autonomous systems will be presented. Autonomous operation of ground systems will also be considered, including software for autonomous in-situ propellant production and management, and closed- loop ecological life support systems (CELSS). Finally, plans and directions for the future will be discussed.

Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Muscettola, N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Clancy, D. J.

2002-01-01

439

Exercise and the autonomic nervous system.  

PubMed

The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular response to acute (dynamic) exercise in animals and humans. During exercise, oxygen uptake is a function of the triple-product of heart rate and stroke volume (i.e., cardiac output) and arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference (the Fick principle). The degree to which each of the variables can increase determines maximal oxygen uptake (V?O2max). Both "central command" and "the exercise pressor reflex" are important in determining the cardiovascular response and the resetting of the arterial baroreflex during exercise to precisely match systemic oxygen delivery with metabolic demand. In general, patients with autonomic disorders have low levels of V?O2max, indicating reduced physical fitness and exercise capacity. Moreover, the vast majority of the patients have blunted or abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise, especially during maximal exercise. There is now convincing evidence that some of the protective and therapeutic effects of chronic exercise training are related to the impact on the autonomic nervous system. Additionally, training induced improvement in vascular function, blood volume expansion, cardiac remodeling, insulin resistance and renal-adrenal function may also contribute to the protection and treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic and autonomic disorders. Exercise training also improves mental health, helps to prevent depression, and promotes or maintains positive self-esteem. Moderate-intensity exercise at least 30 minutes per day and at least 5 days per week is recommended for the vast majority of people. Supervised exercise training is preferable to maximize function capacity, and may be particularly important for patients with autonomic disorders. PMID:24095123

Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D

2013-01-01

440

Autonomous Orbit Navigator Development, Using GPS, Applied to Autonomous Orbit Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The appearance of modem global positioning systems motivated the study and development of precise and robust systems for autonomous orbit determination of artificial satellites. These systems maintain, independently from human intervention from the ground, a precise knowledge of the satellite orbital state, through the processing of the information, autonomously generated on-board, by a receiver of the positioning system used. One of the major motivations for the research and development of autonomous navigators, is the availability of real time information about the position and velocity of the satellite, required, for instance, in earth observation missions, for interpretation and analysis of the generated images. The appearance of global positioning systems and the consequent development of autonomous navigators, by making available onboard space vehicles, updated orbit estimations, with good accuracy level, made feasible the research and development of orbit autonomous control procedures. It allowed the orbital maneuvers execution process to be performed in a way totally independent from ground human intervention. Whereas the satellite attitude control reached a high level of autonomy, due to the fact that the attitude measurements are, in general, naturally generated on-board the spacecraft, the orbit control is still now almost totally planned and executed from ground commanded actions. The proposed work consists of the study, development, simulation and analysis of a simplified navigator coupled to an autonomous orbit control system, applied to the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellites (CBERS). At first, an autonomous orbit determination procedure is developed and analyzed. Its objective is to improve the coarse geometric solution provided by Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. This will be done by directly using this solution as input (observation) for a real time Kalman filtering process. The orbital state vector will be extended in order to include the systematic error imposed to the GPS geometric solution due to changes in the set of satellites which are visible to the receiver. The improved outputs of this process will then be used in the implementation of an autonomous control system for the Longitude Phase Drift of the spacecraft orbit (parameter which presents the higher frequency of corrective maneuvers application for heliosynchronous orbits in phase with the earth's rotation, as is the case for the CBERS series satellites. Finally, the performance of the proposed autonomous control procedure will be analyzed and compared with the other results achieved by autonomous control systems previously studied at Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), that directly use the coarse GPS navigation solution

Galski, Roberto Luiz

2002-01-01

441

Starvation-survival of subsurface bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The ability of four subsurface isolates to survive starvation was examined and the results were compared to survival curves obtained for Escherichia coli B and Serratia marcescens. To examine the starvation-survival phenomenon further, several experimental parameters including nutritional history, initial cell density, growth phase, temperature of growth and starvation, and aeration. Nutritional history, initial cell density, and growth phases of the cells had some effect on the ability of these bacteria to survive whereas temperature and limited aeration had no effect under the conditions tested. No conditions were found where E. coli B or Serratia marcescens died rapidly or where less than 10% of the original cell number of viable cells remained. Because the apparent survival of these bacteria may be due to cryptic growth, cross-feeding experiments with {sup 14}C-labeled cells and unlabeled cells were carried out with E. coli B and Pseudomonas Lula V. Leaked extracellular {sup 14}C-compounds were not used for growth or maintenance energy, and were not taken up by either bacterium. Cryptic growth did not occur; the cells were truly starving under the experimental conditions used.

Magill, N.G.

1988-01-01

442

Calcic paleosols: Their use in subsurface stratigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of well log data from Cenozoic basin fill of the Deer Lodge Valley, southwestern Montana, provides evidence for identifying paleosols and paleosol stacks in the subsurface. The paleosol stacks are continental sequence boundary markers and appear as several relatively thin, high-velocity/high-density zones within basin fill. Zone thickness ranges from 1 to 1.5 m; zones are stacked to thicknesses of up to 15 m. Density varies within the zones by as much as 0.6 g/cm{sup 3}, and differs by as much as 0.9 g/cm{sup 3} from material immediately above these zones. Velocity differs by as much as 10 ft/ms from the overlying material and causes bright reflections on seismic sections. Synthetic seismograms are used to tie well log and seismic data. Basing our interpretation upon well log data and well cuttings analyses, we determined the high-velocity/high-density zones to be limestone. The pedogenic origin of the limestone is shown by (1) well cutting chips from the high-velocity/high-density zones that exhibit pedogenic features associated with calcic paleosols, (2) paleosol horizonation interpreted from well log analysis, (3) the absence of minerals normally associated with lacustrine deposits, and (4) comparison with surface paleosol exposures.

