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1

Autonomous microexplosives subsurface tracing system final report.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the autonomous micro-explosive subsurface tracing system is to image the location and geometry of hydraulically induced fractures in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This system is based on the insertion of a swarm of autonomous micro-explosive packages during the fracturing process, with subsequent triggering of the energetic material to create an array of micro-seismic sources that can be detected and analyzed using existing seismic receiver arrays and analysis software. The project included investigations of energetic mixtures, triggering systems, package size and shape, and seismic output. Given the current absence of any technology capable of such high resolution mapping of subsurface structures, this technology has the potential for major impact on petroleum industry, which spends approximately $1 billion dollar per year on hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States alone.

Engler, Bruce Phillip; Nogan, John; Melof, Brian Matthew; Uhl, James Eugene; Dulleck, George R., Jr.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Rivas, Raul R.; Cooper, Paul W.; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Kravitz, Stanley H.

2004-04-01

2

Micro-explosion of compound drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introducing water into spray combustion systems, by either water-in-oil emulsification or supplementary water injection, is one of the major techniques for combustion improvement and NOx reduction. Plentiful researches are available on combustion of water-in-oil emulsion fuel drops. The emulsified liquid is a heterogeneous mixture of immiscible liquids. One component forms the continuous phase and the other component forms the discrete phase. The discrete phase consists of globules of the one fluid that are suspended in the continuous phase fluid. Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly considered for combustion applications because emulsions can result in micro-explosion, thereby reducing the average drop diameter to enhance liquid vaporization, and suppressing the formation of soot and NOx. However, the water addition generally does not exceed about 20% for smooth engine operations[!, 21. The combustion characteristics and micro-explosion of emulsion drop were studied by many researchers. The micro-explosion of water in fuel emulsion drops was caused by very fast growth of superheated water vapor bubbles, its superheat limits must be lower than the boiling point temperature of the fuel. These bubbles were primarily governed by the pressure difference between the superheated vapor and the liquid, and by the inertia imparted to the liquid by the motion of the bubble surface[3 6 In this study, we used a coaxial nozzle to generation the multi-component drop. The different type of water-in-oil fuel drops called the compound drops. Unlike an emulsion drop, a compound drop consists of a water core and a fuel shell, which can originate from the phase separation of emulsion[7, 81 or a water drop colliding with a fuel drop[9, 101 Burning and micro-explosion of compound drops have been found to be distinct from those of emulsion drops[9-111 Wang et al.[9 , 101 studied the combustion characteristics of collision merged alkane-water drops. The merged drops appeared in adhesive and inserted manners. The drop ignition delay time increased with increasing water content. The average burning rate of alkane-water drops decreased with increasing water content. In the burning process, hexadecane-water drops exhibited flash vaporization or flame extinction. Heterogeneous explosion was occasionally observed in drops with trapped air bubbles. The air bubbles were assumed to be the nucleation points of the heterogeneous explosions. Chen and Lin[11 studied the characteristics of water-in-dodecane compound drop with different water content, diameter of drop and environmental oxygen concentration. The vaporization rate increased with increasing environmental oxygen concentration. The compound drops micro-exploded during the burning process in a random way. The number of micro-explosions was majorly influenced by drop diameter, followed by environmental oxygen concentration. Water content had a weaker effect on micro-explosion. As available literature and research results of compound drop burning are scarce, their combustion and micro-explosion behaviors are still poorly understood. In this regard, we changed the drop nature as compound drops to study their combustion characteristics and micro-explosion phenomena.

Chen, Chun-Kuei; Lin, Ta-Hui

2014-08-01

3

Optical applications of two-photon and microexplosion lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-Photon Microfabrication and Microexplosion Lithography are methods of patterning material with laser light. Differing from other forms of photolithography, these techniques rely on the nonlinear interaction between an ultrafast pulsed light source and uniquely absorbing material to achieve a sub-microscopic 3D pattern. From a quantum mechanical perspective, the material is understood to be absorbing more than one photon at a

Aaron Cody Young

2007-01-01

4

Micro-explosion of a water-in-hexadecane compound drop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The micro-explosion of a water-in-oil compound drop, without emulsification, was investigated experimentally. The compound drop, composed of a water core encased by an n-hexadecane shell, was suspended and heated to micro-explosion. The heating process and the micro-explosion behavior were recorded by a high-speed video system, and the temperature history of the compound drop was measured under three ambient temperatures, namely

Wei-Dong Hsieh; Rong-Horng Chen; Cheng-Wen Chen; Sheng-Lin Chiu; Ta-Hui Lin

2012-01-01

5

An Experimental Investigation of Microexplosion in Emulsified Vegetable-Methanol Blend  

E-print Network

in emulsions causes a high probability of microexplosion event due to the sudden expansion of the emulsified fluid. Also, the effect of size on microexplosion was evident in the greater probability of explosion. Methanol-in-canola oil emulsion with 15...

Nam, Hyungseok

2012-07-16

6

Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion  

PubMed Central

At extreme pressures and temperatures, such as those inside planets and stars, common materials form new dense phases with compacted atomic arrangements and unusual physical properties. The synthesis and study of new phases of matter at pressures above 100 GPa and temperatures above 104 K—warm dense matter—may reveal the functional details of planet and star interiors, and may lead to materials with extraordinary properties. Many phases have been predicted theoretically that may be realized once appropriate formation conditions are found. Here we report the synthesis of a superdense stable phase of body-centred-cubic aluminium, predicted by first-principles theories to exist at pressures above 380 GPa. The superdense Al phase was synthesized in the non-equilibrium conditions of an ultrafast laser-induced microexplosion confined inside sapphire (?-Al2O3). Confined microexplosions offer a strategy to create and recover high-density polymorphs, and a simple method for tabletop study of warm dense matter. PMID:21863012

Vailionis, Arturas; Gamaly, Eugene G.; Mizeikis, Vygantas; Yang, Wenge; Rode, Andrei V.; Juodkazis, Saulius

2011-01-01

7

Anisotropic properties of ultrafast laser-driven microexplosions in lithium niobate crystal  

SciTech Connect

Smooth voids are achieved in an anisotropic Fe:LiNbO{sub 3} crystal with a high refractive index by use of a femtosecond laser-driven microexplosion method. Due to the anisotropy of the crystal, the maximum fabrication depth and the fabrication power threshold are different in different crystal directions, indicating that the direction perpendicular to the crystal axis is more suitable for thick three-dimensional structure fabrication. The dependence of the threshold power on the illumination wavelength shows that the microexplosion mechanism is caused by a two-photon absorption process. As a result, a near threshold fabrication method can be used to generate quasispherical voids.

Zhou Guangyong; Gu Min [center for Micro-Photonics and center for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

2005-12-12

8

The droplet group microexplosions in water-in-oil emulsion sprays and their effects on diesel engine combustion  

SciTech Connect

To clarify the combustion mechanism of water-in-diesel fuel emulsion sprays and to evaluate the possible benefit of emulsions in practical usage, combustion bomb experiments, dynamic engine tests, and computer simulation were carried out, and some useful conclusions have been reached. The droplet group (lump-fashioned) microexplosions in water-in-diesel fuel emulsion sprays on an eddy-size scale during the atomization, evaporation, and combustion processes in a high-pressure, high-temperature bomb were observed with a multipulsed, off-axis, image-plane, ruby laser holocamera and a high-speed camera. The explosions eject droplet fragments from the spray region to several millimeters away, improving the fuel-air mixing process and speeding up the flame propagation. A no-water layer formed by a Hill vortex was also observed in emulsion droplets. The ambient temperature has the most important influence on the occurrence and violence of the microexplosion. Road-load-simulation engine tests were carried out on a dynamic engine test bed. The experimental results show that emulsion fuels have no significant influence on fuel consumption and reduce engine torque if no adjustment is made for the injection system, but that smoke emission is much improved when emulsion fuel is used. The combustion characteristics and the rate of heat release are also analyzed to reveal the difference between emulsion and diesel fuel. The relationships between the optimum water percentages and fuel consumption under various operating conditions were analyzed by numerical combustion modeling.

Sheng, H.Z.; Chen, L.; Zhang, Z.P.; Wu, C.K. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Mechanics; An, C.; Cheng, C.Q. [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Dept. of Vehicle Engineering

1994-12-31

9

Autonomous and Autonomic Swarms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A watershed in systems engineering is represented by the advent of swarm-based systems that accomplish missions through cooperative action by a (large) group of autonomous individuals each having simple capabilities and no global knowledge of the group s objective. Such systems, with individuals capable of surviving in hostile environments, pose unprecedented challenges to system developers. Design and testing and verification at much higher levels will be required, together with the corresponding tools, to bring such systems to fruition. Concepts for possible future NASA space exploration missions include autonomous, autonomic swarms. Engineering swarm-based missions begins with understanding autonomy and autonomicity and how to design, test, and verify systems that have those properties and, simultaneously, the capability to accomplish prescribed mission goals. Formal methods-based technologies, both projected and in development, are described in terms of their potential utility to swarm-based system developers.

Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter F.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Sterritt, Roy

2005-01-01

10

Subsurface Mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Target areas for sinking base holes, underground pipelines, etc., can be identified with the assistance of NASA Ames developed technology, by Airborne Pipeline Services, Inc. Subsurface features are computer processed; the system can cover 250 miles a day and was first developed by Applied Science, Inc.

1985-01-01

11

Autonomic Dysreflexia  

MedlinePLUS

... you have concerns, talk with your doctor. MEDICAL ALERT CARD Autonomic dysreflexia is a potentially fatal condition ... medical personnel and insist that the card MEDICAL ALERT Autonomic Dysreflexia (AD) A potentially life-threatening condition ...

12

Autonomic neuropathies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A limited autonomic neuropathy may underlie some unusual clinical syndromes, including the postural tachycardia syndrome, pseudo-obstruction syndrome, heat intolerance, and perhaps chronic fatigue syndrome. Antibodies to autonomic structures are common in diabetes, but their specificity is unknown. The presence of autonomic failure worsens prognosis in the diabetic state. Some autonomic neuropathies are treatable. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy may respond to liver transplantation. There are anecdotal reports of acute panautonomic neuropathy responding to intravenous gamma globulin. Orthostatic hypotension may respond to erythropoietin or midodrine.

Low, P. A.

1998-01-01

13

First Results in the Autonomous Retrieval of Buried Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an autonomous system for the retrieval of buried objects. It is designed to detect, locate and retrieve buried objects. The system is equipped with a hydraulic robot, laser range finder and a subsurface sensor. First, subsurface sensing is used to detect and locate buried objects. If an object can be reached with one dig, the excavator retrieves

Herman Herman; Sanjiv Singh

1994-01-01

14

Subsurface charge accumulation imaging  

E-print Network

1 Subsurface charge accumulation imaging of a quantum Hall liquid S.H. Tessmer*, P.I. Glicofridis scanning-probe technique-- `subsurface charge accumulation' imaging-- that permits very high resolution-scale electronic structures that exist in the quantum Hall regime. The subsurface charge accumulation (SCA) probe

Tessmer, Stuart

15

Deep-water subsurface imagingusing OBS interferometry Olivier Carrire1  

E-print Network

Deep-water subsurface imagingusing OBS interferometry Olivier Carrière1 and Peter Gerstoft1 acquired at Woolsey Mound, a very active carbonate/ hydrates structure in Mississippi Canyon Lease Block at different resolutions (backscatter, autonomous underwater vehicle [AUV], and shallow source/deep receiver

Buckingham, Michael

16

Dynamic response and maneuvering strategies of a hybrid autonomous underwater vehicle in hovering  

E-print Network

The Odyssey IV autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is the next generation of unmanned subsurface robots from the MIT Sea Grant AUV Laboratory. The Odyssey IV AUV has a novel propulsion system, which includes a pair of ...

Cooney, Lauren Alise

2009-01-01

17

Autonomic dysreflexia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To raise family physicians’ awareness of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to provide some suggestions for intervention. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched from 1970 to July 2011 using the terms autonomic dysreflexia and spinal cord injury with family medicine or primary care. Other relevant guidelines and resources were reviewed and used. Main message Family physicians often lack confidence in treating patients with SCI, see them as complex and time-consuming, and feel undertrained to meet their needs. Family physicians provide a vital component of the health care of such patients, and understanding of the unique medical conditions related to SCI is important. Autonomic dysreflexia is an important, common, and potentially serious condition with which many family physicians are unfamiliar. This article will review the signs and symptoms of AD and offer some acute management options and preventive strategies for family physicians. Conclusion Family physicians should be aware of which patients with SCI are susceptible to AD and monitor those affected by it. Outlined is an approach to acute management. Family physicians play a pivotal role in prevention of AD through education (of the patient and other health care providers) and incorporation of strategies such as appropriate bladder, bowel, and skin care practices and warnings and management plans in the medical chart. PMID:22893332

Milligan, James; Lee, Joseph; McMillan, Colleen; Klassen, Hilary

2012-01-01

18

Subsurface Microbiology and Biogeochemistry  

SciTech Connect

Jim contributed a chapter to this book, in addition to co-editing it with Madilyn Fletcher. Fredrickson, J. K., and M. Fletcher. (eds.) 2001 Subsurface Microbiology and Biogeochemistry. Wiley-Liss, Inc., New York.

Fredrickson, Jim K.; Fletcher, Madilyn

2001-05-01

19

Deep subsurface microbial processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences 1 the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of other habitats, the study of deep subsurface microbiology is still in its infancy.

Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

1995-01-01

20

Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to develop a Subsurface Facility layout that is capable of accommodating the statutory capacity of 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU), as well as an option to expand the inventory capacity, if authorized, to 97,000 MTU. The layout configuration also requires a degree of flexibility to accommodate potential changes in site conditions or program requirements. The objective of this analysis is to provide a conceptual design of the Subsurface Facility sufficient to support the development of the Subsurface Facility System Description Document (CRWMS M&O 2000e) and the ''Emplacement Drift System Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 2000i). As well, this analysis provides input to the Site Recommendation Consideration Report. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Evaluation of the existing facilities and their integration into the Subsurface Facility design. (2) Identification and incorporation of factors influencing Subsurface Facility design, such as geological constraints, thermal loading, constructibility, subsurface ventilation, drainage control, radiological considerations, and the Test and Evaluation Facilities. (3) Development of a layout showing an available area in the primary area sufficient to support both the waste inventories and individual layouts showing the emplacement area required for 70,000 MTU and, if authorized, 97,000 MTU.

C.L. Linden

2000-06-28

21

Subsurface Contamination Control  

SciTech Connect

There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the subsurface repository; (2) provides a table of derived LRCL for nuclides of radiological importance; (3) Provides an as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) evaluation of the derived LRCL by comparing potential onsite and offsite doses to documented ALARA requirements; (4) Provides a method for estimating potential releases from a defective WP; (5) Provides an evaluation of potential radioactive releases from a defective WP that may become airborne and result in contamination of the subsurface facility; and (6) Provides a preliminary analysis of the detectability of a potential WP leak to support the design of an airborne release monitoring system.

Y. Yuan

2001-12-12

22

The Serpentinite Subsurface Microbiome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial habitats hosted in ultramafic rocks constitute substantial, globally-distributed portions of the subsurface biosphere, occurring both on the continents and beneath the seafloor. The aqueous alteration of ultramafics, in a process known as serpentinization, creates energy rich, high pH conditions, with low concentrations of inorganic carbon which place fundamental constraints upon microbial metabolism and physiology. Despite their importance, very few studies have attempted to directly access and quantify microbial activities and distributions in the serpentinite subsurface microbiome. We have initiated microbiological studies of subsurface seeps and rocks at three separate continental sites of serpentinization in Newfoundland, Italy, and California and compared these results to previous analyses of the Lost City field, near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In all cases, microbial cell densities in seep fluids are extremely low, ranging from approximately 100,000 to less than 1,000 cells per milliliter. Culture-independent analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed low-diversity microbial communities related to Gram-positive Firmicutes and hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria. Interestingly, unlike Lost City, there has been little evidence for significant archaeal populations in the continental subsurface to date. Culturing studies at the sites yielded numerous alkaliphilic isolates on nutrient-rich agar and putative iron-reducing bacteria in anaerobic incubations, many of which are related to known alkaliphilic and subsurface isolates. Finally, metagenomic data reinforce the culturing results, indicating the presence of genes associated with organotrophy, hydrogen oxidation, and iron reduction in seep fluid samples. Our data provide insight into the lifestyles of serpentinite subsurface microbial populations and targets for future quantitative exploration using both biochemical and geochemical approaches.

Schrenk, M. O.; Nelson, B. Y.; Brazelton, W. J.

2011-12-01

23

Tracking Subsurface Water  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Jeff Wynn, Herb Pierce and Chris Lockett (R to L) observe the incoming data used to measure water conductivity in the deep (900+ m) subsurface at Mount St. Helens. Water, from rain, melting snow and ice, seeps into the rubble of the crater floor. The water fills the pore spaces and interacts with st...

24

SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES).

T. Wilson; R. Novotny

1999-11-22

25

Subsurface energy footprints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic climate change and energy security concerns have created a demand for new ways of meeting society’s demand for energy. The Earth’s crust is being targeted in a variety of energy developments to either extract energy or facilitate the use of other energy resources by sequestering emitted carbon dioxide. Unconventional fossil fuel developments are already being pursued in great numbers, and large scale carbon capture and sequestration and geothermal energy projects have been proposed. In many cases, these developments compete for the same subsurface environments and they are not necessarily compatible with each other. Policy to regulate the interplay between these developments is poorly developed. Here, the subsurface footprints necessary to produce a unit of energy from different developments are estimated to assist with subsurface planning. The compatibility and order of development is also examined to aid policy development. Estimated subsurface energy footprints indicate that carbon capture and sequestration and geothermal energy developments are better choices than unconventional gas to supply clean energy.

Ferguson, Grant

2013-03-01

26

Subsurface traps for impurities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After considering the main contributions to the self-energy of a charged particle in a host lattice, an estimate of the strain energy is calculated which shows a minimum just under the surface for the case where the top layer is loosely bound to the rest of the crystal. Leading in this way to a subsurface trap.

Lagos, M.; Mahanty, J.; Slusarenko, V.

27

Subsurface traps for impurities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After considering the main contributions to the self-energy of a charged particle in a host lattice, an estimate of the strain energy is calculated which shows a minimum just under the surface for the case where the top layer is loosely bound to the rest of the crystal. Leading in this way to a subsurface trap.

Lagos, M.; Mahanty, J.; Slusarenko, V.

1987-11-01

28

Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development

Eric Loros

2001-01-01

29

Autonomous Soaring Flight Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

Allen, Michael J.

2006-01-01

30

Applications of subsurface microscopy.  

PubMed

Exploring the interior of a cell is of tremendous importance in order to assess the effects of nanomaterials on biological systems. Outside of a controlled laboratory environment, nanomaterials will most likely not be conveniently labeled or tagged so that their translocation within a biological system cannot be easily identified and quantified. Ideally, the characterization of nanomaterials within a cell requires a nondestructive, label-free, and subsurface approach. Subsurface nanoscale imaging represents a real challenge for instrumentation. Indeed the tools available for high resolution characterization, including optical, electron or scanning probe microscopies, mainly provide topography images or require taggants that fluoresce. Although the intercellular environment holds a great deal of information, subsurface visualization remains a poorly explored area. Recently, it was discovered that by mechanically perturbing a sample, it was possible to observe its response in time with nanoscale resolution by probing the surface with a micro-resonator such as a microcantilever probe. Microcantilevers are used as the force-sensing probes in atomic force microscopy (AFM), where the nanometer-scale probe tip on the microcantilever interacts with the sample in a highly controlled manner to produce high-resolution raster-scanned information of the sample surface. Taking advantage of the existing capabilities of AFM, we present a novel technique, mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy (MSAFM), which has the ability to probe subsurface structures such as non-labeled nanoparticles embedded in a cell. In MSAFM mechanical actuators (PZTs) excite the probe and the sample at different frequencies as depicted in the first figure of this chapter. The nonlinear nature of the tip-sample interaction, at the point of contact of the probe and the surface of the sample, in the contact mode AFM configuration permits the mixing of the elastic waves. The new dynamic system comprises new synthesized imaging modes, resulting from sum- and difference-frequency generation of the driving frequencies. The specific electronics of MSAFM allows the selection of individual modes and the monitoring of their amplitude and phase. From these quantities of various synthesized modes a series of images can be acquired. The new images contain subsurface information, thus revealing the presence of nanoparticles inside the cells. PMID:22975973

Tetard, Laurene; Passian, Ali; Farahi, Rubye H; Voy, Brynn H; Thundat, Thomas

2012-01-01

31

Applications of Subsurface Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Exploring the interior of a cell is of tremendous importance in order to assess the effects of nanomaterials on biological systems. Outside of a controlled laboratory environment, nanomaterials will most likely not be conveniently labeled or tagged so that their translocation within a biological system cannot be easily identified and quantified. Ideally, the characterization of nanomaterials within a cell requires a nondestructive, label-free, and subsurface approach. Subsurface nanoscale imaging represents a real challenge for instrumentation. Indeed the tools available for high resolution characterization, including optical, electron or scanning probe microscopies, mainly provide topography images or require tagants that fluoresce. Although the intercellular environment holds a great deal of information, subsurface visualization remains a poorly explored area. Recently, it was discovered that by mechanically perturbing a sample, it was possible to observe its response in time with nanoscale resolution by probing the surface with a micro-resonator such as a microcantilever probe (Figure 1). Microcantilevers are used as the force-sensing probes in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), where the nanometer-scale probe tip on the microcantilever interacts with the sample in a highly controlled manner to produce high-resolution raster-scanned information of the sample surface. Taking advantage of the existing capabilities of AFM, we present a novel technique, Mode Synthesizing Atomic Force Microscopy (MSAFM) (Figure 1), which has the ability to probe subsurface structures such as non-labeled nanoparticles embedded in a cell. In MSAFM mechanical actuators (PZTs) excite the probe and the sample at different frequencies as depicted in Figure 1. The nonlinear nature of the tip-sample interaction, at the point of contact of the probe and the surface of the sample, in the contact mode AFM configuration permits the mixing of the elastic waves. The new dynamic system comprises new synthesized imaging modes, resulting from sum- and difference-frequency generation of the driving frequencies. The specific electronics of MSAFM allows the selection of individual modes and the monitoring of their amplitude and phase. From these quantities of various synthesized modes a series of images can be acquired. The new images contain subsurface information, thus revealing the presence of nanoparticles inside the cells.

Tetard, Laurene [ORNL; Passian, Ali [ORNL; Farahi, R H [ORNL; Voy, Brynn H [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

2012-01-01

32

Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy is an idiopathic acquired disorder of the autonomic nervous system associated with antibodies to the ganglionic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor found in sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric ganglia. Symptoms and signs reflect diffuse impairment of autonomic functions. Prominent features are gastrointestinal dysmotility, orthostatic hypotension, and tonic pupils. Typical cases have a subacute onset (less than 3 months to maximum

Nicole Winston; Steven Vernino

2009-01-01

33

Autonomic failure in hydrencephaly  

PubMed Central

Autonomic functions were studied in three patients with hydrencephalus and five with hydrocephalus. Autonomic failure of central origin was found in the patients with hydrencephalus; whereas, those suffering from hydrocephalus had essentially normal autonomic function. In two patients with hydrencephalus, the hypothalamus was markedly abnormal but the rest of the autonomic nervous system was histologically normal. From this it is concluded that in some patients with mental and motor retardation, autonomic failure may be of cerebral origin but that this is not a feature of patients with hydrocephalus. Images PMID:5505683

Appenzeller, Otto; Snyder, Russell; Kornfeld, Mario

1970-01-01

34

Collapsed Subsurface Channel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

16 April 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows evidence of a collapsed lava tube (or other form of subterranean channel) on the plains northwest of the Elysium volcanoes. Lava or another fluid (e.g., water) was transported through a subsurface channel; later, the roof collapsed to form a series of pits and troughs, revealing the channel's location. This landform is located near 32.7oN, 219.5oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

2004-01-01

35

Manual on Subsurface Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of twelve modules that constitute a comprehensive training course in geotechnical and foundation engineering. Sponsored by the National Highway Institute (NHI) of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the training course is given at different locations in the U.S. The intended audience includes civil engineers and engineering geologists involved in the design and construction of transportation facilities. This manual is designed to present the latest methodologies in the planning,execution and interpretation of the various subsurface investigation methods, and the development of appropriate soil and rock parameters for engineering applications

2008-10-13

36

SUBSURFACE FACILITY WORKER DOES ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this design calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the subsurface facility of the repository performing emplacement, maintenance, and retrieval operations under normal conditions. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the subsurface facilities and provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application.

V. Arakali; E. Faillace; A. Linden

2004-02-27

37

Containment of subsurface contaminants  

DOEpatents

A barrier for reducing the spread of a plume of subsurface contaminants. The apparatus includes a well system for injecting a fluid, such as air, just outside and below the periphery of the plume. The fluid is injected at a pressure sufficient to lower the hydraulic conductivity of the soil from the point of injection to the surface thus establishing a curtain-like barrier to groundwater movement. The barrier is established upgradient of the plume to divert groundwater away, or preferably completely around the plume to reduce the flow of groundwater into or out of the plume. The barrier enables the remediation of the confined contamination and then, when the injection of the fluid is halted, the barrier quickly dissipates.

Corey, John C. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01

38

Containment of subsurface contaminants  

DOEpatents

A barrier is disclosed for reducing the spread of a plume of subsurface contaminants. The apparatus includes a well system for injecting a fluid, such as air, just outside and below the periphery of the plume. The fluid is injected at a pressure sufficient to lower the hydraulic conductivity of the soil from the point of injection to the surface thus establishing a curtain-like barrier to groundwater movement. The barrier is established upgradient of the plume to divert groundwater away, or preferably completely around the plume to reduce the flow of groundwater into or out of the plume. The barrier enables the remediation of the confined contamination and then, when the injection of the fluid is halted, the barrier quickly dissipates. 5 figs.

Corey, J.C.

1994-09-06

39

Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document  

SciTech Connect

The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

Eric Loros

2001-07-25

40

Quantitative Autonomic Testing  

PubMed Central

Disorders associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system are quite common yet frequently unrecognized. Quantitative autonomic testing can be invaluable tool for evaluation of these disorders, both in clinic and research. There are number of autonomic tests, however, only few were validated clinically or are quantitative. Here, fully quantitative and clinically validated protocol for testing of autonomic functions is presented. As a bare minimum the clinical autonomic laboratory should have a tilt table, ECG monitor, continuous noninvasive blood pressure monitor, respiratory monitor and a mean for evaluation of sudomotor domain. The software for recording and evaluation of autonomic tests is critical for correct evaluation of data. The presented protocol evaluates 3 major autonomic domains: cardiovagal, adrenergic and sudomotor. The tests include deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, head-up tilt, and quantitative sudomotor axon test (QSART). The severity and distribution of dysautonomia is quantitated using Composite Autonomic Severity Scores (CASS). Detailed protocol is provided highlighting essential aspects of testing with emphasis on proper data acquisition, obtaining the relevant parameters and unbiased evaluation of autonomic signals. The normative data and CASS algorithm for interpretation of results are provided as well. PMID:21788940

Novak, Peter

2011-01-01

41

Precision autonomous underwater navigation  

E-print Network

Deep-sea archaeology, an emerging application of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) technology, requires precise navigation and guidance. As science requirements and engineering capabilities converge, navigating in the ...

Bingham, Brian S. (Brian Steven), 1973-

2003-01-01

42

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy.  

PubMed

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy is an idiopathic acquired disorder of the autonomic nervous system associated with antibodies to the ganglionic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor found in sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric ganglia. Symptoms and signs reflect diffuse impairment of autonomic functions. Prominent features are gastrointestinal dysmotility, orthostatic hypotension, and tonic pupils. Typical cases have a subacute onset (less than 3 months to maximum symptoms), are monophasic, and may show partial improvement over the course of several months. Other cases have a slowly progressive course which can resemble degenerative forms of autonomic failure. Treatment for milder cases is supportive care for symptom management. Anecdotally, plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin, corticosteroids or immunosuppression have been used successfully to treat more severe cases. Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy represents one of a small group of autoimmune neuromuscular disorders that are caused by antibodies against ion channels. PMID:19349706

Winston, Nicole; Vernino, Steven

2009-01-01

43

Adverse possession of subsurface minerals  

SciTech Connect

Concepts applicable to adverse possession of subsurface minerals are generally the same as those that apply to adverse possession of all real estate. However, special requirements must be satisfied in order to perfect title to subsurface minerals by adverse possession, particularly when there has been a severance of the true title between surface and subsurface minerals. In those jurisdictions where senior and junior grants came from the state or commonwealth covering the same or some of the same land and in those areas where descriptions of land were vague or not carefully drawn, adverse possession serves to solidify land and mineral ownership. There may be some public, social, and economic justification in rewarding, with good title, those who take possession and use real estate for its intended use, including the extraction of subsurface minerals. 96 refernces.

Bowles, P.N.

1983-01-01

44

Autonomous search for mines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on demining includes many different aspects, and in particular the design of efficient and intelligent strategies for (1) determining regions of interest using a variety of sensors, (2) detecting and classifying mines, and (3) searching for mines by autonomous agents. This paper discusses strategies for directing autonomous search based on spatio-temporal distributions. We discuss a model for search assuming that the environment is static, except for the effect of identifying mine locations. Algorithms are designed and compared for autonomously directing a robot, in the case where a single search engine carrying a single sensor.

Gelenbe, Erol; Cao, Yonghuan

1997-07-01

45

Autonomous river navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing maritime navigation and reconnaissance systems require man-in-the-loop situation awareness for obstacle avoidance, area survey analysis, threat assessment, and mission re-planning. We have developed a boat with fully autonomous navigation, surveillance, and reactive behaviors. Autonomous water navigation is achieved with no prior maps or other data - the water surface, riverbanks obstacles, movers and salient objects are discovered and mapped in real-time using a circular array of cameras along with a self-directed pan-tilt camera. The autonomous boat has been tested on harbor and river domains. Results of the detection, tracking, mapping and navigation will be presented.

Snyder, Franklin D.; Morris, Daniel D.; Haley, Paul H.; Collins, Robert T.; Okerholm, Andrea M.

2004-12-01

46

Autonomous Virtual Mobile Nodes  

E-print Network

This paper presents a new abstraction for virtual infrastructure in mobile ad hoc networks. An AutonomousVirtual Mobile Node (AVMN) is a robust and reliable entity that is designed to cope with theinherent difficulties ...

Dolev, Shlomi

2005-06-15

47

An autonomous benthic lander  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, multi-purpose autonomous benthic lander is described, and preliminary experimental data are presented relating to deployments in the Atlantic Frontier (eastern north Atlantic) during the recent UK Thematic Programme ‘BENBO’. The autonomous lander was deployed at two contrasting sites — Site A (mouth of Rockall Trough; 3570m) and Site B (Hatton-Rockall Bank; 1100m) — before and following the spring-time

Kevin S Black; Gary R Fones; Oli C Peppe; Hilary A Kennedy; Ilhem Bentaleb

2001-01-01

48

Autonomous Flight Safety System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

Simpson, James

2010-01-01

49

Towards autonomous fuzzy control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The efficient implementation of on-line adaptation in real time is an important research problem in fuzzy control. The goal is to develop autonomous self-organizing controllers employing system-independent control meta-knowledge which enables them to adjust their control policies depending on the systems they control and the environments in which they operate. An autonomous fuzzy controller would continuously observe system behavior while implementing its control actions and would use the outcomes of these actions to refine its control policy. It could be designed to lie dormant when its control actions give rise to adequate performance characteristics but could rapidly and autonomously initiate real-time adaptation whenever its performance degrades. Such an autonomous fuzzy controller would have immense practical value. It could accommodate individual variations in system characteristics and also compensate for degradations in system characteristics caused by wear and tear. It could also potentially deal with black-box systems and control scenarios. On-going research in autonomous fuzzy control is reported. The ultimate research objective is to develop robust and relatively inexpensive autonomous fuzzy control hardware suitable for use in real time environments.

Shenoi, Sujeet; Ramer, Arthur

1993-01-01

50

[Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy].  

PubMed

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is a disorder of isolated autonomic failure associated with antibodies to the nitotinic acetylcholine receptor of the autonomic ganglia resulting in severe autonomic dysfunction. The disorder is associated with and most likely caused by antibodies to gAChR. In this study, we attempted to develop a novel technique to detect antibodies that bind to gAChR. We established a simple in vitro system termed GLIP (gaussia luciferase-reporter immunoprecipitation), which can detect protein-protein interactions with high sensitivity and using no radioisotope. Using this new method, we extensively reviewed the case histories with current clinical and laboratory evaluations that include testing for antibodies to p3 and 34 subunits of gAChR in serum available from the time of symptom onset. Here, we describe 7 patients with gAChR autoantibody and autonomic dysfunction. Our observations also suggest that autoimmune-mediated impairment of autonomic function may be partially reversible. Six of 7 patients improved in response to immunotherapy (e.g. PP, IVMP, IVIg, and immunosuppressant drugs) with symptomatic therapy. We interpreted the improvement in clinical symptoms correlated with the decrease in the levels of anti gAChR antibodies in each case. Some patients with seropositive AAG respond to treatment with IVMP or PP or IVIg, although when used as a single agent, subsequent treatments are required in patients to maintain the improvement. PMID:24291882

Nakane, Shunya

2013-01-01

51

Measuring isotropic subsurface light transport.  

PubMed

Subsurface light transport can affect the visual appearance of materials significantly. Measuring and modeling this phenomenon is crucial for accurately reproducing colors in printing or for rendering translucent objects on displays. In this paper, we propose an apparatus to measure subsurface light transport employing a reference material to cancel out adverse signals that may bias the results. In contrast to other approaches, the setup enables improved focusing on rough surfaces (e.g. uncoated paper). We derive a measurement equation that may be used to deduce the point spread function (PSF) of subsurface light transport. Main contributions are the usage of spectrally-narrowband exchangeable LEDs allowing spectrally-resolved measurements and an approach based on quadratic programming for reconstructing PSFs in the case of isotropic light transport. PMID:24787793

Happel, Kathrin; Dörsam, Edgar; Urban, Philipp

2014-04-21

52

ESF Subsurface Standby Generator Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to outline and recommend two standby generator systems. These systems shall provide power during a utility outage to critical Alcove No.5's thermal test loads and to subsurface flow through ventilation loads. Critical loads that will be supported by these generator systems will be identified and evaluated. Additionally, other requirements from the Exploratory Studies Facilities Design Requirements (ESFDR) document will be evaluated. Finally, the standby generator systems will be integrated into the existing ESF subsurface distribution system. The objective of this analysis is to provide design inputs for an efficient and reliable standby generator systems which will provide power for critical loads during a power outage; specifically, Alcove No.5's thermal test loads and the subsurface flow through ventilation loads. Additionally, preliminary one-line diagrams will be developed using this analysis as a primary input.

L. Fernandez

1998-04-17

53

Autonomic cardiac innervation  

PubMed Central

Autonomic cardiac neurons have a common origin in the neural crest but undergo distinct developmental differentiation as they mature toward their adult phenotype. Progenitor cells respond to repulsive cues during migration, followed by differentiation cues from paracrine sources that promote neurochemistry and differentiation. When autonomic axons start to innervate cardiac tissue, neurotrophic factors from vascular tissue are essential for maintenance of neurons before they reach their targets, upon which target-derived trophic factors take over final maturation, synaptic strength and postnatal survival. Although target-derived neurotrophins have a central role to play in development, alternative sources of neurotrophins may also modulate innervation. Both developing and adult sympathetic neurons express proNGF, and adult parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons also synthesize and release NGF. The physiological function of these “non-classical” cardiac sources of neurotrophins remains to be determined, especially in relation to autocrine/paracrine sustenance during development.   Cardiac autonomic nerves are closely spatially associated in cardiac plexuses, ganglia and pacemaker regions and so are sensitive to release of neurotransmitter, neuropeptides and trophic factors from adjacent nerves. As such, in many cardiac pathologies, it is an imbalance within the two arms of the autonomic system that is critical for disease progression. Although this crosstalk between sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves has been well established for adult nerves, it is unclear whether a degree of paracrine regulation occurs across the autonomic limbs during development. Aberrant nerve remodeling is a common occurrence in many adult cardiovascular pathologies, and the mechanisms regulating outgrowth or denervation are disparate. However, autonomic neurons display considerable plasticity in this regard with neurotrophins and inflammatory cytokines having a central regulatory function, including in possible neurotransmitter changes. Certainly, neurotrophins and cytokines regulate transcriptional factors in adult autonomic neurons that have vital differentiation roles in development. Particularly for parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons, additional examinations of developmental regulatory mechanisms will potentially aid in understanding attenuated parasympathetic function in a number of conditions, including heart failure. PMID:23872607

Hasan, Wohaib

2013-01-01

54

Thinking Ahead: Autonomic Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The time has come for the commercial buildings industries to reconsider the very nature of the systems installed in facilities today and to establish a vision for future buildings that differs from anything in the history of human shelter. Drivers for this examination include reductions in building operation staffs; uncertain costs and reliability of electric power; growing interest in energy-efficient and resource-conserving?green? and?high-performance? commercial buildings; and a dramatic increase in security concerns since the tragic events of September 11. This paper introduces a new paradigm? autonomic buildings? which parallels the concept of autonomic computing, introduced by IBM as a fundamental change in the way computer networks work. Modeled after the human nervous system,?autonomic systems? themselves take responsibility for a large portion of their own operation and even maintenance. For commercial buildings, autonomic systems could provide environments that afford occupants greater opportunity to focus on the things we do in buildings rather than on operation of the building itself, while achieving higher performance levels, increased security, and better use of energy and other natural resources. The author uses the human body and computer networking to introduce and illustrate this new paradigm for high-performance commercial buildings. He provides a vision for the future of commercial buildings based on autonomicity, identifies current research that could contribute to this future, and highlights research and technological gaps. The paper concludes with a set of issues and needs that are key to converting this idealized future into reality.

Brambley, Michael R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-08-31

55

SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of difficulty and complexity in determining requirements in adapting existing data communication highways to support the subsurface visual alarm system. These requirements would include such things as added or new communication cables, added Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Inputs and Outputs (I/O), and communication hardware components, and human machine interfaces and their software operating system. (4) Select the best data communication highway system based on this review of adapting or integrating with existing data communication systems.

D.W. Markman

2001-08-06

56

Architecture of autonomous systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

1989-01-01

57

Architecture of autonomous systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

1986-01-01

58

Microbial activity in the terrestrial subsurface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Little is known about the layers under the earth's crust. Only in recent years have techniques for sampling the deeper subsurface been developed to permit investigation of the subsurface environment. Prevailing conditions in the subsurface habitat such as nutrient availability, soil composition, redox potential, permeability and a variety of other factors can influence the microflora that flourish in a

J.-P. Kaiser; J.-M. Bollag

1990-01-01

59

Interactive subsurface scattering for translucent meshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a simple lighting model to incorporate subsurface scattering effects within the local illumination framework. Subsurface scattering is relatively local due to its exponential falloff and has little effect on the appearance of neighboring objects. These observations have motivated us to approximate the BSSRDF model and to model subsurface scattering effects by using only local illumination. Our model is

Xuejun Hao; Thomas Baby; Amitabh Varshney

2003-01-01

60

Autonomous In-Situ Resources Prospector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation will describe the concept of an autonomous, intelligent, rover-based rapid surveying system to identify and map several key lunar resources to optimize their ISRU (In Situ Resource Utilization) extraction potential. Prior to an extraction phase for any target resource, ground-based surveys are needed to provide confirmation of remote observation, to quantify and map their 3-D distribution, and to locate optimal extraction sites (e.g. ore bodies) with precision to maximize their economic benefit. The system will search for and quantify optimal minerals for oxygen production feedstock, water ice, and high glass-content regolith that can be used for building materials. These are targeted because of their utility and because they are, or are likely to be, variable in quantity over spatial scales accessible to a rover (i.e., few km). Oxygen has benefits for life support systems and as an oxidizer for propellants. Water is a key resource for sustainable exploration, with utility for life support, propellants, and other industrial processes. High glass-content regolith has utility as a feedstock for building materials as it readily sinters upon heating into a cohesive matrix more readily than other regolith materials or crystalline basalts. Lunar glasses are also a potential feedstock for oxygen production, as many are rich in iron and titanium oxides that are optimal for oxygen extraction. To accomplish this task, a system of sensors and decision-making algorithms for an autonomous prospecting rover is described. One set of sensors will be located in the wheel tread of the robotic search vehicle providing contact sensor data on regolith composition. Another set of instruments will be housed on the platform of the rover, including VIS-NIR imagers and spectrometers, both for far-field context and near-field characterization of the regolith in the immediate vicinity of the rover. Also included in the sensor suite are a neutron spectrometer, ground-penetrating radar, and an instrumented cone penetrometer for subsurface assessment. Output from these sensors will be evaluated autonomously in real-time by decision-making software to evaluate if any of the targeted resources has been detected, and if so, to quantify their abundance. Algorithms for optimizing the mapping strategy based on target resource abundance and distribution are also included in the autonomous software. This approach emphasizes on-the-fly survey measurements to enable efficient and rapid prospecting of large areas, which will improve the economics of ISRU system approaches. The mature technology will enable autonomous rovers to create in-situ resource maps of lunar or other planetary surfaces, which will facilitate human and robotic exploration.

