Sample records for autonomous microexplosives subsurface

  1. Microexplosions in Tellurite Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, S. K.; Schaffer, C. B.; Mazur, E.

    2003-03-01

    Femtosecond laser pulses were used to initiate microexplosions in baseline, Al2O3-doped, and La2O3-doped sodium tellurite glasses. Single or multiple-shots were used in the experiments. Writing of simple structures (periodic array of voxels as well as lines) was demonstrated. The regions of microexplosion and writing were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) postmortem. Fingerprints of microexplosions, concentric lines within the region and a concentric ring outside the region due to shock wave generated during the microexplosions were evident. In the case of the baseline glass, no chemistry change was observed within the region of microexplosion. But, Al2O3-doped and La2O3-doped glasses showed depletion of the dopant from the edge to the center of the region of microexplosions, indicating chemistry gradient within the regions. Interrogation of the bulk and laser-treated regions using micro-Raman spectroscopy revealed no structural change due the microexplosions and writing within these glasses. These data were attributed to the localization of the effect to small regions due to tightly focused laser pulses used in the experiments.

  2. Coulomb Microexplosions of Ferroelectric Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Yarmolich, D.; Vekselman, V.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, 32000 Haifa (Israel)

    2008-02-22

    Energetic neutral and extreme ultraviolet emission initiated by the dense plasma propagation along a ferroelectric surface has been found. It was shown that the emission of neutrals is characterized by a large divergence and velocities up to 7x10{sup 7} cm/s. This phenomenon is explained by an extremely large electric field with amplitude {>=}10{sup 6} V/cm and rise time {approx}10{sup -10} s which appears at the plasma front due to the fast fall in the driving pulse. This electric field causes microexplosions of the ferroelectric surface due to inertia in the ion polarization response.

  3. Cavitation phenomena in extracorporeal microexplosion lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Y.; Obara, T.; Takayama, K.; Kuwahara, M.

    1994-09-01

    An experimental investigation was made of cavitation phenomena induced by underwater shock wave focusing applied to the extracorporeal microexplosion lithotripsy (microexplosion ESWL). Firstly an underwater microexplosion generated by detonation of a 10 mg silver azide pellet was studied and secondly underwater shock focusing and its induced cavitation phenomena were investgated. Underwater shock wave was focused by using a semi-ellipsoidal reflector in which a shock wave generated at the first focal point of the reflector was reflected and focused at the second focal point. It is found that an explosion product gas bubble did not produce any distinct rebound shocks. Meantime cavitation appeared after shock focusing at the second focal point where expansion waves originated at the exit of the reflector were simultaneously collected. A shock/bubble interaction is found to contribute not only to urinary tract stone disintegration but also tissue damage. The cavitation effect associated with the microexplosion ESWL was weaker in comparison with a spark discharge ESWL. The microexplosion ESWL is an effective method which can minimize the number of shock exposures hence decreasing tissue damage by conducting precise positioning of urinary tract stones.

  4. Autonomous robot for detecting subsurface voids and tunnels using microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Stacy S.; Crawford, Nicholas C.; Croft, Leigh Ann; Howard, Michael; Miller, Stephen; Rippy, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    Tunnels have been used to evade security of defensive positions both during times of war and peace for hundreds of years. Tunnels are presently being built under the Mexican Border by drug smugglers and possibly terrorists. Several have been discovered at the border crossing at Nogales near Tucson, Arizona, along with others at other border towns. During this war on terror, tunnels under the Mexican Border pose a significant threat for the security of the United States. It is also possible that terrorists will attempt to tunnel under strategic buildings and possibly discharge explosives. The Center for Cave and Karst Study (CCKS) at Western Kentucky University has a long and successful history of determining the location of caves and subsurface voids using microgravity technology. Currently, the CCKS is developing a remotely controlled robot which will be used to locate voids underground. The robot will be a remotely controlled vehicle that will use microgravity and GPS to accurately detect and measure voids below the surface. It is hoped that this robot will also be used in military applications to locate other types of voids underground such as tunnels and bunkers. It is anticipated that the robot will be able to function up to a mile from the operator. This paper will describe the construction of the robot and the use of microgravity technology to locate subsurface voids with the robot.

  5. Micro-explosion of compound drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Kuei; Lin, Ta-Hui

    2014-08-01

    Introducing water into spray combustion systems, by either water-in-oil emulsification or supplementary water injection, is one of the major techniques for combustion improvement and NOx reduction. Plentiful researches are available on combustion of water-in-oil emulsion fuel drops. The emulsified liquid is a heterogeneous mixture of immiscible liquids. One component forms the continuous phase and the other component forms the discrete phase. The discrete phase consists of globules of the one fluid that are suspended in the continuous phase fluid. Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly considered for combustion applications because emulsions can result in micro-explosion, thereby reducing the average drop diameter to enhance liquid vaporization, and suppressing the formation of soot and NOx. However, the water addition generally does not exceed about 20% for smooth engine operations[!, 21. The combustion characteristics and micro-explosion of emulsion drop were studied by many researchers. The micro-explosion of water in fuel emulsion drops was caused by very fast growth of superheated water vapor bubbles, its superheat limits must be lower than the boiling point temperature of the fuel. These bubbles were primarily governed by the pressure difference between the superheated vapor and the liquid, and by the inertia imparted to the liquid by the motion of the bubble surface[3 6 In this study, we used a coaxial nozzle to generation the multi-component drop. The different type of water-in-oil fuel drops called the compound drops. Unlike an emulsion drop, a compound drop consists of a water core and a fuel shell, which can originate from the phase separation of emulsion[7, 81 or a water drop colliding with a fuel drop[9, 101 Burning and micro-explosion of compound drops have been found to be distinct from those of emulsion drops[9-111 Wang et al.[9 , 101 studied the combustion characteristics of collision merged alkane-water drops. The merged drops appeared in adhesive and inserted manners. The drop ignition delay time increased with increasing water content. The average burning rate of alkane-water drops decreased with increasing water content. In the burning process, hexadecane-water drops exhibited flash vaporization or flame extinction. Heterogeneous explosion was occasionally observed in drops with trapped air bubbles. The air bubbles were assumed to be the nucleation points of the heterogeneous explosions. Chen and Lin[11 studied the characteristics of water-in-dodecane compound drop with different water content, diameter of drop and environmental oxygen concentration. The vaporization rate increased with increasing environmental oxygen concentration. The compound drops micro-exploded during the burning process in a random way. The number of micro-explosions was majorly influenced by drop diameter, followed by environmental oxygen concentration. Water content had a weaker effect on micro-explosion. As available literature and research results of compound drop burning are scarce, their combustion and micro-explosion behaviors are still poorly understood. In this regard, we changed the drop nature as compound drops to study their combustion characteristics and micro-explosion phenomena.

  6. A new nitrate continuous observation sensor for autonomous sub-surface applications: Technical design and first results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Zielinski; Bjorn Fiedler; R. Heuermann; A. Kortzinger; E. Kopiske; G. Meinecke; K. Munderloh

    2007-01-01

    Nitrate as one of the chemical parameters of major interest in marine biogeochemistry is detectable by means of its optical absorption in the ultra violet spectrum, given appropriate algorithms to correct for other seawater constituents. The presented work outlines the potential and technical requirements to adopt this new instrumentation in autonomous sub-surface applications. First results from laboratory experiment as well

  7. Physics of puffing and microexplosion of emulsion fuel droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinjo, J.; Xia, J.; Ganippa, L. C.; Megaritis, A.