Hanneman, D.L. [Whitehall Geogroup Inc., MT (United States); Wideman, C.J. [Montana College of Mineral Science and Technology, Butte, MT (United States); Halvorson, J.W. [Montana Dept. of Natural Resources, Billings, MT (United States)

1994-09-01

443

Modeling Subsurface Flows Driven by Planetary Libration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinal libration is a time-periodic variation in a planetary body's mean rotation rate. Among the various librating bodies in our solar system, some are thought to possess an internal liquid core (e.g. Mercury, Io, and the Earth's moon) or subsurface ocean (Europa, Titan). This libration is capable of driving flows within these planets through viscous, topographic or electromagnetic couplings. A detailed study of the librationally induced fluid dynamics would provide insight on the energy budget, angular momentum balance, and magnetic field induction within these planets. We have carried out laboratory and numerical hydrodynamic libration experiments in full sphere and spherical shell geometries. The spherical, hydrodynamic approach allows us to focus, at present, on the purely viscous coupling problem. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that longitudinal libration is capable of generating time-periodic centrifugal instabilities near the librating solid boundary, as well as inertial waves and zonal flows in the fluid interior. In an effort to apply these results to librating planets, we have carried out axisymmetric numerical simulations that access more extreme parameter values than can be reached in the laboratory experiment. These axisymmetric simulations show that the nonlinear interaction of inertial waves is the primary mechanism responsible for the zonal flow generation, whereas the Reynolds stresses generated from centrifugal instabilities only weakly influence zonal flow strength. In addition, it is found that the onset of the centrifugal instabilities does not follow a simple scaling, as previously inferred from the laboratory experiments.

Noir, J.; Calkins, M. A.; Eldredge, J.; Aurnou, J. M.

2009-12-01

444

Wireless IDT microsensors for subsurface sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sensor by definition should be non-intrusive and respond faithfully to the parameter that one is trying to measure. Ideally the sensor should be small so that it does not disturb the field it is trying to measure and permit implementation on new and existing systems without requiring redesign of the system. Power supply to activate the sensor and extract data from the sensor is often the Achilles heel in implementation. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices also called the IDT Microsensor fit the bill ideally. They are in fact the first MEMS devices made, although this is not generally recognized. Unlike other MEMS devices, a SAW device has no moving parts. SAW devices can be mass-produced using semiconductor fabrication methods. The operation and use of Inter Digital Transducer (IDT) microsensor will be reviewed. Our major interest is that these sensors operate at RF frequencies and can hence be excited wirelessly using microstrip antennas from a remote source. Thus, one can achieve a passive sensor and retrieve the sensor data wirelessly. Whenever sensing is needed on a rapidly rotating system such as helicopter blades or automobile tires, in subsurface situations or inaccessible locations, a wireless passive sensor is the ideal solution. This talk will overview research on design and application of wireless IDT microsensors to dynamical strain monitoring, ice sensing, temperature and humidity sensing, liquid characterization and currently to tire pressure measurements.

Varadan, Vasundara V.; Tellakula, Anikumar R.; Hollinger, Richard D.; Li, Chun-Te; Varadan, Vijay K.

2000-07-01

445

Evidence for a subsurface ocean on Europa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-based spectroscopy of Jupiter's moon Europa, combined with gravity data, suggests that the satellite has an icy crust roughly 150 km thick and a rocky interior. In addition, images obtained by the Voyager spacecraft revealed that Europa's surface is crossed by numerous intersecting ridges and dark bands (called lineae) and is sparsely cratered, indicating that the terrain is probably significantly younger than that of Ganymede and Callisto. It has been suggested that Europa's thin outer ice shell might be separated from the moon's silicate interior by a liquid water layer, delayed or prevented from freezing by tidal heating; in this model, the lineae could be explained by repetitive tidal deformation of the outer ice shell. However, observational confirmation of a subsurface ocean was largely frustrated by the low resolution (>2 km per pixel) of the Voyager images. Here we present high-resolution (54 m per pixel) Galileo spacecraft images of Europa, in which we find evidence for mobile 'icebergs'. The detailed morphology of the terrain strongly supports the presence of liquid water at shallow depths below the surface, either today or at some time in the past. Moreover, lower- resolution observations of much larger regions suggest that the phenomena reported here are widespread.

Carr, M. H.; Belton, M. J. S.; Chapman, C. R.; Davies, M. E.; Geissler, P.; Greenberg, R.; McEwen, A. S.; Tufts, B. R.; Greeley, R.; Sullivan, R.; Head, J. W.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Klaasen, K. P.; Johnson, T. V.; Kaufman, J.; Senske, D.; Moore, J.; Neukum, G.; Schubert, G.; Burns, J. A.; Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.

1998-01-01

446

Evidence for a subsurface ocean on Europa.  

PubMed

Ground-based spectroscopy of Jupiter's moon Europa, combined with gravity data, suggests that the satellite has an icy crust roughly 150 km thick and a rocky interior. In addition, images obtained by the Voyager spacecraft revealed that Europa's surface is crossed by numerous intersecting ridges and dark bands (called lineae) and is sparsely cratered, indicating that the terrain is probably significantly younger than that of Ganymede and Callisto. It has been suggested that Europa's thin outer ice shell might be separated from the moon's silicate interior by a liquid water layer, delayed or prevented from freezing by tidal heating; in this model, the lineae could be explained by repetitive tidal deformation of the outer ice shell. However, observational confirmation of a subsurface ocean was largely frustrated by the low resolution (>2 km per pixel) of the Voyager images. Here we present high-resolution (54 m per pixel) Galileo spacecraft images of Europa, in which we find evidence for mobile 'icebergs'. The detailed morphology of the terrain strongly supports the presence of liquid water at shallow depths below the surface, either today or at some time in the past. Moreover, lower-resolution observations of much larger regions suggest that the phenomena reported here are widespread. PMID:9450749

Carr, M H; Belton, M J; Chapman, C R; Davies, M E; Geissler, P; Greenberg, R; McEwen, A S; Tufts, B R; Greeley, R; Sullivan, R; Head, J W; Pappalardo, R T; Klaasen, K P; Johnson, T V; Kaufman, J; Senske, D; Moore, J; Neukum, G; Schubert, G; Burns, J A; Thomas, P; Veverka, J

1998-01-22

447

Subsurface Pathway Flow and Transport Modeling for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Subsurface Disposal Area  

SciTech Connect

Migration of contaminants through the complex subsurface at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Subsurface Disposal Area was simulated for an ongoing Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) assessment. A previously existing model for simulating flow and transport through the vadose zone for this site was updated to incorporate information obtained from recent characterization activities. Given the complexity of the subsurface at this site, the simulation results were acknowledged to be uncertain. Rather than attempt parametric approaches to quantify uncertainty, it was recognized that conceptual uncertainty involving the controlling processes was likely dominant. So, the effort focused on modeling different scenarios to evaluate the impact of the conceptual uncertainty.