Dissly, R. W.; Buehler, M. G.; Schaap, M. G.; Nicks, D.; Taylor, G. J.; Castano, R.; Suarez, D.

2004-01-01

61

[Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy and acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy].  

PubMed

Autonomic neuropathies may occur primarily or secondarily to various underlying diseases. Primary autonomic neuropathies are divided into pure autonomic neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy with sensory impairment, and autonomic neuropathy with sensory and motor impairment based on the concomitance or absence of sensory or motor dysfunctions. Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy refers to a pure autonomic neuropathy, which typically affects both cholinergic and adrenergic functions. About a half of the patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy are positive for anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies. The mode of progression widely ranges from acute to chronic, including that mimicking pure autonomic failure. The number of unmyelinated fibers in the sural nerve biopsy specimens tends to decrease with the duration of disease become longer. Immunomodulatory treatments are suggested to be effective for autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. Acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy is characterized by autonomic and sensory impairment without motor dysfunction that reaches its nadir within a short period of time mimicking the progression of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The monophasic clinical course and frequent presence of a history of antecedent infections suggests a participation of immune mechanisms. The initial symptoms are those related to autonomic disturbance or superficial sensory impairment, while deep sensory impairment accompanied by sensory ataxia subsequently appears in some patients. Sural nerve biopsy specimens reveal small-fiber predominant axonal loss, and autopsy cases show neuronal loss in the thoracic sympathetic and dorsal root ganglia. Hence, small neurons in the autonomic and sensory ganglia may be affected in the initial phase and, subsequently, large neurons in the sensory ganglia are damaged in acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. PMID:24291976

Koike, Haruki; Sobue, Gen

2013-01-01

62

Remote real-time monitoring of subsurface landfill gas migration.  

PubMed

The cost of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites is of major concern for regulatory authorities. The current monitoring procedure is recognised as labour intensive, requiring agency inspectors to physically travel to perimeter borehole wells in rough terrain and manually measure gas concentration levels with expensive hand-held instrumentation. In this article we present a cost-effective and efficient system for remotely monitoring landfill subsurface migration of methane and carbon dioxide concentration levels. Based purely on an autonomous sensing architecture, the proposed sensing platform was capable of performing complex analytical measurements in situ and successfully communicating the data remotely to a cloud database. A web tool was developed to present the sensed data to relevant stakeholders. We report our experiences in deploying such an approach in the field over a period of approximately 16 months. PMID:22163975

Fay, Cormac; Doherty, Aiden R; Beirne, Stephen; Collins, Fiachra; Foley, Colum; Healy, John; Kiernan, Breda M; Lee, Hyowon; Maher, Damien; Orpen, Dylan; Phelan, Thomas; Qiu, Zhengwei; Zhang, Kirk; Gurrin, Cathal; Corcoran, Brian; O'Connor, Noel E; Smeaton, Alan F; Diamond, Dermot

2011-01-01

63

Remote Real-Time Monitoring of Subsurface Landfill Gas Migration  

PubMed Central

The cost of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites is of major concern for regulatory authorities. The current monitoring procedure is recognised as labour intensive, requiring agency inspectors to physically travel to perimeter borehole wells in rough terrain and manually measure gas concentration levels with expensive hand-held instrumentation. In this article we present a cost-effective and efficient system for remotely monitoring landfill subsurface migration of methane and carbon dioxide concentration levels. Based purely on an autonomous sensing architecture, the proposed sensing platform was capable of performing complex analytical measurements in situ and successfully communicating the data remotely to a cloud database. A web tool was developed to present the sensed data to relevant stakeholders. We report our experiences in deploying such an approach in the field over a period of approximately 16 months. PMID:22163975

Fay, Cormac; Doherty, Aiden R.; Beirne, Stephen; Collins, Fiachra; Foley, Colum; Healy, John; Kiernan, Breda M.; Lee, Hyowon; Maher, Damien; Orpen, Dylan; Phelan, Thomas; Qiu, Zhengwei; Zhang, Kirk; Gurrin, Cathal; Corcoran, Brian; O’Connor, Noel E.; Smeaton, Alan F.; Diamond, Dermot

2011-01-01

64

An Autonomous Blimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design of a lighter than air autonomous robot and its natural l andmark navigation system that operates in three dimensions. The robot has successfully flown the University banner at science shows and op en days under public scrutiny. The robot i s nearly 2m long and 0 .8m wide, making the robot suitable for use in

Gordon Wyeth; Ivan Barron

65

Autonomic Computer Vision Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most real applications of computer vision, variations in operating conditions result in poor reliability. As a result, real world applications tend to require lengthy set-up and frequent intervention by qualified specialists. In this paper we describe how autonomic computing can be used to reduce the cost of installation and enhance reliability for practical computer vision systems. We begin by

James L. Crowley; Daniela Hall; Remi Emonet

2007-01-01

66

Autonomic solar panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomic solar heat collecting system is provided. The heart of the system is a solar panel including a flat outer surface adapted to be exposed to the direction of the radiation of the sun. A flat or formed inner sheet is provided which is closely spaced from the outer surface section. Preferably, a flat, transparent plate is provided, which

F. S. Savage; A. D. Long

1978-01-01

67

Autonomous Optical Lunar Navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of optical autonomous navigation is investigated for low lunar orbits and for high elliptical lunar orbits. Various options for employing the camera measurements are presented and compared. Strategies for improving navigation performance are developed and applied to the Orion vehicle lunar mission

Zanetti, Renato; Crouse, Brian; D'souza, Chris

2009-01-01

68

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

1997-01-01

69

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1997-03-25

70

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is an acquired immune-mediated form of diffuse autonomic failure. Many patients have serum antibodies that bind to the ganglionic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) that mediate fast synaptic transmission in autonomic ganglia. Previous clinical studies and observations in animal models suggest that AAG is an antibody-mediated neurologic disorder. Methods Using whole-cell patch clamp techniques, we recorded ganglionic AChR currents in cultured human IMR-32 cells and examined the effects of bath application of IgG derived from patients with AAG. Results IgG from seven patients with AAG all produced a progressive decline in whole-cell ganglionic AChR current, whereas IgG from control subjects had no effect. The effect was abolished at low temperature. Fab antibody fragments had no effect unless a secondary antibody was added concurrently. IgG from one patient also produced a more immediate reduction of ganglionic AChR current. Conclusions The characteristics of antibody-mediated inhibition of ganglionic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) current are consistent with modulation and blocking of the membrane AChR, analogous to the effects of muscle AChR antibodies in myasthenia gravis. Our observations demonstrate that antibodies in patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) cause physiologic changes in ganglionic AChR function and confirm that AAG is an antibody-mediated disorder. PMID:17536048

Wang, Z.; Low, P.A.; Jordan, J.; Freeman, R.; Gibbons, C.H.; Schroeder, C.; Sandroni, P.; Vernino, S.

2008-01-01

71

Method of installing subsurface barrier  

DOEpatents

Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

Nickelson, Reva A. (Shelley, ID); Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sloan, Paul A. (Rigby, ID)

2007-10-09

72

Autonomous Sample Acquisition for Planetary and Small Body Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robotic drilling and autonomous sample acquisition are considered as the key technology requirements in future planetary or small body exploration missions. Core sampling or subsurface drilling operation is envisioned to be off rovers or landers. These supporting platforms are inherently flexible, light, and can withstand only limited amount of reaction forces and torques. This, together with unknown properties of sampled materials, makes the sampling operation a tedious task and quite challenging. This paper highlights the recent advancements in the sample acquisition control system design and development for the in situ scientific exploration of planetary and small interplanetary missions.

Ghavimi, Ali R.; Serricchio, Frederick; Dolgin, Ben; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

2000-01-01

73

INL Subsurface Wireless Sensor Platform  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory is developing a versatile micro-power sensor interface platform for periodic subsurface sensing of environmental variables important to waste disposal sites such as volumetric moisture, water potential, and temperature. The key characteristics of the platform architecture are that the platform is passive until externally energized --no internal power source is required -- and that it communicates with a "reader" via short-range telemetry - no wires penetrate the subsurface. Other significant attributes include the potential for a long service life and a compact size that makes it well suited for retrofitting existing landfill structures. Functionally, the sensor package is "read" by a short-range induction coil that activates and powers the sensor platform as well as detects the sensor output via a radio frequency signal generated by the onboard programmable interface controller microchip. As a result, the platform has a functional subsurface communication range of approximately 10 to 12 ft. and can only accept sensors that require low power to operate.

Dennis C. Kunerth; John M. Svoboda; James T. Johnson

2005-10-01

74

Computer stereograms of subsurface geology  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional stereoscopic illustrations formerly have been a standard part of the subsurface geologist's toolkit. Now the immense complexity of stereograms can be resolved by inexpensive software on a personal computer. The construction technique is a simple combination of known technology. The subsurface geologist can gain an entirely new viewpoint. These new illustrations yield new patterns, new relationships, and prospective anomalies. Stereograms are particularly effective for displaying and interpreting complex geology in a simple way. Experienced geologists sometimes can fail to appreciate the vertical relationships involved in contour maps. Stereograms provide a more natural view of the data. They are useful also for presenting subsurface geology to persons unfamiliar with standard contouring methods and for clarifying vertical relationships to more experienced viewers. Contour maps and block diagrams were constructed with readily available, inexpensive software using kriging algorithms. Stereo pairs were created by rotating the blocks 4 degrees within the computer program. The pairs were positioned 2.5 in. apart to match an average viewer's interpupillary distance. The three-dimensional blocks may be viewed with a stereoscope or with naked eyes focused upon a distant point.

Todd, H.W.

1988-01-01

75

Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers  

SciTech Connect

An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier.

Borns, D.J.

1995-08-01

76

Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.

2004-01-01

77

Autoimmune autonomic failure.  

PubMed

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy is a syndrome of panautonomic failure caused by antibodies to ganglionic acetylcholine receptors. The clinical syndrome is characterized by significant postural hypotension, diffuse cholinergic and adrenergic impairment, gastrointestinal dysmotility, urinary retention, and pupillary dysfunction. While acute to subacute onset of disease is commonly seen, chronic, slowly progressive variants have been described. Serological testing for ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies helps confirm the diagnosis. These antibodies cause a similar phenotype of autonomic failure in animal models indicating that an antibody-mediated functional impairment of ganglionic transmission is the underlying etiology. Decrease in antibody levels correlates with clinical improvement. Patients may respond to immunomodulatory therapies such as prednisone, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange, and oral immunosuppressants. A combination treatment is often required as well as symptomatic therapy. PMID:24095135

Muppidi, Srikanth; Vernino, Steven

2013-01-01

78

Autonomous Mobile Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given, as follows. Autonomous mobile networks are distributed ad-hoc networks of nodes that can sense, actuate, compute and communicate with each other using point-to-point multi-hop communication. The nodes in such networks include static sensors, mobile sensors, robots, and humans. Such systems combine the most advanced concepts in perception, communication and control to create computational systems capable of

Daniela Rus

2004-01-01

79

Autonomous mobile platform II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents design of autonomous mobile platform based on the all terrain 1\\/8th scale four wheel drive radio control model. In this paper was considered problem of automatic control of mobile platform using information from GPS system, electronic compass and encoder. The mobile platform is equipped in two-stroke glow engine, heavy-duty drive train and wide-track suspension and controller based

Krzysztof Jaskot; Artur Babiarz

2011-01-01

80

Nature's Autonomous Oscillators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

2012-01-01

81

Autonomous star tracker performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First in NASA's New Frontiers series of missions, the New Horizons spacecraft was successfully launched on January 19, 2006. New Horizons is scheduled to perform a gravity assist at Jupiter on February 28, 2007, arrive at Pluto on July 14, 2015; completing an extended mission to at least one Kuiper Belt Object in subsequent years. The concept of operations requires a star tracker that operates autonomously both in a standard three-axis "staring" mode during operations involving instrument observations and in a spin stabilized mode during cruise operations with nominal rotational rates up to 5 rpm. With the support of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Galileo Avionica redesigned their Autonomous Star Trackers (ASTR) to use time-delayed integration techniques to provide autonomous spacecraft attitude estimates at 10 Hz at spin rates up to 10 rpm. This paper will present the performance of the upgraded ASTR in both inertial stare and spin stabilized modes for the first six months of the mission. In addition, effects of the vehicle motion on performance, effects of stray light and direct Sun blinding on tracking and performance, and unanticipated "features" or characteristics of the ASTRs will be discussed.

Rogers, Gabe D.; Schwinger, Marsha R.; Kaidy, James T.; Strikwerda, Thomas E.; Casini, Roberto; Landi, Andrea; Bettarini, Rossano; Lorenzini, Stefano

2009-07-01

82

Pharmacotherapy of autonomic failure  

PubMed Central

The clinical picture of autonomic failure is characterized by severe and disabling orthostatic hypotension. These disorders can develop as a result of damage of central neural pathways or peripheral autonomic nerves, caused either by a primary autonomic neurodegenerative disorder or secondary to systemic illness. Treatment should be focused on decreasing presyncopal symptoms instead of achieving blood pressure goals. Non-pharmacologic strategies such as physical counter-maneuvers, dietary changes (i.e. high salt diet, rapid water drinking or compression garments) are the first line therapy. Affected patients should be screened for co-morbid conditions such as post-prandial hypotension and supine hypertension that can worsen orthostatic hypotension if not treated. If symptoms are not controlled with these conservative measures the next step is to start pharmacological agents; these interventions should be aimed at increasing intravascular volume either by promoting water and salt retention (fludrocortisone) or by increasing red blood cell mass when anemia is present (recombinant erythropoietin). When pressor agents are needed, direct pressor agents (midodrine) or agents that potentiate sympathetic activity (atomoxetine, yohimbine, pyridostigmine) can be used. It is preferable to use short-acting pressor agents that can be taken on as needed basis in preparation for upright activities. PMID:21664375

Shibao, Cyndya; Okamoto, Luis; Biaggioni, Italo

2012-01-01

83

Water flow in the subsurface  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are presented with a working geological model of the subsurface. This includes permeable and impermeable horizons, a simulated lake/river, and a number of wells. In the demonstration phase of the activity dyed water is injected at various points in the model. Students are asked to predict where this dye will travel. Examples are given of various real world scenarios, ranging from groundwater flow from a septic tank to the disposal of hazardous pollutants down a deep well. Students are then invited to experiment with the model in groups.

Goodliffe, Andrew M.

84

Phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

This project involves the development of group specific 16S ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the rapid detection of specific types of subsurface organisms (e.g., groups of microbes that share certain physiological traits). Major accomplishments for the period of 6/91 to 12/1/91 are described. Nine new probes have been synthesized on the basis of published 16S rRNA sequence data from the Ribosomal Database Project. We have initiated rapid screening of many of the subsurface microbial isolates obtained from the P24 borehole at the Savannah River Site. To date, we have screened approximately 50% of the isolates from P24. We have optimized our {und in situ} hybridization technique, and have developed a cell blot hybridization technique to screen 96 samples on a single blot. This is much faster than reading 96 individual slides. Preliminary experiments have been carried out which indicate specific nutrients can be used to amplify rRNA only in those organisms capable of metabolizing those nutrients. 1 tab., 2 figs.

Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.

1991-01-01

85

Submesoscale Coastal Ocean Flows Detected by Very High Frequency Radar and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a 29-day time series in July 1999, an ocean surface current radar (OSCR) in very high frequency (VHF) mode mapped the surface velocity field at 250-m resolution at 700 cells off Fort Lauderdale, Florida. During the experiment, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), equipped with upward- and downward-looking 1.2- MHz acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs), measured subsurface current structure over four

Lynn K. Shay; Thomas M. Cook; P. Edgar An

2003-01-01

86

Autonomous Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The continued assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) is the cornerstone within NASA's overall Strategic P an. As indicated in NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), the International Space Station requires Shuttle to fly through at least the middle of the next decade to complete assembly of the Station, provide crew transport, and to provide heavy lift up and down mass capability. The ISTP reflects a tight coupling among the Station, Shuttle, and OSP programs to support our Nation's space goal . While the Shuttle is a critical component of this ISTP, there is a new emphasis for the need to achieve greater efficiency and safety in transporting crews to and from the Space Station. This need is being addressed through the Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program. However, the OSP is being designed to "complement" the Shuttle as the primary means for crew transfer, and will not replace all the Shuttle's capabilities. The unique heavy lift capabilities of the Space Shuttle is essential for both ISS, as well as other potential missions extending beyond low Earth orbit. One concept under discussion to better fulfill this role of a heavy lift carrier, is the transformation of the Shuttle to an "un-piloted" autonomous system. This concept would eliminate the loss of crew risk, while providing a substantial increase in payload to orbit capability. Using the guidelines reflected in the NASA ISTP, the autonomous Shuttle a simplified concept of operations can be described as; "a re-supply of cargo to the ISS through the use of an un-piloted Shuttle vehicle from launch through landing". Although this is the primary mission profile, the other major consideration in developing an autonomous Shuttle is maintaining a crew transportation capability to ISS as an assured human access to space capability.

Siders, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Robert H.

2004-01-01

87

CENTER FOR SUBSURFACE MODELING SUPPORT (CSMOS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division's (SPRD)Center for Subsurface Modeling Support (CSMoS) provides public domain groundwater and vadose zone modeling software and services to public agencies and private companies throughout the nation. CSMoS is located in Ada, Ok...

88

SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set

C. J. Fernado

1998-01-01

89

Autonomous mobile robot teams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

1994-01-01

90

NASA: Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has undertaken the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) to "demonstrate the potential for space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect, analyze, and respond to science events, and to downlink only the highest value science data." The website features ASE updates, publications, and a list of the potential impacts of this research. Users can discover the autonomy software components that are aboard the ASE flight. The site includes links to information about the Artificial Intelligence Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and its other projects.

91

Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Palomar Adaptive Optics System actively corrects for changing aberrations in light due to atmospheric turbulence. However, the underlying internal static error is unknown and uncorrected by this process. The dedicated wavefront sensor device necessarily lies along a different path than the science camera, and, therefore, doesn't measure the true errors along the path leading to the final detected imagery. This is a standard problem in adaptive optics (AO) called "non-common path error." The Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration (APRC) software suite performs automated sensing and correction iterations to calibrate the Palomar AO system to levels that were previously unreachable.

Estlin, Tara A.; Chien, Steve A.; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel M.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Schoolcraft, Josua B.; Oyake, Amalaye; Vaughs, Ashton G.; Torgerson, Jordan L.

2011-01-01

92

Ventricular repolarization during cardiovascular autonomic function testing.  

E-print Network

??The autonomic nervous system is an important modulator of ventricular repolarization and arrhythmia vulnerability. This study explored the effects of cardiovascular autonomic function tests on… (more)

Haapalahti, Petri

2008-01-01

93

ELECTROMAGNETIC SUBSURFACE IMAGING AT VLF WITH DISTRIBUTED OPTIMIZATION  

E-print Network

that are considered interference. We formulate electromagnetic subsurface imaging as an optimization problem conELECTROMAGNETIC SUBSURFACE IMAGING AT VLF WITH DISTRIBUTED OPTIMIZATION A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED to electromagnetic subsurface imaging. We describe a signal processing technique, known as sparse separation

94

Subsurface Geoscience The Wiess School of Natural Sciences  

E-print Network

262 Subsurface Geoscience The Wiess School of Natural Sciences Degrees Offered: MS Rice University in Subsurface Geoscience Inadditiontocoresciencecourses,studentsarerequiredtocompletea3-to 6M.Kulinowski #12;SubsurfaceGeoscience 263 Admission Admissiontograduatestudyinsubsurfacegeoscienceisopentoqualified

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

95

Geobacter uraniireducens sp. nov., isolated from subsurface sediment undergoing uranium  

E-print Network

Geobacter uraniireducens sp. nov., isolated from subsurface sediment undergoing uranium with acetate oxidation, was isolated from subsurface sediment undergoing uranium bioremediation. The 16S r was to recover an environmentally relevant Geobacter strain from subsurface sediments undergoing in situ uranium

Lovley, Derek

96

Asteroid Exploration with Autonomic Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. The prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission comprises autonomous agents including worker agents (small spacecra3) designed to cooperate in asteroid exploration under the overall authoriq of at least one ruler agent (a larger spacecraft) whose goal is to cause science data to be returned to Earth. The ANTS team (ruler plus workers and messenger agents), but not necessarily any individual on the team, will exhibit behaviors that qualify it as an autonomic system, where an autonomic system is defined as a system that self-reconfigures, self-optimizes, self-heals, and self-protects. Autonomic system concepts lead naturally to realistic, scalable architectures rich in capabilities and behaviors. In-depth consideration of a major mission like ANTS in terms of autonomic systems brings new insights into alternative definitions of autonomic behavior. This paper gives an overview of the ANTS mission and discusses the autonomic properties of the mission.

Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Rouff, Christopher; Hinchey, Mike

2004-01-01

97

Engineering autonomously controlled logistic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today enterprises are exposed to an increasingly dynamic environment. Last but not least increasing competition caused by globalization more and more requires gaining competitive advantages by improved process control, within and beyond an enterprise. Autonomous control of logistic processes is proposed as a means to better face dynamics and complexity. Autonomous control means the ability of logistic objects to process

B. Scholz-Reiter; J. Kolditz; T. Hildebrandt

2009-01-01

98

Immunotherapy for autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of reviewTo provide an update on recent advances in the treatment of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG). AAG is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by prominent and selective involvement of autonomic nerve fibers or ganglia. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or plasma exchange (PE) has been reported to be effective in single case reports and recent case series. This review summarizes

Valeria Iodice; Kurt Kimpinski; Steven Vernino; Paola Sandroni; Phillip A. Low

2009-01-01

99

Autonomous Navigation for Forest Machines  

E-print Network

Inertial navigation system (INS) ..............................................................19 WheelAutonomous Navigation for Forest Machines a Pre-Study by Thomas Hellström Department of Computing Science Umeå University Umeå, Sweden 2002-10-18 #12;Autonomous Navigation for Forest Machines ­ a Pre

Hellström, Thomas

100

Autonomous Navigation for Airborne Applications  

E-print Network

of inertial navigation techniques are required in order to allow for prediction of state information, whichAutonomous Navigation for Airborne Applications Jonghyuk Kim A thesis submitted in fulfillment Navigation for Airborne Applications Autonomous navigation (or localisation) is the process of determining

Kim, Jonghyuk "Jon"

101

Learning for Autonomous Navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

2005-01-01

102

Autonomous Flight Safety System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

2004-01-01

103

Autonomous path-planning navigation system for site characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The location and removal of buried munitions is an important yet hazardous task. Current development is aimed at performing both the ordnance location and removal tasks autonomously. An autonomous survey vehicle (ASV) named the Gator has been developed at the Center for Intelligent Machines and Robotics, under the direction of Wright Laboratory, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, and the Navy Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division, Indian Head, Maryland. The primary task of the survey vehicle is to autonomously traverse an off-road site, towing behind it a trailer containing a sensor package capable of characterizing the sub-surface contents. Achieving 00 percent coverage of the site is critical to fully characterizing the site. This paper presents a strategy for planning efficient paths for the survey vehicle that guarantees near-complete coverage of a site. A small library of three in-house developed path planners are reviewed. A strategy is also presented to keep the trailer on-path and to calculate the percent of coverage of a site with a resolution of 0.01 m2. All of the algorithms discussed in this paper were initially developed in simulation on a Silicon Graphics computer and subsequently implemented on the survey vehicle.

Rankin, Arturo L.; Crane, Carl D., III; Armstrong, David G., II; Nease, Allen D.; Brown, H. Edward

1996-05-01

104

Tigerbot: Autonomous Robot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper demonstrates artificial intelligence through the construction of a simple robot developed by converting a toy vehicle. The circuitry of the toy vehicle was redesigned and incorporated with proximity sensors, thereby turning the vehicle into an autonomous self-contained robot ("Tigerbot"). This robot has the ability to roam, avoid obstacles without human intervention, and is speech capable. The authors demonstrate how machines can be designed to be aware of their surroundings and adapt accordingly. In the future, artificial intelligence concepts employed in this project may be applied in the design of other machines that would assist humans in performing common household chores. This article represents efforts by students implementing knowledge acquired in a Capstone Senior Project course.

Darayan, Shahryar

105

Autonomous docking ground demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Docking Ground Demonstration is an evaluation of the laser sensor system to support the docking phase (12 ft to contact) when operated in conjunction with the guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) software. The docking mechanism being used was developed for the Apollo/Soyuz Test Program. This demonstration will be conducted using the 6-DOF Dynamic Test System (DTS). The DTS simulates the Space Station Freedom as the stationary or target vehicle and the Orbiter as the active or chase vehicle. For this demonstration, the laser sensor will be mounted on the target vehicle and the retroflectors will be on the chase vehicle. This arrangement was chosen to prevent potential damage to the laser. The laser sensor system, GN&C, and 6-DOF DTS will be operated closed-loop. Initial conditions to simulate vehicle misalignments, translational and rotational, will be introduced within the constraints of the systems involved.

Lamkin, Steve L.; Le, Thomas Quan; Othon, L. T.; Prather, Joseph L.; Eick, Richard E.; Baxter, Jim M.; Boyd, M. G.; Clark, Fred D.; Spehar, Peter T.; Teters, Rebecca T.

1991-01-01

106

Autonomous software: Myth or magic?  

E-print Network

We discuss work by the eSTAR project which demonstrates a fully closed loop autonomous system for the follow up of possible micro-lensing anomalies. Not only are the initial micro-lensing detections followed up in real time, but ongoing events are prioritised and continually monitored, with the returned data being analysed automatically. If the ``smart software'' running the observing campaign detects a planet-like anomaly, further follow-up will be scheduled autonomously and other telescopes and telescope networks alerted to the possible planetary detection. We further discuss the implications of this, and how such projects can be used to build more general autonomous observing and control systems.

Alasdair Allan; Tim Naylor; Eric S. Saunders

2008-02-04

107

Autonomous software: Myth or magic?  

E-print Network

We discuss work by the eSTAR project which demonstrates a fully closed loop autonomous system for the follow up of possible micro-lensing anomalies. Not only are the initial micro-lensing detections followed up in real time, but ongoing events are prioritised and continually monitored, with the returned data being analysed automatically. If the ``smart software'' running the observing campaign detects a planet-like anomaly, further follow-up will be scheduled autonomously and other telescopes and telescope networks alerted to the possible planetary detection. We further discuss the implications of this, and how such projects can be used to build more general autonomous observing and control systems.

Allan, Alasdair; Saunders, Eric S

2008-01-01

108

Autonomous software: Myth or magic?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss work by the eSTAR project which demonstrates a fully closed loop autonomous system for the follow up of possible micro-lensing anomalies. Not only are the initial micro-lensing detections followed up in real time, but ongoing events are prioritised and continually monitored, with the returned data being analysed automatically. If the ``smart software'' running the observing campaign detects a planet-like anomaly, further follow-up will be scheduled autonomously and other telescopes and telescope networks alerted to the possible planetary detection. We further discuss the implications of this, and how such projects can be used to build more general autonomous observing and control systems.

Allan, A.; Naylor, T.; Saunders, E. S.

2008-03-01

109

Persulfate activation by subsurface minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Persulfate dynamics in the presence of subsurface minerals was investigated as a basis for understanding persulfate activation for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). The mineral-mediated decomposition of persulfate and generation of oxidants and reductants was investigated with four iron and manganese oxides and two clay minerals at both low pH (< 7) and high pH (> 12). The manganese oxide birnessite was the most effective initiator of persulfate for degrading the oxidant probe nitrobenzene, indicating that oxidants are generated at both low and high pH regimes. The iron oxide goethite was the most effective mineral for degrading the reductant probe hexachloroethane. A natural soil and two soil fractions were used to confirm persulfate activation by synthetic minerals. The soil and soil fractions did not effectively promote the generation of oxidants or reductants. However, soil organic matter was found to promote reductant generation at high pH. The results of this research demonstrate that synthetic iron and manganese oxides can activate persulfate to generate reductants and oxidants; however, iron and manganese oxides in the natural soil studied do not show the same reactivity, most likely due to the lower masses of the metal oxides in the soil relative to the masses studied in isolated mineral systems.

Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L.; Watts, Richard J.

2010-06-01

110

Modeling subsurface contamination at Fernald  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s Fernald site is located about 20 miles northwest of Cincinnati. Fernald produced refined uranium metal products from ores between 1953 and 1989. The pure uranium was sent to other DOE sites in South Carolina, Tennessee, Colorado,and Washington in support of the nation`s strategic defense programs. Over the years of large-scale uranium production, contamination of the site`s soil and groundwater occurred.The contamination is of particular concern because the Fernald site is located over the Great Miami Aquifer, a designated sole-source drinking water aquifer. Contamination of the aquifer with uranium was found beneath the site, and migration of the contamination had occurred well beyond the site`s southern boundary. As a result, Fernald was placed on the National Priorities (CERCLA/Superfund) List in 1989. Uranium production at the site ended in 1989,and Fernald`s mission has been changed to one of environmental restoration. This paper presents information about computerized modeling of subsurface contamination used for the environmental restoration project at Fernald.

Jones, B.W.; Flinn, J.C.; Ruwe, P.R.

1994-09-13

111

SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this document is to develop a preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architecture for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines an overall control system concept that encompasses and integrates the many diverse process and communication systems being developed for the subsurface repository design. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System design will be composed of a series of diverse process systems and communication networks. The subsurface repository design contains many systems related to instrumentation and control (I&C) for both repository development and waste emplacement operations. These systems include waste emplacement, waste retrieval, ventilation, radiological and air monitoring, rail transportation, construction development, utility systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire protection, backfill emplacement, and performance confirmation. Each of these systems involves some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communications network throughout the subsurface facility. The subsurface I&C systems will also interface with multiple surface-based systems such as site operations, rail transportation, security and safeguards, and electrical/piped utilities. In addition to the I&C systems, the subsurface repository design also contains systems related to voice and video communications. The components for each of these systems will be distributed and linked over voice and video communication networks throughout the subsurface facility. The scope and primary objectives of this design analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system-level functions and interfaces (Section 6.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels the engineered process systems will be monitored, controlled, and interfaced (Section 6.2). (3) Develop a preliminary design for the overall Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System functional architecture and graphically depict the operational features of this design through a series of control system functional block diagrams (Section 6.2). (4) Develop a physical architecture that presents a viable yet preliminary physical implementation for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System functional architecture (Section 6.3). (5) Develop an initial concept for an overall subsurface data communications network that can be used to integrate the various control systems comprising the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.4). (6) Develop a preliminary central control room design for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.5). (7) Identify and discuss the general safety-related issues and design strategies with respect to development of the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.6). (8) Discuss plans for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System's response to off-normal operations (Section 6.7). (9) Discuss plans and strategies for developing software for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.8).

D.C. Randle

2000-01-07

112

Component-Based Framework for Subsurface Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Simulations in the subsurface environment represent a broad range of phenomena covering an equally broad range of scales. Developing modelling capabilities that can integrate models representing different phenomena acting at different scales present formidable challenges both from the algorithmic and computer science perspective. This paper will describe the development of an integrated framework that will be used to combine different models into a single simulation. Initial work has focused on creating two frameworks, one for performing smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of fluid systems, the other for performing grid-based continuum simulations of reactive subsurface flow. The SPH framework is based on a parallel code developed for doing pore scale simulations, the continuum grid-based framework is based on the STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) code developed at PNNL. Future work will focus on combining the frameworks together to perform multiscale, multiphysics simulations of reactive subsurface flow.

Palmer, Bruce J.; Fang, Yilin; Hammond, Glenn E.; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya

2007-08-01

113

DOE UST interim subsurface barrier technologies workshop  

SciTech Connect

This document contains information which was presented at a workshop regarding interim subsurface barrier technologies that could be used for underground storage tanks, particularly the tank 241-C-106 at the Hanford Reservation.

NONE

1992-09-01

114

New Horizons for Deep Subsurface Microbiology  

E-print Network

Laboratory promise insights into many subsurface micro- bial secrets, perhaps including clues to the ori is a Professor at Ore- gon State Univer- sity, Corvallis, T. L. Kieft is a Professor at New Mexico In- stitute

Onstott, Tullis

115

CONTINUOUS SUBSURFACE INJECTION OF LIQUID DAIRY MANURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The research has involved the development and evaluation of an efficient, economical, continuous subsurface injection machine. The application site was instrumented so the quality of water percolating beneath the injection zone could be measured. Wells located around the sites we...

116

Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations  

DOEpatents

A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in a first opening in the subsurface formation. Three electrical conductors are located in the conduit. A return conductor is located inside the conduit. The return conductor is electrically coupled to the ends of the electrical conductors distal from the surface of the formation. Insulation is located inside the conduit. The insulation electrically insulates the three electrical conductors, the return conductor, and the conduit from each other.

Burns, David; Goodwin, Charles R.

2014-07-29

117

Subsurface Geomicrobiology of the Iberian Pyritic Belt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial subsurface geomicrobiology is a matter of growing interest. On a fundamental level, it seeks to determine whether\\u000a life can be sustained in the absence of radiation, whereas it also aims to develop practical applications in environmental\\u000a biotechnology. Subsurface ecosystems are also intriguing exobiological models, useful for the re-creation of life on early\\u000a Earth (Widdel et al. 1993) or the

Ricardo Amils; David Fernández-Remolar; Felipe Gómez; Elena González-Toril; Nuria Rodríguez; Carlos Briones; Olga Prieto-Ballesteros; José Luis Sanz; Emiliano Díaz; Todd O. Stevens; Carol R. Stoker

118

State discovery for autonomous learning  

E-print Network

This thesis is devoted to the study of algorithms for early perceptual learning for an autonomous agent in the presence of feedback. In the framework of associative perceptual learning with indirect supervision, three ...

Ivanov, Yuri A., 1967-

2002-01-01

119

Autonomous adaptive acoustic relay positioning  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of maximizing underwater acoustic data transmission by adaptively positioning an autonomous mobile relay so as to learn and exploit spatial variations in channel performance. The acoustic channel ...

Cheung, Mei Yi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

120

Autonomic dysfunction in neurodegenerative dementias.  

PubMed

Syncope associated to orthostatic hypotension (OH), urinary incontinence and constipation is common symptoms in demented patients, mainly in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and in Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Alzheimer's disease (AD) and fronto temporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) show less autonomic dysfunction. Urinary symptoms are a prominent component of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). There are non invasive tests including standard cardiovascular tests, 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanide (MIBG) cardiac scintigraphy, urodynamic tests, gastrointestinal motility studies, sweating reflexes and pupillary responses that assess autonomic dysfunction in these patients. The study of autonomic symptoms and abnormal tests in patients with dementia is useful to prevent morbidity due falls, severe constipation and to avoid side effects of drugs that interfere with autonomic function. PMID:21440258

Idiaquez, Juan; Roman, Gustavo C

2011-06-15

121

A survey of autonomic communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic communications seek to improve the ability of network and services to cope with unpredicted change, including changes in topology, load, task, the physical and logical characteristics of the networks that can be accessed, and so forth. Broad-ranging autonomic solutions require designers to account for a range of end-to-end issues affecting programming models, network and contextual modeling and reasoning, decentralised

Simon Dobson; Spyros G. Denazis; Antonio Fernández; Dominique Gaïti; Erol Gelenbe; Fabio Massacci; Paddy Nixon; Fabrice Saffre; Nikita Schmidt; Franco Zambonelli

2006-01-01

122

Genetic engineering and autonomous agency.  

PubMed

In this paper I argue that the genetic manipulation of sexual orientation at the embryo stage could have a detrimental effect on the subsequent person's later capacity for autonomous agency. By focussing on an example of sexist oppression I show that the norms and expectations expressed with this type of genetic manipulation can threaten the development of autonomous agency and the kind of social environment that makes its exercise likely. PMID:14989287

Barclay, Linda

2003-01-01

123

Phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress made from 6/90--3/91 toward completion of our project, Phylogenetic Relationships among subsurface microorganisms. 16S rRNA was sequenced, and based on the sequence the SMCC isolates were assigned to preliminary groups. Microorganisms were obtained at various depths at the Savannah River Site, including the Surface (0 m), Congaree (91 m), and Middendorf (244 m, 259 m, 265 m). Sequence data from four isolates from the Congaree formation indicate these microorganisms can be divided into Pseudomonas spp. or Acinetobacter spp. Three 16S rRNA probes were synthesized based on sequence data. The synthesized probes were tested through in situ hybridization. Optimal conditions for in situ hybridization were determined. Because stability of RNA-DNA hybrids is dependent on hybridization stringency, related organisms can be differentiated using a single probe under different strigencies. The results of these hybridizations agree with results obtained by Balkwill and Reeves using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The RNA content of a cell reflects its metabolic state. Cells which are starved for four days are not detectable with the homologous 16S rRNA probe. However, within 15 minutes of refeeding, detectable rRNA appeared. This suggests that organisms which are undetectable in environmental samples due to starvation may be detectable after addition of nutrients. Stepwise addition of specific nutrients could indicate which nutrients are rate limiting for growth. Preliminary experiments with soil samples from the Hanford Site indicate indigenous microorganisms can be detected by oligionucleotide probes. Further, using multiple probes based on universal sequences increases the number of organisms detected. Double label experiments, using a rhodamine-labelled oligionucleotide probe with free coumarin succinimidyl ester will allow simultaneous detection of total bacteria and specific 16S rRNA containing bacteria. 4 tabs. (MHB)

Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.

1991-01-01

124

Autonomous power system brassboard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the brassboard hardware and intelligent controlling software, fault circuits have been developed and integrated as part of the brassboard. A description of these fault circuits and their function is included. The brassboard has become an extremely useful test facility, promoting artificial intelligence (AI) applications for power distribution systems.

Merolla, Anthony

1992-10-01

125

Autonomous power system brassboard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the brassboard hardware and intelligent controlling software, fault circuits have been developed and integrated as part of the brassboard. A description of these fault circuits and their function is included. The brassboard has become an extremely useful test facility, promoting artificial intelligence (AI) applications for power distribution systems. However, there are elements of the brassboard which could be enhanced, thus improving system performance. Modifications and enhancements to improve the brassboard's operation are discussed.

Merolla, Anthony

1992-01-01

126

An intelligent subsurface buoy design for measuring ocean ambient noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A type of ultra-low power subsurface buoy system is designed to measure and record ocean ambient noise data. The buoy utilizes a vector hydrophone (pass band 20Hz-1.2kHz) and a 6-element vertical hydrophone array (pass band 20Hz-2kHz) to measure ocean ambient noise. The acoustic signals are passed through an automatically modified gain, a band pass filter, and an analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion module. They are then stored in high-capacity flash memory. In order to identify the direction of noise source, the vector sensor measuring system has integrated an electric-magnetic compass. The system provides a low-rate underwater acoustic communication system which is used to report the buoy state information and a high-speed USB interface which is used to retrieve the recorded data on deck. The whole system weighs about 125kg and can operate autonomously for more than 72 hours. The system's main architecture and the sea-trial test results are provided in this paper.

