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1

Autonomous microexplosives subsurface tracing system final report.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the autonomous micro-explosive subsurface tracing system is to image the location and geometry of hydraulically induced fractures in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This system is based on the insertion of a swarm of autonomous micro-explosive packages during the fracturing process, with subsequent triggering of the energetic material to create an array of micro-seismic sources that can be detected and analyzed using existing seismic receiver arrays and analysis software. The project included investigations of energetic mixtures, triggering systems, package size and shape, and seismic output. Given the current absence of any technology capable of such high resolution mapping of subsurface structures, this technology has the potential for major impact on petroleum industry, which spends approximately $1 billion dollar per year on hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States alone.

Engler, Bruce Phillip; Nogan, John; Melof, Brian Matthew; Uhl, James Eugene; Dulleck, George R., Jr.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Rivas, Raul R.; Cooper, Paul W.; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Kravitz, Stanley H.

2004-04-01

2

Microexplosion of aluminum slurry droplets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microexplosion of a slurry droplet is experimentally and theoretically investigated. The microexplosion was considered to be caused by the shell formation and the following pressure build-up in the shell which would be promoted by the suppression of evaporation, subsequent superheating and heterogeneous nucleation of a liquid carrier. Experimentally, the microexplosion phenomena was examined for various surfactant concentrations and particle

Seung Wook Baek; Ju Hyeong Cho

1999-01-01

3

Robotic lake lander test bed for autonomous surface and subsurface exploration of Titan lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a robotic lake lander test bed that can be operated either stand-alone or as part of a Tier-Scalable Reconnaissance mission architecture to study and field test an integrated hardware and software framework for fully autonomous surface and subsurface exploration and navigation of liquid bodies. The lake lander is equipped with both surface and subsurface sensor technologies. Our particular

Wolfgang Fink; Markus Tuller; Alexander Jacobs; Ramaprasad Kulkarni; Mark A. Tarbell; Roberto Furfaro; Victor R. Baker

2012-01-01

4

Development of a new autonomous probe for in situ flow characterization in drowned subsurface conduits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater flow in karst aquifers is influenced by the presence of self-organized networks of large conduits. Existing methods which use artificial tracers or tethered robots, provide a limited amount of information on the network's geometry, and on the flow regime that occurs in the conduits. To address hydrogeological problems relative to karst aquifers, the characterization of the flow conditions in the network of conduits is needed. However this is a challenging task. We present a novel wireless probe which is developed to allow remote characterization of main flow directions and regime in subsurface environments. The relatively small (40 mm diameter) spherical autonomous probe is designed to allow transport by the water stream. During its journey in the flow, the non-expensive electronic equipment installed on board measures and records orientation data. Once the probe is retrieved, the recorded measurements can be analyzed. The encouraging preliminary laboratory results indicate that the new probe can accurately characterize different flow directions and regimes. This new autonomous probe offers a chance to help address the challenging task of characterizing flow in unknown drowned karst conduits.

Hakoun, V.; Pistre, S.; Falgayrettes, P.

2013-12-01

5

Microexplosion of an emulsion droplet during Leidenfrost burning  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study has been made of the microexplosion of an emulsion droplet on a hot surface during Leidenfrost burning. Photographic observation is used to study how the emulsion droplet behaves and what happens inside the droplet and to measure the waiting time for the onset of microexplosion. Weibull analysis was used to obtain the distribution function of the waiting

Toshikazu Kadota; Hajime Tanaka; Daisuke Segawa; Shinji Nakaya; Hiroshi Yamasaki

2007-01-01

6

Modeling droplet breakup processes under micro-explosion conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a numerical model of micro-explosion for multicomponent droplets. The first part of the model addresses the mass and temperature distribution inside the droplet and the bubble growth within the droplet. The bubble generation is described by a homogeneous nucleation theory, and the subsequent bubble growth leads to the final explosion (i.e., breakup). The second part of the

Yangbing Zeng; Chia-fon F. Lee

2007-01-01

7

A web accessible scientific workflow system for transparent and reproducible generation of information on subsurface processes from autonomously sensed data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on subsurface processes is required for a broad range of applications, including site remediation, groundwater management, fossil fuel production and CO2 sequestration. Data on these processes is obtained from diverse sensor networks, includes physical, hydrological and chemical sensors and semi permanent geophysical sensors (mainly seismic and resistivity). Currently, processing is done by specialists through the use of commercial and research software packages such as numerical inverse and forward models, statistical data analysis software and visualization and data presentation packages. Information is presented to stakeholders as tables, images and reports. Processing steps, data and assumptions used for information generation are mostly opaque to endusers. As data migrates between applications the steps taken in each application (e.g. in data reduction)are often only partly documented, resulting in irreproducible results. In this approach, interactive tuning of data processing in a systematic way (e.g. changing model parameters, visualization parameters or data used) or using data processing as a discovery tool is de facto impossible. We implemented a web accessible scientific workflow system for subsurface performance monitoring. This system integrates distributed, automated data acquisition from autonomous sensor networks with server side data management and information visualization through flexible browser based data access tools. Webservices are used for communication with the sensor networks and interaction with applications. This system was originally developed for a monitoring network at the Gilt Edge Mine Superfund site, but has now been implemented for a range of different sensor networks of different complexity. The workflow framework allows for rapid and easy integration in a modular, transparent and reproducible manner of a multitude of existing applications for data analysis and processes. By embedding applications in webservice wrappers existing applications can be used without any recoding. Webservices are used for application configuration, resource allocation and communication of data and parameters. We implemented both the statistical package R as well as geophysical inverse codes and hydrological forward models as webservices. This framework and implementation allows for reproducible, transparent result generation by a diverse user base through an easy to use web interface. The use of webservices allows this system to integrate seamlessly with current and future efforts in distributed computing.

Versteeg, R.; Richardson, A.; Thomas, S.; Lu, B.; Neto, J.; Wheeler, M.; Rowe, T.; Parashar, M.; Ankeny, M.

2005-12-01

8

Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion  

SciTech Connect

At extreme pressures and temperatures, such as those inside planets and stars, common materials form new dense phases with compacted atomic arrangements and unusual physical properties. The synthesis and study of new phases of matter at pressures above 100 GPa and temperatures above 10{sup 4} K - warm dense matter - may reveal the functional details of planet and star interiors, and may lead to materials with extraordinary properties. Many phases have been predicted theoretically that may be realized once appropriate formation conditions are found. Here we report the synthesis of a superdense stable phase of body-centred-cubic aluminium, predicted by first-principles theories to exist at pressures above 380 GPa. The superdense Al phase was synthesized in the non-equilibrium conditions of an ultrafast laser-induced microexplosion confined inside sapphire ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Confined microexplosions offer a strategy to create and recover high-density polymorphs, and a simple method for tabletop study of warm dense matter.

Vailionis, Arturas; Gamaly, Eugene G.; Mizeikis, Vygantas; Yang, Wenge; Rode, Andrei V.; Juodkazis, Saulius (Swinburne); (Stanford); (CIW); (ANU); (Shinshu-MED)

2011-09-20

9

Optical applications of two-photon and microexplosion lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-Photon Microfabrication and Microexplosion Lithography are methods of patterning material with laser light. Differing from other forms of photolithography, these techniques rely on the nonlinear interaction between an ultrafast pulsed light source and uniquely absorbing material to achieve a sub-microscopic 3D pattern. From a quantum mechanical perspective, the material is understood to be absorbing more than one photon at a time to make a single energetic transition. Once in the excited state, the absorbing molecule starts a chain reaction that results in the solidification of a liquid or modification of a solid. The stronger dependence of nonlinear absorption on the local intensity implies the excitation and damaging effects of the laser can be confined to a region within the classical focal volume. If done correctly, only molecules that are very near the precise center of the focal point (where intensity is highest) will be coaxed into reaction, resulting in material modification within a few nanometers of the geometric focal spot. The dimension of the smallest observed effect achieved with a focused optical beam is a few tens of nanometers but ultimately this scale is highly dependent, not just on the optics, but on the material system and is related to specific material constants and polymerization properties. Herein, a complete system is presented which makes use of these phenomena to generate microscopic polymeric patterns. Because of their morphologies, chemical constituents, and local environment, the resultant solids described in this dissertation were designed to achieve functional sensors, resonators, lenses, gratings, and optical diffraction crystals.

Young, Aaron Cody

10

Thermal Imaging of Subsurface Coal Fires by means of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the Autonomous Province Xinjiang, PRC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous combustion of coal and resulting coal fires lead to very high temperatures in the subsurface. To a large amount the heat is transferred to the surface by convective and conductive transport inducing a more or less pronounced thermal anomaly. During the past decade satellite-based infrared-imaging (ASTER, MODIS) was the method of choice for coal fire detection on a local and regional scale. However, the resolution is by far too low for a detailed analysis of single coal fires which is essential prerequisite for corrective measures (i.e. fire fighting) and calculation of carbon dioxide emission based on a complex correlation between energy release and CO2 generation. Consequently, within the framework of the Sino-German research project "Innovative Technologies for Exploration, Extinction and Monitoring of Coal Fires in Northern China", a new concept was developed and successfully tested. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was equipped with a lightweight camera for thermografic (resolution 160 by 120 pixel, dynamic range -20 to 250°C) and for visual imaging. The UAV designed as an octocopter is able to hover at GPS controlled waypoints during predefined flight missions. The application of a UAV has several advantages. Compared to point measurements on the ground the thermal imagery quickly provides the spatial distribution of the temperature anomaly with a much better resolution. Areas otherwise not accessible (due to topography, fire induced cracks, etc.) can easily be investigated. The results of areal surveys on two coal fires in Xinjiang are presented. Georeferenced thermal and visual images were mosaicked together and analyzed. UAV-born data do well compared to temperatures measured directly on the ground and cover large areas in detail. However, measuring surface temperature alone is not sufficient. Simultaneous measurements made at the surface and in roughly 15cm depth proved substantial temperature gradients in the upper soil. Thus the temperature measured at the surface underestimates the energy emitted by the subsurface coal fire. In addition, surface temperature is strongly influenced by solar radiation and the prevailing ambient conditions (wind, temperature, humidity). As a consequence there is no simple correlation between surface and subsurface soil temperature. Efforts have been made to set up a coupled energy transport and energy balance model for the near surface considering thermal conduction, solar irradiation, thermal radiative energy and ambient temperature so far. The model can help to validate space-born and UAV-born thermal imagery and link surface to subsurface temperature but depends on in-situ measurements for input parameter determination and calibration. Results obtained so far strongly necessitate the integration of different data sources (in-situ / remote; point / area; local / medium scale) to obtain a reliable energy release estimation which is then used for coal fire characterization.

Vasterling, Margarete; Schloemer, Stefan; Fischer, Christian; Ehrler, Christoph

2010-05-01

11

On the ignition of high gain thermonuclear microexplosions with electric pulse power  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was recently shown that the ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions seems possible with two Marx generators of modest size, one with a high current lower voltage for compression and confinement, and one with a high voltage lower current for ignition, transmitting their energy to the thermonuclear target by two nested magnetically insulated transmission lines. Here it is shown in much

F. Winterberg

2004-01-01

12

Optodynamic studies of Er:YAG laser induced microexplosions in dentin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er:YAG laser drilling of dental tissue has been investigated as the typical optodynamic process. Optoacoustic signals were detected by microphone and analyzed within the frame of linear systems theory to monitor laser induced microexplosions. Statistical distribution of the optodynamic efficiency was performed in terms of partial weights of optoacoustic response function. The results indicate that the laser spikes shorter than 2 ?s are more efficient in ablative mechanism.

Grad, Ladislav; Možina, Janez

1996-04-01

13

Warm dense matter at the bench-top: Fs-laser-induced confined micro-explosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the experimental evidence for creation of Warm Dense Matter (WDM) in ultrafast laser-induced micro-explosion inside a sapphire (Al 2O 3) crystal. We show that the WDM can be formed by a 100 nJ fs-pulse if the following conditions are satisfied: (1) the laser pulse is tightly focused to inside of the bulk of transparent material so the intensity at focus is two orders of magnitude higher than the optical breakdown threshold; (2) the pulse duration is shorter than the electron-ion energy exchange time; and, (3) the absorbed energy density is above the Young's modulus for the material studied. The empty void created inside a sapphire crystal surrounded by a shell of compressed material provides the direct evidence of the maximum pressure above the Young's modulus of sapphire (˜400 GPa). Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the shell revealed the presence of novel super-dense bcc-Al crystalline phase predicted at pressures above ˜380 GPa theoretically, which has never been observed experimentally before neither in nature in laboratory experiments. These results show that confined micro-explosion induced by tightly focussed fs-laser inside a transparent solid opens new routes for synthesis of new materials and study of WDM at a laboratory bench-top.

Gamaly, E. G.; Vailionis, A.; Mizeikis, V.; Yang, W.; Rode, A. V.; Juodkazis, S.

2012-03-01

14

Warm dense matter at the bench-top: Fs-laser-induced confined micro-explosion  

SciTech Connect

We report the experimental evidence for creation of Warm Dense Matter (WDM) in ultrafast laser-induced micro-explosion inside a sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) crystal. We show that the WDM can be formed by a 100 nJ fs-pulse if the following conditions are satisfied: (1) the laser pulse is tightly focused to inside of the bulk of transparent material so the intensity at focus is two orders of magnitude higher than the optical breakdown threshold; (2) the pulse duration is shorter than the electron-ion energy exchange time; and, (3) the absorbed energy density is above the Young's modulus for the material studied. The empty void created inside a sapphire crystal surrounded by a shell of compressed material provides the direct evidence of the maximum pressure above the Young's modulus of sapphire ({approx}400 GPa). Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the shell revealed the presence of novel super-dense bcc-Al crystalline phase predicted at pressures above {approx}380 GPa theoretically, which has never been observed experimentally before neither in nature in laboratory experiments. These results show that confined micro-explosion induced by tightly focused fs-laser inside a transparent solid opens new routes for synthesis of new materials and study of WDM at a laboratory bench-top.

Gamaly, E.G.; Vailionis, A.; Mizeikis, V.; Yang, W.; Rode, A.V.; Juodkazis, S. (Swinburne); (Stanford); (Shizuoka); (CIW); (ANU)

2012-02-07

15

Thermo-mechanical laser ablation of soft biological tissue: modeling the micro-explosions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristics of thermo-mechanical laser ablation process are investigated using an original numerical model. In contrast with previous models, it is based on a microscopic physical model of the micro-explosion process, which combines thermodynamic behavior of tissue water with elastic response of the solid tissue components. Diffusion of dissipated heat is treated in one dimension, and the amount of thermal damage is assessed using the Arrhenius model of the protein denaturation kinetics. Influence of the pulse fluence and duration on temperature profile development, ablation threshold, and depth of thermal damage is analyzed for the case of Er:YAG laser irradiation of human skin. Influence of mechanical properties on the ablation threshold of soft tissue is predicted theoretically for the first time. In addition, feasibility of deep tissue coagulation with a repetitively pulsed Er:YAG laser is indicated from the model.

Majaron, B.; Plestenjak, P.; Luka?, M.

16

Autonomous and Autonomic Swarms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A watershed in systems engineering is represented by the advent of swarm-based systems that accomplish missions through cooperative action by a (large) group of autonomous individuals each having simple capabilities and no global knowledge of the group s objective. Such systems, with individuals capable of surviving in hostile environments, pose unprecedented challenges to system developers. Design and testing and verification at much higher levels will be required, together with the corresponding tools, to bring such systems to fruition. Concepts for possible future NASA space exploration missions include autonomous, autonomic swarms. Engineering swarm-based missions begins with understanding autonomy and autonomicity and how to design, test, and verify systems that have those properties and, simultaneously, the capability to accomplish prescribed mission goals. Formal methods-based technologies, both projected and in development, are described in terms of their potential utility to swarm-based system developers.

Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter F.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Sterritt, Roy

2005-01-01

17

Autonomic Dysreflexia  

MedlinePLUS

... you have concerns, talk with your doctor. MEDICAL ALERT CARD Autonomic dysreflexia is a potentially fatal condition ... medical personnel and insist that the card MEDICAL ALERT Autonomic Dysreflexia (AD) A potentially life-threatening condition ...

18

Treatment of peri-implantitis around TiUnite-surface implants using Er:YAG laser microexplosions.  

PubMed

Implant therapy can lead to peri-implantitis, and none of the methods used to treat this inflammatory response have been predictably effective. It is nearly impossible to treat infected surfaces such as TiUnite (a titanium oxide layer) that promote osteoinduction, but finding an effective way to do so is essential. Experiments were conducted to determine the optimum irradiation power for stripping away the contaminated titanium oxide layer with Er:YAG laser irradiation, the degree of implant heating as a result of Er:YAG laser irradiation, and whether osseointegration was possible after Er:YAG laser microexplosions were used to strip a layer from the surface of implants placed in beagle dogs. The Er:YAG laser was effective at removing an even layer of titanium oxide, and the use of water spray limited heating of the irradiated implant, thus protecting the surrounding bone tissue from heat damage. PMID:23342343

Yamamoto, Atsuhikp; Tanabe, Toshiichiro

2013-01-01

19

First Results in the Autonomous Retrieval of Buried Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an autonomous system for the retrieval of buried objects. It is designed to detect, locate and retrieve buried objects. The system is equipped with a hydraulic robot, laser range finder and a subsurface sensor. First, subsurface sensing is used to detect and locate buried objects. If an object can be reached with one dig, the excavator retrieves

Herman Herman; Sanjiv Singh

1994-01-01

20

Effect of pressure on the micro-explosion of water/oil emulsion droplets over a hot plate  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the present investigation is experimentally to study the micro-explosion behavior of water/oil emulsion droplets over a hot plate in general, and the effect of pressure on this droplet/plate system in particular. The technological relevance of this study stems from the interest in direct injection high-compression-ratio engines because droplet/wall interaction is believed to be an important process within these engines, and because water/oil emulsion is most suitable for application with the heavier oils used by them. From the fundamental viewpoint it is not clear a priori that insights gained from results of freely falling droplets can be readily applied to the present system. This is because droplet gasification behavior over a hot plate (commonly known as the Leidenfrost phenomenon) is a nonmonotonic one. Specifically, for a droplet originally in contact with the plate, with increasing plate temperature the droplet lifetime will first decrease, then increase rapidly as the droplet attempts to levitate itself by its outgoing vapor, and finally decrease gradually when it is in the totally levitated mode. Furthermore, a change in pressure not only will shift the transition plate temperatures for the different gasification modes, but it can also conceivably alter the nucleation mode of the superheated water microdroplets depending on whether the emulsion droplet is in physical contact with the plate.

Cho, P. (Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (USA)); Law, C.K. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA)); Mizomoto, M. (Keio Univ., Yokohama (Japan))

1991-02-01

21

Autonomous Martian flying rover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A remotely programmable, autonomous flying rover is proposed to extensively survey the Martian surface environment. A Mach .3, solar powered, modified flying wing could cover roughly a 2000 mile range during Martian daylight hours. Multiple craft launched from an orbiting mother ship could provide near-global coverage. Each craft is envisioned to fly at about 1 km above the surface and measure atmospheric composition, pressure and temperature, map surface topography, and remotely penetrate the near subsurface looking for water (ice) and perhaps evidence of life. Data collected are relayed to Earth via the orbiting mother ship. Near surface guidance and control capability is an adaptation of current cruise missile technology. A solar powered aircraft designed to fly in the low temperature, low density, carbon dioxide Martian atmosphere near the surface appears feasible.

1990-01-01

22

Autonomous Soaring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the autonomous soaring flight of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). It reviews energy sources for UAVs, and two examples of UAV's that used alternative energy sources, and thermal currents for soaring. Examples of flight tests, plans, and results are given. Ultimately, the concept of a UAV harvesting energy from the atmosphere has been shown to be feasible with existing technology.

Lin, Victor P.

2007-01-01

23

Autonomous control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KSC has been developing the Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE), which is a tool for performing automated monitoring, diagnosis, and control of electromechanical devices. KATE employs artificial intelligence computing techniques to perform these functions. The KATE system consists of a generic shell and a knowledge base. The KATE shell is the portion of the system which performs the monitoring, diagnosis, and control functions. It is generic in the sense that it is application independent. This means that the monitoring activity, for instance, will be performed with the same algorithms regardless of the particular physical device being used. The knowledge base is the portion of the system which contains specific functional and behavorial information about the physical device KATE is working with. Work is nearing completion on a project at KSC to interface a Texas Instruments Explorer running a LISP version of KATE with a Generic Checkout System (GCS) test-bed to control a physical simulation of a shuttle tanking system (humorously called the Red Wagon because of its color and mobility). The Autonomous Control System (ACS) project supplements and extends the KATE/GCS project by adding three other major activities. The activities include: porting KATE from the Texas Instruments Explorer machine to an Intel 80386-based UNIX workstation in the LISP language; rewriting KATE as necessary to run on the same 80386 workstation but in the Ada language; and investigating software and techniques to translate ANSI Standard Common LISP to Mil Standard Ada. Primary goals of this task are as follows: (1) establish the advantages of using expert systems to provide intelligent autonomous software for Space Station Freedom applications; (2) determine the feasibility of using Ada as the run-time environment for model-based expert systems; (3) provide insight into the advantages and disadvantagesof using LISP or Ada in the run-time environment for expert systems; and (4) compare the performance of the 80386 processor to a symbolic processor as a delivery vehicle for expert systems.

Brown, Barbara

1990-01-01

24

Subsurface Microorganisms: Ecological significance  

SciTech Connect

Terrestrial subsurface environments are inhabited almost exclusively by microorganisms and are in essence 'aphotic' ecosystems. Photosynthesis plays only an indirect role in subsurface microbial ecology, providing reduced organic compounds that can be metabolized by aerobic or anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria. Organic compounds are introduced into the subsurface, in general, via burial of detrital organic matter or as solutes that are transported to the subsurface in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in waters that percolate downward and recharge aquifers. Microbial generation of energy in deep subsurface environments results from biochemical reactions involving the oxidation of reduced compounds and the subsequent transfer of electrons to an adjacent oxidized compound. It is these metabolic processes that have a great impact on microbial ecological interactions in the subsurface and subsequent impacts of microbial metabolism on groundwater geochemistry and geological processes such as diagenesis (1). This article will provide an overview of the sources of energy that drive microbial metabolism in the subsurface and the physical constraints on the presence and function of subsurface microorganisms. The distributions and general characteristics of microorganisms in the subsurface will be examined and critical issues with regards to sampling the subsurface and enumerating associated microorganisms will be discussed. Finally, the extent of the subsurface biosphere on earth will be explored along with how this concept has focused the search for life elsewhere in the solar system to the subsurface of other planetary bodies.

Fredrickson, Jim K.

2003-01-15

25

Autonomous Soaring Flight Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

Allen, Michael J.

2006-01-01

26

Subsurface contaminants focus area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, includi...

1996-01-01

27

Subsurface Microbiology and Biogeochemistry  

SciTech Connect

Jim contributed a chapter to this book, in addition to co-editing it with Madilyn Fletcher. Fredrickson, J. K., and M. Fletcher. (eds.) 2001 Subsurface Microbiology and Biogeochemistry. Wiley-Liss, Inc., New York.

Fredrickson, Jim K.; Fletcher, Madilyn

2001-05-01

28

Autonomic dysfunction in dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are no studies of autonomic function comparing Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular dementia (VAD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD).Aims: To assess cardiovascular autonomic function in 39 patients with AD, 30 with VAD, 30 with DLB, 40 with PDD and 38 elderly controls by Ewing’s battery of autonomic function tests and power spectral analysis of

L M Allan; C G Ballard; J Allen; A Murray; A W Davidson; I G McKeith; R A Kenny

2007-01-01

29

Quantitative Autonomic Testing  

PubMed Central

Disorders associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system are quite common yet frequently unrecognized. Quantitative autonomic testing can be invaluable tool for evaluation of these disorders, both in clinic and research. There are number of autonomic tests, however, only few were validated clinically or are quantitative. Here, fully quantitative and clinically validated protocol for testing of autonomic functions is presented. As a bare minimum the clinical autonomic laboratory should have a tilt table, ECG monitor, continuous noninvasive blood pressure monitor, respiratory monitor and a mean for evaluation of sudomotor domain. The software for recording and evaluation of autonomic tests is critical for correct evaluation of data. The presented protocol evaluates 3 major autonomic domains: cardiovagal, adrenergic and sudomotor. The tests include deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, head-up tilt, and quantitative sudomotor axon test (QSART). The severity and distribution of dysautonomia is quantitated using Composite Autonomic Severity Scores (CASS). Detailed protocol is provided highlighting essential aspects of testing with emphasis on proper data acquisition, obtaining the relevant parameters and unbiased evaluation of autonomic signals. The normative data and CASS algorithm for interpretation of results are provided as well.

Novak, Peter

2011-01-01

30

Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters  

SciTech Connect

A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Bass, Ronald Marshall (Houston, TX); Kim, Dong Sub (Sugar Land, TX); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX); Keltner, Thomas Joseph (Spring, TX); Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon (Houston, TX)

2010-12-28

31

SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES).

T. Wilson; R. Novotny

1999-11-22

32

Subsurface energy footprints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic climate change and energy security concerns have created a demand for new ways of meeting society’s demand for energy. The Earth’s crust is being targeted in a variety of energy developments to either extract energy or facilitate the use of other energy resources by sequestering emitted carbon dioxide. Unconventional fossil fuel developments are already being pursued in great numbers, and large scale carbon capture and sequestration and geothermal energy projects have been proposed. In many cases, these developments compete for the same subsurface environments and they are not necessarily compatible with each other. Policy to regulate the interplay between these developments is poorly developed. Here, the subsurface footprints necessary to produce a unit of energy from different developments are estimated to assist with subsurface planning. The compatibility and order of development is also examined to aid policy development. Estimated subsurface energy footprints indicate that carbon capture and sequestration and geothermal energy developments are better choices than unconventional gas to supply clean energy.

Ferguson, Grant

2013-03-01

33

Mars penetrator: Subsurface science mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A penetrator system to emplace subsurface science on the planet Mars is described. The need for subsurface science is discussed, and the technologies for achieving successful atmospheric entry, Mars penetration, and data retrieval are presented.

Lumpkin, C. K.

1974-01-01

34

Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in uremia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in uremia. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is common in chronic renal failure patients, and may be explained in part by abnormalities in cardiovascular autonomic regulation. This review discusses the results of cardiovascular autonomic function studies in chronic renal failure patients. While covering most methods of assessing autonomic function, we focus particularly on power spectral analysis methods. These

Thompson G Robinson; Susan J Carr

2002-01-01

35

Autonomous Oceanographic Instrument Array.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under this DURIP grant, ten profiling ALACE autonomous floats were procured and prepared for deployment. These floats included vertical velocity measurements at depth. They also provided profiles of temperature and salinity every time that they traveled f...

W. B. Owens

1999-01-01

36

Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is our aim by launching a series of workshops on the topic of highly autonomous systems to reach out to the larger community interested in technology development for remotely deployed systems, particularly those for exploration.

Doyle, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Man, G.; Patel, K.

1998-01-01

37

Subsurface Ice Probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subsurface ice probe (SIPR) is a proposed apparatus that would bore into ice to depths as great as hundreds of meters by melting the ice and pumping the samples of meltwater to the surface. Originally intended for use in exploration of subsurface ice on Mars and other remote planets, the SIPR could also be used on Earth as an alternative to coring, drilling, and melting apparatuses heretofore used to sample Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets. The SIPR would include an assembly of instrumentation and electronic control equipment at the surface, connected via a tether to a compact assembly of boring, sampling, and sensor equipment in the borehole (see figure). Placing as much equipment as possible at the surface would help to attain primary objectives of minimizing power consumption, sampling with high depth resolution, and unobstructed imaging of the borehole wall. To the degree to which these requirements would be satisfied, the SIPR would offer advantages over the aforementioned ice-probing systems.

Hecht, Michael; Carsey, Frank

2005-01-01

38

Autonomous Flight Safety System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

Simpson, James

2010-01-01

39

Subsurface contaminants focus area  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

NONE

1996-08-01

40

Towards autonomous fuzzy control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The efficient implementation of on-line adaptation in real time is an important research problem in fuzzy control. The goal is to develop autonomous self-organizing controllers employing system-independent control meta-knowledge which enables them to adjust their control policies depending on the systems they control and the environments in which they operate. An autonomous fuzzy controller would continuously observe system behavior while implementing its control actions and would use the outcomes of these actions to refine its control policy. It could be designed to lie dormant when its control actions give rise to adequate performance characteristics but could rapidly and autonomously initiate real-time adaptation whenever its performance degrades. Such an autonomous fuzzy controller would have immense practical value. It could accommodate individual variations in system characteristics and also compensate for degradations in system characteristics caused by wear and tear. It could also potentially deal with black-box systems and control scenarios. On-going research in autonomous fuzzy control is reported. The ultimate research objective is to develop robust and relatively inexpensive autonomous fuzzy control hardware suitable for use in real time environments.

Shenoi, Sujeet; Ramer, Arthur

1993-01-01

41

Autonomic cardiac innervation  

PubMed Central

Autonomic cardiac neurons have a common origin in the neural crest but undergo distinct developmental differentiation as they mature toward their adult phenotype. Progenitor cells respond to repulsive cues during migration, followed by differentiation cues from paracrine sources that promote neurochemistry and differentiation. When autonomic axons start to innervate cardiac tissue, neurotrophic factors from vascular tissue are essential for maintenance of neurons before they reach their targets, upon which target-derived trophic factors take over final maturation, synaptic strength and postnatal survival. Although target-derived neurotrophins have a central role to play in development, alternative sources of neurotrophins may also modulate innervation. Both developing and adult sympathetic neurons express proNGF, and adult parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons also synthesize and release NGF. The physiological function of these “non-classical” cardiac sources of neurotrophins remains to be determined, especially in relation to autocrine/paracrine sustenance during development.   Cardiac autonomic nerves are closely spatially associated in cardiac plexuses, ganglia and pacemaker regions and so are sensitive to release of neurotransmitter, neuropeptides and trophic factors from adjacent nerves. As such, in many cardiac pathologies, it is an imbalance within the two arms of the autonomic system that is critical for disease progression. Although this crosstalk between sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves has been well established for adult nerves, it is unclear whether a degree of paracrine regulation occurs across the autonomic limbs during development. Aberrant nerve remodeling is a common occurrence in many adult cardiovascular pathologies, and the mechanisms regulating outgrowth or denervation are disparate. However, autonomic neurons display considerable plasticity in this regard with neurotrophins and inflammatory cytokines having a central regulatory function, including in possible neurotransmitter changes. Certainly, neurotrophins and cytokines regulate transcriptional factors in adult autonomic neurons that have vital differentiation roles in development. Particularly for parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons, additional examinations of developmental regulatory mechanisms will potentially aid in understanding attenuated parasympathetic function in a number of conditions, including heart failure.

Hasan, Wohaib

2013-01-01

42

Thinking Ahead: Autonomic Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The time has come for the commercial buildings industries to reconsider the very nature of the systems installed in facilities today and to establish a vision for future buildings that differs from anything in the history of human shelter. Drivers for this examination include reductions in building operation staffs; uncertain costs and reliability of electric power; growing interest in energy-efficient and resource-conserving?green? and?high-performance? commercial buildings; and a dramatic increase in security concerns since the tragic events of September 11. This paper introduces a new paradigm? autonomic buildings? which parallels the concept of autonomic computing, introduced by IBM as a fundamental change in the way computer networks work. Modeled after the human nervous system,?autonomic systems? themselves take responsibility for a large portion of their own operation and even maintenance. For commercial buildings, autonomic systems could provide environments that afford occupants greater opportunity to focus on the things we do in buildings rather than on operation of the building itself, while achieving higher performance levels, increased security, and better use of energy and other natural resources. The author uses the human body and computer networking to introduce and illustrate this new paradigm for high-performance commercial buildings. He provides a vision for the future of commercial buildings based on autonomicity, identifies current research that could contribute to this future, and highlights research and technological gaps. The paper concludes with a set of issues and needs that are key to converting this idealized future into reality.

Brambley, Michael R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-08-31

43

Manual on Subsurface Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of twelve modules that constitute a comprehensive training course in geotechnical and foundation engineering. Sponsored by the National Highway Institute (NHI) of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the training course is given at different locations in the U.S. The intended audience includes civil engineers and engineering geologists involved in the design and construction of transportation facilities. This manual is designed to present the latest methodologies in the planning,execution and interpretation of the various subsurface investigation methods, and the development of appropriate soil and rock parameters for engineering applications

2008-10-13

44

Subsurface fracture spacing  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken in order to document and analyze the unique set of data on subsurface fracture characteristics, especially spacing, provided by the US Department of Energy's Slant Hole Completion Test well (SHCT-1) in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Two hundred thirty-six (236) ft (71.9 m) of slant core and 115 ft (35.1 m) of horizontal core show irregular, but remarkably close, spacings for 72 natural fractures cored in sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde Group. Over 4200 ft (1280 m) of vertical core (containing 275 fractures) from the vertical Multiwell Experiment wells at the same location provide valuable information on fracture orientation, termination, and height, but only data from the SHCT-1 core allow calculations of relative fracture spacing. Within the 162-ft (49-m) thick zone of overlapping core from the vertical and deviated wellbores, only one fracture is present in vertical core whereas 52 fractures occur in the equivalent SHCT-1 core. The irregular distribution of regional-type fractures in these heterogeneous reservoirs suggests that measurements of average fracture spacing'' are of questionable value as direct input parameters into reservoir engineering models. Rather, deviated core provides data on the relative degree of fracturing, and confirms that cross fractures can be rare in the subsurface. 13 refs., 11 figs.

Lorenz, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Hill, R.E. (CER Corp., Las Vegas, NV (USA))

1991-01-01

45

Overall Subsurface Ventilation Systems  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to provide a conceptual design for the Subsurface Ventilation System and address the construction, emplacement, monitoring, backfill, and closure ventilation phases. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (CRWMS M and O 1999d) (MGR). This analysis will summarize the ventilation concepts that have developed from the incorporation of recent changes to the Technical Baseline and describe changes to the conceptual ventilation design that have resulted from the thermal management requirements. Ventilation concepts presented in the Viability Assessment Design (VA Design) that have not changed are identified and included. The objective of this analysis is to provide a basis for the System Description Document (SDD) Section 2 that provides input to the SR Consideration Report. The scope of the analysis includes the following tasks: (1) Determine the number of primary shafts based on the emplacement airflow rate required to meet thermal goals and (2) Determine conceptual airflow networks for major repository phases including: Construction; Emplacement; Monitoring; and Closure. In addition evaluate: (1) Radon mitigation concerns and options; (2) Monitoring and control requirement changes needed to meet current guidelines; and (3) The impact on the ventilation system of a radiological release due to a potential subsurface fire involving a waste package.

Edward G. Thomas

2000-05-16

46

Autonomous target acquisition techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Target acquisition is often needed in a deep space mission where the detector on board the space vehicle must be able to perform the decision making process in acquiring the target. That is, the system for target acquisition must be autonomous. This paper presents several autonomous target acquisition techniques, applicable to deep space mission, for detecting stationary and moving targets. These techniques are useful for sensors such as radar, star tracker and television since the target must be found before it can be tracked. A minimum signal-to-noise ratio can be specified for successful acquisition of target.

Brock, H. I.; Hung, J. C.

1975-01-01

47

Immune-mediated autonomic neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved recognition and availability of noninvasive testing of autonomic disorders has prompted a better understanding of\\u000a disease mechanisms of some disease forms, especially potentially treatable immune-mediated autonomic neuropathies. Development\\u000a is acute, subacute, or less commonly chronic. Autonomic involvement is common and an important cause of morbidity and mortality\\u000a in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Acute autonomic neuropathy can affect parasympathetic, sympathetic, and enteric

Mill Etienne; Louis H. Weimer

2006-01-01

48

An Autonomous Spacecraft Agent Prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

. This paper describes the New Millennium Remote Agent (NMRA) architecture for autonomous spacecraft control systems. The architecture supports challenging requirements of the autonomous spacecraft domain not usually addressed in mobile robot architectures, including highly reliable autonomous operations over extended time periods in the presence of tight resource constraints, hard deadlines, limited observability, and concurrent activity. A hybrid architecture, NMRA

Barney Pell; Douglas E. Bernard; Steve A. Chien; Erann Gat; Nicola Muscettola; P. Pandurang Nayak; Michael D. Wagner; Brian C. Williams

1998-01-01

49

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is an acquired immune-mediated form of diffuse autonomic failure. Many patients have serum antibodies that bind to the ganglionic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) that mediate fast synaptic transmission in autonomic ganglia. Previous clinical studies and observations in animal models suggest that AAG is an antibody-mediated neurologic disorder. Methods Using whole-cell patch clamp techniques, we recorded ganglionic AChR currents in cultured human IMR-32 cells and examined the effects of bath application of IgG derived from patients with AAG. Results IgG from seven patients with AAG all produced a progressive decline in whole-cell ganglionic AChR current, whereas IgG from control subjects had no effect. The effect was abolished at low temperature. Fab antibody fragments had no effect unless a secondary antibody was added concurrently. IgG from one patient also produced a more immediate reduction of ganglionic AChR current. Conclusions The characteristics of antibody-mediated inhibition of ganglionic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) current are consistent with modulation and blocking of the membrane AChR, analogous to the effects of muscle AChR antibodies in myasthenia gravis. Our observations demonstrate that antibodies in patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) cause physiologic changes in ganglionic AChR function and confirm that AAG is an antibody-mediated disorder.

Wang, Z.; Low, P.A.; Jordan, J.; Freeman, R.; Gibbons, C.H.; Schroeder, C.; Sandroni, P.; Vernino, S.

2008-01-01

50

Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the vehicle navigation problem for an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) with six degrees of freedom. We approach this problem using an error state formulation of the Kalman filter. Integration of the vehicle's high-rate inertial measurement unit's (IMU's) accelerometers and gyros allow time propagation while other sensors provide measurement corrections. The low-rate aiding sensors include a Doppler velocity

Paul A. Miller; Jay A. Farrell; Yuanyuan Zhao; Vladimir Djapic

2010-01-01

51

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1997-03-25

52

Autonomous Optical Lunar Navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of optical autonomous navigation is investigated for low lunar orbits and for high elliptical lunar orbits. Various options for employing the camera measurements are presented and compared. Strategies for improving navigation performance are developed and applied to the Orion vehicle lunar mission

Zanetti, Renato; Crouse, Brian; D'souza, Chris

2009-01-01

53

Learning for autonomous navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomous off-road navigation of robotic ground vehicles has important applications on Earth and in space exploration. Progress in this domain has been retarded by the limited lookahead range of 3-D sensors and by the difficulty of preprogramming systems to understand the traversability of the wide variety of terrain they can encounter.

Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

2005-01-01

54

Autonomous formation flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes an approach to close-formation flight of autonomous aircraft. A standard LQ-based structure was synthesized for each vehicle and for formation position error control using linearized equations of motion and a lifting line model of the aircraft wake. We also consider the definition of a formation management structure, capable of dealing with a variety of generic transmission and

F. Giulietti; L. Pollini; M. Innocenti

2000-01-01

55

An Autonomous Blimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design of a lighter than air autonomous robot and its natural l andmark navigation system that operates in three dimensions. The robot has successfully flown the University banner at science shows and op en days under public scrutiny. The robot i s nearly 2m long and 0 .8m wide, making the robot suitable for use in

Gordon Wyeth; Ivan Barron

56

Autonomous Norm Acceptance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acquisition of new goals: the case of norms It is generally acknowledged that norms and normative action em phasise autonomy on the side of decision. But what about the autonomous formation of normative goals? In a recent paper (Dignum & Conte 1997), the treatment of goal- acquisition in the Agent Theory (AT) literature was found ina dequate, some formal

Rosaria Conte; Cristiano Castelfranchi; Frank Dignum

1998-01-01

57

Towards Autonomous Fuzzy Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The efficient implementation of on-line adaptation in real time is an important research problem in fuzzy control. The goal is to develop autonomous self-organizing controllers employing system-independent control meta-knowledge which enables them to adju...

S. Shenoi A. Ramer

1993-01-01

58

Subsurface geology of southwest Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subsurface study of SW. Alabama was undertaken to evaluate the petroleum potential of the region and to provide structural information to assist in the development of the subsurface resources of Baldwin, Clarke, Escambia, Mobile, Monroe, Washington and parts of Choctaw, Conecuh, Marengo, and Wilcox counties. Exploration for oil and gas in SW. Alabama was intensified after the discovery of

1971-01-01

59

The Deep Subsurface Microbiology Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Princeton Deep Subsurface Microbiology Group website contains links to information about deep subsurface microbiology. Readers can access information about Princeton's geomicrobiological program, including research being done, people involved, select publications, information about teaching environmental chemistry and exobiology, and related links by using the links provided on the left side of the page.

Geosciences, Princeton U.

60

Nonintrusive subsurface surveying capability  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes the capabilities of a ground-pentrating radar (GPR) system developed by EG&G Energy Measurements (EM), a prime contractor to the Department of Energy (DOE). The focus of the presentation will be on the subsurface survey of DOE site TA-21 in Los Alamos, New Mexico. EG&G EM developed the system for the Department of Defense. The system is owned by the Department of the Army and currently resides at KO in Albuquerque. EM is pursuing efforts to transfer this technology to environmental applications such as waste-site characterization with DOE encouragement. The Army has already granted permission to use the system for the waste-site characterization activities.

Tunnell, T.W.; Cave, S.P.

1994-06-01

61

Subsurface Samples: Collection and Processing  

SciTech Connect

Microbiological data, interpretation, and conclusions from subsurface samples ultimately depend on the quality and representative character of the samples. Subsurface samples for environmental microbiology ideally contain only the microbial community and geochemical properties that are representative of the subsurface environment from which the sample was taken. To that end, sample contamination by exogenous microorganisms or chemical constituents must be eliminated or minimized, and sample analyses need to begin before changes in the microbial community or geochemical characteristics occur. This article presents sampling methods and sample processing techniques for collecting representative samples from a range of subsurface environments. Factors that should be considered when developing a subsurface sampling program are discussed, including potential benefits, costs, and limitations enabling researchers to evaluate the techniques that are presented and match them to their project requirements. Methods and protocols to address coring, sampling, processing and quality assessment issues are presented.

Long, Philip E.; Griffin, W. Timothy; Phelps, Tommy J.

2002-12-01

62

Autonomous In-Situ Resources Prospector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation will describe the concept of an autonomous, intelligent, rover-based rapid surveying system to identify and map several key lunar resources to optimize their ISRU (In Situ Resource Utilization) extraction potential. Prior to an extraction phase for any target resource, ground-based surveys are needed to provide confirmation of remote observation, to quantify and map their 3-D distribution, and to locate optimal extraction sites (e.g. ore bodies) with precision to maximize their economic benefit. The system will search for and quantify optimal minerals for oxygen production feedstock, water ice, and high glass-content regolith that can be used for building materials. These are targeted because of their utility and because they are, or are likely to be, variable in quantity over spatial scales accessible to a rover (i.e., few km). Oxygen has benefits for life support systems and as an oxidizer for propellants. Water is a key resource for sustainable exploration, with utility for life support, propellants, and other industrial processes. High glass-content regolith has utility as a feedstock for building materials as it readily sinters upon heating into a cohesive matrix more readily than other regolith materials or crystalline basalts. Lunar glasses are also a potential feedstock for oxygen production, as many are rich in iron and titanium oxides that are optimal for oxygen extraction. To accomplish this task, a system of sensors and decision-making algorithms for an autonomous prospecting rover is described. One set of sensors will be located in the wheel tread of the robotic search vehicle providing contact sensor data on regolith composition. Another set of instruments will be housed on the platform of the rover, including VIS-NIR imagers and spectrometers, both for far-field context and near-field characterization of the regolith in the immediate vicinity of the rover. Also included in the sensor suite are a neutron spectrometer, ground-penetrating radar, and an instrumented cone penetrometer for subsurface assessment. Output from these sensors will be evaluated autonomously in real-time by decision-making software to evaluate if any of the targeted resources has been detected, and if so, to quantify their abundance. Algorithms for optimizing the mapping strategy based on target resource abundance and distribution are also included in the autonomous software. This approach emphasizes on-the-fly survey measurements to enable efficient and rapid prospecting of large areas, which will improve the economics of ISRU system approaches. The mature technology will enable autonomous rovers to create in-situ resource maps of lunar or other planetary surfaces, which will facilitate human and robotic exploration.

Dissly, R. W.; Buehler, M. G.; Schaap, M. G.; Nicks, D.; Taylor, G. J.; Castano, R.; Suarez, D.

2004-01-01

63

The autonomous sciencecraft constellations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat 21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2006. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. In this paper we discuss how these AI technologies are synergistically integrated in a hybrid multi-layer control architecture to enable a virtual spacecraft science agent. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight environment will open up tremendous new opportunities in planetary science, space physics, and earth science that would be unreachable without this technology.

Sherwood, R. L.; Chien, S.; Castano, R.; Rabideau, G.

2003-01-01

64

Pharmacotherapy of autonomic failure  

PubMed Central

The clinical picture of autonomic failure is characterized by severe and disabling orthostatic hypotension. These disorders can develop as a result of damage of central neural pathways or peripheral autonomic nerves, caused either by a primary autonomic neurodegenerative disorder or secondary to systemic illness. Treatment should be focused on decreasing presyncopal symptoms instead of achieving blood pressure goals. Non-pharmacologic strategies such as physical counter-maneuvers, dietary changes (i.e. high salt diet, rapid water drinking or compression garments) are the first line therapy. Affected patients should be screened for co-morbid conditions such as post-prandial hypotension and supine hypertension that can worsen orthostatic hypotension if not treated. If symptoms are not controlled with these conservative measures the next step is to start pharmacological agents; these interventions should be aimed at increasing intravascular volume either by promoting water and salt retention (fludrocortisone) or by increasing red blood cell mass when anemia is present (recombinant erythropoietin). When pressor agents are needed, direct pressor agents (midodrine) or agents that potentiate sympathetic activity (atomoxetine, yohimbine, pyridostigmine) can be used. It is preferable to use short-acting pressor agents that can be taken on as needed basis in preparation for upright activities.

Shibao, Cyndya; Okamoto, Luis; Biaggioni, Italo

2012-01-01

65

Pharmacotherapy of autonomic failure.  

PubMed

The clinical picture of autonomic failure is characterized by severe and disabling orthostatic hypotension. These disorders can develop as a result of damage of central neural pathways or peripheral autonomic nerves, caused either by a primary autonomic neurodegenerative disorder or secondary to systemic illness. Treatment should be focused on decreasing pre-syncopal symptoms instead of achieving blood pressure goals. Non-pharmacologic strategies such as physical counter-maneuvers, dietary changes (i.e. high salt diet, rapid water drinking or compression garments) are the first line therapy. Affected patients should be screened for co-morbid conditions such as post-prandial hypotension and supine hypertension that can worsen orthostatic hypotension if not treated. If symptoms are not controlled with these conservative measures the next step is to start pharmacological agents; these interventions should be aimed at increasing intravascular volume either by promoting water and salt retention (fludrocortisone) or by increasing red blood cell mass when anemia is present (recombinant erythropoietin). When pressor agents are needed, direct pressor agents (midodrine) or agents that potentiate sympathetic activity (atomoxetine, yohimbine, pyridostigmine) can be used. It is preferable to use short-acting pressor agents that can be taken on as needed basis in preparation for upright activities. PMID:21664375

Shibao, Cyndya; Okamoto, Luis; Biaggioni, Italo

2012-06-01

66

Nature's Autonomous Oscillators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

2012-01-01

67

Autonomous power expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling and dynamic replanning.

Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

1990-01-01

68

Autonomous power expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling an dynamic replanning.

Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

1990-01-01

69

Adverse possession of subsurface minerals  

SciTech Connect

Concepts applicable to adverse possession of subsurface minerals are generally the same as those that apply to adverse possession of all real estate. However, special requirements must be satisfied in order to perfect title to subsurface minerals by adverse possession, particularly when there has been a severance of the true title between surface and subsurface minerals. In those jurisdictions where senior and junior grants came from the state or commonwealth covering the same or some of the same land and in those areas where descriptions of land were vague or not carefully drawn, adverse possession serves to solidify land and mineral ownership. There may be some public, social, and economic justification in rewarding, with good title, those who take possession and use real estate for its intended use, including the extraction of subsurface minerals. 96 refernces.

Bowles, P.N.

1983-01-01

70

The Future of Subsurface Characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing monitoring and characterization technologies can cover only a small fraction of the subsurface, and the information collected cannot be used to effectively manage current and future drought and other water- related problems. Subsurface sciences need a breakthrough "instrument" to greatly expand and deepen our ability to "see into the groundwater basin." The theme of this talk is to promote the idea of collecting data intelligently and analyzing data smartly for characterization of the subsurface at high resolutions beyond the capabilities of current technology. Specifically, we argue that tomographic surveying is a smart approach, which collects data more cost-effectively and less invasively than existing technologies to characterize the subsurface environments. Limitations of a single type (hydrologic, chemical or geophysical) of tomographic survey then motivate fusion of different types of tomographic surveys such that each survey takes advantage of others to overcome its weakness to reach its optimal capability in a reciprocal manner. A basin is an appropriate scale for the purpose of water resources management. Therefore, the field-scale data collection and fusion concept/technology is expanded to basin-scale characterizations. In order to facilitate these basin-scale tomographic surveys, fusion of passive basin-scale tomographys are suggested that exploit recurrent natural stimuli (e,g., lightning, earthquakes, storm events, barometric variations, river- stage variations, etc.) as sources of excitations, along with implementation of sensor networks that provide long-term and spatially distributed monitoring of signals on the land surface and in the subsurface. This vision for basin-scale subsurface characterization undoubtedly faces unprecedented technological challenges and requires interdisciplinary collaborations (e.g., surface and subsurface hydrology, geophysics, geology, geochemist, information technology, applied mathematics, atmospheric science, etc.). A call for the interdisciplinary collaboration to advance subsurface sciences is another aim of this presentation.

Yeh, T. J.

2006-12-01

71

Microbial Transport in the Subsurface  

SciTech Connect

In this article we focus on the physical, chemical, and biological processes involved in the transport of bacteria in the saturated subsurface. We will first review conceptual models of bacterial phases in the subsurface, and then the processes controlling fate and transport on short (e.g., bioremediation) time scales. Finally we briefly review field bacterial transport experiments and discuss a number of issues that impact the application of current process descriptions and models at the field scale.

Ginn, Timothy R.; Camesano, Terri; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Nelson, Kirk B.; Clement, T. P.; Wood, Brian D.

2005-12-01

72

Autonomous Sample Acquisition for Planetary and Small Body Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robotic drilling and autonomous sample acquisition are considered as the key technology requirements in future planetary or small body exploration missions. Core sampling or subsurface drilling operation is envisioned to be off rovers or landers. These supporting platforms are inherently flexible, light, and can withstand only limited amount of reaction forces and torques. This, together with unknown properties of sampled materials, makes the sampling operation a tedious task and quite challenging. This paper highlights the recent advancements in the sample acquisition control system design and development for the in situ scientific exploration of planetary and small interplanetary missions.

Ghavimi, Ali R.; Serricchio, Frederick; Dolgin, Ben; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

2000-01-01

73

Dysr?flexie autonome  

PubMed Central

Résumé Objectif Sensibiliser davantage les médecins de famille à la dysréflexie autonome (DA) chez les patients victimes d’une lésion médullaire (LM) et proposer certaines interventions. Sources de l’information On a fait une recension dans MEDLINE de 1970 à juillet 2011 à l’aide des expressions en anglais autonomic dysreflexia et spinal cord injury, ainsi que family medicine ou primary care. On a aussi passé en revue et utilisé d’autres ressources et guides de pratique pertinents. Message principal Il arrive souvent que les médecins de famille ne se sentent pas confiants de traiter des patients ayant une LM dont les problèmes sont complexes et exigent beaucoup de temps. Les médecins de famille ont l’impression de n’avoir pas la formation nécessaire pour répondre à leurs besoins. Pourtant, ils offrent une composante essentielle des soins à de tels patients et il est important qu’ils comprennent les problèmes médicaux particuliers aux LM. La dysréflexie autonome est un important et fréquent problème potentiellement sérieux que connaissent mal de nombreux médecins de famille. Cet article passe en revue les signes et les symptômes de la DA et présente certaines options de prise en charge aiguë, ainsi que des stratégies de prévention à l’intention des médecins de famille. Conclusion Les médecins de famille devraient savoir quels patients traumatisés médullaires sont susceptibles d’avoir une DA et surveiller ceux qui sont touchés par ce problème. Une explication est donnée dans cet article quant à l’approche à suivre pour la prise en charge aiguë. Les médecins de famille jouent un rôle essentiel dans la prévention de la DA, notamment par l’éducation (du patient et des autres professionnels de la santé) et la consignation dans le dossier médical de stratégies comme les soins appropriés de la vessie, de l’intestin et de la peau, d’avertissements et de plans de prise en charge.

Milligan, James; Lee, Joseph; McMillan, Colleen; Klassen, Hilary

2012-01-01

74

Autonomous mobile robot teams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

1994-01-01

75

Autonomous interplanetary constellation design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to NASA's integrated space technology roadmaps, space-based infrastructures are envisioned as necessary ingredients to a sustained effort in continuing space exploration. Whether it be for extra-terrestrial habitats, roving/cargo vehicles, or space tourism, autonomous space networks will provide a vital communications lifeline for both future robotic and human missions alike. Projecting that the Moon will be a bustling hub of activity within a few decades, a near-term opportunity for in-situ infrastructure development is within reach. This dissertation addresses the anticipated need for in-space infrastructure by investigating a general design methodology for autonomous interplanetary constellations; to illustrate the theory, this manuscript presents results from an application to the Earth-Moon neighborhood. The constellation design methodology is formulated as an optimization problem, involving a trajectory design step followed by a spacecraft placement sequence. Modeling the dynamics as a restricted 3-body problem, the investigated design space consists of families of periodic orbits which play host to the constellations, punctuated by arrangements of spacecraft autonomously guided by a navigation strategy called LiAISON (Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation). Instead of more traditional exhaustive search methods, a numerical continuation approach is implemented to map the admissible configuration space. In particular, Keller's pseudo-arclength technique is used to follow folding/bifurcating solution manifolds, which are otherwise inaccessible with other parameter continuation schemes. A succinct characterization of the underlying structure of the local, as well as global, extrema is thus achievable with little a priori intuition of the solution space. Furthermore, the proposed design methodology offers benefits in computation speed plus the ability to handle mildly stochastic systems. An application of the constellation design methodology to the restricted Earth-Moon system, reveals optimal pairwise configurations for various L1, L2, and L5 (halo, axial, and vertical) periodic orbit families. Navigation accuracies, ranging from O (10+/-1) meters in position space, are obtained for the optimal Earth-Moon constellations, given measurement noise on the order of 1 meter.

Chow, Cornelius Channing, II

76

Toward autonomous spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ways in which autonomous behavior of spacecraft can be extended to treat situations wherein a closed loop control by a human may not be appropriate or even possible are explored. Predictive models that minimize mean least squared error and arbitrary cost functions are discussed. A methodology for extracting cyclic components for an arbitrary environment with respect to usual and arbitrary criteria is developed. An approach to prediction and control based on evolutionary programming is outlined. A computer program capable of predicting time series is presented. A design of a control system for a robotic dense with partially unknown physical properties is presented.

Fogel, L. J.; Calabrese, P. G.; Walsh, M. J.; Owens, A. J.

1982-01-01

77

NASA: Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has undertaken the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) to "demonstrate the potential for space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect, analyze, and respond to science events, and to downlink only the highest value science data." The website features ASE updates, publications, and a list of the potential impacts of this research. Users can discover the autonomy software components that are aboard the ASE flight. The site includes links to information about the Artificial Intelligence Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and its other projects.

78

Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Palomar Adaptive Optics System actively corrects for changing aberrations in light due to atmospheric turbulence. However, the underlying internal static error is unknown and uncorrected by this process. The dedicated wavefront sensor device necessarily lies along a different path than the science camera, and, therefore, doesn't measure the true errors along the path leading to the final detected imagery. This is a standard problem in adaptive optics (AO) called "non-common path error." The Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration (APRC) software suite performs automated sensing and correction iterations to calibrate the Palomar AO system to levels that were previously unreachable.

Estlin, Tara A.; Chien, Steve A.; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel M.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Schoolcraft, Josua B.; Oyake, Amalaye; Vaughs, Ashton G.; Torgerson, Jordan L.

2011-01-01

79

[Pure autonomic failure].  

PubMed

We present the case of a 64-year-old woman who, in the past 5 years, complained of constipation/diarrhea, hyposudoresis, xerostomia and xerophthalmia, dysuria and orthostatic hypotension. Cardiovascular reflexes analysis revealed sympathetic and parasympathetic failure. Norepinephrine was markedly reduced, both lying and after tilt. Norepinephrine infusion determined a significant rise in blood pressure, allowing the diagnosis of denervation hypersensitivity. The diagnosis of pure autonomic failure was made. Therapy with 9 alpha fludrocortisone and metoclopramide was initiated with marked and sustained symptomatic effect. PMID:8140921

Ducla-Soares, J L; Guerreiro, A S; Póvoa, P; Alvares, E; Guerreiro, L; Carrilho, F; Santos, M; Figueirinhas, J; Carvalho, M

1993-11-01

80

Autonomous Flight Safety System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

2004-01-01

81

Autonomic Responses to Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this report is to describe how changes in autonomic nervous system responses may be used as an index of individual differences in adaptational capacity to space flight. During two separate Spacelab missions, six crewmembers wore an ambulatory monitoring system which enabled continuous recording of their physiological responses for up to twelve hours a day for 3 to 5 mission days. The responses recorded were electrocardiography, respiration wave form, skin conductance level, hand temperature, blood flow to the hands and triaxial accelerations of the head and upper body. Three of these subjects had been given training, before the mission, in voluntary control of these autonomic responses as a means of facilitating adaptation to space. Three of these subjects served as Controls, i.e., did not receive this training but took anti-motion sickness medication. Nearly 300 hours of flight data are summarized. These data were examined using time-series analyses, spectral analyses of heart rate variability, and analyses of variance. Information was obtained on responses to space motion sickness, inflight medications, circadian rhythm, workload and fatigue. Preliminary assessment was made on the effectiveness of self-regulation training as a means of facilitating adaptation, with recommendations for future flights.

Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.; Miller, N. E.

1994-01-01

82

Autonomous mobile communication relays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maintaining a solid radio communication link between a mobile robot entering a building and an external base station is a well-recognized problem. Modern digital radios, while affording high bandwidth and Internet-protocol-based automatic routing capabilities, tend to operate on line-of-sight links. The communication link degrades quickly as a robot penetrates deeper into the interior of a building. This project investigates the use of mobile autonomous communication relay nodes to extend the effective range of a mobile robot exploring a complex interior environment. Each relay node is a small mobile slave robot equipped with sonar, ladar, and 802.11b radio repeater. For demonstration purposes, four Pioneer 2-DX robots are used as autonomous mobile relays, with SSC-San Diego's ROBART III acting as the lead robot. The relay robots follow the lead robot into a building and are automatically deployed at various locations to maintain a networked communication link back to the remote operator. With their on-board external sensors, they also act as rearguards to secure areas already explored by the lead robot. As the lead robot advances and RF shortcuts are detected, relay nodes that become unnecessary will be reclaimed and reused, all transparent to the operator. This project takes advantage of recent research results from several DARPA-funded tasks at various institutions in the areas of robotic simulation, ad hoc wireless networking, route planning, and navigation. This paper describes the progress of the first six months of the project.

Nguyen, Hoa G.; Everett, Hobart R.; Manouk, Narek; Verma, Ambrish

2002-07-01

83

Nemesis Autonomous Test System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generalized framework has been developed for systems validation that can be applied to both traditional and autonomous systems. The framework consists of an automated test case generation and execution system called Nemesis that rapidly and thoroughly identifies flaws or vulnerabilities within a system. By applying genetic optimization and goal-seeking algorithms on the test equipment side, a "war game" is conducted between a system and its complementary nemesis. The end result of the war games is a collection of scenarios that reveals any undesirable behaviors of the system under test. The software provides a reusable framework to evolve test scenarios using genetic algorithms using an operation model of the system under test. It can automatically generate and execute test cases that reveal flaws in behaviorally complex systems. Genetic algorithms focus the exploration of tests on the set of test cases that most effectively reveals the flaws and vulnerabilities of the system under test. It leverages advances in state- and model-based engineering, which are essential in defining the behavior of autonomous systems. It also uses goal networks to describe test scenarios.

Barltrop, Kevin J.; Lee, Cin-Young; Horvath, Gregory A,; Clement, Bradley J.

2012-01-01

84

Autonomous Formation Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

2004-01-01

85

Learning for Autonomous Navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

2005-01-01

86

Autonomous wildfire surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, problems resulting from fires in forests and natural areas were solved on a national rather than international level. This resulted in duplicating research efforts. The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) tries to enhance the cooperation between European countries to stimulate research on the causes and the technological developments for wildfire prevention, detection, and fighting. One result of these efforts has been the start of an international project on the development of a demonstration system that will be used to aid wild land managers and fire fighters in preventing and fighting wild fires. The system will consist of a decision support system and an autonomous wild fire detection system. The basic information that is used by the decision support system is on the one hand a database system with historical, topographical, logistic, meteorological and geographic information and on the other hand `real-time' data from automated cameras and weather sensors. Also, in other large countries outside Europe, such as Canada, the United States and Australia, technological approaches are being developed to reduce hazards as a result of wild fires. In this paper a summary is given on the various problems and solutions in the area of autonomous wild fire detection and surveillance in the CEC and some other parts of the world.

de Vries, Jan S.

1993-11-01

87

Autonomous Characterization of Unknown Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key to the autonomous exploration of an unknown area by a scientific robotic rover is the ability of the vehicle to autonomously recognize objects of interest and generalize about the region. This paper presents a Bayesian framework under which a mobile robot can learn how different classes of objects are distributed over a geographical region, using imperfect observations and

Liam Pedersen

2001-01-01

88

Autonomic computing: the first decade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This talk provides a retrospective on the first decade of autonomic computing, an assessment of the extent to which the original vision has been realized, and some discussion and speculation about the the remaining research challenges. Nearly a decade has elapsed since Paul Horn, IBM's senior vice president of research, introduced the concept of autonomic computing during a keynote address

Jeffrey O. Kephart

2011-01-01

89

Autonomic Computing for Business Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic computing, a new deployment technology introduced by IBM a decade ago, to manage the ever increasing complexity of IT systems, has become a part of many large scale deployments today. A lot of inroads have been made by autonomic computing in the areas of networking, data centers, storage, and database management. But few attempts have been exercised in business

Devasia Kurian; Pethuru Raj

2013-01-01

90

[Autonomic features in Parkinson disease].  

PubMed

Nonmotor symptoms such as autonomic and neuropsychiatric dysfunctions, are commonly seen in Parkinson disease (PD). Recent studies have shown that PD is accompanied by cardiac sympathetic denervation and constipation even in the early stage. Neuropathological studies confirmed changes in the cardiac sympathetic nerves and the gastrointestinal tract. These findings suggest that PD neuropathology may occur first in the peripheral autonomic pathways and extend to the central autonomic pathways, in agreement with the "Braak theory". This article will reviews the symptoms and pathophysiology of gastrointestinal dysfunction, urinary disturbance, sexual dysfunction, sweating dysfunction, pupillary autonomic dysfunction, and orthostatic and postprandial hypotension in PD patients, and discuss to organ selectiveness in autonomic dysfunction in PD. PMID:22481512

Yamamoto, Toshimasa; Tamura, Naotoshi

2012-04-01

91

Measuring isotropic subsurface light transport.  

PubMed

Subsurface light transport can affect the visual appearance of materials significantly. Measuring and modeling this phenomenon is crucial for accurately reproducing colors in printing or for rendering translucent objects on displays. In this paper, we propose an apparatus to measure subsurface light transport employing a reference material to cancel out adverse signals that may bias the results. In contrast to other approaches, the setup enables improved focusing on rough surfaces (e.g. uncoated paper). We derive a measurement equation that may be used to deduce the point spread function (PSF) of subsurface light transport. Main contributions are the usage of spectrally-narrowband exchangeable LEDs allowing spectrally-resolved measurements and an approach based on quadratic programming for reconstructing PSFs in the case of isotropic light transport. PMID:24787793

Happel, Kathrin; Dörsam, Edgar; Urban, Philipp

2014-04-21

92

Subsurface microbial habitats on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We developed scenarios for shallow and deep subsurface cryptic niches for microbial life on Mars. Such habitats could have considerably prolonged the persistence of life on Mars as surface conditions became increasingly inhospitable. The scenarios rely on geothermal hot spots existing below the near or deep subsurface of Mars. Recent advances in the comparatively new field of deep subsurface microbiology have revealed previously unsuspected rich aerobic and anaerobic microbal communities far below the surface of the Earth. Such habitats, protected from the grim surface conditions on Mars, could receive warmth from below and maintain water in its liquid state. In addition, geothermally or volcanically reduced gases percolating from below through a microbiologically active zone could provide the reducing power needed for a closed or semi-closed microbial ecosystem to thrive.

Boston, P. J.; Mckay, C. P.

1991-01-01

93

ESF Subsurface Standby Generator Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to outline and recommend two standby generator systems. These systems shall provide power during a utility outage to critical Alcove No.5's thermal test loads and to subsurface flow through ventilation loads. Critical loads that will be supported by these generator systems will be identified and evaluated. Additionally, other requirements from the Exploratory Studies Facilities Design Requirements (ESFDR) document will be evaluated. Finally, the standby generator systems will be integrated into the existing ESF subsurface distribution system. The objective of this analysis is to provide design inputs for an efficient and reliable standby generator systems which will provide power for critical loads during a power outage; specifically, Alcove No.5's thermal test loads and the subsurface flow through ventilation loads. Additionally, preliminary one-line diagrams will be developed using this analysis as a primary input.

L. Fernandez

1998-04-17

94

Towed Subsurface Optical Communications Buoy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The innovation allows critical, high-bandwidth submarine communications at speed and depth. This reported innovation is a subsurface optical communications buoy, with active neutral buoyancy and streamlined flow surface veins for depth control. This novel subsurface positioning for the towed communications buoy enables substantial reduction in water-absorption and increased optical transmission by eliminating the intervening water absorption and dispersion, as well as by reducing or eliminating the beam spread and the pulse spreading that is associated with submarine-launched optical beams.

Stirbl, Robert C.; Farr, William H.

2013-01-01

95

Autonomous Flying Controls Testbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis,Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights.

Motter, Mark A.

2005-01-01

96

Tigerbot: Autonomous Robot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper demonstrates artificial intelligence through the construction of a simple robot developed by converting a toy vehicle. The circuitry of the toy vehicle was redesigned and incorporated with proximity sensors, thereby turning the vehicle into an autonomous self-contained robot ("Tigerbot"). This robot has the ability to roam, avoid obstacles without human intervention, and is speech capable. The authors demonstrate how machines can be designed to be aware of their surroundings and adapt accordingly. In the future, artificial intelligence concepts employed in this project may be applied in the design of other machines that would assist humans in performing common household chores. This article represents efforts by students implementing knowledge acquired in a Capstone Senior Project course.

Darayan, Shahryar; Fakunle, Oyekunmi; Saneifard, Rasoul

2009-09-30

97

Autonomous path-planning navigation system for site characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The location and removal of buried munitions is an important yet hazardous task. Current development is aimed at performing both the ordnance location and removal tasks autonomously. An autonomous survey vehicle (ASV) named the Gator has been developed at the Center for Intelligent Machines and Robotics, under the direction of Wright Laboratory, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, and the Navy Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division, Indian Head, Maryland. The primary task of the survey vehicle is to autonomously traverse an off-road site, towing behind it a trailer containing a sensor package capable of characterizing the sub-surface contents. Achieving 00 percent coverage of the site is critical to fully characterizing the site. This paper presents a strategy for planning efficient paths for the survey vehicle that guarantees near-complete coverage of a site. A small library of three in-house developed path planners are reviewed. A strategy is also presented to keep the trailer on-path and to calculate the percent of coverage of a site with a resolution of 0.01 m2. All of the algorithms discussed in this paper were initially developed in simulation on a Silicon Graphics computer and subsequently implemented on the survey vehicle.

Rankin, Arturo L.; Crane, Carl D.; Armstrong, David G.; Nease, Allen D.; Brown, H. E.

1996-05-01

98

Remote Real-Time Monitoring of Subsurface Landfill Gas Migration  

PubMed Central

The cost of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites is of major concern for regulatory authorities. The current monitoring procedure is recognised as labour intensive, requiring agency inspectors to physically travel to perimeter borehole wells in rough terrain and manually measure gas concentration levels with expensive hand-held instrumentation. In this article we present a cost-effective and efficient system for remotely monitoring landfill subsurface migration of methane and carbon dioxide concentration levels. Based purely on an autonomous sensing architecture, the proposed sensing platform was capable of performing complex analytical measurements in situ and successfully communicating the data remotely to a cloud database. A web tool was developed to present the sensed data to relevant stakeholders. We report our experiences in deploying such an approach in the field over a period of approximately 16 months.

Fay, Cormac; Doherty, Aiden R.; Beirne, Stephen; Collins, Fiachra; Foley, Colum; Healy, John; Kiernan, Breda M.; Lee, Hyowon; Maher, Damien; Orpen, Dylan; Phelan, Thomas; Qiu, Zhengwei; Zhang, Kirk; Gurrin, Cathal; Corcoran, Brian; O'Connor, Noel E.; Smeaton, Alan F.; Diamond, Dermot

2011-01-01

99

Remote real-time monitoring of subsurface landfill gas migration.  

PubMed

The cost of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites is of major concern for regulatory authorities. The current monitoring procedure is recognised as labour intensive, requiring agency inspectors to physically travel to perimeter borehole wells in rough terrain and manually measure gas concentration levels with expensive hand-held instrumentation. In this article we present a cost-effective and efficient system for remotely monitoring landfill subsurface migration of methane and carbon dioxide concentration levels. Based purely on an autonomous sensing architecture, the proposed sensing platform was capable of performing complex analytical measurements in situ and successfully communicating the data remotely to a cloud database. A web tool was developed to present the sensed data to relevant stakeholders. We report our experiences in deploying such an approach in the field over a period of approximately 16 months. PMID:22163975

Fay, Cormac; Doherty, Aiden R; Beirne, Stephen; Collins, Fiachra; Foley, Colum; Healy, John; Kiernan, Breda M; Lee, Hyowon; Maher, Damien; Orpen, Dylan; Phelan, Thomas; Qiu, Zhengwei; Zhang, Kirk; Gurrin, Cathal; Corcoran, Brian; O'Connor, Noel E; Smeaton, Alan F; Diamond, Dermot

2011-01-01

100

Interactive subsurface scattering for translucent meshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a simple lighting model to incorporate subsurface scattering effects within the local illumination framework. Subsurface scattering is relatively local due to its exponential falloff and has little effect on the appearance of neighboring objects. These observations have motivated us to approximate the BSSRDF model and to model subsurface scattering effects by using only local illumination. Our model is

Xuejun Hao; Thomas Baby; Amitabh Varshney

2003-01-01

101

Subsurface barrier verification technologies, informal report  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the more promising remediation options available to the DOE waste management community is subsurface barriers. Some of the uses of subsurface barriers include surrounding and\\/or containing buried waste, as secondary confinement of underground storage tanks, to direct or contain subsurface contaminant plumes and to restrict remediation methods, such as vacuum extraction, to a limited area. To be most

Heiser

1994-01-01

102

ISS Update: Autonomous Mission Operations  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Jeff Mauldin, Simulation Supervisor for Autonomous Mission Operations at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson a...

103

Measures of Autonomic Nervous System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mind-body health practices aim to regulate activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to maintain homeostasis within the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The activation of the SNS is directly related to stress response, which, if persistent or prol...

D. Brown M. Bates P. Brierley-Bowers S. Sexton

2011-01-01

104

Autonomous Navigation Technology (ANT) System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A laboratory evaluation of an Interferometric Landmark Tracker (ILT) for an autonomous spacecraft navigation system was conducted. The system processes ILT, inertial reference unit, and star sensor data in a Kalman filter to provide in-space navigation. S...

R. L. Fritz D. H. Aldrich N. F. Toda

1974-01-01

105

SARA: Survivable Autonomic Response Architecture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the architecture of a system being developed to defend information systems using coordinated autonomic responses. The system will also be used to test the hypothesis that an effective defense against fast, distributed information atta...

S. M. Lewandowsky D. J. Van Hook G. C. O'Leary J. W. Haines L. M. Rossey

2001-01-01

106

Technique for Coordinating Autonomous Robots.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a technique for coordinating the subsystems of autonomous robots which takes advantage of a distributed blackboard mechanism and a high degree of functional distribution between subsystems to minimize communications and simplify the i...

S. Y. Harmon, W. A. Aviles, D. W. Gage

1986-01-01

107

A survey of autonomic communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic communications seek to improve the ability of network and services to cope with unpredicted change, including changes in topology, load, task, the physical and logical characteristics of the networks that can be accessed, and so forth. Broad-ranging autonomic solutions require designers to account for a range of end-to-end issues affecting programming models, network and contextual modeling and reasoning, decentralised

Simon Dobson; Spyros G. Denazis; Antonio Fernández; Dominique Gaïti; Erol Gelenbe; Fabio Massacci; Paddy Nixon; Fabrice Saffre; Nikita Schmidt; Franco Zambonelli

2006-01-01

108

Autonomic control of the swimbladder.  

PubMed

The swimbladder of teleost fishes is the primary organ for controlling whole-body density, and thus buoyancy. The volume of gas in the swimbladder is adjusted to bring the organism to near neutral buoyancy at a particular depth. Swimbladder morphology varies widely among teleosts, but all species are capable of inflating and deflating this organ under reflex control by the autonomic nervous system, to achieve neutral buoyancy. Here we review the control of effectors within the swimbladder, including acid-secreting cells, vasculature and musculature, that are involved in determining gas volume. This control system is complex. It incorporates the "classical" efferent elements of the autonomic nervous system, the spinal autonomic and cranial autonomic limbs and their neurotransmitters (typically noradrenaline (NA)/adrenaline (ADR), and acetylcholine, respectively), but also non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic neurotransmitters such as peptides, purines and nitric oxide. The detailed patterns of autonomic innervation of swimbladder effectors are not well understood, nor are the relationships of terminals releasing non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic neurotransmitters onto these effectors. Furthermore, in most cases the complement of postjunctional receptor subtypes activated by adrenergic, cholinergic and other neurotransmitters, and the biological effects of these neurochemicals, have not been completely established. In order to clarify some of these issues and to provide insight into basic principles underlying autonomic control of swimbladder function, we propose the zebrafish as a potentially useful model teleost. PMID:20817620

Smith, Frank M; Croll, Roger P

2011-11-16

109

Autonomous mission operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an empirical investigation of the impact of time delay on today's mission operations, and of the effect of processes and mission support tools designed to mitigate time-delay related impacts. Mission operation scenarios were designed for NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH), an analog spacecraft habitat, covering a range of activities including nominal objectives, DSH system failures, and crew medical emergencies. The scenarios were simulated at time delay values representative of Lunar (1.2-5 sec), Near Earth Object (NEO) (50 sec) and Mars (300 sec) missions. Each combination of operational scenario and time delay was tested in a Baseline configuration, designed to reflect present-day operations of the International Space Station, and a Mitigation configuration in which a variety of software tools, information displays, and crew-ground communications protocols were employed to assist both crews and Flight Control Team (FCT) members with the long-delay conditions. Preliminary findings indicate: 1) Workload of both crewmembers and FCT members generally increased along with increasing time delay. 2) Advanced procedure execution viewers, caution and warning tools, and communications protocols such as text messaging decreased the workload of both flight controllers and crew, and decreased the difficulty of coordinating activities. 3) Whereas crew workload ratings increased between 50 sec and 300 sec of time delay in the Baseline configuration, workload ratings decreased (or remained flat) in the Mitigation configuration.

Frank, J.; Spirkovska, L.; McCann, R.; Wang, Lui; Pohlkamp, K.; Morin, L.

110

Autonomous production of propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The autonomous production of propellants is addressed. Since 80 to 90 percent of a spacecraft's mass is typically propellants, it is advantageous to produce propellants in strategic locations en route to, and at, the desired mission destination. This reduces the weight of the spacecraft and the cost of each mission. Since one of the primary goals of the space program is safety, a totally automated propellant production system is desirable. This system would remove, from hostile, high-risk extraterrestrial environments, the constant human intervention currently required in the production of many propellants. This enables the exploration of space to be more than the search for and production of fuel. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, one specific case was chosen for this study. That case was a composite propellant processor (the principle is more important than the application), and the specific processor used saved SERC the considerable cost of acquiring a new liquid propellant processor that would also have required similar automation.

Ramohalli, Kumar; Schallhorn, P. A.

1990-01-01

111

Autonomous Aerobraking at Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerobraking has become a proven approach for orbital missions at Mars. A launch of a 1000 kg class spacecraft on a Delta class booster saves 90% of the post-MOI fuel otherwise required to circularize the orbit. In 1997, Mars Global Surveyor demonstrated the feasibility and Mars 2001 Odyssey completed a nearly trouble free aerobraking phase in January 2002. In 2006, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will also utilize aerobraking. From the flight operations standpoint, however, aerobraking is labor intensive and high risk due to the large density variability in the Mars thermosphere. The maximum rate of aerobraking is typically limited by the maximum allowable temperature of the solar array which is the primary drag surface. Prior missions have used a surrogate variable, usually maximum free stream heat flux, as a basis for performing periapsis altitude corridor control maneuvers. This paper provides an adaptive sequential method for operationally relating measured temperatures to heat flux profile characteristics and performing maneuvers based directly on measured temperatures and atmospheric properties derived from the heat flux profiles. Simulations of autonomous aerobraking are performed using Odyssey mission data.