Magnuson, Swen O

2002-08-01

448

Subsurface Pathway Flow and Transport Modeling for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Subsurface Disposal Area  

SciTech Connect

Migration of contaminants through the complex subsurface at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Subsurface Disposal Area was simulated for an ongoing Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) assessment. A previously existing model for simulating flow and transport through the vadose zone for this site was updated to incorporate information obtained from recent characterization activities. Given the complexity of the subsurface at this site, the simulation results were acknowledged to be uncertain. Rather than attempt parametric approaches to quantify uncertainty, it was recognized that conceptual uncertainty involving the controlling processes was likely dominant. So, the effort focused on modeling different scenarios to evaluate the impact of the conceptual uncertainty.

Magnuson, S.O.

2002-05-10

449

Optimum Subsurface and Underground Shell Structures for Better Housing in Hot-Arid Lands. Part I: A Case for Subsurface and Underground Housing in Hot-Arid Lands. Part II: Optimization of Subsurface and Underground Shells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report consists of two distinct parts. A case was made for subsurface and underground housing in hot-arid lands in Part I. This includes discussions of environmental conditions, past developments of subsurface housing, new conceptual designs for dwel...

S. Kumar J. C. C. Shih

1970-01-01

450

SOLID OXYGEN SOURCE FOR BIOREMEDIATION IN SUBSURFACE SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Sodium percarbonate was encapsulated in poly(vinylidene chloride) to determine its potential as a slow-release oxygen source for biodegradation of contaminants in subsurface soils. n laboratory studies under aqueous conditions, the encapsulated sodium percarborate was estimated t...

451

Detection of Microbes in the Subsurface. Abstract Only.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The search for evidence of microbial life in the deep subsurface of Earth has implications for the Mars Rover Sampling Return Missions program. If suitably protected environments can be found on Mars then the instrumentation to detect biomarkers could be ...

D. C. White A. Tunlid

1989-01-01

452

SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: SUBSURFACE VOLATILIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (SVVS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System is an integrated technology used for attacking all phases of volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination in soil and groundwater. The SVVS technology promotes insitu remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with or-ga...

453

Hybrid Numerical Methods for Multiscale Simulations of Subsurface Biogeochemical Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many subsurface flow and transport problems of importance today involve coupled non-linear flow, transport, and reaction in media exhibiting complex heterogeneity. In particular, problems involving biological mediation of reactions fall into this class of...

A. M. Tartakovsky D. M. Tartakovsky G. D. Redden M. Alexandre P. Meakin

2007-01-01

454

A bioenhancement process for rapid remediation of multiphase subsurface contamination  

SciTech Connect

The presence of petroleum hydrocarbons, distillates, and chlorinated solvents in subsurface environments frequently occurs from inadvertent discharges or unlawful release, and can pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. Due to strict environmental regulations, many industries are faced with significant financial and, potentially, criminal penalties associated with releases of these chemicals. In recent years, responsible industries have intensified efforts to remediate subsurface contamination. However, the excessive cost and lack of timely success of traditional remedial options have diminished many industries' willingness to proactively engage in necessary cleanup efforts because the expense of doing so may be prohibitive to the sustained economic health of the industry. A new technology that addresses each aspect of subsurface contamination by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been developed to minimize the duration and cost of remedial efforts. The Subsurface Voltilization and Ventilation System[sup [trademark

Mayotte, T.J. (Brown Root Environmental, Holt, MI (United States))

1994-08-01

455

30 CFR 250.801 - Subsurface safety devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Subsurface safety devices. 250.801 Section 250.801 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.801...

2013-07-01

456

Subsurface Damage in Optical Materials: Origin, Measurement and Removal: Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The detection, measurement and removal of subsurface damage is a major effort of the LLNL Optical Sciences and Engineering Group. Three methods currently used to detect and measure the depth of damage in glasses and crystalline materials are described: ta...

P. P. Hed D. F. Edwards J. B. Davis

1988-01-01

457

EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MODELING FOR HYDROCARBON SPILLS INTO THE SUBSURFACE  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydrocarbons which enter the subsurface through spills or leaks may create serious, long-lived ground-water contamination problems. onventional finite difference and finite element models of multiphase, multicomponent flow often have extreme requirements for both computer time an...

458

SUBSURFACE VOLATIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (SVVS) - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the findings associated with a Demonstration Test of Environmental Improvement Technologiesâ?? (EIT) Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS) process. The technology was evaluated under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) ...

459

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE TECHNOLOGY OF SUBSURFACE WASTEWATER INJECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

An introduction to the design, construction, operation, and abandonment of subsurface wastewater injection systems is presented. Local geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the injection and confining intervals are considered along with the physical, chemical, and biological...

460

High Sensitivity Subsurface Elemental Composition Measurements with PING  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Probing In situ with Neutrons and Gamma rays (PING) instrument, with its PNG and gamma and neutron spectrometers, is a promising technology for measuring the bulk elemental composition of the subsurface of any rocky body in the solar system.

Parsons, A. M.; Bodnarik, J. G.; Evans, L. G.; McClanahan, T. P.; Namkung, M.; Nowicki, S. F.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Starr, R. D.; Trombka, J. I.