    2014-10-01

    The physics of water-in-oil emulsion droplet microexplosion/puffing has been investigated using high-fidelity interface-capturing simulation. Varying the dispersed-phase (water) sub-droplet size/location and the initiation location of explosive boiling (bubble formation), the droplet breakup processes have been well revealed. The bubble growth leads to local and partial breakup of the parent oil droplet, i.e., puffing. The water sub-droplet size and location determine the after-puffing dynamics. The boiling surface of the water sub-droplet is unstable and evolves further. Finally, the sub-droplet is wrapped by boiled water vapor and detaches itself from the parent oil droplet. When the water sub-droplet is small, the detachment is quick, and the oil droplet breakup is limited. When it is large and initially located toward the parent droplet center, the droplet breakup is more extensive. For microexplosion triggered by the simultaneous growth of multiple separate bubbles, each explosion is local and independent initially, but their mutual interactions occur at a later stage. The degree of breakup can be larger due to interactions among multiple explosions. These findings suggest that controlling microexplosion/puffing is possible in a fuel spray, if the emulsion-fuel blend and the ambient flow conditions such as heating are properly designed. The current study also gives us an insight into modeling the puffing and microexplosion of emulsion droplets and sprays.

  8. An Experimental Investigation of Microexplosion in Emulsified Vegetable-Methanol Blend 

    E-print Network

    Nam, Hyungseok

    2012-07-16

    in emulsions causes a high probability of microexplosion event due to the sudden expansion of the emulsified fluid. Also, the effect of size on microexplosion was evident in the greater probability of explosion. Methanol-in-canola oil emulsion with 15...

  9. Space-time energy concentration and the design of DT fusion micro-explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Sahlin, H.L.; Brandenburg, J.E.

    1980-03-01

    As part of the effort to employ a plasma focus as a driver for fusion micro-explosions, many target concepts were explored and extensive imposion calculations have been carried out. Some of the basic principles of micro-explosion design are presented.

  10. Anisotropic properties of ultrafast laser-driven microexplosions in lithium niobate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guangyong; Gu, Min

    2005-12-01

    Smooth voids are achieved in an anisotropic Fe :LiNbO3 crystal with a high refractive index by use of a femtosecond laser-driven microexplosion method. Due to the anisotropy of the crystal, the maximum fabrication depth and the fabrication power threshold are different in different crystal directions, indicating that the direction perpendicular to the crystal axis is more suitable for thick three-dimensional structure fabrication. The dependence of the threshold power on the illumination wavelength shows that the microexplosion mechanism is caused by a two-photon absorption process. As a result, a near threshold fabrication method can be used to generate quasispherical voids.

  11. Thermal Imaging of Subsurface Coal Fires by means of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the Autonomous Province Xinjiang, PRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasterling, Margarete; Schloemer, Stefan; Fischer, Christian; Ehrler, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal and resulting coal fires lead to very high temperatures in the subsurface. To a large amount the heat is transferred to the surface by convective and conductive transport inducing a more or less pronounced thermal anomaly. During the past decade satellite-based infrared-imaging (ASTER, MODIS) was the method of choice for coal fire detection on a local and regional scale. However, the resolution is by far too low for a detailed analysis of single coal fires which is essential prerequisite for corrective measures (i.e. fire fighting) and calculation of carbon dioxide emission based on a complex correlation between energy release and CO2 generation. Consequently, within the framework of the Sino-German research project "Innovative Technologies for Exploration, Extinction and Monitoring of Coal Fires in Northern China", a new concept was developed and successfully tested. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was equipped with a lightweight camera for thermografic (resolution 160 by 120 pixel, dynamic range -20 to 250°C) and for visual imaging. The UAV designed as an octocopter is able to hover at GPS controlled waypoints during predefined flight missions. The application of a UAV has several advantages. Compared to point measurements on the ground the thermal imagery quickly provides the spatial distribution of the temperature anomaly with a much better resolution. Areas otherwise not accessible (due to topography, fire induced cracks, etc.) can easily be investigated. The results of areal surveys on two coal fires in Xinjiang are presented. Georeferenced thermal and visual images were mosaicked together and analyzed. UAV-born data do well compared to temperatures measured directly on the ground and cover large areas in detail. However, measuring surface temperature alone is not sufficient. Simultaneous measurements made at the surface and in roughly 15cm depth proved substantial temperature gradients in the upper soil. Thus the temperature measured at the surface underestimates the energy emitted by the subsurface coal fire. In addition, surface temperature is strongly influenced by solar radiation and the prevailing ambient conditions (wind, temperature, humidity). As a consequence there is no simple correlation between surface and subsurface soil temperature. Efforts have been made to set up a coupled energy transport and energy balance model for the near surface considering thermal conduction, solar irradiation, thermal radiative energy and ambient temperature so far. The model can help to validate space-born and UAV-born thermal imagery and link surface to subsurface temperature but depends on in-situ measurements for input parameter determination and calibration. Results obtained so far strongly necessitate the integration of different data sources (in-situ / remote; point / area; local / medium scale) to obtain a reliable energy release estimation which is then used for coal fire characterization.

  12. Experimental evidence of new tetragonal polymorphs of silicon formed through ultrafast laser-induced confined microexplosion

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, L.; Haberl, B.; Pickard, C.J.; Bradby, J.E.; Gamaly, E.G.; Williams, J.S.; Rode, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Ordinary materials can transform into novel phases at extraordinary high pressure and temperature. The recently developed method of ultrashort laser-induced confined microexplosions initiates a non-equilibrium disordered plasma state. Ultra-high quenching rates overcome kinetic barriers to the formation of new metastable phases, which are preserved in the surrounding pristine crystal for subsequent exploitation. Here we demonstrate that confined microexplosions in silicon produce several metastable end phases. Comparison with an ab initio random structure search reveals six energetically competitive potential phases, four tetragonal and two monoclinic structures. We show the presence of bt8 and st12, which have been predicted theoretically previously, but have not been observed in nature or in laboratory experiments. In addition, the presence of the as yet unidentified silicon phase, Si-VIII and two of our other predicted tetragonal phases are highly likely within laser-affected zones. These findings may pave the way for new materials with novel and exotic properties. PMID:26118985

  13. Experimental evidence of new tetragonal polymorphs of silicon formed through ultrafast laser-induced confined microexplosion.

    PubMed

    Rapp, L; Haberl, B; Pickard, C J; Bradby, J E; Gamaly, E G; Williams, J S; Rode, A V

    2015-01-01

    Ordinary materials can transform into novel phases at extraordinary high pressure and temperature. The recently developed method of ultrashort laser-induced confined microexplosions initiates a non-equilibrium disordered plasma state. Ultra-high quenching rates overcome kinetic barriers to the formation of new metastable phases, which are preserved in the surrounding pristine crystal for subsequent exploitation. Here we demonstrate that confined microexplosions in silicon produce several metastable end phases. Comparison with an ab initio random structure search reveals six energetically competitive potential phases, four tetragonal and two monoclinic structures. We show the presence of bt8 and st12, which have been predicted theoretically previously, but have not been observed in nature or in laboratory experiments. In addition, the presence of the as yet unidentified silicon phase, Si-VIII and two of our other predicted tetragonal phases are highly likely within laser-affected zones. These findings may pave the way for new materials with novel and exotic properties. PMID:26118985

  14. Subsurface Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Target areas for sinking base holes, underground pipelines, etc., can be identified with the assistance of NASA Ames developed technology, by Airborne Pipeline Services, Inc. Subsurface features are computer processed; the system can cover 250 miles a day and was first developed by Applied Science, Inc.