Hanna, Jill L.; Tolson, Robert; Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer; Dec, John

2002-01-01

112

Image analysis for water surface and subsurface feature detection in shallow waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carefully collected airborne imagery demonstrates the ability to see water surface features as well as shallow bottom features such as submerged vegetation and manmade targets. Traditional photogrammetric imagery and airborne digital imagery both suffer from a loss in image clarity due to a number of factors, including capillary and small gravity waves, the water column or in-situ constituents. The use of submerged as well as surface man-made calibration targets deployed during airborne or in-situ subsurface image acquisitions forms a preliminary basis for correcting imagery in order to improve subsurface and surface features and their detection. Methods presented as well as imagery at 490 nm, 532 nm and 698-700 nm clearly show subsurface features in shallow waters. The techniques utilized include the use of large frame cameras with photogrammetric films in combination of special filters, such as a Wratten # 70, in order to provide narrower spectral features near the vegetative "red edge" to be used to improve interpretation of hyperspectral push broom imagery. Combined imagery from several sensors and platforms, including autonomous underwater vehicles, form the basis of data fusion for surface and subsurface automatic feature extraction. Data presented from a new hyperspectral imaging system demonstrates the utility of sub-meter hyperspectral imagery for use in subsurface feature detection.

Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Jones, James; Frystacky, Heather; Kovacs, Mate; Jozsa, Oszkar

2010-10-01

113

Method of installing subsurface barrier  

DOEpatents

Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

Nickelson, Reva A. (Shelley, ID); Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sloan, Paul A. (Rigby, ID)

2007-10-09

114

Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers  

SciTech Connect

An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier.

Borns, D.J.

1995-08-01

115

Subsurface transport program: Research summary  

SciTech Connect

DOE's research program in subsurface transport is designed to provide a base of fundamental scientific information so that the geochemical, hydrological, and biological mechanisms that contribute to the transport and long term fate of energy related contaminants in subsurface ecosystems can be understood. Understanding the physical and chemical mechanisms that control the transport of single and co-contaminants is the underlying concern of the program. Particular attention is given to interdisciplinary research and to geosphere-biosphere interactions. The scientific results of the program will contribute to resolving Departmental questions related to the disposal of energy-producing and defense wastes. The background papers prepared in support of this document contain additional information on the relevance of the research in the long term to energy-producing technologies. Detailed scientific plans and other research documents are available for high priority research areas, for example, in subsurface transport of organic chemicals and mixtures and in the microbiology of deep aquifers. 5 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1987-01-01

116

Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

2013-01-01

117

Towards an Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) with Reflex Autonomicity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of providing a fault-tolerant environment and achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications. However, the task of manually managing and configuring a cluster quickly becomes daunting as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing, with its vision to provide self-management, can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management and its evolution to include reflex reactions via pulse monitoring.

Truszkowski, Walt; Hinchey, Mike; Sterritt, Roy

2005-01-01

118

Highlights in clinical autonomic neurosciences: Brain volume and autonomic regulation.  

PubMed

Advances in volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology are beginning to provide structural correlates to functional dysautonomic syndromes in the brain. This paper highlights several interesting recent discoveries in which measurable variations in general or regional subcortical or cortical brain volume corresponded to changes in blood pressure or heart rate. Although these MRI findings currently lack diagnostic value in routine clinical practice, they may provide important clues to the pathophysiology of autonomic disorders and to links between autonomic and cognitive disorders. If validated by further studies, they also have potential implications for the management of orthostatic hypotension, particularly when combined with hypertension. PMID:24862160

Cheshire, William P

2014-07-01

119

Highlights in clinical autonomic neuroscience: Autonomic correlates of social cognition.  

PubMed

Human beings by nature are relational and in relating to others modulate their autonomic responses. Interpersonal relationships may be stressful or calming depending on social contexts, individual temperaments and personality traits. Not only human relationships, but also interactions with affectionate pets and virtual relationships via social networking technology can elicit autonomic responses. These responses range from sympathetic arousal to vagal modulation of cardiovascular activity, and from changes in energy intake and expenditure to modification of physical exercise habits, all of which have potential implications for health and well-being. PMID:23361045

Cheshire, William P

2013-03-01

120

Diabetes, diet and autonomic denervation.  

PubMed

Contemporary theories to explain the autoimmune aetiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) include the "hygiene", "accelerator" and "thrifty phenotype" hypotheses though none accounts for its natural history, or, epidemiology. Early-onset, T1DM is much more common in Western countries and shares features of its epidemiology with other major childhood diseases. In the autonomic denervation view, early-onset, T1DM results from injury to autonomic nerves supplying the pancreas through persistent physical efforts during defaecation in infancy. Pancreatic denervation results in loss of islets of Langerhans and reduced insulin production that may present in infancy or later life. Early introduction of cows milk and solids to the infants' diet cause increased rates of bowel problems whereas exclusive breastfeeding in non-Western countries, protects the infant from both constipation and diarrhoea. Other important Western diseases may result from the varying effects of injuries to nerves at different sites in the autonomic nervous system. PMID:19850417

Quinn, M J

2010-02-01

121

Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During GFY 91, Draper Laboratory was awarded a task by NASA-JSC under contract number NAS9-18426 to study and evaluate the potential for achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using an on-board autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) system. This report describes the results of that study. The AHDA task had four objectives: to demonstrate, via a closed-loop simulation, the ability to autonomously select safe landing sites and the ability to maneuver to the selected site; to identify key issues in the development of AHDA systems; to produce strawman designs for AHDA sensors and algorithms; and to perform initial trade studies leading to better understanding of the effect of sensor/terrain/viewing parameters on AHDA algorithm performance. This report summarizes the progress made during the first year, with primary emphasis on describing the tools developed for simulating a closed-loop AHDA landing. Some cursory performance evaluation results are also presented.

Pien, Homer

1992-01-01

122

Autonomic Dysfunctions in Parkinsonian Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: Symptoms of autonomic dysfunctions are common in the patients with parkinsonian disorders. Because clinical features of autonomic dysfunctions are diverse, the comprehensive evaluation is essential for the appropriate management. For the appreciation of autonomic dysfunctions and the identification of differences, patients with degenerative parkinsonisms are evaluated using structured questionnaire for autonomic dysfunction (ADQ). Methods: Total 259 patients, including 192 patients with [idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD, age 64.6 ± 9.6 years)], 37 with [multiple system atrophy (MSA, 62.8 ± 9.1)], 9 with [dementia with Lewy body (DLB, 73.9 ± 4.3)], and 21 with [progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, 69.4 ± 9.6)]. The ADQ was structured for evaluation of the presence of symptoms and its severity due to autonomic dysfunction, covering gastrointestinal, urinary, sexual, cardiovascular and thermoregulatory domains. Patients were also evaluated for the orthostatic hypotension. Results: Although dementia with Lewy body (DLB) patients were oldest and duration of disease was longest in IPD, total ADQ scores of MSA and PSP (23.9 ± 12.6 and 21.1 ± 7.8) were significantly increased than that of IPD (15.1 ± 10.6). Urinary and cardiovascular symptom scores of MSA and gastrointestinal symptom score of PSP were significantly worse than those of IPD. The ratio of patient with orthostatic hypotension in IPD was 31.2% and not differed between groups (35.1% in MSA, 33.3% in DLB and 33.3% in PSP). But the systolic blood pressure dropped drastically after standing in patients with MSA and DLB than in patients with IPD and PSP. Conclusions: Patients with degenerative parkinsonism showed widespread symptoms of autonomic dysfunctions. The severity of those symptoms in patients with PSP were comparing to that of MSA patients and worse than that of IPD.

Bae, Hyo-Jin; Cheon, Sang-Myung; Kim, Jae Woo

2009-01-01

123

Subsurface detection of environmental pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The design of an in situ sampling device capable of thermally desorbing organics bound to subsurface soils at depths of up to 20 meters is described. The system consists of a heated transfer line and sampling probe that is hydraulically pushed to depth by a cone penetrometer. Results are presented illustrating the thermal extraction efficiency for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Field tests were conducted under real-world conditions at a vehicle maintenance facility where 50 gal drums of petroleum by-products had been buried. PAH data were collected demonstrating the depth profiling features of the tool.

Gorshteyn, A.Y.; Kataenko, Z.; Smarason, S.; Robbat, A. Jr. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

1999-05-01

124

Subsurface Structure of Active Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magneto-convection simulations with horizontal, untwisted magnetic field advected into the domain at large (20Mm) depth spontaneously form magnetic loops which emerge as active regions. An active regions emerges as a fragmented, braided magnetic loop. This is what makes the magnetic flux first appear with mixed polarities, that then counter stream into the leading and following spots at the loop legs. After emergence, braided vertical legs are left behind which extend to large depths in the convection zone at the down flow boundaries of the large underlying convective cells. Movies of the emergence process and the subsurface structure underneath the active region will be presented.

Stein, Robert F.; Nordlund, Aake

2014-06-01

125

Intelligent, autonomous systems in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station is expected to be equipped with intelligent, autonomous capabilities; to achieve and incorporate these capabilities, the required technologies need to be identitifed, developed and validated within realistic application scenarios. The critical technologies for the development of intelligent, autonomous systems are discussed in the context of a generalized functional architecture. The present state of this technology implies that it be introduced and applied in an evolutionary process which must start during the Space Station design phase. An approach is proposed to accomplish design information acquisition and management for knowledge-base development.

Lum, H.; Heer, E.

1988-01-01

126

[Update on trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia].  

PubMed

Cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT syndrome) are classified under trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia (TAC). The proposed revision of the international classification of headache disorders (ICDH-3 beta) adds hemicrania continua to this diagnostic group. Moreover, diagnostic criteria of the other TACs were modified and are characterized by persistent headache or headache attacks accompanied by cranial autonomic symptoms. The main difference between the various TACs is the duration of attacks. Differentiation is important because different pharmacological strategies are necessary. PMID:24212418

Gaul, C; Holle, D; May, A

2013-12-01

127

Autonomic Modulation of Olfactory Signaling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The olfactory epithelium is extensively innervated by sympathetic nerve endings, which release norepinephrine, and parasympathetic nerve endings, which release acetylcholine. Because olfactory sensory neurons have adrenergic and muscarinic receptors in addition to odorant receptors, autonomic stimulation can modulate the responses of olfactory sensory neurons to odorants. Recent studies have shed light on the molecular mechanisms that underlie crosstalk between muscarinic and odorant receptor signaling. The emerging view is that the stimulation of odorant receptor signaling by odorants, which is the earliest step in olfaction, can be substantially regulated by the autonomic nervous system.

Randy A. Hall (Emory University School of Medicine;Department of Pharmacology REV)

2011-01-11

128

Autonomous Pool Cleaning: Self Localization and Autonomous Navigation for Cleaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cleaning is a major problem associated with pools. Since the manual cleaning is tedious and boring there is an interest in automating the task. This paper presents methods for autonomous localization and navigation for a pool cleaner to enable full coverage of pools. Path following cannot be ensured through use of internal position estimation methods alone; therefore sensing is needed.

M. Simoncelli; G. Zunino; H. I. Christensen; K. Lange

2000-01-01

129

Adaptive Sampling in Autonomous Marine Sensor Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this thesis, an innovative architecture for real-time adaptive and cooperative control of autonomous sensor platforms in a marine sensor network is described in the context of the autonomous oceanographic network scenario. This architecture has three m...

D. P. Eickstedt

2006-01-01

130

A Robust Compositional Architecture for Autonomous Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration applications can benefit greatly from autonomous systems. Great distances, limited communications and high costs make direct operations impossible while mandating operations reliability and efficiency beyond what traditional commanding can provide. Autonomous systems can improve reliability and enhance spacecraft capability significantly. However, there is reluctance to utilizing autonomous systems. In part this is due to general hesitation about new technologies, but a more tangible concern is that of reliability of predictability of autonomous software. In this paper, we describe ongoing work aimed at increasing robustness and predictability of autonomous software, with the ultimate goal of building trust in such systems. The work combines state-of-the-art technologies and capabilities in autonomous systems with advanced validation and synthesis techniques. The focus of this paper is on the autonomous system architecture that has been defined, and on how it enables the application of validation techniques for resulting autonomous systems.

Brat, Guillaume; Deney, Ewen; Farrell, Kimberley; Giannakopoulos, Dimitra; Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy; Bobby, Mark; Carpenter, Todd; Estlin, Tara

2006-01-01

131

Autonomic Responses During a Replicable Interrogation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was designed to investigate the autonomic-response components accompanying a simulated interrogation of the type appropriate to a preemployment screening interview. Autonomic responses produced during such interviews provide a basis for excludin...

J. Berkhout D. O. Walter W. R. Adey

1969-01-01

132

Phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

This project involves the development of group specific 16S ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the rapid detection of specific types of subsurface organisms (e.g., groups of microbes that share certain physiological traits). Major accomplishments for the period of 6/91 to 12/1/91 are described. Nine new probes have been synthesized on the basis of published 16S rRNA sequence data from the Ribosomal Database Project. We have initiated rapid screening of many of the subsurface microbial isolates obtained from the P24 borehole at the Savannah River Site. To date, we have screened approximately 50% of the isolates from P24. We have optimized our {und in situ} hybridization technique, and have developed a cell blot hybridization technique to screen 96 samples on a single blot. This is much faster than reading 96 individual slides. Preliminary experiments have been carried out which indicate specific nutrients can be used to amplify rRNA only in those organisms capable of metabolizing those nutrients. 1 tab., 2 figs.

Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.

1991-01-01

133

Selection of Business Process for Autonomic Automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic automation is viewed as a new approach to business process automation. In this work, we propose a method to identify the best-suited business processes as candidates for an autonomic automation. Generally, this decision is made by process automation experts or inspired by management preferences. Moreover, the best candidate to an autonomic automation is possibly different from a candidate to

Luciano D. Terres; José A. Rodrigues Nt; Jano Moreira de Souza

2010-01-01

134

Autonomous and Remote-Controlled Airborne and Ground-Based Robotic Platforms for Adaptive Geophysical Surveying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-cost autonomous and remote-controlled robotic platforms have opened the door to precision-guided geophysical surveying. Over the past two years, the U.S. Geological Survey, Senseta, NASA Ames Research Center, and Carnegie Mellon University Silicon Valley, have developed and deployed small autonomous and remotely controlled vehicles for geophysical investigations. The purpose of this line of investigation is to 1) increase the analytical capability, resolution, and repeatability, and 2) decrease the time, and potentially the cost and map-power necessary to conduct near-surface geophysical surveys. Current technology has advanced to the point where vehicles can perform geophysical surveys autonomously, freeing the geoscientist to process and analyze the incoming data in near-real time. This has enabled geoscientists to monitor survey parameters; process, analyze and interpret the incoming data; and test geophysical models in the same field session. This new approach, termed adaptive surveying, provides the geoscientist with choices of how the remainder of the survey should be conducted. Autonomous vehicles follow pre-programmed survey paths, which can be utilized to easily repeat surveys on the same path over large areas without the operator fatigue and error that plague man-powered surveys. While initial deployments with autonomous systems required a larger field crew than a man-powered survey, over time operational experience costs and man power requirements will decrease. Using a low-cost, commercially available chassis as the base for autonomous surveying robotic systems promise to provide higher precision and efficiency than human-powered techniques. An experimental survey successfully demonstrated the adaptive techniques described. A magnetic sensor was mounted on a small rover, which autonomously drove a prescribed course designed to provide an overview of the study area. Magnetic data was relayed to the base station periodically, processed and gridded. A target was located in the subsurface, and a second, higher-resolution survey was programmed and executed to give detailed data over the newly-found target.

Spritzer, J. M.; Phelps, G. A.

2011-12-01

135

Interoperability of multiple autonomous databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Database systems were a solution to the problem of shared access to heterogeneous files created by multiple autonomous applications in a centralized environment. To make data usage easier, the files were replaced by a globally integrated database. To a large extent, the idea was successful, and many databases are now accessible through local and long-haul networks. Unavoidably, users now need

Witold Litwin; Leo Mark; Nick Roussopoulos

1990-01-01

136

Autonomous landing-functional requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

For military aviation, an autonomous landing (AL) capability is sought to enable operations out of landing fields which are battle-damaged, or have less than adequate approach aids or lighting. The author focus on an AL capability for future transport and special operations aircraft. Attention is given to AL requirements, the satisfaction of approach requirements, vision systems, and functional capability requirements

K. Fitschen; A. Zembower

1991-01-01

137

Algorithms for autonomous star identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Algorithms for onboard autonomous star identification are presented. The algorithms are applicable to two types of spacecraft missions, those flown with nearly inertially fixed attitude (solar maximum mission type); and those flown with smoothly time varying attitude (LANDSAT-D type).

1980-01-01

138

AARD - Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document reviews the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration program, and NASA Dryden's work in the program. The primary goal of the program is to make one fully automatic probe-to-drogue engagement using the AARD system. There are pictures of the aircraft approaching to the docking.

Ewers, Dick

2007-01-01

139

Autonomic control of the swimbladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The swimbladder of teleost fishes is the primary organ for controlling whole-body density, and thus buoyancy. The volume of gas in the swimbladder is adjusted to bring the organism to near neutral buoyancy at a particular depth. Swimbladder morphology varies widely among teleosts, but all species are capable of inflating and deflating this organ under reflex control by the autonomic

Frank M. Smith; Roger P. Croll

2011-01-01

140

Autonomous Mobile Periscope System (AMPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of diesel electric submarines has impacted undersea warfare (USW) world wide. They are acoustically nearly undetectable, but can be detected by their periscope or snorkel. Since the US Navy has no diesel electric submarine, the Autonomous Mobile Periscope System (AMPS) is being developed to meet the requirement for an inexpensive readily available periscope detection target for the training

Stan Rollins; Richard Knutson; Hung Vo; Steve Ebner

1998-01-01

141

Simulated Visual Perception for Autonomous  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of robots in the world increases, from automatic vacuum cleaners, to toy robot dogs, to autonomous vehicles for the military, the need for effective algorithms to control these agents is becoming increasingly more important. Conventional path finding techniques have relied on having a representation of the world that could be analysed mathematically to find the best path.

Daniel Flower; Burkhard Wünsche; Werner Guesgen

142

Motion Planning of Autonomous Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the demonstration of autonomous mobile networked robots for ubiquitous computing. While these robots are sensing the surro unding environment, they move from an initial position to destination in order to complete their tasks by con tinuously planning their motion to adapt to changing environm ent conditions (obstacles and other moving robots). The demonstration is executed

Takashi Okada; Junya Nakata; Razvan Beuran; Yasuo Tan; Yoichi Shinoda

143

The Phoenix Autonomous Underwater Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Phoenix autonomous underwater collaboration with other scientists interested in either vehicle (AUV) is a robot for student research in r obot or virtual world. Repeated validation of shallow-water sensing and control (Figure 1). Phoenix simulation extensions through real-world testing is neutrally buoyant at 387 pounds (176 kg) with a hull remains essential. Details are provided on process length of

Don Brutzman; Tony Healey; Dave Marco; Bob McGhee

1997-01-01

144

The Design and Implementation of Instruments for Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Sounding of the Martian Subsurface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-frequency electromagnetic soundings of the subsurface can identify liquid water at depths ranging from hundreds of meters to approx. 10 km in an environment such as Mars. Among the tools necessary to perform these soundings are low-frequency electric and magnetic field sensors capable of being deployed from a lander or rover such that horizontal and vertical components of the fields can be measured free of structural or electrical interference. Under a NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP), we are currently engaged in the prototype stages of low frequency sensor implementations that will enable this technique to be performed autonomously within the constraints of a lander platform. Once developed, this technique will represent both a complementary and alternative method to orbital radar sounding investigations, as the latter may not be able to identify subsurface water without significant ambiguities. Low frequency EM methods can play a crucial role as a ground truth measurement, performing deep soundings at sites identified as high priority areas by orbital radars. Alternatively, the penetration depth and conductivity discrimination of low-frequency methods may enable detection of subsurface water in areas that render radar methods ineffective. In either case, the sensitivity and depth of penetration inherent in low frequency EM exploration makes this tool a compelling candidate method to identify subsurface liquid water from a landed platform on Mars or other targets of interest.

Delory, G. T.; Grimm, R. E.

2003-01-01

145

Autonomic Computing: Freedom or a Threat?  

SciTech Connect

No longer is the question whether autonomic computing will gain general acceptance but when. Experts expect autonomic computing to be widely used within 10 years. When it does become mainstream, how will autonomics change system administration and corporations, and will the change be for better or worse? The answer depends on how well we anticipate the limitations of what autonomic systems are suited to do, whether we can collectively address the vulnerabilities of autonomic approaches as we draw upon the advantages, and whether administrators, companies, partners, and users are prepared for the transition. This article presents some design considerations to address the first two issues and some suggested survival techniques for the third.

Fink, Glenn A.; Frincke, Deb

2007-12-01

146

CENTER FOR SUBSURFACE MODELING SUPPORT (CSMOS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division's (SPRD)Center for Subsurface Modeling Support (CSMoS) provides public domain groundwater and vadose zone modeling software and services to public agencies and private companies throughout the nation. CSMoS is located in Ada, Ok...

147

Subsurface Drainage Processes and Management Impacts 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Abstract: Abstract: Abstract: Storm-induced streamflow in forested upland watersheds is linked to rainfall by transient, variably saturated flow through several different flow paths. In the absence of exposed bedrock, shallow flow-restrictive layers, or compacted soil surfaces, virtually all of the infiltrated rainfall reaches the stream as subsurface flow. Subsurface runoff can occur within micropores (voids between soil grains), various

Elizabeth Keppeler; David Brown

148

Amino acid synthesis in Europa's subsurface environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that Europa's subsurface environment may provide a haven for prebiotic evolution and the development of exotic biotic systems. The detection of hydrogen peroxide, sulfuric acid, water, hydrates and related species on the surface, coupled with observed mobility of icebergs, suggests the presence of a substantial subsurface liquid reservoir that actively exchanges materials with the surface environment.

Sam H. Abbas; Dirk Schulze-Makuch

2008-01-01

149

Efficient Rendering of Local Subsurface Scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach is presented to efciently render lo- cal subsurface scattering effects. We introduce an impor- tance sampling scheme for a practical subsurface scatter- ing model. It leads to a simple and efcient rendering algo- rithm, which operates in image-space, and which is even amenable for implementation on graphics hardware. We demonstrate the applicability of our technique to the

Tom Mertens; Jan Kautz; Philippe Bekaert; Frank Van Reeth; Hans-peter Seidel

2003-01-01

150

Fabricating spatially-varying subsurface scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many real world surfaces exhibit translucent appearance due to subsurface scattering. Although various methods exists to measure, edit and render subsurface scattering effects, no solution exists for manufacturing physical objects with desired translucent appearance. In this paper, we present a complete solution for fabricating a material volume with a desired surface BSSRDF. We stack layers from a fixed set of

Yue Dong; Jiaping Wang; Fabio Pellacini; Xin Tong; Baining Guo

2010-01-01

151

Fall Meeting Subsurface Hydrology Highlights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As has become the norm in recent years, subsurface hydrology sessions took place every day of AGU's Fall 1992 Meeting in San Francisco, Calif. Sessions were organized around various approaches to groundwater modeling, hydrogeology field studies, hydrochemical investigations, vadose-zone studies, and measurement methods. Session chairs contributed the following highlights.A well-attended special session looked at the “History of Groundwater Hydrology in the Nuclear Era.” F. L. Parker, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn., reviewed early developments in U.S. radioactive-waste disposal and offered the provocative viewpoint that a disposal program is characterized by a high degree of inflexibility. W. W. Dudley of the U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colo., summarized the hydrological studies that have been such an important component of the nuclear explosion program at the Nevada Test Site. Two papers presented results of investigations in connection with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, where military waste is to be stored in salt.

Bales, Roger

152

Microbial processes and subsurface contaminants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Chapman Conference entitled “Microbial Processes in the Transport, Fate, and In Situ Treatment of Subsurface Contaminants” was held in Snowbird, Utah, October 1-3, 1986. Members of the program committee and session chairmen were Lenore Clesceri (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y.), David Gibson (University of Texas, Austin), James Mercer (GeoTrans, Inc., Herndon , Va.), Donald Michelsen (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg), Fred Molz (Auburn University, Auburn, Ala.), Bruce Rittman (University of Illinois, Urbana), Gary Sayler (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), and John T. Wilson (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ada, Okla.). The following report attempts to highlight the six sessions that constituted the conference. For additional information, including a bound summary and abstracts, contact Fred J. Molz, Civil Engineering Department, Auburn University, AL 36849 (telephone: 205-826-4321).

Molz, Fred J.

153

Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

Wehner, Walter S., Jr.

2013-01-01

154

Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Simulation Software, KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), is used to demonstrate the automatic identification of faults in a system. The ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operation) project uses KATE to monitor and find faults in the loading of the cryogenics int o a vehicle fuel tank. The KATE software interfaces with the IHM (Integrated Health Management) systems bus to communicate with other systems that are part of ACLO. One system that KATE uses the IHM bus to communicate with is AIS (Advanced Inspection System). KATE will send messages to AIS when there is a detected anomaly. These messages include visual inspection of specific valves, pressure gauges and control messages to have AIS open or close manual valves. My goals include implementing the connection to the IHM bus within KATE and for the AIS project. I will also be working on implementing changes to KATE's Ul and implementing the physics objects in KATE that will model portions of the cryogenics loading operation.

Wehner, Walter S.

2012-01-01

155

Autonomous spacecraft maintenance study group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A plan to incorporate autonomous spacecraft maintenance (ASM) capabilities into Air Force spacecraft by 1989 is outlined. It includes the successful operation of the spacecraft without ground operator intervention for extended periods of time. Mechanisms, along with a fault tolerant data processing system (including a nonvolatile backup memory) and an autonomous navigation capability, are needed to replace the routine servicing that is presently performed by the ground system. The state of the art fault handling capabilities of various spacecraft and computers are described, and a set conceptual design requirements needed to achieve ASM is established. Implementations for near term technology development needed for an ASM proof of concept demonstration by 1985, and a research agenda addressing long range academic research for an advanced ASM system for 1990s are established.

Marshall, M. H.; Low, G. D.

1981-01-01

156

Gemini Planet Imager autonomous software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is an "extreme" adaptive optics coronagraph system that will have the ability to directly detect and characterize young Jovian-mass exoplanets. The design of this instrument involves eight principal institutions geographically spread across North America, with four of those sites writing software that must run seamlessly together while maintaining autonomous behaviour. The objective of the software teams is to provide Gemini with a unified software system that not only performs well but also is easy to maintain. Issues such as autonomous behaviour in a unified environment, common memory to share status and information, examples of how this is being implemented, plans for early software integration and testing, command hierarchy, plans for common documentation and updates are explored in this paper. The project completed its preliminary design phase in 2007, and has just recently completed its critical design phase.

Dunn, Jennifer; Wooff, Robert; Smith, Malcolm; Kerley, Dan; Palmer, Dave; Jones, Steve; Weiss, Jason; Angione, John; Graham, James R.

2008-08-01

157

Validating the Autonomous Science Agent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the validation process for the Autonomous Science Agent, a software agent that will fly onboard the EO-1 spacecraft from 2003-2004. This agent will recognize science events, retarget the spacecraft to respond to the science events, and reduce data downlink to only the highest value science data. The autonomous science agent has been designed using a layered architectural approach with specific redundant safeguards to reduce the risk of an agent malfunction to the EO-1 spacecraft. This 'safe' design is also in the process of being thoroughly validated by informal validation methods and extensive testing. This paper describes the analysis used to define agent safety, elements of the design that increase the safety of the agent, and the process being used to validate agent safety prior to the agent software controlling the spacecraft.

Chien, Steve; Cichy, Benjamin; Schaffer, Steve; Tran, Danny; Rabideau, Gregg; Sherwood, Rob; Bote, Robert; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stu; Shulman, Seth; Van Gaasbeck, Jim; Boyer, Darrell

2003-01-01

158

Experiments on autonomous Boolean networks.  

PubMed

We realize autonomous Boolean networks by using logic gates in their autonomous mode of operation on a field-programmable gate array. This allows us to implement time-continuous systems with complex dynamical behaviors that can be conveniently interconnected into large-scale networks with flexible topologies that consist of time-delay links and a large number of nodes. We demonstrate how we realize networks with periodic, chaotic, and excitable dynamics and study their properties. Field-programmable gate arrays define a new experimental paradigm that holds great potential to test a large body of theoretical results on the dynamics of complex networks, which has been beyond reach of traditional experimental approaches. PMID:23822500

Rosin, David P; Rontani, Damien; Gauthier, Daniel J; Schöll, Eckehard

2013-06-01

159

Treatment options for autonomic neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Autonomic disorders may present in a varied fashion. Symptoms that may require treatment include orthostatic intolerance,\\u000a gastrointestinal distress, sudomotor abnormalities, and urologic and sexual dysfunction. Realistic treatment goals should\\u000a be outlined for patients, with the expectations that symptoms can be improved, but that the disease is unlikely to be cured\\u000a and long-term therapy may be required. Orthostatic intolerance is

Christopher H. Gibbons; Roy Freeman

2006-01-01

160

Autonomous Decentralized Traffic Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Autonomous Decentralized Traffic Management System is a completely renovated rail traffic control system, which is quite different from the conventional CTC (centralized traffic control)\\/PRC (programmed route control) type system. The features of the system are fully automatic route control for large-scale stations, a maintenance-work management system and an advanced man-machine system for dispatchers to adjust a disturbed diagram quickly.

Fumio Kitahara; K. Kera; Keisuke Bekki

2000-01-01

161

Semi autonomous mine detection system  

SciTech Connect

CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

2010-04-01

162

Semi autonomous mine detection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude - from an autonomous robotic perspective - the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

Few, Doug; Versteeg, Roelof; Herman, Herman

2010-04-01

163

Integrated System for Autonomous Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The New Millennium Program Space Technology 6 Project Autonomous Sciencecraft software implements an integrated system for autonomous planning and execution of scientific, engineering, and spacecraft-coordination actions. A prior version of this software was reported in "The TechSat 21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment" (NPO-30784), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 3 (March 2004), page 33. This software is now in continuous use aboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) spacecraft mission and is being adapted for use in the Mars Odyssey and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. This software enables EO-1 to detect and respond to such events of scientific interest as volcanic activity, flooding, and freezing and thawing of water. It uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect changes, including events of scientific interest. Detection of such events triggers acquisition of follow-up imagery. The mission-planning component of the software develops a response plan that accounts for visibility of targets and operational constraints. The plan is then executed under control by a task-execution component of the software that is capable of responding to anomalies.

Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Robert; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Castano, Rebecca; Rabideau, Gregg; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Shulman, Seth; Doggett, Thomas; Ip, Felipe; Greeley, Ron; Baker, Victor; Dohn, James; Boyer, Darrell

2006-01-01

164

Autonomic neuropathy in mixed cryoglobulinemia.  

PubMed

A retrospective, cross-sectional study was performed on a series of HCV-related mixed cryoglobulinemia (HCV-MC) patients to assess autonomic neuropathy (AN) and its relation to peripheral neuropathy (PN). Thirty consecutive patients affected by HCV-MC underwent clinical, neurological and electrodiagnostic examinations. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) involvement was assessed by functional cardiovascular tests and sympathetic skin response (SSR) evaluation. Sural nerve biopsy was performed in 10 patients with PN. All patients received steroids, 15 also received recombinant interferon-alpha2b (RIfn-alpha2b). PN occurred in 27 patients (90.0%) and AN in 4 (13.3 %) all with signs of PN. SSR was the autonomic test more frequently altered. Biopsy disclosed axonal degeneration more evident in the 4 patients with AN. Three out of 4 patients with AN received steroids and rIFN-alpha2b and 1 steroids alone. In our study on HCV-MC, it was concluded that AN can occur also without dysautonomic symptoms, SSR appears to be one of the optional tests to use together with dysautonomic tests to identify AN and finally PN and AN do not seem to be positively influenced by addition of rIFN-alpha2b to steroid treatment. PMID:17334955

Ammendola, A; Sampaolo, S; Migliaresi, S; Ambrosone, L; Ammendola, E; Ciccone, G; Di Iorio, G

2007-02-01

165

Autonomic Computing: Panacea or Poppycock?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomic Computing arose out of a need for a means to cope with rapidly growing complexity of integrating, managing, and operating computer-based systems as well as a need to reduce the total cost of ownership of today's systems. Autonomic Computing (AC) as a discipline was proposed by IBM in 2001, with the vision to develop self-managing systems. As the name implies, the influence for the new paradigm is the human body's autonomic system, which regulates vital bodily functions such as the control of heart rate, the body's temperature and blood flow-all without conscious effort. The vision is to create selfivare through self-* properties. The initial set of properties, in terms of objectives, were self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protecting, along with attributes of self-awareness, self-monitoring and self-adjusting. This self-* list has grown: self-anticipating, self-critical, self-defining, self-destructing, self-diagnosis, self-governing, self-organized, self-reflecting, and self-simulation, for instance.

Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

2005-01-01

166

Subsurface Sounding Performance In Marsis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principle of operation of MARSIS is based on the electromagnetic wave trans- mission by the antenna impinging on the top of the Mars surface producing a first reflection echo which propagates backward to the radar. However, thanks to the long wavelengths employed, a significant fraction of the e.m. energy impinging on the sur- face is transmitted into the crust and propagates downward. Additional reflections, due to the subsurface dielectric discontinuities (due to water or ice), would occur and the relevant echoes would propagate backward through the first layer medium and then to the radar generating further echo signals, much weaker than the front surface signal. As consequence time domain analysis of the strong surface return, eventually after multi-look non-coherent integration, will allow estimation of surface roughness, reflectivity and mean distance. The presence of weaker signals after the first strong surface return will enable the detection of subsurface interfaces, while the estimation of their time delay from the first surface signal will allow the measurement of the depth of the detected interfaces. Moreover the detection performance will be limited by three main factors, namely the ionosphere distortion, surface clutter echoes and the noise floor. As a matter of fact MARSIS will operate with a very high fractional bandwidth and very close to the expected Martian Ionosphere peak plasma frequency. This will result in a generally large phase distortion across the spectrum of the re- ceived pulses (due to the Antenna frequency response and the propagation through the Ionosphere) which will cause severe degradation of the matched filter performance in term of SNR, pulse spreading and sidelobe level. Besides in particular analyzing the data now available from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) from Mars Global Surveyor Mission new, more accurate estimation of the surface clutter power can be obtained, according also to a fractal model topography description. Finally MARSIS performances will be analyzed in terms of sounding depth vs. layer composition and surface structure, taking into account ionosphere distortion

Biccari, D.; Picardi, G.; Seu, R.; Orosei, R.

167

Method for modeling deformation in subsurface strata  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for modeling deformation in subsurface strata, including defining physical boundaries for a geomechanical system. The method also includes acquiring one or more mechanical properties of the subsurface strata within the physical boundaries, and acquiring one or more thermal properties of the subsurface strata within the physical boundaries. The method also includes creating a computer-implemented finite element analysis program representing the geomechanical system and defining a plurality of nodes representing points in space, with each node being populated with at least one of each of the mechanical properties and the thermal properties. The program solves for in situ stress at selected nodes within the mesh.

2013-10-01

168

Modeling subsurface contamination at Fernald  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s Fernald site is located about 20 miles northwest of Cincinnati. Fernald produced refined uranium metal products from ores between 1953 and 1989. The pure uranium was sent to other DOE sites in South Carolina, Tennessee, Colorado,and Washington in support of the nation`s strategic defense programs. Over the years of large-scale uranium production, contamination of the site`s soil and groundwater occurred.The contamination is of particular concern because the Fernald site is located over the Great Miami Aquifer, a designated sole-source drinking water aquifer. Contamination of the aquifer with uranium was found beneath the site, and migration of the contamination had occurred well beyond the site`s southern boundary. As a result, Fernald was placed on the National Priorities (CERCLA/Superfund) List in 1989. Uranium production at the site ended in 1989,and Fernald`s mission has been changed to one of environmental restoration. This paper presents information about computerized modeling of subsurface contamination used for the environmental restoration project at Fernald.

Jones, B.W.; Flinn, J.C.; Ruwe, P.R.

1994-09-13

169

Persulfate activation by subsurface minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Persulfate dynamics in the presence of subsurface minerals was investigated as a basis for understanding persulfate activation for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). The mineral-mediated decomposition of persulfate and generation of oxidants and reductants was investigated with four iron and manganese oxides and two clay minerals at both low pH (< 7) and high pH (> 12). The manganese oxide birnessite was the most effective initiator of persulfate for degrading the oxidant probe nitrobenzene, indicating that oxidants are generated at both low and high pH regimes. The iron oxide goethite was the most effective mineral for degrading the reductant probe hexachloroethane. A natural soil and two soil fractions were used to confirm persulfate activation by synthetic minerals. The soil and soil fractions did not effectively promote the generation of oxidants or reductants. However, soil organic matter was found to promote reductant generation at high pH. The results of this research demonstrate that synthetic iron and manganese oxides can activate persulfate to generate reductants and oxidants; however, iron and manganese oxides in the natural soil studied do not show the same reactivity, most likely due to the lower masses of the metal oxides in the soil relative to the masses studied in isolated mineral systems.

Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L.; Watts, Richard J.

2010-06-01

170

Subsurface barrier validation with the seaface system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objective of the effort was to develop and demonstrate an integrated methodology and field system to evaluate the integrity of in situ, impermeable barriers constructed in the vadose zone. An autonomous, remotely accessible, automatic monitori...

S. D. Dunn

1997-01-01

171

Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

Schrading, J. Nicolas

2013-01-01

172

Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: KSC Autonomous Test Engineer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20+ years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in. the system, As part.of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display ofthe entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledgebase, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

Shrading, Nicholas J.

2012-01-01

173

Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias: Diagnosis and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are a group of primary headache disorders characterized by unilateral head pain\\u000a that occurs in association with ipsilateral cranial autonomic features. The TACs include cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania,\\u000a and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT) and its close relative\\u000a short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with cranial autonomic symptoms (SUNA). These

Peter J. Goadsby; Anna S. Cohen; Manjit S. Matharu

2007-01-01

174

Sustainable and Autonomic Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts to realize these survivable systems visions, with specific emphasis on developments in Autonomic Policies.

Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Rouff, Christopher; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter

2006-01-01

175

Autonomic Networking in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we address autonomic networking in termsof wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a typical example of wirelessnetworks\\u000a in pervasive computing. In order to investigate the stateof the art of autonomic networking in sensor networks and its futureprospects,\\u000a we start with a short summary of autonomic networking andSensor networks. It follows the discussion of the appliance ofautonomic\\u000a networking in WSNs

Mengjie Yu; Hala Mokhtar; Madjid Merabti

176

The EO-1 Autonomous Science Agent Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Autonomous Science Agent is currently flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and respond to science events occurring on the Earth. The package includes software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. Because of the deployment to a remote spacecraft, this Autonomous Science Agent has stringent constraints of autonomy, reliability, and limited computing resources. We describe these constraints and how they are reflected in our agent architecture.

Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Lee, Rachel; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Hengemihle, Jerry; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Ungar, Stephen; Brakke, Thomas; Boyer, Darrell; Van Gaasbeck, Jim; Greeley, Ronald; Doggett, Thomas; Baker, Victor; Dohm, James; Ip, Felipe

2004-01-01

177

Automated Subsurface Profiler for Drifting Buoys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective was to obtain a preliminary estimate of the feasibility of an automatic subsurface profiler for drifting buoys. Potential profiling methods were evaluated and a simple approach which has significant advantages for drifting buoy applications ...