2012-10-01

461

On Water Detection in the Martian Subsurface Using Sounding Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several radar experiments are planned to map the martian subsurface down to several kilometers, searching for subsurface liquid water reservoirs, using different concepts and techniques, all based on the penetration property of radio frequency waves in arid soils. The penetration depth of low-frequency radar is mainly related to the electromagnetic properties of the investigated medium. Thus a good knowledge of the martian subsurface dielectric profile along the first few kilometers is necessary for future water identification and data interpretation. In this work we have investigated the electrical and magnetic properties of the martian surface and subsurface, using terrestrial laboratory analogues in the frequency range 1-500 MHz, covering the frequency domain of the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) experiment on board the Mars Express mission (ESA-2003), the NetLander ground-penetrating radar (GPR) (CNES-2007), and future sounding radar that may be updated to the Mars exploration program in the ``follow the water'' strategy. In our approach, we constructed experimentally the most common dielectric profile representative of the martian subsurface by measuring the electric permittivity and magnetic permeability of well defined mixtures of basaltic, volcanic, and sedimentary materials that have been reported for Mars. We also considered iron oxides (hematite and maghemite) and evaporites that may be present, such as gypsum, and their mixtures with representative amounts of the martian geological context under the most common petrophysical and geophysical conditions, along the subsurface profile. This led to synthetic representative samples of the martian subsurface materials under adequate conditions of porosity and temperature that should exist in the first 2.5 km of the upper crust. Dielectric measurements show that the first layers of the martian subsurface (a few hundred meters), which are mainly composed of volcanic iron-rich materials, could dramatically decrease the radar penetration depth initially foreseen, thus limiting deep subsurface exploration. We also investigated the constraints on subsurface water detectability in a radar lossy medium and its dielectric identification among surrounding geological materials. .

Heggy, E.; Paillou, P.; Ruffie, G.; Malezieux, J. M.; Costard, F.; Grandjean, G.

2001-12-01

462

MARSIS and SHARAD Data Recovery for Subsurface Features Estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary scientific objectives that can be accomplished by orbiting Ground Penetrating Radars like the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) and the Shallow Radar (SHARAD) are the surface characterization and the subsurface geological probing in search of waters reservoirs, both liquid and solid in the upper portion of the crust. The subsurface geological probing requires the estimation of the subsurface dielectric constant via a data inversion approach. More clearly, the data inversion process is the estimation of the dielectric constant of the material composing the different detected interfaces including any impurity within the host material of each layer and its percentage. Geologists will then select the proper materials according to the estimated dielectric constants. In the backscattered signal are simultaneously present the material feature and the geometric contribution. Therefore, it is necessary to study the scattering behavior of the surface/subsurface, related to its characteristics (flat or rough). This implies, in particular, the selection of the backscattering model among Physical Optics, Geometrical Optics and Fractal Models. MARSIS and SHARAD also have a Doppler Beam Sharpening capability to reduce the clutter coming from the topographic features not immediately below the radar. From the available data (frames) it is possible to measure the surface echo power Ps, the subsurface echo power Pss, and the relevant time delay ??. Assuming the surface reflectivity known it is possible, using a multi-frequency approach, to estimate the crust attenuation and the values of the dielectric constant for the various subsurface interfaces prior detected in products such as frames and radargrams. The selection of stationary regions is a primary task in order to find clustered areas with uniform attenuation and similar subsurface features. In particular, several stationary areas have been identified by MARSIS on the Mars South Pole. The proposed procedure is a fully automatic technique that can be applied over stationary areas.

Picardi, Giovanni; Cassenti, Francesco; Masdea, Arturo; Mastrogiuseppe, Marco; Restano, Marco; Seu, Roberto

2013-04-01

463

THE MARS ADVANCED RADAR FOR SUBSURFACE AND IONOSPHERIC SOUNDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

MARSIS is a subsurface and ionospheric radar sounder with operating frequency in the range of 1.3-5.5 MHz and 0.1 to 5.5 MHz respectively. It will be flown on the ESA Mars Express spacecraft. MARSIS is designed to sense the planets subsurface to a depth of up to 5 km. MARSIS' main objective is to search for water if it exists

R. L. Jordan; W. T. K. Johnson; J. Plaut; A. Safaeinili; D. Biccari; G. Picardi; R. Seu; E. Zampolini; D. Gurnett; D. Kirchner

464

Autonomous reinforcement learning with experience replay.  

PubMed

This paper considers the issues of efficiency and autonomy that are required to make reinforcement learning suitable for real-life control tasks. A real-time reinforcement learning algorithm is presented that repeatedly adjusts the control policy with the use of previously collected samples, and autonomously estimates the appropriate step-sizes for the learning updates. The algorithm is based on the actor-critic with experience replay whose step-sizes are determined on-line by an enhanced fixed point algorithm for on-line neural network training. An experimental study with simulated octopus arm and half-cheetah demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed algorithm to solve difficult learning control problems in an autonomous way within reasonably short time. PMID:23237972

Wawrzy?ski, Pawe?; Tanwani, Ajay Kumar

2012-11-29

465

The autonomic nervous system and renal physiology  

PubMed Central

Research in resistant hypertension has again focused on autonomic nervous system denervation – 50 years after it had been stopped due to postural hypotension and availability of newer drugs. These (ganglionic blockers) drugs have all been similarly stopped, due to postural hypotension and yet newer antihypertensive agents. Recent demonstration of the feasibility of limited regional transcatheter sympathetic denervation has excited clinicians due to potential therapeutic implications. Standard use of ambulatory blood pressure recording equipment may alter our understanding of the diagnosis, potential treatment strategies, and health care outcomes – when faced with patients whose office blood pressure remains in the hypertensive range – while under treatment with three antihypertensive drugs at the highest tolerable doses, plus a diuretic. We review herein clinical relationships between autonomic function, resistant hypertension, current treatment strategies, and reflect upon the possibility of changes in our approach to resistant hypertension.