  15. Subsurface Glider Localization Using Broadband Acoustic Sources

    E-print Network

    Frandsen, Jannette B.

    Subsurface Glider Localization Using Broadband Acoustic Sources Lora Van Uffelen, Ph.D. Assistant Researcher, ORE Abstract Ocean gliders are low-power, buoyancy-driven, autonomous underwater vehicles. At the surface, gliders obtain positioning from GPS, but during a dive, which can last up to 8 hours, little

  16. Autonomous and Autonomic Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter F.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    A watershed in systems engineering is represented by the advent of swarm-based systems that accomplish missions through cooperative action by a (large) group of autonomous individuals each having simple capabilities and no global knowledge of the group s objective. Such systems, with individuals capable of surviving in hostile environments, pose unprecedented challenges to system developers. Design and testing and verification at much higher levels will be required, together with the corresponding tools, to bring such systems to fruition. Concepts for possible future NASA space exploration missions include autonomous, autonomic swarms. Engineering swarm-based missions begins with understanding autonomy and autonomicity and how to design, test, and verify systems that have those properties and, simultaneously, the capability to accomplish prescribed mission goals. Formal methods-based technologies, both projected and in development, are described in terms of their potential utility to swarm-based system developers.

  17. Autonomous Pseudomonoids

    E-print Network

    Lopez Franco, Ignacio

    2009-04-25

    for autonomous pseudomonoids 59 4.1 Duals in convolution hom-categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 4.1.1 Opposite and bidual autonomous pseudomonoids . . . . . . 61 4.1.2 Duals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 4.2 Radford...

  18. Autonomic Dysreflexia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you have concerns, talk with your doctor. MEDICAL ALERT CARD Autonomic dysreflexia is a potentially fatal condition ... medical personnel and insist that the card MEDICAL ALERT Autonomic Dysreflexia (AD) A potentially life-threatening condition ...

  19. Introduction to the Limnology and Oceanography Special Issue on Autonomous and Lagrangian Platforms and Sensors (ALPS)

    E-print Network

    Fabrikant, Sara Irina

    types of subsurface floats, gliders, unmanned boats, autonomous underwater vehicles, and instrumented of subsurface floats, gliders, unmanned boats, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), and instrumented animals of temporal and spatial scales. ALPS platforms in this issue include surface drifters, profiling and other

  20. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Calle

    2000-11-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements.

  1. Subsurface Microbiology and Biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, Jim K.; Fletcher, Madilyn

    2001-05-01

    Jim contributed a chapter to this book, in addition to co-editing it with Madilyn Fletcher. Fredrickson, J. K., and M. Fletcher. (eds.) 2001 Subsurface Microbiology and Biogeochemistry. Wiley-Liss, Inc., New York.

  2. Autonomous Soaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Victor P.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the autonomous soaring flight of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). It reviews energy sources for UAVs, and two examples of UAV's that used alternative energy sources, and thermal currents for soaring. Examples of flight tests, plans, and results are given. Ultimately, the concept of a UAV harvesting energy from the atmosphere has been shown to be feasible with existing technology.

  3. Subsurface Contamination Control

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Yuan

    2001-12-12

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the subsurface repository; (2) provides a table of derived LRCL for nuclides of radiological importance; (3) Provides an as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) evaluation of the derived LRCL by comparing potential onsite and offsite doses to documented ALARA requirements; (4) Provides a method for estimating potential releases from a defective WP; (5) Provides an evaluation of potential radioactive releases from a defective WP that may become airborne and result in contamination of the subsurface facility; and (6) Provides a preliminary analysis of the detectability of a potential WP leak to support the design of an airborne release monitoring system.

  4. Autonomous vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meyrowitz, A.L. [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States)] [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States); Blidberg, D.R. [Autonomous Undersea Systems Inst., Lee, NH (United States)] [Autonomous Undersea Systems Inst., Lee, NH (United States); Michelson, R.C. [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Smyrna, GA (United States)] [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Smyrna, GA (United States); [International Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems, Smyrna, GA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    There are various kinds of autonomous vehicles (AV`s) which can operate with varying levels of autonomy. This paper is concerned with underwater, ground, and aerial vehicles operating in a fully autonomous (nonteleoperated) mode. Further, this paper deals with AV`s as a special kind of device, rather than full-scale manned vehicles operating unmanned. The distinction is one in which the AV is likely to be designed for autonomous operation rather than being adapted for it as would be the case for manned vehicles. The authors provide a survey of the technological progress that has been made in AV`s, the current research issues and approaches that are continuing that progress, and the applications which motivate this work. It should be noted that issues of control are pervasive regardless of the kind of AV being considered, but that there are special considerations in the design and operation of AV`s depending on whether the focus is on vehicles underwater, on the ground, or in the air. The authors have separated the discussion into sections treating each of these categories.

  5. Autonomic dysreflexia

    PubMed Central

    Milligan, James; Lee, Joseph; McMillan, Colleen; Klassen, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To raise family physicians’ awareness of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to provide some suggestions for intervention. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched from 1970 to July 2011 using the terms autonomic dysreflexia and spinal cord injury with family medicine or primary care. Other relevant guidelines and resources were reviewed and used. Main message Family physicians often lack confidence in treating patients with SCI, see them as complex and time-consuming, and feel undertrained to meet their needs. Family physicians provide a vital component of the health care of such patients, and understanding of the unique medical conditions related to SCI is important. Autonomic dysreflexia is an important, common, and potentially serious condition with which many family physicians are unfamiliar. This article will review the signs and symptoms of AD and offer some acute management options and preventive strategies for family physicians. Conclusion Family physicians should be aware of which patients with SCI are susceptible to AD and monitor those affected by it. Outlined is an approach to acute management. Family physicians play a pivotal role in prevention of AD through education (of the patient and other health care providers) and incorporation of strategies such as appropriate bladder, bowel, and skin care practices and warnings and management plans in the medical chart. PMID:22893332

  6. Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Bass, Ronald Marshall (Houston, TX); Kim, Dong Sub (Sugar Land, TX); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX); Keltner, Thomas Joseph (Spring, TX); Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon (Houston, TX)

    2010-12-28

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

  7. Autonomous robot for detecting subsurface voids and tunnels using microgravity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stacy S. Wilson; Nicholas C. Crawford; Leigh Ann Croft; Michael Howard; Stephen Miller; Thomas Rippy

    2006-01-01

    Tunnels have been used to evade security of defensive positions both during times of war and peace for hundreds of years. Tunnels are presently being built under the Mexican Border by drug smugglers and possibly terrorists. Several have been discovered at the border crossing at Nogales near Tucson, Arizona, along with others at other border towns. During this war on