Li, Bing; Wang, Lei

2012-11-01

127

Autonomous landing guidance program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Autonomous Landing Guidance program is partly funded by the US Government under the Technology Reinvestment Project. The program consortium consists of avionics and other equipment vendors, airlines and the USAF. A Sextant Avionique HUD is used to present flight symbology in cursive form as well as millimeter wave radar imagery from Lear Astronics equipment and FLIR Systems dual-channel, forward-looking, infrared imagery. All sensor imagery is presented in raster form. A future aim is to fuse all imagery data into a single presentation. Sensor testing has been accomplished in a Cessna 402 operated by the Maryland Advanced Development Laboratory. Development testing is under way in a Northwest Airlines simulator equipped with HUD and image simulation. Testing is also being carried out using United Airlines Boeing 727 and USAF C-135C (Boeing 707) test aircraft. The paper addresses the technology utilized in sensory and display systems as well as modifications made to accommodate the elements in the aircraft. Additions to the system test aircraft include global positioning systems, inertial navigation systems and extensive data collection equipment. Operational philosophy and benefits for both civil and military users are apparent. Approach procedures have been developed allowing use of Category 1 ground installations in Category 3 conditions.

Brown, John A.

1996-05-01

128

Simple autonomous Mars walker  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a contract with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Martin Marietta has developed several alternative rover concepts for unmanned exploration of the planet Mars. One of those concepts, the 'Walking Beam', is the subject of this paper. This concept was developed with the goal of achieving many of the capabilities of more sophisticated articulated-leg walkers with a much simpler, more robust, less computationally demanding and more power efficient design. It consists of two large-base tripods nested one within the other which alternately translate with respect to each other along a 5-meter beam to propel the vehicle. The semiautonomous navigation system relies on terrain geometry sensors and tacticle feedback from each foot to autonomously select a path which avoids hazards along a route designated from earth. Both mobility and navigation features of this concept are discussed including a top-level description of the vehicle's physical characteristics, deployment strategy, mobility elements, sensor suite, theory of operation, navigation and control processes, and estimated performance.

Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.

1989-01-01

129

Autonomous Aerobraking at Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerobraking has become a proven approach for orbital missions at Mars. A launch of a 1000 kg class spacecraft on a Delta class booster saves 90% of the post-MOI fuel otherwise required to circularize the orbit. In 1997, Mars Global Surveyor demonstrated the feasibility and Mars 2001 Odyssey completed a nearly trouble free aerobraking phase in January 2002. In 2006, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will also utilize aerobraking. From the flight operations standpoint, however, aerobraking is labor intensive and high risk due to the large density variability in the Mars thermosphere. The maximum rate of aerobraking is typically limited by the maximum allowable temperature of the solar array which is the primary drag surface. Prior missions have used a surrogate variable, usually maximum free stream heat flux, as a basis for performing periapsis altitude corridor control maneuvers. This paper provides an adaptive sequential method for operationally relating measured temperatures to heat flux profile characteristics and performing maneuvers based directly on measured temperatures and atmospheric properties derived from the heat flux profiles. Simulations of autonomous aerobraking are performed using Odyssey mission data.

Hanna, Jill L.; Tolson, Robert; Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer; Dec, John

2002-01-01

130

Autonomous Mission Operations Roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As light time delays increase, the number of such situations in which crew autonomy is the best way to conduct the mission is expected to increase. However, there are significant open questions regarding which functions to allocate to ground and crew as the time delays increase. In situations where the ideal solution is to allocate responsibility to the crew and the vehicle, a second question arises: should the activity be the responsibility of the crew or an automated vehicle function? More specifically, we must answer the following questions: What aspects of mission operation responsibilities (Plan, Train, Fly) should be allocated to ground based or vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control in the presence of significant light-time delay between the vehicle and the Earth?How should the allocated ground based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed across the flight control team and ground system automation? How should the allocated vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed between the flight crew and onboard system automation?When during the mission should responsibility shift from flight control team to crew or from crew to vehicle, and what should the process of shifting responsibility be as the mission progresses? NASA is developing a roadmap of capabilities for Autonomous Mission Operations for human spaceflight. This presentation will describe the current state of development of this roadmap, with specific attention to in-space inspection tasks that crews might perform with minimum assistance from the ground.

Frank, Jeremy David

2014-01-01

131

CSMOS GROUNDWATER MODELING SOFTWARE (CENTER FOR SUBSURFACE MODELING SUPPORT, SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Center for Subsurface Modeling Support (CSMoS), which is part of NRMRL's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division, distributes various public domain groundwater and vadose zone models. A short decription of each model is available. You can obtain both models and manuals...

132

SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I&C) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I&C systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures that present preliminary concepts for integrating the diverse set of control systems to be used within the subsurface repository facility (Presented in Section 7.3). (5) Develop initial concepts for an overall subsurface data communication system that can be used to integrate critical and data-intensive control systems (Presented in Section 7.4). (6) Discuss technology trends and control system design issues (Presented in Section 7.5).

C.J. Fernado

1998-09-17

133

Subsurface photodisruption in scattering biological tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately five million people worldwide are blind due to complications from glaucoma. Current surgical techniques often fail due to infection and scarring. Both failure routes are associated with damaging surface tissues. Femtosecond lasers allow a method to create a highly precise incision beneath the surface of the tissue without damaging any of the overlying layers. However, subsurface surgery can only be performed where the beam can be focused tightly enough to cause optical breakdown. Under normal conditions, subsurface surgery is not possible since sclera is highly scattering. Using two independent methods, we show completely subsurface surgery in human sclera using a femtosecond laser. The first method is to make the sclera transparent by injecting a dehydrating agent. The second method is to choose a wavelength that is highly focusable in the sclera. Both methods may be applied in other tissues, such as skin. We show highly precise incisions in in vitro tissues. Subsurface femtosecond photodisruption may be useful for in vivo surgical technique to perform a completely subsurface surgery.

Sacks, Zachary S.; Spooner, Greg J. R.; Kurtz, Ron M.; Juhasz, Tibor; Mourou, Gerard A.

2000-11-01

134

Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

2013-01-01

135

Autonomic control of the eye.  

PubMed

The autonomic nervous system influences numerous ocular functions. It does this by way of parasympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia, and by way of sympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the superior cervical ganglion. Ciliary ganglion neurons project to the ciliary body and the sphincter pupillae muscle of the iris to control ocular accommodation and pupil constriction, respectively. Superior cervical ganglion neurons project to the dilator pupillae muscle of the iris to control pupil dilation. Ocular blood flow is controlled both via direct autonomic influences on the vasculature of the optic nerve, choroid, ciliary body, and iris, as well as via indirect influences on retinal blood flow. In mammals, this vasculature is innervated by vasodilatory fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion, and by vasoconstrictive fibers from the superior cervical ganglion. Intraocular pressure is regulated primarily through the balance of aqueous humor formation and outflow. Autonomic regulation of ciliary body blood vessels and the ciliary epithelium is an important determinant of aqueous humor formation; autonomic regulation of the trabecular meshwork and episcleral blood vessels is an important determinant of aqueous humor outflow. These tissues are all innervated by fibers from the pterygopalatine and superior cervical ganglia. In addition to these classical autonomic pathways, trigeminal sensory fibers exert local, intrinsic influences on many of these regions of the eye, as well as on some neurons within the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia. © 2015 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5: 439-473, 2015. PMID:25589275

McDougal, David H; Gamlin, Paul D

2015-01-01

136

Complete Subsurface Elemental Composition Measurements With PING  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Probing In situ with Neutrons and Gamma rays (PING) instrument will measure the complete bulk elemental composition of the subsurface of Mars as well as any other solid planetary body. PING can thus be a highly effective tool for both detailed local geochemistry science investigations and precision measurements of Mars subsurface reSOurces in preparation for future human exploration. As such, PING is thus fully capable of meeting a majority of both ncar and far term elements in Challenge #1 presented for this conference. Measuring the ncar subsurface composition of Mars will enable many of the MEPAG science goals and will be key to filling an important Strategic Knowledge Gap with regard to In situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) needs for human exploration. [1, 2] PING will thus fill an important niche in the Mars Exploration Program.

Parsons, A. M.

2012-01-01

137

Improving the biodegradative capacity of subsurface bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The continual release of large volumes of synthetic materials into the environment by agricultural and industrial sources over the last few decades has resulted in pollution of the subsurface environment. Cleanup has been difficult because of the relative inaccessibility of the contaminants caused by their wide dispersal in the deep subsurface, often at low concentrations and in large volumes. As a possible solution for these problems, interest in the introduction of biodegradative bacteria for in situ remediation of these sites has increased greatly in recent years (Timmis et al. 1988). Selection of biodegradative microbes to apply in such cleanup is limited to those strains that can survive among the native bacterial and predator community members at the particular pH, temperature, and moisture status of the site (Alexander, 1984). The use of microorganisms isolated from subsurface environments would be advantageous because the organisms are already adapted to the subsurface conditions. The options are further narrowed to strains that are able to degrade the contaminant rapidly, even in the presence of highly recalcitrant anthropogenic waste mixtures, and in conditions that do not require addition of further toxic compounds for the expression of the biodegradative capacity (Sayler et al. 1990). These obstacles can be overcome by placing the genes of well-characterized biodegradative enzymes under the control of promoters that can be regulated by inexpensive and nontoxic external factors and then moving the new genetic constructs into diverse groups of subsurface microbes. ne objective of this research is to test this hypothesis by comparing expression of two different toluene biodegradative enzymatic pathways from two different regulatable promoters in a variety of subsurface isolates.

Romine, M.F.; Brockman, F.J.

1993-04-01

138

MSTS - Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator theory manual  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, through the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office, has designated the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada for detailed study as the candidate US geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Site characterization will determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for the potential waste repository. If the site is determined suitable, subsequent studies and characterization will be conducted to obtain authorization from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to construct the potential waste repository. A principal component of the characterization and licensing processes involves numerically predicting the thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment of the Yucca Mountain site to the potential repository over a 10,000-year period. The thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment to the repository is anticipated to include complex processes of countercurrent vapor and liquid migration, multiple-phase heat transfer, multiple-phase transport, and geochemical reactions. Numerical simulators based on mathematical descriptions of these subsurface phenomena are required to make numerical predictions of the thermal and hydrologic response of the Yucca Mountain subsurface environment The engineering simulator called the Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator (MSTS) was developed at the request of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office to produce numerical predictions of subsurface flow and transport phenomena at the potential Yucca Mountain site. This document delineates the design architecture and describes the specific computational algorithms that compose MSTS. Details for using MSTS and sample problems are given in the {open_quotes}User`s Guide and Reference{close_quotes} companion document.

White, M.D.; Nichols, W.E.

1993-05-01

139

A Robust Compositional Architecture for Autonomous Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration applications can benefit greatly from autonomous systems. Great distances, limited communications and high costs make direct operations impossible while mandating operations reliability and efficiency beyond what traditional commanding can provide. Autonomous systems can improve reliability and enhance spacecraft capability significantly. However, there is reluctance to utilizing autonomous systems. In part this is due to general hesitation about new technologies, but a more tangible concern is that of reliability of predictability of autonomous software. In this paper, we describe ongoing work aimed at increasing robustness and predictability of autonomous software, with the ultimate goal of building trust in such systems. The work combines state-of-the-art technologies and capabilities in autonomous systems with advanced validation and synthesis techniques. The focus of this paper is on the autonomous system architecture that has been defined, and on how it enables the application of validation techniques for resulting autonomous systems.

Brat, Guillaume; Deney, Ewen; Farrell, Kimberley; Giannakopoulos, Dimitra; Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy; Bobby, Mark; Carpenter, Todd; Estlin, Tara

2006-01-01

140

Adaptive sampling in autonomous marine sensor networks  

E-print Network

In this thesis, an innovative architecture for real-time adaptive and cooperative control of autonomous sensor platforms in a marine sensor network is described in the context of the autonomous oceanographic network scenario. ...

Eickstedt, Donald Patrick

2006-01-01

141

Issues in autonomous mobile sensor networks  

E-print Network

Autonomous mobile sensor networks consist of a number of autonomous mobile robots equipped with various sensors and tasked with a common mission. This thesis considers the topology control of such an ad hoc mobile sensor network. In particular, I...

Dharne, Avinash Gopal

2009-05-15

142

Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations  

DOEpatents

A heating system for a subsurface formation includes an elongated electrical conductor located in the subsurface formation. The electrical conductor extends between at least a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact. A ferromagnetic conductor at least partially surrounds and at least partially extends lengthwise around the electrical conductor. The electrical conductor, when energized with time-varying electrical current, induces sufficient electrical current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor such that the ferromagnetic conductor resistively heats to a temperature of at least about 300.degree. C.

Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Bass, Ronald M. (Houston, TX)

2012-04-24

143

Europa: Geological activity and surface - subsurface exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jupiter's moon Europa has a geologically young surface, allowing the possibility of current, ongoing geological activity. We are searching the Galileo database for overlapping images taken during the 5-year mission, and are comparing images using an iterative coregistration technique to look for changes due to geological activity. We will also discuss methods by which such activity could occur on Europa. We are particularly interested in the ability of geological processes to bring surface material down into the subsurface, and to bring subsurface material up to the surface. We are continuing a survey of such processes, including endogenic tectonic and cryovolcanic activity, and exogenic processes such as gardening and impact cratering.

Phillips, C. B.; Cowell, W.

2005-12-01

144

Heating systems for heating subsurface formations  

DOEpatents

Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2011-04-26

145

Radar Soundings of the Subsurface of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The martian subsurface has been probed to kilometer depths by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding instrument aboard the Mars Express orbiter. Signals penetrate the polar layered deposits, probably imaging the base of the deposits. Data from the northern lowlands of Chryse Planitia have revealed a shallowly buried quasi-circular structure about 250 kilometers in diameter that is interpreted to be an impact basin. In addition, a planar reflector associated with the basin structure may indicate the presence of a low-loss deposit that is more than 1 kilometer thick.

Picardi, Giovanni; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Biccari, Daniela; Bombaci, Ornella; Calabrese, Diego; Cartacci, Marco; Cicchetti, Andrea; Clifford, Stephen M.; Edenhofer, Peter; Farrell, William M.; Federico, Costanzo; Frigeri, Alessandro; Gurnett, Donald A.; Hagfors, Tor; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Huff, Richard L.; Ivanov, Anton B.; Johnson, William T. K.; Jordan, Rolando L.; Kirchner, Donald L.; Kofman, Wlodek; Leuschen, Carlton J.; Nielsen, Erling; Orosei, Roberto

2005-01-01

146

Autonomic Modulation of Olfactory Signaling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The olfactory epithelium is extensively innervated by sympathetic nerve endings, which release norepinephrine, and parasympathetic nerve endings, which release acetylcholine. Because olfactory sensory neurons have adrenergic and muscarinic receptors in addition to odorant receptors, autonomic stimulation can modulate the responses of olfactory sensory neurons to odorants. Recent studies have shed light on the molecular mechanisms that underlie crosstalk between muscarinic and odorant receptor signaling. The emerging view is that the stimulation of odorant receptor signaling by odorants, which is the earliest step in olfaction, can be substantially regulated by the autonomic nervous system.

Randy A. Hall (Emory University School of Medicine; Department of Pharmacology REV)

2011-01-11

147

Autonomic Nervous System Activity Distinguishes among Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion-specific activity in the autonomic nervous system was generated by constructing facial prototypes of emotion muscle by muscle and by reliving past emotional experiences. The autonomic activity produced distinguished not only between positive and negative emotions, but also among negative emotions. This finding challenges emotion theories that have proposed autonomic activity to be undifferentiated or that have failed to address

Paul Ekman; Robert W. Levenson; Wallace V. Friesen

1983-01-01

148

Autonomous Software Michael Rovatsos Gerhard Weiss  

E-print Network

precise specifica- tion schemes for autonomous software systems can be build. There are diverse approaches problem has led to the much-attended vision of autonomous software, that is, software being able to handle the vision of autonomous software into practice requires, first and foremost, a clear notion of software

Rovatsos, Michael

149

Is Europa's Subsurface Water Ocean Warm?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Europa's subsurface water ocean may be warm: that is, at the temperature of water's maximum density. This provides a natural explanation of chaos melt-through events and leads to a correct estimate of the age of its surface. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Melosh, H. J.; Ekholm, A. G.; Showman, A. P.; Lorenz, R. D.

2002-01-01

150

MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF THE TERRESTRIAL SUBSURFACE  

EPA Science Inventory

A current view is presented of the microbial ecology of the terrestrial subsurface by considering primarily the ecology of shallow aquifer sediments. The properties of the aquifer sediments and groundwater determine their ability to support microbial life and control the abundanc...

151

Modeling Subsurface Transport of Petroleum Hydrocarbons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. EPA website contains information on the modeling of subsurface transport of petroleum hydrocarbons and other contaminants. There are a few course modules on the fate and transport of contaminants. There are also OnSite on-line calculators for site-specific assessment calculations.

2008-03-11

152

Subsurface manure application to reduce ammonia emissions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation into soil is generally recommended to reduce ammonia volatilization and nutrient runoff following land application of manures. A range of subsurface applicators are available for manure incorporation with minimal soil disturbance in reduced tillage systems, but none have been widely a...

153

SEQUESTRATION OF SUBSURFACE ELEMENTAL MERCURY (HG0)  

EPA Science Inventory

Elemental mercury (Hg0) is a metal with a number of atypical properties, which has resulted in its use in myriad anthropogenic processes. However, these same properties have also led to severe local subsurface contamination at many places where it has been used. As...

154

Lateral gene transfer in the subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is an important adaptive mechanism among prokaryotic organisms. This mechanism is particularly important for the response of microorganisms to changing environmental conditions because it facilitates the transfer of a large number of genes and their rapid expression. Together the transferred genes promote rapid genetic and metabolic changes that may enhance survival to newly established and sometimes hostile environmental conditions. The goal of our project was to examine if and how LGT enhances microbial adaptation to toxic heavy metals in subsurface environments that had been contaminated by mixed wastes due to activities associated with the production of nuclear energy and weapons. This task has been accomplished by dividing the project to several sub-tasks. Thus, we: (1) Determined the level of resistance of subsurface bacterial isolates to several toxic metals, all identified as pollutants of concern in subsurface environments; (2) Designed, tested, and applied, a molecular approach that determined whether metal resistance genes had evolved by LGT among subsurface bacteria; and (3) Developed a DNA hybridization array for the identification of broad host range plasmids and of metal resistance plasmids. The results are briefly summarized below with references to published papers and manuscripts in preparation where details about our research can be found. Additional information may be found in copies of our published manuscripts and conference proceedings, and our yearly reports that were submitted through the RIMS system.

Barkay, Tamar; Sobecky, Patricia

2007-08-27

155

SUBSURFACE LATERAL TRANSPORT IN GLACIAL TILL SOILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An understanding of water and solute flow patterns in a landscape is necessary to define water and nutrient use by crops, as well as nutrient contamination of groundwater, tile water, and streams. Subsurface water and solute movement in a landscape can occur laterally as well as vertically, especial...

156

Geophysical subsurface imaging for ecological applications.  

PubMed

Ecologists, ecohydrologists, and biogeochemists need detailed insights into belowground properties and processes, including changes in water, salts, and other elements that can influence ecosystem productivity and functioning. Relying on traditional sampling and observation techniques for such insights can be costly, time consuming, and infeasible, especially if the spatial scales involved are large. Geophysical imaging provides an alternative or complement to traditional methods to gather subsurface variables across time and space. In this paper, we review aspects of geophysical imaging, particularly electrical and electromagnetic imaging, that may benefit ecologists seeking clearer understanding of the shallow subsurface. Using electrical resistivity imaging, for example, we have been able to successfully show the effect of land-use conversions to agriculture on salt mobilization and leaching across kilometer-long transects and to depths of tens of meters. Recent advances in ground-penetrating radar and other geophysical imaging methods currently provide opportunities for subsurface imaging with sufficient detail to locate small (?5 cm diameter) animal burrows and plant roots, observe soil-water and vegetation spatial correlations in small watersheds, estuaries, and marshes, and quantify changes in groundwater storage at local to regional scales using geophysical data from ground- and space-based platforms. Ecologists should benefit from adopting these minimally invasive, scalable imaging technologies to explore the subsurface and advance our collective research. PMID:24649489

Jayawickreme, Dushmantha H; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Jackson, Robert B

2014-03-01

157

Subsurface signatures of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-surface signatures of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) are identified using expendable bathythermograph (XBT) measurements of temperature from the surface down to a depth of 400 m. Basin averaged temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic at different depths display multidecadal variability with a phase shift between temperature anomalies at the surface and at depth. Westward propagation of temperature anomalies is

L. M. Frankcombe; H. A. Dijkstra; A. von der Heydt

2008-01-01

158

Subsurface Microbial Ecology Microbial Biosystems: New Frontiers  

E-print Network

Subsurface Microbial Ecology Microbial Biosystems: New Frontiers Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Microbial Ecology Bell CR, Brylinsky M, Johnson-Green P (ed) Atlantic Canada Society for Microbial Ecology, Halifax, Canada, 1999. Evidence for a Hydrogen-driven, Intra-terrestrial Biosphere

Selker, John

159

Characterization of imidacloprid availability in subsurface soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Degradation and sorption/desorption are the most important processes affecting the leaching of pesticides through soil because they control the amount of pesticide available for transport. Once pesticides move past the surface soil layers, variations in subsurface soil physical, chemical, and biolog...

160

Methods for forming long subsurface heaters  

DOEpatents

A method for forming a longitudinal subsurface heater includes longitudinally welding an electrically conductive sheath of an insulated conductor heater along at least one longitudinal strip of metal. The longitudinal strip is formed into a tubular around the insulated conductor heater with the insulated conductor heater welded along the inside surface of the tubular.

Kim, Dong Sub

2013-09-17

161

Direct epitaxial growth of subsurface Co nanoclusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new subsurface growth mode in the Co-Cu system is reported. This mode provides a direct subsurface growth of Co nanoclusters by depositing Co atoms on the Cu(001) surface in a single stage. The resulting subsurface Co nanoclusters are located 2 monolayers (ML) deep below the atomically flat surface of Cu(001). Although these hidden nanoclusters cannot be directly accessed by a scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) probe, their shape could be deduced using STM/STS via a careful analysis of the local deformation of the Cu(001) surface as well as local variations of surface electron density induced by the subsurface clusters. A strongly asymmetric shape of the nanoclusters is deduced: they are typically 5-10 nm in lateral size but only 2 to 3 ML in thickness. The thickness of the nanoclusters does not evolve significantly under a heat treatment. A simple model is implemented to describe the growth kinetics. The results in this study reveal that intense processes of diffusion, nucleation, and growth take place in a region 1 nm deep, thus defining the near-surface region.

Siahaan, T.; Kurnosikov, O.; Swagten, H. J. M.; Koopmans, B.

2014-10-01

162

Subsurface discrimination using electromagnetic induction sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the problem of subsurface discrimination using electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors. Typically, discrimination is based on differences in the multiaxis magnetic polarizability between different objects. They review work on frequency and time domain systems, and their interrelationship. They present the results of comprehensive measurements of the multiaxis EMI response of a variety of inert ordnance items, ordnance fragments,

Thomas H. Bell; Bruce J. Barrow; Jonathan T. Miller

2001-01-01

163

Virus transport in physically and geochemically heterogeneous subsurface porous media  

E-print Network

Virus transport in physically and geochemically heterogeneous subsurface porous media Subir for virus transport in physically and geochemically heterogeneous subsurface porous media is presented. The model involves solution of the advection­dispersion equation, which additionally considers virus

Ryan, Joe

164

30 CFR 250.801 - Subsurface safety devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subsurface safety devices. 250.801 Section 250.801 ...OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.801 Subsurface safety devices. (a) General. All tubing...

2010-07-01

165

Interoperability of multiple autonomous databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Database systems were a solution to the problem of shared access to heterogeneous files created by multiple autonomous applications in a centralized environment. To make data usage easier, the files were replaced by a globally integrated database. To a large extent, the idea was successful, and many databases are now accessible through local and long-haul networks. Unavoidably, users now need

Witold Litwin; Leo Mark; Nick Roussopoulos

1990-01-01

166

The Functioning of Autonomous Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The college gets separated from the university, though not completely, when it is an autonomous college, which is practice in India. Academic package will become flexible and the decision-making is internalized, changes and updating could be easily carried out, depending on the need as reflected from the feedback taken from alumni, user sectors,…

Rao, V. Pala Prasada; Rao, Digumarti Bhaskara

2012-01-01

167

Autonomous Mobile Periscope System (AMPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of diesel electric submarines has impacted undersea warfare (USW) world wide. They are acoustically nearly undetectable, but can be detected by their periscope or snorkel. Since the US Navy has no diesel electric submarine, the Autonomous Mobile Periscope System (AMPS) is being developed to meet the requirement for an inexpensive readily available periscope detection target for the training

Stan Rollins; Richard Knutson; Hung Vo; Steve Ebner

1998-01-01

168

Autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

This article is a review of autonomic dysfunction in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD), as well as the clinical features of a specific form of PD, i.e. autonomic failure (AF) with PD, and is based mainly on the results obtained from our recent studies. Since James Parkinson's original discription, the definition of autonomic dysfunctions in iPD and their clinical characteristics have undergone changes. Autonomic dysfunction is considered to be uncommon and rarely severe on one hand, while not infrequent but not as severe as in Shy-Drager syndrome on the other hand. AF with PD is characterized by severe orthostatic hypotension, postprandial hypotension, supersensitivity to noradrenaline, low or absent uptake of m-[123I]iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy of the limbs, and preserved arginine vasopressin response to head-up tilt, suggesting a postganglionic sympathetic lesion resembling pure AF (PAF). On the other hand, reduced cortical glucose metabolism in positron emission tomography study may indicate that AF with PD has diffuse nervous system lesions resembling diffuse Lewy body disease. PMID:9387797

Koike, Y; Takahashi, A

1997-01-01

169

Autonomous renewable energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly reviews the need for renewable power generation and describes a medium-power Autonomous Renewable Energy Conversion System (ARECS), integrating conversion of wind and solar energy sources. The objectives of the paper are to extract maximum power from the proposed wind energy conversion scheme and to transfer this power and the power derived by the photovoltaic system in a

Ventzislav Valtchev; Alex Van den Bossche; Jozef Ghijselen; Jan Melkebeek

2000-01-01

170

Experiments in autonomous underground guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experimental program for evaluating sensors and sensing technologies in an underground mining applications. The objective of the experiments is to infer what combinations of sensors will provide reliable navigation systems for autonomous vehicles operating in a harsh underground environment. Results from a wide range of sensors are presented and analysed. A conclusion as

S. Scheding; E. M. Nebot; M. Stevens; H. F. Durrant-whyte; J. Roberts; P. Corke; J. Cunningham; B. Cook

1997-01-01

171

An Autonomous Reliabilit Cloud Comput  

E-print Network

An Autonomous Reliabilit Ami Cloud Comput Department of Computing and Informa Abstract--Cloud computing paradigm allo based access to computing and storages s Internet. Since with advances of Cloud. Keywords- Cloud computing; SLA negotiat I. INTRODUCTION Cloud computing has transferred the services

Buyya, Rajkumar

172

Microbial communities in the deep subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity of microbial populations and microbial communities within the earth's subsurface is summarized in this review. Scientists are currently exploring the subsurface and addressing questions of microbial diversity, the interactions among microorganisms, and mechanisms for maintenance of subsurface microbial communities. Heterotrophic anaerobic microbial communities exist in relatively permeable sandstone or sandy sediments, located adjacent to organic-rich deposits. These microorganisms appear to be maintained by the consumption of organic compounds derived from adjacent deposits. Sources of organic material serving as electron donors include lignite-rich Eocene sediments beneath the Texas coastal plain, organic-rich Cretaceous shales from the southwestern US, as well as Cretaceous clays containing organic materials and fermentative bacteria from the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Additionally, highly diverse microbial communities occur in regions where a source of organic matter is not apparent but where igneous rock is present. Examples include the basalt-rich subsurface of the Columbia River valley and the granitic subsurface regions of Sweden and Canada. These subsurface microbial communities appear to be maintained by the action of lithotrophic bacteria growing on H2 that is chemically generated within the subsurface. Other deep-dwelling microbial communities exist within the deep sediments of oceans. These systems often rely on anaerobic metabolism and sulfate reduction. Microbial colonization extends to the depths below which high temperatures limit the ability of microbes to survive. Energy sources for the organisms living in the oceanic subsurface may originate as oceanic sedimentary deposits. In this review, each of these microbial communities is discussed in detail with specific reference to their energy sources, their observed growth patterns, and their diverse composition. This information is critical to develop further understanding of subsurface geochemical processes and to develop new approaches to subsurface remediation. Résumé La diversité des populations et des communautés microbiennes dans le sol et le sous-sol est présentée dans cet article. Les chercheurs s'interrogent fréquemment sur la diversité microbienne du sous-sol, sur les interactions entre organismes et sur les mécanismes qui permettent le maintien des communautés microbiennes souterraines. Il existe des communautés microbiennes anérobies hétérotrophes dans des grès ou dans des sédiments sableux relativement perméables, à proximité de dépôts riches en matières organiques. Ces micro-organismes semblent se maintenir grâce à la consommation de composés organiques provenant des dépôts organiques voisins. Les sources de matériel organique jouant le rôle de donneur d'électrons sont constituées par des sédiments éocènes riches en lignite situés sous la plaine littorale du Texas, les schistes riches en matières organiques du Crétacé du sud-ouest des États-Unis, ainsi que les argiles contenant des matériaux organiques et des bactéries de fermentation de la plaine littorale atlantique. En outre, il existe des communautés fortement diversifiées dans des régions où aucune source de matière organique n'existe, mais où sont présentes des roches ignées. Le sous-sol riche en basalte de la vallée de la Columbia au Canada et les régions granitiques de Suède en sont des exemples. Ces communautés microbiennes souterraines semblent se maintenir par l'action de bactéries lithotrophes se développant grâce à l'hydrogène qui est produit par réactions chimiques dans le sous-sol. Il existe d'autres communautés microbiennes de profondeur dans les sédiments profonds des océans. Ces systèmes sont souvent associés à un métabolisme anérobie et à une réduction des sulfates. La colonisation microbienne s'étend jusqu'à des profondeurs où les températures élevées limitent leur capacité de survie. Les sources d'énergie pour ces organismes vivant dans les fonds des océans peuvent être les dépôts

Krumholz, Lee R.

173

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL LIMITING FLOW FROM SUBSURFACE SOURCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The infiltration rate of water from a subsurface cavity is affected by many factors, including the pressure in the cavity, its size and geometry, and the hydraulic properties of the surrounding soil. When a predetermined discharge of a subsurface source (e.g. a subsurface emitter) is larger than the...

174

Subsurface Geoscience The Wiess School of Natural Sciences  

E-print Network

269 Subsurface Geoscience The Wiess School of Natural Sciences Degrees Offered: MS Rice University introduced the professional master's degree in subsurface geoscience in fall 2003. This degree is designed experts in aspects of exploration seismology. The subsurface geoscience degree is 1 of 3 tracks

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

175

Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

Wehner, Walter S., Jr.

2013-01-01

176

Subsurface contamination monitoring using laser fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

While innovative technologies in remediation need to be developed, so do innovative ways of site assessment. This monograph describes the development, testing, and performance of a new laser-induced fluorescence soil probe. A screening tool for site characterization, this probe has the potential to provide an economical, rapid assessment of contaminated sites. Cone Penetrometer testing equipment advances the probe into the subsurface. The probe identifies hydrocarbon classes using a multi-channel excitation-emission matrix. This technique facilitates the collection of significant amounts of subsurface information--surpassing conventional data collection methods--that can be used to rapidly identify areas of concern beneath a site. The technology has significant application for the following: rapid environmental site assessment; monitoring remediation programs; and monitoring manufacturing processes and industrial waste water operations.

Balshaw-Biddle, K.; Oubre, C.L.; Ward, C.H. [eds.] [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Kenny, J.E.; Pepper, J.W.; Wright, A.O.; Chen, Y.M. [Tufts Univ., MA (United States); Shelton, C.G. [Shell Research, Ltd. (United States)

1999-11-01

177

Pseudopulse Near-Field Subsurface Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decisive success has been achieved in developing the subsurface near-field scanning tomography that overcomes the Rayleigh diffraction limit of a resolution. It is related to the transformation of the multifrequency inverse scattering problem to that for a complex-valued synthesized pulse (pseudopulse). It leads to the integral equation that has maxima in the depth dependence of its kernel and, hence, to the much better depth resolution of tomography. Moreover, the noise related to surface scattering is mainly suppressed in such an approach. This idea is realized here in the microwave subsurface tomography of 3D inhomogeneous dielectric structures. For homogeneous dielectric targets, this approach is applied to obtain holography images of their shape.

Gaikovich, K. P.; Gaikovich, P. K.; Maksimovitch, Ye. S.; Badeev, V. A.

2012-04-01

178

Experiments on autonomous Boolean networks.  

PubMed

We realize autonomous Boolean networks by using logic gates in their autonomous mode of operation on a field-programmable gate array. This allows us to implement time-continuous systems with complex dynamical behaviors that can be conveniently interconnected into large-scale networks with flexible topologies that consist of time-delay links and a large number of nodes. We demonstrate how we realize networks with periodic, chaotic, and excitable dynamics and study their properties. Field-programmable gate arrays define a new experimental paradigm that holds great potential to test a large body of theoretical results on the dynamics of complex networks, which has been beyond reach of traditional experimental approaches. PMID:23822500

Rosin, David P; Rontani, Damien; Gauthier, Daniel J; Schöll, Eckehard

2013-06-01

179

Autonomous spacecraft maintenance study group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A plan to incorporate autonomous spacecraft maintenance (ASM) capabilities into Air Force spacecraft by 1989 is outlined. It includes the successful operation of the spacecraft without ground operator intervention for extended periods of time. Mechanisms, along with a fault tolerant data processing system (including a nonvolatile backup memory) and an autonomous navigation capability, are needed to replace the routine servicing that is presently performed by the ground system. The state of the art fault handling capabilities of various spacecraft and computers are described, and a set conceptual design requirements needed to achieve ASM is established. Implementations for near term technology development needed for an ASM proof of concept demonstration by 1985, and a research agenda addressing long range academic research for an advanced ASM system for 1990s are established.

Marshall, M. H.; Low, G. D.

1981-01-01

180

Yucca Mountain Project Subsurface Facilities Design  

SciTech Connect

Four units of the Topopah Springs formation (volcanic tuff) are considered for the proposed repository: the upper lithophysal, the middle non-lithophysal, the lower lithophysal, and the lower non-lithophysal. Yucca Mountain was recently designated the site for a proposed repository to dispose of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Work is proceeding to advance the design of subsurface facilities to accommodate emplacing waste packages in the proposed repository. This paper summarized recent progress in the design of subsurface layout of the proposed repository. The original Site Recommendation (SR) concept for the subsurface design located the repository largely within the lower lithophysal zone (approximately 73%) of the Topopah The Site Recommendation characterized area suitable for emplacement consisted of the primary upper block, the lower block and the southern upper block extension. The primary upper block accommodated the mandated 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) at a 1.45 kW/m hear heat load. Based on further study of the Site Recommendation concept, the proposed repository siting area footprint was modified to make maximum use of available site characterization data, and thus, reduce uncertainties associated with performance assessment. As a result of this study, a modified repository footprint has been proposed and is presently being review for acceptance by the DOE. A panel design concept was developed to reduce overall costs and reduce the overall emplacement schedule. This concept provides flexibility to adjust the proposed repository subsurface layout with time, as it makes it unnecessary to ''commit'' to development of a large single panel at the earliest stages of construction. A description of the underground layout configuration and influencing factors that affect the layout configuration are discussed in the report.

A. Linden; R.S. Saunders; R.J. Boutin; P.G. Harrington; K.D. Lachman; L.J. Trautner

2002-11-19

181

Spatiotemporal variability in peatland subsurface methane dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands are large natural sources of atmospheric methane (CH4). While many studies have measured CH4 emissions to the atmosphere, less is known about the stock and residence time of subsurface CH4. In this study we examined dissolved CH4 concentration in near-surface peatland pore waters of a poor fen near Québec City, Canada, in order to (1) investigate the variability in and potential controls on these concentrations and (2) combine measured dissolved CH4 concentration with estimated bubble CH4 stock and measured CH4 fluxes to estimate the mean residence time of subsurface CH4. Concentrations ranged from 1 to 450 ?M during both study seasons. Depth profiles were generally consistent at one location within the peatland throughout the sampling period but varied between locations. Patterns with depth were not well correlated to pore water pH or EC; however, changes in CH4 concentration through time in the upper 30 cm were related to temperature and water table at some locations. Depth profiles taken at 2- to 5-cm intervals revealed discrete concentration "spikes" which were often maintained throughout the season and are likely related to bubble CH4 dynamics. Estimated subsurface CH4 stocks indicate that even when relatively low bubble volume (5% of peat volume) is assumed, bubble CH4 accounted for greater than half of total stocks. Calculated mean residence times were 28-120 days. This implies that CH4 flux may lag changes in water table and temperature which happen on shorter timescales (hours or days). To improve our description of subsurface CH4 stocks, links between dissolved and bubble CH4 stocks and peatland CH4 residence time, coincident measurement of pore water CH4 concentrations, entrapped gas content and composition, diffusive CH4 flux, and ebullition are required.

Strack, M.; Waddington, J. M.

2008-06-01

182

Autonomous agents and social norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present concepts and their relations that are necessary for mod-\\u000aeling autonomous agents in an environment that is governed by some (social) norms.\\u000aWe divide the norms over three levels: the private level the contract level and the\\u000aconvention level. We show how deontic logic can be used to model the concepts and\\u000ahow the theory

F. P. M. Dignum

1996-01-01

183

Integrated Microsensors for Autonomous Microrobots  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of a miniature mobile microrobot device and several microsystems needed to create a miniature microsensor delivery platform. This work was funded under LDRD No.10785, entitled, ''Integrated Microsensors for Autonomous Microrobots''. The approach adopted in this project was to develop a mobile platform, to which would be attached wireless RF remote control and data acquisition in addition to various microsensors. A modular approach was used to produce a versatile microrobot platform and reduce power consumption and physical size.

ADKINS, DOUGLAS R.; BYRNE, RAYMOND H.; HELLER, EDWIN J.; WOLF, JIMMIE V.

2003-02-01

184

Subsurface urban heat islands in German cities.  

PubMed

Little is known about the intensity and extension of subsurface urban heat islands (UHI), and the individual role of the driving factors has not been revealed either. In this study, we compare groundwater temperatures in shallow aquifers beneath six German cities of different size (Berlin, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Karlsruhe and Darmstadt). It is revealed that hotspots of up to +20K often exist, which stem from very local heat sources, such as insufficiently insulated power plants, landfills or open geothermal systems. When visualizing the regional conditions in isotherm maps, mostly a concentric picture is found with the highest temperatures in the city centers. This reflects the long-term accumulation of thermal energy over several centuries and the interplay of various factors, particularly in heat loss from basements, elevated ground surface temperatures (GST) and subsurface infrastructure. As a primary indicator to quantify and compare large-scale UHI intensity the 10-90%-quantile range UHII(10-90) of the temperature distribution is introduced. The latter reveals, in comparison to annual atmospheric UHI intensities, an even more pronounced heating of the shallow subsurface. PMID:23178772

Menberg, Kathrin; Bayer, Peter; Zosseder, Kai; Rumohr, Sven; Blum, Philipp

2013-01-01

185

Resonant seismic emission of subsurface objects  

SciTech Connect

Numerical modeling results and field data indicate that some contrasting subsurface objects (such as tunnels, caves, pipes, filled pits, and fluid-filled fractures) are capable of generating durable resonant oscillations after trapping seismic energy. These oscillations consist of surface types of circumferential waves that repeatedly propagate around the object. The resonant emission of such trapped energy occurs primarily in the form of shear body waves that can be detected by remotely placed receivers. Resonant emission reveals itself in the form of sharp resonant peaks for the late parts of the records, when all strong direct and primary reflected waves are gone. These peaks were observed in field data for a buried barrel filled with water, in 2D finite-difference modeling results, and in the exact canonical solution for a fluid-filled sphere. A computed animation for the diffraction of a plane wave upon a low-velocity elastic sphere confirms the generation of resonances by durable surface waves. Resonant emission has characteristic quasi-hyperbolic traveltime patterns on shot gathers. The inversion of these patterns can be performed in the frequency domain after muting the strong direct and primary scattered waves. Subsurface objects can be detected and imaged at a single resonance frequency without an accurate knowledge of source trigger time. The imaging of subsurface objects requires information about the shear velocity distribution in an embedding medium, which can be done interactively during inversion.

Korneev, Valeri A.

2009-04-15

186

Satellite-derived subsurface urban heat island.  