D'Elia, John A; Weinrauch, Larry A

2013-01-01

466

Isolated sympathetic failure with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy.  

PubMed

A 16-year-old boy had a gradual onset of post-exercise myalgia with progressive fatigue and dizziness. He had bradycardia (37 beats/minute) with low supine and normal standing norepinephrine levels (56 and 311 pg/mL, respectively). He had absent sympathetically mediated vasoconstrictor responses during Valsalva maneuver testing. Circulating ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies were identified. Response was gradual to treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin combined with aggressive symptomatic interventions (permanent pacemaker implantation and treatment with pyridostigmine, midodrine, and modafinil). After the intravenous immunoglobulin treatment, his autoantibody levels decreased and the autonomic abnormalities resolved. After a reconditioning exercise program and eventually undetectable antibody titers, he achieved complete recovery. The patient continued to do well after his pacemaker was removed and his medications were discontinued. Thus, severe isolated sympathetic nervous system failure can occur in adolescents with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy, and multifaceted treatment can be effective. PMID:20837310

Fischer, Philip R; Sandroni, Paola; Pittock, Sean J; Porter, Co-burn J; Lehwald, Lenora M; Raj, Satish R

2010-10-01

467

Demonstration of autonomous air monitoring through robotics  

SciTech Connect

The project included modifying an existing teleoperated robot to include autonomous navigation, large object avoidance, and air monitoring and demonstrating that prototype robot system in indoor and outdoor environments. The robot was also modified to carry a HNU PI-101 Photoionization Detector air monitoring device. A sonar range finder, which already was an integral part of the Surveyor, was repositioned to the front of the robot chassis to detect large obstacles in the path of the robot. In addition, the software of the onboard computer was also extensively modified to provide: navigation control, dynamic steering to smoothly follow the wire-course without hesitation, obstacle avoidance, autonomous shut down and remote reporting of toxic substance detection.

Rancatore, R.

1989-11-01

468

Interictal autonomic abnormalities in idiopathic Rolandic epilepsy.  

PubMed

We investigated 50 young patients with a diagnosis of Rolandic Epilepsy (RE) for the presence of abnormalities in autonomic tone compared with 50 young patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy with absences and 50 typically developing children of comparable age. We analyzed time domain (N-N interval, pNN50) and frequency domain (High Frequency (HF), Low Frequency (LF) and LF/HF ratio) indices from ten-minute resting EKG activity. Patients with RE showed significantly higher HF and lower LF power and lower LF/HF ratio than controls, independent of the epilepsy group, and did not show significant differences in any other autonomic index with respect to the two control groups. In RE, we found a negative relationship between both seizure load and frequency of sleep interictal EEG abnormalities with parasympathetic drive levels. These changes might be the expression of adaptive mechanisms to prevent the excessive sympathetic drive seen in patients with refractory epilepsies. PMID:22560190

Seri, Stefano; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Pisano, Tiziana; Pinci, Mariangela; Brazzo, Daniela; Betteridge, Heather; Cerquiglini, Antonella

2012-05-03

469

A 16-element autonomous receiving array  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomous receiving array system has been designed, fabricated, and deployed at-sea for the collection of broadband underwater acoustic data. The system consists of a 16-element hydrophone array, a pressure case containing the data acquisition and disk storage hardware, and a mooring which includes floats for buoyancy, a RF-beacon and flasher, deep-sea batteries, and an acoustic release. The array cable

W. S. Hodgkiss; J. D. Skinner; R. A. Harriss

2003-01-01

470

Visual curb localization for autonomous navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Percept-referenced commanding is an attractive paradigm for autonomous navigation over long distances. Rather than relying on precise prior environment maps and self-localization, this approach uses high-level primitives that refer to environmental features. The assumption is that the sensing and processing system onboard the robot should be able to extract such features reliably. In this context, we present an algorithm for

R. Turchetto; R. Manduchi

2003-01-01

471

Autonomous navigation for BigDog  

Microsoft Academic Search

BigDog} is a four legged robot with exceptional rough-terrain mobility. In this paper, we equip {BigDog} with a laser scanner, stereo vision system, and perception and navigation algorithms. Using these sensors and algorithms, {BigDog} performs autonomous navigation to goal positions in unstructured forest environments. The robot perceives obstacles, such as trees, boulders, and ground features, and steers to avoid them

David Wooden; Matthew Malchano; Kevin Blankespoor; Andrew Howardy; Alfred A. Rizzi; Marc Raibert

2010-01-01

472

Employment Decisions Supporting Organizations of Autonomous Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key aspect of organization is that one or more agents perform tasks at the direction of another, supervising, agent. We model a set of individual actors using intelligent agents. These agents self-interestedly choose products to produce and to consume. Our initially-identical autonomous agents self-interestedly form organizations, with the employing and employed agents performing separate value computations. Use of agents,

Foster Mcgeary; Keith Decker

2003-01-01

473

Autonomous fluid systems of the continental crust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term studies of the fluid regime of endogenic processes that formed the continental earth’s crust have made it possible to reveal principal peculiarities in the global fluid transfer from the deep lithosphere to its upper layers, where they participated in the formation of the granite?gneiss layer [1]. Against the background of this global trend, different autonomous fluid systems were

F. A. Letnikov

2009-01-01

474

RFID-based autonomous mobile car  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system is looked upon as one of the top ten important technologies in the 20th century. Industrial automation application is one of the key issues in developing RFID. Therefore, this paper designs and implements a RFID-based autonomous mobile car for more extensively application of RFID systems. The microcontroller of Microchip PIC18F4550 is used to control the

Jen-Hao Teng; Kuo-Yi Hsiao; Shang-Wen Luan; Rong-Ceng Leou; Shun-Yu Chan

2010-01-01

475

Motion Control for Autonomous Car Maneuvering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the control methods for autonomouspath following and parallel parking of a carlikevehicle. The methods developed are based on akinematic model of the vehicle. For the path following,a time parameterization of a given path is performed.The proposed control algorithm exponentially stabilizesthe motion of the vehicle to the desired feasible path.The autonomous parking is performed as a sequenceof

I. E. Paromtchik; C. Laugier; S. V. Gusev; S. Sekhavat

476

Autonomously motile catalytic nanomotors by bubble propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bubble propulsion model based on catalyzed hydrogen peroxide decomposition and momentum change via O2 bubbles detaching from the catalytic surface is proposed to explain the autonomous motion of catalytic nanomotors. The propelling force closely depends upon the surface tension of the liquid as well as the bulk concentration of hydrogen peroxide, and the model predictions are supported by the experimental data of Pt-coated spherical silica microbead motors.