J. O. Anderson D. Webb M. Clarke

1987-01-01

178

Subsurface Assessment Handbook for Contaminated Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the handbook is to improve subsurface investigations at contaminated sites. Site investigations draw on many disciplines (e.g., geology, chemistry, mathematics, and biology) and therefore challenge both investigators and users of the result...

J. F. Barker R. V. Nicholson D. J. A. Smyth J. P. Greenhouse P. J. Gudjurgis D. L. Rudolph J. W. Molson E. O. Frind E. A. Sudicky M. Graham

1994-01-01

179

Clutter Models for Subsurface Electromagnetic Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Clutter models for subsurface electromagnetic applications are discussed with emphasis on tunnel detection applications. Random medium models are more versatile and require less detailed information than deterministic models. The Born approximation is use...

D. A. Hill

1989-01-01

180

Evaluating Subsurface Damage in Optical Glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hard brittle materials (e.g. glasses and ceramics) increasingly appeal to general interests because of their excellent physical, mechanical and chemical properties such as super hardness and strength at extreme temperature and chemical stability. The precision manufacturing of these materials is primarily achieved by grinding and polishing, which generally employs abrasives to wear the materials. With this manufacturing technology, the materials are removed due principally to the fracture of brittle materials, which will leave a cracked layer on the surface of manufactured components, namely subsurface damage (SSD). The subsurface damage affects the strength, performance and lifetime of components. As a result, investigation into the subsurface damage is needed. A host of characterizing techniques have been developed during the past several decades. These techniques based on different mechanisms provide researchers with invaluable information on the subsurface damage in various materials. In this article the typical SSD evaluation techniques are reviewed, which are regularly used in optical workshops or laboratories.

Lee, Y.

2011-02-01

181

Issues in subsurface exploration of ice sheets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration of the deep subsurface ice sheets of Earth, Mars, Europa, and Titan has become a major consideration in addressing scientific objectives in climate change, extremophile biology, exobiology,chemical weathering, planetary evolution and ice dynamics.

French, L.; Carsey, F.; Zimmerman, W.

2000-01-01

182

PUBLICATIONS (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

SPRD's Subsurface Remediation Information Center (SRIC) provides publication distribution of highly specialized scientific and technical information developed by and through SPRD relating to groundwater protection and remediation and ecosystem restoration. The SRIC maintains a b...

183

CONTINUOUS SUBSURFACE INJECTION OF LIQUID DAIRY MANURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The research has involved the development and evaluation of an efficient, economical, continuous subsurface injection machine. The application site was instrumented so the quality of water percolating beneath the injection zone could be measured. Wells located around the sites we...

184

EVOLVING CONCEPTS OF SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, a large gap exists between theoretical advances in the understanding of how various natural processes affect subsurface contaminant transport, and our ability to translate those advances into practical applications. The lack of truly representative and reliable field t...

185

Subsurface Microbial Habitats on Mars (Abstract Only).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We developed scenarios for shallow and deep subsurface cryptic niches for microbial life on Mars. Such habitats could have considerably prolonged the persistence of life on Mars as surface conditions became increasingly inhospitable. The scenarios rely on...

P. J. Boston C. P. Mckay

1991-01-01

186

Armored Enzyme Nanoparticles for Remediation of Subsurface.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The remediation of subsurface contaminants is a critical problem for the Department of Energy, other government agencies, and our nation. Severe contamination of soil and groundwater exists at several DOE sites due to various methods of intentional and un...

J. W. Grate J. Kim J. Dordick

2005-01-01

187

Autonomic Computing for Spacecraft Ground Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomic computing for spacecraft ground systems increases the system reliability and reduces the cost of spacecraft operations and software maintenance. In this paper, we present an autonomic computing solution for spacecraft ground systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), which consists of an open standard for a message oriented architecture referred to as the GMSEC architecture (Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center), and an autonomic computing tool, the Criteria Action Table (CAT). This solution has been used in many upgraded ground systems for NASA 's missions, and provides a framework for developing solutions with higher autonomic maturity.

Li, Zhenping; Savkli, Cetin; Jones, Lori

2007-01-01

188

Information for Successful Interaction with Autonomous Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interaction in heterogeneous mission operations teams is not well matched to classical models of coordination with autonomous systems. We describe methods of loose coordination and information management in mission operations. We describe an information agent and information management tool suite for managing information from many sources, including autonomous agents. We present an integrated model of levels of complexity of agent and human behavior, which shows types of information processing and points of potential error in agent activities. We discuss the types of information needed for diagnosing problems and planning interactions with an autonomous system. We discuss types of coordination for which designs are needed for autonomous system functions.

Malin, Jane T.; Johnson, Kathy A.

2003-01-01

189

Microbial life in the deep terrestrial subsurface  

SciTech Connect

The distribution and function of microorganisms is a vital issue in microbial ecology. The US Department of Energy`s Program, ``Microbiology of the Deep Subsurface,`` concentrates on establishing fundamental scientific information about organisms at depth, and the use of these organisms for remediation of contaminants in deep vadose zone and groundwater environments. This investigation effectively extends the Biosphere hundreds of meters into the Geosphere and has implications to a variety of subsurface activities.

Fliermans, C.B. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Lab.; Balkwill, D.L. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Beeman, R.E. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)] [and others

1988-12-31

190

Separating Subsurface Scattering from Photometric Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract While subsurface scattering is common,in many real ob- jects, almost all separation algorithms focus on extract- ing specular and diffuse components,from real images. In this paper, we present a model-less approach derived from the bi-directional surface scattering reflectance distribution function (BSSRDF). In our approach, we show that an illu- mination image is composed,by the Lambertian diffuse and subsurface scattering

Tai-pang Wu; Chi-keung Tang

2006-01-01

191

Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto-Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner- TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the targeted system. It is envisioned that real time requirements tracing will greatly assist the movement of autoprocedures to flight software enhancing the software assurance of auto-procedures and also their acceptance as reliable commanders

Plattsmier, George I.; Stetson, Howard K.

2014-01-01

192

Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the targeted system. It is envisioned that real time requirements tracing will greatly assist the movement of autoprocedures to flight software enhancing the software assurance of auto-procedures and also their acceptance as reliable commanders.

Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

2014-01-01

193

Multi-agent autonomous system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

194

[Therapy of trigeminal autonomic headaches].  

PubMed

Trigeminal autonomic cephalgias (TAC) are characterized by severe and strictly unilateral headaches with a frontotemporal and periorbital preponderance in combination with ipsilateral cranial autonomic symptoms, such as lacrimation, conjunctival injection, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, and restlessness or agitation. One main differentiating factor is the duration of painful attacks. While attacks typically last 5 s to 10 min in SUNCT syndrome (short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing), paroxysmal hemicrania lasts 2-30 min and cluster headaches 15-180 min. Hemicrania continua represents a continuous TAC variant. From a therapeutic view, TACs differ substantially. Lamotrigine is used as first-choice prevention in SUNCT syndrome and indometacin in paroxysmal hemicrania. For cluster headaches, acute therapy with inhaled pure oxygen and fast-acting triptans (sumatriptan s.c. and intranasal zolmitriptan) is equally important to short-term preventive therapy with methysergide and cortisone and long-term prophylactic treatment comprising verapamil as drug of first choice and lithium carbonate and topiramate as drugs of second choice. In refractory cases of chronic cluster headache, neuromodulatory approaches such as occipital nerve stimulation and sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation are increasingly applied. PMID:25005009

Jürgens, Tim Patrick

2014-08-01

195

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy with autonomic crises: a Turkish variant of familial dysautonomia?  

PubMed

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies have different phenotypes. We report 2 cousins with differing clinical courses of a hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy. The progressive disease in case 1 is dominated by loss of sensation, autonomic crises, and pain. Case 2 shows loss of sensation, mental retardation, and deafness, clinically similar to patients with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II. Detailed molecular studies in case 1 for all known genes that are associated with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies were negative. However, the occurrence of the 2 cases within 1 kindred makes a common genetic background likely. We, therefore, propose a Turkish variant of familial dysautonomia in these 2 patients. PMID:22140130

Koy, Anne; Freynhagen, Rainer; Mayatepek, Ertan; Tibussek, Daniel

2012-02-01

196

Hierarchical control of small autonomous helicopters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous air vehicles have numerous applications, all of which require the vehicle to have stable and accurate control of its motion. In the paper, a hierarchical control system for small autonomous helicopters is described. The control system consists of four components: a navigation filter, an inner-loop hover control system, a waypoint guidance system, and a ground-based flight manager. All four

Christopher P. Sanders; Paul A. DeBitetto; Eric Feron; Hon Fai Vuong; Nancy Leveson

1998-01-01

197

A visual odometer for autonomous helicopter flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a visual odometer for autonomous helicopter flight. The odometer estimates helicopter position by visually locking on to and tracking ground objects. The paper describes the philosophy behind the odometer as well as its tracking algorithm and implementation. The paper concludes by presenting test flight data of the odometer's performance on-board indoor and outdoor prototype autonomous helicopters.

Omead Amidi; Takeo Kanade; Keisuke Fujita

1999-01-01

198

Autonomous Helicopter Flight via Reinforcement Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous helicopter flight represents a challenging control problem, with complex, noisy, dynamics. In this paper, we describe a successful application of reinforcement learning to autonomous helicopter flight. We first fit a stochastic, nonlinear model of the helicopter dynamics. We then use the model to learn to hover in place, and to fly a number of maneuvers taken from an RC

Andrew Y. Ng; H. Jin Kim; Michael I. Jordan; Shankar Sastry

2003-01-01

199

Autonomous Intersection Management: Multi-intersection optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in autonomous vehicles and intelligent transportation systems indicate a rapidly approaching future in which intelligent vehicles will automatically handle the process of driving. However, increasing the efficiency of today's transportation infrastructure will require intelligent traffic control mechanisms that work hand in hand with intelligent vehicles. To this end, Dresner and Stone proposed a new intersection control mechanism called Autonomous

Matthew Hausknecht; Tsz-Chiu Au; Peter Stone

2011-01-01

200

Sympathetically Mediated Hypertension in Autonomic Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Approximately 50% of patients with primary autonomic failure have supine hypertension. We investigated whether this supine hypertension could be driven by residual sympathetic activity. Methods and Results—In patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) or pure autonomic failure (PAF), we studied the effect of oral yohimbine on seated systolic blood pressure (SBP), the effect of ganglionic blockade (with trimethaphan) on supine

John R. Shannon; Jens Jordan; Andre Diedrich; Bojan Pohar; Bonnie K. Black; David Robertson; Italo Biaggioni

2010-01-01

201

Autonomic Physiological Response Patterns Related to Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined autonomic physiological responses induced by six different cognitive ability tasks, varying in complexity, that were selected on the basis of on Guilford's Structure of Intellect model. In a group of 52 participants, task performance was measured together with nine different autonomic response measures and respiration rate. Weighted…

Melis, Cor; van Boxtel, Anton

2007-01-01

202

Digital Libraries and Autonomous Citation Indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Wide Web is revolutionizing the way that researchers access scientific information. Articles are increasingly being made available on the homepages of authors or institutions, at journal Web sites, or in online archives. However, scientific information on the Web is largely disorganized. This article introduces the creation of digital libraries incorporating Autonomous Citation Indexing (ACI). ACI autonomously creates citation

Steve Lawrence; C. Lee Giles; Kurt D. Bollacker

1999-01-01

203

An autonomous systems control theory: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

A formal theory for characterizing the control of autonomous, dynamical systems is outlined. The main goal is to establish a coherent blend of conventional feedback control and logic-based model theories that provides a unified framework for design and analysis of autonomous systems. A descriptive style is used to highlight the elements of the theory and some basic results. The theory

A. Nerode; W. Kohn

1992-01-01

204

Autonomic Systems, Coping Strategies adn Dream Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main challenge for autonomic systems operating in remote environments is how to deal with uncertainties. This paper develops a framework of coping strategies for autonomic systems to deal with uncertain situations, new environments, conflicting sensory inputs and diverse mission objectives. Important aspects of the coping strategies include learning mechanisms, for which the concept of dream functions is presented. More

Carl Adams

2007-01-01

205

A solar-powered autonomous underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the rapidly expanding requirements for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), Falmouth Scientific, Inc. (FSI) is working in cooperation with the Autonomous Undersea Systems Institute (AUSI) and Technology Systems Inc. (TSI) to develop a vehicle capable of long-term deployment and station-keeping duties. It has long been considered that AUV platforms, in principle, could provide an effective solution for surveillance (security

J. Jalbert; J. Baker; J. Duchesney; P. Pietryka; W. Dalton; D. R. Blidberg; S. Chappell; R. Nitzel; K. Holappa

2003-01-01

206

Terrain Modeling for Autonomous Underwater Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main task of perception for autonomous vehicles is to build a representation of the observed environment in order to carry out a mission. In particular, terrain modeling, that is modeling the geomeny of the environment observed by the vehicle's sensors, is crucial for autonomous underwater exploration. The purpose of this work is to analyze the components of the terrain

Martial Hebert

1989-01-01

207

Autonomous navigation in a manufacturing environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current approaches towards achieving mobility in the workplace are reviewed. The role of automatic guided vehicles (AGVs) and some of the preliminary work of other groups in autonomous vehicles are described. An overview is presented of the autonomous robot architecture (AuRA), a general-purpose system designed for experimentation in the domain of intelligent mobility. The means by which navigation is accomplished

R. C. Arkin; R. R. Murphy

1990-01-01

208

Development of autonomous decentralized ATC system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an autonomous decentralized ATC (Automatic Train Control device) system developed by East Japan Railway Company (JR East). In the current ATC, the central ATC logic device calculates permissive speed of each blocking section and controls speed of all trains. On the other hand, in the autonomous decentralized ATC, the central logic system calculates the position at which

Masayula Matsumoto; Mitsuharu Sato; Satoru Kitamura; Tatsuya Shigeta; Noriharu Amiya

2002-01-01

209

Pain-autonomic interactions: A selective review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nociceptive and the autonomic systems interact at the level of the periphery, spinal cord, brainstem, and forebrain. Spinal and visceral afferents provide converging information to spinothalamic neurons in the dorsal horn and to neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius and parabrachial nuclei. These structures project to areas involved in reflex, homeostatic, and behavioral control of autonomic outflow, endocrine function,

Eduardo E. Benarroch

2001-01-01

210

Workload Models for Autonomic Database Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic computing is a promising approach to the problem of effectively managing large complex software systems such as database management systems (DBMSs). In order to be self-managing, an autonomic DBMS (ADBMS) must understand key aspects of its workload, including composition, frequency patterns, intensity and resource requirements. It must therefore use and maintain different characterizations, or models, of the workload to

Patrick Martin; Said Elnaffar; Ted J. Wasserman

2006-01-01

211

Enabling autonomous capabilities in underwater robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater operations present unique challenges and opportunities for robotic applications. These can be at- tributed in part to limited sensing capabilities, and to lo- comotion behaviours requiring control schemes adapted to specific tasks or changes in the environment. From enhancing teleoperation procedures, to providing high-level instruction, all the way to fully autonomous operations, enabling autonomous capabilities is fundamental for the

Junaed Sattar; Gregory Dudek; Olivia Chiu; Ioannis M. Rekleitis; Philippe Giguère; Alec Mills; Nicolas Plamondon; Chris Prahacs; Yogesh Girdhar; Meyer Nahon; John-paul Lobos

2008-01-01

212

CSMOS GROUNDWATER MODELING SOFTWARE (CENTER FOR SUBSURFACE MODELING SUPPORT, SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Center for Subsurface Modeling Support (CSMoS), which is part of NRMRL's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division, distributes various public domain groundwater and vadose zone models. A short decription of each model is available. You can obtain both models and manuals...

213

DEMO: The autonomous sciencecraft experiment onboard the EO-1 spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE), currently flying onboard the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft, integrates several autonomy software technologies enabling autonomous science analysis and mission planning.

Tran, Daniel; Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Castano, Rebecca; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Rabideau, Gregg

2005-01-01

214

Autonomous power system intelligent diagnosis and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. Knowledge-based software provides a robust method of control for highly complex space-based power systems that conventional methods do not allow. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis and control, the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space based power system. The operation of the Autonomous Power System as a whole is described and the responsibilities of the three elements - APEX, AIPS, and Brassboard - are characterized. A discussion of the methodologies used in each element is provided. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Power System.

Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.; Merolla, Anthony

1991-01-01

215

Autonomic dysfunction in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Autonomic deficits in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) have not been adequately quantitated. The Composite Autonomic Severity Score (CASS) is a validated instrument for laboratory quantitation of autonomic failure derived from standard autonomic reflex tests. We characterized dysautonomia in CIDP using CASS. Methods: Autonomic function was retrospectively analyzed in 47 patients meeting CIDP criteria. CASS ranges from 0 (normal) to 10 (pandysautonomia), reflecting summation of sudomotor (0–3), cardiovagal (0–3), and adrenergic (0–4) subscores. Severity of neurologic deficits was measured with Neuropathy Impairment Score (NIS). Degree of small fiber involvement was assessed with quantitative sensation testing. Thermoregulatory sweat test (TST) was available in 8 patients. Results: Patients (25 men) were middle-aged (45.0 ± 14.9 years) with longstanding CIDP (3.5 ± 4.3 years) of moderate severity (NIS, 46.5 ± 32.7). Autonomic symptoms were uncommon, mainly gastrointestinal (9/47; 19%) and genitourinary (8/47; 17%). Autonomic deficits (CASS ?1) were frequent (22/47; 47%) but very mild (CASS, 0.8 ± 0.9; CASS ?3, all cases). Deficits were predominantly sudomotor (16/47; 34%) and cardiovagal (10/47; 21%) with relative adrenergic sparing (4/47; 9%). TST was abnormal in 5 of 8 patients (anhidrosis range, 2%–59%). Sudomotor impairment was predominantly distal and postganglionic. Somatic deficits (disease duration, severity, small fiber deficits) did not predict presence of autonomic deficits. Conclusion: Our data characterize the autonomic involvement in classic CIDP as mild, cholinergic, and predominantly sudomotor mainly as a result of lesions at the distal postganglionic axon. Extensive or severe autonomic involvement (CASS ?4) in suspected CIDP should raise concern for an alternative diagnosis.

Figueroa, J.J.; Dyck, P.J.B.; Laughlin, R.S.; Mercado, J.A.; Massie, R.; Sandroni, P.; Dyck, P.J.

2012-01-01

216

Subsurface Shielding Source Term Specification Calculation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation is to establish appropriate and defensible waste-package radiation source terms for use in repository subsurface shielding design. This calculation supports the shielding design for the waste emplacement and retrieval system, and subsurface facility system. The objective is to identify the limiting waste package and specify its associated source terms including source strengths and energy spectra. Consistent with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M&O 2001, p. 15), the scope of work includes the following: (1) Review source terms generated by the Waste Package Department (WPD) for various waste forms and waste package types, and compile them for shielding-specific applications. (2) Determine acceptable waste package specific source terms for use in subsurface shielding design, using a reasonable and defensible methodology that is not unduly conservative. This calculation is associated with the engineering and design activity for the waste emplacement and retrieval system, and subsurface facility system. The technical work plan for this calculation is provided in CRWMS M&O 2001. Development and performance of this calculation conforms to the procedure, AP-3.12Q, Calculations.

S.Su

2001-04-12

217

Mapping planetary caves with an autonomous, heterogeneous robot team  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caves on other planetary bodies offer sheltered habitat for future human explorers and numerous clues to a planet's past for scientists. While recent orbital imagery provides exciting new details about cave entrances on the Moon and Mars, the interiors of these caves are still unknown and not observable from orbit. Multi-robot teams offer unique solutions for exploration and modeling subsurface voids during precursor missions. Robot teams that are diverse in terms of size, mobility, sensing, and capability can provide great advantages, but this diversity, coupled with inherently distinct low-level behavior architectures, makes coordination a challenge. This paper presents a framework that consists of an autonomous frontier and capability-based task generator, a distributed market-based strategy for coordinating and allocating tasks to the different team members, and a communication paradigm for seamless interaction between the different robots in the system. Robots have different sensors, (in the representative robot team used for testing: 2D mapping sensors, 3D modeling sensors, or no exteroceptive sensors), and varying levels of mobility. Tasks are generated to explore, model, and take science samples. Based on an individual robot's capability and associated cost for executing a generated task, a robot is autonomously selected for task execution. The robots create coarse online maps and store collected data for high resolution offline modeling. The coordination approach has been field tested at a mock cave site with highly-unstructured natural terrain, as well as an outdoor patio area. Initial results are promising for applicability of the proposed multi-robot framework to exploration and modeling of planetary caves.

Husain, Ammar; Jones, Heather; Kannan, Balajee; Wong, Uland; Pimentel, Tiago; Tang, Sarah; Daftry, Shreyansh; Huber, Steven; Whittaker, William L.

218

Responsibility and autonomous nursing practice.  

PubMed

In this paper, the consequences were there greater autonomy in nursing practice, are considered. Autonomous practice implies accountability which entails both personal and professional responsibility: a personal responsibility to endorse ethical conduct consistent with professional practice; and a professional responsibility to exercise discretionary powers to the ultimate benefit of the patient. In this context, discretionary responsibility implies: recognizing a patient's wants may not be consistent with a patient's needs; abstaining from collusion with noncompliant patients; supporting the patient's right to refuse treatment only after full psychological exploration; understanding the psychological ramifications of informed consent from a practitioner and recipient point of view; maintaining appropriate personal and professional boundaries; and fostering collegiate relationships with the medical fraternity grounded on egalitarian principles. The author provides a philosophical and psychological analysis of responsibility in an effort to achieve a deeper understanding of the relationship this has with the concepts of 'freedom' and 'accountability'. PMID:2061502

Holden, R J

1991-04-01

219

Autonomous navigation system and method  

DOEpatents

A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.

Bruemmer, David J. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-09-08

220

Autonomous power management and distribution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Autonomous Power System program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control to the Space Station Freedom's electric power testbed being developed at NASA's Lewis Research Center. Objectives are to establish artificial intelligence technology paths, craft knowledge-based tools and products for power systems, and integrate knowledge-based and conventional controllers. This program represents a joint effort between the Space Station and Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology to develop and demonstrate space electric power automation technology capable of: (1) detection and classification of system operating status, (2) diagnosis of failure causes, and (3) cooperative problem solving for power scheduling and failure recovery. Program details, status, and plans will be presented.

Dolce, Jim; Kish, Jim

1990-01-01

221

Autonomous Spacecraft Navigation With Pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An external reference system suitable for deep space navigation can be defined by fast spinning and strongly magnetized neutron stars, called pulsars. Their beamed periodic signals have timing stabilities comparable to atomic clocks and provide characteristic temporal signatures that can be used as natural navigation beacons, quite similar to the use of GPS satellites for navigation on Earth. By comparing pulse arrival times measured on-board a spacecraft with predicted pulse arrivals at a reference location, the spacecraft position can be determined autonomously and with high accuracy everywhere in the solar system and beyond. The unique properties of pulsars make clear already today that such a navigation system will have its application in future astronautics. We will describe the basic principle of spacecraft navigation using pulsars and report on the current development status of this novel technology.

Becker, Werner

2014-08-01

222

Sign detection for autonomous navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobile robots currently cannot detect and read arbitrary signs. This is a major hindrance to mobile robot usability, since they cannot be tasked using directions that are intuitive to humans. It also limits their ability to report their position relative to intuitive landmarks. Other researchers have demonstrated some success on traffic sign recognition, but using template based methods limits the set of recognizable signs. There is a clear need for a sign detection and recognition system that can process a much wider variety of signs: traffic signs, street signs, store-name signs, building directories, room signs, etc. We are developing a system for Sign Understanding in Support of Autonomous Navigation (SUSAN), that detects signs from various cues common to most signs: vivid colors, compact shape, and text. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our approach on a variety of signs in both indoor and outdoor locations.

Goodsell, Thomas G.; Snorrason, Magnús S.; Cartwright, Dustin; Stube, Brian; Stevens, Mark R.; Ablavsky, Vitaly X.

2003-09-01

223

Wireless autonomous device data transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of communicating information from a wireless autonomous device (WAD) to a base station. The WAD has a data element having a predetermined profile having a total number of sequenced possible data element combinations. The method includes receiving at the WAD an RF profile transmitted by the base station that includes a triggering portion having a number of pulses, wherein the number is at least equal to the total number of possible data element combinations. The method further includes keeping a count of received pulses and wirelessly transmitting a piece of data, preferably one bit, to the base station when the count reaches a value equal to the stored data element's particular number in the sequence. Finally, the method includes receiving the piece of data at the base station and using the receipt thereof to determine which of the possible data element combinations the stored data element is.

Sammel, Jr., David W. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Mi, Minhong (Inventor)

2013-01-01

224

An Autonomous Flight Safety System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) being developed by NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center s Wallops Flight Facility and Kennedy Space Center has completed two successful developmental flights and is preparing for a third. AFSS has been demonstrated to be a viable architecture for implementation of a completely vehicle based system capable of protecting life and property in event of an errant vehicle by terminating the flight or initiating other actions. It is capable of replacing current human-in-the-loop systems or acting in parallel with them. AFSS is configured prior to flight in accordance with a specific rule set agreed upon by the range safety authority and the user to protect the public and assure mission success. This paper discusses the motivation for the project, describes the method of development, and presents an overview of the evolving architecture and the current status.

Bull, James B.; Lanzi, Raymond J.

2007-01-01

225

Anthropogenic effects on subsurface temperature in Bangkok  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface temperatures in Bangkok, where population and density increase rapidly, were analyzed to evaluate the effects of surface warming due to urbanization. The magnitude of surface warming evaluated from subsurface temperature in Bangkok was 1.7°C which agreed with meteorological data during the last 50 years. The depth apart from steady thermal gradient, which shows an indicator of the magnitude of surface warming due to additional heat from urbanization, was deeper at the center of the city than in the suburb areas of Bangkok. In order to separate surface warming effects into global warming effect and urbanization effect, analyses of subsurface temperature have been done depending on the distance from the city center. The results show that the expansion of urbanization in Bangkok reaches up to 80 km from the city center.

Taniguchi, M.

2006-09-01

226

Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area annual report 1997  

SciTech Connect

In support of its vision for technological excellence, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) has identified three strategic goals. The three goals of the SCFA are: Contain and/or stabilize contamination sources that pose an imminent threat to surface and ground waters; Delineate DNAPL contamination in the subsurface and remediate DNAPL-contaminated soils and ground water; and Remove a full range of metal and radionuclide contamination in soils and ground water. To meet the challenges of remediating subsurface contaminants in soils and ground water, SCFA funded more than 40 technologies in fiscal year 1997. These technologies are grouped according to the following product lines: Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids; Metals and Radionuclides; Source Term Containment; and Source Term Remediation. This report briefly describes the SCFA 1997 technologies and showcases a few key technologies in each product line.

NONE

1997-12-31

227

Microbial activities in deep subsurface environments  

SciTech Connect

Activities of microorganisms residing in terrestrial deep subsurface sediments were examined in forty-six sediment samples from three aseptically sampled boreholes. Radiolabeled time course experiments assessing in situ microbial activities were initiated within 30 minutes of core recovery. [{sup 14}C-1-] Acetate incorporation into lipids. [methyl-{sup 3}H-]thymidine incorporation into DNA, [{sup 14}C-2-]acetate and [{sup 14}C-U-]glucose mineralization in addition to microbial enrichment and enumeration studies were examined in surface and subsurface sediments. Surface soils contained the greatest biomass and activities followed by the shallow aquifer zones. Water saturated subsurface sediments exhibited three to four orders of magnitude greater activity and culturable microorganisms than the dense clay zones. Regardless of depth, sediments which contained more than 20% clays exhibited the lowest activities and culturable microorganisms.

Phelps, T.J.; Raione, E.G.; White, D.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Inst. for Applied Microbiology]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., Knoxville, TN (United States); Fliermans, C.B. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Plant

1988-12-31

228

Optical subsurface damage evaluation using LSCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaluation of subsurface damage (SSD) has become a key problem in optical engineering field. Laser scanning confocal technology (LSCT) is one of the potential SSD non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods. Under three assumptions, an innovative and credible scattering model, which is to detect subsurface defect through LSCT, is built base on the classical Mie light scattering theory. Aimed to the model, three important parameters are discussed respectively that is N.A., wave length and relatively refraction index. In order to verify the reasonableness of the model, an effective measurement is done for a usual polished optical surface, and the survey result is in accord with the model. At last, several helpful conclusions about subsurface damage assessment using LSCT are given.

Wang, Chunhui; Tian, Ailing; Wang, Hongjun; Li, Bingcail; Jiang, Zhuangde

2009-12-01

229

Complete Subsurface Elemental Composition Measurements With PING  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Probing In situ with Neutrons and Gamma rays (PING) instrument will measure the complete bulk elemental composition of the subsurface of Mars as well as any other solid planetary body. PING can thus be a highly effective tool for both detailed local geochemistry science investigations and precision measurements of Mars subsurface reSOurces in preparation for future human exploration. As such, PING is thus fully capable of meeting a majority of both ncar and far term elements in Challenge #1 presented for this conference. Measuring the ncar subsurface composition of Mars will enable many of the MEPAG science goals and will be key to filling an important Strategic Knowledge Gap with regard to In situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) needs for human exploration. [1, 2] PING will thus fill an important niche in the Mars Exploration Program.

Parsons, A. M.

2012-01-01

230

Autonomous caregiver following robotic wheelchair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, a variety of robotic/intelligent wheelchairs have been proposed to meet the need in aging society. Their main research topics are autonomous functions such as moving toward some goals while avoiding obstacles, or user-friendly interfaces. Although it is desirable for wheelchair users to go out alone, caregivers often accompany them. Therefore we have to consider not only autonomous functions and user interfaces but also how to reduce caregivers' load and support their activities in a communication aspect. From this point of view, we have proposed a robotic wheelchair moving with a caregiver side by side based on the MATLAB process. In this project we discussing about robotic wheel chair to follow a caregiver by using a microcontroller, Ultrasonic sensor, keypad, Motor drivers to operate robot. Using camera interfaced with the DM6437 (Davinci Code Processor) image is captured. The captured image are then processed by using image processing technique, the processed image are then converted into voltage levels through MAX 232 level converter and given it to the microcontroller unit serially and ultrasonic sensor to detect the obstacle in front of robot. In this robot we have mode selection switch Automatic and Manual control of robot, we use ultrasonic sensor in automatic mode to find obstacle, in Manual mode to use the keypad to operate wheel chair. In the microcontroller unit, c language coding is predefined, according to this coding the robot which connected to it was controlled. Robot which has several motors is activated by using the motor drivers. Motor drivers are nothing but a switch which ON/OFF the motor according to the control given by the microcontroller unit.

Ratnam, E. Venkata; Sivaramalingam, Sethurajan; Vignesh, A. Sri; Vasanth, Elanthendral; Joans, S. Mary

2011-12-01

231

MSTS - Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator theory manual  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, through the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office, has designated the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada for detailed study as the candidate US geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Site characterization will determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for the potential waste repository. If the site is determined suitable, subsequent studies and characterization will be conducted to obtain authorization from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to construct the potential waste repository. A principal component of the characterization and licensing processes involves numerically predicting the thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment of the Yucca Mountain site to the potential repository over a 10,000-year period. The thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment to the repository is anticipated to include complex processes of countercurrent vapor and liquid migration, multiple-phase heat transfer, multiple-phase transport, and geochemical reactions. Numerical simulators based on mathematical descriptions of these subsurface phenomena are required to make numerical predictions of the thermal and hydrologic response of the Yucca Mountain subsurface environment The engineering simulator called the Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator (MSTS) was developed at the request of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office to produce numerical predictions of subsurface flow and transport phenomena at the potential Yucca Mountain site. This document delineates the design architecture and describes the specific computational algorithms that compose MSTS. Details for using MSTS and sample problems are given in the {open_quotes}User`s Guide and Reference{close_quotes} companion document.

White, M.D.; Nichols, W.E.

1993-05-01

232

Anaerobic microbial transformations in subsurface environments: highlights  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic microorganisms under appropriate conditions affect trace metal dissolution and mobilization or immobilization in the subsurface environments by one or more of the following processes: (1) changes in pH and Eh (which affect the valence or ionic state of the metals and enhance their mobility in the subsurface environment by retarding the subsoil binding characteristics); (2) chelation or production of specific sequestering agents (solubilization and leaching of certain elements by microbial metabolites or decomposition products); and (3) bioaccumulation and release of metals due to remineralization elsewhere in the environment.

Francis, A.J.

1985-09-01

233

Water in the shallow subsurface of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orbital measurements of neutrons and gamma-rays from the Martian surface are known to provide the unique opportunity to detect the presence of water in the shallow subsurface over the entire planet. These observations have been started in February 2002 by three spectrometers of gamma-rays and neutrons onboard NASA's Mars Odyssey, and they are in progress now after more than 6 years of successful space operations. In this talk I will present the review of known facts on water distribution in the shallow subsurface of Mars at high, medium and low latitudes.

Mitrofanov, Igor

234

Apparatus for passive removal of subsurface contaminants  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided which passively removes contaminated gases from a subsurface. The apparatus includes a riser pipe extending into a subsurface which has an exterior end in fluid communication with a valve. When well pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure, the valve opens to release contaminants into the atmosphere, and when well pressure is less than atmospheric pressure, the valve closes to prevent flow of air into the well. The valve assembly of the invention comprises a lightweight ball which is lifted from its valve seat with a slight pressure drop between the well and the atmosphere.

Pemberton, Bradley E. (Aiken, SC); May, Christopher P. (Fairfax, VA); Rossabi, Joseph (Aiken, SC)

1997-01-01

235

Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations  

DOEpatents

A heating system for a subsurface formation includes an elongated electrical conductor located in the subsurface formation. The electrical conductor extends between at least a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact. A ferromagnetic conductor at least partially surrounds and at least partially extends lengthwise around the electrical conductor. The electrical conductor, when energized with time-varying electrical current, induces sufficient electrical current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor such that the ferromagnetic conductor resistively heats to a temperature of at least about 300.degree. C.

Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Bass, Ronald M. (Houston, TX)

2012-04-24

236

Apparatus for passive removal of subsurface contaminants  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided which passively removes contaminated gases from a subsurface. The apparatus includes a riser pipe extending into a subsurface which has an exterior end in fluid communication with a valve. When well pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure, the valve opens to release contaminants into the atmosphere, and when well pressure is less than atmospheric pressure, the valve closes to prevent flow of air into the well. The valve assembly of the invention comprises a lightweight ball which is lifted from its valve seat with a slight pressure drop between the well and the atmosphere. 7 figs.

Pemberton, B.E.; May, C.P.; Rossabi, J.

1997-06-24

237

Radar soundings of the subsurface of Mars.  

PubMed

The martian subsurface has been probed to kilometer depths by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding instrument aboard the Mars Express orbiter. Signals penetrate the polar layered deposits, probably imaging the base of the deposits. Data from the northern lowlands of Chryse Planitia have revealed a shallowly buried quasi-circular structure about 250 kilometers in diameter that is interpreted to be an impact basin. In addition, a planar reflector associated with the basin structure may indicate the presence of a low-loss deposit that is more than 1 kilometer thick. PMID:16319122

Picardi, Giovanni; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Biccari, Daniela; Bombaci, Ornella; Calabrese, Diego; Cartacci, Marco; Cicchetti, Andrea; Clifford, Stephen M; Edenhofer, Peter; Farrell, William M; Federico, Costanzo; Frigeri, Alessandro; Gurnett, Donald A; Hagfors, Tor; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Huff, Richard L; Ivanov, Anton B; Johnson, William T K; Jordan, Rolando L; Kirchner, Donald L; Kofman, Wlodek; Leuschen, Carlton J; Nielsen, Erling; Orosei, Roberto; Pettinelli, Elena; Phillips, Roger J; Plettemeier, Dirk; Safaeinili, Ali; Seu, Roberto; Stofan, Ellen R; Vannaroni, Giuliano; Watters, Thomas R; Zampolini, Enrico

2005-12-23

238

Management Approaches to Hypertension in Autonomic Failure  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Supine hypertension is a common finding in autonomic failure that can worsen orthostatic hypotension and predispose to end-organ damage. This review focuses on non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches to manage hypertension in these patients, in the face of disabling orthostatic hypotension. Recent Findings The hypertension of autonomic failure can be driven by sympathetic dependent or independent mechanisms, depending on the site of autonomic lesions. Management of supine hypertension should include simple non-pharmacologic approaches including avoiding the supine position during the daytime and head-up tilt at night. Most patients, however, require pharmacologic treatment. Several antihypertensive therapies lower night-time pressure in autonomic failure, but none improve nocturnal volume depletion or morning orthostatic tolerance. Regardless, treatment may still be beneficial in some patients but must be determined on an individual basis, considering disease type and overnight monitoring. Further, doses must be carefully titrated as these patients are hypersensitive to depressor agents due to loss of baroreceptor reflexes. Summary Autonomic failure provides a unique opportunity to study blood pressure regulation independent of autonomic influences. Understanding mechanisms driving supine hypertension will have important implications for the treatment of autonomic failure and will improve our knowledge of cardiovascular regulation in other populations, including essential hypertension and elderly hypertensives with comorbid orthostatic hypotension.

Arnold, Amy C.; Biaggioni, Italo

2013-01-01

239

Autonomic Ganglia: Target and Novel Therapeutic Tool  

PubMed Central

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are ligand-gated cation channels that are present throughout the nervous system. The muscle AChR mediates transmission at the neuromuscular junction; antibodies against the muscle AChR are the cause of myasthenia gravis. The ganglionic (?3-type) neuronal AChR mediates fast synaptic transmission in sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric autonomic ganglia. Impaired cholinergic ganglionic synaptic transmission is one important cause of autonomic failure. Pharmacological enhancement of ganglionic synaptic transmission may be a novel way to improve autonomic function. Ganglionic AChR antibodies are found in patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG). Patients with AAG typically present with rapid onset of severe autonomic failure. Major clinical features include orthostatic hypotension, gastrointestinal dysmotility, anhidrosis, bladder dysfunction, and sicca symptoms. Impaired pupillary light reflex is often seen. Like myasthenia, AAG is an antibody-mediated neurological disorder. The disease can be reproduced in experimental animals by active immunization or passive antibody transfer. Patient may improve with plasma exchange treatment or other immunomodulatory treatment. Antibodies from patients with AAG inhibit ganglionic AChR currents. Other phenotypes of AAG are now recognized based on the results of antibody testing. These other presentations are generally associated with lower levels of ganglionic AChR antibodies. A chronic progressive form of AAG may resemble pure autonomic failure. Milder forms of dysautonomia, such as postural tachycardia syndrome, are associated with ganglionic AChR in 10–15% of cases. Since ganglionic synaptic transmission is a common pathway for all autonomic traffic, enhancement of autonomic function through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase is a potential specific therapeutic strategy for autonomic disorders. Increasing the strength of ganglionic transmission can ameliorate neurogenic orthostatic hypotension without aggravating supine hypertension. Recent evidence also suggests a potential role for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of postural tachycardia syndrome.