  8. Applications of Subsurface Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tetard, Laurene [ORNL; Passian, Ali [ORNL; Farahi, R H [ORNL; Voy, Brynn H [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the interior of a cell is of tremendous importance in order to assess the effects of nanomaterials on biological systems. Outside of a controlled laboratory environment, nanomaterials will most likely not be conveniently labeled or tagged so that their translocation within a biological system cannot be easily identified and quantified. Ideally, the characterization of nanomaterials within a cell requires a nondestructive, label-free, and subsurface approach. Subsurface nanoscale imaging represents a real challenge for instrumentation. Indeed the tools available for high resolution characterization, including optical, electron or scanning probe microscopies, mainly provide topography images or require tagants that fluoresce. Although the intercellular environment holds a great deal of information, subsurface visualization remains a poorly explored area. Recently, it was discovered that by mechanically perturbing a sample, it was possible to observe its response in time with nanoscale resolution by probing the surface with a micro-resonator such as a microcantilever probe (Figure 1). Microcantilevers are used as the force-sensing probes in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), where the nanometer-scale probe tip on the microcantilever interacts with the sample in a highly controlled manner to produce high-resolution raster-scanned information of the sample surface. Taking advantage of the existing capabilities of AFM, we present a novel technique, Mode Synthesizing Atomic Force Microscopy (MSAFM) (Figure 1), which has the ability to probe subsurface structures such as non-labeled nanoparticles embedded in a cell. In MSAFM mechanical actuators (PZTs) excite the probe and the sample at different frequencies as depicted in Figure 1. The nonlinear nature of the tip-sample interaction, at the point of contact of the probe and the surface of the sample, in the contact mode AFM configuration permits the mixing of the elastic waves. The new dynamic system comprises new synthesized imaging modes, resulting from sum- and difference-frequency generation of the driving frequencies. The specific electronics of MSAFM allows the selection of individual modes and the monitoring of their amplitude and phase. From these quantities of various synthesized modes a series of images can be acquired. The new images contain subsurface information, thus revealing the presence of nanoparticles inside the cells.

  9. Manual on Subsurface Investigation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A series of twelve modules that constitute a comprehensive training course in geotechnical and foundation engineering. Sponsored by the National Highway Institute (NHI) of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the training course is given at different locations in the U.S. The intended audience includes civil engineers and engineering geologists involved in the design and construction of transportation facilities. This manual is designed to present the latest methodologies in the planning,execution and interpretation of the various subsurface investigation methods, and the development of appropriate soil and rock parameters for engineering applications

  10. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  11. Autonomous Soaring Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

  12. The Deep Subsurface Microbiology Group

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Princeton University Department of Geosciences

    This Princeton Deep Subsurface Microbiology Group website contains links to information about deep subsurface microbiology. Readers can access information about Princeton's geomicrobiological program, including research being done, people involved, select publications, information about teaching environmental chemistry and exobiology, and related links by using the links provided on the left side of the page.

  13. SUBSURFACE FACILITY WORKER DOES ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    V. Arakali; E. Faillace; A. Linden

    2004-02-27

    The purpose of this design calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the subsurface facility of the repository performing emplacement, maintenance, and retrieval operations under normal conditions. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the subsurface facilities and provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application.

  14. Nonintrusive subsurface surveying capability

    SciTech Connect

    Tunnell, T.W.; Cave, S.P.

    1994-06-01

    This presentation describes the capabilities of a ground-pentrating radar (GPR) system developed by EG&G Energy Measurements (EM), a prime contractor to the Department of Energy (DOE). The focus of the presentation will be on the subsurface survey of DOE site TA-21 in Los Alamos, New Mexico. EG&G EM developed the system for the Department of Defense. The system is owned by the Department of the Army and currently resides at KO in Albuquerque. EM is pursuing efforts to transfer this technology to environmental applications such as waste-site characterization with DOE encouragement. The Army has already granted permission to use the system for the waste-site characterization activities.

  15. The autonomic laboratory.

    PubMed

    Low, P A; Opfer-Gehrking, T L

    1999-06-01

    The autonomic nervous system can now be studied quantitatively, noninvasively, and reproducibly in a clinical autonomic laboratory. The approach at the Mayo Clinic is to study the postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers of peripheral nerve (using the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test [QSART]), the parasympathetic nerves to the heart (cardiovagal tests), and the regulation of blood pressure by the baroreflexes (adrenergic tests). Patient preparation is extremely important, since the state of the patient influences the results of autonomic function tests. The autonomic technologist in this evolving field needs to have a solid core of knowledge of autonomic physiology and autonomic function tests, followed by training in the performance of these tests in a standardized fashion. The range and utilization of tests of autonomic function will likely continue to evolve. PMID:11542437

  16. The autonomic laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system can now be studied quantitatively, noninvasively, and reproducibly in a clinical autonomic laboratory. The approach at the Mayo Clinic is to study the postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers of peripheral nerve (using the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test [QSART]), the parasympathetic nerves to the heart (cardiovagal tests), and the regulation of blood pressure by the baroreflexes (adrenergic tests). Patient preparation is extremely important, since the state of the patient influences the results of autonomic function tests. The autonomic technologist in this evolving field needs to have a solid core of knowledge of autonomic physiology and autonomic function tests, followed by training in the performance of these tests in a standardized fashion. The range and utilization of tests of autonomic function will likely continue to evolve.

  17. Adverse possession of subsurface minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    Concepts applicable to adverse possession of subsurface minerals are generally the same as those that apply to adverse possession of all real estate. However, special requirements must be satisfied in order to perfect title to subsurface minerals by adverse possession, particularly when there has been a severance of the true title between surface and subsurface minerals. In those jurisdictions where senior and junior grants came from the state or commonwealth covering the same or some of the same land and in those areas where descriptions of land were vague or not carefully drawn, adverse possession serves to solidify land and mineral ownership. There may be some public, social, and economic justification in rewarding, with good title, those who take possession and use real estate for its intended use, including the extraction of subsurface minerals. 96 refernces.

  18. SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Markman

    2001-01-01

    The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend

  19. An AUV survey in the littoral zone: small-scale subsurface variability accompanying synoptic observations of surface currents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manhar R. Dhanak; P. Edgar An; Ken Holappa

    2001-01-01

    A survey of small-scale subsurface variability within the synoptic observational field of an ocean surface current radar (OSCR) using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is described. The survey involved observation of a developing upper mixed layer in a littoral zone off southeast Florida, on the edge of a strong Florida current during the summer of 1999. Complimentary in situ observations

  20. FEDERAL STAFF INFORMATION: ECOSYSTEM AND SUBSURFACE PROTECTION BRANCH (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ecosystem and Subsurface Protection Branch in NRMRL's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division (SPRD) conducts research into assessing potential impacts of manmade and natural processes (physical, chemical, and biological) on aquatic (surface and subsurface) and terrest...

  1. FEDERAL STAFF INFORMATION: SUBSURFACE REMEDIATION BRANCH (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Subsurface Remediation Branch in NRMRL's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division conducts research into defining the chemical, physical and biological processes that affect the fate, transport, and remediation of contaminants in the subsurface. The Branch's focus is o...