Gibbs, J. G.; Zhao, Y.-P.

2009-04-01

477

Adaptive setpoint control for autonomous underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an adaptive saturated proportional-derivative (SP-D) setpoint controller for autonomous underwater vehicles. The proposed controller does not require any knowledge of the inertia matrix, Coriolis and centripetal force, hydrodynamic damping, and parameters of the gravity and buoyancy forces. The structure of this setpoint controller is based on the SP-D feedback, plus an adaptive update law for

Y. C. Sun; C. C. Cheah

2003-01-01

478

Autonomous programmable DNA nanorobotic devices using DNAzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major challenge in nanoscience is the design of synthetic molecular devices that run autonomously (that is, without externally mediated changes per work-cycle) and are programmable(that is, their behav- ior can be modified without complete redesign of the device). DNA-based synthetic molecular devices have the advantage of being relatively simple to design and engineer, due to the predictable secondary structure

John H. Reif; Sudheer Sahu

2009-01-01

479

Abnormal autonomic cardiovascular control in ankylosing spondylitis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—This study was aimed at assessing the contribution of the autonomic nervous system to adjustments of cardiovascular function in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS).?METHODS—In 18 AS patients (mean age: 34.9; mean disease duration: 6.4 years) and 13 healthy controls (mean age: 31.7) the changes of heart rate (HR) with deep breathing (E/I ratio) and standing up (30/15 ratio) were recorded. The slope of cardiac baroreflex, the times series of blood pressure and HR values upon lying and standing, and venous plasma concentrations of catecholamines were also analysed. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), plasma C reactive protein (CRP) concentration and a clinical index (BASDAI score) were used to assess the degree of disease activity in patients.?RESULTS—In the standing patients, blood pressure was found to decrease progressively (p< 0.001). Furthermore, the patients with a BASDAI score > 5 had a higher heart rate than patients with a BASDAI score < 5 (p<0.02), and there was a trend for a similar difference when patients were classified according to their ESR and CRP. Plasma catecholamine concentrations and the E/I ratio were not different in patients from controls. The 30/15 ratio and the slope of the spontaneous baroreflex during standing were both lower in AS patients than controls (p< 0.01).?CONCLUSIONS—This study demonstrated a change in autonomic nervous system function of AS patients, with a decreased parasympathetic activity, as evidenced by higher HR and lower baroreflex slope. As these significant deviances were mainly observed in patients with more active (or more inflammatory) disease, the autonomic nervous system involvement could be related to the inflammatory process. This autonomic strain may be related to the cardiac involvement in AS patients.??

Toussirot, E.; Bahjaoui-Bouhaddi, M.; Poncet, J.; Cappelle, S.; Henriet, M.; Wendling, D.; Regnard, J.

1999-01-01

480

Security in an autonomic computing environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

System and network security are vital parts of any autonomic computing solution. The ability of a system to react consistently and correctly to situations ranging from benign but unusual events to outright attacks is key to the achievement of the goals of self-protection, self-healing, and self-optimization. Because they are often built around the interconnection of elements from different administrative domains,

David M. Chess; Charles C. Palmer; Steve R. White

2003-01-01

481

Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking Conference, volume 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document consists of the presentation submitted at the Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (ARD) Conference. The document contains three volumes: ARD hardware technology; ARD software technology; and ARD operations. The purpose of this conference is to identify the technologies required for an on orbit demonstration of ARD, assess the maturity of these technologies, and provide the necessary insight for a quality assessment of programmatic management, technical, schedule, and cost risks.

482

Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking Conference, volume 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document consists of the presentation submitted at the Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (ARD) Conference. It contains three volumes: ARD hardware technology; ARD software technology; and ARD operations. The purpose of this conference is to identify the technologies required for an on orbit demonstration of the ARD, assess the maturity of these technologies, and provide the necessary insight for a quality assessment of the programmatic management, technical, schedule, and cost risks.

483

Science Operations for Onboard Autonomous Rover Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Onboard autonomous science represents one means to balance the large amounts of scientific data that current and future rovers can acquire with the limited ability to download it to Earth. Several systems are under development to perform autonomous rover science. The use of such systems represents a departure from standard operations, which closely resemble batch tele-operation. It is important for the science operations team to understand the capabilities and limitations of the onboard system to effectively use the tool of autonomous onboard science to increase overall mission science return, however it is difficult for the science team to get a feel for the onboard system without hands on experience in an operational system setting. This past year, the OASIS (Onboard Autonomous Science Investigation System) team has been working with the SOOPS (Science Operations On Planetary Surfaces) task to investigate how science returns for surface missions can be improved through the use of science autonomy. A limited version of OASIS was tested at the system level. The test involved a high-fidelity software simulation of a rover exploring a remote terrain using realistic operational interfaces. By using the simulation environment it is feasible to run many more experiments than testing with physical rover. Further, the simulation environment combined with the integrated operational system provides situational awareness for the science operations team along with greater flexibility and control over experiments to help answer "what if" questions that can lead to identifying the most effective ways to use the onboard system. In the tests, OASIS applied predetermined criteria provided by the scientists to prioritize which data collected during a traverse to send home, given specified bandwidth constraints. In addition, rock summary information (which requires very little bandwidth) was returned and provided as both a table and a map to the science team. We discuss the results of these experiments.