PubMed

The subsurface urban heat island (SubUHI) is one part of the overall UHI specifying the relative warmth of urban ground temperatures against the rural background. To combat the challenge on measuring extensive underground temperatures with in situ instruments, we utilized satellite-based moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer data to reconstruct the subsurface thermal field over the Beijing metropolis through a three-time-scale model. The results show the SubUHI's high spatial heterogeneity. Within the depths shallower than 0.5 m, the SubUHI dominates along the depth profiles and analyses imply the moments for the SubUHI intensity reaching first and second extremes during a diurnal temperature cycle are delayed about 3.25 and 1.97 h per 0.1 m, respectively. At depths shallower than 0.05 m in particular, there is a subsurface urban cool island (UCI) in spring daytime, mainly owing to the surface UCI that occurs in this period. At depths between 0.5 and 10 m, the time for the SubUHI intensity getting to its extremes during an annual temperature cycle is lagged 26.2 days per meter. Within these depths, the SubUHI prevails without exception, with an average intensity of 4.3 K, varying from 3.2 to 5.3 K. PMID:25222374

Zhan, Wenfeng; Ju, Weimin; Hai, Shuoping; Ferguson, Grant; Quan, Jinling; Tang, Chaosheng; Guo, Zhen; Kong, Fanhua

2014-10-21

187

Autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent definition, different diagnostic method, different patient cohorts studied. The pathogenesis is still unclear and probably multifactorial. Once DAN becomes clinically evident, no form of therapy has been identified, which can effectively stop or reverse it. Prevention strategies are based on strict glycemic control with intensive insulin treatment, multifactorial intervention, and lifestyle modification including control of hypertension, dyslipidemia, stop smoking, weight loss, and adequate physical exercise. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of DAN, with some mention to childhood and adolescent population. PMID:25520703

Verrotti, Alberto; Prezioso, Giovanni; Scattoni, Raffaella; Chiarelli, Francesco

2014-01-01

188

Semi autonomous mine detection system  

SciTech Connect

CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

2010-04-01

189

Integrated System for Autonomous Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The New Millennium Program Space Technology 6 Project Autonomous Sciencecraft software implements an integrated system for autonomous planning and execution of scientific, engineering, and spacecraft-coordination actions. A prior version of this software was reported in "The TechSat 21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment" (NPO-30784), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 3 (March 2004), page 33. This software is now in continuous use aboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) spacecraft mission and is being adapted for use in the Mars Odyssey and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. This software enables EO-1 to detect and respond to such events of scientific interest as volcanic activity, flooding, and freezing and thawing of water. It uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect changes, including events of scientific interest. Detection of such events triggers acquisition of follow-up imagery. The mission-planning component of the software develops a response plan that accounts for visibility of targets and operational constraints. The plan is then executed under control by a task-execution component of the software that is capable of responding to anomalies.

Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Robert; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Castano, Rebecca; Rabideau, Gregg; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Shulman, Seth; Doggett, Thomas; Ip, Felipe; Greeley, Ron; Baker, Victor; Dohn, James; Boyer, Darrell

2006-01-01

190

Autonomic Computing: Panacea or Poppycock?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomic Computing arose out of a need for a means to cope with rapidly growing complexity of integrating, managing, and operating computer-based systems as well as a need to reduce the total cost of ownership of today's systems. Autonomic Computing (AC) as a discipline was proposed by IBM in 2001, with the vision to develop self-managing systems. As the name implies, the influence for the new paradigm is the human body's autonomic system, which regulates vital bodily functions such as the control of heart rate, the body's temperature and blood flow-all without conscious effort. The vision is to create selfivare through self-* properties. The initial set of properties, in terms of objectives, were self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protecting, along with attributes of self-awareness, self-monitoring and self-adjusting. This self-* list has grown: self-anticipating, self-critical, self-defining, self-destructing, self-diagnosis, self-governing, self-organized, self-reflecting, and self-simulation, for instance.

Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

2005-01-01

191

Autonomous Intersection Management for Semi-Autonomous Vehicles Tsz-Chiu Au  

E-print Network

Autonomous Intersection Management for Semi-Autonomous Vehicles Tsz-Chiu Au School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology South Korea chiu@unist.ac.kr Shun

Stone, Peter

192

Tele/Autonomous Robot For Nuclear Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fail-safe tele/autonomous robotic system makes it unnecessary for human technicians to enter nuclear-fuel-reprocessing facilities and other high-radiation or otherwise hazardous industrial environments. Used to carry out experiments as exchanging equipment modules, turning bolts, cleaning surfaces, and grappling turning objects by use of mixture of autonomous actions and teleoperation with either single arm or two cooperating arms. System capable of fully autonomous operation, teleoperation or shared control.

Backes, Paul G.; Tso, Kam S.

1994-01-01

193

Sustainable and Autonomic Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts to realize these survivable systems visions, with specific emphasis on developments in Autonomic Policies.

Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Rouff, Christopher; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter

2006-01-01

194

Autonomic neuropathy, II: Specific peripheral neuropathies.  

PubMed

Autonomic dysfunction is a common complication of peripheral neuropathies. It is often of little clinical importance, but some conditions may cause profound disturbance of autonomic function. These conditions include acute dysautonomia, diabetes, primary and familial amyloidosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, porphyria, and some inherited neuropathies. A wide range of neuropathies are associated with lesser degrees of autonomic dysfunction. These include hereditary neuropathies, and neuropathies associated with metabolic disturbances, alcohol abuse, malignancy, medications, infections, and connective tissue disorders. PMID:8791232

McDougall, A J; McLeod, J G

1996-06-01

195

Other autonomic neuropathies associated with ganglionic antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acetylcholine receptor ganglionic (G-AchR) antibody is a very specific serologic test for autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. The spectrum of autoimmune (or presumed to be autoimmune) autonomic disorders, however, is quite broad and positivity to this antibody has been reported in a variety of other conditions, albeit infrequent and with low titer.This review describes the autonomic neuropathies most frequently encountered in

Paola Sandroni; Phillip A. Low

2009-01-01

196

General autonomic components of motion sickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report refers to a body of investigations directed toward the examination of autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness. Heart rate, respiration rate, finger pulse volume, and basal skin resistance were measured on 127 men and women before, during, and after exposure to a nauseogenic rotating chair test. Significant changes in all autonomic responses were observed across the tests (p less than .05). Significant differences in autonomic responses among groups divided according to motion sickness susceptibility were also observed (p less than .05). Results suggest that the examination of autonomic responses as an objective indicator of motion sickness malaise is warranted and may contribute to the overall understanding of the syndrome.

Cowings, Patricia S.; Suter, Steve; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Naifeh, Karen

1986-01-01

197

Information for Successful Interaction with Autonomous Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interaction in heterogeneous mission operations teams is not well matched to classical models of coordination with autonomous systems. We describe methods of loose coordination and information management in mission operations. We describe an information agent and information management tool suite for managing information from many sources, including autonomous agents. We present an integrated model of levels of complexity of agent and human behavior, which shows types of information processing and points of potential error in agent activities. We discuss the types of information needed for diagnosing problems and planning interactions with an autonomous system. We discuss types of coordination for which designs are needed for autonomous system functions.

Malin, Jane T.; Johnson, Kathy A.

2003-01-01

198

Autonomic Computing for Spacecraft Ground Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomic computing for spacecraft ground systems increases the system reliability and reduces the cost of spacecraft operations and software maintenance. In this paper, we present an autonomic computing solution for spacecraft ground systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), which consists of an open standard for a message oriented architecture referred to as the GMSEC architecture (Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center), and an autonomic computing tool, the Criteria Action Table (CAT). This solution has been used in many upgraded ground systems for NASA 's missions, and provides a framework for developing solutions with higher autonomic maturity.

Li, Zhenping; Savkli, Cetin; Jones, Lori

2007-01-01

199

1Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems -AMOSwww.ntnu.edu/amos Autonomous Marine Operations  

E-print Network

#12;06.06.2013 2 3Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems - AMOSwww.ntnu.edu/amos Vision06.06.2013 1 1Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems - AMOSwww.ntnu.edu/amos Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems AMOS 2013-2022 Cost: NOK 566 million AMOS Funding: NOK 240 million

Nørvåg, Kjetil

200

Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: KSC Autonomous Test Engineer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20+ years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in. the system, As part.of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display ofthe entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledgebase, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

Shrading, Nicholas J.

2012-01-01

201

Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

Schrading, J. Nicolas

2013-01-01

202

A cloud-assisted design for autonomous driving  

E-print Network

This paper presents Carcel, a cloud-assisted system for autonomous driving. Carcel enables the cloud to have access to sensor data from autonomous vehicles as well as the roadside infrastructure. The cloud assists autonomous ...

Suresh Kumar, Swarun

203

Mapping planetary caves with an autonomous, heterogeneous robot team  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caves on other planetary bodies offer sheltered habitat for future human explorers and numerous clues to a planet's past for scientists. While recent orbital imagery provides exciting new details about cave entrances on the Moon and Mars, the interiors of these caves are still unknown and not observable from orbit. Multi-robot teams offer unique solutions for exploration and modeling subsurface voids during precursor missions. Robot teams that are diverse in terms of size, mobility, sensing, and capability can provide great advantages, but this diversity, coupled with inherently distinct low-level behavior architectures, makes coordination a challenge. This paper presents a framework that consists of an autonomous frontier and capability-based task generator, a distributed market-based strategy for coordinating and allocating tasks to the different team members, and a communication paradigm for seamless interaction between the different robots in the system. Robots have different sensors, (in the representative robot team used for testing: 2D mapping sensors, 3D modeling sensors, or no exteroceptive sensors), and varying levels of mobility. Tasks are generated to explore, model, and take science samples. Based on an individual robot's capability and associated cost for executing a generated task, a robot is autonomously selected for task execution. The robots create coarse online maps and store collected data for high resolution offline modeling. The coordination approach has been field tested at a mock cave site with highly-unstructured natural terrain, as well as an outdoor patio area. Initial results are promising for applicability of the proposed multi-robot framework to exploration and modeling of planetary caves.

Husain, Ammar; Jones, Heather; Kannan, Balajee; Wong, Uland; Pimentel, Tiago; Tang, Sarah; Daftry, Shreyansh; Huber, Steven; Whittaker, William L.

204

Single cell genomics of subsurface microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have revealed unexpected abundance and diversity of microorganisms in terrestrial and marine subsurface, providing new perspectives over their biogeochemical significance, evolution, and the limits of life. The now commonly used research tools, such as metagenomics and PCR-based gene surveys enabled cultivation-unbiased analysis of genes encoded by natural microbial communities. However, these methods seldom provide direct evidence for how the discovered genes are organized inside genomes and from which organisms do they come from. Here we evaluated the feasibility of an alternative, single cell genomics approach, in the analysis of subsurface microbial community composition, metabolic potential and microevolution at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), South Dakota, and the Witwaterstrand Basin, South Africa. We successfully recovered genomic DNA from individual microbial cells from multiple locations, including ultra-deep (down to 3,500 m) and low-biomass (down to 10^3 cells mL^-1) fracture water. The obtained single amplified genomes (SAGs) from SURF contained multiple representatives of the candidate divisions OP3, OP11, OD1 and uncharacterized archaea. By sequencing eight of these SAGs, we obtained the first genome content information for these phylum-level lineages that do not contain a single cultured representative. The Witwaterstrand samples were collected from deep fractures, biogeochemical dating of which suggests isolation from tens of thousands to tens of millions of years. Thus, these fractures may be viewed as "underground Galapagos", a natural, long-term experiment of microbial evolution within well-defined temporal and spatial boundaries. We are analyzing multiple SAGs from these environments, which will provide detailed information about adaptations to life in deep subsurface, mutation rates, selective pressures and gene flux within and across microbial populations.

Stepanauskas, R.; Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C.; Kieft, T. L.; Woyke, T.; Rinke, C.; Sczyrba, A.; van Heerden, E.

2012-12-01

205

Subsurface sequence stratigraphic correlation using well logs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given hard copies of a subsurface section containing gamma and resistivity logs of nine closely-spaced (well distance varies from 1 to 3 km) wells from Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico for an interval of ~ 200 m clastic succession of Morrow sandstone of Pennsylvanian age. Core sedimentology of one of these wells is also provided. Students' task is to correlate the well logs to generate a stratigraphic cross-section of the area using sequence stratigraphic approach. As the data are from Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico, student should first gather the knowledge of regional setting of the basin, with a particular emphasis to the paleo-eustasy. (Clue: in Delaware Basin, Morrow sandstones deposited in a low accommodation settings with high-amplitude fluctuations of sea-level.) When correlating the well logs students should start with the well which has lithological information. Students should try to correlate the mudstones first. The two most prominent sequence stratigraphic surfaces with comparatively higher correlation-length are 'sequence boundary' produced by pronounced fall of sea-level, and 'maximum flooding surface' generated at the time of highest stand of sea-level. Students should pay particular attention to incised-valley-fill deposits. After completing the correlation, students should check whether their correlation satisfy our prevailing ideas of sequence stratigraphy and stratal packaging. Student should prepare a brief description of overall depositional environments and sea-level history of the area substantiating their subsurface correlation. By doing this exercise, students will learn how to apply sequence stratigraphic principles in interpreting subsurface data, particularly from well logs.

Gani, M. R.

206

Airborne Electromagnetic Mapping of Subsurface Permafrost  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns over the impacts of climate change have recently energized research on the potential impacts thawing permafrost may have on groundwater flow, infrastructure, forest health, ecosystems, energy production, CO2 release, and contaminant transport. There is typically little knowledge about subsurface permafrost distributions, such as thickness and where groundwater-surface-water connections may occur through taliks. In June of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook an airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey in the area of Fort Yukon, Alaska in order to map the 3-D distribution of permafrost and provide information for the development of groundwater models within the Yukon River Basin. Prior to the development of these models, information on areas of groundwater-surface water interaction was extremely limited. Lithology determined from a borehole drilled in Fort Yukon in 1994 agrees well with the resistivity depth sections inferred from the airborne survey. In addition to lithology, there a thermal imprint appears on the subsurface resistivity values. In the upper 20-50 m, the sections show continuous areas of high electrical resistivity, consistent with alluvial gravel deposits that are likely frozen. At depth, unfrozen gravel deposits have intermediate-to-high resistivity; frozen silts have intermediate resistivity; and unfrozen silts have low resistivity. Under the Yukon River and lakes where the subsurface is not frozen, zones of moderate resistivity intermix with areas of low resistivity. The areas of loess hills on the margins of the Yukon Flats have very-high electrical resistivity, indicating higher ice content, and are associated with the some of the greatest thickness of permafrost in the survey area. This work provides the first look into the 3-D distribution of permafrost in the areas around Fort Yukon and is a demonstration of the application of AEM to permafrost mapping. The AEM survey provides unprecedented 3-D images of subsurface electrical properties that reveal changes in lithology and the presence or absence of permafrost. These geophysical data fill an important gap between sparsely sampled boreholes, regional hydrogeologic measurements, and remote sensing data. Interpretations of the AEM data are being integrated with other remotely sensed data to supply critical hydrogeological information needed for developing an improved understanding of groundwater-surface-water interactions in permafrost terrains. More specifically, the interpretations of the AEM data help to refine groundwater flow models in the Yukon Flats Basin. Because of the success of this study we now know that there are many other uses for this data. For example, airborne surveys can provide baseline data for estimating the 3-D distribution of permafrost that can be compared to future surveys in order to estimate volumetric changes over time.

Abraham, J. D.; Minsley, B. J.; Cannia, J. C.; Smith, B. D.; Walvoord, M. A.; Voss, C. I.; Jorgenson, T. T.; Wylie, B. K.; Anderson, L.

2011-12-01

207

GEOSSAV: a simulation tool for subsurface applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geostatistical Environment fOr Subsurface Simulation And Visualization (GEOSSAV) is a tool for the integration of hard and soft data into stochastic simulation and visualization of distributions of geological structures and hydrogeological properties in the subsurface. GEOSSAV, as an interface to selected geostatistical modules (bicalib, gamv, vargplt, and sisim) from the Geostatistical Software LIBrary, GSLIB (GSLIB: Geostatistical Software Library and User's Guide, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998, 369pp), can be used for data analysis, variogram computation of regularly or irregularly spaced data, and sequential indicator simulation of subsurface heterogeneities. Sequential indicator simulation, based on various kriging techniques (simple, ordinary, and Bayesian), is suitable for the simulation of continuous variables such as hydraulic conductivity of an aquifer or chemical concentrations at a contaminated site, and categorical variables which indicate the presence or absence of a particular lithofacies. The software integration platform and development environment of GEOSSAV is Tool command language (Tcl) with its graphical user interface, Toolkit (Tk), and a number of Tcl/Tk extensions. The standard Open Graphics Library application programming interface is used for rendering three-dimensional (3D) data distributions and for slicing perpendicular to the main coordinate axis. Export options for finite-difference groundwater models allow either files that characterize single model layers (which are saved in ASCII matrix format) or files that characterize the complete 3D flow model setup for MODFLOW-based groundwater simulation systems (which are saved in block-centered flow package files (User's documentation for MODFLOW-96, an update to the US Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-485, Reston, VA, 1996, 56pp)). GEOSSAV can be used whenever stochastic solutions are preferred to solve site-specific heterogeneity problems, e.g., in the field of hydrology, groundwater, groundwater and/or soil contamination, site remediation, air pollution, and ecology. An example from the Rhine/Wiese aquifer near Basel demonstrates the application of GEOSSAV on geostatistical data analysis and subsurface visualization. GEOSSAV has been successfully tested on Microsoft Windows NT 4.0/2000/XP and on SuSE Linux 7.3. The current version is available at http://www.unibas.ch/earth/pract.

Regli, Christian; Rosenthaler, Lukas; Huggenberger, Peter

2004-04-01

208

Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2010-01-04

209

Instrumented Moles for Planetary Subsurface Regolith Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil-like materials, or regolith, on solar system objects provide a record of physical and/or chemical weathering processes on the object in question and as such possess significant scientific relevance for study by landed planetary missions. In the case of Mars, a complex interplay has been at work between impact gardening, aeolian as well as possibly fluvial processes. This resulted in regolith that is texturally as well as compositionally layered as hinted at by results from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions which are capable of accessing shallow subsurface soils by wheel trenching. Significant subsurface soil access on Mars, i.e. to depths of a meter or more, remains to be accomplished on future missions. This has been one of the objectives of the unsuccessful Beagle 2 landed element of the ESA Mars Express mission having been equipped with the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO) subsurface soil sampling Mole system capable of self-penetration into regolith due to an internal electro-mechanical hammering mechanism. This lightweight device of less than 900 g mass was designed to repeatedly obtain and deliver to the lander regolith samples from depths down to 2 m which would have been analysed for organic matter and, specifically, organic carbon from potential extinct microbial activity. With funding from the ESA technology programme, an evolved Mole system - the Instrumented Mole System (IMS) - has now been developed to a readiness level of TRL 6. The IMS is to serve as a carrier for in situ instruments for measurements in planetary subsurface soils. This could complement or even eliminate the need to recover samples to the surface. The Engineering Model hardware having been developed within this effort is designed for accommodating a geophysical instrument package (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package, HP3) that would be capable of measuring regolith physical properties and planetary heat flow. The chosen design encompasses a two-body Mole consisting of a 'tractor' element containing the hammering mechanism jointed to a trailed compartment housing the instruments as well as some front-end electronics, tethered to surface controls and instruments. This presentation will highlight the design of the IMS and will describe results of comprehensive functional and environmental tests that included soil penetration to depths beyond 2 m, thermal vacuum functional tests, as well as vibration testing of the stowed system. Mission scenarios that are being considered for the IMS are discussed (including the ExoMars mission of ESA), and an update is given on parallel tests of the HP3 instrument package that is being developed in a dedicated, ESA-funded effort.

Richter, L. O.; Coste, P. A.; Grzesik, A.; Knollenberg, J.; Magnani, P.; Nadalini, R.; Re, E.; Romstedt, J.; Sohl, F.; Spohn, T.

2006-12-01

210

Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers  

DOEpatents

A system for monitoring temperature of a subsurface low temperature zone is described. The system includes a plurality of freeze wells configured to form the low temperature zone, one or more lasers, and a fiber optic cable coupled to at least one laser. A portion of the fiber optic cable is positioned in at least one freeze well. At least one laser is configured to transmit light pulses into a first end of the fiber optic cable. An analyzer is coupled to the fiber optic cable. The analyzer is configured to receive return signals from the light pulses.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); McKinzie, II. Billy John (Houston, TX)

2009-08-18

211

Parallel heater system for subsurface formations  

DOEpatents

A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

2011-10-25

212

Surface and subsurface mapping in hydrogeology  

SciTech Connect

This book concentrates on the often neglected but useful aspects of hydrogeological mapping. It covers geophysical survey methods and the importance of water chemistry as a tool in tracing the route of subsurface water, and goes on to lay a basic foundation in subjects needed for practice in field: stratigraphy, structural geology, mineralogy, petrography, and geochemistry. Also covers basic disciplines and techniques indispensable for geological mapping, e.g., cartography and surveying, geophysics, drilling, soil science, hydrology, and botanics. Written from a uniquely practical standpoint.

Erdelyi, M.; Galfi, J.

1987-01-01

213

Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

Osadciw, Lisa A.

2004-04-01

214

BLAST Autonomous Daytime Star Cameras  

E-print Network

We have developed two redundant daytime star cameras to provide the fine pointing solution for the balloon-borne submillimeter telescope, BLAST. The cameras are capable of providing a reconstructed pointing solution with an absolute accuracy camera combines a 1 megapixel CCD with a 200 mm f/2 lens to image a 2 degree x 2.5 degree field of the sky. The instruments are autonomous. An internal computer controls the temperature, adjusts the focus, and determines a real-time pointing solution at 1 Hz. The mechanical details and flight performance of these instruments are presented.

Marie Rex; Edward Chapin; Mark J. Devlin; Joshua Gundersen; Jeff Klein; Enzo Pascale; Donald Wiebe

2006-05-01

215

Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the targeted system. It is envisioned that real time requirements tracing will greatly assist the movement of autoprocedures to flight software enhancing the software assurance of auto-procedures and also their acceptance as reliable commanders.

Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

2014-01-01

216

The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System  

SciTech Connect

We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

2009-01-13

217

Autonomous Exploration and Mapping of Abandoned Mines  

E-print Network

Autonomous Exploration and Mapping of Abandoned Mines Sebastian Thrun2 , Scott Thayer1 , William Computer Science Department, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany Abstract Abandoned mines pose the software architecture of an autonomous robotic system designed to explore and map abandoned mines. We have

Thrun, Sebastian

218

Autonomic Management of Clustered Applications Sara Bouchenak  

E-print Network

the term administration to refer to management operations · human resources as administrators have to react. · Autonomic management is a means to save hardware resources as resources can be allocated only when reAutonomic Management of Clustered Applications Sara Bouchenak Universit´e Joseph Fourier, Grenoble

Pous, Damien

219

Autonomous Forest Vehicles: Historic, envisioned, and  

E-print Network

Autonomous Forest Vehicles: Historic, envisioned, and state-of-the-art Thomas Hellström Pär Lärkeryd Tomas Nordfjell Ola Ringdahl ABSTRACT The feasibility of using autonomous forest vehicles (which can be regarded as logical developments in the ongoing auto- mation of forest machines),the systems

Hellström, Thomas

220

Techniques tor autonomous, off-road navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To extend autonomous navigation to unpaved and off-road scenarios, vehicles in the AutoNav program bolster a 4D perception and control architecture with area-based vision techniques. This article describes how an autonomous vehicle uses directed real-time, area-based, stereo processing to determine the vertical profile of its path

Stefan Baten; M. Lutzeler; Ernst D. Dickmanns; R. Mandelbaum; P. J. Burt

1998-01-01

221

Planning Flight Paths of Autonomous Aerobots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Algorithms for planning flight paths of autonomous aerobots (robotic blimps) to be deployed in scientific exploration of remote planets are undergoing development. These algorithms are also adaptable to terrestrial applications involving robotic submarines as well as aerobots and other autonomous aircraft used to acquire scientific data or to perform surveying or monitoring functions.

Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Sharma, Shivanjli

2009-01-01

222

Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems  

SciTech Connect

Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

2007-11-30

223

Autonomous Vehicle Following Using a Robotic Driver  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of autonomous control of a passenger vehicle for vehicle following using a robotic driver. The aim is to have a modular and transferable device that can autonomously control a standard passenger car. The robot controls the car in the same way as a human driver, by rotating the steering wheel and pushing the pedals. No

Nicholas Wong; Christopher Chambers; K. Stol; R. Halkyard

2008-01-01

224

Autonomic Physiological Response Patterns Related to Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined autonomic physiological responses induced by six different cognitive ability tasks, varying in complexity, that were selected on the basis of on Guilford's Structure of Intellect model. In a group of 52 participants, task performance was measured together with nine different autonomic response measures and respiration rate. Weighted…

Melis, Cor; van Boxtel, Anton

2007-01-01

225

Digital Libraries and Autonomous Citation Indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Wide Web is revolutionizing the way that researchers access scientific information. Articles are increasingly being made available on the homepages of authors or institutions, at journal Web sites, or in online archives. However, scientific information on the Web is largely disorganized. This article introduces the creation of digital libraries incorporating Autonomous Citation Indexing (ACI). ACI autonomously creates citation

Steve Lawrence; C. Lee Giles; Kurt D. Bollacker

1999-01-01

226

The Techsat-21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Constellation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Constellation flight demonstration (ASC) will fly onboard the Air Force's TechSat-21 constellation (an unclassified mission scheduled for launch in 2004). ASC will use onboard science analysis, replanning, robust execution, model- based estimation and control, and formation flying to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight

Steve Chien; Rob Sherwood; Michael Burl; Russell Knight; Gregg Rabideau

2005-01-01

227

Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S. R. P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M. G. Na

2007-01-01

228

Autonomous power system intelligent diagnosis and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. Knowledge-based software provides a robust method of control for highly complex space-based power systems that conventional methods do not allow. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis and control, the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space based power system. The operation of the Autonomous Power System as a whole is described and the responsibilities of the three elements - APEX, AIPS, and Brassboard - are characterized. A discussion of the methodologies used in each element is provided. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Power System.

Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.; Merolla, Anthony

1991-01-01

229

Other Autonomic Neuropathies Associated with Ganglionic Antibody  

PubMed Central

The acetylcholine receptor ganglionic (G-AchR) antibody is a very specific serologic test for autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. The spectrum of autoimmune (or presumed to be autoimmune) autonomic disorders, however, is quite broad and positivity to this antibody has been reported in a variety of other conditions, albeit infrequent and with low titer. This review describes the autonomic neuropathies most frequently encountered in clinical practice in which an autoimmune etiology is suspected. They include a chronic form (pure autonomic failure) and limited autonomic neuropathies with predominant involvement of one neurotransmitter type (i.e., cholinergic vs. adrenergic) or one system (such as the gastrointestinal system) or a distal small fiber dysfunction. In each of these conditions, occasional positivity to the G-AchR antibody has been found, but the pathogenetic significance of such finding is still uncertain. Other antigens and antibodies yet to be identified are more likely to be responsible in these disorders. PMID:19058765

Sandroni, Paola; Low, Phillip A.

2009-01-01

230

Other autonomic neuropathies associated with ganglionic antibody.  

PubMed

The acetylcholine receptor ganglionic (G-AchR) antibody is a very specific serologic test for autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. The spectrum of autoimmune (or presumed to be autoimmune) autonomic disorders, however, is quite broad and positivity to this antibody has been reported in a variety of other conditions, albeit infrequent and with low titer. This review describes the autonomic neuropathies most frequently encountered in clinical practice in which an autoimmune etiology is suspected. They include a chronic form (pure autonomic failure) and limited autonomic neuropathies with predominant involvement of one neurotransmitter type (i.e., cholinergic vs. adrenergic) or one system (such as the gastrointestinal system) or a distal small fiber dysfunction. In each of these conditions, occasional positivity to the G-AchR antibody has been found, but the pathogenetic significance of such finding is still uncertain. Other antigens and antibodies yet to be identified are more likely to be responsible in these disorders. PMID:19058765

Sandroni, Paola; Low, Phillip A

2009-03-12

231

Phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microorganisms. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This project involves the development of group specific 16S ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the rapid detection of specific types of subsurface organisms (e.g., groups of microbes that share certain physiological traits). Major accomplishments for the period of 6/91 to 12/1/91 are described. Nine new probes have been synthesized on the basis of published 16S rRNA sequence data from the Ribosomal Database Project. We have initiated rapid screening of many of the subsurface microbial isolates obtained from the P24 borehole at the Savannah River Site. To date, we have screened approximately 50% of the isolates from P24. We have optimized our {und in situ} hybridization technique, and have developed a cell blot hybridization technique to screen 96 samples on a single blot. This is much faster than reading 96 individual slides. Preliminary experiments have been carried out which indicate specific nutrients can be used to amplify rRNA only in those organisms capable of metabolizing those nutrients. 1 tab., 2 figs.

Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.

1991-12-31

232

Method and apparatus for subsurface exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A subsurface explorer (SSX) for exploring beneath the terrestrial surface of planetary bodies such as the Earth, Mars, or comets. This exploration activity utilizes appropriate sensors and instrument to evaluate the composition, structure, mineralogy and possibly biology of the subsurface medium, as well as perhaps the ability to return samples of that medium back to the surface. The vehicle comprises an elongated skin or body having a front end and a rear end, with a nose piece at the front end for imparting force to composition material of the planetary body. Force is provided by a hammer mechanism to the back side of a nose piece from within the body of the vehicle. In the preferred embodiment, a motor spins an intermediate shaft having two non-uniform threads along with a hammer which engages these threads with two conical rollers. A brake assembly halts the rotation of the intermediate shaft, causing the conical roller to spin down the non-uniform thread to rapidly and efficiently convert the rotational kinetic energy of the hammer into translational energy.

Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

2002-01-01

233

Computer stereograms of Oklahoma subsurface geology  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional stereoscopic illustrations have not been a standard part of the subsurface geologist's tool kit. Now, the immense complexity of stereograms can be resolved by inexpensive software on a personal computer, with which the subsurface geologist can gain an entirely new viewpoint. These new illustrations yield new patterns, new relationships, and prospective anomalies. The illustrations are particularly helpful in areas of complex structural geology. This study presents a regional sampling of this new mode of geologic illustration; Oklahoma was chosen because of its wide variety of structural styles, the prolific reserves associated with those structures, and the abundance of geologic data. A statewide data base of 2806 structural elevations on the base of the Pennsylvanian System was digitized from scout-ticket tops. In addition, three detailed data bases of local structures were digitized, using all the available structural control plus interpreted points to aid the programming. Contour maps and block diagrams were constructed with readily available, inexpensive software, using kriging algorithms. Stereo pairs were created by rotating the blocks 4/sup 0/ within the computer program. The pairs were positioned 2.5 in. apart to match an average viewer's interpupillary distance. The three-dimensional blocks may be viewed with a stereoscope or with naked eyes focused on a distant point.

Todd, H.W.

1987-08-01

234

Robotics subsurface mapping demonstration technology test plan  

SciTech Connect

The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) contains an estimated 2 million cubic feet of contaminated, hazardous, radioactive buried waste. The waste was received in cardboard boxes, steel drums plywood boxes, and as loose material. Possible leaching of the buried waste may have created mixed hazardous fill dirt, with an estimated volume of 6 million cubic feet. The Department of Energy has committed to clean up the SDA. Cleanup efforts will include characterizing and removing the waste. Waste characterization provides information on what, where, and how much waste is buried. This information will be used to determine how the waste will be removed and treated. Limited historical data of the waste buried within the SDA exist, but have not been verified and are believed to be incorrect or incomplete in many cases. There are two objectives to the Robotics Subsurface Mapping Demonstration. The first is to demonstrate the feasibility of using a remotely operated platform to perform characterization operations. In the demonstration, the Soldier Robot Interface Project (SRIP) platform will be equipped with multiple sensors to provide data for buried waste characterization and will be remotely controlled and tracked by the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS). The second objective of the demonstration is to characterize the waste in locations within the SDA, as specified by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Project.

Griebenow, B.E.

1991-06-01

235

Subsurface damage on ground fused silica surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low surface laser damage threshold of fused silica components in high power laser systems such as NIF restricts the improvement of the output fluence of those systems. Once damage is initiated and grows under subsequent laser shots, the components will go unusable. Subsurface damage (SSD) introduced during manufacturing has been identified as a main damage initiator. A good knowledge of SSD and how manufacturing influences it is essential to optimize manufacturing processes for damage free optics. Using the magneto-rheological finishing (MRF) wedge technique of better accuracy attributed to a tip, we have characterized the subsurface damage on fused silica optical surfaces ground with loose Al2O3 abrasives of different sizes. Larger abrasives generates longer cracks and the number density of cracks decreases sharply with the depth for each size. Rogue particles account for the occurrence of trailing indent scratches. Addition of rogue abrasives into relatively small base abrasive extends SSD more deeply than that induced by rogue abrasives alone. The linear model, with the proportional coefficient 3.511, fits the relationship between SSD depth and surface roughness (SR) better than the quadratic polynomial one. We believe SSD depth relates to SR more statistically than following some specified physical law. The linear relationship between SSD depth and the abrasive size was also established. The abrasive size turned out not to be as a good indictor of SSD depth as SR.

Xu, Jiafeng; Xu, Xueke; Gao, Wenlan; Wei, Chaoyang; Yang, Minghong; Shao, Jianda

2014-08-01

236

Predictability of Subsurface Temperature and the AMOC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GEOS 5 coupled model is extensively used for experimental decadal climate prediction. Understanding the limits of decadal ocean predictability is critical for making progress in these efforts. Using this model, we study the subsurface temperature initial value predictability, the variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and its impacts on the global climate. Our approach is to utilize the idealized data assimilation technology developed at the GMAO. The technique 'replay' allows us to assess, for example, the impact of the surface wind stresses and/or precipitation on the ocean in a very well controlled environment. By running the coupled model in replay mode we can in fact constrain the model using any existing reanalysis data set. We replay the model constraining (nudging) it to the MERRA reanalysis in various fields from 1948-2012. The fields, u,v,T,q,ps, are adjusted towards the 6-hourly analyzed fields in atmosphere. The simulated AMOC variability is studied with a 400-year-long segment of replay integration. The 84 cases of 10-year hindcasts are initialized from 4 different replay cycles. Here, the variability and predictability are examined further by a measure to quantify how much the subsurface temperature and AMOC variability has been influenced by atmospheric forcing and by ocean internal variability. The simulated impact of the AMOC on the multi-decadal variability of the SST, sea surface height (SSH) and sea ice extent is also studied.

Chang, Y.; Schubert, S. D.

2013-12-01

237

Multi-agent autonomous system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

238

Autonomous perturbations of LISA orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate autonomous perturbations on the orbits of LISA, namely the effects produced by gravitational fields that can be expressed only in terms of the position, but not of time in the Hill frame. This first step in the study of the LISA orbits has been the subject of recent papers which implement analytical techniques based on a 'post-epicyclic' approximation in the Hill frame to find optimal unperturbed orbits. The natural step forward is to analyze the perturbations to purely Keplerian orbits. In this work, a particular emphasis is put on the tidal field of the Earth assumed to be stationary in the Hill frame. Other relevant classes of autonomous perturbations are those given by the corrections to the solar field responsible for a slow precession and a global stationary field, associated with sources such as the interplanetary dust or a local dark matter component. The inclusion of simple linear contributions in the expansion of these fields produces secular solutions that can be compared with the measurements and possibly used to evaluate some morphological property of the perturbing components.

Pucacco, G.; Bassan, M.; Visco, M.

2010-12-01

239

Structured control for autonomous robots  

SciTech Connect

To operate in rich, dynamic environments, autonomous robots must be able to effectively utilize and coordinate their limited physical and occupational resources. As complexity increases, it becomes necessary to impose explicit constraints on the control of planning, perception, and action to ensure that unwanted interactions between behaviors do not occur. This paper advocates developing complex robot systems by layering reactive behaviors onto deliberative components. In this structured control approach, the deliberative components handle normal situations and the reactive behaviors, which are explicitly constrained as to when and how they are activated, handle exceptional situations. The Task Control Architecture (TCA) has been developed to support this approach. TCA provides an integrated set of control constructs useful for implementing deliberative and reactive behaviors. The control constructs facilitate modular and evolutionary system development: they are used to integrate and coordinate planning, perception, and execution, and to incrementally improve the efficiency and robustness of the robot systems. To date, TCA has been used in implementing a half-dozen mobile robot systems, including an autonomous six-legged rover and indoor mobile manipulator.

Simmons, R.G. (Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Computer Science)

1994-02-01

240

Autonomous uninterruptable power supply apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This invention relates broadly to a power supply apparatus, and in particular to an autonomous uninterruptable power supply apparatus. The purpose of an uninterruptable power supply (UPS) is to protect critical electrical loads from transient or steady stage outages or disturbances in the primary power source. The basic configuration of a typical, commercially available, uninterruptable power supply is comprised at a minimum of a standby battery and a battery charger and may also include an inverter for AC applications. Systems of this type can be found in most computer installations and laboratory systems which cannot tolerate even momentary disturbances of input power. This document describes an autonomous uninterruptable power supply apparatus utilizing a digital processor unit as a control and monitor unit to measure and control input and output parameters in the power supply. A battery charger is utilized to maintain the voltage and current levels with the backup battery supply source which powers an inverter unit that converts the DC power to an AC output.

Masson, J. H.

1984-12-01

241

Drilling on the Moon and Mars: Developing the Science Approach for Subsurface Exploration with Human Crews  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DOMEX (Drilling on the Moon and Mars in Human Exploration) is using analog missions to develop the approach for using human crews to perform science activities on the Moon and Mars involving exploration and sampling of the subsurface. Subsurface science is an important activity that may be uniquely enabled by human crews. DOMEX provides an opportunity to plan and execute planetary mission science activities without the expense and overhead of a planetary mission. Objectives: The objective of this first in a series of DOMEX missions were to 1) explore the regional area to understand the geologic context and determine stratigraphy and geologic history of various geologic units in the area. 2) Explore for and characterize sites for deploying a deep (10 m depth) drilling system in a subsequent field season. 3) Perform GPR on candidate drill sites. 4) Select sites that represent different geological units deposited in different epochs and collect soil cores using sterile procedures for mineralogical, organic and biological analysis. 5) Operate the MUM in 3 different sites representing different geological units and soil characteristics. 6) Collect rock and soil samples of sites visited and analyze them at the habitat. Results: At mission start the crew performed a regional survey to identify major geologic units that were correlated to recognized stratigraphy and regional geologic maps. Several candidate drill sites were identified. During the rest of the mission, successful GPR surveys were conducted in four locations. Soil cores were collected in 5 locations representing soils from 4 different geologic units, to depths up to 1m. Soil cores from two locations were analyzed with PCR in the laboratory. The remainder were reserved for subsequent analysis. XRD analysis was performed in the habitat and in the field on 39 samples, to assist with sample characterization, conservation, and archiving. MUM was deployed at 3 field locations and 1 test location (outside the habitat) where it operated autonomously for 2-4 hours at each site. Depths achieved ranged from 15 to 70 cm depending on the soil compressive strength and the presence and depth of subsurface indurated layers. Subsurface samples weighing 0.5 to 1 g were collected at the deepest depth encountered at each of the sites using the MUM automated sample collection system, and subsequently analyzed with XRD. Downhole inspection of holes produced by MUM with the Raman spectrometer was acquired on two of the holes and spectral features associated with selenite were identified in specific soil layers. Previously unreported fossilized remains of vertebrate fauna from the Jurassic era were discovered during our mission. Analysis of mineral biomarkers associated with this discovery are underway.

Stoker, C. R.; Zavaleta, J.; Bell, M.; Direto, S.; Foing, B.; Blake, D.; Kim, S.