  2. Autonomous landing on Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Stevenson; Teresa Morrison; Timothy Murphy

    1990-01-01

    Long communication times between earth and Mars demand autonomous landing capabilities. If high-resolution imagery acquired from an orbiter is available to select and certify a specific safe landing site or sites, navigational updates relative to the surface can be used to achieve the necessary accuracy to land within these certified sites. Autonomous registrations of the orbiter's imagery with photographs of

  3. Modeling Adaptive Autonomous Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pattie Maes

    1993-01-01

    One category of research in Artificial Life is concerned with modeling and building so-called adaptive autonomous agents, which are systems that inhabit a dynamic, unpredictable environment in which they try to satisfy a set of time-dependent goals or motivations. Agents are said to be adaptive if they improve their competence at dealing with these goals based on experience. Autonomous agents

  4. Securing Autonomous Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zia Hayat; Jeff Reeve; Chris Boutle; Martin Field

    The security of an autonomous system, which consists of autonomous entities,2 could be compromised as a result of a physical or electronic attack. The compromise of information assets such as a system's processing base or its communications links could potentially place an enemy ahead in terms of the OODA (Observe, Orient, Decide and Act) loop; it is this aspect of

  5. ESF Subsurface Standby Generator Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    L. Fernandez

    1998-04-17

    The purpose of this analysis is to outline and recommend two standby generator systems. These systems shall provide power during a utility outage to critical Alcove No.5's thermal test loads and to subsurface flow through ventilation loads. Critical loads that will be supported by these generator systems will be identified and evaluated. Additionally, other requirements from the Exploratory Studies Facilities Design Requirements (ESFDR) document will be evaluated. Finally, the standby generator systems will be integrated into the existing ESF subsurface distribution system. The objective of this analysis is to provide design inputs for an efficient and reliable standby generator systems which will provide power for critical loads during a power outage; specifically, Alcove No.5's thermal test loads and the subsurface flow through ventilation loads. Additionally, preliminary one-line diagrams will be developed using this analysis as a primary input.

  6. Subsurface microbial habitats on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boston, P. J.; Mckay, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    We developed scenarios for shallow and deep subsurface cryptic niches for microbial life on Mars. Such habitats could have considerably prolonged the persistence of life on Mars as surface conditions became increasingly inhospitable. The scenarios rely on geothermal hot spots existing below the near or deep subsurface of Mars. Recent advances in the comparatively new field of deep subsurface microbiology have revealed previously unsuspected rich aerobic and anaerobic microbal communities far below the surface of the Earth. Such habitats, protected from the grim surface conditions on Mars, could receive warmth from below and maintain water in its liquid state. In addition, geothermally or volcanically reduced gases percolating from below through a microbiologically active zone could provide the reducing power needed for a closed or semi-closed microbial ecosystem to thrive.

  7. Measuring isotropic subsurface light transport.

    PubMed

    Happel, Kathrin; Dörsam, Edgar; Urban, Philipp

    2014-04-21

    Subsurface light transport can affect the visual appearance of materials significantly. Measuring and modeling this phenomenon is crucial for accurately reproducing colors in printing or for rendering translucent objects on displays. In this paper, we propose an apparatus to measure subsurface light transport employing a reference material to cancel out adverse signals that may bias the results. In contrast to other approaches, the setup enables improved focusing on rough surfaces (e.g. uncoated paper). We derive a measurement equation that may be used to deduce the point spread function (PSF) of subsurface light transport. Main contributions are the usage of spectrally-narrowband exchangeable LEDs allowing spectrally-resolved measurements and an approach based on quadratic programming for reconstructing PSFs in the case of isotropic light transport. PMID:24787793

  8. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. PMID:25744760

  9. Microbial communities in the deep subsurface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee R. Krumholz

    2000-01-01

    The diversity of microbial populations and microbial communities within the earth's subsurface is summarized in this review. Scientists are currently exploring the subsurface and addressing questions of microbial diversity, the interactions among microorganisms, and mechanisms for maintenance of subsurface microbial communities. Heterotrophic anaerobic microbial communities exist in relatively permeable sandstone or sandy sediments, located adjacent to organic-rich deposits. These microorganisms

  10. Autonomous Virtual Mobile Nodes

    E-print Network

    Dolev, Shlomi

    2005-06-15

    This paper presents a new abstraction for virtual infrastructure in mobile ad hoc networks. An AutonomousVirtual Mobile Node (AVMN) is a robust and reliable entity that is designed to cope with theinherent difficulties ...

  11. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

  12. Endocrine-Autonomic Linkages.

    PubMed

    Sladek, Celia D; Michelini, Lisete C; Stachenfeld, Nina S; Stern, Javier E; Urban, Janice H

    2015-07-01

    Interaction between the autonomic nervous system and the neuroendocrine system is critical for maintenance of homeostasis in a wide variety of physiological parameters such as body temperature, fluid and electrolyte balance, and blood pressure and volume. The anatomical and physiological mechanisms underlying integration of the neuroendocrine and autonomic mechanisms responsible for eliciting integrated autonomic and neuroendocrine actions are the focus of this article. This includes a focus on the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, because it includes both neuroendocrine neurons and preganglionic autonomic neurons that regulate sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow. The "wired" and "nonwired" mechanisms within PVN that facilitate communication between these neuronal populations are described. The impact of peripheral hormones, specifically the adrenal and gonadal steroids, on the neuroendocrine and autonomic systems is discussed, and exercise is used as a specific example of a physiological challenge/stress that requires precise integration of neuroendocrine and autonomic responses to maintain cardiovascular, fluid, and energy homeostasis. © 2015 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5:1281-1323, 2015. PMID:26140719

  13. Remote Real-Time Monitoring of Subsurface Landfill Gas Migration

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Cormac; Doherty, Aiden R.; Beirne, Stephen; Collins, Fiachra; Foley, Colum; Healy, John; Kiernan, Breda M.; Lee, Hyowon; Maher, Damien; Orpen, Dylan; Phelan, Thomas; Qiu, Zhengwei; Zhang, Kirk; Gurrin, Cathal; Corcoran, Brian; O’Connor, Noel E.; Smeaton, Alan F.; Diamond, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    The cost of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites is of major concern for regulatory authorities. The current monitoring procedure is recognised as labour intensive, requiring agency inspectors to physically travel to perimeter borehole wells in rough terrain and manually measure gas concentration levels with expensive hand-held instrumentation. In this article we present a cost-effective and efficient system for remotely monitoring landfill subsurface migration of methane and carbon dioxide concentration levels. Based purely on an autonomous sensing architecture, the proposed sensing platform was capable of performing complex analytical measurements in situ and successfully communicating the data remotely to a cloud database. A web tool was developed to present the sensed data to relevant stakeholders. We report our experiences in deploying such an approach in the field over a period of approximately 16 months. PMID:22163975

  14. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Borns, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier.