Estlin, T.; Castano, R.; Haldemann, A. F.; McHenry, M.; Bornstein, B.; Gaines, D.; Burl, M.; Anderson, R. C.; Powell, M.; Shu, I.; Farr, T.; Nesnas, I.; Jain, A.; Judd, M.

2006-12-01

484

Autonomous Haulage Systems – Justification and Opportunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Driverless haulage trucks have recently been developed for open pit mines. To predict the benefits of an Autonomous Haulage\\u000a System (AHS), a deterministic\\/stochastic model has been created to compare AHS to a manual system by estimating benchmarked\\u000a Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) such as productivity, safety, breakdown frequencies, maintenance and labor costs, fuel consumption,\\u000a tire wear, and cycle times. As this

Juliana Parreira; John Meech

485

Neural speed control for autonomous road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a neural-network automotive speed controller is presented which works at low and at high speed-levels using throttle and brake control input. It can be used for autonomous intelligent cruise control including stop-and-go traffic situations. The network itself consists of a simple multilayer feedforward perceptron network. A special training method is used, where the neural network is trained

H. Fritz

1996-01-01

486

AUTONOMIC CHANGES IN BRAHMAKUMARIS RAJA YOGA MEDITATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the changes in various autonomic and respiratory variables during the practice of Brahmakumaris Raja yoga meditation. This practice requires considerable commitment and involves concentrated thinking. 18 males in the age range of 20 to 52 years (mean 34.1 ± 8.1), with 5-25 years experience in meditation (mean 10.1± 6.2), participated in the study. Each subject was assessed

Shirley Telles; T. Desiraju

487

Local path control for an autonomous vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control system for an autonomous robot cart designed to operate in well-structured environments such as offices and factories is described. The onboard navigation system comprises a reference-state generator, an error-feedback controller, and cart-location sensing using odometry. There is a convenient separation between the path guidance and control logic. Under normal operating conditions, the controller ensures that the errors between

Winston L. Nelson; Ingeniar J. Cox

1988-01-01

488

Autonomous Programmable Nanorobotic Devices Using DNAzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A major challenge in nanoscience is the design of synthetic molecular devices that run autonomously (that is, without externally mediated changes per work-cycle) and are programmable(that is, their behavior can be modified without complete redesign of the device). DNA-based synthetic molecular devices have the advantage of being relatively simple to design and engineer, due to the predictable secondary structure

John H. Reif; Sudheer Sahu

2007-01-01

489

Autonomous Navigation System Based on GPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomous navigation system based on GPS was developed. The system was composed of the under-controlling part and the\\u000a decision-making part; the two parts communicated with each other via wireless data transmission modules. The under-controlling\\u000a part included the ARM7 microprocessor, the wireless data transmission module, the GPS receiver and the mobile quadricycle.\\u000a The decision-making part included the laptop and the

Zhaoxiang Liu; Gang Liu

2007-01-01

490

Autonomous replication of plasmids in Mucor transformants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is presented for the autonomous replication of recombinant plasmids in Mucor circinelloides Leu+ transformants. Plasmids consisting of a unique fragment of Mucor DNA inserted into YRp17 or pBR322 (i) give a high frequency\\u000a of transformation (up to 7800 Leu+ transformants per ?g DNA), (ii) are mitotically unstable, (iii) can be reisolated in an unmodified form from uncut transformant\\u000a DNA,

Robyn van Heeswijck; Sankt Annie Plads

1986-01-01

491

The autonomic nervous system and personality.  

PubMed

In a sample of 35 male and 93 female undergraduate students (M(age) = 21.0, SD = 2.2), it was not possible to develop a meaningful scale to measure whether individuals have a dominant sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system or a dominant parasympathetic division balance using the items in Plutchik and Conte's inventory measuring psychophysiological reactivity. Replicable sex differences in response to the items were identified which may merit further study. PMID:23045846

Lester, David

2012-08-01

492

Satellite autonomous navigation - Status and history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A development history and current status evaluation are presented for satellite autonomous navigation, with attention to USAF programs centrally concerned with this field of satellite technology and a view to the prospective influence of the Strategic Defense Initiative on future developments of these technologies. Milestone achievements are noted to have been strapdown inertial measurement unit systems, strapdown star sensor systems, and the Unknown Landmark Tracker ('ULTRA') sensor development project.

Chory, M. A.; Hoffman, D. P.; Lemay, J. L.

493

Adaptive autonomous underwater vehicles for littoral surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) have gained more interest in recent years for military as well as civilian applications.\\u000a One potential application of AUVs is for the purpose of undersea surveillance. As research into undersea surveillance using\\u000a AUVs progresses, issues arise as to how an AUV acquires, acts on, and shares information about the undersea battle space.\\u000a These issues naturally touch

Stephanie Kemna; Michael J. Hamilton; David T. Hughes; Kevin D. LePage

494

Cooperative Control for Autonomous Air Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research is to develop and evaluate the performance of strategies for cooperative control of autonomous\\u000a air vehicles that seek to gather information about a dynamic target environment, evade threats, and coordinate strikes against\\u000a targets. The air vehicles are equipped with sensors to view a limited region of the environment they are visiting, and are\\u000a able

Kevin Passino; Marios Polycarpou; David Jacques; Meir Pachter; Yang Liu; Yanli Yang; Matt Flint; Michael Baum

495

Subsurface void detection using seismic tomographic imaging  

SciTech Connect

Tomographic imaging has been widely used in scientific and medical fields to remotely image media in a nondestructive way. This paper introduces a spectrum of seismic imaging applications to detect and characterize voids in coal mines. The application of seismic waves to detect changes in coal relies on two types of waves: body waves refracted along the interface between coal and bedrock (i.e., refracted P-waves) and channel waves that propagate directly through the coal (dispersive wave trains of the Rayleigh or Love type). For example, a P-wave tomography study to find underlying old mine workings in a coal mine in England, produced velocity patterns that revealed increases in velocity where high stress concentrations occur in the rock, which are most likely connected to old pillars left in support of the old working areas. At the same time, low velocities were found in areas of low stress concentrations, which are related to roof collapses indicating the locations of mined areas below. The application of channel wave tomography to directly image the presence of gaseous CO{sub 2} in a low velocity oil reservoir showed that the injected CO{sub 2} followed an ancient flow channel in the reservoir migrating from the injector to the producer well. The study showed how channel waves are preferable over refracted P-waves, as the latter were only marginally affected by the presence of the gas in the low-velocity channel. Similar approaches show great promise for the detection of voids in coal mines. Finally, a newly developed technique, based on scattering theory, revealed that the location and the size of a subsurface cavity could be accurately determined even in the presence of strong correlated and uncorrelated noise.