2010-01-01

242

ASSESSMENT OF THE SUBSURFACE FATE OF MONOETHANOLAMINE  

SciTech Connect

Burial of amine reclaimer unit sludges and system filters has resulted in contamination of soil at the CanOxy Okotoks decommissioned sour gas-processing plant with amines, amine byproducts, and salts. A three-phase research program was devised to investigate the natural attenuation process that controls the subsurface transport and fate of these contaminants and to apply the results toward the development of a strategy for the remediation of this type of contamination in soils. Phase I experimental activities examined interactions between monoethanolamine (MEA) and sediment, the biodegradability of MEA in soils at various concentrations and temperatures, and the biodegradability of MEA sludge contamination in a soil slurry bioreactor. The transport and fate of MEA in the subsurface was found to be highly dependant on the nature of the release, particularly MEA concentration and conditions of the subsurface environment, i.e., pH, temperature, and oxygen availability. Pure compound biodegradation experiments in soil demonstrated rapid biodegradation of MEA under aerobic conditions and moderate temperatures (>6 C). Phase II landfarming activities confirmed that these contaminants are readily biodegradable in soil under ideal laboratory conditions, yet considerable toxicity was observed in the remaining material. Examination of water extracts from the treated soil suggested that the toxicity is water-soluble. Phase II activities led to the conclusion that landfarming is not the most desirable bioremediation technique; however, an engineered biopile with a leachate collection system could remove the remaining toxic fraction from the soil. Phase III was initiated to conduct field-based experimental activities to examine the optimized remediation technology. A pilot-scale engineered biopile was constructed at a decommissioned gas-sweetening facility in Okotoks, Alberta, Canada. On the basis of a review of the analytical and performance data generated from soil and leachate samples, the biopile operation has successfully removed all identified amines and removed significant amounts of organic nitrogen and organic carbon. Salts initially present in the soil and salts generated during the biodegradation of contaminants remain to be flushed from the soil. Laboratory data show that these salts are readily removable with a simple soil leach.

James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Lori G. Kays

2000-05-01

243

Near-tropical subsurface ice on Mars Mathieu Vincendon,1  

E-print Network

Near-tropical subsurface ice on Mars Mathieu Vincendon,1 John Mustard,1 Franc¸ois Forget,2 Mikhail., J. Mustard, F. Forget, M. Kreslavsky, A. Spiga, S. Murchie, and J.-P. Bibring (2010), Near- ence of shallow subsurface water ice have been reported [Squyres and Carr, 1986; Mustard et al., 2001

Spiga, Aymeric

244

Temporal variability of nitrogen and phosphorus transport in subsurface drainage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Subsurface drainage is a necessity for crop production agriculture in humid climates with poorly drained soils. The Midwestern United States is the most productive agricultural area in the world. In excess of 20.6 million ha (37%) of the tillable acres in the Midwest are managed with subsurface tile...

245

10 CFR 39.45 - Subsurface tracer studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsurface tracer studies. 39.45 Section 39.45 Energy NUCLEAR...SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.45 Subsurface tracer studies. (a) The licensee shall...

2010-01-01

246

Subsurface Mapping: A Question of Position and Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the character and challenges inherent in the graphical portrayal of features in subsurface mapping. Subsurface structures are, by their nature, hidden and must be mapped based on drilling and/or geophysical data. Efficient use of graphical techniques is central to effectively communicating the results of expensive exploration…

Kellie, Andrew C.

2009-01-01

247

The Subsurface Fluid Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage  

E-print Network

The Subsurface Fluid Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage by Michael Lawrence Szulczewski S the fluid mechanics of CO2 storage, with the goal of informing two practical questions. The first question by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heidi M. Nepf Chair, Departmental Committee for Graduate Students #12;2 #12;The Subsurface Fluid

248

CSMOS USER REGISTRATION (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Center for Subsurface Modeling Support (CSMoS)provides public domain groundwater and vadose zone modeling software and services to public agencies and private companies nationwide. CSMoS is part of NRMRL's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division. The primary objectives...

249

Efficiency of subsurface flow constructed wetland with trickling filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective wastewater purification in subsurface flow constructed wetlands must include adequate pretreatment and ensure a sufficient amount of dissolved oxygen. In a pilot-scale operation, a subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW) consisted of a primary settlement tank, a trickling filter for pretreatment and two serially assembled basins. The trickling filter was added to ensure sufficient aeration, increase purification of the wastewater

Aleksandra Anic Vucinic; Jasna Hrenovic; Predrag Tepes

2012-01-01

250

Efficiency of subsurface flow constructed wetland with trickling filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective wastewater purification in subsurface flow constructed wetlands must include adequate pretreatment and ensure a sufficient amount of dissolved oxygen. In a pilot-scale operation, a subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW) consisted of a primary settlement tank, a trickling filter for pretreatment and two serially assembled basins. The trickling filter was added to ensure sufficient aeration, increase purification of the wastewater

Aleksandra Anic Vucinic; Jasna Hrenovic; Predrag Tepes

2011-01-01

251

Compositional Simulation of Subsurface Remediation via Density Modified Displacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced interfacial tension displacement of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in the subsurface can be an efficient means of remediating contaminant source zones. Application of technologies based upon this principle, however, is problematic for NAPLs that are denser than water (DNAPLs) due to their tendency to sink further into the subsurface when mobilized. Pre-mobilization density conversion via alcohol partitioning has been

T. J. Phelan; C. A. Ramsburg; L. M. Abriola

2004-01-01

252

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SUBSURFACE VOLATILIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM - BROWN & ROOT ENVIRONMENTAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS*) is an in-situ vacuum extraction/air sparging and bioremediation technology for the treatment of subsurface organic contamination in soil and groundwater. The technology, developed by Billings and Associates, Inc., and o...

253

DETERMINATION OF MICROBIAL CELL NUMBERS IN SUBSURFACE SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ground-water pollution by organic compounds has become a major environmental concern. Because the transport and fate of the organic pollutants may be influenced by microorganisms present in subsurface material, reliable measurements of the number of organisms in subsurface sample...

254

Development of stochastic partial differential equations for subsurface hydrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of stochastic models in subsurface hydrology is growing at a logistic pace. To tie together a number of different stochastic methodologies for deriving subsurface transport equations, we have put together a brief review of some of the more common techniques. Our attention is confined to a few select methodologies so that we might delve in detail into assumptions

J. H. Cushman

1987-01-01

255

Subsurface Geoscience The Wiess School of Natural Sciences  

E-print Network

1 Subsurface Geoscience The Wiess School of Natural Sciences Degrees Offered: MS Rice University introduced the professional master's degree in subsurface geoscience in fall 2003. This degree is designed geoscience degree is one of three tracks in the Professional Master's Program at Rice housed in the Wiess

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

256

Subsurface Geoscience The George R. Brown School of Engineering  

E-print Network

254 Subsurface Geoscience The George R. Brown School of Engineering Director Alan Levander geoscience for the 2003-2004 academic year. This degree is designed for students who wish to become. The subsurface geoscience degree is one of three tracks in the new Professional Master's Program at Rice housed

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

257

Subsurface Sounding of Mars: The Effects of Surface Roughness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) will conduct a global survey of Mars from the Mars Express Orbiter starting in 2004. The primary objective of the subsurface observations is to detect material interfaces in the upper several kilometers of the crust of Mars, with a particular emphasis on mapping the 3D distribution of water and ice in that portion of the crust. In order to detect subsurface interfaces, the returned echo from the subsurface must be distinguished from noise and clutter, which can arise from a variety of sources. One source of clutter is surface topography that generates backscattered energy at the same time delay as the subsurface region of interest. Surface topography can affect the detectability of subsurface features in several other ways. Surface roughness at scales comparable or somewhat smaller than the radar wavelength reduces the coherency of the wave as it passes the upper interface. Also, surface slope (tilt) at scales of the radar footprint and larger (> 5 km) affects the apparent Doppler signature of the echoes, and effectively disperses the wave transmitted into the subsurface, making processing and interpretation difficult. In this paper, we report on the roughness characteristics of Mars at these various scales as measured by the Mars Global Surveyor Laser Altimeter (MOLA), and consider the implications for achieving the subsurface sounding goals of MARSIS. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Plaut, J. J.; Jordan, R.; Safaeinili, A.; Safaenelli, A.; Seu, R.; Orosei, R.

2001-01-01

258

Subsurface ocean argon disequilibrium reveals the equatorial Pacific shadow zone  

E-print Network

Subsurface ocean argon disequilibrium reveals the equatorial Pacific shadow zone Eric Gehrie,1 outcrops in high latitudes. We present dissolved argon data that distinguishes a diapycnally ventilated), Subsurface ocean argon disequilibrium reveals the equatorial Pacific shadow zone, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L

Archer, David

259

Natural attenuation: What does the subsurface have in store?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the world, organic and inorganic substances leach intothe subsurface as a result of human activities and accidents. There, the chemicals pose director indirect threats to the environment and to increasingly scarce drinking water resources.At many contaminated sites the subsurface is able to attenuate pollutants which, potentially,lowers the costs of remediation. Natural attenuation comprises a wide range of processesof which

Wilfred F. M. Röling; Henk W. van Verseveld

2002-01-01

260

Antibody titers predict clinical features of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy is a disorder of isolated autonomic failure associated with antibodies to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of the autonomic ganglia resulting in severe orthostatic intolerance, syncope, constipation, gastroparesis, urinary retention, dry mouth, dry eyes, blurred vision and anhidrosis. We report the autonomic test results, antibody titers and clinical findings in 8 patients with antibodies to the nicotinic acetylcholine

Christopher H. Gibbons; Roy Freeman

2009-01-01

261

Autonomous Off-Road Driving in the DARPA Grand Challenge  

E-print Network

learned from two years of autonomous vehicle develop- ment. Autonomous navigation in the off road that there is an unusually large divide between theory and practice in off-road autonomous vehicle navigation. PriorAutonomous Off-Road Driving in the DARPA Grand Challenge Eagle Jones, Brian Fulkerson, and Emilio

Soatto, Stefano

262

Autonomic Ganglia: Target and Novel Therapeutic Tool  

PubMed Central

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are ligand-gated cation channels that are present throughout the nervous system. The muscle AChR mediates transmission at the neuromuscular junction; antibodies against the muscle AChR are the cause of myasthenia gravis. The ganglionic (?3-type) neuronal AChR mediates fast synaptic transmission in sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric autonomic ganglia. Impaired cholinergic ganglionic synaptic transmission is one important cause of autonomic failure. Pharmacological enhancement of ganglionic synaptic transmission may be a novel way to improve autonomic function. Ganglionic AChR antibodies are found in patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG). Patients with AAG typically present with rapid onset of severe autonomic failure. Major clinical features include orthostatic hypotension, gastrointestinal dysmotility, anhidrosis, bladder dysfunction, and sicca symptoms. Impaired pupillary light reflex is often seen. Like myasthenia, AAG is an antibody-mediated neurological disorder. The disease can be reproduced in experimental animals by active immunization or passive antibody transfer. Patient may improve with plasma exchange treatment or other immunomodulatory treatment. Antibodies from patients with AAG inhibit ganglionic AChR currents. Other phenotypes of AAG are now recognized based on the results of antibody testing. These other presentations are generally associated with lower levels of ganglionic AChR antibodies. A chronic progressive form of AAG may resemble pure autonomic failure. Milder forms of dysautonomia, such as postural tachycardia syndrome, are associated with ganglionic AChR in 10–15% of cases. Since ganglionic synaptic transmission is a common pathway for all autonomic traffic, enhancement of autonomic function through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase is a potential specific therapeutic strategy for autonomic disorders. Increasing the strength of ganglionic transmission can ameliorate neurogenic orthostatic hypotension without aggravating supine hypertension. Recent evidence also suggests a potential role for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of postural tachycardia syndrome. PMID:18474849

Vernino, Steven; Sandroni, Paola; Singer, Wolfgang; Low, Phillip A.

2009-01-01

263

An Autonomous Flight Safety System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) being developed by NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center s Wallops Flight Facility and Kennedy Space Center has completed two successful developmental flights and is preparing for a third. AFSS has been demonstrated to be a viable architecture for implementation of a completely vehicle based system capable of protecting life and property in event of an errant vehicle by terminating the flight or initiating other actions. It is capable of replacing current human-in-the-loop systems or acting in parallel with them. AFSS is configured prior to flight in accordance with a specific rule set agreed upon by the range safety authority and the user to protect the public and assure mission success. This paper discusses the motivation for the project, describes the method of development, and presents an overview of the evolving architecture and the current status.

Bull, James B.; Lanzi, Raymond J.

2007-01-01

264

Autonomous navigation system and method  

SciTech Connect

A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.

Bruemmer, David J. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-09-08

265

Autonomous Spacecraft Navigation With Pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An external reference system suitable for deep space navigation can be defined by fast spinning and strongly magnetized neutron stars, called pulsars. Their beamed periodic signals have timing stabilities comparable to atomic clocks and provide characteristic temporal signatures that can be used as natural navigation beacons, quite similar to the use of GPS satellites for navigation on Earth. By comparing pulse arrival times measured on-board a spacecraft with predicted pulse arrivals at a reference location, the spacecraft position can be determined autonomously and with high accuracy everywhere in the solar system and beyond. The unique properties of pulsars make clear already today that such a navigation system will have its application in future astronautics. We will describe the basic principle of spacecraft navigation using pulsars and report on the current development status of this novel technology.

Becker, Werner

2014-08-01

266

Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

Seaman, R.

267

Autonomous Medical Care for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of Autonomous Medical Care (AMC) is to ensure a healthy, well-performing crew which is a primary need for exploration. The end result of this effort will be the requirements and design for medical systems for the CEV, lunar operations, and Martian operations as well as a ground-based crew health optimization plan. Without such systems, we increase the risk of medical events occurring during a mission and we risk being unable to deal with contingencies of illness and injury, potentially threatening mission success. AMC has two major components: 1) pre-flight crew health optimization and 2) in-flight medical care. The goal of pre-flight crew health optimization is to reduce the risk of illness occurring during a mission by primary prevention and prophylactic measures. In-flight autonomous medical care is the capability to provide medical care during a mission with little or no real-time support from Earth. Crew medical officers or other crew members provide routine medical care as well as medical care to ill or injured crew members using resources available in their location. Ground support becomes telemedical consultation on-board systems/people collect relevant data for ground support to review. The AMC system provides capabilities to incorporate new procedures and training and advice as required. The on-board resources in an autonomous system should be as intelligent and integrated as is feasible, but autonomous does not mean that no human will be involved. The medical field is changing rapidly, and so a challenge is to determine which items to pursue now, which to leverage other efforts (e.g. military), and which to wait for commercial forces to mature. Given that what is used for the CEV or the Moon will likely be updated before going to Mars, a critical piece of the system design will be an architecture that provides for easy incorporation of new technologies into the system. Another challenge is to determine the level of care to provide for each mission type. The level of care refers to the amount and type of care one will render based on perceived need and ability. This is in contrast to the standard of care which is the benchmark by which that care is provided. There are certainly some devices and procedures that have unique microgravity or partial gravity requirements such that terrestrial methods will not work. For example, performing CPR on Mars cannot be done in exactly the same way as on Earth because the reduced gravity causes too large a reduction in the forces available for effective compression of the chest. Likewise, fluid behavior in microgravity may require a specialized water filtration and mixing system for the creation of intravenous fluids. This paper will outline the drivers for the design of the medical care systems, prioritization and planning techniques, key system components, and long term goals.

Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Polk, J. D.; Hines, John W.; Nall, Marsha M.

2005-01-01

268

Testbed for an autonomous system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In previous works we have defined a general architectural model for autonomous systems, which can easily be mapped to describe the functions of any automated system (SDAG-86-01), and we illustrated that model by applying it to the thermal management system of a space station (SDAG-87-01). In this note, we will further develop that application and design the detail of the implementation of such a model. First we present the environment of our application by describing the thermal management problem and an abstraction, which was called TESTBED, that includes a specific function for each module in the architecture, and the nature of the interfaces between each pair of blocks.

Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok K.; Larsen, Ronald L.

1989-01-01

269

Solving subsurface structural problems using a computer  

SciTech Connect

Until recently, the solution of subsurface structural problems has required a combination of graphical construction, trigonometry, time, and patience. Recent advances in software available for both mainframe and microcomputers now reduce the time and potential error of these calculations by an order of magnitude. Software for analysis of deviated wells, three point problems, apparent dip, apparent thickness, and the intersection of two planes, as well as the plotting and interpretation of these data can be used to allow timely and accurate exploration or operational decisions. The available computer software provides a set of utilities, or tools, rather than a comprehensive, intelligent system. The burden for selection of appropriate techniques, computation methods, and interpretations still lies with the explorationist user.

Witte, D.M. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (USA))

1987-02-01

270

Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M&O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents.

Richard C. Logan

2001-07-30

271

Delineate subsurface structures with ground penetrating radar  

SciTech Connect

High resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were conducted at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina in late 1991 to demonstrate the radar techniques in imaging shallow utility and soil structures. Targets of interest at two selected sites, designated as H- and D-areas, were a buried backfilled trench, buried drums, geologic stratas, and water table. Multiple offset 2-D and single offset 3-D survey methods were used to acquire high resolution radar data. This digital data was processed using standard seismic processing software to enhance signal quality and improve resolution. Finally, using a graphics workstation, the 3D data was interpreted. In addition, a small 3D survey was acquired in The Woodlands, Texas, with very dense spatial sampling. This data set adequately demonstrated the potential of this technology in imaging subsurface features.

Wyatt, D.E. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Hu, L.Z. (New Wave Technology, Houston, TX (United States)); Ramaswamy, M. (Houston Advanced Research Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)); Sexton, B.G. (Microseeps, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1992-01-01

272

Delineate subsurface structures with ground penetrating radar  

SciTech Connect

High resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were conducted at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina in late 1991 to demonstrate the radar techniques in imaging shallow utility and soil structures. Targets of interest at two selected sites, designated as H- and D-areas, were a buried backfilled trench, buried drums, geologic stratas, and water table. Multiple offset 2-D and single offset 3-D survey methods were used to acquire high resolution radar data. This digital data was processed using standard seismic processing software to enhance signal quality and improve resolution. Finally, using a graphics workstation, the 3D data was interpreted. In addition, a small 3D survey was acquired in The Woodlands, Texas, with very dense spatial sampling. This data set adequately demonstrated the potential of this technology in imaging subsurface features.

Wyatt, D.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Hu, L.Z. [New Wave Technology, Houston, TX (United States); Ramaswamy, M. [Houston Advanced Research Center, Woodlands, TX (United States); Sexton, B.G. [Microseeps, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1992-10-01

273

Letter report: Ari Patrinos -- Subsurface bioremediation  

SciTech Connect

During the past summer, the authors had the opportunity to examine aspects of the remediation program of the Department of Energy (DOE). The most important conclusion that they have come to is that there is an urgent need to mount a comprehensive research program in remediation. It is also clear to them that DOE does not have the funding to carry out a program on the scale that is required. On the other hand, Environmental Management could very well fund such activities. They would hope that in the future there would be close collaboration between Environmental Management and Energy Research in putting together a comprehensive and well thought-out research program. Here, the authors comment on one aspect of remediation: subsurface bioremediation.

Happer, W.; MacDonald, G.J.; Ruderman, M.A.; Treiman, S.B.

1995-07-26

274

Armored Enzyme Nanoparticles for Remediation of Subsurface  

SciTech Connect

The remediation of subsurface contaminants is a critical problem for the Department of Energy, other government agencies, and our nation. Severe contamination of soil and groundwater exists at several DOE sites due to various methods of intentional and unintentional release. Given the difficulties involved in conventional removal or separation processes, it is vital to develop methods to transform contaminants and contaminated earth/water to reduce risks to human health and the environment. Transformation of the contaminants themselves may involve conversion to other immobile species that do not migrate into well water or surface waters, as is proposed for metals and radionuclides; or degradation to harmless molecules, as is desired for organic contaminants. Transformation of contaminated earth (as opposed to the contaminants themselves) may entail reductions in volume or release of bound contaminants for remediation.

Grate, Jay W.

2005-09-01

275

Development of autonomous magnetometer rotorcraft for wide area assessment  

SciTech Connect

Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 – 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. There is thus a need for other systems which can be used for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly characterization (through the use of dynamic acquisition, i.e. survey mission inflight reprioritization). We describe and report on a one year effort with as primary goal to provide a recommendation to SERDP for a path forward in the implementation of one or more autonomous unmanned magnetometer rotorcraft platforms. This recommendation (which is provided in chapter 6) is based on the following three elements a) An assessment on the applicability of autonomous rotorcraft magnetometer systems to the current DoD site inventory, and an initial assessment of which type(s) of autonomous unmanned magnetometer rotorcraft platforms (in terms of performance characteristics such as payload, altitude, obstacle avoidance, production rate and flight time) would be most relevant to this inventory (chapter 3); b) An evaluation of the feasibility of assembling such platforms from commercial components (unmanned rotorcraft, control systems and sensors – both magnetometer sensors and supporting sensors). This evaluation included several highly successful field tests (chapter 4 and 5); c) A recommendation of the path forward, which includes a detailed outline of the efforts required in the design, assembly and testing of different modular platforms (chapter 6)

Roelof Versteeg; Matt Anderson; Les Beard; Eric Corban; Darryl Curley; Jeff Gamey; Ross Johnson; Dwight Junkin; Mark McKay; Jared Salzmann; Mikhail Tchernychev; Suraj Unnikrishnan; Scott Vinson

2010-04-01

276

30 CFR 250.119 - Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage? 250.119 Section...Standards § 250.119 Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage? The Regional Supervisor may authorize subsurface storage of gas on the OCS, on...

2010-07-01

277

Autonomous caregiver following robotic wheelchair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, a variety of robotic/intelligent wheelchairs have been proposed to meet the need in aging society. Their main research topics are autonomous functions such as moving toward some goals while avoiding obstacles, or user-friendly interfaces. Although it is desirable for wheelchair users to go out alone, caregivers often accompany them. Therefore we have to consider not only autonomous functions and user interfaces but also how to reduce caregivers' load and support their activities in a communication aspect. From this point of view, we have proposed a robotic wheelchair moving with a caregiver side by side based on the MATLAB process. In this project we discussing about robotic wheel chair to follow a caregiver by using a microcontroller, Ultrasonic sensor, keypad, Motor drivers to operate robot. Using camera interfaced with the DM6437 (Davinci Code Processor) image is captured. The captured image are then processed by using image processing technique, the processed image are then converted into voltage levels through MAX 232 level converter and given it to the microcontroller unit serially and ultrasonic sensor to detect the obstacle in front of robot. In this robot we have mode selection switch Automatic and Manual control of robot, we use ultrasonic sensor in automatic mode to find obstacle, in Manual mode to use the keypad to operate wheel chair. In the microcontroller unit, c language coding is predefined, according to this coding the robot which connected to it was controlled. Robot which has several motors is activated by using the motor drivers. Motor drivers are nothing but a switch which ON/OFF the motor according to the control given by the microcontroller unit.

Ratnam, E. Venkata; Sivaramalingam, Sethurajan; Vignesh, A. Sri; Vasanth, Elanthendral; Joans, S. Mary

2011-12-01

278

Autonomous underwater pipeline monitoring navigation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details the development of an autonomous motion-control and navigation algorithm for an underwater autonomous vehicle, the Ocean Server IVER3, to track long linear features such as underwater pipelines. As part of this work, the Nonlinear and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (NAS Lab) developed an algorithm that utilizes inputs from the vehicles state of the art sensor package, which includes digital imaging, digital 3-D Sidescan Sonar, and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. The resulting algorithms should tolerate real-world waterway with episodic strong currents, low visibility, high sediment content, and a variety of small and large vessel traffic.

Mitchell, Byrel; Mahmoudian, Nina; Meadows, Guy

2014-06-01

279

Autonomous Demand Response for Primary Frequency Regulation  

SciTech Connect

The research documented within this report examines the use of autonomous demand response to provide primary frequency response in an interconnected power grid. The work builds on previous studies in several key areas: it uses a large realistic model (i.e., the interconnection of the western United States and Canada); it establishes a set of metrics that can be used to assess the effectiveness of autonomous demand response; and it independently adjusts various parameters associated with using autonomous demand response to assess effectiveness and to examine possible threats or vulnerabilities associated with the technology.

Donnelly, Matt; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mattix, S.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

2012-02-28

280

Autonomous observatories for the Antarctic plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antarctic astronomical site-testing has been conducted using autonomous self-powered observatories for more than a decade (the AASTO at South Pole, the AASTINO at Dome C, and PLATO at Dome A/Dome F). More recently autonomous (PLATO) observatories have been developed and deployed to support small-scale scientific instruments, such as HEAT, a 0.6 m aperture terahertz telescope at Ridge A, and AST3, a 0.5 m optical telescope array at Dome A. This paper reviews the evolution of autonomous Antarctic astronomical observatories, and discusses the requirements and implications for observatories that will be needed for future larger-scale facilities.

Lawrence, J. S.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Storey, J. W. V.

2013-01-01

281

Development of Autonomous Aerobraking - Phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phase 1 of the Development of Autonomous Aerobraking (AA) Assessment investigated the technical capability of transferring the processes of aerobraking maneuver (ABM) decision-making (currently performed on the ground by an extensive workforce and communicated to the spacecraft via the deep space network) to an efficient flight software algorithm onboard the spacecraft. This document describes Phase 2 of this study, which was a 12-month effort to improve and rigorously test the AA Development Software developed in Phase 1. Aerobraking maneuver; Autonomous Aerobraking; Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software; Deep Space Network; NASA Engineering and Safety Center

Murri, Daniel G.

2013-01-01

282

Developing Ocean Subsurface Data Record from CALIPSO Depolarization Ratio Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CALIOP, the dual wavelength, polarization sensitive lidar flying aboard the CALIPSO satellite, has been operating since June 2006 and is expected to continue for several more years. CALIOP's depolarization ratio is one of the best calibrated measurements made by the A-Train sensors. Over the life of the CALIPSO mission, the stability of the CALIOP depolarization ratio calibration has remained within 1%. CALIOP's depolarization ratio measurements can be used for studying changes in the backscatter of ocean subsurface particulates. The ocean surface/subsurface depolarization ratio measurements from CALIOP together with collocated A-train instruments can be used for estimating the subsurface particulate backscatter coefficient (bbp) and the cross polarization component of the column integrated ocean subsurface backscatter signal. To derive the cross component of inte¬grated ocean subsurface backscatter signal from the depolarization ratio of CALIOP integrated ocean surface/subsurface range bins, we need theoretical estimates of the ocean surface back¬scatter cross section, which can be derived accurately from CloudSat ocean surface backscatter measurements or from AMSR-E wind speeds. Using the CALIOP cross component of the integrated ocean subsurface backscatter together with diffuse attenuation coefficient derived from MODIS, bbp can be estimated. Preliminary CALIOP data analysis shows that in the Southern Oceans, ocean subsurface backscatter has increased by about 5% since the beginning of the CALIPSO mission in June 2006. This study will: (1) introduce the CALIPSO ocean subsurface backscatter data products; (2) assess the uncertainties in the data products and comparing with in situ optics measurements, radiative transfer modeling and aircraft lidar measurements; and (3) summarize the global and regional (e.g., Gulf of Mexico region) statistics and temporal variations of the ocean subsurface backscatter from CALIPSO measurements.

Hu, Y.; Rodier, S. D.; Zhai, P.; Josset, D. B.; Omar, A. H.

2012-12-01

283

Nitrogen patterns in subsurface waters of the Yzeron stream: effect of combined sewer overflows and subsurface-surface water mixing.  

PubMed

Urbanization subjects streams to increased nitrogen loads. Therefore studying nitrogen forms at the interface between urban stream and groundwater is important for water resource management. In this study we report results on water ?(18)O and nitrogen forms in subsurface waters of a stream (Yzeron, France). The sites studied were located upstream and downstream of combined sewer overflows (CSO) in a rural area and a periurban area, respectively. Water ?(18)O allowed us to follow the mixing of subsurface water with surface water. Dissolved organic nitrogen and organic carbon of fine sediment increased by 20-30% between rural and periurban subsurface waters in the cold season, under high flow. The highest nitrate levels were observed in rural subsurface waters in the cold season. The lowest nitrate levels were found in periurban subsurface waters in the warm season, under low flow. They corresponded to slow exchange of subsurface waters with channel water. Thus reduced exchange between surface and subsurface waters and organic-matter-rich input seemed to favor nitrate reduction in the downstream, periurban, subsurface waters impacted by CSO. PMID:24355851

Aucour, A M; Bariac, T; Breil, P; Namour, P; Schmitt, L; Gnouma, R; Zuddas, P

2013-01-01

284

Autonomic dysfunction in Guillain-Barré syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The following tests of autonomic function were performed on seven patients with the Guillain-Barré syndrome and compared with controls: (1) measurement of heart rate and blood pressure in the supine and erect positions, (2) measurement of baroreflex sensitivity, (3) Valsalva's manoeuvre, (4) sweat test. In two patients the heart rates were fixed and greater than 100/min and in three there was postural hypotension. The baroflex sensitivity of four patients was abnormal and heart rate response to Valsalva's manoeuvre was impaired in two of the three patients who were able to perform the manoeuvre. Areas of anhidrosis were found in all seven patients. These abnormalities probably reflect pathological alterations of the sympathetic and parasympathetic components of the autonomic nervous system of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. The severity of autonomic involvement is not related to the degree of sensory and motor disturbance which is consistent with the patchy distribution of lesions throughout the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems. PMID:7334398

Tuck, R R; McLeod, J G

1981-01-01

285

A flexible design framework for autonomous mowing  

E-print Network

This work outlines the creation of a flexible design framework for autonomous mowing to meet changing customer needs and functionality across a spectrum of applications from residential areas to sport complexes. The thesis ...

Kraft, Justin (Justin A.)

2011-01-01

286

System Engineering of Autonomous Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of the solar system requires fully autonomous systems when travelling more than 5 light minutes from Earth. This autonomy is necessary to manage a large, complex spacecraft with limited crew members and skills available. The communication latency requires the vehicle to deal with events with only limited crew interaction in most cases. The engineering of these systems requires an extensive knowledge of the spacecraft systems, information theory, and autonomous algorithm characteristics. The characteristics of the spacecraft systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm characteristics to reliably monitor and control the system. This presents a large system engineering problem. Recent work on product-focused, elegant system engineering will be applied to this application, looking at the full autonomy stack, the matching of autonomous systems to spacecraft systems, and the integration of different types of algorithms. Each of these areas will be outlined and a general approach defined for system engineering to provide the optimal solution to the given application context.

Watson, Michael D.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Trevino, Luis

2014-01-01

287

Advancing Autonomous Operations Technologies for NASA Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the importance of implementing advanced autonomous technologies supporting operations of future NASA missions. The ability for crewed, uncrewed and even ground support systems to be capable of mission support without external interaction or control has become essential as space exploration moves further out into the solar system. The push to develop and utilize autonomous technologies for NASA mission operations stems in part from the need to reduce operations cost while improving and increasing capability and safety. This paper will provide examples of autonomous technologies currently in use at NASA and will identify opportunities to advance existing autonomous technologies that will enhance mission success by reducing operations cost, ameliorating inefficiencies, and mitigating catastrophic anomalies.

Cruzen, Craig; Thompson, Jerry Todd

2013-01-01

288

DEMONSTRATION OF AUTONOMOUS AIR MONITORING THROUGH ROBOTICS  

EPA Science Inventory

This project included modifying an existing teleoperated robot to include autonomous navigation, large object avoidance, and air monitoring and demonstrating that prototype robot system in indoor and outdoor environments. An existing teleoperated "Surveyor" robot developed by ARD...

289

Autonomous thruster failure recovery for underactuated spacecraft  

E-print Network

Thruster failures historically account for a large percentage of failures that have occurred on orbit. Therefore, autonomous thruster failure detection, isolation, and recovery (FDIR) is an essential component to any robust ...

Pong, Christopher Masaru

2010-01-01

290

Autonomous aerobatic maneuvering of miniature helicopters  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I present an experimentally proven control methodology for the autonomous execution of aerobatic maneuvers with small-scale helicopters, and a low-order dynamic model which adequately describes a miniature ...

Gavrilets, Vladislav, 1975-

2003-01-01

291

XAUV : modular high maneuverability autonomous underwater vehicle  

E-print Network

The design and construction of a modular test bed autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is analyzed. Although a relatively common stacked-hull design is used, the state of the art is advanced through an aggressive power ...

Walker, Daniel G. (Daniel George)

2009-01-01

292

Advancing Autonomous Operations Technologies for NASA Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the importance of implementing advanced autonomous technologies supporting operations of future NASA missions. The ability for crewed, uncrewed and even ground support systems to be capable of mission support without external interaction or control has become essential as space exploration moves further out into the solar system. The push to develop and utilize autonomous technologies for NASA mission operations stems in part from the need to reduce cost while improving and increasing capability and safety. This paper will provide examples of autonomous technologies currently in use at NASA and will identify opportunities to advance existing autonomous technologies that will enhance mission success by reducing cost, ameliorating inefficiencies, and mitigating catastrophic anomalies

Cruzen, Craig; Thompson, Jerry T.

2013-01-01

293

Acupuncture Effect and Central Autonomic Regulation  

PubMed Central

Acupuncture is a therapeutic technique and part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Acupuncture has clinical efficacy on various autonomic nerve-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, anxiety and nervousness, circadian rhythm disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and subfertility. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can control autonomic nerve system (ANS) functions including blood pressure, pupil size, skin conductance, skin temperature, muscle sympathetic nerve activities, heart rate and/or pulse rate, and heart rate variability. Emerging evidence indicates that acupuncture treatment not only activates distinct brain regions in different kinds of diseases caused by imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, but also modulates adaptive neurotransmitter in related brain regions to alleviate autonomic response. This review focused on the central mechanism of acupuncture in modulating various autonomic responses, which might provide neurobiological foundations for acupuncture effects. PMID:23762116

Li, Qian-Qian; Shi, Guang-Xia; Xu, Qian; Wang, Jing; Liu, Cun-Zhi; Wang, Lin-Peng

2013-01-01

294

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy after a CNS infection.  

PubMed

We report the first Greek case of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy seropositive for antibodies against ganglionic acetylcholine receptors, unique for an antecedent viral cerebellitis and long, slowly progressive course, with improvement after treatment with pyridostigmine. PMID:21210293

Maiovis, Pantelis; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Balamoutsos, George; Karacostas, Dimitris

2011-06-01

295

Human inspiration for autonomous vehicle tactics  

E-print Network

Tactical control is needed in environments characterized by uncertainty and continuous, dynamic change. Given the likelihood of time constraints and high risks associated with poor tactical choices, current autonomous ...

Beaton, Jonathan Scott

2006-01-01

296

A Comparison of Autonomic Decision Making Techniques  

E-print Network

Autonomic computing systems are capable of adapting their behavior and resources thousands of times a second to automatically decide the best way to accomplish a given goal despite changing environmental conditions and ...

Maggio, Martina

2011-04-01

297

Robotic and Human-Tended Collaborative Drilling Automation for Subsurface Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future in-situ lunar/martian resource utilization and characterization, as well as the scientific search for life on Mars, will require access to the subsurface and hence drilling. Drilling on Earth is hard - an art form more than an engineering discipline. Human operators listen and feel drill string vibrations coming from kilometers underground. Abundant mass and energy make it possible for terrestrial drilling to employ brute-force approaches to failure recovery and system performance issues. Space drilling will require intelligent and autonomous systems for robotic exploration and to support human exploration. Eventual in-situ resource utilization will require deep drilling with probable human-tended operation of large-bore drills, but initial lunar subsurface exploration and near-term ISRU will be accomplished with lightweight, rover-deployable or standalone drills capable of penetrating a few tens of meters in depth. These lightweight exploration drills have a direct counterpart in terrestrial prospecting and ore-body location, and will be designed to operate either human-tended or automated. NASA and industry now are acquiring experience in developing and building low-mass automated planetary prototype drills to design and build a pre-flight lunar prototype targeted for 2011-12 flight opportunities. A successful system will include development of drilling hardware, and automated control software to operate it safely and effectively. This includes control of the drilling hardware, state estimation of both the hardware and the lithography being drilled and state of the hole, and potentially planning and scheduling software suitable for uncertain situations such as drilling. Given that Humans on the Moon or Mars are unlikely to be able to spend protracted EVA periods at a drill site, both human-tended and robotic access to planetary subsurfaces will require some degree of standalone, autonomous drilling capability. Human-robotic coordination will be important, either between a robotic drill and humans on Earth, or a human-tended drill and its visiting crew. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) is a current project that studies and simulates the remote science operations between an automated drill in Spain and a distant, distributed human science team. The Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project, by contrast: is developing and testing standalone automation at a lunar/martian impact crater analog site in Arctic Canada. The drill hardware in both projects is a hardened, evolved version of the Advanced Deep Drill (ADD) developed by Honeybee Robotics for the Mars Subsurface Program. The current ADD is capable of 20m, and the DAME project is developing diagnostic and executive software for hands-off surface operations of the evolved version of this drill. The current drill automation architecture being developed by NASA and tested in 2004-06 at analog sites in the Arctic and Spain will add downhole diagnosis of different strata, bit wear detection, and dynamic replanning capabilities when unexpected failures or drilling conditions are discovered in conjunction with simulated mission operations and remote science planning. The most important determinant of future 1unar and martian drilling automation and staffing requirements will be the actual performance of automated prototype drilling hardware systems in field trials in simulated mission operations. It is difficult to accurately predict the level of automation and human interaction that will be needed for a lunar-deployed drill without first having extensive experience with the robotic control of prototype drill systems under realistic analog field conditions. Drill-specific failure modes and software design flaws will become most apparent at this stage. DAME will develop and test drill automation software and hardware under stressful operating conditions during several planned field campaigns. Initial results from summer 2004 tests show seven identifi distinct failure modes of the drill: cuttings-removal issues with low-power drilling into permaf

Glass, Brian; Cannon, Howard; Stoker, Carol; Davis, Kiel

2005-01-01

298

The Techsat-21 autonomous space science agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat-21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2004. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. In this paper we

Steve A. Chien; Rob Sherwood; Gregg Rabideau; Rebecca Castano; Ashley Davies; Michael C. Burl; Russell Knight; Timothy M. Stough; Joseph Roden; Paul Zetocha; Ross Wainwright; Pete Klupar; Jim Van Gaasbeck; Pat Cappelaere; Dean Oswald

2002-01-01

299

ASTRO: Autonomous and Trustworthy Data Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present ASTRO, the first system that sup- ports trustworthy data sharing with strong consistency guarantees among a distributed collection of autonomous nodes. Autonomous nodes support data reads and writes without coordination with other nodes, share data oppor- tunistically in a peer-to-peer fashion, and are mutually distrustful. ASTRO enforces fork-causal consistency, a new consistency semantics that, though weaker than causal

Prince Mahajan; Sangmin Lee; Jiandan Zheng; Lorenzo Alvisi; Mike Dahlin

300

Towards autonomic computing: effective event management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic computing is emerging as a significant new approach for the design of computing systems. Its goal is the production of systems that are self-managing, self-healing, self-protecting and self-optimizing. Achieving this goal involve techniques from both software engineering and artificial intelligence. We discuss one particular aspect of autonomic computing: event management. It considers the range of event handling techniques in

Roy Sterritt

2002-01-01

301

Autonomous control systems - Architecture and fundamental issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hierarchical functional autonomous controller architecture is introduced. In particular, the architecture for the control of future space vehicles is described in detail; it is designed to ensure the autonomous operation of the control system and it allows interaction with the pilot and crew/ground station, and the systems on board the autonomous vehicle. The fundamental issues in autonomous control system modeling and analysis are discussed. It is proposed to utilize a hybrid approach to modeling and analysis of autonomous systems. This will incorporate conventional control methods based on differential equations and techniques for the analysis of systems described with a symbolic formalism. In this way, the theory of conventional control can be fully utilized. It is stressed that autonomy is the design requirement and intelligent control methods appear at present, to offer some of the necessary tools to achieve autonomy. A conventional approach may evolve and replace some or all of the `intelligent' functions. It is shown that in addition to conventional controllers, the autonomous control system incorporates planning, learning, and FDI (fault detection and identification).

Antsaklis, P. J.; Passino, K. M.; Wang, S. J.