  15. Autonomous In-Situ Resources Prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dissly, R. W.; Buehler, M. G.; Schaap, M. G.; Nicks, D.; Taylor, G. J.; Castano, R.; Suarez, D.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation will describe the concept of an autonomous, intelligent, rover-based rapid surveying system to identify and map several key lunar resources to optimize their ISRU (In Situ Resource Utilization) extraction potential. Prior to an extraction phase for any target resource, ground-based surveys are needed to provide confirmation of remote observation, to quantify and map their 3-D distribution, and to locate optimal extraction sites (e.g. ore bodies) with precision to maximize their economic benefit. The system will search for and quantify optimal minerals for oxygen production feedstock, water ice, and high glass-content regolith that can be used for building materials. These are targeted because of their utility and because they are, or are likely to be, variable in quantity over spatial scales accessible to a rover (i.e., few km). Oxygen has benefits for life support systems and as an oxidizer for propellants. Water is a key resource for sustainable exploration, with utility for life support, propellants, and other industrial processes. High glass-content regolith has utility as a feedstock for building materials as it readily sinters upon heating into a cohesive matrix more readily than other regolith materials or crystalline basalts. Lunar glasses are also a potential feedstock for oxygen production, as many are rich in iron and titanium oxides that are optimal for oxygen extraction. To accomplish this task, a system of sensors and decision-making algorithms for an autonomous prospecting rover is described. One set of sensors will be located in the wheel tread of the robotic search vehicle providing contact sensor data on regolith composition. Another set of instruments will be housed on the platform of the rover, including VIS-NIR imagers and spectrometers, both for far-field context and near-field characterization of the regolith in the immediate vicinity of the rover. Also included in the sensor suite are a neutron spectrometer, ground-penetrating radar, and an instrumented cone penetrometer for subsurface assessment. Output from these sensors will be evaluated autonomously in real-time by decision-making software to evaluate if any of the targeted resources has been detected, and if so, to quantify their abundance. Algorithms for optimizing the mapping strategy based on target resource abundance and distribution are also included in the autonomous software. This approach emphasizes on-the-fly survey measurements to enable efficient and rapid prospecting of large areas, which will improve the economics of ISRU system approaches. The mature technology will enable autonomous rovers to create in-situ resource maps of lunar or other planetary surfaces, which will facilitate human and robotic exploration.

  16. 1 Design by Autonomous Learning Design by Autonomous Learning

    E-print Network

    Prabhakar, Sattiraju

    1 Design by Autonomous Learning Design by Autonomous Learning: Modeling Environment for Design Box 123, Broadway NSW 2007, Australia Email: {prabhakar, gjsmith}@socs.uts.edu.au 1. Design by Autonomous Learning An important area of expertise robots can provide is design of artefacts in physical

  17. Architecture of autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

  18. Architecture of autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1986-01-01

    Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

  19. An Autonomous Spacecraft Agent Prototype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barney Pell; Douglas E. Bernard; Steve A. Chien; Erann Gat; Nicola Muscettola; P. Pandurang Nayak; Michael D. Wagner; Brian C. Williams

    1998-01-01

    . This paper describes the New Millennium Remote Agent (NMRA) architecture for autonomous spacecraft control systems. The architecture supports challenging requirements of the autonomous spacecraft domain not usually addressed in mobile robot architectures, including highly reliable autonomous operations over extended time periods in the presence of tight resource constraints, hard deadlines, limited observability, and concurrent activity. A hybrid architecture, NMRA

  20. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  1. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-19

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  2. Water flow in the subsurface

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Andrew M. Goodliffe

    Students are presented with a working geological model of the subsurface. This includes permeable and impermeable horizons, a simulated lake/river, and a number of wells. In the demonstration phase of the activity dyed water is injected at various points in the model. Students are asked to predict where this dye will travel. Examples are given of various real world scenarios, ranging from groundwater flow from a septic tank to the disposal of hazardous pollutants down a deep well. Students are then invited to experiment with the model in groups.

  3. Autonomous driving goes downtown

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Franke; D. Gavrila; S. Gorzig; F. Lindner; F. Puetzold; C. Wohler

    1998-01-01

    Most computer-vision systems for vehicle guidance are for highway scenarios. Developing autonomous or driver-assistance systems for complex urban traffic poses new algorithmic and system-architecture challenges. To address these issues, the authors introduce their intelligent Stop&Go system and discuss appropriate algorithms and approaches for vision-module control

  4. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1997-03-25

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

  5. Universiteit IASintelligent autonomous systems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for whcih we can find a standard EM algorithm. In the next section we discuss the Gaussian mixture model in Section 6. 2 A simple generative model and EM As generative model consider the Mixture of Gaussians (Mo A Probabilistic Generalization of Kohonen's SOM J.J. Verbeek, N. Vlassis, and B.J.A. Kr¨ose Intelligent Autonomous

  6. Universiteit IASintelligent autonomous systems

    E-print Network

    Visser, Arnoud

    and intelligent vehicles. The following architectures are among others mentioned as related work for this LCM approach: the Robotics Operating System (ROS) [18] and the Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems (JAUS for the SI4MS project. One is the 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge. In this challenge autonomous vehicles had

  7. Onboard Autonomous Rover Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca Castano; Tara Estlin; Dan Gaines; Caroline Chouinard; B. Bomstein; Robert C. Anderson; Michael Burl; David Thompson; Andres Castano; Michele Judd

    2007-01-01

    The Onboard Autonomous Science Investigation System (OASIS) was used in the first formal demonstration of closed loop opportunistic detection and reaction during a rover traverse on the FIDO rover at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In addition to hardware demonstrations, the system has been demonstrated and exercised in simulation using the Rover Analysis, Modeling, and Simulation (ROAMS) planetary rover simulator, A.

  8. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  9. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vinik, Aaron I; Maser, Raelene E; Mitchell, Braxton D; Freeman, Roy

    2003-05-01

    Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes. Despite its relationship to an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and its association with multiple symptoms and impairments, the significance of DAN has not been fully appreciated. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on the cohort studied and the methods of assessment. In randomly selected cohorts of asymptomatic individuals with diabetes, approximately 20% had abnormal cardiovascular autonomic function. DAN frequently coexists with other peripheral neuropathies and other diabetic complications, but DAN may be isolated, frequently preceding the detection of other complications. Major clinical manifestations of DAN include resting tachycardia, exercise intolerance, orthostatic hypotension, constipation, gastroparesis, erectile dysfunction, sudomotor dysfunction, impaired neurovascular function, "brittle diabetes," and hypoglycemic autonomic failure. DAN may affect many organ systems throughout the body (e.g., gastrointestinal [GI], genitourinary, and cardiovascular). GI disturbances (e.g., esophageal enteropathy, gastroparesis, constipation, diarrhea, and fecal incontinence) are common, and any section of the GI tract may be affected. Gastroparesis should be suspected in individuals with erratic glucose control. Upper-GI symptoms should lead to consideration of all possible causes, including autonomic dysfunction. Whereas a radiographic gastric emptying study can definitively establish the diagnosis of gastroparesis, a reasonable approach is to exclude autonomic dysfunction and other known causes of these upper-GI symptoms. Constipation is the most common lower-GI symptom but can alternate with episodes of diarrhea. Diagnostic approaches should rule out autonomic dysfunction and the well-known causes such as neoplasia. Occasionally, anorectal manometry and other specialized tests typically performed by the gastroenterologist may be helpful. DAN is also associated with genitourinary tract disturbances including bladder and/or sexual dysfunction. Evaluation of bladder dysfunction should be performed for individuals with diabetes who have recurrent urinary tract infections, pyelonephritis, incontinence, or a palpable bladder. Specialized assessment of bladder dysfunction will typically be performed by a urologist. In men, DAN may cause loss of penile erection and/or retrograde ejaculation. A complete workup for erectile dysfunction in men should include history (medical and sexual); psychological evaluation; hormone levels; measurement of nocturnal penile tumescence; tests to assess penile, pelvic, and spinal nerve function; cardiovascular autonomic function tests; and measurement of penile and brachial blood pressure. Neurovascular dysfunction resulting from DAN contributes to a wide spectrum of clinical disorders including erectile dysfunction, loss of skin integrity, and abnormal vascular reflexes. Disruption of microvascular skin blood flow and sudomotor function may be among the earliest manifestations of DAN and lead to dry skin, loss of sweating, and the development of fissures and cracks that allow microorganisms to enter. These changes ultimately contribute to the development of ulcers, gangrene, and limb loss. Various aspects of neurovascular function can be evaluated with specialized tests, but generally these have not been well standardized and have limited clinical utility. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is the most studied and clinically important form of DAN. Meta-analyses of published data demonstrate that reduced cardiovascular autonomic function as measured by heart rate variability (HRV) is strongly (i.e., relative risk is doubled) associated with an increased risk of silent myocardial ischemia and mortality. The determination of the presence of CAN is usually based on a battery of autonomic function tests rather than just on one test. Proceedings from a consensus conference in 1992 recommended that three tests (R-R variation, Valsalva maneuver, and postural blood pressure