Vernino, Steven; Sandroni, Paola; Singer, Wolfgang; Low, Phillip A.

2009-01-01

240

The NASA/Army Autonomous Rotorcraft Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the NASA Ames Research Center Autonomous Rotorcraft Project (ARP) is presented. The project brings together several technologies to address NASA and US Army autonomous vehicle needs, including a reactive planner for mission planning and execution, control system design incorporating a detailed understanding of the platform dynamics, and health monitoring and diagnostics. A candidate reconnaissance and surveillance mission is described. The autonomous agent architecture and its application to the candidate mission are presented. Details of the vehicle hardware and software development are provided.

Whalley, M.; Freed, M.; Takahashi, M.; Christian, D.; Patterson-Hine, A.; Schulein, G.; Harris, R.

2002-01-01

241

Autonomic dysreflexia in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.  

PubMed

Autonomic dysreflexia occurs in patients with spinal cord injury, and is characterized by unbalanced sympathetic discharge, precipitated by noxious stimuli from a site below the spinal cord lesion. An 11-year-old boy with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and spinal cord involvement manifested episodes of intense flushing and sweating, confined to the head and neck region, and associated with hypertension and tachycardia. His signs improved after changing a partly blocked bladder catheter. The clinical features suggested autonomic dysreflexia. Early recognition of autonomic dysreflexia is important because removal of the trigger precipitating the event may be life-saving. PMID:22964449

Jayakrishnan, Machinary P; Krishnakumar, Padinharath; Gauthamen, Rajendran; Sabitha, Sasidharanpillai; Devarajan, Ellezhuthil

2012-10-01

242

Autonomous observatories for the Antarctic plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antarctic astronomical site-testing has been conducted using autonomous self-powered observatories for more than a decade (the AASTO at South Pole, the AASTINO at Dome C, and PLATO at Dome A/Dome F). More recently autonomous (PLATO) observatories have been developed and deployed to support small-scale scientific instruments, such as HEAT, a 0.6 m aperture terahertz telescope at Ridge A, and AST3, a 0.5 m optical telescope array at Dome A. This paper reviews the evolution of autonomous Antarctic astronomical observatories, and discusses the requirements and implications for observatories that will be needed for future larger-scale facilities.

Lawrence, J. S.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Storey, J. W. V.

2013-01-01

243

Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

1994-01-01

244

SUBSURFACE BARRIER VALIDATION WITH THE SEAFACE SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of the effort was to develop and demonstrate an integrated methodology and field system to evaluate the integrity of in situ, impermeable barriers constructed in the vadose zone. An autonomous, remotely accessible, automatic monitoring and analysis system was designed and fabricated. It was thoroughly tested under field conditions, and was able to function as designed throughout the

Sandra Dalvit Dunn

1997-01-01

245

AFV-II: Robotic Aerial Platform for Autonomous Robot Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT An overview of an autonomous helicopter test - bed project at the Autonomous Robots Lab of the University of Southern California is presented The core of this test - bed is a new autonomous helicopter, the Autonomous Flying Vehicle - II (AFV - II) The AFV - II is an evolution of the origi - nal AFV vehicle described

M. Anthony Lewis

246

Is Europa's Subsurface Water Ocean Warm?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Europa's subsurface water ocean may be warm: that is, at the temperature of water's maximum density. This provides a natural explanation of chaos melt-through events and leads to a correct estimate of the age of its surface. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Melosh, H. J.; Ekholm, A. G.; Showman, A. P.; Lorenz, R. D.

2002-01-01

247

The water acceptance of wrapped subsurface drains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water acceptance of subsurface, agricultural pipe drains is largely determined by the hydraulic conductivity of the surrounding zone. If this zone consists of soil with a poor structural stability, such drains must be wrapped with an envelope to control the rate of pipe sedimentation while safeguarding easy access of water. The studies were made to elicidate the effects of

L. C. P. M. Stuyt

1992-01-01

248

Subsurface signatures of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-surface signatures of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) are identified using expendable bathythermograph (XBT) measurements of temperature from the surface down to a depth of 400 m. Basin averaged temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic at different depths display multidecadal variability with a phase shift between temperature anomalies at the surface and at depth. Westward propagation of temperature anomalies is

L. M. Frankcombe; H. A. Dijkstra; A. von der Heydt

2008-01-01

249

SEQUESTRATION OF SUBSURFACE ELEMENTAL MERCURY (HG0)  

EPA Science Inventory

Elemental mercury (Hg0) is a metal with a number of atypical properties, which has resulted in its use in myriad anthropogenic processes. However, these same properties have also led to severe local subsurface contamination at many places where it has been used. As...

250

Subsurface fracture measurement with polarimetric borehole radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-polarimetric borehole radar system is presented with combinations of dipole antennas and axial slot antennas and is applied to subsurface fracture measurement. First, to determine a scattering matrix from measurements with antennas having different antenna transfer functions between orthogonal polarizations, the authors present an antenna compensation algorithm that is achieved by an inverse filtering method with the antenna transfer

Takashi Miwa; Motoyuki Sato; Hiroaki Niitsuma

1999-01-01

251

BIODEGRADATION OF ATRAZINE IN SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The pesticide atrazine is frequently detected in ground water, including ground water used as drinking water. Little information is available on the fate of atrazine in the subsurface, including its biodegradability. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the biodegradabil...

252

Microbial nanowires: Is the subsurface “hardwired”?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth's shallow subsurface results from integrated biological, geochemical, and physical processes. Methods are sought to remotely assess these interactive processes, especially those catalysed by micro-organisms. Using saturated sand columns and the metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, we show that electrically conductive appendages called bacterial nanowires are directly associated with electrical potentials. No significant electrical potentials were detectable in

Dimitrios Ntarlagiannis; Estella A. Atekwana; Eric A. Hill; Yuri Gorby

2007-01-01

253

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages and disadvantages of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) as compared to alternative irrigation systems are conceptually discussed. Each category (advantages and disadvantages) is subdivided into three groups: 1) Water and soil issues; 2) Cropping and cultural practices, and 3) System infrastructure issues. The adaptation and adoption of SDI systems into diverse cropping systems, geographical regions, soils and climate depends,

Freddie R. Lamm

254

Separating Subsurface Scattering from Photometric Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

While subsurface scattering is common in many real ob- jects, almost all separation algorithms focus on extract- ing specular and diffuse components from real images. In this paper, we present a model-less approach derived from the bi-directional surface scattering reflectance distribution function (BSSRDF). In our approach, we show that an illu- mination image is composed by the Lambertian diffuse and

Tai-Pang Wu; Chi-Keung Tang

255

Accelerating subsurface scattering using Cholesky factorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a simplified subsurface scattering model that exploits a diffusion mechanism to provide a simpler solution to the transport equation. Our model is based on numerical analysis techniques that are amenable to Cholesky factorization. We treat the factorization as a precomputed scattering quantity which can be used to significantly speed up multiple scattering calculations as the

Richard Sharp; Raghu Machiraju

2006-01-01

256

Modeling Subsurface Transport of Petroleum Hydrocarbons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. EPA website contains information on the modeling of subsurface transport of petroleum hydrocarbons and other contaminants. There are a few course modules on the fate and transport of contaminants. There are also OnSite on-line calculators for site-specific assessment calculations.

2008-03-11

257

Land uplift due to subsurface fluid injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subsurface injection of fluid (water, gas, vapour) occurs worldwide for a variety of purposes, e.g. to enhance oil production (EOR), store gas in depleted gas\\/oil fields, recharge overdrafted aquifer systems (ASR), and mitigate anthropogenic land subsidence. Irrespective of the injection target, some areas have experienced an observed land uplift ranging from a few millimetres to tens of centimetres over

Pietro Teatini; Giuseppe Gambolati; Massimiliano Ferronato; Dale Walters

2011-01-01

258

Liquid cryobrines in the subsurface of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid cryobrines in the subsurface of Mars D. Mühlmann, DLR Institut für Planetenforschung, Berlin (dirk.moehlmann@dlr.de) Thermodynamics shows that undercooled liquid interfacial water must necessarily exist in the upper surface of Mars, at least temporarily. In case of a given presence of soluble salt grains in the soil with attached interfacial water (of atmospheric-or ice-origin) there must evolve liquid brines ("cryobrines"). The eutectic temperature of cryobrines can be far below 0 C and numerous known brines will remain liquid at martian temperatures. Liquid cryobrines are therefore expected to exist at appropriate sites in the subsurface of Mars, at least temporarily but also at present. Properties like eutectic phase diagrams, related water activity and stability of "Mars-relevant" salts and brines under current martian atmospheric conditions are presented and discussed. It is described that the presence of at least temporarily liquid cryobrines in the subsurface soil can be related to rheological phenomena of viscous liquid brines, and that liquid cryobrines are a current challenge in view of their possible support to a habitability of the subsurface of Mars.

Möhlmann, Diedrich

259

Methods for forming long subsurface heaters  

DOEpatents

A method for forming a longitudinal subsurface heater includes longitudinally welding an electrically conductive sheath of an insulated conductor heater along at least one longitudinal strip of metal. The longitudinal strip is formed into a tubular around the insulated conductor heater with the insulated conductor heater welded along the inside surface of the tubular.

Kim, Dong Sub

2013-09-17

260

Liquefaction in Subsurface Layer of Sand  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Ground shaking triggered liquefaction in a subsurface layer of sand, producing differential lateral and vertical movement in a overlying carapace of unliquified sand and silt, which moved from right to left toward the Pajaro River. This mode of ground failure, termed "lateral spreading," is a p...

2009-01-26

261

Microbial life in the deep terrestrial subsurface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and function of microorganisms is a vital issue in microbial ecology. The US Department of Energy`s Program, ``Microbiology of the Deep Subsurface,`` concentrates on establishing fundamental scientific information about organisms at depth, and the use of these organisms for remediation of contaminants in deep vadose zone and groundwater environments. This investigation effectively extends the Biosphere hundreds of meters

C. B. Fliermans; D. L. Balkwill; R. E. Beeman

1988-01-01

262

Complete Subsurface Elemental Composition Measurements With PING.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Probing In situ with Neutrons and Gamma rays (PING) instrument will measure the complete bulk elemental composition of the subsurface of Mars as well as any other solid planetary body. PING can thus be a highly effective tool for both detailed local g...

A. M. Parsons

2012-01-01

263

Subsurface Tectonics and Pingos of Northern Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe preliminary results of a two-phase study that investigated links between subsurface structural and stratigraphic controls, and distribution of hydrostatic pingos on the central coastal plain of Arctic Alaska. Our 2300 km2 study area is underlain by a complete petroleum system that supports gas, oil and water production from 3 of the largest oil fields in North America. In

S. Skirvin; R. Casavant; D. Burr

2008-01-01

264

Subsurface Remote Sensing of Kelp Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macrocystis pyrifera, or giant kelp, provides structure and support for many marine species, and its forests rank as one of the most ecologically productive systems in the world. Traditional, in situ measurements of kelp biomass and productivity are episodic, costly, and provide limited spatial coverage across the often wide swaths of kelp ecosystems. While satellite methods have been developed to estimate kelp biomass and productivity, satellite observations are also limited, as standard practices for measuring terrestrial vegetation cannot be applied with the same confidence to marine vegetation. Here, data gathered from flights with the MASTER sensor over the Santa Barbara Channel allowed the development of two algorithms to assess the surface and subsurface areal extent of kelp in multispectral imagery. The first, a marine vegetation index (MVI), was developed from imagery to capture both surface and sub-surface vegetation pixels. The second algorithm is based on a spectral library for kelp radiance collected from field samples and modeled using the radiative transfer equations with the HydroLight software package. The endmember collection from this library was used in the Spectral Angle Mapping tool in ENVI to identify kelp at various depths. Outputs from each of these algorithms were then compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Analyzing spectral properties of sub-surface features will facilitate the use of satellites in measuring extent and productivity of marine ecosystems. Furthermore, these tools allow researchers to directly quantify the depth and extent of subsurface vegetation, greatly enhancing existing methods.

Allen, J. G.; Palacios, S. L.; Kudela, R. M.

2012-12-01

265

A practical model for subsurface light transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a simple model for subsurface light transport in translucent materials. The model enables efficient simulation of effects that BRDF models cannot capture, such as color bleeding within materials and diffusion of light across shadow boundaries. The technique is efficient even for anisotropic, highly scattering media that are expensive to simulate using existing methods. The model combines an

Henrik Wann Jensen; Stephen R. Marschner; Marc Levoy; Pat Hanrahan

2001-01-01

266

OVERVIEW -- SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division located in Ada, Oklahoma, conducts EPA-investigator led laboratory and field research to provide the scientific basis to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground and surface water q...

267

Microbial communities in the deep subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversity of microbial populations and microbial communities within the earth's subsurface is summarized in this review. Scientists are currently exploring the subsurface and addressing questions of microbial diversity, the interactions among microorganisms, and mechanisms for maintenance of subsurface microbial communities. Heterotrophic anaerobic microbial communities exist in relatively permeable sandstone or sandy sediments, located adjacent to organic-rich deposits. These microorganisms appear to be maintained by the consumption of organic compounds derived from adjacent deposits. Sources of organic material serving as electron donors include lignite-rich Eocene sediments beneath the Texas coastal plain, organic-rich Cretaceous shales from the southwestern US, as well as Cretaceous clays containing organic materials and fermentative bacteria from the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Additionally, highly diverse microbial communities occur in regions where a source of organic matter is not apparent but where igneous rock is present. Examples include the basalt-rich subsurface of the Columbia River valley and the granitic subsurface regions of Sweden and Canada. These subsurface microbial communities appear to be maintained by the action of lithotrophic bacteria growing on H2 that is chemically generated within the subsurface. Other deep-dwelling microbial communities exist within the deep sediments of oceans. These systems often rely on anaerobic metabolism and sulfate reduction. Microbial colonization extends to the depths below which high temperatures limit the ability of microbes to survive. Energy sources for the organisms living in the oceanic subsurface may originate as oceanic sedimentary deposits. In this review, each of these microbial communities is discussed in detail with specific reference to their energy sources, their observed growth patterns, and their diverse composition. This information is critical to develop further understanding of subsurface geochemical processes and to develop new approaches to subsurface remediation. Résumé La diversité des populations et des communautés microbiennes dans le sol et le sous-sol est présentée dans cet article. Les chercheurs s'interrogent fréquemment sur la diversité microbienne du sous-sol, sur les interactions entre organismes et sur les mécanismes qui permettent le maintien des communautés microbiennes souterraines. Il existe des communautés microbiennes anérobies hétérotrophes dans des grès ou dans des sédiments sableux relativement perméables, à proximité de dépôts riches en matières organiques. Ces micro-organismes semblent se maintenir grâce à la consommation de composés organiques provenant des dépôts organiques voisins. Les sources de matériel organique jouant le rôle de donneur d'électrons sont constituées par des sédiments éocènes riches en lignite situés sous la plaine littorale du Texas, les schistes riches en matières organiques du Crétacé du sud-ouest des États-Unis, ainsi que les argiles contenant des matériaux organiques et des bactéries de fermentation de la plaine littorale atlantique. En outre, il existe des communautés fortement diversifiées dans des régions où aucune source de matière organique n'existe, mais où sont présentes des roches ignées. Le sous-sol riche en basalte de la vallée de la Columbia au Canada et les régions granitiques de Suède en sont des exemples. Ces communautés microbiennes souterraines semblent se maintenir par l'action de bactéries lithotrophes se développant grâce à l'hydrogène qui est produit par réactions chimiques dans le sous-sol. Il existe d'autres communautés microbiennes de profondeur dans les sédiments profonds des océans. Ces systèmes sont souvent associés à un métabolisme anérobie et à une réduction des sulfates. La colonisation microbienne s'étend jusqu'à des profondeurs où les températures élevées limitent leur capacité de survie. Les sources d'énergie pour ces organismes vivant dans les fonds des océans peuvent être les dépôts

Krumholz, Lee R.

268

DEMONSTRATION OF AUTONOMOUS AIR MONITORING THROUGH ROBOTICS  

EPA Science Inventory

This project included modifying an existing teleoperated robot to include autonomous navigation, large object avoidance, and air monitoring and demonstrating that prototype robot system in indoor and outdoor environments. An existing teleoperated "Surveyor" robot developed by ARD...

269

An introduction to autonomous control systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The functions, characteristics, and benefits of autonomous control are outlined. An autonomous control functional architecture for future space vehicles that incorporates the concepts and characteristics described is presented. The controller is hierarchical, with an execution level (the lowest level), coordination level (middle level), and management and organization level (highest level). The general characteristics of the overall architecture, including those of the three levels, are explained, and an example to illustrate their functions is given. Mathematical models for autonomous systems, including 'logical' discrete event system models, are discussed. An approach to the quantitative, systematic modeling, analysis, and design of autonomous controllers is also discussed. It is a hybrid approach since it uses conventional analysis techniques based on difference and differential equations and new techniques for the analysis of the systems described with a symbolic formalism such as finite automata. Some recent results from the areas of planning and expert systems, machine learning, artificial neural networks, and the area restructurable controls are briefly outlined.

Antsaklis, Panos J.; Passino, Kevin M.; Wang, S. J.

1991-01-01

270

Measures of Autonomic Nervous System Regulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mind-body health practices aim to regulate activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to maintain homeostasis within the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The activation of the SNS is directly related to stress response, which, if persistent or prol...

D. Brown M. Bates P. Brierley-Bowers S. Sexton

2011-01-01

271

Information for Successful Interaction with Autonomous Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interaction in heterogeneous mission operations teams is not well matched to classical models of coordination with autonomous systems. We describe methods of loose coordination and information management in mission operations. We describe an information a...

J. T. Malin K. A. Johnson

2003-01-01

272

Cooperative Autonomic Management in Dynamic Distributed Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The centralized management of large distributed systems is often impractical, particularly when the both the topology and status of the system change dynamically. This paper proposes an approach to application-centric self-management in large distributed systems consisting of a collection of autonomic components that join and leave the system dynamically. Cooperative autonomic components self-organize into a dynamically created overlay network. Through local information sharing with neighbors, each component gains access to global information as needed for optimizing performance of applications. The approach has been validated and evaluated by developing a decentralized autonomic system consisting of multiple autonomic application managers previously developed for the In-VIGO grid-computing system. Using analytical results from complex random network and measurements done in a prototype system, we demonstrate the robustness, self-organization and adaptability of our approach, both theoretically and experimentally.

Xu, Jing; Zhao, Ming; Fortes, José A. B.

273

Project Summary: Biology-Inspired Autonomous Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project is to motivate development of control concepts for autonomous munitions that overcome limitations of conventional approaches by applying principles derived from studying the biology of flying organisms. The research is focused on ...

J. H. Evers

2011-01-01

274

Ethical Basis for Autonomous System Deployment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project investigated and implemented an ethical basis for deployment of lethality in autonomous robotic systems. Two main thrusts were explored. The first addresses the ethical dimensions of robotic weaponry in two contexts: the robot as an extension...

R. C. Arkin

2009-01-01

275

Data Provisioning Systems for Autonomous Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project is part of a portfolio comprising four other projects to investigate the possibility of operating a collection of intelligent autonomous agents so that the collection can undertakes complex missions. To determine this, we are testing a new ro...

P. Varaiya

1999-01-01

276

Year End Report 1991. Autonomous Planetary Rover.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes progress in research on an autonomous robot for planetary exploration performed during 1991 at the Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University. The report summarizes the achievements during calendar year 1991, and lists personnel ...

E. Krotkov R. Simmons W. Whittaker

1992-01-01

277

Automatic Learning by an Autonomous Mobile Robot.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes recent research in automatic learning by the autonomous mobile robot HERMIES-IIB at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR). By acting on the environment and observing the consequences during a set of training exa...

G. de Saussure P. F. Spelt S. M. Killough F. G. Pin C. R. Weisbin

1989-01-01

278

Autonomous Road Driving Arenas for Performance Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of performance metrics is critical in the evaluation and advancement of intelligent systems. Obtaining the pinnacle of intelligence in autonomous vehicles requires evolutionary standards and community support. In order to analyze and compa...

B. Weiss C. Scrapper S. Balakirsky

2004-01-01

279

Exploring Mars via Autonomously Networked Spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enabling multiple assets to coordinate their activities autonomously via space networking techniques can significantly improve the way we explore Mars by enabling collaborative observations to improve science return and flexibility to reduce risk.

Wyatt, E. J.; Burleigh, S. C.; Clare, L. P.; Torgerson, J. L.; Wagstaff, K. L.

2012-06-01

280

Advancing Autonomous Operations Technologies for NASA Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the importance of implementing advanced autonomous technologies supporting operations of future NASA missions. The ability for crewed, uncrewed and even ground support systems to be capable of mission support without external interaction or control has become essential as space exploration moves further out into the solar system. The push to develop and utilize autonomous technologies for NASA mission operations stems in part from the need to reduce operations cost while improving and increasing capability and safety. This paper will provide examples of autonomous technologies currently in use at NASA and will identify opportunities to advance existing autonomous technologies that will enhance mission success by reducing operations cost, ameliorating inefficiencies, and mitigating catastrophic anomalies.

Cruzen, Craig; Thompson, Jerry Todd

2013-01-01

281

Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System  

MedlinePLUS

... the other cell, which is located in a cluster of nerve cells (called an autonomic ganglion). Nerve ... pressure. It stimulates the digestive tract to process food and eliminate wastes. Energy from the processed food ...

282

Autonomously replicating sequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

A method is presented for isolating DNA segments capable of autonomous replication from Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomal DNA based on the differential transforming ability of autonomously replicating plasmids and nonreplicating plasmids. DNA plasmids that are capable of self-replication in yeast transform yeast spheroplasts at about 1000-fold higher frequency than nonreplicating plasmids. We have cloned from total yeast DNA a number of DNA segments that permit the pBR322 plasmid carrying the yeast LEU2 gene to replicate autonomously. These plasmid clones are characterized by their ability to transform Leu- spheroplasts to Leu+ at a high frequency and their ability to replicate autonomously. Analysis of the insert DNAs carried in some of these self-replicating plasmids divides them into two categories: those that are unique in the yeast genome and those that are repetitive. Images

Chan, C S; Tye, B K

1980-01-01

283

Autonomous Legged Hill and Stairwell Ascent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper documents near-autonomous negotiation of synthetic and natural climbing terrain by a rugged legged robot,achieved through sequential composition of appropriate perceptually triggered locomotion primitives. The first, simple composition achieves...

A. M. Johnson D. E. Koditschek G. C. Haynes M. T. Hale

2011-01-01

284

Tracked robot controllers for climbing obstacles autonomously  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research in mobile robot navigation has demonstrated some success in navigating flat indoor environments while avoiding obstacles. However, the challenge of analyzing complex environments to climb obstacles autonomously has had very little success due to the complexity of the task. Unmanned ground vehicles currently exhibit simple autonomous behaviours compared to the human ability to move in the world. This paper presents the control algorithms designed for a tracked mobile robot to autonomously climb obstacles by varying its tracks configuration. Two control algorithms are proposed to solve the autonomous locomotion problem for climbing obstacles. First, a reactive controller evaluates the appropriate geometric configuration based on terrain and vehicle geometric considerations. Then, a reinforcement learning algorithm finds alternative solutions when the reactive controller gets stuck while climbing an obstacle. The methodology combines reactivity to learning. The controllers have been demonstrated in box and stair climbing simulations. The experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for crossing obstacles.

Vincent, Isabelle

2009-05-01

285

Detection of Subsurface Cavities by Surface Remote Sensing Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research is part of a program underway to evaluate remote sensing instrumentation and methods for locating subsurface cavities that can cause serious highway construction and maintenance problems. Three methods of subsurface cavity detection based on ...

L. S. Fountain F. X. Herzig T. E. Owen

1975-01-01

286

Review of potential subsurface permeable barrier emplacement and monitoring technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report focuses on subsurface permeable barrier technologies potentially applicable to existing waste disposal sites. This report describes candidate subsurface permeable barriers, methods for emplacing these barriers, and methods used to monitor the ...

W. H. Riggsbee R. L. Treat H. J. Stansfield R. M. Schwarz K. J. Cantrell

1994-01-01

287

MANIPULATING SUBSURFACE COLLOIDS TO ENHANCE CLEANUPS OF DOE WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Colloidal phases, such as submicrometer iron oxyhydroxides, aluminosilicate clays, and humic macromolecules, are important subsurface sorbents for the low-solubility chemicals in DOE wastes. Recent research we have performed as part of DOE's Subsurface Science Program has demonst...

288

Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS): Subsurface Performances Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

According to the Mars Express mission, the MARSIS primary scientific objectives are to map the distribution of water, both liquid and solid, in the upper portions of the crust of Mars. Three secondary objectives are also defined: subsurface geologic probi...

G. Picardi D. Biccari A. Bazzoni F. Fois P. Melacci

2005-01-01

289

Quantifying nonisothermal subsurface soil water evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate quantification of energy and mass transfer during soil water evaporation is critical for improving understanding of the hydrologic cycle and for many environmental, agricultural, and engineering applications. Drying of soil under radiation boundary conditions results in formation of a dry surface layer (DSL), which is accompanied by a shift in the position of the latent heat sink from the surface to the subsurface. Detailed investigation of evaporative dynamics within this active near-surface zone has mostly been limited to modeling, with few measurements available to test models. Soil column studies were conducted to quantify nonisothermal subsurface evaporation profiles using a sensible heat balance (SHB) approach. Eleven-needle heat pulse probes were used to measure soil temperature and thermal property distributions at the millimeter scale in the near-surface soil. Depth-integrated SHB evaporation rates were compared with mass balance evaporation estimates under controlled laboratory conditions. The results show that the SHB method effectively measured total subsurface evaporation rates with only 0.01-0.03 mm h-1difference from mass balance estimates. The SHB approach also quantified millimeter-scale nonisothermal subsurface evaporation profiles over a drying event, which has not been previously possible. Thickness of the DSL was also examined using measured soil thermal conductivity distributions near the drying surface. Estimates of the DSL thickness were consistent with observed evaporation profile distributions from SHB. Estimated thickness of the DSL was further used to compute diffusive vapor flux. The diffusive vapor flux also closely matched both mass balance evaporation rates and subsurface evaporation rates estimated from SHB.

Deol, Pukhraj; Heitman, Josh; Amoozegar, Aziz; Ren, Tusheng; Horton, Robert

2012-11-01

290

Detection of subsurface eddies from satellite observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to develop an index that allows distinguishing between surface and subsurface intensified eddies from surface data only, in particular using the sea surface height and the sea surface temperature available from satellite observations. To do this, we propose the use of a simple index based on the ratio of the sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTa) and the sea level anomaly (SLA). This index is first derived using an academic approach, based on idealized assumptions of geostrophic balance and Gaussian-shaped vortices. This index depends on the vertical extent (or decreasing rate) of the eddy and because of its sensitivity to the exact shape of the vortex, we were not able to evaluate these depths from the surface fields and our results remain qualitative. Then, in order to examine the pertinence and validity of the proposed index, SSTa and SLA were computed using outputs of a realistic regional circulation model in the Peru-Chile upwelling system where both surface and subsurface eddies coexist. Over a seven year simulation, the statistics shows that 71% of eddies are correctly identified as surface or subsurface intensified. Multi-core eddies are also largely present and represent an average of 37% of all vortices. These multi-core eddies contribute to a large number of the wrong identification (15%). Finally, the index was successfully applied on in-situ data to detect a previously observed subsurface-intensified Swoddy (slope water eddy) in the Bay of Biscay. This study suggests that the index can be successfully used to determine the exact nature of mesoscale eddies (surface or subsurface- intensified) from satellite observations only.

Assassi, Charefeddine; Morel, Yves; Chaigneau, Alexis; Pegliasco, Cori; Vandermeirsch, Frederic; Rosemary, Morrow; Colas, François; Fleury, Sara; Cambra, Rémi

2014-05-01

291

Autonomous Science on the EO-1 Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In mid-2003, we will fly software to detect science events that will drive autonomous scene selectionon board the New Millennium Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This software will demonstrate the potential for future space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect science events and respond autonomously to capture short-lived science events and to downlink only the highest value science data.

Chien, S.; Sherwood, R.; Tran, D.; Castano, R.; Cichy, B.; Davies, A.; Rabideau, G.; Tang, N.; Burl, M.; Mandl, D.; Frye, S.; Hengemihle, J.; Agostino, J. D.; Bote, R.; Trout, B.; Shulman, S.; Ungar, S.; Gaasbeck, J. Van; Boyer, D.; Griffin, M.; Burke, H.; Greeley, R.; Doggett, T.; Williams, K.; Baker, V.

2003-01-01

292

An Architectural Approach to Autonomic Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We describe an architecturalapproach,to achieving the goals of autonomic ,computing. The architecture that we outline ,describes interfaces and behavioral requirements for individual system components, describes how ,interactions among ,components ,are established, and recommends design patterns that engender,the desired system-level properties of self- configuration, self-optimization, self-healing and self- protection. We have ,validated many ,of these ideas in two prototype autonomic,computing,systems.

Steve R. White; James E. Hanson; Ian Whalley; David M. Chess; Jeffrey O. Kephart

2004-01-01

293

Autonomic Communications for Space: The Next Frontier?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomic communications has been gaining ground as a vision for next generation communications. The success and flexibility of the Internet has lead to evaluations of utilizing IP for communications in space. The limitations of today's Internet ultimately also imply limitations for an IP deployment in space. Issues affecting the design of a future self-directing and self-managing data communications network for future space missions based on autonomic communications concepts are described and examined.

Rash, James L.; Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Michael G.

2006-01-01

294

Towards autonomic computing: effective event management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic computing is emerging as a significant new approach for the design of computing systems. Its goal is the production of systems that are self-managing, self-healing, self-protecting and self-optimizing. Achieving this goal involve techniques from both software engineering and artificial intelligence. We discuss one particular aspect of autonomic computing: event management. It considers the range of event handling techniques in

Roy Sterritt

2002-01-01

295

Autonomous Synchronization of Chemically Coupled Synthetic Oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic biology has recently provided functional single-cell oscillators. With a few exceptions, however, synchronization\\u000a across a population has not been achieved yet. In particular, designing a cell coupling mechanism to achieve autonomous synchronization\\u000a is not straightforward since there are usually several different design alternatives. Here, we propose a method to mathematically\\u000a predict autonomous synchronization properties, and to identify the network

Moritz Lang; Tatiana T. Marquez-Lago; Jörg Stelling; Steffen Waldherr

296

The Techsat-21 autonomous space science agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat-21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2004. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. In this paper we

Steve A. Chien; Rob Sherwood; Gregg Rabideau; Rebecca Castano; Ashley Davies; Michael C. Burl; Russell Knight; Timothy M. Stough; Joseph Roden; Paul Zetocha; Ross Wainwright; Pete Klupar; Jim Van Gaasbeck; Pat Cappelaere; Dean Oswald

2002-01-01

297

Development of autonomous magnetometer rotorcraft for wide area assessment  

SciTech Connect

Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 – 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. There is thus a need for other systems which can be used for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly characterization (through the use of dynamic acquisition, i.e. survey mission inflight reprioritization). We describe and report on a one year effort with as primary goal to provide a recommendation to SERDP for a path forward in the implementation of one or more autonomous unmanned magnetometer rotorcraft platforms. This recommendation (which is provided in chapter 6) is based on the following three elements a) An assessment on the applicability of autonomous rotorcraft magnetometer systems to the current DoD site inventory, and an initial assessment of which type(s) of autonomous unmanned magnetometer rotorcraft platforms (in terms of performance characteristics such as payload, altitude, obstacle avoidance, production rate and flight time) would be most relevant to this inventory (chapter 3); b) An evaluation of the feasibility of assembling such platforms from commercial components (unmanned rotorcraft, control systems and sensors – both magnetometer sensors and supporting sensors). This evaluation included several highly successful field tests (chapter 4 and 5); c) A recommendation of the path forward, which includes a detailed outline of the efforts required in the design, assembly and testing of different modular platforms (chapter 6)

Roelof Versteeg; Matt Anderson; Les Beard; Eric Corban; Darryl Curley; Jeff Gamey; Ross Johnson; Dwight Junkin; Mark McKay; Jared Salzmann; Mikhail Tchernychev; Suraj Unnikrishnan; Scott Vinson

2010-04-01

298

Development of Autonomous Drills for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Honeybee Robotics has developed science driven drill systems to allow scientific instruments direct access to the subsurface. Embedded drill segment electronics accommodate sensors and actuators for high rate data transmission to the surface.

Paulsen, G. L.; Mumm, E.; Kennedy, T.; Chu, P.; Davis, K.; Frader-Thompson, S.; Petrich, K.; Glass, B.

2006-03-01

299

Autonomous Repair Fault Tolerant Dynamic Reconfigurable Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, reconfigurable devices are widely used in the fields of small amount production and trial production. They are also expected to be utilized in such mission-critical fields as space development, because system update and pseudo-repair can be achieved remotely by reconfiguring. However, in the case of conventional reconfigurable devices, configuration memory upsets caused by radiation and alpha particles reconfigure the device unpredictably, resulting in fatal system failures. Therefore, a reconfigurable device with high fault-tolerance against configuration upsets is required. In this paper, we propose an architecture of a fault-tolerant reconfigurable device that autonomously repairs configuration upsets by itself without interrupting system operations. The device consists of a 2D array of “Autonomous-Repair Cells” each of which repairs its upsets autonomously. The architecture has a scalability in fault tolerance; a finer-grained Autonomous-Repair Cell provides higher fault-tolerance. To determine the architecture, we analyze four autonomous repair techniques of the cell experimentally. Then, two autonomous repair techniques, simple multiplexing (S.M.) and memory multiplexing (M.M.), are applied; the former to programmable logics and the latter to cell-to-cell routing resources. Through evaluation, we show that proposed device achieves more than 10 years average lifetime against configuration upsets even in a severe situation such as a satellite orbit.

Nakahara, Kentaro; Kouyama, Shin'ichi; Izumi, Tomonori; Ochi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yukihiro

300

Is acting on delusions autonomous?  

PubMed Central

In this paper the question of autonomy in delusional disorders is investigated using a phenomenological approach. I refer to the distinction between freedom of intentional action, and freedom of the will, and develop phenomenological descriptions of lived autonomy, taking into account the distinction between a pre-reflective and a reflective type. Drawing on a case report, I deliver finely-grained phenomenological descriptions of lived autonomy and experienced self-determination when acting on delusions. This analysis seeks to demonstrate that a person with delusions can be described as responsible for her behaviour on a ‘framed’ level (level of freedom of intentional action), even though she is not autonomous on a higher (‘framing’) level (level of freedom of the will), if, and only if, the goods of agency for herself and others are respected. In these cases the person with delusions is very nearly comparable to people in love, who are also not free to choose their convictions, and who could also be rightly held responsible for the behaviour flowing from their convictions.

2013-01-01

301

Autonomous motion of catalytic nanomotors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, I explore and discuss a system that uses the platinum catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to induce interfacial effects that result in the autonomous motion of micro-/nanosized particles. Chapter 2 describes the behavior of platinum-gold (PtAu) striped nanorods in hydrogen peroxide and its dependence on a number of factors. Chapter 3 explores several different mechanisms that may contribute to the motion of the PtAu nanorods, and discusses an interfacial tension mechanism for motion in depth. In Chapter 4, I discuss the electrochemical decomposition of hydrogen peroxide involving both Pt and Au and how this bimetallic catalytic process can induce electrokinetic effects to drive the motion of PtAu nanorods in H2O2 solutions. In Chapter 5, I describe a switchable catalytic micropump composed of a Pt/Au interdigitated array electrode in contact with H2O 2 solution, expanding on the concept of catalytically induced electrokinetics discussed in Chapter 4. This work has important implications when considering the development of functional nano- and micromachines powered by catalytic reactions, particularly those that utilize oxidation reduction processes to induce electrokinetic effects.

Paxton, Walter F.

302

Fast autonomous holographic adaptive optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an adaptive optics system incorporating a holographic wavefront sensor with the autonomous closed-loop control of a MEMS deformable mirror. HALOS incorporates a multiplexed holographic recording of the response functions of each actuator in a deformable mirror. On reconstruction with an arbitrary input beam, multiple focal spots are produced. By measuring the relative intensities of these spots a full measurement of the absolute phase can be constructed. Using fast photodiodes, direct feedback correction can be applied to the actuators.In this talk we will present the results from an all-optical, ultra-compact system that runs in closed-loop without the need for a computer. The 32-actuator HALOS runs at a 100kHz bandwidth, but the speed is independent of the number of actuators and should run equally fast with 32 million. Additionally, the system is largely insensitive to obscuration unlike the more conventional Shack-Hartmann WFS. We will present information on how HALOS can be used for image correction and beam propagation as well as several other novel applications.

Andersen, Geoff; Ghebremichael, Fassil; Gelsinger-Austin, Paul; MacDonald, Ken; Gaddipati, Ravi; Gaddipati, Phani

2013-12-01

303

Autonomic and Coevolutionary Sensor Networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(WSNs) applications are often required to balance the tradeoffs among conflicting operational objectives (e.g., latency and power consumption) and operate at an optimal tradeoff. This chapter proposes and evaluates a architecture, called BiSNET/e, which allows WSN applications to overcome this issue. BiSNET/e is designed to support three major types of WSN applications: , and hybrid applications. Each application is implemented as a decentralized group of, which is analogous to a bee colony (application) consisting of bees (agents). Agents collect sensor data or detect an event (a significant change in sensor reading) on individual nodes, and carry sensor data to base stations. They perform these data collection and event detection functionalities by sensing their surrounding network conditions and adaptively invoking behaviors such as pheromone emission, reproduction, migration, swarming and death. Each agent has its own behavior policy, as a set of genes, which defines how to invoke its behaviors. BiSNET/e allows agents to evolve their behavior policies (genes) across generations and autonomously adapt their performance to given objectives. Simulation results demonstrate that, in all three types of applications, agents evolve to find optimal tradeoffs among conflicting objectives and adapt to dynamic network conditions such as traffic fluctuations and node failures/additions. Simulation results also illustrate that, in hybrid applications, data collection agents and event detection agents coevolve to augment their adaptability and performance.