1988-01-01

302

Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

2014-01-01

303

RADIOIODINE GEOCHEMISTRY IN THE SRS SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT  

SciTech Connect

Iodine-129 is one of the key risk drivers for several Savannah River Site (SRS) performance assessments (PA), including that for the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility in E-Area. In an effort to reduce the uncertainty associated with the conceptual model and the input values used in PA, several studies have recently been conducted dealing with radioiodine geochemistry at the SRS. The objective of this report was to review these recent studies and evaluate their implications on SRS PA calculations. For the first time, these studies measured iodine speciation in SRS groundwater and provided technical justification for assuming the presence of more strongly sorbing species (iodate and organo-iodine), and measured greater iodine sediment sorption when experiments included these newly identified species; specifically they measured greater sorption coefficients (K{sub d} values: the concentration ratio of iodine on the solid phase divided by the concentration in the aqueous phase). Based on these recent studies, new best estimates were proposed for future PA calculations. The new K{sub d} values are greater than previous recommended values. These proposed K{sub d} values reflect a better understanding of iodine geochemistry in the SRS subsurface environment, which permits reducing the associated conservatism included in the original estimates to account for uncertainty. Among the key contributing discoveries supporting the contention that the K{sub d} values should be increased are that: 1) not only iodide (I{sup -}), but also the more strongly sorbing iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}) species exists in SRS groundwater (average total iodine = 15% iodide, 42% iodate, and 43% organoiodine), 2) when iodine was added as iodate, the measured K{sub d} values were 2 to 6 times greater than when the iodine was added as iodide, and perhaps most importantly, 3) higher desorption (10 to 20 mL/g) than (ad)sorption (all previous studies) K{sub d} values were measured. The implications of this latter point is that the iodine desorption process would be appreciably slower than the (ad)sorption process, and as such would control the rate (and the PA K{sub d} value) that iodine sorbed to and therefore migrated through the subsurface sediment. High desorption K{sub d} values would result in the “effective K{sub d}” for a reactive transport model being closer to the desorption K{sub d} value (the rate limiting value) than the (ad)sorption K{sub d} value. In summary, our understanding of {sup 129}I geochemistry has greatly improved, reducing the uncertainty associated with the PA’s conceptual model, thereby permitting us to reduce the conservatism presently incorporated in PA input values to describe {sup 129}I fate and transport in the SRS subsurface environment.

Kaplan, D.; Emerson, H.; Powell, B.; Roberts, K.; Zhang, S.; Xu, C.; Schwer, K.; Li, H.; Ho, Y.; Denham, M.; Yeager, C.; Santschi, P.

2013-05-16

304

Mars Subsurface Exploration Using Schumann Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a planetary environment, an electrically conductive ionosphere and ground create a spherical electromagnetic cavity. In this cavity, extremely low frequency (ELF, 3-3000 Hz) electromagnetic waves are weakly attenuated and can propagate around the globe producing global resonance. The extremely low frequency waves are generated by electrical discharges in planetary atmospheres. We have developed an analytical method that enables taking into account not only the electrical properties of the Martian ionosphere but also the Martian ground. This method allowed us to obtain the Schumann resonance frequencies and Q factors and analyze how they depend on the Martian environmental properties. We compared the results from our analytical model with previously published results from numerical modeling. In this work, we show that the Martian ground has a significant influence on the Schumann resonance parameters. Therefore, Schumann resonance can be used us a tool to study, not only the properties of the Martian atmosphere, but also the properties of the subsurface layers. It can be particularly useful in groundwater exploration. In order to study the influence of water on the Schumann resonance parameters on Mars, we assumed two cases of the Martian ground containing aquifers. In both cases, we considered the upper part of the Martian crust composed of porous basaltic rocks containing ice. Beneath this layer, we implemented water-bearing basalts. We assumed that ice and water contains some NaCl impurities or solutions. In the first case, we considered the low concentration of salts in ice and low-salinity water. In the second case, we assumed some high-impurity ice and brines. In order to compare the results of the above-mentioned cases with a situation in which the subsurface of Mars does not contain any water, we introduced the model of the Martian crust composed only of dry basaltic rocks. There are clear differences in the Schumann resonance parameters for the different cases of the Martian ground. The Schumann resonance frequencies are higher by about 15% in the cases with aquifers compared to the pure basaltic ground. The amplitudes of Schumann resonance are also higher by about 40%. For all the analyzed cases, we have calculated and presented the spectra of the Schumann resonance. Our new method used to obtain the Schumann resonance parameters on Mars can be applied also to other objects in the Solar System. Acknowledgements. This work has been supported by the National Science Centre grants: 2012/04/M/ST10/00565 and 2013/09/N/ST9/02200

Kozakiewicz, Joanna; Kulak, Andrzej; Mlynarczyk, Janusz

2014-05-01

305

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy methods for spectroscopic imaging of subsurface interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method for spatially-resolved, spectroscopic investigation of subsurface interface structure has been developed. The method, Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM), is based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) techniques. BEEM combines STM vacuum tunneling with unique ballistic electron spectroscopy capabilities. BEEM enables, for the first time, direct imaging of subsurface interface electronic properties with nanometer spatial resolution. STM topographic images of surface structure and BEEM images of subsurface properties are obtained simultaneously. BEEM capabilities are demonstrated by investigation of important metal-semiconductor interfaces.

Bell, L. D.; Kaiser, W. J.

1988-01-01

306

Enhanced bioremediation of subsurface contamination: Enzyme recruitment and redesign  

SciTech Connect

Subsurface systems containing radionuclide, heavy metal, and organic wastes must be carefully attended to avoid further impacts to the environment or exposures to human populations. It is appropriate, therefore, to invest in basic research to develop the requisite tools and methods for addressing complex cleanup problems. The rational modification of subsurface microoganisms by enzyme recruitment and enzyme design, in concert with engineered systems for delivery of microorganisms and nutrients to the contaminated zone, are potentially useful tools in the spectrum of approaches that will be required for successful remediation of deep subsurface contamination.

Brockman, F.J.; Ornstein, R.L.

1991-12-01

307

Autonomous synergic control of nanomotors.  

PubMed

Control is a hallmark of machines; effective control over a nanoscale system is necessary to turn it into a nanomachine. Nanomotors from biology often integrate a ratchet-like passive control and a power-stroke-like active control, and this synergic active-plus-passive control is critical to efficient utilization of energy. It remains a challenge to integrate the two differing types of control in rationally designed nanomotor systems. Recently a light-powered track-walking DNA nanomotor was developed from a bioinspired design principle that has the potential to integrate both controls. However, it is difficult to separate experimental signals for either control due to a tight coupling of both controls. Here we present a systematic study of the motor and new derivatives using different fluorescence labeling schemes and light operations. The experimental data suggest that the motor achieves the two controls autonomously through a mechanics-mediated symmetry breaking. This study presents an experimental validation for the bioinspired design principle of mechanical breaking of symmetry for synergic ratchet-plus-power stroke control. Augmented by mechanical and kinetic modeling, this experimental study provides mechanistic insights that may help advance molecular control in future nanotechnological systems. PMID:24422493

Liu, Meihan; Hou, Ruizheng; Cheng, Juan; Loh, Iong Ying; Sreelatha, Sarangapani; Tey, Ju Nie; Wei, Jun; Wang, Zhisong

2014-02-25

308

Autonomic and Coevolutionary Sensor Networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(WSNs) applications are often required to balance the tradeoffs among conflicting operational objectives (e.g., latency and power consumption) and operate at an optimal tradeoff. This chapter proposes and evaluates a architecture, called BiSNET/e, which allows WSN applications to overcome this issue. BiSNET/e is designed to support three major types of WSN applications: , and hybrid applications. Each application is implemented as a decentralized group of, which is analogous to a bee colony (application) consisting of bees (agents). Agents collect sensor data or detect an event (a significant change in sensor reading) on individual nodes, and carry sensor data to base stations. They perform these data collection and event detection functionalities by sensing their surrounding network conditions and adaptively invoking behaviors such as pheromone emission, reproduction, migration, swarming and death. Each agent has its own behavior policy, as a set of genes, which defines how to invoke its behaviors. BiSNET/e allows agents to evolve their behavior policies (genes) across generations and autonomously adapt their performance to given objectives. Simulation results demonstrate that, in all three types of applications, agents evolve to find optimal tradeoffs among conflicting objectives and adapt to dynamic network conditions such as traffic fluctuations and node failures/additions. Simulation results also illustrate that, in hybrid applications, data collection agents and event detection agents coevolve to augment their adaptability and performance.

Boonma, Pruet; Suzuki, Junichi

309

Subsurface Exploration Technologies and Strategies for Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Galileo data from Europa has resulted in the strong suggestion of a large, cold, salty, old subglacial ocean and is of great importance. We have examined technology requirements for subsurface exploration of Europa and determined that scientific access to the hypothesized Europa ocean is a key requirement. By 'scientific access' we intend to direct attention to the fact that several aspects of exploration of a site such as Europa must be addressed at the system level. Specifically needed are a robotic vehicle that can descend through ice, scientific instrumentation that can interrogate the ice near the vehicle (but largely unaffected by its presence), scientific instrumentation for the subglacial ocean, communication for data and control, chemical analysis of the environment of the vehicle in the ice as well as the ocean, and methods for conducting the mission without contamination. We have embarked on a part of this extremely ambitious development sequence by developing the Active Thermal Probe, or Cryobot. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

French, L. C.; Anderson, F. S.; Carsey, F. D.; Green, J. R.; Lane, A. L.; Zimmerman, W. F.

2001-01-01

310

Evidence for a subsurface ocean on Europa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-based spectroscopy of Jupiter's moon Europa, combined with gravity data, suggests that the satellite has an icy crust roughly 150 km thick and a rocky interior. In addition, images obtained by the Voyager spacecraft revealed that Europa's surface is crossed by numerous intersecting ridges and dark bands (called lineae) and is sparsely cratered, indicating that the terrain is probably significantly younger than that of Ganymede and Callisto. It has been suggested that Europa's thin outer ice shell might be separated from the moon's silicate interior by a liquid water layer, delayed or prevented from freezing by tidal heating; in this model, the lineae could be explained by repetitive tidal deformation of the outer ice shell. However, observational confirmation of a subsurface ocean was largely frustrated by the low resolution (>2 km per pixel) of the Voyager images. Here we present high-resolution (54 m per pixel) Galileo spacecraft images of Europa, in which we find evidence for mobile 'icebergs'. The detailed morphology of the terrain strongly supports the presence of liquid water at shallow depths below the surface, either today or at some time in the past. Moreover, lower- resolution observations of much larger regions suggest that the phenomena reported here are widespread.

Carr, M.H.; Belton, M.J.S.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Geissler, P.; Greenberg, R.; McEwen, A.S.; Tufts, B.R.; Greeley, R.; Sullivan, R.; Head, J.W.; Pappalardo, R.T.; Klaasen, K.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Kaufman, J.; Senske, D.; Moore, J.; Neukum, G.; Schubert, G.; Burns, J.A.; Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.

1998-01-01

311

Modeling Subsurface Flows Driven by Planetary Libration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinal libration is a non-zero mean, time-periodic variation in a planetary body's rotation rate. The outermost solid shells of numerous planetary bodies in the solar system ---including Mercury, Europa, and Earth's moon--- are currently librating. This libration is capable of driving flows in these planets' liquid metallic cores and subsurface oceans through viscous, topographic or electromagnetic couplings. We have carried out a suite of laboratory and numerical hydrodynamic libration experiments in sphere and spherical shell geometries. This set-up allows us to focus, at present, on the purely viscous coupling problem. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that longitudinal libration is capable of generating time-periodic centrifugal instabilities near the librating solid boundary, as well as inertial waves and zonal flows in the fluid interior. In an effort to apply these results to librating planets, we have carried out axisymmetric numerical simulations that access more extreme parameter values than can be reached in the laboratory experiment. These simulations show that the nonlinear interaction of inertial waves is the primary mechanism responsible for the zonal flow generation, whereas the Reynolds stresses generated from centrifugal instabilities only weakly influence zonal flow strength.

Calkins, Michael; Noir, Jerome; Eldredge, Jeff; Aurnou, Jonathan

2009-11-01

312

Modeling Subsurface Flows Driven by Planetary Libration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinal libration is a time-periodic variation in a planetary body's mean rotation rate. Among the various librating bodies in our solar system, some are thought to possess an internal liquid core (e.g. Mercury, Io, and the Earth's moon) or subsurface ocean (Europa, Titan). This libration is capable of driving flows within these planets through viscous, topographic or electromagnetic couplings. A detailed study of the librationally induced fluid dynamics would provide insight on the energy budget, angular momentum balance, and magnetic field induction within these planets. We have carried out laboratory and numerical hydrodynamic libration experiments in full sphere and spherical shell geometries. The spherical, hydrodynamic approach allows us to focus, at present, on the purely viscous coupling problem. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that longitudinal libration is capable of generating time-periodic centrifugal instabilities near the librating solid boundary, as well as inertial waves and zonal flows in the fluid interior. In an effort to apply these results to librating planets, we have carried out axisymmetric numerical simulations that access more extreme parameter values than can be reached in the laboratory experiment. These axisymmetric simulations show that the nonlinear interaction of inertial waves is the primary mechanism responsible for the zonal flow generation, whereas the Reynolds stresses generated from centrifugal instabilities only weakly influence zonal flow strength. In addition, it is found that the onset of the centrifugal instabilities does not follow a simple scaling, as previously inferred from the laboratory experiments.

Noir, J.; Calkins, M. A.; Eldredge, J.; Aurnou, J. M.

2009-12-01

313

Geomicrobiology of extremely acidic subsurface environments.  

PubMed

Extreme acidophiles (microorganisms with pH optima of < 3) can colonize and exploit subterranean environments, such as abandoned metal sulfide mines, that have the potential for developing widespread or isolated pockets of acidity. Although acidophiles can utilize a wide range of electron donors, inorganic materials (reduced sulfur, ferrous iron, and possibly hydrogen) are often the most abundant sources of energy for acidophiles in the subsurface. The diversity and interactions of acidophilic microbial communities in two abandoned sulfide mineral mines (in Iron Mountain, California, and the Harz mountains in Germany) and a sulfidic cave (Frasissi, Italy) are reviewed. In addition, the contrasting geomicrobiology of two abandoned sulfide mineral mines in north Wales is described. Both are extremely acidic (pH~2) and low-temperature (8-9 °C) sites, but one (Cae Coch) is essentially a dry mine with isolated pockets of water, while the other (Mynydd Parys) contains a vast underground lake that was partially drained several years ago. The microbial communities in these two mines exhibit different relative abundances and often different species of archaea and bacteria. Wooden pit props, submerged in the underground lake, act as a slow-release source of organic carbon in the subterranean Mynydd Parys lake, supporting a microbial community that is more enriched with heterotrophic microorganisms. PMID:22224750

Johnson, David Barrie

2012-07-01

314

Wireless IDT microsensors for subsurface sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sensor by definition should be non-intrusive and respond faithfully to the parameter that one is trying to measure. Ideally the sensor should be small so that it does not disturb the field it is trying to measure and permit implementation on new and existing systems without requiring redesign of the system. Power supply to activate the sensor and extract data from the sensor is often the Achilles heel in implementation. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices also called the IDT Microsensor fit the bill ideally. They are in fact the first MEMS devices made, although this is not generally recognized. Unlike other MEMS devices, a SAW device has no moving parts. SAW devices can be mass-produced using semiconductor fabrication methods. The operation and use of Inter Digital Transducer (IDT) microsensor will be reviewed. Our major interest is that these sensors operate at RF frequencies and can hence be excited wirelessly using microstrip antennas from a remote source. Thus, one can achieve a passive sensor and retrieve the sensor data wirelessly. Whenever sensing is needed on a rapidly rotating system such as helicopter blades or automobile tires, in subsurface situations or inaccessible locations, a wireless passive sensor is the ideal solution. This talk will overview research on design and application of wireless IDT microsensors to dynamical strain monitoring, ice sensing, temperature and humidity sensing, liquid characterization and currently to tire pressure measurements.

Varadan, Vasundara V.; Tellakula, Anikumar R.; Hollinger, Richard D.; Li, Chun-Te; Varadan, Vijay K.

2000-07-01

315

Dissipation of anomalous pressures in the subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zones of anomalous pressure, higher and lower than hydrostatic pressure, have been observed in many sedimentary basins around the world. These normally consist of groups of pressure compartments: volumes of higher-permeability rock surrounded on all sides by lower-permeability barriers. Knowledge of the timescales over which these abnormal pressures are maintained and the mechanisms by which they dissipate is critical for understanding how fluids, such as oil and gas, move in the subsurface. Existing analytic solutions investigate pressure dissipation through low-permeability barriers on top of or underneath an isolated pressure compartment. There are no analytic solutions describing pressure dissipation through lateral barriers, such as faults, or investigating the impact of groups of pressure compartments on the rate of pressure dissipation. This paper presents simple analytic models to investigate pressure dissipation through barriers, such as faults, forming the sides of pressure compartments. The timescales are compared with a solution for pressure dissipation through barriers on top of and underneath the compartment. It also investigates analytically the rate of pressure dissipation from groups of pressure compartments. Lateral seal permeabilities of 10-19 m2 may delay pressure equilibration for millions of years provided the compartment has a sufficiently high fluid storage capacity. Factors contributing toward a high fluid storage capacity include a high fluid compressibility (as is the case in hydrocarbon reservoirs) and a high porosity. The grouping of abnormally pressured compartments into "megacompartment complexes" may delay pressure dissipation for hundreds of millions of years.

Muggeridge, Ann; Abacioglu, Yafes; England, William; Smalley, Craig

2004-11-01

316

Assessment and evaluation of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies with autonomic and neurophysiological examinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The five different types of the rare hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are classified by their mode of inheritance, pathology, natural history, biochemical, neurophysiologic and autonomic abnormalities. Clinically, the different types of HSANs can be identified by a detailed history and examination and 'bedside' tests of sympathetic or parasympathetic function such as active standing, metronomic breathing or the Valsalva

Max J. Hilz

2002-01-01

317

Bifurcation and Enhancement of Autonomous-Non-Autonomous Retrotransposon Partnership through LTR Swapping in Soybean  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although non-autonomous LTR-retrotransposons lacking significant protein coding domains have been identified in eukaryotes, how they interact with their autonomous partners to maintain transpositional activity during host genome evolution is poorly understood. We performed a comprehensive analysis o...

318

A Neural Network Adaptive Controller for Autonomous Diving Control of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a neural network adaptive controller for autonomous diving control of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) using adaptive backstepping method. In general, the dynamics of underwater robotics vehicles (URVs) are highly nonlinear and the hydrodynamic coefficients of vehicles are difficult to be accurately determined a priori be- cause of variations of these coefficients with different operating conditions. In

Ji-Hong Li; Pan-Mook Lee; Bong-Huan Jun

319

Subsurface Pathway Flow and Transport Modeling for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Subsurface Disposal Area  

SciTech Connect

Migration of contaminants through the complex subsurface at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Subsurface Disposal Area was simulated for an ongoing Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) assessment. A previously existing model for simulating flow and transport through the vadose zone for this site was updated to incorporate information obtained from recent characterization activities. Given the complexity of the subsurface at this site, the simulation results were acknowledged to be uncertain. Rather than attempt parametric approaches to quantify uncertainty, it was recognized that conceptual uncertainty involving the controlling processes was likely dominant. So, the effort focused on modeling different scenarios to evaluate the impact of the conceptual uncertainty.

Magnuson, Swen O

2002-08-01

320

Subsurface Pathway Flow and Transport Modeling for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Subsurface Disposal Area  

SciTech Connect

Migration of contaminants through the complex subsurface at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Subsurface Disposal Area was simulated for an ongoing Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) assessment. A previously existing model for simulating flow and transport through the vadose zone for this site was updated to incorporate information obtained from recent characterization activities. Given the complexity of the subsurface at this site, the simulation results were acknowledged to be uncertain. Rather than attempt parametric approaches to quantify uncertainty, it was recognized that conceptual uncertainty involving the controlling processes was likely dominant. So, the effort focused on modeling different scenarios to evaluate the impact of the conceptual uncertainty.

Magnuson, S.O.

2002-05-10

321

Autonomous growth, but not autonomous function, in embryonic human thyroids: a clue to understanding autonomous goiter growth?  

PubMed

Thyroid glands from six 8- to 10-week-old fetuses obtained at the time of legal abortion were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen and transplanted into nude nu/nu mice. Histological and autoradiographic studies of the grafts labeled with [3H]thymidine and [125I]iodine showed proliferation and functional differentiation of the fetal thyroid tissue. Despite T4-mediated suppression of host TSH secretion, up to 36% of the follicular cell nuclei incorporated the thymidine label, reflecting autonomous proliferation, while iodine organification was almost entirely obliterated. Methimazole-induced TSH hypersecretion readily stimulated both growth and function of the transplanted tissue. Thus, during early development, the human thyroid largely depends on TSH for function, but not for growth. Similar findings were obtained in newborn mice, in whom 58% of the thyroid follicular cells proliferated autonomously, i.e. in the absence of TSH. The number of autonomously proliferating cells gradually declined with increasing age to about 1% in 60-day-old animals and, as reported previously, in xenotransplanted normal human thyroid tissue, whereas the number of autonomously proliferating cells was previously found to be several times higher in xenotransplanted human multinodular goiters. We, therefore, hypothesize that the rapidly and autonomously replicating cells that initiate nodule formation in human multinodular goiters reflect the persistence in the adult gland of cells with fetal growth potential. PMID:3360903

Peter, H J; Studer, H; Groscurth, P

1988-05-01

322

SUBSURFACE VOLATIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (SVVS) - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the findings associated with a Demonstration Test of Environmental Improvement Technologies? (EIT) Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS) process. The technology was evaluated under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) ...

323

A hydrogen-based subsurface microbial community dominated by methanogens  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The search for extraterrestrial life may be facilitated if ecosystems can be found on Earth that exist under conditions analogous to those present on other planets or moons. It has been proposed, on the basis of geochemical and thermodynamic considerations, that geologically derived hydrogen might support subsurface microbial communities on Mars and Europa in which methanogens form the base of the ecosystem1-5. Here we describe a unique subsurface microbial community in which hydrogen-consuming, methane-producing Archaea far outnumber the Bacteria. More than 90% of the 16s ribosomal DNA sequences recovered from hydrothermal waters circulating through deeply buried igneous rocks in Idaho are related to hydrogen-using methanogenic microorganisms. Geochemical characterization indicates that geothermal hydrogen, not organic carbon, is the primary energy source for this methanogen-dominated microbial community. These results demonstrate that hydrogen-based methanogenic communities do occur in Earth's subsurface, providing an analogue for possible subsurface microbial ecosystems on other planets.

Chapelle, F.H.; O'Neill, K.; Bradley, P.M.; Methe, B.A.; Ciufo, S.A.; Knobel, L.L.; Lovley, D.R.

2002-01-01

324

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE TECHNOLOGY OF SUBSURFACE WASTEWATER INJECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

An introduction to the design, construction, operation, and abandonment of subsurface wastewater injection systems is presented. Local geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the injection and confining intervals are considered along with the physical, chemical, and biological...

325

SOLID OXYGEN SOURCE FOR BIOREMEDIATION IN SUBSURFACE SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Sodium percarbonate was encapsulated in poly(vinylidene chloride) to determine its potential as a slow-release oxygen source for biodegradation of contaminan ts in subsurface soils. In laboratory studies under aqueous conditions, the encapsulated sodium percarbonate was estimate...

326

SOLID OXYGEN SOURCE FOR BIOREMEDIATION IN SUBSURFACE SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Sodium percarbonate was encapsulated in poly(vinylidene chloride) to determine its potential as a slow-release oxygen source for biodegradation of contaminants in subsurface soils. n laboratory studies under aqueous conditions, the encapsulated sodium percarborate was estimated t...

327

UNDERSTANDING THE FATE OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN THE SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

To achieve effective remediation of subsurface petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, definite scientific and technical knowledge of their fate after they are spilled onto the ground surface or leaked from underground storage tanks is essential. his paper provides extensive details...

328

A hydrogen-based subsurface microbial community dominated by methanogens.  

PubMed

The search for extraterrestrial life may be facilitated if ecosystems can be found on Earth that exist under conditions analogous to those present on other planets or moons. It has been proposed, on the basis of geochemical and thermodynamic considerations, that geologically derived hydrogen might support subsurface microbial communities on Mars and Europa in which methanogens form the base of the ecosystem. Here we describe a unique subsurface microbial community in which hydrogen-consuming, methane-producing Archaea far outnumber the Bacteria. More than 90% of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequences recovered from hydrothermal waters circulating through deeply buried igneous rocks in Idaho are related to hydrogen-using methanogenic microorganisms. Geochemical characterization indicates that geothermal hydrogen, not organic carbon, is the primary energy source for this methanogen-dominated microbial community. These results demonstrate that hydrogen-based methanogenic communities do occur in Earth's subsurface, providing an analogue for possible subsurface microbial ecosystems on other planets. PMID:11797006

Chapelle, Francis H; O'Neill, Kathleen; Bradley, Paul M; Methé, Barbara A; Ciufo, Stacy A; Knobel, LeRoy L; Lovley, Derek R

2002-01-17

329

SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: SUBSURFACE VOLATILIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (SVVS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System is an integrated technology used for attacking all phases of volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination in soil and groundwater. The SVVS technology promotes insitu remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with or-ga...

330

Subsurface Characterization To Support Evaluation Of Radionuclide Transport And Attenuation  

EPA Science Inventory

Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attenuation) within the subsurface. In gene...

331

SUBSURFACE VOLATILIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (SVVS): INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the findings of a Demonstration Test of Brown & Root Environmental's Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS) process. nder the SITE program, the technology was evaluated to determine its effectiveness in reducing volatile organic contaminati...

332

SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: SUBSURFACE VOLATILIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (SVVS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the findings of a Demonstration Test of Brown & Root Environmental's Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS) process. nder the SITE program, the technology was evaluated to determine its effectiveness in reducing volatile organic contaminati...

333

EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MODELING FOR HYDROCARBON SPILLS INTO THE SUBSURFACE  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydrocarbons which enter the subsurface through spills or leaks may create serious, long-lived ground-water contamination problems. onventional finite difference and finite element models of multiphase, multicomponent flow often have extreme requirements for both computer time an...

334

Laboratory simulation of subsurface airflow beneath a building  

E-print Network

Vapor intrusion is the vapor-phase migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings due to subsurface soil or groundwater contamination. Oxygen replenishment rates beneath a building are significant for ...

Corsello, Joseph William

2014-01-01

335

BOD5 removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands  

E-print Network

The frequency of on-site systems for treatment of domestic wastewater is increasing with new residential development in both rural and low-density suburban areas. Subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) have emerged as a viable option to achieve...

Melton, Rebecca Hobbs

2005-08-29

336

On Water Detection in the Martian Subsurface Using Sounding Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several radar experiments are planned to map the martian subsurface down to several kilometers, searching for subsurface liquid water reservoirs, using different concepts and techniques, all based on the penetration property of radio frequency waves in arid soils. The penetration depth of low-frequency radar is mainly related to the electromagnetic properties of the investigated medium. Thus a good knowledge of the martian subsurface dielectric profile along the first few kilometers is necessary for future water identification and data interpretation. In this work we have investigated the electrical and magnetic properties of the martian surface and subsurface, using terrestrial laboratory analogues in the frequency range 1-500 MHz, covering the frequency domain of the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) experiment on board the Mars Express mission (ESA-2003), the NetLander ground-penetrating radar (GPR) (CNES-2007), and future sounding radar that may be updated to the Mars exploration program in the "follow the water" strategy. In our approach, we constructed experimentally the most common dielectric profile representative of the martian subsurface by measuring the electric permittivity and magnetic permeability of well defined mixtures of basaltic, volcanic, and sedimentary materials that have been reported for Mars. We also considered iron oxides (hematite and maghemite) and evaporites that may be present, such as gypsum, and their mixtures with representative amounts of the martian geological context under the most common petrophysical and geophysical conditions, along the subsurface profile. This led to synthetic representative samples of the martian subsurface materials under adequate conditions of porosity and temperature that should exist in the first 2.5 km of the upper crust. Dielectric measurements show that the first layers of the martian subsurface (a few hundred meters), which are mainly composed of volcanic iron-rich materials, could dramatically decrease the radar penetration depth initially foreseen, thus limiting deep subsurface exploration. We also investigated the constraints on subsurface water detectability in a radar lossy medium and its dielectric identification among surrounding geological materials.

Heggy, E.; Paillou, P.; Ruffie, G.; Malezieux, J. M.; Costard, F.; Grandjean, G.

2001-12-01

337

Autonomic Involvement in Subacute and Chronic Immune-Mediated Neuropathies  

PubMed Central

Autonomic function can be impaired in many disorders in which sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric arms of the autonomic nervous system are affected. Signs and symptoms of autonomic involvement are related to impairment of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, urogenital, thermoregulatory, sudomotor, and pupillomotor autonomic functions. Availability of noninvasive, sensitive, and reproducible tests can help to recognize these disorders and to better understand specific mechanisms of some, potentially treatable, immune-mediated autonomic neuropathies. This paper describes autonomic involvement in immune-mediated neuropathies with a subacute or chronic course. PMID:23853716

Mazzeo, Anna; Stancanelli, Claudia; Vita, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

338

Hydrology of an impounded lotic wetland—subsurface hydrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the importance of hydrology to wetland ecosystem productivity is recognized, there are few detailed analyses of shallow\\u000a subsurface water flow (<1 m depth) through wetland ecosystems. Shallow subsurface water flow paths and average linear velocity\\u000a were quantified with nested lysimeters in a riverine wetland located in Hale County, AL. Water-table elevation was spatially\\u000a and temporally variable and was directly

Carroll J. Mann; Robert G. Wetzel

2000-01-01

339

MARSIS and SHARAD Data Recovery for Subsurface Features Estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary scientific objectives that can be accomplished by orbiting Ground Penetrating Radars like the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) and the Shallow Radar (SHARAD) are the surface characterization and the subsurface geological probing in search of waters reservoirs, both liquid and solid in the upper portion of the crust. The subsurface geological probing requires the estimation of the subsurface dielectric constant via a data inversion approach. More clearly, the data inversion process is the estimation of the dielectric constant of the material composing the different detected interfaces including any impurity within the host material of each layer and its percentage. Geologists will then select the proper materials according to the estimated dielectric constants. In the backscattered signal are simultaneously present the material feature and the geometric contribution. Therefore, it is necessary to study the scattering behavior of the surface/subsurface, related to its characteristics (flat or rough). This implies, in particular, the selection of the backscattering model among Physical Optics, Geometrical Optics and Fractal Models. MARSIS and SHARAD also have a Doppler Beam Sharpening capability to reduce the clutter coming from the topographic features not immediately below the radar. From the available data (frames) it is possible to measure the surface echo power Ps, the subsurface echo power Pss, and the relevant time delay ??. Assuming the surface reflectivity known it is possible, using a multi-frequency approach, to estimate the crust attenuation and the values of the dielectric constant for the various subsurface interfaces prior detected in products such as frames and radargrams. The selection of stationary regions is a primary task in order to find clustered areas with uniform attenuation and similar subsurface features. In particular, several stationary areas have been identified by MARSIS on the Mars South Pole. The proposed procedure is a fully automatic technique that can be applied over stationary areas.

Picardi, Giovanni; Cassenti, Francesco; Masdea, Arturo; Mastrogiuseppe, Marco; Restano, Marco; Seu, Roberto

2013-04-01

340

Subsurface thermal environment and groundwater flow around Tokyo Bay, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies and borehole temperature measurements suggest that subsurface temperature distribution on the west side of\\u000a Tokyo Bay (from Tokyo to Yokohama) is higher than that of the east side (Chiba side). To understand the groundwater flow and\\u000a other factors which may contribute to the subsurface temperature discrepancy such as geological setting in the study area,\\u000a groundwater temperature profiles were

Vuthy Monyrath; Yasuo Sakura; Akinobu Miyakoshi; Takeshi Hayashi

2010-01-01

341

Ocean subsurface studies with the CALIPSO spaceborne lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

primary objective of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission is to study the climate impact of clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere. However, recent studies have demonstrated that CALIPSO also collects information about the ocean subsurface. The objective of this study is to estimate the ocean subsurface backscatter from CALIPSO lidar measurements. The effects of the lidar receiver's transient response on the attenuated backscatter were first removed in order to obtain the correct attenuated backscatter profile. The empirical relationship between sea surface lidar backscatter and wind speed was used to estimate the theoretical ocean surface backscatter. Then the two-way atmospheric transmittance was estimated as the ratio between the corrected ocean surface backscatter and the theoretical one. The ocean subsurface backscatter was finally derived from the subsurface attenuated backscatter divided by the two-way atmospheric transmittance. Significant relationships between integrated subsurface backscatter and chlorophyll-a concentration and between integrated subsurface backscatter and particulate organic carbon were found, which indicate a potential use of CALIPSO lidar to estimate global chlorophyll-a and particulate organic carbon concentrations.

Lu, Xiaomei; Hu, Yongxiang; Trepte, Charles; Zeng, Shan; Churnside, James H.

2014-07-01

342

Active fungi amidst a marine subsurface RNA paleome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep marine subsurface is a vast habitat for microbial life where cells may live on geologic timescales. Since extracellular DNA in sediments may be preserved on long timescales, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is suggested to be a proxy for the active fraction of a microbial community in the subsurface. During an investigation of eukaryotic 18S rRNA signatures by amplicon pyrosequencing, metazoan, plant, and diatom rRNA signatures were recovered from marine sediments up to 2.7 million years old, suggesting that rRNA may be much more stable than previously considered in the marine subsurface. This finding confirms the concept of a paleome, extending it to include rRNA. Within the same dataset, unique profiles of fungi were found across a range of marine subsurface provinces exhibiting statistically significant correlations with total organic carbon (TOC), sulfide, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Sequences from metazoans, plants and diatoms showed different correlation patterns, consistent with a depth-controlled paleome. The fungal correlations with geochemistry allow the inference that some fungi are active and adapted for survival in the marine subsurface. A metatranscriptomic analysis of fungal derived mRNA confirms that fungi are metabolically active and utilize a range of organic and inorganic substrates in the marine subsurface.

Orsi, W.; Biddle, J.; Edgcomb, V.

2012-12-01

343

Compact Autonomous Hemispheric Vision System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar System Exploration camera implementations to date have involved either single cameras with wide field-of-view (FOV) and consequently coarser spatial resolution, cameras on a movable mast, or single cameras necessitating rotation of the host vehicle to afford visibility outside a relatively narrow FOV. These cameras require detailed commanding from the ground or separate onboard computers to operate properly, and are incapable of making decisions based on image content that control pointing and downlink strategy. For color, a filter wheel having selectable positions was often added, which added moving parts, size, mass, power, and reduced reliability. A system was developed based on a general-purpose miniature visible-light camera using advanced CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) imager technology. The baseline camera has a 92 FOV and six cameras are arranged in an angled-up carousel fashion, with FOV overlaps such that the system has a 360 FOV (azimuth). A seventh camera, also with a FOV of 92 , is installed normal to the plane of the other 6 cameras giving the system a > 90 FOV in elevation and completing the hemispheric vision system. A central unit houses the common electronics box (CEB) controlling the system (power conversion, data processing, memory, and control software). Stereo is achieved by adding a second system on a baseline, and color is achieved by stacking two more systems (for a total of three, each system equipped with its own filter.) Two connectors on the bottom of the CEB provide a connection to a carrier (rover, spacecraft, balloon, etc.) for telemetry, commands, and power. This system has no moving parts. The system's onboard software (SW) supports autonomous operations such as pattern recognition and tracking.

Pingree, Paula J.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Walch, Marc J.; Staehle, Robert L.

2012-01-01

344

DWH MC 252: Subsurface Oil Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before reaching the ocean surface, the oil and gas released from the DWH MC 252 blowout at 1500 m moves as a buoyant plume until the trapping depth and plume transition point are reached (Zheng et al 2002). At the transition point, the oil droplets and bubbles move independently of each other, and rise at a rate related to their diameter. The oil density, droplet size distribution and currents primarily determine the distribution of the oil between: Large droplets that rise quickly and create a surface expression of the oil. Moderate size droplets that rise over the course of days, and so spread out quite differently than the surface oil, and commonly do not reach the surface in large enough quantities to create a surface sheen. These droplets separate in the currents, particularly in the strong current shear in upper 500 m currents. Very tiny droplets that rise very slowly, over the course or weeks to months, and may be removed by dissolution, biodegradation or marine snow before ever reaching the surface. Modeling and observations (Joint Analysis Group, 2010) confirm the presence of a deep layer of oil and gas between approximately 1100 and 1300 m over the release location and spreading out along the isopycnal surfaces. Later in the event, a small oxygen depression was a proxy for where oil and gas had been. The DWH MC252 well is located at intermediate depth in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The water mass is Antarctic Intermediate Water, which enters and exits the GoM through the Yucatan Straits. Surface influences, such as Loop Current Frontal Eddies (e.g. Berger et al 2000) can reach down to these depths, and alter the flow within De Soto Canyon. The water mass containing the deep layer of oil droplets changes depth within the GoM, but does not reach above a depth of about 900 m. There are no physical processes that could cause this deep layer of oil to reach the continental shelf or the Florida Straits. Observed and historical hydrographic data, observations, previous research and modeling were combined to tell the story of the DWH MC 252 from the subsurface perspective. The Comprehensive Deepwater Oil and Gas model (CDOG, Yapa and Xie, 2005), and the General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment (GNOME, Beegle-Krause, 1999) were used with the NOAA Gulf of Mexico Model nowcast/forecast model to understand the 3D evolution of the subsurface spill. Model/observational comparisons are favorable, though limitations of the available models are apparent. Historical perspective on Thunder Horse (a deepwater well incident that was a dress-rehearsal for the DWH MC 252, Beegle-Krause and Walton, 2004), transitioning models from research to operations, and research needs will also be discussed.

Beegle-Krause, C. J.; Boyer, T.; Murray, D.

2010-12-01

345

Subsurface Sampling and Sensing Using Burrowing Moles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Finding evidence for life on Mars will likely require accessing the subsurface since the Martian surface is both hostile to life and to preservation of biosignatures due to the cold dry conditions, the strong W environment, and the presence of strong oxidants. Systems are needed to probe beneath the sun and oxidant baked surface of Mars and return samples to the surface for analysis or to bring the instrument sensing underground. Recognizing this need, the European Space Agency incorporated a small subsurface penetrometer or Mole onto the Beagle 2 Mars lander. Had the 2003 landing been successful, the Mole would have collected samples from 1-1.5 m depth and delivered them to an organic analysis instrument on the surface. The de- vice called the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO), also measured soil mechanical and thermophysical properties. Constrained by the small mass and volume allowance of the Beagle lander, the PLUTO mole was a slender cylinder only 2 cm diameter and 28 cm long equipped with a small sampling device designed to collect samples and bring them to the surface for analysis by other instrument. The mass of the entire system including deployment mechanism and tether was 1/2 kg. sensor package underground to make in situ measurements. The Mars Underground Mole (MUM) is a larger Mole based on the PLUTO design but incorporating light collection optics that interface to a fiber optic cable in the tether that transmits light to a combined stimulated emission Raman Spectrometer and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) reflectance Spectrometer with sensitivity from 0.7 to 2.5 micrometers. This instrument is called the Dual Spectral Sensor and uses a Digital Array Scanning Interferometer as the sensor technology, a type of fourier transform interferometer that uses fixed element prisms and thus is highly rugged compared to a Michaelson interferometer. Due to the size limitations of an on-Mole instrument compartment, and the availability of a tether, the sensor head, light sources, and control electronics for the instrument are on the surface. The DSS sensor is capable of sensing a wide range of minerals relevant to Mars Astrobiology objectives including hydrated minerals, clays, carbonates, sulfates, and ice. Additionally, Raman spectroscopy is effective for detecting organics. The MUM is designed to achieve a maximum depth of penetration of 5 m in Mars regolith and can be repeatedly deployed and retrieved. The ability to perform repeated sampling, combined with the low mass and power requirements, means that Moles could be incorporated into a rover mission as well as used on a stationary platform. The Mole mechanism is a pointed slender cylinder that advances into soil by way of an internal sliding hammer mechanism. Part of the energy released by the spring-loaded hammer with each shock is transferred to the Mole casing and from there to the soil, resulting in penetration by displacing and compressing the surrounding soil. A backwards-directed impulse as a re- action to each forward shock is transferred via a suppressor mass against a second weaker spring allowing forward motion without requiring reactive forces provided by the lander. The Mole tip can be opened to collect soil samples. The Mole casing is tethered to a supporting mechanism that supplies power. Components supporting the Mole on the surface include a launch tube, tether reel and winch for pulling in tether, in addition to the tether itself.

Stoker, C. R.; Richter, L.; Smith, W. H.