  10. Phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    This project involves the development of group specific 16S ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the rapid detection of specific types of subsurface organisms (e.g., groups of microbes that share certain physiological traits). Major accomplishments for the period of 6/91 to 12/1/91 are described. Nine new probes have been synthesized on the basis of published 16S rRNA sequence data from the Ribosomal Database Project. We have initiated rapid screening of many of the subsurface microbial isolates obtained from the P24 borehole at the Savannah River Site. To date, we have screened approximately 50% of the isolates from P24. We have optimized our {und in situ} hybridization technique, and have developed a cell blot hybridization technique to screen 96 samples on a single blot. This is much faster than reading 96 individual slides. Preliminary experiments have been carried out which indicate specific nutrients can be used to amplify rRNA only in those organisms capable of metabolizing those nutrients. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  11. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Fernado

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set

  12. Subsurface Raman Imaging with Nanoscale Resolution

    E-print Network

    Novotny, Lukas

    Subsurface Raman Imaging with Nanoscale Resolution Neil Anderson, Pascal Anger, Achim Hartschuh, subsurface imaging with high spatial resolution. Using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, we probe carbon a host medium could be imaged with subwavelength resolution using scanning near-field ultrasound

  13. Real-Time Approximate Subsurface Scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Patro

    2007-01-01

    Subsurface scattering is a complex physical process, which, in many cases, significantly affects the appearance of certain materials. In the pursuit of generating ever more realistic scenes, it is a phenomenon which must be incorporated into rendering frameworks. However, the complexity of the physical process which causes subsurface scattering has a tremendous effect on rendering time. Though such rendering costs

  14. Subsurface Drainage Processes and Management Impacts 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Keppeler; David Brown

    Abstract: Abstract: Abstract: Abstract: Storm-induced streamflow in forested upland watersheds is linked to rainfall by transient, variably saturated flow through several different flow paths. In the absence of exposed bedrock, shallow flow-restrictive layers, or compacted soil surfaces, virtually all of the infiltrated rainfall reaches the stream as subsurface flow. Subsurface runoff can occur within micropores (voids between soil grains), various

  15. Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  16. Symptomatic Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias.

    PubMed

    de Coo, Ilse F; Wilbrink, Leopoldine A; Haan, Joost

    2015-08-01

    Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are primary headache syndromes that share some clinical features such as a trigeminal distribution of the pain and accompanying ipsilateral autonomic symptoms. By definition, no underlying structural lesion for the phenotype is found. There are, however, many descriptions in the literature of patients with structural lesions causing symptoms that are indistinguishable from those of idiopathic TACs. In this article, we review the recent insights in symptomatic TACs by comparing and categorizing newly published cases. We confirm that symptomatic TACs can have typical phenotypes. It is of crucial importance to identify symptomatic TACs, as the underlying cause will influence treatment and outcome. Our update focuses on when a structural lesion should be sought. PMID:26092512

  17. What Is Autonomous Search?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youssef Hamadi; Eric Monfroy; Frédéric Saubion

    2008-01-01

    \\u000a Autonomous search is a particular case of adaptive systems that improve their solving performance by modifying and adjusting\\u000a themselves to the problem at hand, either by self-adaptation or by supervised adaptation. We propose a general definition\\u000a and a taxonomy of search processes with respect to their computation characteristics. For this purpose, we decompose solvers\\u000a into components and their configurations. Some

  18. The autonomous underwater glider \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Sherman; Russ E. Davis; W. B. Owens; J. Valdes

    2001-01-01

    A small (50-kg, 2-m long) underwater vehicle with operating speeds of 20-30 cm\\/s and ranges up to 6000 km has been developed and field tested. The vehicle is essentially an autonomous profiling float that uses a buoyancy engine to cycle vertically and wings to glide horizontally while moving up and down. Operational control and data relay is provided by GPS

  19. Autonomic Computing: An Overview Manish Parashar1

    E-print Network

    Parashar, Manish

    ]. The Autonomic Computing Paradigm has been inspired by the human autonomic nervous system. Its overarching goal an overview of the architec- ture of the nervous system and use it to motivate the autonomic computing autonomic computing systems and applications. 2 The Autonomic Nervous System The human nervous system is

  20. Autonomic Neuropathy - Diagnosis and Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Prendergast

    Recent research indicates that autonomic neuropathy's most common and life-threatening consequences may be cardiac. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy can affect both heart rate control and cardiovascular dynamics. Add these effects to the already-serious tendency of diabetes to raise blood lipids and you have a condition ripe for disaster. Studies indicate that the onset of later-stage, symptomatic diabetic autonomic neuropathy is associated

  1. Autonomous path-planning navigation system for site characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Crane, Carl D., III; Armstrong, David G., II; Nease, Allen D.; Brown, H. Edward

    1996-05-01

    The location and removal of buried munitions is an important yet hazardous task. Current development is aimed at performing both the ordnance location and removal tasks autonomously. An autonomous survey vehicle (ASV) named the Gator has been developed at the Center for Intelligent Machines and Robotics, under the direction of Wright Laboratory, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, and the Navy Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division, Indian Head, Maryland. The primary task of the survey vehicle is to autonomously traverse an off-road site, towing behind it a trailer containing a sensor package capable of characterizing the sub-surface contents. Achieving 00 percent coverage of the site is critical to fully characterizing the site. This paper presents a strategy for planning efficient paths for the survey vehicle that guarantees near-complete coverage of a site. A small library of three in-house developed path planners are reviewed. A strategy is also presented to keep the trailer on-path and to calculate the percent of coverage of a site with a resolution of 0.01 m2. All of the algorithms discussed in this paper were initially developed in simulation on a Silicon Graphics computer and subsequently implemented on the survey vehicle.