Boonma, Pruet; Suzuki, Junichi

304

Enamel Subsurface Damage Due to Tooth Preparation with Diamonds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In clinical tooth preparation with diamond burs, sharp diamond particles indent and scratch the enamel, causing material removal. Such operations may produce subsurface damage in enamel. However, little information is available on the mechanisms and the extent of subsurface damage in enamel produced during clinical tooth preparation. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the mechanisms of subsurface

H. H. K. Xu; J. R. Kelly; S. Jahanmir; V. P. Thompson; E. D. Rekow

1997-01-01

305

Review of potential subsurface permeable barrier emplacement and monitoring technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report focuses on subsurface permeable barrier technologies potentially applicable to existing waste disposal sites. This report describes candidate subsurface permeable barriers, methods for emplacing these barriers, and methods used to monitor the barrier performance. Two types of subsurface barrier systems are described: those that apply to contamination.in the unsaturated zone, and those that apply to groundwater and to mobile

W. H. Riggsbee; R. L. Treat; H. J. Stansfield; R. M. Schwarz; K. J. Cantrell; S. J. Phillips

1994-01-01

306

Geological uncertainties associated with 3-D subsurface models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface models are generally built from both subjective interpretation and mathematical interpolation\\/extrapolation techniques. These models are therefore uncertain, but their uncertainty is rarely expressed in a geological forecast. In this paper, an evaluation method of geological uncertainties related to 3-D subsurface models is proposed and tested on a real case. This method is based on the subsurface model, which is

L. Tacher; I. Pomian-Srzednicki; A. Parriaux

2006-01-01

307

Assessing the Habitability and the Biogeochemical Output of Subsurface Biomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subsurface microbial biosphere has been estimated to represent the largest biome on Earth in terms of sheer volume of habitable space. Even if the magnitude of the subsurface biosphere is vastly overestimated, it could still represent a significant reservoir of nutrients, and harbor yet-to-be-discovered metabolic and physiological diversity. Subsurface environments have also been evoked as some of the most

M. Schrenk; S. Seager

2007-01-01

308

Compact Autonomous Hemispheric Vision System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar System Exploration camera implementations to date have involved either single cameras with wide field-of-view (FOV) and consequently coarser spatial resolution, cameras on a movable mast, or single cameras necessitating rotation of the host vehicle to afford visibility outside a relatively narrow FOV. These cameras require detailed commanding from the ground or separate onboard computers to operate properly, and are incapable of making decisions based on image content that control pointing and downlink strategy. For color, a filter wheel having selectable positions was often added, which added moving parts, size, mass, power, and reduced reliability. A system was developed based on a general-purpose miniature visible-light camera using advanced CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) imager technology. The baseline camera has a 92 FOV and six cameras are arranged in an angled-up carousel fashion, with FOV overlaps such that the system has a 360 FOV (azimuth). A seventh camera, also with a FOV of 92 , is installed normal to the plane of the other 6 cameras giving the system a > 90 FOV in elevation and completing the hemispheric vision system. A central unit houses the common electronics box (CEB) controlling the system (power conversion, data processing, memory, and control software). Stereo is achieved by adding a second system on a baseline, and color is achieved by stacking two more systems (for a total of three, each system equipped with its own filter.) Two connectors on the bottom of the CEB provide a connection to a carrier (rover, spacecraft, balloon, etc.) for telemetry, commands, and power. This system has no moving parts. The system's onboard software (SW) supports autonomous operations such as pattern recognition and tracking.

Pingree, Paula J.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Walch, Marc J.; Staehle, Robert L.

2012-01-01

309

Autonomous Rovers for Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rovers will play a critical role in the exploration of Mars. Near-term mission plans call for long traverses over unknown terrain, robust navigation and instrument placement, and reliable operations for extended periods of time. Longer-term missions may visit multiple science sites in a single day and perform opportunistic science data collection, as well as complex scouting, construction, and maintenance tasks in preparation for an eventual human presence. The Pathfinder mission demonstrated the potential for robotic Mars exploration but at the same time indicated the need for more rover autonomy. The highly ground-intensive control with infrequent communication and high latency limited the effectiveness of the Sojourner rover. When failures occurred, Sojourner often sat idle for extended periods of time, awaiting further commands from earth. In future missions, the tasks will be more complex and extended; hence there will be even more situations where things do not go exactly as planned. Significant advances in rover autonomy are needed to cope with increasing task complexity and greater execution uncertainty. Towards this end, we have designed an on-board executive architecture that incorporates robust operation, resource utilization, and failure recovery. In addition, we have designed ground tools to produce and refine contingent schedules that take advantage of the on-board architecture's flexible execution characteristics. Together, the on-board executive and the ground tools constitute an integrated rover autonomy architecture. This work draws from our experience with the Deep Space One autonomy experiment, with enhancements to ensure robust operation in the face of the unpredictable, complex environment that the rover will encounter on Mars. The rover autonomy architecture is currently being developed and deployed on the Marsokhod rover platform at NASA Ames Research Center. The capabilities of the rover autonomy architecture to support autonomous operations will be demonstrated concretely in upcoming field tests.

Anderson, Corin; Bresina, John; Golden, Keith; Smith, David E.; Smith, Trey; Washington, Richard; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

310

Hypsometric control on surface and subsurface runoff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental problem in hydrology is relating the basin hydrological response to the geomorphologic properties of a catchment. In this technical note, we show that the hypsometric distribution exerts control on surface and subsurface runoff partitioning by isolating its effect with respect to other basin characteristics. We conduct simulations using a distributed watershed model for hypsometric realizations developed by modifying the contour line values of a real basin. Results indicate that the runoff components are a function of the basin hypsometric form. In general, a relatively less eroded (convex) basin exhibits higher total runoff that is more dominated by subsurface processes, while a relatively more eroded (concave) basin shows less total runoff with a higher fraction of surface response. Hypsometric differences are also observed in the relations between base flow discharge and the mean groundwater depth and the variable source area. Furthermore, the hypsometric form reveals clear signatures on the spatial distribution of soil moisture and runoff response mechanisms.

Vivoni, Enrique R.; di Benedetto, Francesco; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

2008-12-01

311

Spreadsheet log analysis in subsurface geology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most of the direct knowledge of the geology of the subsurface is gained from the examination of core and drill-cuttings recovered from boreholes drilled by the petroleum and water industries. Wireline logs run in these same boreholes generally have been restricted to tasks of lithostratigraphic correlation and thee location of hydrocarbon pay zones. However, the range of petrophysical measurements has expanded markedly in recent years, so that log traces now can be transformed to estimates of rock composition. Increasingly, logs are available in a digital format that can be read easily by a desktop computer and processed by simple spreadsheet software methods. Taken together, these developments offer accessible tools for new insights into subsurface geology that complement the traditional, but limited, sources of core and cutting observations.

Doveton, J. H.

2000-01-01

312

Microbial nanowires: Is the subsurface "hardwired"?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's shallow subsurface results from integrated biological, geochemical, and physical processes. Methods are sought to remotely assess these interactive processes, especially those catalysed by micro-organisms. Using saturated sand columns and the metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, we show that electrically conductive appendages called bacterial nanowires are directly associated with electrical potentials. No significant electrical potentials were detectable in columns inoculated with mutant strains that produced non-conductive appendages. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed a network of nanowires linking cells-cells and cells to mineral surfaces, "hardwiring" the entire length of the column. We hypothesize that the nanowires serve as conduits for transfer of electrons from bacteria in the anaerobic part of the column to bacteria at the surface that have access to oxygen, akin to a biogeobattery. These results advance understanding of the mechanisms of electron transport in subsurface environments and of how microorganisms cycle geologic material and share energy.

Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Atekwana, Estella A.; Hill, Eric A.; Gorby, Yuri

2007-09-01

313

Microbial Nanowires: Is the subsurface "hardwired?"  

SciTech Connect

The Earth’s shallow subsurface results from integrated biological, geochemical, and physical processes. Methods are sought to remotely assess these interactive processes, especially those catalysed by micro-organisms. Using saturated sand columns and the metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, we show that electrically conductive appendages called bacterial nanowires are directly associated with electrical potentials. No significant electrical potentials were detectable in columns inoculated with mutant strains that produced non-conductive appendages. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed a network of nanowires linking cells-cells and cells to mineral surfaces, “hardwiring” the entire length of the column. We hypothesize that the nanowires serve as conduits for transfer of electrons from bacteria in the anaerobic part of the column to bacteria at the surface that have access to oxygen, akin to a biogeobattery. These results advance understanding of the mechanisms of electron transport in subsurface environments and of how microorganisms cycle geologic material and share energy.

Ntarlagiannis, D. E.; Atekwana, E. A.; Hill, Eric A.; Gorby, Yuri A.

2007-09-12

314

Daily Normalized Helicity of Subsurface Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flare-productive active regions are associated with subsurface flows with large values of kinetic helicity density. Kinetic helicity is related to mixing and turbulence of fluids. Reinard et al. 2010 have developed a parameter that captures the variation of kinetic helicity with depth and time, the so-called Normalized Helicity Gradient Variance (NHGV). This parameter increases 2-3 days before a flare occurs and the NHGV values for flaring and non-flaring active regions represent clearly separate populations. We derive subsurface flows from the surface to a depth of 16 Mm using GONG and SDO/HMI Dopplergrams analyzed with the ring-diagram technique and calculate kinetic helicity density as a function of position on the solar disk. We will then calculate the NHGV parameter exploring different normalization schemes and depth ranges. We will present cases studies of active regions observed with GONG and SDO/HMI.

Komm, Rudolf; Reinard, Alysha; Hill, Frank

2014-06-01

315

Drill Embedded Nanosensors For Planetary Subsurface Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a carbon nanotube (CNT) sensor for water vapor detection under Martian Conditions and the miniaturized electronics can be embedded in the drill bit for collecting sensor data and transmit it to a computer wirelessly.This capability will enable the real time measurement of ice during drilling. With this real time and in-situ measurement, subsurface ice detection can be easy, fast, precise and low cost.

Li, Jing

2014-01-01

316

Subsurface crack propagation analysis in hypoid gears  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a numerical approach devoted to the investigation of the sub-surface crack propagation mechanism in gear pairs having crossing axis (i.e. hypoid gears). Starting from an accurate 3D description of the complex gear tooth geometry, a numerical analysis carried out by means of an advanced contact solver allows obtaining, over the entire meshing cycle, the contact pressure distribution

M. Guagliano; L. Vergani; M. Vimercati

2008-01-01

317

Magnetic Polarity Streams and Subsurface Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important feature of the solar cycle is the transport of unbalanced magnetic flux from active regions towards the poles, which eventually results in polarity reversal. This transport takes the form of distinct “polarity streams” that are visible in the magnetic butterfly diagram. We compare the poleward migration rate estimated from such streams to that derived from the subsurface meridional flows measured in helioseismic data from the GONG network since 2001, and find that the results are in reasonable agreement.

Howe, R.; Baker, D.; Harra, L.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Komm, R.; Hill, F.; González Hernández, I.

2013-12-01

318

CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE EXCAVATION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface excavation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

R. Garrett

1999-08-31

319

Mars subsurface investigation by MARSIS and SHARAD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is addressed to MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding in Mars Express ESA mission) data inversion. The data inversion gives an estimation of the materials composing the different detected interfaces, including the impurity (inclusion) of the first layer, if any, and its percentage, by the evaluation of the values of the permittivity that would generate the observed radio echoes. The methodology utilized for the data inversion is applied in different areas of the Mars South Pole and the results are reported for each area. The scattering behavior of the surface and subsurface (flat or rough), according with the geometrical structure, is estimated by the shape of the radar echoes and is utilized for the correction of their power; in such a way the contributions due to the surface and subsurface shape are estimated and the corrected echoes contain only the surface and subsurface material features. In this paper, in order to define the main topics of the data inversion, are only considered areas where flat surfaces are present and clutter echoes are negligible; the clutter cancellation can be applied according with the well known techniques. The scattering (volume scattering) due to the inclusion in the host material has been considered. Several frames, from SHARAD (SHAllow RADar in Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter US mission), in the same Mars area, have been analyzed and they confirmed the layer attenuation obtained by MARSIS data. Within the MARSIS papers this one presents a quantitative and scientific parametric data inversion, based on a physical approach and gives numerical results on the dielectric constant of the detected interface.

Picardi, Giovanni; Loukas, Alessandro; Masdea, Arturo; Mastrogiuseppe, Marco; Restano, Marco; Seu, Roberto

2010-05-01

320

Spatiotemporal variability in peatland subsurface methane dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands are large natural sources of atmospheric methane (CH4). While many studies have measured CH4 emissions to the atmosphere, less is known about the stock and residence time of subsurface CH4. In this study we examined dissolved CH4 concentration in near-surface peatland pore waters of a poor fen near Québec City, Canada, in order to (1) investigate the variability in and potential controls on these concentrations and (2) combine measured dissolved CH4 concentration with estimated bubble CH4 stock and measured CH4 fluxes to estimate the mean residence time of subsurface CH4. Concentrations ranged from 1 to 450 ?M during both study seasons. Depth profiles were generally consistent at one location within the peatland throughout the sampling period but varied between locations. Patterns with depth were not well correlated to pore water pH or EC; however, changes in CH4 concentration through time in the upper 30 cm were related to temperature and water table at some locations. Depth profiles taken at 2- to 5-cm intervals revealed discrete concentration "spikes" which were often maintained throughout the season and are likely related to bubble CH4 dynamics. Estimated subsurface CH4 stocks indicate that even when relatively low bubble volume (5% of peat volume) is assumed, bubble CH4 accounted for greater than half of total stocks. Calculated mean residence times were 28-120 days. This implies that CH4 flux may lag changes in water table and temperature which happen on shorter timescales (hours or days). To improve our description of subsurface CH4 stocks, links between dissolved and bubble CH4 stocks and peatland CH4 residence time, coincident measurement of pore water CH4 concentrations, entrapped gas content and composition, diffusive CH4 flux, and ebullition are required.

Strack, M.; Waddington, J. M.

2008-06-01

321

New method helps to refine subsurface interpretations  

SciTech Connect

A recently developed electrotelluric surveying unit has proven successful in providing additional structural and lithologic information from any depth down to 40,000 ft. Surveying is done from the surface. A geologist with several years' experience with the tool discusses its proper applications and use. He is impressed by the amount of subsurface detail this tool can provide, better enabling an explorationist to eliminate or proceed with a project before drilling funds are spent.

Elam, J.G.

1986-10-01

322

Monitoring Subsurface Objects Using Resonant Seismic Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The numerical modeling results and field data indicate that some contrast subsurface objects (such as tunnels, caves, pipes, filled pits, and fluid-filled fractures) are capable to trap seismic energy and generate durable resonant oscillations. These oscillations are comprised of surface types of circumferential waves which multiply rotate around the object. Resonant emission of such trapped energy occurs primarily in form of shear body waves that can be detected by remotely placed receivers. Resonant emission reveals itself in form of sharp resonant peaks for the late parts of the records, when all strong direct and primary reflected waves are gone. These peaks are observed in the field data for a buried barrel filled with water, in 2D finite- difference modeling results and in exact canonical solution for a fluid-filled sphere. Computed movie for diffraction of a plane wave upon low-velocity elastic sphere confirms generation of resonances by durable surface waves. We show that resonant emission has characteristic quasi-hyperbolic travel-time patterns on shot-gathers. Inversion of these patterns can be performed in frequency domain after muting strong direct and primary scattered waves. Subsurface objects can be detected and imaged at a single resonance frequency without an accurate knowledge about source trigger time. Imaging of subsurface objects requires information about shear velocity distribution in an embedding medium, which can be done interactively during inversion. Resonant emission data processing is done using KinetiK Professional visualization and processing software.

Konstantinov, V.; Korneev, V.

2008-12-01

323

Resonant seismic emission of subsurface objects  

SciTech Connect

Numerical modeling results and field data indicate that some contrasting subsurface objects (such as tunnels, caves, pipes, filled pits, and fluid-filled fractures) are capable of generating durable resonant oscillations after trapping seismic energy. These oscillations consist of surface types of circumferential waves that repeatedly propagate around the object. The resonant emission of such trapped energy occurs primarily in the form of shear body waves that can be detected by remotely placed receivers. Resonant emission reveals itself in the form of sharp resonant peaks for the late parts of the records, when all strong direct and primary reflected waves are gone. These peaks were observed in field data for a buried barrel filled with water, in 2D finite-difference modeling results, and in the exact canonical solution for a fluid-filled sphere. A computed animation for the diffraction of a plane wave upon a low-velocity elastic sphere confirms the generation of resonances by durable surface waves. Resonant emission has characteristic quasi-hyperbolic traveltime patterns on shot gathers. The inversion of these patterns can be performed in the frequency domain after muting the strong direct and primary scattered waves. Subsurface objects can be detected and imaged at a single resonance frequency without an accurate knowledge of source trigger time. The imaging of subsurface objects requires information about the shear velocity distribution in an embedding medium, which can be done interactively during inversion.

Korneev, Valeri A.

2009-04-15

324

Diabetic Autonomic Imbalance and Glycemic Variability  

PubMed Central

Diabetic autonomic neural imbalance is a severe complication of long-term diabetes patients and may progress to diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). The prevalence of DAN is reported to be between 20 and 70%, depending on the studies. The pathogenesis of DAN remains unresolved. However, emerging evidence suggests that glycemic variability (GV) may be associated with autonomic imbalance in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. As symptoms are initially weak and uncharacteristic, the condition often remains undiagnosed until late manifestations present themselves. Predominant symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, gastroparesis, involuntary diarrhea, postural hypotension, voiding difficulties, and sexual dysfunction. Analyzing the patterns of heart rate variability carries the potential for detection of autonomic imbalance in the subclinical and asymptomatic stages. In this context, GV may affect the sympathovagal balance by increasing oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines. Establishing a GV risk profile could therefore be important in determining risk factors in diabetes patients. This review addresses the issues above and in particular the possible association between diabetic autonomic imbalance and GV.

Fleischer, Jesper

2012-01-01

325

Autonomic dysreflexia and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.  

PubMed

Autonomic dysreflexia is a syndrome of massive imbalanced reflex sympathetic discharge in patients who had a spinal cord injury above the splanchnic sympathetic outflow resulting in a sudden increase in blood pressure. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) refers to a clinicoradiologic entity characterized by headache, consciousness impairment, visual disturbances, seizures, and posterior transient changes on neuroimaging (cerebral vasogenic edema). Hypertension is a common cause of PRES. The authors describe two case reports of patients with tetraplegia who developed PRES after an autonomic dysreflexia episode. One of them had recurrence of PRES in a similar clinical context. The authors discuss further aspects of PRES and its recurrence, which seems to be unusual particularly after autonomic dysreflexia. PMID:23117272

Matias, Ana Catarina; Rocha, João; Cerqueira, Maria Emília; Pereira, João Manuel

2013-05-01

326

Autonomous Deep-Space Optical Navigation Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project will advance the Autonomous Deep-space navigation capability applied to Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) system by testing it on hardware, particularly in a flight processor, with a goal of limited testing in the Integrated Power, Avionics and Software (IPAS) with the ARCM (Asteroid Retrieval Crewed Mission) DRO (Distant Retrograde Orbit) Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) scenario. The technology, which will be harnessed, is called 'optical flow', also known as 'visual odometry'. It is being matured in the automotive and SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) applications but has yet to be applied to spacecraft navigation. In light of the tremendous potential of this technique, we believe that NASA needs to design a optical navigation architecture that will use this technique. It is flexible enough to be applicable to navigating around planetary bodies, such as asteroids.

D'Souza, Christopher

2014-01-01

327

Autonomic dysfunction in chronic liver disease  

PubMed Central

It is becoming increasingly clear that quality of life (QOL) is impaired in those with chronic liver disease (CLD). One of the most important contributors to impaired QOL is the symptomatic burden which can range from slight to debilitating. Autonomic dysfunction accounts for a significant proportion of these symptoms, which can be common, non-specific and challenging to treat. Investigating the autonomic nervous system can be straight forward and can assist the clinician to diagnose and treat specific symptoms. Evidence-based treatment options for autonomic symptoms, specifically in CLD, can be lacking and must be extrapolated from other studies and expert opinion. For those with severely impaired quality of life, liver transplantation may offer an improvement; however, more research is needed to confirm this.

Frith, James; Newton, Julia L

2011-01-01

328

Self-healing for Autonomic Pervasive Computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To ensure smooth functioning of numerous handheld devices anywhere anytime, the importance of a self-healing mechanism cannot be overlooked. This is one of the main challenges to growing autonomic pervasive computing. Incorporation of efficient fault detection and recovery in the device itself is the ultimate quest but there is no existing selfhealing scheme for devices running in autonomic pervasive computing environments that can be claimed as the ultimate solution. Moreover, the highest degree of transparency, security and privacy should also be maintained. In this book chapter, an approach to develop a self-healing service for autonomic pervasive computing is presented. The self-healing service has been developed and integrated into the middleware named MARKS+ (Middleware Adaptability for Resource discovery, Knowledge usability, and Self-healing). The self-healing approach has been evaluated on a test bed of PDAs. An application has been developed by using the service. The evaluation results are also presented in this book chapter.

Ahmed, Shameem; Ahamed, Sheikh I.; Sharmin, Moushumi; Hasan, Chowdhury S.

329

A Collaborative Knowledge Plane for Autonomic Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomic networking aims to give network components self-managing capabilities. Several autonomic architectures have been proposed. Each of these architectures includes sort of a knowledge plane which is very important to mimic an autonomic behavior. Knowledge plane has a central role for self-functions by providing suitable knowledge to equipment and needs to learn new strategies for more accuracy.However, defining knowledge plane's architecture is still a challenge for researchers. Specially, defining the way cognitive supports interact each other in knowledge plane and implementing them. Decision making process depends on these interactions between reasoning and learning parts of knowledge plane. In this paper we propose a knowledge plane's architecture based on machine learning (inductive logic programming) paradigm and situated view to deal with distributed environment. This architecture is focused on two self-functions that include all other self-functions: self-adaptation and self-organization. Study cases are given and implemented.

Mbaye, Maïssa; Krief, Francine

330

An Expert System for Autonomous Spacecraft Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE), part of the New Millennium Space Technology 6 Project, is flying onboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) mission. The ASE software enables EO-1 to autonomously detect and respond to science events such as: volcanic activity, flooding, and water freeze/thaw. ASE uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect chang-e and science events. Detection of these events is then used to trigger follow-up imagery. Onboard mission planning software then develops a response plan that accounts for target visibility and operations constraints. This plan is then executed using a task execution system that can deal with run-time anomalies. In this paper we describe the autonomy flight software and how it enables a new paradigm of autonomous science and mission operations. We will also describe the current experiment status and future plans.

Sherwood, Rob; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Rabideau, Gregg

2005-01-01

331

Thermal, Autonomous Replicator Made from Transfer RNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evolving systems rely on the storage and replication of genetic information. Here we present an autonomous, purely thermally driven replication mechanism. A pool of hairpin molecules, derived from transfer RNA replicates the succession of a two-letter code. Energy is first stored thermally in metastable hairpins. Thereafter, energy is released by a highly specific and exponential replication with a duplication time of 30 s, which is much faster than the tendency to produce false positives in the absence of template. Our experiments propose a physical rather than a chemical scenario for the autonomous replication of protein encoding information in a disequilibrium setting.

Krammer, Hubert; Möller, Friederike M.; Braun, Dieter

2012-06-01

332

Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical models of system components have long been used to allow simulators to predict system behavior to various stimuli. Recent efforts to monitor, diagnose, and control real-time systems using component models have experienced similar success. NASA Kennedy is continuing the development of a tool for implementing real-time knowledge-based diagnostic and control systems called KATE (Knowledge based Autonomous Test Engineer). KATE is a model-based reasoning shell designed to provide autonomous control, monitoring, fault detection, and diagnostics for complex engineering systems by applying its reasoning techniques to an exchangeable quantitative model describing the structure and function of the various system components and their systemic behavior.

Parrish, Carrie L.; Brown, Barbara L.

1991-01-01

333

Planning and Execution for an Autonomous Aerobot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aerial Onboard Autonomous Science Investigation System (AerOASIS) system provides autonomous planning and execution capabilities for aerial vehicles (see figure). The system is capable of generating high-quality operations plans that integrate observation requests from ground planning teams, as well as opportunistic science events detected onboard the vehicle while respecting mission and resource constraints. AerOASIS allows an airborne planetary exploration vehicle to summarize and prioritize the most scientifically relevant data; identify and select high-value science sites for additional investigation; and dynamically plan, schedule, and monitor the various science activities being performed, even during extended communications blackout periods with Earth.

Gaines, Daniel M.; Estlin, Tara A.; Schaffer, Steven R.; Chouinard, Caroline M.

2010-01-01

334

Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the work towards technology that will result in an autonomous landing on the lunar surface, that will avoid the hazards of lunar landing. In October 2005, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters assigned the development of new technologies to support the return to the moon. One of these was Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology now known as ALHAT ALHAT is a lunar descent and landing GNC technology development project led by Johnson Space Center (JSC) with team members from Langley Research Center (LaRC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Draper Laboratories (CSDL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL)

Epp, Chirold

2007-01-01

335

Design of an autonomous exterior security robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the requirements and preliminary design of robotic vehicle designed for performing autonomous exterior perimeter security patrols around warehouse areas, ammunition supply depots, and industrial parks for the U.S. Department of Defense. The preliminary design allows for the operation of up to eight vehicles in a six kilometer by six kilometer zone with autonomous navigation and obstacle avoidance. In addition to detection of crawling intruders at 100 meters, the system must perform real-time inventory checking and database comparisons using a microwave tags system.

Myers, Scott D.

1994-01-01

336

Autonomous system for launch vehicle range safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is a launch vehicle subsystem whose ultimate goal is an autonomous capability to assure range safety (people and valuable resources), flight personnel safety, flight assets safety (recovery of valuable vehicles and cargo), and global coverage with a dramatic simplification of range infrastructure. The AFSS is capable of determining current vehicle position and predicting the impact point with respect to flight restriction zones. Additionally, it is able to discern whether or not the launch vehicle is an immediate threat to public safety, and initiate the appropriate range safety response. These features provide for a dramatic cost reduction in range operations and improved reliability of mission success. .

Ferrell, Bob; Haley, Sam

2001-02-01

337

Evolutionary strategy for achieving autonomous navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach is presented for the evolutionary development of supervised autonomous navigation capabilities for small 'backpackable' ground robots, in the context of a DARPA- sponsored program to provide robotic support to small units of dismounted warfighters. This development approach relies on the implementation of a baseline visual serving navigation capability, including tools to support operator oversight and override, which is then enhanced with semantically referenced commands and a mission scripting structure. As current and future machine perception techniques are able to automatically designate visual serving goal points, this approach should provide a natural evolutionary pathway to higher levels of autonomous operation and reduced requirements for operator intervention.

Gage, Douglas W.

1999-01-01

338

Lessons Learned from Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Autonomous Science Agent has been flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft since 2003. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and responds to science events occurring on the Earth such as volcanoes, flooding, and snow melt. The package includes AI-based software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. This software is in routine use to fly the EO-l mission. In this paper we briefly review the agent architecture and discuss lessons learned from this multi-year flight effort pertinent to deployment of software agents to critical applications.

Chien, Steve A.; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Boyer, Darrell; Hayden, Sandra; Sweet, Adam; Christa, Scott

2005-01-01

339

Sensorpedia: Information Sharing Across Autonomous Sensor Systems  

SciTech Connect

The concept of adapting social media technologies is introduced as a means of achieving information sharing across autonomous sensor systems. Historical examples of interoperability as an underlying principle in loosely-coupled systems is compared and contrasted with corresponding tightly-coupled, integrated systems. Examples of ad hoc information sharing solutions based on Web 2.0 social networks, mashups, blogs, wikis, and data tags are presented and discussed. The underlying technologies of these solutions are isolated and defined, and Sensorpedia is presented as a formalized application for implementing sensor information sharing across large-scale enterprises with incompatible autonomous sensor systems.

Gorman, Bryan L [ORNL; Resseguie, David R [ORNL; Tomkins-Tinch, Christopher H [ORNL

2009-01-01

340

NEURON: Enabling Autonomicity in Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Future Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) will be ubiquitous, large-scale networks interconnected with the existing IP infrastructure. Autonomic functionalities have to be designed in order to reduce the complexity of their operation and management, and support the dissemination of knowledge within a WSN. In this paper a novel protocol for energy efficient deployment, clustering and routing in WSNs is proposed that focuses on the incorporation of autonomic functionalities in the existing approaches. The design of the protocol facilitates the design of innovative applications and services that are based on overlay topologies created through cooperation among the sensor nodes.

Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Gouvas, Panagiotis; Liakopoulos, Athanassios; Mentzas, Gregoris; Mitrou, Nikolas

2010-01-01

341

NEURON: enabling autonomicity in wireless sensor networks.  

PubMed

Future Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) will be ubiquitous, large-scale networks interconnected with the existing IP infrastructure. Autonomic functionalities have to be designed in order to reduce the complexity of their operation and management, and support the dissemination of knowledge within a WSN. In this paper a novel protocol for energy efficient deployment, clustering and routing in WSNs is proposed that focuses on the incorporation of autonomic functionalities in the existing approaches. The design of the protocol facilitates the design of innovative applications and services that are based on overlay topologies created through cooperation among the sensor nodes. PMID:22399931

Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Gouvas, Panagiotis; Liakopoulos, Athanassios; Mentzas, Gregoris; Mitrou, Nikolas

2010-01-01

342

Autonomous operations through onboard artificial intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat 21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2006. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight environment will open up tremendous new opportunities in planetary science, space physics, and earth science that would be unreachable without this technology.

Sherwood, R. L.; Chien, S.; Castano, R.; Rabideau, G.

2002-01-01

343

Connecting orbits of autonomous Lagrangian systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contrast to the time-dependent case, the time-t-section of Mañé set of autonomous Lagrangian systems is independent of time, thus, it is nowhere disconnected. This causes some difference in the study of dynamics, for instance, Mather's c-equivalence cannot exist among different cohomology classes if they are not in a flat of the ?-function (cf (Bernard 2002 Ann. Inst. Fourier 52 1533-68.)). In this paper, we show how to construct connecting orbits in autonomous systems, and propose a modified notion of c-equivalence. We also apply the result to construct diffusion orbits in an energy surface.

Li, Xia; Cheng, Chong-Qing

2010-01-01

344

Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life (IPBSL): searching for life in the Rio Tinto subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geomicrobiologica l characterization of Río Tinto (Iberian Pyrite Belt), has proven the importance of the iron and sulfur cycles in generating the extreme conditions of acidity and high concentration of heavy metals of the habitat. It has been hypothesized that the extreme conditions found in the Tinto basin are the product of the subsurface chemolithotrophic metabolism of microorganisms thriving on the high concentrat ion of metal sulfides of the IPB. To test this hypothesis, a drilling project (IPBSL) is currently under development to provide evidence of subsurface microbial activities and the potential resources to support them.

Amils, R.; Gómez, F.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Fernández-Remolar, D.; Parro, V.; Rodríguez-Manfredi, J. A.; Tornos-Arroyo, F.; Timmis, K.; Oggerin, M.; Sánchez-Román, M.; López, F. J.; Fernández, J. P.; Omoregie, E.; Puente-Sánchez, F.; García, M.; Rodríguez, N.

2013-09-01

345

Automatically Calibrating Admittances in KATE's Autonomous Launch Operations Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents a 1000-line Symbolics LISP program that automatically calibrates all 15 fluid admittances in KATE's Autonomous Launch Operations (ALO) model. (KATE is Kennedy Space Center's Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer, a diagnosis and r...

S. Morgan

1992-01-01

346

Apoptosis and Self-Destruct: A Contribution to Autonomic Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Autonomic Computing (AC), a self-managing systems initiative based on the biological metaphor of the autonomic nervous system, is increasingly gaining momentum as the way forward in designing reliable systems. Agent technologies have been identiiied as a ...

R. Sterritt M. Hinchey

2005-01-01

347

Hard-real-time resource management for autonomous spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes tickets, a computational mechanism for hard-real-time autonomous resource management. Autonomous spacecraftcontrol can be considered abstractly as a computational process whose outputs are spacecraft commands.

Gat, E.

2000-01-01

348

Flight Control System Development for the BURRO Autonomous UAV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Developing autonomous flying vehicles has been a growing field in aeronautical research within the last decade and will continue into the next century. With concerns about safety, size, and cost of manned aircraft, several autonomous vehicle projects are ...

J. D. Colbourne C. R. Frost M. B. Tischler L. Ciolani R. Sahai C. Tomoshofski T. LaMontagne

2000-01-01

349

Autonomous Satellite Architecture Integrating Deliberative Reasoning and Behavioural Intelligence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a method for the design of autonomous spacecraft, based upon behavioral approaches to intelligent robotics. First, a number of previous spacecraft automation projects are reviewed. A methodology for the design of autonomous spacecraft...

C. A. Lindley

1993-01-01

350

Tele-Assistance for Semi-Autonomous Robots.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a new approach in semi-autonomous mobile robots. In this approach the robot has sufficient computerized intelligence to function autonomously under a certain set of conditions, while the local system is a cooperative decision making u...

E. Rogers R. R. Murphy

1994-01-01

351

Subsurface Tectonics and Pingos of Northern Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe preliminary results of a two-phase study that investigated links between subsurface structural and stratigraphic controls, and distribution of hydrostatic pingos on the central coastal plain of Arctic Alaska. Our 2300 km2 study area is underlain by a complete petroleum system that supports gas, oil and water production from 3 of the largest oil fields in North America. In addition, gas hydrate deposits exist in this area within and just below the permafrost interval at depths of 600 to 1800 feet below sea level. Phase 1 of the study compared locations of subsurface faults and pingos for evidence of linkages between faulting and pingo genesis and distribution. Several hundred discrete fault features were digitized from published data and georeferenced in a GIS database. Fault types were determined by geometry and sense of slip derived from well log and seismic maps. More than 200 pingos and surface sediment type associated with their locations were digitized from regional surficial geology maps within an area that included wire line and seismic data coverage. Beneath the pingos lies an assemblage of high-angle normal and transtensional faults that trend NNE and NW; subsidiary trends are EW and NNW. Quaternary fault reactivation is evidenced by faults that displaced strata at depths exceeding 3000 meters below sea level and intersect near-surface units. Unpublished seismic images and cross-section analysis support this interpretation. Kinematics and distribution of reactivated faults are linked to polyphase deformational history of the region that includes Mesozoic rift events, succeeded by crustal shortening and uplift of the Brooks Range to the south, and differential subsidence and segmentation of a related foreland basin margin beneath the study area. Upward fluid migration, a normal process in basin formation and fault reactivation, may play yet unrecognized roles in the genesis (e.g. fluid charging) of pingos and groundwater hydrology. Preliminary analysis shows that more than half the pingos occur within 150 m of the vertical projections of subsurface fault plane traces. In a previous, unpublished geostatistical study, comparison of pingo and random locations indicated a non-random NE-trending alignment of pingos. This trend in particular matches the dominant orientation of fault sets that are linked to the most recent tectonic deformation of the region. A concurrent Phase 2 of the study examines the potential role of near-surface stratigraphic units in regard to both pingos and faults. Both surface and subsurface coarse-grained deposits across the region are often controlled by fault structures; this study is the first to assess any relationship between reservoir rocks and pingo locations. Cross-sections were constructed from well log data to depths of 100 meters. Subsurface elements were compared with surface features. Although some studies have linked fine-grained surface sediments with pingo occurrence, our analysis hints that coarse-grained sediments underlie pingos and may be related to near-surface fluid transmissivity, as suggested by other researchers. We also investigated pingo occurrence in relationship to upthrown or downthrown fault blocks that vary in the degree of deformation and fluid transmission. Results will guide a proposed pingo drilling project to test linkages between pingos, subsurface geology, hydrology, and petroleum systems. Findings from this study could aid research and planning for field exploration of similar settings on Earth and Mars.

Skirvin, S.; Casavant, R.; Burr, D.

2008-12-01

352

Why Computer-Based Systems Should be Autonomic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this paper is to discuss why computer-based systems should be autonomic, where autonomicity implies self-managing, often conceptualized in terms of being self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing, self-protecting and self-aware. We look at motivations for autonomicity, examine how more and more systems are exhibiting autonomic behavior, and finally look at future directions.

Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

2005-01-01

353

Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in patients with movement disorders.  

PubMed

Autonomic dysfunction is common in parkinsonian syndromes, particularly those involving dysregulation of alpha-synuclein, and may result from neurodegeneration in autonomic regulatory regions of the brain or peripherial autonomic ganglia. The most limiting cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in these diseases is orthostatic hypotension, which is particularly prominent in multiple system atrophy. Postprandial hypotension and supine hypertension, as well as dopaminergic therapy, often complicate the management of orthostatic hypotension in patients with parkinsonian syndromes. PMID:18540148

Walter, Benjamin L

2008-03-01

354

Single cell genomics of subsurface microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have revealed unexpected abundance and diversity of microorganisms in terrestrial and marine subsurface, providing new perspectives over their biogeochemical significance, evolution, and the limits of life. The now commonly used research tools, such as metagenomics and PCR-based gene surveys enabled cultivation-unbiased analysis of genes encoded by natural microbial communities. However, these methods seldom provide direct evidence for how the discovered genes are organized inside genomes and from which organisms do they come from. Here we evaluated the feasibility of an alternative, single cell genomics approach, in the analysis of subsurface microbial community composition, metabolic potential and microevolution at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), South Dakota, and the Witwaterstrand Basin, South Africa. We successfully recovered genomic DNA from individual microbial cells from multiple locations, including ultra-deep (down to 3,500 m) and low-biomass (down to 10^3 cells mL^-1) fracture water. The obtained single amplified genomes (SAGs) from SURF contained multiple representatives of the candidate divisions OP3, OP11, OD1 and uncharacterized archaea. By sequencing eight of these SAGs, we obtained the first genome content information for these phylum-level lineages that do not contain a single cultured representative. The Witwaterstrand samples were collected from deep fractures, biogeochemical dating of which suggests isolation from tens of thousands to tens of millions of years. Thus, these fractures may be viewed as "underground Galapagos", a natural, long-term experiment of microbial evolution within well-defined temporal and spatial boundaries. We are analyzing multiple SAGs from these environments, which will provide detailed information about adaptations to life in deep subsurface, mutation rates, selective pressures and gene flux within and across microbial populations.

Stepanauskas, R.; Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C.; Kieft, T. L.; Woyke, T.; Rinke, C.; Sczyrba, A.; van Heerden, E.

2012-12-01

355

Subsurface sequence stratigraphic correlation using well logs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given hard copies of a subsurface section containing gamma and resistivity logs of nine closely-spaced (well distance varies from 1 to 3 km) wells from Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico for an interval of ~ 200 m clastic succession of Morrow sandstone of Pennsylvanian age. Core sedimentology of one of these wells is also provided. Students' task is to correlate the well logs to generate a stratigraphic cross-section of the area using sequence stratigraphic approach. As the data are from Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico, student should first gather the knowledge of regional setting of the basin, with a particular emphasis to the paleo-eustasy. (Clue: in Delaware Basin, Morrow sandstones deposited in a low accommodation settings with high-amplitude fluctuations of sea-level.) When correlating the well logs students should start with the well which has lithological information. Students should try to correlate the mudstones first. The two most prominent sequence stratigraphic surfaces with comparatively higher correlation-length are 'sequence boundary' produced by pronounced fall of sea-level, and 'maximum flooding surface' generated at the time of highest stand of sea-level. Students should pay particular attention to incised-valley-fill deposits. After completing the correlation, students should check whether their correlation satisfy our prevailing ideas of sequence stratigraphy and stratal packaging. Student should prepare a brief description of overall depositional environments and sea-level history of the area substantiating their subsurface correlation. By doing this exercise, students will learn how to apply sequence stratigraphic principles in interpreting subsurface data, particularly from well logs.

Gani, M. R.