Gritto, Roland

2003-06-26

496

Water vapor diffusion in Mars subsurface environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion coefficient of water vapor in unconsolidated porous media is measured for various soil simulants at Mars-like pressures and subzero temperatures. An experimental chamber which simultaneously reproduces a low-pressure, low-temperature, and low-humidity environment is used to monitor water flux from an ice source through a porous diffusion barrier. Experiments are performed on four types of simulants: 40-70 ?m glass beads, sintered glass filter disks, 1-3 ?m dust (both loose and packed), and JSC Mars-1. A theoretical framework is presented that applies to environments that are not necessarily isothermal or isobaric. For most of our samples, we find diffusion coefficients in the range of 2.8 to 5.4 cm2 s-1 at 600 Pascal and 260 K. This range becomes 1.9-4.7 cm2 s-1 when extrapolated to a Mars-like temperature of 200 K. Our preferred value for JSC Mars-1 at 600 Pa and 200 K is 3.7 +/- 0.5 cm2 s-1. The tortuosities of the glass beads is about 1.8. Packed dust displays a lower mean diffusion coefficient of 0.38 +/- 0.26 cm2 s-1, which can be attributed to transition to the Knudsen regime where molecular collisions with the pore walls dominate. Values for the diffusion coefficient and the variation of the diffusion coefficient with pressure are well matched by existing models. The survival of shallow subsurface ice on Mars and the providence of diffusion barriers are considered in light of these measurements.

Hudson, Troy L.; Aharonson, Oded; Schorghofer, Norbert; Farmer, Crofton B.; Hecht, Michael H.; Bridges, Nathan T.

2007-05-01

497

Erythromycin induces supranormal gall bladder contraction in diabetic autonomic neuropathy.  

PubMed Central

Gall bladder motor function is impaired in some patients with diabetes. It has been suggested that the abnormalities of gall bladder motility are confined to those patients with autonomic neuropathy. Erythromycin, a motilin receptor agonist, causes gall bladder contraction in both normal subjects and patients with gall stones with impaired gall bladder emptying. The effect of erythromycin on gall bladder motility in seven patients with diabetes with an autonomic neuropathy, six patients with diabetes without autonomic neuropathy, and 17 normal subjects was studied using ultrasound. There was no significant difference in gall bladder fasting volume between the three groups, but the patients with diabetes with autonomic neuropathy had impaired postprandial gall bladder emptying compared with normal subjects (percentage emptied (SEM) 40 (10.3)% v 64 (2.8)%, p < 0.01) and those with autonomic neuropathy (48 (7.7)%, NS). Erythromycin produced a dramatic reduction in gall bladder fasting volume in patients with diabetes with an autonomic neuropathy, compared with either normal subjects or patients with diabetes without autonomic neuropathy (percentage reduction 62 (4.6)% in patients with autonomic neuropathy, v 37 (17.6)% in those without autonomic neuropathy, and 26 (7.3)% in the normal subjects, (p < 0.02) and returned gall bladder emptying to normal in all patients with impaired emptying. The pronounced effect of erythromycin in diabetic autonomic neuropathy suggests denervation supersensitivity and that the action of erythromycin on the gall bladder is neurally modulated.

Catnach, S M; Ballinger, A B; Stevens, M; Fairclough, P D; Trembath, R C; Drury, P L; Watkins, P J

1993-01-01

498

A concept for a supervised autonomous robot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes work in progress at Thomson-CSF Systems Canada Inc. on the Mobile Servicing System (MSS) Autonomous Robotics Program. The main objective of this program is to define and plan the development of technologies required to provide a supervised autonomous operation capability for the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) on the Mobile Servicing System (MSS). In this paper, a telerobotics system concept is introduced and a summary of the system requirements is given. The development methodology as well as the concept for a supervised autonomous robot (telerobotics) are briefly explained. The functional and physical architectures of the telerobotics system are also provided. This system will be responsible for carrying out operations such as assembly and maintenance of the Space Station Freedom; loading / unloading from the shuttle; and retrieval and deployment of the shuttle, etc. The paper also investigates an operational scenario for maintenance of the Space Station Freedom and briefly describes the operational scenario for changing an orbital replacement unit (ORU) on the Mobile Servicing System. The functional responsibilities of the system components in order to implement the ORU change are outlined.

Kalaycioglu, S.

499

Hemicrania continua. Unquestionably a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia.  

PubMed

Hemicrania continua (HC) is a well-known primary headache. The present version of the International Classification of Headache Disorders lists HC in the "other primary headaches" group. However, evidence has emerged demonstrating that HC is a phenotype that belongs to the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias together with cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania (PH), and short-lasting, unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing. This is supported by a common general clinical picture - paroxysmal, fluctuating, unilateral, side-locked headaches located to the ocular, frontal, and/or temporal regions, accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic dysfunctions including for example, tearing and conjunctival injection. Apart from the remarkable clinical similarities, the absolute and incomparable effect of indomethacin in HC parallels the effect of this drug in PH, suggesting a shared core pathogenesis. Finally, neuroimage findings demonstrate a posterior hypothalamic activation in HC similarly to cluster headache, PH, and short-lasting, unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing. Taken together, data indicate that HC is certainly a type of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia that should no longer be placed in a group of miscellaneous primary headache disorders. PMID:23573839

Vincent, Maurice B

2013-04-10

500