2004-01-01

346

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy with reversible cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is a rare disorder of antibody mediated impaired transmission across the autonomic ganglia resulting in severe autonomic failure. Some patients with AAG report cognitive impairment of unclear etiology despite treatment of autonomic symptoms. Objectives To investigate the relationship between orthostatic hypotension, antibody titers and cognitive impairment in patients with AAG. Design Prospective cohort. Setting Academic medical center. Participants Three patients with AAG underwent neuropsychological testing before and after cycles of plasma exchange in both the seated and standing position to determine the effects of orthostatic hypotension and antibody titers on cognition. Main Outcome Measures Patient responses to neuropsychological tests were measured by percent change from baseline in the seated and standing positions pre- and post-plasma exchange to determine the effects of orthostatic hypotension and antibody titers on cognition. Results Orthostatic hypotension and elevated antibody titer were associated independently with neuropsychological impairment (P<0.05), particularly in domains of executive function, sustained attention, and working memory. Cognitive dysfunction improved, even in the seated normotensive position, after plasmapheresis and consequent reduction in antibody levels. Conclusion The data presented in this study demonstrate reversible cognitive impairment is independently associated with both orthostatic hypotension and elevated nicotinic acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies thereby expanding the clinical spectrum of autonomic ganglionopathy and, in so doing, providing an additional treatable cause of cognitive impairment. PMID:22158721

Gibbons, Christopher H.; Centi, Justin; Vernino, Steven; Freeman, Roy

2012-01-01

347

Magnetotelluric Sensor Development for Planetary Subsurface Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic (EM) Sounding is a powerful geophysical investigation technique capable of constraining planetary subsurface structure, including core size, mantle and crustal temperature profiles, and the distribution of electrical conductivity at depth. Natural sources of EM activity, including solar wind turbulence and plasma waves, can induce electric and magnetic fields in the Moon and other small bodies. These induced fields respond according to the electrical conductivity as a function of skin depth of the body in question. In a branch of EM Sounding known as Magnetotellurics (MT), measurements of the horizontal electric and magnetic fields at the planetary surface are inverted to produce constraints on the interior. MT is particularly worthwhile in that geophysically meaningful results can be obtained from a single station, thus avoiding network mission architectures. While surface magnetic field measurements were taken on the Moon during the Apollo era, to date no measurements of the surface horizontal electric field have been attempted. However electric field measurements on the lunar surface should be feasible given their long successful history on spacecraft missions in similar environments. Building upon the heritage of electric field sensor technology at the UC Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory, we describe a development plan for this instrument from component level to a fully functional instrument assembly for use in EM sounding, highlighting operational requirements, science capabilities, required testing, anticipated results and challenges to overcome. Upon development, this lander electric field sensor will enable future MT surveys on the Moon, and will provide a new exploration method for other small airless bodies from a single station.

Fuqua, H.; Delory, G. T.; De Pater, I.; Grimm, R. E.

2012-12-01

348

Subsurface void detection using seismic tomographic imaging  

SciTech Connect

Tomographic imaging has been widely used in scientific and medical fields to remotely image media in a nondestructive way. This paper introduces a spectrum of seismic imaging applications to detect and characterize voids in coal mines. The application of seismic waves to detect changes in coal relies on two types of waves: body waves refracted along the interface between coal and bedrock (i.e., refracted P-waves) and channel waves that propagate directly through the coal (dispersive wave trains of the Rayleigh or Love type). For example, a P-wave tomography study to find underlying old mine workings in a coal mine in England, produced velocity patterns that revealed increases in velocity where high stress concentrations occur in the rock, which are most likely connected to old pillars left in support of the old working areas. At the same time, low velocities were found in areas of low stress concentrations, which are related to roof collapses indicating the locations of mined areas below. The application of channel wave tomography to directly image the presence of gaseous CO{sub 2} in a low velocity oil reservoir showed that the injected CO{sub 2} followed an ancient flow channel in the reservoir migrating from the injector to the producer well. The study showed how channel waves are preferable over refracted P-waves, as the latter were only marginally affected by the presence of the gas in the low-velocity channel. Similar approaches show great promise for the detection of voids in coal mines. Finally, a newly developed technique, based on scattering theory, revealed that the location and the size of a subsurface cavity could be accurately determined even in the presence of strong correlated and uncorrelated noise.

Gritto, Roland

2003-06-26

349

Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.  

PubMed

Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications. PMID:18598141

Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

2008-06-01

350

Advanced avionics concepts: Autonomous spacecraft control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large increase in space operations activities is expected because of Space Station Freedom (SSF) and long range Lunar base missions and Mars exploration. Space operations will also increase as a result of space commercialization (especially the increase in satellite networks). It is anticipated that the level of satellite servicing operations will grow tenfold from the current level within the next 20 years. This growth can be sustained only if the cost effectiveness of space operations is improved. Cost effectiveness is operational efficiency with proper effectiveness. A concept is presented of advanced avionics, autonomous spacecraft control, that will enable the desired growth, as well as maintain the cost effectiveness (operational efficiency) in satellite servicing operations. The concept of advanced avionics that allows autonomous spacecraft control is described along with a brief description of each component. Some of the benefits of autonomous operations are also described. A technology utilization breakdown is provided in terms of applications.

1990-01-01

351

Implementation of GPS based trajectory control of an autonomous sailboat  

E-print Network

Autonomous robotic systems are increasingly becoming a major component of modern society. In order to gain a better understanding of the capabilities of these autonomous systems, experimentation was conducted using a ...

Wirekoh, Jackson O

2013-01-01

352

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IE  

MedlinePLUS

... addition of methyl groups, consisting of one carbon atom and three hydrogen atoms, to DNA molecules. In particular, the enzyme helps ... understanding hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IE? atom ; autonomic nervous system ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; cell ; cytosine ; ...

353

CATALOG OF ORBIT DETERMINATION RESULTS FOR LINKED, AUTONOMOUS,  

E-print Network

CATALOG OF ORBIT DETERMINATION RESULTS FOR LINKED, AUTONOMOUS, INTERPLANETARY SATELLITE ORBIT for Astrodynamics Research University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309 Revised 3 Feb 2006 #12;CATALOG OF ORBIT DETERMINATION RESULTS FOR LINKED, AUTONOMOUS, INTERPLANETARY SATELLITE ORBIT NAVIGATION (Li

Born, George

354

Good Experimental Methodologies and Simulation in Autonomous Mobile Robotics  

E-print Network

Good Experimental Methodologies and Simulation in Autonomous Mobile Robotics Francesco Amigoni and Viola Schiaffonati Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Laboratory, Dipartimento di Elettronica e to characterize analytically, as it is often the case in autonomous mobile robotics. Although their importance

Amigoni, Francesco

355

Systems/Circuits The Autonomic Brain: An Activation Likelihood Estimation  

E-print Network

Systems/Circuits The Autonomic Brain: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis for Central, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129 The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is of paramount importance for daily life. Its regulatory action on respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive

Napadow, Vitaly

356

Decentralized planning for autonomous agents cooperating in complex missions  

E-print Network

Planning for autonomous vehicles remains an important and challenging research topic. This thesis focuses on decentralized planning for autonomous agents performing complex missions. These types of missions often involve ...

Whitten, Andrew (Andrew Koo)

2010-01-01

357

Service Oriented Approach for Autonomous Exception Management in Supply Chains  

E-print Network

Service Oriented Approach for Autonomous Exception Management in Supply Chains Armando Business Process to support Autonomous Exception Management in Supply chains. Keywords: Supply Chain and consequently this triggers a rescheduling task. Current Supply Chain Management Systems lack of systematic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

358

Robust distributed planning strategies for autonomous multi-agent teams  

E-print Network

The increased use of autonomous robotic agents, such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and ground rovers, for complex missions has motivated the development of autonomous task allocation and planning methods that ensure ...

Ponda, Sameera S

2012-01-01

359

Business-Oriented Autonomic Load Balancing for Multitiered Web Sites  

E-print Network

-oriented utility function. The autonomic LB was evaluated through very detailed and comprehensive simulation theory [5], machine-learning [6], and fuzzy logic [7]. This paper shows how autonomic techniques for self

Menascé, Daniel A.

360

ARCHITECTURAL SUPPORT FOR AUTONOMIC PROTECTION AGAINST STEALTH BY ROOTKIT  

E-print Network

of Technology Nov 2008 #12;ARCHITECTURAL SUPPORT FOR AUTONOMIC PROTECTION AGAINST STEALTH BY ROOTKIT EXPLOITSARCHITECTURAL SUPPORT FOR AUTONOMIC PROTECTION AGAINST STEALTH BY ROOTKIT EXPLOITS A Thesis Institute of Technology Professor Douglas M. Blough School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Georgia

Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

361

Sudomotor dysfunction in autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy  

PubMed Central

Background: Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy is characterized by impairment of multiple autonomic domains of which sudomotor function is among the most common. Many patients with this disorder have difficulties with thermoregulation and anhidrosis. Our objective was to characterize the distribution and severity of sudomotor dysfunction in this disorder. Methods: Sudomotor function was analyzed in a cohort of 21 patients with ganglionic ?3 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antibody positive autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. Standard measurements of sudomotor function were used including the Thermoregulatory Sweat Test and Quantitative Sudomotor Axon Reflex Test. Results: The clinical presentation in all patients was characterized by widespread sudomotor dysfunction. Sudomotor impairment was predominantly postganglionic in 17 of the 21 patients studied. Higher ganglionic ?3 nAChR antibody levels resulted in progressive postganglionic predominant dysfunction (postganglionic, r = 0.637, p = 0.002; mixed ganglionic, r = 0.709, p < 0.001). The pattern of anhidrosis on Thermoregulatory Sweat Testing was consistent with a ganglionopathy in the majority of patients (14 of 21) and a distal pattern in a minority of patients (8 of 21). These patterns of anhidrosis coupled with increasing postganglionic dysfunction in a proximal to distal pattern (foot > distal leg > proximal leg > forearm) indicate lesions at both the ganglia and distal axon of the postganglionic sudomotor sympathetic neuron. Conclusions: Our data characterize the unique sudomotor dysfunction in autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy as widespread, predominantly postganglionic, and a result of lesions at both the ganglia and distal axon. This study provides important support to the hypothesis that this disorder represents a ganglionic neuropathy. GLOSSARY AAG = autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy; CASS = Composite Autonomic Severity Score; nAChR = nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; QSART = Quantitative Sudomotor Axon Reflex Testing; TST = Thermoregulatory Sweat Test. PMID:19884578

Kimpinski, K; Iodice, V; Sandroni, P; Fealey, R D.; Vernino, S; Low, P A.

2009-01-01

362

Why Computer-Based Systems Should be Autonomic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this paper is to discuss why computer-based systems should be autonomic, where autonomicity implies self-managing, often conceptualized in terms of being self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing, self-protecting and self-aware. We look at motivations for autonomicity, examine how more and more systems are exhibiting autonomic behavior, and finally look at future directions.

Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

2005-01-01

363

Autonomic ganglia, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, and autoimmune ganglionopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are ligand-gated cation channels that are present throughout the nervous system. The ganglionic (?3-type) neuronal AChR mediates fast synaptic transmission in sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric autonomic ganglia. Autonomic ganglia are an important site of neural integration and regulation of autonomic reflexes. Impaired cholinergic ganglionic synaptic transmission is one important cause of autonomic failure.Ganglionic AChR antibodies are

Steven Vernino; Steve Hopkins; Zhengbei Wang

2009-01-01

364

Antibody testing as a diagnostic tool in autonomic disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some forms of peripheral autonomic dysfunction (especially enteric neuropathy and subacute panautonomic failure) occur as\\u000a autoimmune phenomena either in isolation or in the context of cancer. Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy is an example of\\u000a a severe, but potentially treatable, antibody-mediated form of autonomic failure. Diagnostic evaluation of autonomic disorders\\u000a can be supplemented by testing for paraneoplastic antibodies and antibodies against membrane

Steven Vernino

2009-01-01

365

Autonomous Environment-Monitoring Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomous environment-monitoring networks (AEMNs) are artificial neural networks that are specialized for recognizing familiarity and, conversely, novelty. Like a biological neural network, an AEMN receives a constant stream of inputs. For purposes of computational implementation, the inputs are vector representations of the information of interest. As long as the most recent input vector is similar to the previous input vectors, no action is taken. Action is taken only when a novel vector is encountered. Whether a given input vector is regarded as novel depends on the previous vectors; hence, the same input vector could be regarded as familiar or novel, depending on the context of previous input vectors. AEMNs have been proposed as means to enable exploratory robots on remote planets to recognize novel features that could merit closer scientific attention. AEMNs could also be useful for processing data from medical instrumentation for automated monitoring or diagnosis. The primary substructure of an AEMN is called a spindle. In its simplest form, a spindle consists of a central vector (C), a scalar (r), and algorithms for changing C and r. The vector C is constructed from all the vectors in a given continuous stream of inputs, such that it is minimally distant from those vectors. The scalar r is the distance between C and the most remote vector in the same set. The construction of a spindle involves four vital parameters: setup size, spindle-population size, and the radii of two novelty boundaries. The setup size is the number of vectors that are taken into account before computing C. The spindle-population size is the total number of input vectors used in constructing the spindle counting both those that arrive before and those that arrive after the computation of C. The novelty-boundary radii are distances from C that partition the neighborhood around C into three concentric regions (see Figure 1). During construction of the spindle, the changing spindle radius is denoted by h. It is the final value of h, reached before beginning construction on the next spindle, that is denoted by r. During construction of a spindle, if a new vector falls between C and the inner boundary, the vector is regarded as completely familiar and no action is taken. If the new vector falls into the region between the inner and outer boundaries, it is considered unusual enough to warrant the adjustment of C and r by use of the aforementioned algorithms, but not unusual enough to be considered novel. If a vector falls outside the outer boundary, it is considered novel, in which case one of several appropriate responses could be initiation of construction of a new spindle.

Hand, Charles

2004-01-01

366

A power autonomous monopedal robot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design and initial results of a power-autonomous planar monopedal robot. The robot is a gasoline powered, two degree of freedom robot that runs in a circle, constrained by a boom. The robot uses hydraulic Series Elastic Actuators, force-controllable actuators which provide high force fidelity, moderate bandwidth, and low impedance. The actuators are mounted in the body of the robot, with cable drives transmitting power to the hip and knee joints of the leg. A two-stroke, gasoline engine drives a constant displacement pump which pressurizes an accumulator. Absolute position and spring deflection of each of the Series Elastic Actuators are measured using linear encoders. The spring deflection is translated into force output and compared to desired force in a closed loop force-control algorithm implemented in software. The output signal of each force controller drives high performance servo valves which control flow to each of the pistons of the actuators. In designing the robot, we used a simulation-based iterative design approach. Preliminary estimates of the robot's physical parameters were based on past experience and used to create a physically realistic simulation model of the robot. Next, a control algorithm was implemented in simulation to produce planar hopping. Using the joint power requirements and range of motions from simulation, we worked backward specifying pulley diameter, piston diameter and stroke, hydraulic pressure and flow, servo valve flow and bandwidth, gear pump flow, and engine power requirements. Components that meet or exceed these specifications were chosen and integrated into the robot design. Using CAD software, we calculated the physical parameters of the robot design, replaced the original estimates with the CAD estimates, and produced new joint power requirements. We iterated on this process, resulting in a design which was prototyped and tested. The Monopod currently runs at approximately 1.2 m/s with the weight of all the power generating components, but powered from an off-board pump. On a test stand, the eventual on-board power system generates enough pressure and flow to meet the requirements of these runs and we are currently integrating the power system into the real robot. When operated from an off-board system without carrying the weight of the power generating components, the robot currently runs at approximately 2.25 m/s. Ongoing work is focused on integrating the power system into the robot, improving the control algorithm, and investigating methods for improving efficiency.

Krupp, Benjamin T.; Pratt, Jerry E.

2006-05-01

367

NEURON: Enabling Autonomicity in Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Future Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) will be ubiquitous, large-scale networks interconnected with the existing IP infrastructure. Autonomic functionalities have to be designed in order to reduce the complexity of their operation and management, and support the dissemination of knowledge within a WSN. In this paper a novel protocol for energy efficient deployment, clustering and routing in WSNs is proposed that focuses on the incorporation of autonomic functionalities in the existing approaches. The design of the protocol facilitates the design of innovative applications and services that are based on overlay topologies created through cooperation among the sensor nodes. PMID:22399931

Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Gouvas, Panagiotis; Liakopoulos, Athanassios; Mentzas, Gregoris; Mitrou, Nikolas

2010-01-01

368

Planning and Execution for an Autonomous Aerobot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aerial Onboard Autonomous Science Investigation System (AerOASIS) system provides autonomous planning and execution capabilities for aerial vehicles (see figure). The system is capable of generating high-quality operations plans that integrate observation requests from ground planning teams, as well as opportunistic science events detected onboard the vehicle while respecting mission and resource constraints. AerOASIS allows an airborne planetary exploration vehicle to summarize and prioritize the most scientifically relevant data; identify and select high-value science sites for additional investigation; and dynamically plan, schedule, and monitor the various science activities being performed, even during extended communications blackout periods with Earth.

Gaines, Daniel M.; Estlin, Tara A.; Schaffer, Steven R.; Chouinard, Caroline M.

2010-01-01

369

Design of an autonomous exterior security robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the requirements and preliminary design of robotic vehicle designed for performing autonomous exterior perimeter security patrols around warehouse areas, ammunition supply depots, and industrial parks for the U.S. Department of Defense. The preliminary design allows for the operation of up to eight vehicles in a six kilometer by six kilometer zone with autonomous navigation and obstacle avoidance. In addition to detection of crawling intruders at 100 meters, the system must perform real-time inventory checking and database comparisons using a microwave tags system.

Myers, Scott D.

1994-01-01

370

Road boundary detection for autonomous vehicle navigation  

SciTech Connect

The Computer Vision Laboratory at the University Maryland for the past year has been developing a computer vision system for autonomous ground navigation of roads and road networks for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Strategic Computing Program. The complete system runs on a VAX 11/785, but certain parts of it have been reimplemented on a VICOM image processing sysem for experimentation on an autonomous vehicle built for the Martin Marietta Corp., Aerospace Division, in Denver, Colorado. A brief overview is given of the principal software components of the system and the VICOM implementation in detail.

Davis, L.S.; Kushner, T.R.; LeMoigne, J.J.; Waxman, A.M.

1986-03-01

371

Autonomous operations through onboard artificial intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat 21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2006. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight environment will open up tremendous new opportunities in planetary science, space physics, and earth science that would be unreachable without this technology.

Sherwood, R. L.; Chien, S.; Castano, R.; Rabideau, G.

2002-01-01

372

Autonomous scheduling technology for Earth orbital missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a dynamic autonomous system (DYASS) of resources for the mission support of near-Earth NASA spacecraft is discussed and the current NASA space data system is described from a functional perspective. The future (late 80's and early 90's) NASA space data system is discussed. The DYASS concept, the autonomous process control, and the NASA space data system are introduced. Scheduling and related disciplines are surveyed. DYASS as a scheduling problem is also discussed. Artificial intelligence and knowledge representation is considered as well as the NUDGE system and the I-Space system.

Srivastava, S.

1982-01-01

373

Geophysical subsurface imaging and interface identification.  

SciTech Connect

Electromagnetic induction is a classic geophysical exploration method designed for subsurface characterization--in particular, sensing the presence of geologic heterogeneities and fluids such as groundwater and hydrocarbons. Several approaches to the computational problems associated with predicting and interpreting electromagnetic phenomena in and around the earth are addressed herein. Publications resulting from the project include [31]. To obtain accurate and physically meaningful numerical simulations of natural phenomena, computational algorithms should operate in discrete settings that reflect the structure of governing mathematical models. In section 2, the extension of algebraic multigrid methods for the time domain eddy current equations to the frequency domain problem is discussed. Software was developed and is available in Trilinos ML package. In section 3 we consider finite element approximations of De Rham's complex. We describe how to develop a family of finite element spaces that forms an exact sequence on hexahedral grids. The ensuing family of non-affine finite elements is called a van Welij complex, after the work [37] of van Welij who first proposed a general method for developing tangentially and normally continuous vector fields on hexahedral elements. The use of this complex is illustrated for the eddy current equations and a conservation law problem. Software was developed and is available in the Ptenos finite element package. The more popular methods of geophysical inversion seek solutions to an unconstrained optimization problem by imposing stabilizing constraints in the form of smoothing operators on some enormous set of model parameters (i.e. ''over-parametrize and regularize''). In contrast we investigate an alternative approach whereby sharp jumps in material properties are preserved in the solution by choosing as model parameters a modest set of variables which describe an interface between adjacent regions in physical space. While still over-parametrized, this choice of model space contains far fewer parameters than before, thus easing the computational burden, in some cases, of the optimization problem. And most importantly, the associated finite element discretization is aligned with the abrupt changes in material properties associated with lithologic boundaries as well as the interface between buried cultural artifacts and the surrounding Earth. In section 4, algorithms and tools are described that associate a smooth interface surface to a given triangulation. In particular, the tools support surface refinement and coarsening. Section 5 describes some preliminary results on the application of interface identification methods to some model problems in geophysical inversion. Due to time constraints, the results described here use the GNU Triangulated Surface Library for the manipulation of surface meshes and the TetGen software library for the generation of tetrahedral meshes.

Pendley, Kevin; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Day, David Minot; Robinson, Allen Conrad; Weiss, Chester Joseph

2005-09-01

374

Intercellular Genomics of Subsurface Microbial Colonies  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes progress in the second year of this project. The objective is to develop methods and software to predict the spatial configuration, properties and temporal evolution of microbial colonies in the subsurface. To accomplish this, we integrate models of intracellular processes, cell-host medium exchange and reaction-transport dynamics on the colony scale. At the conclusion of the project, we aim to have the foundations of a predictive mathematical model and software that captures the three scales of these systems – the intracellular, pore, and colony wide spatial scales. In the second year of the project, we refined our transcriptional regulatory network discovery (TRND) approach that utilizes gene expression data along with phylogenic similarity and gene ontology analyses and applied it successfully to E.coli, human B cells, and Geobacter sulfurreducens. We have developed a new Web interface, GeoGen, which is tailored to the reconstruction of microbial TRNs and solely focuses on Geobacter as one of DOE’s high priority microbes. Our developments are designed such that the frameworks for the TRND and GeoGen can readily be used for other microbes of interest to the DOE. In the context of modeling a single bacterium, we are actively pursuing both steady-state and kinetic approaches. The steady-state approach is based on a flux balance that uses maximizing biomass growth rate as its objective, subjected to various biochemical constraints, for the optimal values of reaction rates and uptake/release of metabolites. For the kinetic approach, we use Karyote, a rigorous cell model developed by us for an earlier DOE grant and the DARPA BioSPICE Project. We are also investigating the interplay between bacterial colonies and environment at both pore and macroscopic scales. The pore scale models use detailed representations for realistic porous media accounting for the distribution of grain size whereas the macroscopic models employ the Darcy-type flow equations and up-scaled advective-diffusive transport equations for chemical species. We are rigorously testing the relationship between these two scales by evaluating macroscopic parameters using the volume averaging methodology applied to pore scale model results.

Ortoleva, Peter; Tuncay, Kagan; Gannon, Dennis; Meile, Christof

2007-02-14

375

Smouldering Subsurface Fires in the Earth System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smouldering fires, the slow, low-temperature, flameless form of combustion, are an important phenomena in the Earth system. These fires propagate slowly through organic layers of the forest ground and are responsible for 50% or more of the total biomass consumed during wildfires. Only after the 2002 study of the 1997 extreme haze event in South-East Asia, the scientific community recognised the environmental and economic threats posed by subsurface fires. This was caused by the spread of vast biomass fires in Indonesia, burning below the surface for months during the El Niño climate event. It has been calculated that these fires released between 0.81 and 2.57 Gton of carbon gases (13-40% of global emissions). Large smouldering fires are rare events at the local scale but occur regularly at a global scale. Once ignited, they are particularly difficult to extinguish despite extensive rains or fire-fighting attempts and can persist for long periods of time (months, years) spreading over very extensive areas of forest and deep into the soil. Indeed, these are the oldest continuously burning fires on Earth. Earth scientists are interested in smouldering fires because they destroy large amounts of biomass and cause greater damage to the soil ecosystem than flaming fires do. Moreover, these fires cannot be detected with current satellite remote sensing technologies causing inconsistencies between emission inventories and model predictions. Organic soils sustain smouldering fire (hummus, duff, peat and coal) which total carbon pool exceeds that of the world's forests or the atmosphere. This have important implications for climate change. Warmer temperatures at high latitudes are resulting in unprecedented permafrost thaw that is leaving large soil carbon pools exposed to fires. Because the CO2 flux from peat fires has been measured to be about 3000 times larger that the natural degradation flux, permafrost thaw is a risk for greater carbon release by fire and subsequently influence carbon-climate feedbacks. This presentation will revise the current knowledge on smouldering fires in the Earth system regarding ignition, spread patterns and emissions. It will explain the key differences between shallow and deep fires, and flaming fires.

Rein, Guillermo

2010-05-01

376

Research issues in autonomous control of tactical UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the enabling technologies for an autonomous tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Current technologies are adequate for semi-autonomous UAVs that operate in a relatively structured environment. For tactical UAVs in a rapidly changing uncertain environment the present techniques are inadequate. The essence of autonomous control is rapid in-flight replanning under uncertainty. This is cast as a large optimization

P. R. Chandler; M. Pachter

1998-01-01

377

Searching with an Autonomous Robot Sandor P. Fekete  

E-print Network

for Autonomous Intelligent Systems (AIS) has developed au- tonomous mobile robots that can survey vision at all times, our autonomous robot has to stop and take some time for taking a survey of its enviSearching with an Autonomous Robot S´andor P. Fekete Department of Mathematical Optimization TU

Fekete, Sándor P.

378

Autonomous Learning of Object Models on Mobile Robots  

E-print Network

, Mohan Sridharan and Shiqi Zhang. Autonomous Learning of Vision-based Layered Object Models on Mobile the complementary properties of different visual cues 13 Xiang Li and Mohan Sridharan. Vision-basedAutonomous Learning of Object Models on a Mobile Robot. In the Autonomous Robots and Multirobot Systems Workshop (ARMS

Zhang, Yuanlin

379

An Autonomous Vehicle Navigation System using Panoramic Machine Vision Techniques  

E-print Network

An Autonomous Vehicle Navigation System using Panoramic Machine Vision Techniques Kevin Rushant a navigation system for an autonomous farm vehicle using machine vision techniques applied to panoramic images@essex.ac.uk Keywords: Horizon, panoramic images, autonomous vehicle navigation. Abstract This paper describes

Spacek, Libor

380

Vision-based handling tasks for an autonomous outdoor forklift  

E-print Network

Vision-based handling tasks for an autonomous outdoor forklift C´edric Pradalier CSIRO ICT Centre, Autonomous Systems Laboratory, Brisbane, Australia Summary. In the aluminium industry, Hot Metal Carriers of robust outdoor crucible handling capacities, relying on the autonomous tracking of especially designed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

381

Integrating Active Perception with an Autonomous Robot Architecture  

E-print Network

of active research. We have integrated an active stereo vision system with an autonomous agent architecture an attention-based vision system based on proximity spaces 14,15] which has been integrated into an autonomous such systems have been developed, integrating them into an autonomous agent architecture remains an area

Kortenkamp, David

382

Low-level Vision for Autonomous Driving Raquel Urtasun  

E-print Network

Low-level Vision for Autonomous Driving Raquel Urtasun TTI Chicago Sep 4, 2013 R. Urtasun (TTIC systems that are able to help us in everyday's tasks R. Urtasun (TTIC) Autonomous Driving Sep 4, 2013 2 / 52 #12;My view of how to get there ... Autonomous systems need to: Sense the environment Recognize

Mayberry, Marty

383

Peripheral autonomic neuropathy: diagnostic contribution of skin biopsy.  

PubMed

Skin biopsy has gained widespread use for the diagnosis of somatic small-fiber neuropathy, but it also provides information on sympathetic fiber morphology. We aimed to ascertain the diagnostic accuracy of skin biopsy in disclosing sympathetic nerve abnormalities in patients with autonomic neuropathy. Peripheral nerve fiber autonomic involvement was confirmed by routine autonomic laboratory test abnormalities. Punch skin biopsies were taken from the thigh and lower leg of 28 patients with various types of autonomic neuropathy for quantitative evaluation of skin autonomic innervation. Results were compared with scores obtained from 32 age-matched healthy controls and 25 patients with somatic neuropathy. The autonomic cutoff score was calculated using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Skin biopsy disclosed a significant autonomic innervation decrease in autonomic neuropathy patients versus controls and somatic neuropathy patients. Autonomic innervation density was abnormal in 96% of patients in the lower leg and in 79% of patients in the thigh. The abnormal findings disclosed by routine autonomic tests ranged from 48% to 82%. These data indicate the high sensitivity and specificity of skin biopsy in detecting sympathetic abnormalities; this method should be useful for the diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy, together with currently available routine autonomic testing. PMID:23037327

Donadio, Vincenzo; Incensi, Alex; Giannoccaro, Maria Pia; Cortelli, Pietro; Di Stasi, Vitantonio; Pizza, Fabio; Jaber, Masen Abdel; Baruzzi, Agostino; Liguori, Rocco

2012-11-01

384

Clinical laboratory evaluation of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy: Preliminary observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several forms of chronic autonomic failure manifest as neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, including autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) and pure autonomic failure (PAF). AAG and PAF are thought to differ in pathogenesis, AAG reflecting decreased ganglionic neurotransmission due to circulating antibodies to the neuronal nicotinic receptor and PAF being a Lewy body disease with prominent loss of sympathetic noradrenergic nerves. AAG therefore

David S. Goldstein; Courtney Holmes; Richard Imrich

2009-01-01

385

RAVON --The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation  

E-print Network

RAVON -- The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation C. Armbrust, T. Braun, T. Föhst, M, the Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation (see figure 1). A sophisticated hazard detection, proetzsch, renner, b_schaef, berns}@cs.uni-kl.de). 1 #12;RAVON -- The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road

Berns, Karsten

386

RAVON --The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation  

E-print Network

RAVON -- The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation C. Armbrust, T. Braun, T. Föhst, M}@cs.uni-kl.de). 1 #12;RAVON -- The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation 2 highly vegetated terrain. Their experimental platform is RAVON, the Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation (see figure 1

Berns, Karsten

387

A Hybrid Controller for Autonomous Vehicles Driving on Automated Highways  

E-print Network

A Hybrid Controller for Autonomous Vehicles Driving on Automated Highways Alain Girault a aInria Rh of the hybrid control of autonomous vehicles driving on automated highways. Vehicles are autonomous, so they do driving in a single-lane highway must never collide with its leading vehicle; and a vehicle entering

Girault, Alain

388

A Modular Neurocontroller for Creative Mobile Autonomous Robots  

E-print Network

A Modular Neurocontroller for Creative Mobile Autonomous Robots Learning by Temporal Difference, Mobile Autonomous Robots, Temporal Difference Learning, Modular Neu- rocontrollers, Creativity Machines@cosy.sbg.ac.at Abstract ­ One of the most prominent research goals in the field of mobile autonomous robots is to create

Mayer, Helmut A.

389

Characterization of Microexplosion Phenomena of Methanol-Glycerol Mixtures  

E-print Network

volume vii Greek symbols ø Volume fraction of water in an emulsified oil ? contact angle ?solid-gas surface tension between solid and gas (dyne/cm) ?solid....8 Droplet Size Measurement ..................................................................................... 31 4.9 Oleophobic Coating of the Acoustic Sensor Platinum Wire .................................. 32 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION...

Fan, Ge-Yi

2014-07-17

390

Effect of Extent of Natural Subsurface Bioreduction on Fe-mineralogy of Subsurface Sediments  

SciTech Connect

Naturally bioreduced zones with considerable sorbed U were recently identified at a former U mining and processing site at Rifle, CO, USA. Most of the sorbed U appears to be associated with Fe minerals. Variably reduced sediment samples were analyzed by suite of techniques, primarily by room temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy. Fe-oxides of different types and crystallinity, and Fe(II)/Fe(III)-containing clays are dominant in all the sediments. The amounts of poorly crystalline Fe(III)-oxide, however, was lower in the reduced samples. In addition, framboidal pyrites with sorbed U were common in the highly reduced sediments. Overall, the information gained from this work may help develop design field strategies for immobilization and stabilization of U(VI) in contaminated subsurface environments.

Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Arey, Bruce W.; Resch, Charles T.; Long, Philip E.

2010-05-16

391

Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since its discovery over two decades ago, the deep subsurface biosphere has been considered to be the realm of single-cell organisms, extending over three kilometres into the Earth's crust and comprising a significant fraction of the global biosphere. The constraints of temperature, energy, dioxygen and space seemed to preclude the possibility of more-complex, multicellular organisms from surviving at these depths. Here we report species of the phylum Nematoda that have been detected in or recovered from 0.9-3.6-kilometre-deep fracture water in the deep mines of South Africa but have not been detected in the mining water. These subsurface nematodes, including a new species, Halicephalobus mephisto, tolerate high temperature, reproduce asexually and preferentially feed upon subsurface bacteria. Carbon-14 data indicate that the fracture water in which the nematodes reside is 3,000-12,000-year-old palaeometeoric water. Our data suggest that nematodes should be found in other deep hypoxic settings where temperature permits, and that they may control the microbial population density by grazing on fracture surface biofilm patches. Our results expand the known metazoan biosphere and demonstrate that deep ecosystems are more complex than previously accepted. The discovery of multicellular life in the deep subsurface of the Earth also has important implications for the search for subsurface life on other planets in our Solar System.

Borgonie, G.; García-Moyano, A.; Litthauer, D.; Bert, W.; Bester, A.; van Heerden, E.; Möller, C.; Erasmus, M.; Onstott, T. C.

2011-06-01

392

Urban heat fluxes in the subsurface of Cologne, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanization during the last hundred years has led to both environmental and thermal impacts on the subsurface. The urban heat island (UHI) effect is mostly described as an atmospheric phenomenon, where the measured aboveground temperatures in cities are elevated in comparison to undisturbed rural regions. However, UHIs can be found below, as well as above ground. A large amount of anthropogenic heat migrates into the urban subsurface, which also raises the ground temperature and permanently changes the thermal conditions in shallow aquifers. The main objective of our work is to study and determine the urban heat fluxes in Cologne, Germany, and to improve our understanding of the dynamics of subsurface energy fluxes in UHIs. Ideally, our findings will contribute to strategic and more sustainable geothermal use in cities. For a quantitative analysis of the energy fluxes within the subsurface and across the atmospheric boundary, two and three-dimensional coupled numerical flow and heat transport models were developed. The simulation results indicate that during the past hundred years, an average vertical urban heat flux that ranges between 80 and 375 mW m-2 can be deduced. Thermal anomalies have migrated into the local urban aquifer system and they reach a depth of about 150 m. In this context, the influence of the regional groundwater flow on the subsurface heat transport and temperature development is comprehensively discussed.

Zhu, K.; Bayer, P.; Blum, P.

2012-04-01

393

Plasmid incidence in bacteria from deep subsurface sediments  

SciTech Connect

Bacteria were isolated from deep terrestrial subsurface sediments underlying the coastal plain of South Carolina. A total of 163 isolates from deep sediments, surface soil, and return drill muds were examined for plasmid DNA content and resistance to the antibiotics penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, and tetracycline. MICs of Cu{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, and Hg{sup 2+} for each isolate were also determined. The overall frequency of plasmid occurrence in the subsurface bacteria was 33%. Resistance was most frequent to penicillin (70% of all isolates), ampicillin (49%), and carbenicillin (32%) and was concluded to be related to the concentrations of the individual antibiotics in the disks used for assaying resistance and to the production of low levels of {beta}-lactamase. The frequencies of resistance to penicillin and ampicillin were significantly greater for isolates bearing plasmids than for plasmidless isolates; however, resistance was not transferable to penicillin-sensitive Escherichia coli. Hybridization of subsurface bacterial plasmids and chromosomal DNA with a whole-TOL-plasmid (pWWO) probe revealed some homology of subsurface bacterial plasmid and chromosomal DNAs, indicating a potential for those bacterial to harbor catabolic genes on plasmids or chromosomes. The incidences of antibiotic resistance and MICs of metals for subsurface bacteria were significantly different from those drill mud bacteria, ruling out the possibility that bacteria from sediments were derived from drill muds.

Fredrickson, J.K.; Hicks, R.J.; Li, S.W.; Brockman, F.J. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (USA))

1988-12-01

394

Design for autonomous mission planning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of indeterminateness of the environment and delay of the communication, deep space spacecraft is required to be autonomous. Planning technology is studied in order to realize the spacecraft autonomy. First, a multi-agent planning system (MAPS) based on temporal constraint satisfaction is proposed for concurrency and distribution of spacecraft system. Second, timeline concept is used to describe simultaneous activity, continue

Xu Rui; Cui Ping-yuan; Xu Xiao-fei; Cui Hu-tao

2003-01-01

395

An autonomous race car design competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an innovative collaboration between industry and academia in creating a meaningful design experience for undergraduate electrical engineering students. The design project involves designing, building and testing an autonomous model racecar. The course culminates in a competition. A primary goal of the competition is to provide undergraduates with a meaningful design experience with an emphasis on electronic circuits.

T. W. Matthews; R. R. Spencer

2001-01-01

396

An autonomous race car design competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an innovative collaboration between industry and academia in creating a meaningful design experience for undergraduate electrical engineering students. The design project involves designing, building and testing an autonomous model race car. The course culminates in a competition. The competition included students from UC Davis, San Jose State University, and UC Berkeley and is sponsored by National Semiconductor.

T. W. Matthews; R. R. Spencer

1997-01-01

397

Autonomous Exploration and Mapping of Abandoned Mines  

E-print Network

Autonomous Exploration and Mapping of Abandoned Mines Sebastian Thrun 2 , Scott Thayer 1 , William, Stanford, CA 3 Computer Science Department, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany Abstract Abandoned abandoned mines. We have built a robot capable of au­ tonomously exploring abandoned mines. A new set

Thrun, Sebastian

398

Intelligent Planning for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

E-print Network

techniques that will enable Autonomous Un- derwater Vehicles (AUVs) to locate hydrothermal vents on the ocean oor. Hydrothermal vents are superheated outgassings of water found on mid-ocean ridges, hydrothermal vents can be detected from a great distance because they emit a chemical-containing plume

Yao, Xin

399

Intelligent Planning for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

E-print Network

techniques that will enable Autonomous Un- derwater Vehicles (AUVs) to locate hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. Hydrothermal vents are superheated outgassings of water found on mid-ocean ridges oceans, hydrothermal vents can be detected from a great distance because they emit a chemical

Yao, Xin

400

Fusion of Redundant Autonomous Sensors for Navigation  

E-print Network

Fusion of Redundant Autonomous Sensors for Navigation Geodetic Engineering Laboratory Web robustness (fault-detection and isolation capabilities) IMPROVED MODELING OF INERTIAL SENSOR ERRORS ) ? Standard model Improved model Development of an ultra-safe low-cost navigation system for Search- and

401

DYNAMIC MODELLING OF SMALL AUTONOMOUS BLIMPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are interested in blimps. A blimp is a small airship that has no metal framework and collapses when deflated. In this paper, dynamic modeling of autonomous blimps is presented, using the Newton-Euler approach. This study discusses the motion in 6 degrees of freedom since 6 independent coordinates are necessary to determine the position and orientation of this vehicle.

Yasmina BESTAOUI; Tarek HAMEL

402

Autonomous Organization-Based Adaptive Information Systems  

E-print Network

Autonomous Organization-Based Adaptive Information Systems Eric Matson Department of ComputerLoach Multi-agent and Cooperative Robotics Lab Department of Computing and Information Sciences, Kansas State of battle, a continual flow of information is necessary to achieve information superiority. The required

Deloach, Scott A.

403

A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of existing microcapsulation designs, the corrosion controlled release function that triggers the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand, only when and where needed. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents for autonomous repair of mechanical damage to the coating is also being pursued. Corrosion indicators, corrosion inhibitors, as well as self-healing agents, have been encapsulated and dispersed into several paint systems to test the corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing properties of the coating. Key words: Corrosion, coating, autonomous corrosion control, corrosion indication, corrosion inhibition, self-healing coating, smart coating, multifunctional coating, microencapsulation.

Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott t.