356

Instrumented Moles for Planetary Subsurface Regolith Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil-like materials, or regolith, on solar system objects provide a record of physical and/or chemical weathering processes on the object in question and as such possess significant scientific relevance for study by landed planetary missions. In the case of Mars, a complex interplay has been at work between impact gardening, aeolian as well as possibly fluvial processes. This resulted in regolith that is texturally as well as compositionally layered as hinted at by results from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions which are capable of accessing shallow subsurface soils by wheel trenching. Significant subsurface soil access on Mars, i.e. to depths of a meter or more, remains to be accomplished on future missions. This has been one of the objectives of the unsuccessful Beagle 2 landed element of the ESA Mars Express mission having been equipped with the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO) subsurface soil sampling Mole system capable of self-penetration into regolith due to an internal electro-mechanical hammering mechanism. This lightweight device of less than 900 g mass was designed to repeatedly obtain and deliver to the lander regolith samples from depths down to 2 m which would have been analysed for organic matter and, specifically, organic carbon from potential extinct microbial activity. With funding from the ESA technology programme, an evolved Mole system - the Instrumented Mole System (IMS) - has now been developed to a readiness level of TRL 6. The IMS is to serve as a carrier for in situ instruments for measurements in planetary subsurface soils. This could complement or even eliminate the need to recover samples to the surface. The Engineering Model hardware having been developed within this effort is designed for accommodating a geophysical instrument package (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package, HP3) that would be capable of measuring regolith physical properties and planetary heat flow. The chosen design encompasses a two-body Mole consisting of a 'tractor' element containing the hammering mechanism jointed to a trailed compartment housing the instruments as well as some front-end electronics, tethered to surface controls and instruments. This presentation will highlight the design of the IMS and will describe results of comprehensive functional and environmental tests that included soil penetration to depths beyond 2 m, thermal vacuum functional tests, as well as vibration testing of the stowed system. Mission scenarios that are being considered for the IMS are discussed (including the ExoMars mission of ESA), and an update is given on parallel tests of the HP3 instrument package that is being developed in a dedicated, ESA-funded effort.

Richter, L. O.; Coste, P. A.; Grzesik, A.; Knollenberg, J.; Magnani, P.; Nadalini, R.; Re, E.; Romstedt, J.; Sohl, F.; Spohn, T.

2006-12-01

357

Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface  

SciTech Connect

This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

1991-06-01

358

Using Subsurface Drip Irrigation for Alfalfa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A test of the suitability of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) compared to a sprinkler, was conducted on a Kansas producer's field where the soil is loam. The treatments included drip tape spacing of 60, 40, and 30 inches placed at depths of 18 and 12 inches. A nearby plot irrigated by a center pivot sprinkler was seeded to alfalfa and used for comparison. Seedling emergence and yield were adversely affected at 60 inch spacing, while the depth of placement of drip tapes (18 and 12 inches) showed no effect on yield. The site served for education and allowed comparison between SDI tape spacing and center pivot system.

Alam, Mahbub; Trooien, Todd P.; Dumler, Troy J.; Rogers, Danny H.

2002-12-01

359

Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers  

DOEpatents

A system for monitoring temperature of a subsurface low temperature zone is described. The system includes a plurality of freeze wells configured to form the low temperature zone, one or more lasers, and a fiber optic cable coupled to at least one laser. A portion of the fiber optic cable is positioned in at least one freeze well. At least one laser is configured to transmit light pulses into a first end of the fiber optic cable. An analyzer is coupled to the fiber optic cable. The analyzer is configured to receive return signals from the light pulses.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); McKinzie, II. Billy John (Houston, TX)

2009-08-18

360

Borehole directional radar detection of subsurface cavities  

SciTech Connect

Borehole electromagnetic techniques have emerged as a means for detecting and delineating rock structure details in the vicinity of the drill hole under test. A particular application for such techniques has been the detection of subsurface cavities, either natural or man-made. To date, borehole EM probing systems have only provided omnidirectional response around the drill hole, precluding the interpretation of azimuthal target direction. A new borehole radar probe developed for the US Bureau of Mines having a rotary azimuthal scan antenna with undirectional radiation pattern is capable of providing useful target direction information as well as directionally comparative discrimination of weaker EM contrasts surrounding the borehole.

Owen, T.E.; Suhler, S.A.

1982-04-01

361

Thermal anomaly in Enceladus' South Pole subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On November 6, 2011, during the E16 flyby, the Cassini Radar had a unique opportunity to closely observe Enceladus in both its active and passive modes of operation. The E16 swath aimed at about 66°S, close to the active South polar rifted area. In this paper, we show that the radiometry data collected during this flyby revealed brightness temperatures much higher than expected, pointing to a geothermal anomaly in the subsurface. This anomaly could be indicative of a buried heat source, unless it is due to exotic thermal processes such as the solid-state greenhouse effect.

Le Gall, A.; Leyrat, C.; Janssen, M. A.; Stolzenbach, A.; West, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Mitchell, K.; Ries, P.

2013-09-01

362

Exploring Deep-Subsurface Life: Capstone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about using analogues to look for life on other planets. Learners will use the results of previous lessons to write a scientific proposal to explore another planet or moon in our solar system for signs of life. This proposal should predict the types of energy and nutrients available to sustain life and describe equipment and instruments necessary for exploration and characterization of the target environment. This is activity 4, the capstone activity, in Exploring Deep-Subsurface Life. Earth Analogues for Possible Life on Mars: Lessons and Activities.

363

Parallel heater system for subsurface formations  

SciTech Connect

A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

2011-10-25

364

Surface and subsurface mapping in hydrogeology  

SciTech Connect

This book concentrates on the often neglected but useful aspects of hydrogeological mapping. It covers geophysical survey methods and the importance of water chemistry as a tool in tracing the route of subsurface water, and goes on to lay a basic foundation in subjects needed for practice in field: stratigraphy, structural geology, mineralogy, petrography, and geochemistry. Also covers basic disciplines and techniques indispensable for geological mapping, e.g., cartography and surveying, geophysics, drilling, soil science, hydrology, and botanics. Written from a uniquely practical standpoint.

Erdelyi, M.; Galfi, J.

1987-01-01

365

Airborne Electromagnetic Mapping of Subsurface Permafrost  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns over the impacts of climate change have recently energized research on the potential impacts thawing permafrost may have on groundwater flow, infrastructure, forest health, ecosystems, energy production, CO2 release, and contaminant transport. There is typically little knowledge about subsurface permafrost distributions, such as thickness and where groundwater-surface-water connections may occur through taliks. In June of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook an airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey in the area of Fort Yukon, Alaska in order to map the 3-D distribution of permafrost and provide information for the development of groundwater models within the Yukon River Basin. Prior to the development of these models, information on areas of groundwater-surface water interaction was extremely limited. Lithology determined from a borehole drilled in Fort Yukon in 1994 agrees well with the resistivity depth sections inferred from the airborne survey. In addition to lithology, there a thermal imprint appears on the subsurface resistivity values. In the upper 20-50 m, the sections show continuous areas of high electrical resistivity, consistent with alluvial gravel deposits that are likely frozen. At depth, unfrozen gravel deposits have intermediate-to-high resistivity; frozen silts have intermediate resistivity; and unfrozen silts have low resistivity. Under the Yukon River and lakes where the subsurface is not frozen, zones of moderate resistivity intermix with areas of low resistivity. The areas of loess hills on the margins of the Yukon Flats have very-high electrical resistivity, indicating higher ice content, and are associated with the some of the greatest thickness of permafrost in the survey area. This work provides the first look into the 3-D distribution of permafrost in the areas around Fort Yukon and is a demonstration of the application of AEM to permafrost mapping. The AEM survey provides unprecedented 3-D images of subsurface electrical properties that reveal changes in lithology and the presence or absence of permafrost. These geophysical data fill an important gap between sparsely sampled boreholes, regional hydrogeologic measurements, and remote sensing data. Interpretations of the AEM data are being integrated with other remotely sensed data to supply critical hydrogeological information needed for developing an improved understanding of groundwater-surface-water interactions in permafrost terrains. More specifically, the interpretations of the AEM data help to refine groundwater flow models in the Yukon Flats Basin. Because of the success of this study we now know that there are many other uses for this data. For example, airborne surveys can provide baseline data for estimating the 3-D distribution of permafrost that can be compared to future surveys in order to estimate volumetric changes over time.

Abraham, J. D.; Minsley, B. J.; Cannia, J. C.; Smith, B. D.; Walvoord, M. A.; Voss, C. I.; Jorgenson, T. T.; Wylie, B. K.; Anderson, L.

2011-12-01

366

The nature of the autonomic dysfunction in multiple system atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept that multiple system atrophy (MSA, Shy-Drager syndrome) is a disorder of the autonomic nervous system is several decades old. While there has been renewed interest in the movement disorder associated with MSA, two recent consensus statements confirm the centrality of the autonomic disorder to the diagnosis. Here, we reexamine the autonomic pathophysiology in MSA. Whereas MSA is often

Samir M Parikh; André Diedrich; Italo Biaggioni; David Robertson

2002-01-01

367

Research issues in autonomous control of tactical UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the enabling technologies for an autonomous tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Current technologies are adequate for semi-autonomous UAVs that operate in a relatively structured environment. For tactical UAVs in a rapidly changing uncertain environment the present techniques are inadequate. The essence of autonomous control is rapid in-flight replanning under uncertainty. This is cast as a large optimization

P. R. Chandler; M. Pachter

1998-01-01

368

A Comprehensive Evaluation on China's EFL Learners' Autonomous Learning Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been numerous studies on autonomous learning competence, but most of them deal principally with the introduction and analysis of the theoretical background, application, strategy implementation and course design principles for autonomous language learning. So far no effort has been made to construct an evaluation index system and evaluation model to evaluate EFL learners' autonomous English learning competence in

Weiping Wu; Jinfen Xu

2010-01-01

369

Runtime Extension of Autonomous Sensors Using Battery-Capacitor Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batteries are an important part in autonomous sensors power supply chain, so extracting all available energy is a determinant runtime affair. Autonomous sensors have a pulsed power consumption profile that causes high voltage drops in high impedance batteries. These voltage drops can make battery voltage go under the specified autonomous sensors' voltage supply range leading to a runtime reduction from

Maria Teresa Penella; Manel Gasulla

2007-01-01

370

BENEFITS OF AUTONOMOUS SELFING UNDER UNPREDICTABLE POLLINATOR ENVIRONMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollinator unpredictability favors evolutionary shifts from outcrossing to autonomous selfing, which provides reproductive assurance. Our goal was to quantify the reproductive assurance benefit of autonomous selfing and the stochastic nature of pollinator- mediated pollen receipt using three wild populations of the annual species Collinsia verna (Scrophulariaceae) over three years. The timing of autonomous self-pollination in C. verna ranges from competing

Susan Kalisz; Donna W. Vogler

2003-01-01

371

Autonomous navigation and guidance for pinpoint lunar soft landing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomous navigation and guidance system scheme for pinpoint lunar soft landing is studied in this paper. First, the descriptions of outline of lunar soft landing process are provided. Second, a GNC system scheme for lunar soft landing spacecraft is described. Third, the autonomous navigation based on measurement-updated IMU for lunar soft landing is presented. Fourth, the autonomous explicit guidance

Xiangyu Huang; Dayi Wang

2007-01-01

372

Development of Autonomous Robotic Wheelchair Controller Using Embedded Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous robotic wheelchairs play important roles to disabled persons or elders. In general, an autonomous robotic wheelchair includes the techniques of obstacle sensing and avoidance, local path navigation, and friendly interactions with users when compared to conventional powered wheelchairs. Most of researches on autonomous robotic wheelchairs used the personal computer as the supervisory controller since its powerful computing capacity and

Chung-Hsien Kuo; Hung-Wen Yeh; Chin-En Wu; Ko-Ming Hsiao

2007-01-01

373

Performance Comparison of Rock Detection Algorithms for Autonomous Planetary Geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting rocks in images is a valuable capability for autonomous planetary science. Rock detection facilitates selective data collection and return. It also assists with image analysis on Earth. This work reviews seven rock detection algorithms from the autonomous science literature. We evaluate each algorithm with respect to several autonomous geology applications. Tests show the algorithms' performance on Mars Exploration Rover

David R. Thompson; Rebecca Castano

2007-01-01

374

Tethered Operation of Autonomous Aerial Vehicles to Provide Extended Field of View for Autonomous Ground Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis was part of the ongoing research conducted at the Naval Postgraduate School to achieve greater collaboration between heterogeneous autonomous vehicles. The research addresses optimal control issues in the collaboration between an Unmanned Aeri...

N. S. Phang

2006-01-01

375

Autonomicity in Oracle Database Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human world is becoming more and more dependent on computers and information technology (IT). The autonomic capabilities in computers and IT have become the need of the day. These capabilities in software and systems increase performance, accuracy, availability and reliability with less or no human intervention (HI). Database has become the integral part of information system in most of the

Basit Raza; Abdul Mateen; Muhammad Sher; Mian Muhammad Awais; Tauqeer Hussain

2010-01-01

376

Non-autonomous second order Hamiltonian systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the existence of periodic solutions for a second order non-autonomous dynamical system containing variable kinetic energy terms. Our assumptions balance the interaction between the kinetic energy and the potential energy with neither one dominating the other. We study sublinear problems and the existence of non-constant solutions.

Pipan, John; Schechter, Martin

2014-07-01

377

Navigation Technologies for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

With recent advances in battery capacity and the development of hydrogen fuel cells, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are being used to undertake longer missions that were previously performed by manned or tethered vehicles. As a result, more advanced navigation systems are needed to maintain an accurate position over a larger operational area. The accuracy of the navigation system is critical

Luke Stutters; Honghai Liu; Carl Tiltman; David J. Brown

2008-01-01

378

Fostering Autonomous Learners through Levels of Differentiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major goal of the education of the gifted and talented is the development of the student as an independent, self-directed life-long learner. In other words, to help students develop as autonomous learners, with the appropriate skills, concepts, and attitudes necessary for their journeys. This is a complex task. The concepts of curriculum…

Betts, George

2004-01-01

379

Landmark recognition for autonomous mobile robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach for landmark recognition based on the perception, reasoning, action, and expectation (PREACTE) paradigm is presented for the navigation of autonomous mobile robots. PREACTE uses expectations to predict the appearance and disappearance of objects, thereby reducing computational complexity and locational uncertainty. It uses an innovative concept called dynamic model matching (DMM), which is based on the automatic generation

Hatem Nasr; Bir Bhanu

1988-01-01

380

The Techsat-21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Constellation demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Constellation flight demonstration (ASC) will fly onboard the Air Forces's TechSat-21 constellation. Demonstration of its capabilities in a flight environment will open up tremendous new opportunities in planetary science, space physics, and earth science that would be unreadable without this technology.

Chien, S.; Sherwood, R.; Burl, M.; Knight, R.; Rabideau, G.; Engelhardt, B.; Davies, A.; Zetocha, P.; Wainright, R.; Klupar, P.; Cappelaere, P.; Williams, B.; Surka, D.; Greeley, R.; Baker, V.

2001-01-01

381

Adaptive Trajectory Control for Autonomous Helicopters  

Microsoft Academic Search

For autonomous helicopter ?ight, it is common to separate the ?ight control problem into an inner loop that controls attitude and an outer loop that controls the translational trajectory of the helicopter. In previous work, dynamic inversion and neural-network-based adaptation was used to increase performance of the attitude control system and the method of pseudocontrol hedging (PCH) was used to

Eric N. Johnson; Suresh K. Kannany

2005-01-01

382

Onmidirectional vision for an autonomous helicopter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and implementation of an omnidirectionalvision system used for sideways-looking sensingon an autonomous helicopter. To demonstrate the capabilitiesof the system, a visual servoing task was designedwhich required the helicopter to locate and move towardsthe centroid of a number of visual targets. Results are presentedshowing that the task was successfully completedby a Pioneer ground robot equipped with the

Stefan Hrabar; Gaurav S. Sukhatme

2003-01-01

383

Multisensor navigation system for an autonomous helicopter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) require avionics systems that enable them to maintain a stable attitude and to follow a desired flight path. This paper considers the design and development of such an avionics system that provides navigational and terrain information to the flight computer of a rotorcraft UAV. The process includes the design and testing of flight hardware and

Joerg S. Dittrich; Eric N. Johnson

2002-01-01

384

Visually augmented navigation for autonomous underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

As autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are becoming routinely used in an exploratory context for ocean science, the goal of visually augmented navigation (VAN) is to improve the near-seafloor navigation precision of such vehicles without imposing the burden of having to deploy additional infrastructure. This is in contrast to traditional acoustic long baseline navigation techniques, which require the deployment, calibration, and

Ryan M. Eustice; Oscar Pizarro; Hanumant Singh

2008-01-01

385

Building an autonomous humanoid tool user  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make the transition from a technological curiosity to productive tools, humanoid robots will require key advances in many areas, including, mechanical design, sensing, embedded avionics, power, and navigation. Using the NASA Johnson Space Center's Robonaut as a testbed, the DARPA mobile autonomous robot software (MARS) humanoids team is investigating technologies that will enable humanoid robots to work effectively with

WILLIAM BLUETHMANN; ROBERT AMBROSE; MYRON DIFTLER; ERIC HUBER; ANDY FAGG; MICHAEL ROSENSTEIN; ROBERT PLATT; RODERIC GRUPEN; CYNTHIA BREAZEAL; ANDREW BROOKS; ANDREA LOCKERD; R. ALAN PETERS; O. CHAD JENKINS; MAJA MATARIC; M. Bugajska

2004-01-01

386

Spilled Oil Tracking Autonomous Buoy System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spilled oil damages not only the ocean environment but also the regional economy. In order to minimize such damages we are now developing a spilled oil tracking autonomous buoy system. The buoys used in this system are expected to send their location, and the meteorological and oceanographic data around them, to the land base in real-time while they drift with

Hidetaka Senga; Naomi Kato; Asuka Ito; Hiroki Niou; Muneo Yoshie; Isamu Fujita; Kazuyuki Igarashi; Etsuro Okuyama

2009-01-01

387

Ontologies and Conceptual Metaphor in Autonomous Robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computer programs which control autonomous mobile robots can make use of fuzzy processing and computing with words in order to extend their capabilities by allowing them to be less literal and exact match oriented. Both sensor data interpretation and planned activities subtleties benefit from fuzzy inexact processing.(1) The sciences of astronomy and physics have long used conceptual metaphor productively,

David Dodds

2006-01-01

388

Autonomous Teacher Professional Standards Boards. Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven states have established autonomous professional standards boards responsible for teacher licensure. Supporters of these boards feel that they create higher standards than state boards of education do, are better able to address complex issues related to teachers and teaching, and are an important statewide component in the nationwide effort…

Suarez, Tanya M.; And Others

389

Learning to be Autonomous: Intelligent Supervisory Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A brief introduction to the main ideas in Autonomous Con - trol Systems is rst given and certain important issues in modeling, anal - ysis and design are discussed Control systems with high degree of auton - omy should perform well under signi cant uncertainties in the system and environment for extended periods of time, and they must be

James A. Stiver; Michael Lemmon; Panos J. Antsaklis

1996-01-01

390

Development of an autonomous underwater robot \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomous underwater robot named “Twin-Burger” was developed as a versatile test bed to establish the techniques which realize intelligent robot behaviors. The robot was designed to have necessary functions for complex tasks including cooperative task execution with other robots and divers. The first robot “Twin-Burger I” was completed and launched in November 1992. This paper describes hardware and software

Teruo Fujii; Tamaki Ura

1996-01-01

391

Learning action models for reactive autonomous agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract To be maximally e ective, autonomous agents such as robots must be able both to react appropriately in dynamic environments and to plan new courses of action in novel situations Reliable planning requires accurate models of the e ects of actions| models which are often more appropriately learned through experience than designed This thesis describes TRAIL (Teleo - Reactive

S. S. Benson

1996-01-01

392

A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of existing microcapsulation designs, the corrosion controlled release function that triggers the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand, only when and where needed. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents for autonomous repair of mechanical damage to the coating is also being pursued. Corrosion indicators, corrosion inhibitors, as well as self-healing agents, have been encapsulated and dispersed into several paint systems to test the corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing properties of the coating. Key words: Corrosion, coating, autonomous corrosion control, corrosion indication, corrosion inhibition, self-healing coating, smart coating, multifunctional coating, microencapsulation.

Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott t.

2011-01-01

393

Precision Autonomous Landing Adaptive Control Experiment (PALACE).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the development, flight-testing and demonstration of technologies for the autonomous landing of a Yamaha RMAX helicopter at noncooperative sites without the aid of GPS. The Yamaha RMAX used for these flight trials has been modified in...

C. T. Theodore M. B. Tischler

2006-01-01

394

Autonomous Navigation Technology Altimeter - Conceptual Design Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work was performed during a study program to define the parameters of a low duty cycle orbital space radar altimeter which could be used to update the autonomous navigation of earth satellites without betraying the satellite location. This report also con...

G. A. Murdock W. Pagels

1975-01-01

395

Autonomic dysfunction in a Jack Russell terrier  

PubMed Central

A 4-year-old Jack Russell terrier was presented with an array of clinical signs suggestive of autonomic dysfunction. Many of the clinical signs were consistent with a diagnosis of dysautonomia; however, both chronicity and resolution of signs contradicted a diagnosis of this disease.

Caines, Deanne; Pinard, Chantale L.; Kruth, Stephen; Orr, Jeremy; James, Fiona

2011-01-01

396

Love Alters Autonomic Reactivity to Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periods of bond formation are accompanied by physiological and emotional changes, yet, little is known about the effects of falling in love on the individual's physiological response to emotions. We examined autonomic reactivity to the presentation of negative and positive films in 112 young adults, including 57 singles and 55 new lovers who began a romantic relationship 2.5 months prior

Inna Schneiderman; Yael Zilberstein-Kra; James F. Leckman; Ruth Feldman

2011-01-01

397

Acoustic communication between two autonomous underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a project designed to investigate and demonstrate communication between two autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). The basic concept of multiple cooperating AUVs implies that these systems must, of necessity be able to communicate with each other in some meaningful way. This paper presents the results of in-water field experiments in which two AUV systems were able to communicate

Steven G. Chappell; James C. Jalbert; P. Pietryka; J. Duchesney

1994-01-01

398

Autonomous Communication Relays for Tactical Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-bandwidth digital radio link between a mobile robot and its remote control station degrades quickly as the robot penetrates the interior of a building or becomes shielded by intervening terrain. This paper describes a current project that uses mobile autonomous communication relay nodes to overcome this problem. Each node is a small slave robot equipped with sonar, ladar, and

H. G. Nguyen; N. Pezeshkian; M. Raymond; J. M. Spector; Anoop Gupta

2003-01-01

399

Autonomous Soaring: The Montague Cross Country Challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method was developed for locating and allowing gliders to stay in thermals (convective updrafts). The method was applied to a 5 kg, glider, called ALOFT (autonomous locator of thermals), that was entered in the 2008 Montague Cross-Country Challenge held on 13-15 June 2008 in Montague, California. In this competition, RC (remote controlled) gliders in the 5 kg class competed on the basis of speed and distance. ALOFT was the first known autonomously soaring aircraft to enter a soaring competition and its entry provided a valuable comparison between the effectiveness of manual soaring and autonomous soaring. ALOFT placed third in the competition in overall points, outperforming manually-flown aircraft in its ability to center and utilize updrafts, especially at higher altitudes and in the presence of wind, to fly more optimal airspeeds, and to fly directly between turn points. The results confirm that autonomous soaring is a bona fide engineering sub-discipline, which is expected to be of interest to engineers who might find this has some utility in the aviation industry.

Edwards, Daniel J.

400

Autonomous Virulence Adaptation Improves Coevolutionary Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach for the autonomous virulence adaptation (AVA) of competing populations in a coevolutionary optimization framework is presented. Previous work has demon- strated that setting an appropriate virulence, v, of populations accelerates coevolutionary optimization by avoiding detrimental periods of disengagement. However, since the likelihood of disen- gagement varies both between systems and over time, choosing the ideal value of

John Cartlidge; Djamel Ait-Boudaoud

2011-01-01

401

Autonomic control of cardiovascular reflexes in narcolepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six male patients with narcolepsy for several years, were studied without and with amphetamine in order to evaluate possible abnormalities in autonomic control of the cardiovascular system. Studies were made of (1) heart rate and blood flow in the resting forearm during contralateral isometric handgrip, (2) respiratory sinus arrhythmia and (3) heart rate response to the Valsalva manoeuvre. The patients

C Sachs; L Kaijser

1980-01-01

402

Antimutagenic Role of Autonomous 3? ? 5?-Exonucleases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Original and published data on the antimutagenic role of autonomous 3' ? 5'-exonucleases (AE) are analyzed. AE are not bound covalently to DNA polymerases but are often involved in replicative complexes. AE overproduction in bacterial cells is accompanied by a sharp suppression of mutagenesis, whereas AE inactivation in bacteria and higher fungi results in the increase in mutation rates by

V. M. Krutyakov

2004-01-01

403

Electrically actuated thrusters for autonomous underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is to present the design, development and prototyping of an electrically actuated thruster as a direct drive propulsion system based on a 3-phase permanent magnet brushless machine for an autonomous underwater vehicle. The non-linear design and analysis of the permanent magnet brushless motor are entirely performed in 2-d finite element method. The motor is then coupled directly to

D. Ishak; N. A. A. Manap; M. S. Ahmad; M. R. Arshad

2010-01-01

404

Hybrid adaptive control of autonomous underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid adaptive control of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is investigated. Dynamics of AUV vary by change in operating conditions and even theoretically or experimentally driven dynamical coefficients reflect an approximate to the exact ones. Adaptive control technique is employed to handle the uncertainty problems in the system dynamics. In the applied hybrid adaptive control, the system is simulated in a

S. S. Tabaii; F. El-Hawary; M. El-Hawary

1994-01-01

405

Planning, Learning, and Executing in Autonomous Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems that act autonomously in the environment have to be able to integrate three basic behaviors: planning, execution, and learn- ing. Planning involves describing a set of actions that will allow the au- tonomous system to achieve high utility (a similar concept to goals in high-level classical planning) in an unknown world. Execution deals with the interaction with the environment

Ramón García-martínez; Daniel Borrajo

1997-01-01

406

STAC: software tuning panels for autonomic control  

Microsoft Academic Search

One aspect of autonomic computing is the abil- ity to identify, separate and automatically tune parameters related to performance, security, ro- bustness and other properties of a software sys- tem. Often the response to events aecting these properties consists of adjusting tuneable system parameters such as table sizes, time- out limits, restart checks and so on. One can think of

Elizabeth Dancy; James R. Cordy

2006-01-01

407

NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope: Ascension Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) is the newest optical sensor dedicated to NASA s mission to characterize the space debris environment. It is the successor to a series of optical telescopes developed and operated by the JSC Orbital Debris Progr...

E. G. Stansbery H. M. Cowardin L. F. Pace P. Hickson S. M. Lederer

2013-01-01

408

DYNAMIC MODELLING OF SMALL AUTONOMOUS BLIMPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are interested in blimps. A blimp is a small airship that has no metal framework and collapses when deflated. In this paper, dynamic modeling of autonomous blimps is presented, using the Newton-Euler approach. This study discusses the motion in 6 degrees of freedom since 6 independent coordinates are necessary to determine the position and orientation of this vehicle.

Yasmina BESTAOUI; Tarek HAMEL

409

Autonomic Function in Manganese Alloy Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observation of orthostatic hypotension in an index case of manganese toxicity lead to this prospective attempt to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function and cognitive and emotional neurotoxicity in eight manganese alloy welders and machinists. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample consisting of an index case of manganese dementia, his four co-workers in a “frog shop” for gouging, welding, and

William W. Barrington; Carol R. Angle; Nancy K. Willcockson; Marjorie A. Padula; Thomas Korn

1998-01-01

410

Autonomous exploration and mapping of abandoned mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the software architecture of an autonomous robotic system designed to explore and map abandoned mines. A new set of software tools is presented, enabling robots to acquire maps of unprecedented size and accuracy. On 30 May 2003, the robot \\

SEBASTIAN THRUN; SCOTT THAYER; WILLIAM WHITTAKER; CHRISTOPHER BAKER; WOLFRAM BURGARD; DAVID FERGUSON; DIRK HÄHNEL; D. Montemerlo; AARON MORRIS; ZACHARY OMOHUNDRO; CHARLIE REVERTE; WARREN WHITTAKER

2004-01-01

411

Autonomous Exploration and Mapping of Abandoned Mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abandoned mines pose significant threats to society, yet a large fraction of them lack ac- curate maps. This article discusses the software architecture of an autonomous robotic system designed to explore and map abandoned mines. We have built a robot capable of au- tonomously exploring abandoned mines. A new set of software tools is presented, enabling robots to acquire maps

Sebastian Thrun; Scott Thayer; William Whittaker; Christopher Baker; Wolfram Burgard; David Ferguson; Michael Montemerlo; Aaron Morris; Zachary Omohundro; Charlie Reverte; Warren Whittaker

2005-01-01

412

A Campaign in Autonomous Mine Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unknown, unexplored and abandoned subterranean voids threaten mining operations, surface developments and the environment. Hazards within these spaces preclude human access to create and verify extensive maps or to characterize and analyze the environment. To that end, we have developed a mobile robot capable of autonomously exploring and mapping abandoned mines. To operate without communications in a harsh environment with

Christopher Baker; Aaron Morris; David I. Ferguson; Scott Thayer; Warren Whittaker; Zachary Omohundro; Carlos F. Reverte; Dirk Hähnel; Sebastian Thrun

2004-01-01

413

Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ALHAT project is funded by NASA to develop an integrated AGNC (autonomous guidance, navigation and control) hardware and software system capable of detecting and avoiding surface hazards and guiding humans and cargo safely, precisely and repeatedly to designated lunar landing sites. There are important interdependencies driving the design of a lunar landing system including such things as lander hazard

Chirold D. Epp; Edward A. Robertson; T. Brady

2008-01-01

414

Self-assessment for autonomous language learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses why self-assessment is an important tool in the toolkit of autonomous language learners. It can be used both as a testing device leading to accred- itation and as a device for personal self-monitoring. It provides the learner with imme- diate feedback to determine language proficiency and to reflect on learning strategies. There are great benefits to be

David Gardner

2000-01-01

415

Building Adaptive Autonomous Agents for Adversarial Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a methodology, called CAPTAIN, to build adaptive agents in an integrated framework that facilitates both building agents through knowledge elicitation and interactive apprenticeship learning from subject matter experts, and making these agents adapt and improve during their normal use through autonomous learning. Such an automated adaptive agent consists of an adversarial planner and a muitistrategy learner. CAPTAIN

Gheorghe Tecuci I; Michael R. Hieb; David Hille; J. Mark Pullen

416

Love alters autonomic reactivity to emotions.  

PubMed

Periods of bond formation are accompanied by physiological and emotional changes, yet, little is known about the effects of falling in love on the individual's physiological response to emotions. We examined autonomic reactivity to the presentation of negative and positive films in 112 young adults, including 57 singles and 55 new lovers who began a romantic relationship 2.5 months prior to the experiment Autonomic reactivity was measured by Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) to two baseline emotionally neutral films, two negative films, and two positive films. Results demonstrated that RSA in singles decreased during the presentation of negative emotions, indicating physiological stress response. However, no such decrease was found among new lovers, pointing to more optimal vagal regulation during the period of falling in love. Autonomic reactivity, indexed by RSA decrease from the positive to the negative films, was greater among singles as compared to lovers, suggesting that love buffers against autonomic stress and facilitates emotion regulation. Findings suggest that vagal regulation may be one mechanism through which love and attachment reduce stress and promote well-being and health. PMID:22142209

Schneiderman, Inna; Zilberstein-Kra, Yael; Leckman, James F; Feldman, Ruth

2011-12-01

417

Control algorithms for autonomous robot navigation  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines control algorithm requirements for autonomous robot navigation outside laboratory environments. Three aspects of navigation are considered: navigation control in explored terrain, environment interactions with robot sensors, and navigation control in unanticipated situations. Major navigation methods are presented and relevance of traditional human learning theory is discussed. A new navigation technique linking graph theory and incidental learning is introduced.

Jorgensen, C.C.

1985-09-20

418

Autonomous Roving Object's Coverage of its Universe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the movement of an autonomous roving object (ARO) having no knowledge of its territory, very limited memory, and limited intelligence. The ARO lives at discrete time steps in a two-dimensional universe consisting of discrete cells. The mission of the ARO is to cover its entire universe, without leaving any cell un-visited. We study the degree of success, that

Bruno N. Di Stefano; Anna T. Lawniczak

2006-01-01

419

Pandora: Autonomous Urban Robotic Reconnaissance System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban settings represent a challenging environment for teleoperated and autonomous robot systems. We present a new design for a highly terrain adaptable robot system, detailing the major mechanical, electrical and control systems. The Pandora robot system is a tracked robot system with self-contained computing, power and wireless communications systems. A sensor suite including stereoscopic and panospheric cameras, light-strippers and acoustic

Hagen Schempf; Edward Mutschler; C. Piepgras; J. Warwick; Brian Chemel; Scott K. Boehmke; William Crowley; Robert Fuchs; J. Guyot

1999-01-01

420

On commuting Tonelli Hamiltonians: Autonomous case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the Aubry sets, the Mañé sets and the barrier functions are the same for two commuting autonomous Tonelli Hamiltonians. We also show the quasi-linearity of ?-functions from the viewpoint of dynamics and the existence of common C critical subsolution for their associated Hamilton-Jacobi equations.

Cui, Xiaojun; Li, Ji

421

Advanced Autonomous Systems for Space Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New missions of exploration and space operations will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Inherently high levels of complexity, cost, and communication distances will preclude the degree of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of not only meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, but simultaneously dramatically reducing the design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health management capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of advanced space operations, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints will limit the current practice of monitoring and controlling missions by a standing army of ground-based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such on-board systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communication` distances as are not otherwise possible, as well as many more efficient and low cost applications. In addition, utilizing component and system modeling and reasoning capabilities, autonomous systems will play an increasing role in ground operations for space missions, where they will both reduce the human workload as well as provide greater levels of monitoring and system safety. This paper will focus specifically on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operations. Topics to be presented will include a brief description of key autonomous control concepts, the Remote Agent program that commanded the Deep Space 1 spacecraft to new levels of system autonomy, recent advances in distributed autonomous system capabilities, and concepts for autonomous vehicle health management systems. A brief description of teaming spacecraft and rovers for complex exploration missions will also be provided. New on-board software for autonomous science data acquisition for planetary exploration will be described, as well as advanced systems for safe planetary landings. A new multi-agent architecture that addresses some of the challenges of autonomous systems will be presented. Autonomous operation of ground systems will also be considered, including software for autonomous in-situ propellant production and management, and closed- loop ecological life support systems (CELSS). Finally, plans and directions for the future will be discussed.

Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Muscettola, N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Clancy, D. J.

2002-01-01

422

Autonomous Command Operations of the WIRE Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents operational innovations which will be introduced on NASA's Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) mission. These innovations include an end-to-end design architecture for an autonomous commanding capability for the uplink of command loads during unattended station contacts. The WIRE mission is the fifth and final mission of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Small Explorer (SMEX) series to be launched in March of 1999. Its primary mission is the targeting of deep space fields using an ultra-cooled infrared telescope. Due to its mission design WIRE command loads are large (approximately 40 Kbytes per 24 hours) and must be performed daily. To reduce the cost of mission operations support that would be required in order to uplink command loads, the WIRE Flight Operations Team has implemented all autonomous command loading capability. This capability allows completely unattended operations over a typical two-day weekend period. The key factors driving design and implementation of this capability were: 1) integration with already existing ground system autonomous capabilities and systems, 2) the desire to evolve autonomous operations capabilities based upon previous SMEX operations experience - specifically the TRACE mission, 3) integration with ground station operations - both autonomous and man-tended, 4) low cost and quick implementation, and 5) end-to-end system robustness. A trade-off study was performed to examine these factors in light of the low-cost, higher-risk SMEX mission philosophy. The study concluded that a STOL (Spacecraft Test and Operations Language) based script, highly integrated with other scripts used to perform autonomous operations, was best suited given the budget and goals of the mission. Each of these factors is discussed in addition to use of the TRACE mission as a testbed for autonomous commanding prior to implementation on WIRE. The capabilities implemented on the WIRE mission are an example of a low-cost, robust, and efficient method for autonomous command loading when implemented with other autonomous features of the ground system. They call be used as a design and implementation template by other missions interested in evolving toward autonomous and lower cost operations. Additionally, the WIRE spacecraft will be used as an operational testbed upon completion of its nominal mission later in 1999. One idea being studied is advanced on-board modeling. Advanced on-board modeling techniques will be used to more efficiently display the spacecraft state. This health and safety information could be used by engineers on the ground or could be used by tile spacecraft for its own assessments. Additionally, this same state information could also be input into the event-driven scheduling system, as the scheduling system will need to assess the spacecraft state before undertaking a new activity. Advanced modeling techniques are being evaluated for a number of NASA missions including The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), which is scheduled to launch in 2007.

Walyus, Keith; Prior, Mike; Saylor, Richard

1999-01-01

423

Surface and subsurface nitrate flow pathways on a watershed scale.  

PubMed

Determining the interaction and impact of surface runoff and subsurface flow processes on the environment has been hindered by our inability to characterize subsurface soil structures on a watershed scale. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) data were collected and evaluated in determining subsurface hydrology at four small watersheds in Beltsville, MD. The watersheds have similar textures, organic matter contents, and yield distributions. Although the surface slope was greater on one of the watersheds, slope alone could not explain why it also had a nitrate runoff flux that was 18 times greater than the other three watersheds. Only with knowledge of the subsurface hydrology could the surface runoff differences be explained. The subsurface hydrology was developed by combining GPR and surface topography in a geographic information system. Discrete subsurface flow pathways were identified and confirmed with color infrared imagery, real-time soil moisture monitoring, and yield monitoring. The discrete subsurface flow patterns were also useful in understanding observed nitrate levels entering the riparian wetland and first order stream. This study demonstrated the impact that subsurface stratigraphy can have on water and nitrate (NO3-N) fluxes exiting agricultural lands, even when soil properties, yield distributions, and climate are similar. Reliable protocols for measuring subsurface fluxes of water and chemicals need to be developed. PMID:12805788

Daughtry, C S; Gish, T J; Dulaney, W P; Walthall, C L; Kung, K J; McCarty, G W; Angier, J T; Buss, P

2001-11-30

424

The Conductor of the Autonomic Orchestra  

PubMed Central

Bad bedfellows – autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, and diabetes! Are they related? How? Evidence suggests the activation of inflammatory cytokines like IL-6 and TNF? in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and that the inflammatory change correlates with abnormalities in sympathovagal balance. Dysfunction of the autonomic system predicts cardiovascular risk and sudden death in patients with type 2 diabetes. It occurs in prediabetes, providing opportunities for early intervention. The importance of recognizing autonomic dysfunction as a predictor of morbidity and mortality with intensification of treatment suggests that all patients with type 2 diabetes at onset, and those with type 1 diabetes after 5?years should be screened for autonomic imbalance. These tests can be performed at the bedside with real time output of information – within the scope of the practicing physician – facilitates diagnosis and allows the application of sound strategies for management. The window of opportunity for aggressive control of all the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular events or sudden death with intensification of therapy is with short duration diabetes, the absence of cardiovascular disease, and a history of severe hypoglycemic events. To this list we can now add autonomic dysfunction and neuropathy, which have become the most powerful predictors of risk for mortality. It seems prudent that practitioners should be encouraged to become familiar with this information and apply risk stratification in clinical practice. After all, how difficult is it to ask patients “do you have numb feet?” and to determine their heart rate variability – it could be lifesaving. Ultimately methods to reset the hypothalamus and the inflammatory cascade are needed if we are to impact the care of patients with this compendium of conditions.

Vinik, Aaron I.

2012-01-01

425

Autonomic nervous system and immune system interactions.  

PubMed

The present review assesses the current state of literature defining integrative autonomic-immune physiological processing, focusing on studies that have employed electrophysiological, pharmacological, molecular biological, and central nervous system experimental approaches. Central autonomic neural networks are informed of peripheral immune status via numerous communicating pathways, including neural and non-neural. Cytokines and other immune factors affect the level of activity and responsivity of discharges in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves innervating diverse targets. Multiple levels of the neuraxis contribute to cytokine-induced changes in efferent parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve outflows, leading to modulation of peripheral immune responses. The functionality of local sympathoimmune interactions depends on the microenvironment created by diverse signaling mechanisms involving integration between sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitters and neuromodulators; specific adrenergic receptors; and the presence or absence of immune cells, cytokines, and bacteria. Functional mechanisms contributing to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway likely involve novel cholinergic-adrenergic interactions at peripheral sites, including autonomic ganglion and lymphoid targets. Immune cells express adrenergic and nicotinic receptors. Neurotransmitters released by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve endings bind to their respective receptors located on the surface of immune cells and initiate immune-modulatory responses. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic arms of the autonomic nervous system are instrumental in orchestrating neuroimmune processes, although additional studies are required to understand dynamic and complex adrenergic-cholinergic interactions. Further understanding of regulatory mechanisms linking the sympathetic nervous, parasympathetic nervous, and immune systems is critical for understanding relationships between chronic disease development and immune-associated changes in autonomic nervous system function. © 2014 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 4:1177-1200, 2014. PMID:24944034

Kenney, M J; Ganta, C K

2014-07-01

426

Atmospheric energy for subsurface life on Mars?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The location and density of biologically useful energy sources on Mars will limit the biomass, spatial distribution, and organism size of any biota. Subsurface Martian organisms could be supplied with a large energy flux from the oxidation of photochemically produced atmospheric H(2) and CO diffusing into the regolith. However, surface abundance measurements of these gases demonstrate that no more than a few percent of this available flux is actually being consumed, suggesting that biological activity driven by atmospheric H(2) and CO is limited in the top few hundred meters of the subsurface. This is significant because the available but unused energy is extremely large: for organisms at 30-m depth, it is 2,000 times previous estimates of hydrothermal and chemical weathering energy and far exceeds the energy derivable from other atmospheric gases. This also implies that the apparent scarcity of life on Mars is not attributable to lack of energy. Instead, the availability of liquid water may be a more important factor limiting biological activity because the photochemical energy flux can only penetrate to 100- to 1,000-m depth, where most H(2)O is probably frozen. Because both atmospheric and Viking lander soil data provide little evidence for biological activity, the detection of short-lived trace gases will probably be a better indicator of any extant Martian life.

Weiss, B. P.; Yung, Y. L.; Nealson, K. H.

2000-01-01

427

Phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microorganisms. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This project involves the development of group specific 16S ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the rapid detection of specific types of subsurface organisms (e.g., groups of microbes that share certain physiological traits). Major accomplishments for the period of 6/91 to 12/1/91 are described. Nine new probes have been synthesized on the basis of published 16S rRNA sequence data from the Ribosomal Database Project. We have initiated rapid screening of many of the subsurface microbial isolates obtained from the P24 borehole at the Savannah River Site. To date, we have screened approximately 50% of the isolates from P24. We have optimized our {und in situ} hybridization technique, and have developed a cell blot hybridization technique to screen 96 samples on a single blot. This is much faster than reading 96 individual slides. Preliminary experiments have been carried out which indicate specific nutrients can be used to amplify rRNA only in those organisms capable of metabolizing those nutrients. 1 tab., 2 figs.

Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.

1991-12-31

428

Predictability of Subsurface Temperature and the AMOC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GEOS 5 coupled model is extensively used for experimental decadal climate prediction. Understanding the limits of decadal ocean predictability is critical for making progress in these efforts. Using this model, we study the subsurface temperature initial value predictability, the variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and its impacts on the global climate. Our approach is to utilize the idealized data assimilation technology developed at the GMAO. The technique 'replay' allows us to assess, for example, the impact of the surface wind stresses and/or precipitation on the ocean in a very well controlled environment. By running the coupled model in replay mode we can in fact constrain the model using any existing reanalysis data set. We replay the model constraining (nudging) it to the MERRA reanalysis in various fields from 1948-2012. The fields, u,v,T,q,ps, are adjusted towards the 6-hourly analyzed fields in atmosphere. The simulated AMOC variability is studied with a 400-year-long segment of replay integration. The 84 cases of 10-year hindcasts are initialized from 4 different replay cycles. Here, the variability and predictability are examined further by a measure to quantify how much the subsurface temperature and AMOC variability has been influenced by atmospheric forcing and by ocean internal variability. The simulated impact of the AMOC on the multi-decadal variability of the SST, sea surface height (SSH) and sea ice extent is also studied.

Chang, Y.; Schubert, S. D.

2013-12-01

429

Robotics subsurface mapping demonstration technology test plan  

SciTech Connect

The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) contains an estimated 2 million cubic feet of contaminated, hazardous, radioactive buried waste. The waste was received in cardboard boxes, steel drums plywood boxes, and as loose material. Possible leaching of the buried waste may have created mixed hazardous fill dirt, with an estimated volume of 6 million cubic feet. The Department of Energy has committed to clean up the SDA. Cleanup efforts will include characterizing and removing the waste. Waste characterization provides information on what, where, and how much waste is buried. This information will be used to determine how the waste will be removed and treated. Limited historical data of the waste buried within the SDA exist, but have not been verified and are believed to be incorrect or incomplete in many cases. There are two objectives to the Robotics Subsurface Mapping Demonstration. The first is to demonstrate the feasibility of using a remotely operated platform to perform characterization operations. In the demonstration, the Soldier Robot Interface Project (SRIP) platform will be equipped with multiple sensors to provide data for buried waste characterization and will be remotely controlled and tracked by the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS). The second objective of the demonstration is to characterize the waste in locations within the SDA, as specified by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Project.

Griebenow, B.E.

1991-06-01

430

In situ analysis of subsurface materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From radio and radar observations, providing information on the upper 0.1 to 10 m of the Martian crust, we know that subsurface properties seem to be slightly different from those at the surface, suggesting subsurface layering in many places. This idea has been strongly strengthened by the recent observation in sedimentary areas of the Martian surface, made by MGS and Odyssey Spacecrafts. Moreover indications on the presence of shallow water has been also suggested. Unfortunately many doubts exist on the nature, timing and duration of alteration and sedimentation processes on Mars. This study will permit to infer the history of erosion, transport and deposition of loose material. This material can reach a thickness ranging from a few centimeters to meters. Up to present, the Viking and Pathfinder investigations have studied only the upper layers of the soil. The Martian soil analyzed by the two Viking landers showed a surprising similarity, despite the great distance between the two landing sites: it will be extremely important to verify if this similarity is also present in different areas and, particularly, in the subsurface layers. The study of the Mars subsurface can give us an indication of how deeply the weathering has modified the Martian surface. The ASI driller will be able to penetrate different kinds of materials, both loose and hard. The drill will be able to cut both hard rock and loose soil as well as mixtures of them. Thanks to the ASI drill it will be possible to investigate at least the first half-meter of this complex structure. We describe here a miniaturized imaging spectrometer that can be included in the drill tip in order to infer the mineralogical characteristics of subsurface layers. The data are acquired through a flat optical window on the drill wall: through this window the inner surface of the hole is illuminated by means of different lamps. The image is acquired by an array of optical fibers simulating a slit. An optical system situated inside the drill will permit to observe details from few tenths of microns to hundreds of microns and to perform low resolution spectroscopy in the range 0.8-2.8 microns. The linear array of optical fibers mimics the slit. The focal plane is a two-dimensional matrix of HgCdTe or PbS of 32-64 pixels in the spatial direction by 25-256 pixels in the spectral direction. The spectral reflectance in the visible and near infrared can provide information on the mineralogy and petrology of surface materials, and therefore on crust composition and Fe mineralogy. Analysis of VIS and NIR reflectance spectra of low albedo areas is a primary source of evidence for basaltic crust on Mars, with the identification of abundant clinopyroxenes and other mafic minerals. The instrument prototype has already been tested in laboratory and we will show some of the obtained results.

Coradini, A.; de Sanctis, M. C.; Piccioni, G.; Amici, S.; Bianchi, R.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; di Lellis, A. M.; Espinasse, S.; Federico, C.

2003-04-01

431

Drilling on the Moon and Mars: Developing the Science Approach for Subsurface Exploration with Human Crews  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DOMEX (Drilling on the Moon and Mars in Human Exploration) is using analog missions to develop the approach for using human crews to perform science activities on the Moon and Mars involving exploration and sampling of the subsurface. Subsurface science is an important activity that may be uniquely enabled by human crews. DOMEX provides an opportunity to plan and execute planetary mission science activities without the expense and overhead of a planetary mission. Objectives: The objective of this first in a series of DOMEX missions were to 1) explore the regional area to understand the geologic context and determine stratigraphy and geologic history of various geologic units in the area. 2) Explore for and characterize sites for deploying a deep (10 m depth) drilling system in a subsequent field season. 3) Perform GPR on candidate drill sites. 4) Select sites that represent different geological units deposited in different epochs and collect soil cores using sterile procedures for mineralogical, organic and biological analysis. 5) Operate the MUM in 3 different sites representing different geological units and soil characteristics. 6) Collect rock and soil samples of sites visited and analyze them at the habitat. Results: At mission start the crew performed a regional survey to identify major geologic units that were correlated to recognized stratigraphy and regional geologic maps. Several candidate drill sites were identified. During the rest of the mission, successful GPR surveys were conducted in four locations. Soil cores were collected in 5 locations representing soils from 4 different geologic units, to depths up to 1m. Soil cores from two locations were analyzed with PCR in the laboratory. The remainder were reserved for subsequent analysis. XRD analysis was performed in the habitat and in the field on 39 samples, to assist with sample characterization, conservation, and archiving. MUM was deployed at 3 field locations and 1 test location (outside the habitat) where it operated autonomously for 2-4 hours at each site. Depths achieved ranged from 15 to 70 cm depending on the soil compressive strength and the presence and depth of subsurface indurated layers. Subsurface samples weighing 0.5 to 1 g were collected at the deepest depth encountered at each of the sites using the MUM automated sample collection system, and subsequently analyzed with XRD. Downhole inspection of holes produced by MUM with the Raman spectrometer was acquired on two of the holes and spectral features associated with selenite were identified in specific soil layers. Previously unreported fossilized remains of vertebrate fauna from the Jurassic era were discovered during our mission. Analysis of mineral biomarkers associated with this discovery are underway.

Stoker, C. R.; Zavaleta, J.; Bell, M.; Direto, S.; Foing, B.; Blake, D.; Kim, S.

2010-01-01

432

Apoptosis and Self-Destruct: A Contribution to Autonomic Agents?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomic Computing (AC), a self-managing systems initiative based on the biological metaphor of the autonomic nervous system, is increasingly gaining momentum as the way forward in designing reliable systems. Agent technologies have been identified as a key enabler for engineering autonomicity in systems, both in terms of retrofitting autonomicity into legacy systems and designing new systems. The AC initiative provides an opportunity to consider other biological systems and principles in seeking new design strategies. This paper reports on one such investigation; utilizing the apoptosis metaphor of biological systems to provide a dynamic health indicator signal between autonomic agents.

Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

2004-01-01

433

Root Distribution, Production, and Turnover in Riparian Subsurface Soils: Implications for Surface-Subsurface Connections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Root-derived carbon (C) drives a large proportion of microbial activity in surface soils, and decomposing roots act as denitrification hot spots at 60-100 cm depth in riparian zones. However, root biomass and turnover has been measured rarely in saturated subsurface soils of riparian zones, where denitrification influences landscape-scale N fluxes. I here report data on root biomass (from soil cores), production (using ingrowth cores), and age (estimated with radiocarbon dating) from as deep as 150 cm in riparian zones on 1st - 3^{rd} order streams in Rhode Island, USA. I collected soil samples at three sites with sandy loam soils, vegetation dominated by 80 year old Acer rubrum, and <3% slopes. Water tables ranged from 50 cm in the growing season, to above the surface in the dormant season. Root biomass declined with depth from 0-50 cm but not between 50-100 cm. At site 1 (outwash), mean root biomass in surface soils 0-30 cm was 5,040 g m-2, and mean subsurface root biomass was 192 mp 81 g m-2 (95% CI), with a maximum value of 834 g m-2. Total root biomass did not differ among the three sites. The ingrowth cores yielded annual belowground production estimates of 331-680 g m-2 yr-1, almost all of which occurred in the top 30 cm. Root turnover in the surface is likely between 6 and 40%. After 30 months, very few roots had penetrated ingrowth cores below 40 cm despite substantial standing stocks of roots at depth. Radiocarbon analysis yielded further insights about root dynamics in the subsurface. In the shallow subsurface (40 - 75 cm), delta 14C values of fine roots ranged from 9.8 to 388 ‰, with corresponding ages between 14 and 47 years before present (ybp). With one exception, roots from the deep subsurface (below 80 cm) had 14C signatures < 0 ‰, and usually less than -100 ‰, corresponding to ages of 100-8,400 ybp. Fine root turnover appears to occur on decadal time scales at depths from ~45-75 cm, much more slowly than turnover in surface soils of upland forests. Samples from below 80 cm, with ages hundreds of years old, raise the possibility that episodic events (e.g., extreme droughts) lead to periods of deeper root growth and subsequent death. Coupling between the surface and subsurface in riparian zones appears to be strong in surface soils, moderately weak at depths of ~40-75 cm and very weak below 80 cm depth.

Gurwick, N. P.

2006-12-01

434

Detection of microbial Life in the Subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years microbial communities were detected, which dwell in rocks, soil and caves deep below the surface of the Earth. This has led to a new view of the diversity of the terrestrial biosphere and of the physico-chemical boundaries for life. Two types of subterranean environments are Permo-Triassic salt sediments and thermal radioactive springs from igneous rocks in the Alps. Viable extremely halophilic archaea were isolated from ancient salt sediments which are estimated to be about 250 million years old (1). Chemotaxonomic and molecular characterization showed that they represent novel species, e. g. Halococcus salifodinae, Hcc. dombrowskiiand Halobacterium noricense. Simulation experiments with artificial halite suggested that these microorganisms probably survived while embedded in fluid inclusions. In the thermal springs, evidence for numerous novel microorganisms was found by 16S rDNA sequencing and probing for some metabolic genes; in addition, scanning electron microscopy of biofilms on the rock surfaces revealed great diversity of morphotypes (2). These communities appear to be active and growing, although their energy and carbon sources are entirely unknown. The characterization of subsurface inhabitants is of astrobiological relevance since extraterrestrial halite has been detected (3) and since microbial life on Mars, if existent, may have retreated into the subsurface. As a long-term goal, a thorough census of terrestrial microorganisms should be taken and their survival potential be determined in view of future missions for the search for extraterrestrial life, including planning precautions against possible forward contamination by space probes. (1) Fendrihan, S., Legat, A., Gruber, C., Pfaffenhuemer, M., Weidler, G., Gerbl, F., Stan-Lotter, H. (2006) Extremely halophilic archaea and the issue of long term microbial survival. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/technology 5, 1569-1605. (2) Weidler, G.W., Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, M., Gerbl, F.W., Heinen, W., Stan- Lotter, H. (2007) Communities of Archaea and Bacteria in a subsurface radioactive thermal spring in the Austrian Central Alps and evidence for ammonia oxidizing Crenarchaeota. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73, 259-270. (3) Stan-Lotter, H., Radax, C., McGenity, T.J., Legat, A., Pfaffenhuemer, M.,Wieland, H., Gruber, C., Denner, E.B.M. (2004) From Intraterrestrials to Extraterrestrials - Viable haloarchaea in ancient salt deposits. In: Halophilic Microorganisms. Ventosa A. (Ed.), Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 89-102.

Stan-Lotter, H.; Fendrihan, S.; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, M.; Legat, A.; Gruber, C.; Weidler, G.; Gerbl, F.

2007-08-01

435

ASSESSMENT OF THE SUBSURFACE FATE OF MONOETHANOLAMINE  

SciTech Connect

Burial of amine reclaimer unit sludges and system filters has resulted in contamination of soil at the CanOxy Okotoks decommissioned sour gas-processing plant with amines, amine byproducts, and salts. A three-phase research program was devised to investigate the natural attenuation process that controls the subsurface transport and fate of these contaminants and to apply the results toward the development of a strategy for the remediation of this type of contamination in soils. Phase I experimental activities examined interactions between monoethanolamine (MEA) and sediment, the biodegradability of MEA in soils at various concentrations and temperatures, and the biodegradability of MEA sludge contamination in a soil slurry bioreactor. The transport and fate of MEA in the subsurface was found to be highly dependant on the nature of the release, particularly MEA concentration and conditions of the subsurface environment, i.e., pH, temperature, and oxygen availability. Pure compound biodegradation experiments in soil demonstrated rapid biodegradation of MEA under aerobic conditions and moderate temperatures (>6 C). Phase II landfarming activities confirmed that these contaminants are readily biodegradable in soil under ideal laboratory conditions, yet considerable toxicity was observed in the remaining material. Examination of water extracts from the treated soil suggested that the toxicity is water-soluble. Phase II activities led to the conclusion that landfarming is not the most desirable bioremediation technique; however, an engineered biopile with a leachate collection system could remove the remaining toxic fraction from the soil. Phase III was initiated to conduct field-based experimental activities to examine the optimized remediation technology. A pilot-scale engineered biopile was constructed at a decommissioned gas-sweetening facility in Okotoks, Alberta, Canada. On the basis of a review of the analytical and performance data generated from soil and leachate samples, the biopile operation has successfully removed all identified amines and removed significant amounts of organic nitrogen and organic carbon. Salts initially present in the soil and salts generated during the biodegradation of contaminants remain to be flushed from the soil. Laboratory data show that these salts are readily removable with a simple soil leach.

James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Lori G. Kays

2000-05-01

436

The Renal Impairment of Pure Autonomic Failure  

PubMed Central

Supine hypertension is difficult to manage in patients with pure autonomic failure because treatment can worsen orthostatic hypotension. Supine hypertension in pure autonomic failure has been associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, but end-organ damage in the kidney has not been assessed. We reviewed hemodynamic and laboratory data of 64 male patients with pure autonomic failure, 69±11 (mean±SD) years old. Systolic blood pressure fell by 67±40 mmHg within 10 minutes of standing, with an inappropriately low 13±11 beats per minute increase in heart rate. Plasma norepinephrine levels were below normal (0.62±0.32 nmol/L supine and 1.28±1.25 nmol/L standing). A control dataset of 75 males (67±12 years) was obtained from a de-identified version of Vanderbilt University Medical Center's electronic medical record database. Compared with controls, pure autonomic failure patients had lower hemoglobin (8.3±0.9 mmol/L vs. 9.3±0.8 mmol/L, P<0.001), packed cell volume (0.40±0.04 vs. 0.45±0.04, P<0.001) and red blood cell count (4.4±0.5 × 1012 cells/L vs. 5.0±0.5 × 1012 cells/L, P<0.001). Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were elevated in patients. Forty-eight percent of patients with pure autonomic failure had supine hypertension (supine systolic blood pressure?150 mmHg). Serum creatinine was higher in patients with supine hypertension (133±44 ?mol/L vs. 106±27 ?mol/L, P=0.021), and estimated glomerular filtration rate was lower (57±22 mL/min/1.73m2 vs. 70±20 mL/min/1.73m2, P=0.022), compared with patients who did not have supine hypertension. These findings may indicate that renal function is diminished in pure autonomic failure in association with supine hypertension.

Garland, Emily M.; Gamboa, Alfredo; Okamoto, Luis; Raj, Satish R.; Black, Bonnie K.; Davis, Thomas L.; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, David

2009-01-01

437

Review of Constructed Subsurface Flow vs. Surface Flow Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to use existing documentation to review the effectiveness of subsurface flow and surface flow constructed wetlands in treating wastewater and to demonstrate the viability of treating effluent from Savannah River Site outfalls H-02 and H-04 with a subsurface flow constructed wetland to lower copper, lead and zinc concentrations to within National Pollutant Discharge Elimination

Nancy V. Halverson

2004-01-01

438

CSMOS USER REGISTRATION (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Center for Subsurface Modeling Support (CSMoS)provides public domain groundwater and vadose zone modeling software and services to public agencies and private companies nationwide. CSMoS is part of NRMRL's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division. The primary objectives...

439

Application of borehole radar for subsurface physical measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borehole radar is a subsurface detection tool originally designed for imaging geological targets in resistive formations. As the formation becomes conductive, radar becomes ineffective for subsurface imaging because of the high attenuation of electromagnetic waves. In this paper, borehole radar is proven to be capable of measuring the surrounding conductivity and dielectric constant at 60-90 MHz, even in a conductive

Sixin Liu; Motoyuki Sato; Kazunori Takahashi

2004-01-01

440

DETERMINATION OF MICROBIAL CELL NUMBERS IN SUBSURFACE SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ground-water pollution by organic compounds has become a major environmental concern. Because the transport and fate of the organic pollutants may be influenced by microorganisms present in subsurface material, reliable measurements of the number of organisms in subsurface sample...

441

The distribution of subsurface damage in fused silica  

SciTech Connect

Managing subsurface damage during the shaping process and removing subsurface damage during the polishing process is essential in the production of low damage density optical components, such as those required for use on high peak power lasers. Removal of subsurface damage, during the polishing process, requires polishing to a depth which is greater than the depth of the residual cracks present following the shaping process. To successfully manage, and ultimately remove subsurface damage, understanding the distribution and character of fractures in the subsurface region introduced during fabrication process is important. We have characterized the depth and morphology of subsurface fractures present following fixed abrasive and loose abrasive grinding processes. At shallow depths lateral cracks and an overlapping series of trailing indentation fractures were found to be present. At greater depths, subsurface damage consists of a series of trailing indentation fractures. The area density of trailing fractures changes as a function of depth, however the length and shape of individual cracks remain nearly constant for a given grinding process. We have developed and applied a model to interpret the depth and crack length distributions of subsurface surface damage in terms of key variables including abrasive size and load.

Miller, P E; Suratwala, T I; Wong, L L; Feit, M D; Menapace, J A; Davis, P J; Steele, R A

2005-11-21

442

Efficiency of subsurface flow constructed wetland with trickling filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective wastewater purification in subsurface flow constructed wetlands must include adequate pretreatment and ensure a sufficient amount of dissolved oxygen. In a pilot-scale operation, a subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW) consisted of a primary settlement tank, a trickling filter for pretreatment and two serially assembled basins. The trickling filter was added to ensure sufficient aeration, increase purification of the wastewater

Aleksandra Anic Vucinic; Jasna Hrenovic; Predrag Tepes

2011-01-01

443

Efficiency of subsurface flow constructed wetland with trickling filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective wastewater purification in subsurface flow constructed wetlands must include adequate pretreatment and ensure a sufficient amount of dissolved oxygen. In a pilot-scale operation, a subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW) consisted of a primary settlement tank, a trickling filter for pretreatment and two serially assembled basins. The trickling filter was added to ensure sufficient aeration, increase purification of the wastewater

Aleksandra Anic Vucinic; Jasna Hrenovic; Predrag Tepes

2012-01-01

444

Geochemical characterization of subsurface sediments in the netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, the Netherlands' subsurface is mainly used to obtain good quality drinking and industrial waters from the different aquifers. Due to the lack of space on the surface, increasing environmental problems and demand for energy, the subsurface will be used increasingly for other activities, including large underground infrastructural projects, underground storage of waste and greenhousegasses and underground storage capacity for

D. J. Huisman

1998-01-01

445

Subsurface Utility Engineering: An Initial Step in Project Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accurate location of underground structures is a serious problem in construction. Subsurface Utility Engineering (SUE) is an emerging solution to this subsurface structures problem. SUE is a process that incorporates new and existing technologies to accurately locate underground facilities during early development of a project. This paper discusses the current locating practices and the benefits that can be obtained

Jeffrey J. Lew

1997-01-01

446

Radar Detectability of a Subsurface Ocean on Europa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spacecraft in orbit around Jupiter's moon Europa can use ice penetrating radar to probe for a possible liquid water ocean beneath Europa's surface ice and to characterize other important subsurface structure. Consideration of available constraints on the properties of Europa's ice, possible subsurface temperature gradients, and possible impurities in the ice places an upper limit of about 10 km

Christopher F. Chyba; Steven J. Ostro; Bradley C. Edwards

1998-01-01

447

Understanding the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the subsurface environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve effective remediation of subsurface petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, definite scientific and technical knowledge of their fate after they are spilled onto the ground surface or leaked from underground storage tanks is essential. The paper provides extensive details of the parameters that affect the fate of petroleum products in the underground environment. These include: the character of the subsurface environment;

Chien T. Chen

1992-01-01

448

Development of stochastic partial differential equations for subsurface hydrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of stochastic models in subsurface hydrology is growing at a logistic pace. To tie together a number of different stochastic methodologies for deriving subsurface transport equations, we have put together a brief review of some of the more common techniques. Our attention is confined to a few select methodologies so that we might delve in detail into assumptions

J. H. Cushman

1987-01-01

449

MARSIS subsurface investigation approach and preliminary material compatibility identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MARSIS Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounder is presently collecting data on Mars surface and subsurface The subsurface echoes signal can be hidden by synchronous echoes coming from off nadir surface reflections surface clutter moreover this clutter arriving from the across track direction can be interpreted as a signal coming from a subsurface interface In the along track direction the clutter is naturally filtered by the synthetic antenna principle at least up to the compressed Doppler chirp Presently in absence of the monopole antenna that contribute to the clutter cancellation the analysis is primarily addressed to the return echoes from MARS south polar regions focusing the attention on the areas where the surface can be considered flat This limitation has been assumed to avoid the risk of wrong interpretation of the echoes signals In fact once detected a potential subsurface signal on the processed data at a depth delta in order to confirm that the interface is present is necessary to perform the following processing and verifications - Subsurface return echoes estimation depth level and spatial correlation - Analysis of surface within a range sqrt 2 cdot h cdot delta h satellite height delta interface potential height where clutter can hidden subsurface echoes or can be confused with the searched subsurface signal Auxiliary tool for identification of the surface backscattering level is the ensemble of the maps of the slope m and the angles alpha x and

Picardi, Giovanni; Cartacci, Marco; Seu, Roberto; Masdea, Arturo; Plaut, J. P.; Jordan, R. L.; Safaeinili, Ali; Calabrese, Diego; Zampolini, Enrico; Melacci, Pietro Tito

450

Impact Excavation and the Search for Subsurface Life on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the ubiquity of subsurface microbial life on Earth, examination of the subsurface of Mars could provide an answer to the question of whether microorganisms exist or ever existed on that planet. Impact craters provide a natural mechanism for accessing the deep substrate of Mars and exploring its exobiological potential. Based on equations that relate impact crater diameters to

Charles S. Cockell; Nadine G. Barlow

2002-01-01

451

On Water Detection in the Martian Subsurface Using Sounding Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several radar experiments are planned to map the martian subsurface down to several kilometers, searching for subsurface liquid water reservoirs, using different concepts and techniques, all based on the penetration property of radio frequency waves in arid soils. The penetration depth of low-frequency radar is mainly related to the electromagnetic properties of the investigated medium. Thus a good knowledge of

E. Heggy; P. Paillou; G. Ruffie; J. M. Malezieux; F. Costard; G. Grandjean

2001-01-01

452

Radar observations of strong subsurface scatterers. A model of backscattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backscattering from strong buried scatterers (like water and gas mains) are studied both experimentally and theoretically. The contrast coefficients are introduced as a quantitative characteristics of the relative contribution of subsurface strong reflector to backscattered signal against the background of scattering of air-soil interface. Even though the radar response from “ideal” subsurface body itself is negligibly small, scattering from roughness

A. Kalmykov; I. Fuks; I. Scherbinin; V. Tsymbal; A. Matveev; A. Gavrilenko; M. Fix; V. Freilikher

1995-01-01

453

A modified subsurface stormflow model of hillsides in forest catchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface flow plays an important role in forest catchment hydrological processes, for which a modified model is established in this paper. Firstly, by taking soil samples from Natural Preserve Forests of Changbai Mountain, two crucial parameters for subsurface flow, the saturated hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity, were measured in the laboratory. Secondly, submodels of the two parameters varying logarithmically with

Pei Tiefan; Liu Jianmei; Li Jinzhong; Wang Anzhi

2005-01-01

454

TECHNICAL SUPPORT CENTER RESOURCES (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division's Technical Support Center consists of a core team of in-house scientists and engineers strongly supported by other in-house and extramural researchers, the Center for Subsurface Modeling Support, and a technical support cont...

455

A spatial and temporal continuous surface-subsurface hydrologic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrologic model integrating surface-subsurface processes was developed based on spatial and temporal continuity theory. The raster-based mass balance hydrologic model consists of several submodels which determine spatial and temporal patterns in precipitation, surface flow, infiltration, subsurface flow, and the linkages between these submodels. Model parameters and variables are derived directly or indirectly from satellite remote sensing data, topographic maps,

Qing-Fu Xiao; Susan L. Ustin; Wesley W. Wallender

1996-01-01

456

Subsurface Sounding of Mars: The Effects of Surface Roughness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) will conduct a global survey of Mars from the Mars Express Orbiter starting in 2004. The primary objective of the subsurface observations is to detect material interfaces in the upper several kilometers of the crust of Mars, with a particular emphasis on mapping the 3D distribution of water and ice in that portion of the crust. In order to detect subsurface interfaces, the returned echo from the subsurface must be distinguished from noise and clutter, which can arise from a variety of sources. One source of clutter is surface topography that generates backscattered energy at the same time delay as the subsurface region of interest. Surface topography can affect the detectability of subsurface features in several other ways. Surface roughness at scales comparable or somewhat smaller than the radar wavelength reduces the coherency of the wave as it passes the upper interface. Also, surface slope (tilt) at scales of the radar footprint and larger (> 5 km) affects the apparent Doppler signature of the echoes, and effectively disperses the wave transmitted into the subsurface, making processing and interpretation difficult. In this paper, we report on the roughness characteristics of Mars at these various scales as measured by the Mars Global Surveyor Laser Altimeter (MOLA), and consider the implications for achieving the subsurface sounding goals of MARSIS. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Plaut, J. J.; Jordan, R.; Safaeinili, A.; Safaenelli, A.; Seu, R.; Orosei, R.

2001-01-01

457

Prediction of subsurface stress in elastic perfectly plastic rough components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding and anticipating the effects of surface roughness on subsurface stress in the design phase can help ensure that performance and life requirements are satisfied. One approach used to address this problem is to simulate contact between digitized real, machined surfaces, and then analyze the predicted subsurface stress field. Often, elastic-perfectly plastic contact models are used in these simulations because

A. Martini; B. Escoffier; Q. Wang; S. B. Liu; L. M. Keer; D. Zhu; M. Bujold

2006-01-01

458

Optimal joule heating of the subsurface  

DOEpatents

A method for simultaneously heating the subsurface and imaging the effects of the heating. This method combines the use of tomographic imaging (electrical resistance tomography or ERT) to image electrical resistivity distribution underground, with joule heating by electrical currents injected in the ground. A potential distribution is established on a series of buried electrodes resulting in energy deposition underground which is a function of the resistivity and injection current density. Measurement of the voltages and currents also permits a tomographic reconstruction of the resistivity distribution. Using this tomographic information, the current injection pattern on the driving electrodes can be adjusted to change the current density distribution and thus optimize the heating. As the heating changes conditions, the applied current pattern can be repeatedly adjusted (based on updated resistivity tomographs) to affect real time control of the heating.

Berryman, James G. (Danville, CA); Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

459

Armored Enzyme Nanoparticles for Remediation of Subsurface  

SciTech Connect

The remediation of subsurface contaminants is a critical problem for the Department of Energy, other government agencies, and our nation. Severe contamination of soil and groundwater exists at several DOE sites due to various methods of intentional and unintentional release. Given the difficulties involved in conventional removal or separation processes, it is vital to develop methods to transform contaminants and contaminated earth/water to reduce risks to human health and the environment. Transformation of the contaminants themselves may involve conversion to other immobile species that do not migrate into well water or surface waters, as is proposed for metals and radionuclides; or degradation to harmless molecules, as is desired for organic contaminants. Transformation of contaminated earth (as opposed to the contaminants themselves) may entail reductions in volume or release of bound contaminants for remediation.

Grate, Jay W.

2005-09-01

460

Optimal joule heating of the subsurface  

DOEpatents

A method for simultaneously heating the subsurface and imaging the effects of the heating is disclosed. This method combines the use of tomographic imaging (electrical resistance tomography or ERT) to image electrical resistivity distribution underground, with joule heating by electrical currents injected in the ground. A potential distribution is established on a series of buried electrodes resulting in energy deposition underground which is a function of the resistivity and injection current density. Measurement of the voltages and currents also permits a tomographic reconstruction of the resistivity distribution. Using this tomographic information, the current injection pattern on the driving electrodes can be adjusted to change the current density distribution and thus optimize the heating. As the heating changes conditions, the applied current pattern can be repeatedly adjusted (based on updated resistivity tomographs) to affect real time control of the heating.

Berryman, J.G.; Daily, W.D.

1994-07-05

461

Joint inversion for mapping subsurface hydrologicalparameters  

SciTech Connect

Using electromagnetic (EM) and seismic travel time data and a least-square criteria, a two-dimensional joint inversion algorithm is under development to assess the feasibility of directly mapping subsurface hydrological properties in a crosswell setup. A simplified Archie's law combined with the time average equation relates the magnetic fields and seismic travel time to two hydrological parameters; rock porosity and pore fluid electrical conductivity. For simplicity, the hydrological parameter distributions are assumed to be two-dimensional. Preliminary results show that joint inversion does have better resolving power for the interpretation than using the EM method alone. Various inversion scenarios have been tested, and it has been found that alternately perturbing just one of the two parameters at each iteration gives the best data fit.

Tseng, Hung-Wen; Lee, Ki Ha

2001-03-07

462

Delineate subsurface structures with ground penetrating radar  

SciTech Connect

High resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were conducted at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina in late 1991 to demonstrate the radar techniques in imaging shallow utility and soil structures. Targets of interest at two selected sites, designated as H- and D-areas, were a buried backfilled trench, buried drums, geologic stratas, and water table. Multiple offset 2-D and single offset 3-D survey methods were used to acquire high resolution radar data. This digital data was processed using standard seismic processing software to enhance signal quality and improve resolution. Finally, using a graphics workstation, the 3D data was interpreted. In addition, a small 3D survey was acquired in The Woodlands, Texas, with very dense spatial sampling. This data set adequately demonstrated the potential of this technology in imaging subsurface features.

Wyatt, D.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Hu, L.Z. [New Wave Technology, Houston, TX (United States); Ramaswamy, M. [Houston Advanced Research Center, Woodlands, TX (United States); Sexton, B.G. [Microseeps, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1992-10-01

463

Delineate subsurface structures with ground penetrating radar  

SciTech Connect

High resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were conducted at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina in late 1991 to demonstrate the radar techniques in imaging shallow utility and soil structures. Targets of interest at two selected sites, designated as H- and D-areas, were a buried backfilled trench, buried drums, geologic stratas, and water table. Multiple offset 2-D and single offset 3-D survey methods were used to acquire high resolution radar data. This digital data was processed using standard seismic processing software to enhance signal quality and improve resolution. Finally, using a graphics workstation, the 3D data was interpreted. In addition, a small 3D survey was acquired in The Woodlands, Texas, with very dense spatial sampling. This data set adequately demonstrated the potential of this technology in imaging subsurface features.

Wyatt, D.E. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Hu, L.Z. (New Wave Technology, Houston, TX (United States)); Ramaswamy, M. (Houston Advanced Research Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)); Sexton, B.G. (Microseeps, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1992-01-01

464

New Formulas for HED (Horizontal Electric Dipole), HMD (Horizontal Magnetic Dipole), VED (Vertical Electric Dipole), and VMD (Vertical Magnetic Dipole) Subsurface-to-Subsurface Propagation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New formulas for the electric and magnetic fields produced by the four elementary dipole antennas have been developed for the subsurface-to-subsurface, subsurface-to-surface, surface-to-subsurface, and surface-to-surface propagation cases. These formulas ...

P. R. Bannister

1984-01-01

465

Accelerating Subsurface Transport Simulation on Heterogeneous Clusters  

SciTech Connect

Reactive transport numerical models simulate chemical and microbiological reactions that occur along a flowpath. These models have to compute reactions for a large number of locations. They solve the set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that describes the reaction for each location through the Newton-Raphson technique. This technique involves computing a Jacobian matrix and a residual vector for each set of equation, and then solving iteratively the linearized system by performing Gaussian Elimination and LU decomposition until convergence. STOMP, a well known subsurface flow simulation tool, employs matrices with sizes in the order of 100x100 elements and, for numerical accuracy, LU factorization with full pivoting instead of the faster partial pivoting. Modern high performance computing systems are heterogeneous machines whose nodes integrate both CPUs and GPUs, exposing unprecedented amounts of parallelism. To exploit all their computational power, applications must use both the types of processing elements. For the case of subsurface flow simulation, this mainly requires implementing efficient batched LU-based solvers and identifying efficient solutions for enabling load balancing among the different processors of the system. In this paper we discuss two approaches that allows scaling STOMP's performance on heterogeneous clusters. We initially identify the challenges in implementing batched LU-based solvers for small matrices on GPUs, and propose an implementation that fulfills STOMP's requirements. We compare this implementation to other existing solutions. Then, we combine the batched GPU solver with an OpenMP-based CPU solver, and present an adaptive load balancer that dynamically distributes the linear systems to solve between the two components inside a node. We show how these approaches, integrated into the full application, provide speed ups from 6 to 7 times on large problems, executed on up to 16 nodes of a cluster with two AMD Opteron 6272 and a Tesla M2090 per node.

Villa, Oreste; Gawande, Nitin A.; Tumeo, Antonino

2013-09-23

466

Understanding the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the subsurface environment  

SciTech Connect

To achieve effective remediation of subsurface petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, definite scientific and technical knowledge of their fate after they are spilled onto the ground surface or leaked from underground storage tanks is essential. The paper provides extensive details of the parameters that affect the fate of petroleum products in the underground environment. These include: the character of the subsurface environment; the composition, physical and chemical properties of petroleum products; and the mechanisms of their mobilization, immobilization and transformation in the subsurface. Data on the physical and chemical properties of soil, groundwater and petroleum hydrocarbons are identified. The mechanisms that affect the fate of these contaminants in the subsurface include vaporization and condensation, diffusion, advection, dispersion, dissolution, adsorption, biodegradation, and abiotic reactions. The relation between these mechanisms and the properties of soil, groundwater and petroleum hydrocarbons is described. The distribution of the contaminated petroleum products in the subsurface as affected by these parameters and principles is also described.

Chen, C.T.

1992-01-01