2011-01-01

404

Autonomous Language Learning: The Teachers' Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a large-scale study on learner autonomy in language learning carried out with students and English teachers at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Examines the teachers' views of their roles and responsibilities, their assessment of their students'decision-making abilities and the autonomous language learning activities that they have…

Chan, Victoria

2003-01-01

405

Comparative anatomy of the autonomic nervous system.  

PubMed

This short review aims to point out the general anatomical features of the autonomic nervous systems of non-mammalian vertebrates. In addition it attempts to outline the similarities and also the increased complexity of the autonomic nervous patterns from fish to tetrapods. With the possible exception of the cyclostomes, perhaps the most striking feature of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system is the similarity between the vertebrate classes. An evolution of the complexity of the system can be seen, with the segmental ganglia of elasmobranchs incompletely connected longitudinally, while well developed paired sympathetic chains are present in teleosts and the tetrapods. In some groups the sympathetic chains may be reduced (dipnoans and caecilians), and have yet to be properly described in snakes. Cranial autonomic pathways are present in the oculomotor (III) and vagus (X) nerves of gnathostome fish and the tetrapods, and with the evolution of salivary and lachrymal glands in the tetrapods, also in the facial (VII) and glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves. PMID:20444653

Nilsson, Stefan

2011-11-16

406

Integrating the autonomous subsystems management process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ways in which the ranking of the Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution testbed may be achieved and an individual subsystem's internal priorities may be managed within the complete system are examined. The application of these results in the integration and performance leveling of the autonomously managed system is discussed.

Ashworth, Barry R.

1992-01-01

407

An architecture for reflexive autonomous vehicle control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a software architecture to support the planning and control requirements of an autonomous land vehicle. This architecture is designed specifically to handle diverse terrain with maximal speed, efficacy and versatility through the use of a library of reflexive strategies specialized to particular needs. A hierarchy of control is built in which lower level modules perform tasks requiring greatest

David W. Payton

1986-01-01

408

Evolutionary neurocontrollers for autonomous mobile robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we describe a methodology for evolving neurocontrollers of autonomous mobile robots without human intervention. The presentation, which spans from technological and methodological issues to several experimental results on evolution of physical mobile robots, covers both previous and recent work in the attempt to provide a unified picture within which the reader can compare the effects of systematic

Dario Floreano; Francesco Mondada

1998-01-01

409

Sensory Architectures for Biologically Inspired Autonomous Robotics  

E-print Network

Vision and Robotic Systems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University, color, and form are quite unlike those employed by conventional computer vision systems. Neurobiological: Implications for Biologically Inspired Autonomous Systems. The workshop, which was held at the J. Erik Jonsson

410

Gradient method for autonomous robot navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of global and local navigation methods for an autonomous mobile robot allowed to select the main lacks of existent methods of navigation. The improved local navigation method based on the use of potential fields for movement taking into account the gradient of direction to the goal is proposed.

Oleh Adamiv; Anatoly Sachenko; Viktor Kapura

2008-01-01

411

Multiple agent autonomous hybrid control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research efforts in the development of a formal model for the control of dynamic, real-time autonomous systems in which multiple decision makers, control the plant are surveyed. The model provides a formal framework for expressing the interaction between evolution (continuous) and knowledge (discrete) components. This is the central characteristic of hybrid systems. The essence of the interaction between the

Wolf Kohn; A. Nerode

1992-01-01

412

Autonomous Learning from a Social Cognitive Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current perspective of autonomous learning defines it as the agentive exhibition of resourcefulness, initiative, and persistence in self-directed learning. As a form of human agency, it has been argued in the literature that this perspective should be consistent with Bandura's (1986) Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The purpose of this article…

Ponton, Michael K.; Rhea, Nancy E.

2006-01-01

413

Autonomic dysfunction in Guillain-Barré syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following tests of autonomic function were performed on seven patients with the Guillain-Barré syndrome and compared with controls: (1) measurement of heart rate and blood pressure in the supine and erect positions, (2) measurement of baroreflex sensitivity, (3) Valsalva's manoeuvre, (4) sweat test. In two patients the heart rates were fixed and greater than 100\\/min and in three there

R R Tuck; J G McLeod

1981-01-01

414

OCTOPUS: AN AUTONOMOUS WHEELED CLIMBING ROBOT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an innovative off-road wheeled mobile robot, named Octopus, able to deal autonomously with obstacles in rough terrain without getting stuck. To achieve such a performance, the robot is equipped with tilt sensors and tactile wheels. The sophisticated locomotion mechanism of Octopus has 8 motorized wheels and a total of 15 degrees of freedom (14 of them are

M. Lauria; Y. Piguet; R. Siegwart

2002-01-01

415

Development of an autonomous underwater robot \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomous underwater robot named “Twin-Burger” was developed as a versatile test bed to establish the techniques which realize intelligent robot behaviors. The robot was designed to have necessary functions for complex tasks including cooperative task execution with other robots and divers. The first robot “Twin-Burger I” was completed and launched in November 1992. This paper describes hardware and software

Teruo Fujii; Tamaki Ura

1996-01-01

416

A neural architecture for autonomous learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychology and neurobiology nowadays provide a large amount of precise information on visual system function. This information can be used in the design of autonomous systems capable of learning and recognising objects and places important for survival in complex unknown (real or virtual) environments. Our work is based on the principles that perception is fundamentally a dynamic process in constant

P. Gaussier; C. Joulain; J. P. Banquet; A. Revel; S. Lepretre; S. Moga

1999-01-01

417

Injecting Robustness into Autonomic Grid Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic computational grids are self-organizing software sys- tems that pool the computational resources of large public net- works to solve computationally-intensive problems. While auto- nomic grids can scale to networks far larger than centralized grids, they have not seen the same adoption and success in industry due to an incomplete treatment of fault tolerance. In this paper, we pro- pose

Yuriy Brun; George Edwards; Nenad Medvidovic

418

6 Natural Resources Contested in Autonomous Councils  

E-print Network

processes at work. Conclusions are then drawn in section 6.7. #12;193 Natural Resources Contested191 6 Natural Resources Contested in Autonomous Councils: Assessing the Causes of Ethnic Conflict sovereignty, citizenship and control over natural resources in Karbi Anglong district. Karbi Anglong district

Richner, Heinz

419

Self-configuration in Autonomic Electronic Institutions  

E-print Network

Self-configuration in Autonomic Electronic Institutions Eva Bou 1 and Maite L´opez-S´anchez 2 and J their regulations to comply with their goals despite coping with varying popu- lations of self-interested agents and dynamical, has given rise to interest in the development of systems capable of self-management. Such systems

López-Sánchez, Maite

420

Nested Motion Planning for an Autonomous Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gbstract This paper addresses some of the issues associated with the planning in ii hierarchical systems. Specifically, it is required that controls for an autonomous vehicle be synthesized as the result of the nested hierarchical analysis of the minimum time motion problem. It is demonstrated that search in the output space allows for efficient planningkontrol procedures. The results of 2-

J. Albus; A. Meystel; S. Uzzaman

1993-01-01

421

Autonomous blimp control with reinforcement learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blimps are a special type of airship without rigid structure on the body. Most existing blimps are manually operated by a pilot directly or through radio control. One of the most famous examples is the Goodyear Blimp used for commercial advertising. With the fast development of microcontroller and electronic technologies, autonomous blimps have recently attracted great research interest as a

Yiwei Liu

2009-01-01

422

Ontogenetic reasoning system for autonomic logistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joint Strike Fighter Autonomic Logistics minimize operational and support costs by increasing system reliability, while reducing maintenance requirements to essential levels. Using Prognostics and Health Management, parts and service are ordered or performed only when needed, obviating costly routine scheduled maintenance, and reducing aircraft downtime. Realizing this vision requires communication between the aircraft, industrial contractors and suppliers, and the maintenance

Joel R. Bock; Tom W. Brotherton; Doug Gass

2005-01-01

423

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy after a CNS infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first Greek case of autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy seropositive for antibodies\\u000a against ganglionic acetylcholine receptors, unique for an antecedent viral cerebellitis and long, slowly\\u000a progressive course, with improvement after treatment with pyridostigmine.

Pantelis Maiovis; Panagiotis Ioannidis; George Balamoutsos; Dimitris Karacostas

2011-01-01

424

Love Alters Autonomic Reactivity to Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periods of bond formation are accompanied by physiological and emotional changes, yet, little is known about the effects of falling in love on the individual's physiological response to emotions. We examined autonomic reactivity to the presentation of negative and positive films in 112 young adults, including 57 singles and 55 new lovers who began a romantic relationship 2.5 months prior

Inna Schneiderman; Yael Zilberstein-Kra; James F. Leckman; Ruth Feldman

2011-01-01

425

Control algorithms for autonomous robot navigation  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines control algorithm requirements for autonomous robot navigation outside laboratory environments. Three aspects of navigation are considered: navigation control in explored terrain, environment interactions with robot sensors, and navigation control in unanticipated situations. Major navigation methods are presented and relevance of traditional human learning theory is discussed. A new navigation technique linking graph theory and incidental learning is introduced.

Jorgensen, C.C.

1985-09-20

426

Robotany : autonomous vehicles that care for houseplants  

E-print Network

Robotany is a system of autonomous robots that act on behalf of houseplants that rest on top of their chassis. Their duty is to do what plants would if they had the gift of mobility - namely to seek out sunlight or water ...

Cinnamon, Sara Elizabeth, 1979-

2004-01-01

427

Batch Reservations in Autonomous Intersection (Extended Abstract)  

E-print Network

@mail.utexas.edu Tsz-Chiu Au Dept. of Computer Science University of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas 78712, U.S.A. chiu (Extended Abstract), Neda Shahidi, Tsz-Chiu Au and Peter Stone, Proc. of 10th Int. Conf. on Autonomous

Au, Tsz-Chiu

428

AIAA-2003-6559 AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES  

E-print Network

AIAA-2003-6559 AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES FOR SMALL FIXED WING UAVS Derek Kingston1 , Randal to ac- count for terrain obstructions, weather, and moving threats such as radar, jammers planning of small au- tonomous fixed-wing UAVs. The approach divides the trajectory generation into four

Ren, Wei

429

Autonomic oil reservoir optimization on the Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The emerging Grid infrastructure and its support for seamless and secure interactions is enabling a new generation of autonomic applications where the application components, Grid services, resources, and data interact as peers to manage, adapt and optimize themselves and the overall application. In this paper we describe the design, development and operation of a prototype of such an application

Vincent Matossian; Viraj Bhat; Manish Parashar; Malgorzata Peszynska; Mrinal K. Sen; Paul L. Stoffa; Mary F. Wheeler

2005-01-01

430

Data inversion in coupled subsurface flow and geomechanics models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk I present a deterministic inverse modeling approach to estimate subsurface properties by jointly inverting surface deformation and pressure data from a fully-coupled geomechanics-flow (single-phase) model. I discuss key aspects of the analysis of the inverse problem and its regularization. Numerical results of synthetic experiments are displayed to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed technique for the estimation of petrophysical and elastic properties of the subsurface. In particular, I quantify the added value of measurements of surface deformation in the estimation of absolute permeability with respect to the standard history matching approach of inverting production (e.g. pressure) data with flow models. The main goal of this talk is to show the computational efficiency and robustness of the inverse model which can be potentially used for inverting geodetic measurements (e.g. InSAR and GPS) in combination with production data for optimal monitoring and characterization of the subsurface.

Iglesias, Marco

2013-04-01

431

Threshold phenomena in erosion driven by subsurface flow  

E-print Network

We study channelization and slope destabilization driven by subsurface (groundwater) flow in a laboratory experiment. The pressure of the water entering the sandpile from below as well as the slope of the sandpile are varied. We present quantitative understanding of the three modes of sediment mobilization in this experiment: surface erosion, fluidization, and slumping. The onset of erosion is controlled not only by shear stresses caused by surfical flows, but also hydrodynamic stresses deriving from subsurface flows. These additional forces require modification of the critical Shields criterion. Whereas surface flows alone can mobilize surface grains only when the water flux exceeds a threshold, subsurface flows cause this threshold to vanish at slopes steeper than a critical angle substantially smaller than the maximum angle of stability. Slopes above this critical angle are unstable to channelization by any amount of fluid reaching the surface.

Alexander E. Lobkovsky; Bill Jensen; Arshad Kudrolli; Daniel H. Rothman

2005-02-08

432

Correct use of cone penetrometer sensors to predict subsurface conditions  

SciTech Connect

When cone penetrometer testing (CPT) technology is used with in-situ sensors and probes to characterize subsurface conditions in environmental investigations, each sensor must be calibrated with high quality, site specific data to establish essential interpretation criteria. Mechanical, geophysical, and chemical sensor data collected for a site in South Carolina without such controls were misleading. Core logs obtained subsequently had major lithologic discrepancies with the soil classification based on the CPT sensor data. In addition, detailed core sampling and laboratory analysis showed that the sensor data on chemical contaminants included false positive and false negative results. In contrast, for a site in Nebraska, CPT data calibrated with high quality site controls provided a detailed interpretation of subsurface conditions relevant to contaminant fate and transport. On the basis of the work in Nebraska, Argonne scientists are continuing to develop criteria to improve the interpretation of complex subsurface stratigraphy.

Walker, J.L.; Rose, C.M.; Armstrong, S.C.; Burton, J.C.

1997-09-01

433

The Conductor of the Autonomic Orchestra  

PubMed Central

Bad bedfellows – autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, and diabetes! Are they related? How? Evidence suggests the activation of inflammatory cytokines like IL-6 and TNF? in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and that the inflammatory change correlates with abnormalities in sympathovagal balance. Dysfunction of the autonomic system predicts cardiovascular risk and sudden death in patients with type 2 diabetes. It occurs in prediabetes, providing opportunities for early intervention. The importance of recognizing autonomic dysfunction as a predictor of morbidity and mortality with intensification of treatment suggests that all patients with type 2 diabetes at onset, and those with type 1 diabetes after 5?years should be screened for autonomic imbalance. These tests can be performed at the bedside with real time output of information – within the scope of the practicing physician – facilitates diagnosis and allows the application of sound strategies for management. The window of opportunity for aggressive control of all the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular events or sudden death with intensification of therapy is with short duration diabetes, the absence of cardiovascular disease, and a history of severe hypoglycemic events. To this list we can now add autonomic dysfunction and neuropathy, which have become the most powerful predictors of risk for mortality. It seems prudent that practitioners should be encouraged to become familiar with this information and apply risk stratification in clinical practice. After all, how difficult is it to ask patients “do you have numb feet?” and to determine their heart rate variability – it could be lifesaving. Ultimately methods to reset the hypothalamus and the inflammatory cascade are needed if we are to impact the care of patients with this compendium of conditions. PMID:22737143

Vinik, Aaron I.

2012-01-01

434

Microbial Diversity and Heterogeneity in Sandy Subsurface Soils  

PubMed Central

Microbial community diversity and heterogeneity in saturated and unsaturated subsurface soils from Abbott's Pit in Virginia (1.57, 3.25, and 4.05 m below surface) and Dover Air Force Base in Delaware (6.00 and 7.50 m below surface) were analyzed using a culture-independent small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene (rDNA)-based cloning approach. Four to six dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in 33 to 100 unique SSU rDNA clones (constituting about 40 to 50% of the total number of SSU rDNA clones in the clone library) from the saturated subsurface samples, whereas no dominant OTUs were observed in the unsaturated subsurface sample. Less than 10% of the clones among samples from different depths at the same location were identical, and the proportion of overlapping OTUs was lower for the samples that were vertically far apart than for adjacent samples. In addition, no OTUs were shared between the Abbott's Pit and Dover samples. The majority of the clones (80%) had sequences that were less than 5% different from those in the current databases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most of the bacterial clones were affiliated with members of the Proteobacteria family (90%), gram-positive bacteria (3%), and members of the Acidobacteria family (3%). Principal component analysis revealed that samples from different geographic locations were well separated and that samples from the same location were closely grouped together. In addition, the nonsaturated subsurface samples from Abbott's Pit clustered together and were well separated from the saturated subsurface soil sample. Finally, the overall diversity of the subsurface samples was much lower than that of the corresponding surface soil samples. PMID:15006798

Zhou, Jizhong; Xia, Beicheng; Huang, Heshu; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Tiedje, James M.

2004-01-01

435

DETERMINATION OF IMPORTANCE EVALUATION FOR THE SUBSURFACE EXPORATORY STUDIES FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) East-West Cross Drift Starter Tunnel (to approximate ECRB Station 0+26 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas in the TS Loop. This evaluation applies to the construction, operation, and maintenance of these excavations. A more detailed description of these items is provided in Section 6.0. Testing activities are not evaluated in this DIE. Certain construction activities with respect to testing activities are evaluated; but the testing activities themselves are not evaluated. The DIE for ESF Subsurface Testing Activities (BAJ3000000-01717-2200-00011 Rev 01) (CRWMS M&O 1998a) evaluates Subsurface ESF Testing activities. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the TS Loop niches and alcove slot cuts is evaluated herein and is also discussed in CRWMS M&O 1998a. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the Busted Butte subsurface test area in support of the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test is evaluated in CRWMS M&O 1998a. Potential test-to-test interference and the waste isolation impacts of testing activities are evaluated in the ESF Subsurface Testing Activities DIE and other applicable evaluation(s) for the Job Package (JP), Test Planning Package (TPP), and/or Field Work Package (FWP). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether the Subsurface ESF TS Loop and associated excavations, including activities associated with their construction and operation, potentially impact site characterization testing or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified. The validity and veracity of the individual tests, including data collection, are the responsibility of the assigned Principal Investigator(s) (PIs) and are not evaluated in this DIE.

W.J. Clark

1999-06-28

436

Subsurface event detection and classification using Wireless Signal Networks.  

PubMed

Subsurface environment sensing and monitoring applications such as detection of water intrusion or a landslide, which could significantly change the physical properties of the host soil, can be accomplished using a novel concept, Wireless Signal Networks (WSiNs). The wireless signal networks take advantage of the variations of radio signal strength on the distributed underground sensor nodes of WSiNs to monitor and characterize the sensed area. To characterize subsurface environments for event detection and classification, this paper provides a detailed list and experimental data of soil properties on how radio propagation is affected by soil properties in subsurface communication environments. Experiments demonstrated that calibrated wireless signal strength variations can be used as indicators to sense changes in the subsurface environment. The concept of WSiNs for the subsurface event detection is evaluated with applications such as detection of water intrusion, relative density change, and relative motion using actual underground sensor nodes. To classify geo-events using the measured signal strength as a main indicator of geo-events, we propose a window-based minimum distance classifier based on Bayesian decision theory. The window-based classifier for wireless signal networks has two steps: event detection and event classification. With the event detection, the window-based classifier classifies geo-events on the event occurring regions that are called a classification window. The proposed window-based classification method is evaluated with a water leakage experiment in which the data has been measured in laboratory experiments. In these experiments, the proposed detection and classification method based on wireless signal network can detect and classify subsurface events. PMID:23202191

Yoon, Suk-Un; Ghazanfari, Ehsan; Cheng, Liang; Pamukcu, Sibel; Suleiman, Muhannad T

2012-01-01

437

Method for formation of subsurface barriers using viscous colloids  

DOEpatents

A method for formation of subsurface barriers using viscous liquids where a viscous liquid solidifies at a controlled rate after injection into soil and forms impermeable isolation of the material enclosed within the subsurface barriers. The viscous liquid is selected from the group consisting of polybutenes, polysilotanes, colloidal silica and modified colloidal silica of which solidification is controlled by gelling, cooling or cross-linking. Solidification timing is controlled by dilution, addition of brines, coating with alumina, stabilization with various agents and by temperature.

Apps, John A. (Lafayette, CA); Persoff, Peter (Piedmont, CA); Moridis, George (Oakland, CA); Pruess, Karsten (Berkeley, CA)

1998-01-01

438

Acoustic subwavelength imaging of subsurface objects with acoustic resonant metalens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early research into acoustic metamaterials has shown the possibility of achieving subwavelength near-field acoustic imaging. However, a major restriction of acoustic metamaterials is that the imaging objects must be placed in close vicinity of the devices. Here, we present an approach for acoustic imaging of subsurface objects far below the diffraction limit. An acoustic metalens made of holey-structured metamaterials is used to magnify evanescent waves, which can rebuild an image at the central plane. Without changing the physical structure of the metalens, our proposed approach can image objects located at certain distances from the input surface, which provides subsurface signatures of the objects with subwavelength spatial resolution.

Cheng, Ying; Zhou, Chen; Wei, Qi; Wu, DaJian; Liu, XiaoJun

2013-11-01

439

Subsurface In Situ Elemental Composition Measurements with PING  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the Probing In situ with Neutron and Gamma rays (PING) instrument, that can measure the subsurface elemental composition in situ for any rocky body in the solar system without the need for digging into the surface. PING consists of a Pulsed Neutron Generator (PNG), a gamma ray spectrometer and neutron detectors. Subsurface elements are stimulated by high-energy neutrons to emit gamma rays at characteristic energies. This paper will show how the detection of these gamma rays results in a measurement of elemental composition. Examples of the basalt to granite ratios for aluminum and silicon abundance are provided.

Parsons, Ann; McClanahan, Timothy; Bodnarik, Julia; Evans, Larry; Nowicki, Suzanne; Schweitzer, Jeffrey; Starr, Richard

2013-01-01

440

Acoustic subwavelength imaging of subsurface objects with acoustic resonant metalens  

SciTech Connect

Early research into acoustic metamaterials has shown the possibility of achieving subwavelength near-field acoustic imaging. However, a major restriction of acoustic metamaterials is that the imaging objects must be placed in close vicinity of the devices. Here, we present an approach for acoustic imaging of subsurface objects far below the diffraction limit. An acoustic metalens made of holey-structured metamaterials is used to magnify evanescent waves, which can rebuild an image at the central plane. Without changing the physical structure of the metalens, our proposed approach can image objects located at certain distances from the input surface, which provides subsurface signatures of the objects with subwavelength spatial resolution.

Cheng, Ying; Liu, XiaoJun, E-mail: liuxiaojun@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China) [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhou, Chen; Wei, Qi; Wu, DaJian [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2013-11-25

441

Subsurface Contamination Focus Area technical requirements. Volume 1: Requirements summary  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes functions and requirements for remediation of source term and plume sites identified by the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area. Included are detailed requirements and supporting information for source term and plume containment, stabilization, retrieval, and selective retrieval remedial activities. This information will be useful both to the decision-makers within the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area (SCFA) and to the technology providers who are developing and demonstrating technologies and systems. Requirements are often expressed as graphs or charts, which reflect the site-specific nature of the functions that must be performed. Many of the tradeoff studies associated with cost savings are identified in the text.

Nickelson, D.; Nonte, J.; Richardson, J.

1996-10-01

442

LRS data processing methods for detection of lunar subsurface echoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar Radar Sounder (LRS) is an instrument for one of fifteen science missions of SE- LENE (KAGUYA). LRS is a ground-penetrating FM-CW radar system of HF-band. LRS detects echoes reflected from subsurface discontinuities where dielectric constants of the rocks change. The range resolution of LRS is 75 m in free space, whereas the sampling interval in the flight direction is about 75 m when the spacecraft altitude is 100 km. The primary objective of LRS is to investigate lunar subsurface structures. We plan to perform global soundings by LRS to contribute to studying the evolution of the Moon. In this presentation, we introduce the techniques to process LRS data to produce data products and to detect subsurface echoes. We have two standard data products of LRS under consideration. The time series data of ‘A-scope' which is a plot of signal power spectrum as a function of range derived from of the waveform data are called ‘B-scan'. Because LRS instruments change timing of data recording (measurement delay time) according to the predicted distance between KAGUYA spacecraft and lunar surface, observation range with respect to the spacecraft varies from pulse to pulse. In addition, flight altitude of KAGUYA changes in the range of several tens of kilometers. Therefore a trace of surface nadir echoes in unprocessed B-scan images does not correspond to actual lunar topography. We corrected variations of the measurement delay time and flight altitude of KAGUYA to produce a B-scan data product with the original spatial resolution (BScan high) and a reduced spatial resolution product (BScan low) both in the PDS format. The echo signals in A-scope data might be classified in the following categories; (1) a surface nadir echo, (2) surface off-nadir backscattering echoes, and (3) subsurface echoes. The most intense signal usually comes from the nadir point, when KAGUYA is flying over a level surface. The A-scope data also include various noises resulted from, for example, KAGUYA- onboard apparatus and airwave from the Earth. Subsurface echoes might be obliterated by these noises and other echoes. In order to detect subsurface echoes in the LRS data, we are currently investigating the data processing methods, including data stacking in the flight direction, contrast enhancement, and the migration technique. Characteristics of LRS data differ considerably between mare and highland regions. We could detect subsurface echoes in mare regions with simple procedure. We stack ten A-scope data in the flight direction in order to suppress random noises in B-scan images. Then we enhance contrast of the B-scan images. As a result, subsurface discontinuities are found at several hundreds meters deep in the mare regions such as Mare Serenitatis. On the other hand, subsurface echoes in highland regions might be hidden by numerous echoes from the surface craters. ‘Clutters' from craters appear as obvious hyperbolic patterns in LRS B-scan images. We apply the migration technique to LRS data for the purpose of suppressing these surface clutters. The migration is a popular technique in seismic refraction surveys to analyze signals from the subsurface interfaces in the Earth. We adopted the migration programs of Seismic Unix (SU) which is a software package for seismic waveform data processing. First, we stacked 10 pulse data and then enhanced amplitude of the echo signals. And second, we perform offset calibration by prepending dummy data to the LRS data. By specifying a time sampling interval, pulse transmission interval, and a propagation velocity of transmitted electromagnetic wave in free space as parameters, each hyperbolic pattern in B-scan images is focused on a point that corresponds to a surface reflector. We conclude that the migration technique is an effective to suppress the hyperbolic clutter patterns and thus to enhance subsurface echoes in LRS B-scan images.

Oshigami, Shoko; Mochizuki, Kengo; Watanabe, Shiho; Watanabe, Toshiki; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Yamaji, Atsushi; Ono, Takayuki; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Hiromu; Kobayashi, Takao; Kasahara, Yoshiya

443

Phosphorus lateral movement through subsoil to subsurface tile drains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vertical subsurface P transport to tile drains is well documented, however little research has focused on lateral P transport. A replicated field study investigated the lateral movement of P through 3.0 m of typical Iowa subsoil (sandy loam texture, pH 7.7, 2 mg kg-1 Olsen P) between a 1.2-m deep tr...

444

Subsurface Weathering of Rocks and Soils at Gusev Crater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data collected by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit at Gusev Crater suggest that enhanced weathering of rocks and soils occurs beneath the immediate surface. We suggest that this alteration occurs over geological timescales under present climatic conditions and is a result of diurnal condensation of thin-films of water on subsurface materials. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

Yen, A. S.; Ming, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Clark, B. C.; Morris, R. V.; Rodionov, D.; Schroeder, C.

2005-01-01

445

Subsurface Ambient Thermoelectric Power for Moles and Penetrators1  

E-print Network

1 Subsurface Ambient Thermoelectric Power for Moles and Penetrators1 Ralph D. Lorenz, Lunar for electrical power generation for planetary exploration applications using thermoelectric conversion of the vehicle. Proof-of-concept experiments are described using off-the-shelf thermoelectric CPU cooling plates

Lorenz, Ralph D.

446

COUPLED IRON CORROSION AND CHROMATE REDUCTION: MECHANISMS FOR SUBSURFACE REMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The reduction of chromium from the Cr(VI) to the Cr(III) state by the presence of elemental, or zero-oxidation-state, iron metal was studied to evaluate the feasibility of such a process for subsurface chromate remediation. eactions were studied in systems of natural aquifer mate...

447

COUPLED IRON CORROSION AND CHROMATE REDUCTION: MECHANISMS FOR SUBSURFACE REMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The reduction of chromium from the Cr(VI) to the Cr- (Ill) state by the presence of elemental, or zero-oxidation-state, iron metal was studied to evaluate the feasibility of such a process for subsurface chromate remediation. Reactions were studied in systems of natural aquifer m...

448

Forage subsurface drip irrigation using treated swine effluent  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experimental subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system was initiated to evaluate the use of treated swine effluent on a bermuda grass forage crop. The SDI system was installed in Duplin County, North Carolina, at the location of an innovative swine wastewater treatment system. The effluent from the...

449

FORAGE SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION USING TREATED SWINE EFFLUENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experimental subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system was initiated to evaluate the use of treated swine effluent on a bermuda grass forage crop. The SDI system was installed in Duplin County, North Carolina, at the location of an innovative swine wastewater treatment system. The effluent from the...

450

SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 STORAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of the...

451

SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 SEQUESTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of t...

452

SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 SEQUESTRATION (PRESENTATION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of the...

453

The movement and entrapment of petroleum fluids in the subsurface  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the migration of petroleum from its formation in a source rock to its subsequent possible entrapment in a reservoir. The chemical and physical properties of petroleum gases and liquids are stressed, particularly their phase behaviour under subsurface conditions which is shown to be a very important factor in determining migration behaviour. Engineering correlations are presented for estimating

W. A. ENGLAND; A. S. MACKENZIE; D. M. MANN; T. M. QUIGLEY

1987-01-01

454

ENGINEERING ISSUE: IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED UNSATURATED SUBSURFACE SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

An emerging technology for the remediation of unsaturated subsurface soils involves the use of microorganisms to degrade contaminants which are present in such soils. Understanding the processes which drive in situ bioremediation, as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of th...

455

Supercontinuum Light sources for Hyperspectral Subsurface Laser Scattering  

E-print Network

Supercontinuum Light sources for Hyperspectral Subsurface Laser Scattering Applications for Food constructed a computer vision system based on a supercontinuum laser light source and an Acousto- Optic]. The present system is based on a supercontinuum lightsource, filtered by and AOTF and light delivered through

456

Geophysical Monitoring of Two types of Subsurface Injection  

EPA Science Inventory

Nano-scale particles of zero-valent iron (ZVI) were injected into the subsurface at the 100-D area of the DOE Hanford facility. The intent of this iron injection was to repair a gap in the existing in-situ redox manipulation barrier located at the site. A number of geophysical me...

457

A BIOVENTING APPROACH TO REMEDIATE A GASONLINE CONTAMINATED SUBSURFACE  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioventing is a subsurface process using an air stream to enhance biodegradation of oily contaminants. wo pilot-scale bioventing systems were installed at a field site. rocess operations began in October 1990. he field site is located at an air station. pill in 1969 of about 100,...

458

Correction to ``Wavelet analysis of multiscale permeabilities in the subsurface''  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper ``Wavelet analysis of multiscale permebilities in the subsurface'' by Bai-Lian-Li and Craig Loehle (Geophysical Research Leters, 22(23), 3123-3126, 1995) copy on pages 3124 and 3125 were pasted out of order. The corrected pages follow.

Bai-Lian Li; Craig Loehle

1996-01-01

459

Review of potential subsurface permeable barrier emplacement and monitoring technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on subsurface permeable barrier technologies potentially applicable to existing waste disposal sites. This report describes candidate subsurface permeable barriers, methods for emplacing these barriers, and methods used to monitor the barrier performance. Two types of subsurface barrier systems are described: those that apply to contamination.in the unsaturated zone, and those that apply to groundwater and to mobile contamination near the groundwater table. These barriers may be emplaced either horizontally or vertically depending on waste and site characteristics. Materials for creating permeable subsurface barriers are emplaced using one of three basic methods: injection, in situ mechanical mixing, or excavation-insertion. Injection is the emplacement of dissolved reagents or colloidal suspensions into the soil at elevated pressures. In situ mechanical mixing is the physical blending of the soil and the barrier material underground. Excavation-insertion is the removal of a soil volume and adding barrier materials to the space created. Major vertical barrier emplacement technologies include trenching-backfilling; slurry trenching; and vertical drilling and injection, including boring (earth augering), cable tool drilling, rotary drilling, sonic drilling, jetting methods, injection-mixing in drilled holes, and deep soil mixing. Major horizontal barrier emplacement technologies include horizontal drilling, microtunneling, compaction boring, horizontal emplacement, longwall mining, hydraulic fracturing, and jetting methods.

Riggsbee, W.H.; Treat, R.L.; Stansfield, H.J.; Schwarz, R.M. [Ebasco Environmental, Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Phillips, S.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-02-01

460

Reflection from Layered Surfaces due to Subsurface Scattering Pat Hanrahan  

E-print Network

Reflection from Layered Surfaces due to Subsurface Scattering Pat Hanrahan Department of Computer Research Center for Computer Science Abstract The reflection of light from most materials consists of two ma- jor terms: the specular and the diffuse. Specular reflection may be modeled from first principles

Ramamoorthi, Ravi

461

In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments.  

PubMed

Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments. PMID:23761789

Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M

2013-01-01

462

Adaptive Multiscale Finite Element Method for Subsurface Flow Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural geological formations generally show multiscale structural and functional heterogeneity evolving over many orders of magnitude in space and time. In subsurface hydrological simulations the geological model focuses on the structural hierarchy of physical sub units and the flow model addresses the functional hierarchy of the flow process. Flow quantities like pressure, flux and dissipation relate to each other by

J. M. Van Esch

2010-01-01

463

Tactile Imaging Sensor for Subsurface Tumor Detection in Prostate Phantom  

E-print Network

Tactile Imaging Sensor for Subsurface Tumor Detection in Prostate Phantom Jong-Ha Lee1 , Chang-Hee Won1 , Yan Yu2 , Kaiguo Yan2 INTRODUCTION DENTIFYING and locating prostate tumors will greatly enhance the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. For example, tumor identifying sensor may be used

Won, Chang-Hee

464

EFFECT OF FENTON'S REAGENT ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIOLOGY AND BIODEGRADATION CAPACITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Microcosm studies were conducted to determine the effect of Fenton's reagent on subsurface microbiology and biodegradation capacity in a DNAPL (PCE/TCE) contaminated aquifer previously treated with the reagent. Groundwater pH declined from 5 to 2.4 immediately after the treatmen...

465

Subsurface Defect Detection in Metals with Pulsed Eddy Current  

SciTech Connect

The eddy current (EC) method is traditionally used for open surface crack detection in metallic components. Subsurface voids in bulk metals can also be detected by the eddy current devices. Taking into consideration the skin effect in conductive materials, a lower frequency of electromagnetic excitation is used for a deeper penetration. A set of special specimens was designed and fabricated to investigate sensitivity to subsurface voids. Typically, flat bottom holes (FBHs) are used for subsurface defect simulation. This approach is not very representative of real defects for eddy current inspection because the FBH depth extends to the bottom of the specimen. Two-layer specimens with finite depth FBHs were fabricated and scanned with conventional EC of variable frequency. Sensitivity and spatial resolution of EC diminish with flaw depth. The pulsed EC approach was applied for flaw detection at variable distance under the surface. The transient response from multi-layer model was derived and compared to experiments. The multi-frequency nature of pulsed excitation provides effective coverage of a thick layer of material in one pass. Challenging aspects of subsurface flaw detection and visualization using the EC technique are discussed.

Plotnikov, Yuri A. [GE Global Research Center, One Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309-1135 (United States); Bantz, Walter J. [GE Aircraft Engines M and QTD, 10270 St. Rita Lane, Cincinnati, OH 45215 (United States)

2005-04-09

466

Resonant seismic emission of subsurface objects Valeri Korneev1  

E-print Network

and field data indicate that some contrasting subsurface objects such as tunnels, caves, pipes, filled pits body waves that can be detected by remotely placed receivers. Resonant emission reveals itself be detected and imaged at a single resonance frequency without an accurate knowledge of source trigger time

Korneev, Valeri A.

467

Microgravimetric and gravity gradient techniques for detection of subsurface cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

.ABSTRACT Microgravimetric and gravity gradient surveying techniques are applicable to the detection and delinea- tion of shallow subsurface cavities and tunnels. Two case histories of the use of these techniques to site inves- tigations in karst regions are presented. In the first case history, the delineation of a shallow (_ 10 m deep), air- filled cavity system by a microgravimetric

Dwain K. Butler

1984-01-01

468

Investigation of the near subsurface using acoustic to seismic coupling  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural, hydrological and civil engineering applications have realized a need for information of the near subsurface over large areas. In order to obtain this spatially distributed data over such scales, the measurement technique must be highly mobile with a short acquisition time. Therefore, s...

469

ADSORPTION AND TRANSPORT OF U(VI) IN SUBSURFACE MEDIA  

EPA Science Inventory

U(VI) adsorption and transport in three natural, heterogeneous subsurface media were investigated in batch and column experiments. The rate of U(VI) adsorption to the natural samples was rapid over the first few hours of the experiments, and then slowed appreciably after twenty-f...

470

Threshold phenomena in erosion driven by subsurface flow  

E-print Network

Threshold phenomena in erosion driven by subsurface flow Alexander E. Lobkovsky Department of Earth of the three modes of sediment mobilization in this experiment: surface erosion, fluidization, and slumping. The onset of erosion is controlled not only by shear stresses caused by surfical flows but also

Kudrolli, Arshad

471

1D subsurface electromagnetic fields excited by energized steel casing  

E-print Network

1D subsurface electromagnetic fields excited by energized steel casing Wei Yang1 , Carlos Torres connected to a current source of variable fre- quency. Electromagnetic EM fields excited by the ener- gized, 1990; Kaufman and Wightman, 1993 , electromagnetic EM borehole measurements acquired in the presence

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

472

Subsurface drip irrigation: Status of the technology in 2010  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) although a much smaller fraction of the microirrigated land area than surface drip irrigation, is growing at a much faster rate, and is the subject of considerable research and educational efforts in the United States. This paper will discuss the growth in SDI, high...

473

Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier  

DOEpatents

A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

2012-10-02

474

Channel erosion due to subsurface flow Braunen Smith,1  

E-print Network

Channel erosion due to subsurface flow Braunen Smith,1 Arshad Kudrolli,1 Alexander E. Lobkovsky,2 through the porous medium and creates channels on the slope above a critical pressure which depends on the slope of the bed. We obtain the depth of channels as a function of time using the intersection

Kudrolli, Arshad

475

Effects of dripline flushing on subsurface drip irrigation systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The velocity of dripline flushing in subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems affects system design, cost, management, performance, and longevity. A 30-day field study was conducted at Kansas State University to analyze the effect of four targeted flushing velocities (0.23, 0.30, 0.46, and 0.61 m/s)...

476

Microbial biomass, activity, and community structure in subsurface soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial biomass, community structure and activity were determined in the subsurface horizons of four contrasting soil types common to Alabama. Biomass and community structure were determined by analyzing the fatty acids of the extractable phospholipids. Activity was estimated by measuring the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA). In all four soils, biomass and activity declined with increasing depth;

Thomas W. Federle; Durell C. Dobbins; Janice R. Thornton-Manning; Daniel D. Jones

1986-01-01

477

Exploring Dynamics of Land surface-Subsurface Coupling Under Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degree of land surface-subsurface coupling is controlled by complex interactions between the atmosphere, land surface condition and subsurface hydrologic characteristics. Global climate models project increases in temperature and changes in precipitation rates and patterns which in turn alter terrestrial water and energy budgets impacting water resources. However, the degree of land surface-subsurface coupling under scenarios of land cover and climate change has not been fully explored. In this study, we used an integrated groundwater-surface water-land surface model (ParFlow.CLM) across a semi-arid catchment located in the central west New South Wales, Australia to assess variability in water and energy fluxes under historic condition and scenarios of climate and land cover change. The Baldry hydrological observatory situated in a topographically flat terrain has the area of 2 km2 and contains two distinct land cover types of pasture and a regenerated Eucalyptus forest. High resolution groundwater level measurements in the site reveal differences in groundwater connectivity in wet versus dry periods in pasture and Eucalyptus forest for the historic condition. Using downscaled climate forcing obtained from a regional climate model for eastern Australia, the degree of land surface-subsurface coupling within the catchment was examined under various scenarios of climate and changes in land cover types. It is expected that a fully integrated hydrologic model like ParFlow.CLM improve predictions in land-atmospheric feedback processes under changes in hydrologic conditions.

Ajami, Hoori; McCabe, Matthew F.; Evans, Jason P.

2013-04-01

478

Stream tube integration method for analysing subsurface fluid flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stream tube integration method is introduced to solve transient subsurface fluid flow problems. The method combines a geometry-embedded form of Darcy's Law and the notion of location of average. Two types of problems, transient radial flow to a well of finite radius in an areally infinite aquifer and in a double porosity system, are solved by the stream tube

C. W. Liu; S. K. Chen

1998-01-01

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