  2. Autonomous Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siders, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    The continued assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) is the cornerstone within NASA's overall Strategic P an. As indicated in NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), the International Space Station requires Shuttle to fly through at least the middle of the next decade to complete assembly of the Station, provide crew transport, and to provide heavy lift up and down mass capability. The ISTP reflects a tight coupling among the Station, Shuttle, and OSP programs to support our Nation's space goal . While the Shuttle is a critical component of this ISTP, there is a new emphasis for the need to achieve greater efficiency and safety in transporting crews to and from the Space Station. This need is being addressed through the Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program. However, the OSP is being designed to "complement" the Shuttle as the primary means for crew transfer, and will not replace all the Shuttle's capabilities. The unique heavy lift capabilities of the Space Shuttle is essential for both ISS, as well as other potential missions extending beyond low Earth orbit. One concept under discussion to better fulfill this role of a heavy lift carrier, is the transformation of the Shuttle to an "un-piloted" autonomous system. This concept would eliminate the loss of crew risk, while providing a substantial increase in payload to orbit capability. Using the guidelines reflected in the NASA ISTP, the autonomous Shuttle a simplified concept of operations can be described as; "a re-supply of cargo to the ISS through the use of an un-piloted Shuttle vehicle from launch through landing". Although this is the primary mission profile, the other major consideration in developing an autonomous Shuttle is maintaining a crew transportation capability to ISS as an assured human access to space capability.

  3. Persulfate activation by subsurface minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L.; Watts, Richard J.

    2010-06-01

    Persulfate dynamics in the presence of subsurface minerals was investigated as a basis for understanding persulfate activation for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). The mineral-mediated decomposition of persulfate and generation of oxidants and reductants was investigated with four iron and manganese oxides and two clay minerals at both low pH (< 7) and high pH (> 12). The manganese oxide birnessite was the most effective initiator of persulfate for degrading the oxidant probe nitrobenzene, indicating that oxidants are generated at both low and high pH regimes. The iron oxide goethite was the most effective mineral for degrading the reductant probe hexachloroethane. A natural soil and two soil fractions were used to confirm persulfate activation by synthetic minerals. The soil and soil fractions did not effectively promote the generation of oxidants or reductants. However, soil organic matter was found to promote reductant generation at high pH. The results of this research demonstrate that synthetic iron and manganese oxides can activate persulfate to generate reductants and oxidants; however, iron and manganese oxides in the natural soil studied do not show the same reactivity, most likely due to the lower masses of the metal oxides in the soil relative to the masses studied in isolated mineral systems.

  4. Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara A.; Chien, Steve A.; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel M.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Schoolcraft, Josua B.; Oyake, Amalaye; Vaughs, Ashton G.; Torgerson, Jordan L.

    2011-01-01

    The Palomar Adaptive Optics System actively corrects for changing aberrations in light due to atmospheric turbulence. However, the underlying internal static error is unknown and uncorrected by this process. The dedicated wavefront sensor device necessarily lies along a different path than the science camera, and, therefore, doesn't measure the true errors along the path leading to the final detected imagery. This is a standard problem in adaptive optics (AO) called "non-common path error." The Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration (APRC) software suite performs automated sensing and correction iterations to calibrate the Palomar AO system to levels that were previously unreachable.

  5. Toward autonomous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogel, L. J.; Calabrese, P. G.; Walsh, M. J.; Owens, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Ways in which autonomous behavior of spacecraft can be extended to treat situations wherein a closed loop control by a human may not be appropriate or even possible are explored. Predictive models that minimize mean least squared error and arbitrary cost functions are discussed. A methodology for extracting cyclic components for an arbitrary environment with respect to usual and arbitrary criteria is developed. An approach to prediction and control based on evolutionary programming is outlined. A computer program capable of predicting time series is presented. A design of a control system for a robotic dense with partially unknown physical properties is presented.

  6. Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Subsurface Modeling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    We present a general framework for probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for subsurface modeling. PRA provides a natural venue for the rigorous quantification of structural (model) and parametric uncertainties inherent in predictions of subsurface flow and transport. A typical PRA starts by identifying relevant components of a subsurface system (e.g., a buried solid-waste tank, an aquitard, a remediation effort) and proceeds by using uncertainty quantification techniques to estimate the probabilities of their failure. These probabilities are then combined by means of fault-tree analyses to yield probabilistic estimates of the risk of system failure (e.g., aquifer contamination). To illustrate this general PRA framework, we discuss several examples ranging from subsurface remediation to underground excavation.

  7. DOE UST interim subsurface barrier technologies workshop

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1992-09-01

    This document contains information which was presented at a workshop regarding interim subsurface barrier technologies that could be used for underground storage tanks, particularly the tank 241-C-106 at the Hanford Reservation.

  8. EVOLVING CONCEPTS OF SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, a large gap exists between theoretical advances in the understanding of how various natural processes affect subsurface contaminant transport, and our ability to translate those advances into practical applications. The lack of truly representative and reliable field t...

  9. CONTINUOUS SUBSURFACE INJECTION OF LIQUID DAIRY MANURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research has involved the development and evaluation of an efficient, economical, continuous subsurface injection machine. The application site was instrumented so the quality of water percolating beneath the injection zone could be measured. Wells located around the sites we...

  10. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Randle

    2000-01-07

    The primary purpose of this document is to develop a preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architecture for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines an overall control system concept that encompasses and integrates the many diverse process and communication systems being developed for the subsurface repository design. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System design will be composed of a series of diverse process systems and communication networks. The subsurface repository design contains many systems related to instrumentation and control (I&C) for both repository development and waste emplacement operations. These systems include waste emplacement, waste retrieval, ventilation, radiological and air monitoring, rail transportation, construction development, utility systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire protection, backfill emplacement, and performance confirmation. Each of these systems involves some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communications network throughout the subsurface facility. The subsurface I&C systems will also interface with multiple surface-based systems such as site operations, rail transportation, security and safeguards, and electrical/piped utilities. In addition to the I&C systems, the subsurface repository design also contains systems related to voice and video communications. The components for each of these systems will be distributed and linked over voice and video communication networks throughout the subsurface facility. The scope and primary objectives of this design analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system-level functions and interfaces (Section 6.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels the engineered process systems will be monitored, controlled, and interfaced (Section 6.2). (3) Develop a preliminary design for the overall Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System functional architecture and graphically depict the operational features of this design through a series of control system functional block diagrams (Section 6.2). (4) Develop a physical architecture that presents a viable yet preliminary physical implementation for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System functional architecture (Section 6.3). (5) Develop an initial concept for an overall subsurface data communications network that can be used to integrate the various control systems comprising the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.4). (6) Develop a preliminary central control room design for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.5). (7) Identify and discuss the general safety-related issues and design strategies with respect to development of the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.6). (8) Discuss plans for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System's response to off-normal operations (Section 6.7). (9) Discuss plans and strategies for developing software for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.8).

  11. MONTHLY HIGHLIGHTS (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division (SPRD) produces monthly highlights describing research accomplishments, involvement in current technical assistance activities, and staff participation in scientific meetings and conferences. Announcements of the release and avai...

  12. PUBLICATIONS (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPRD's Subsurface Remediation Information Center (SRIC) provides publication distribution of highly specialized scientific and technical information developed by and through SPRD relating to groundwater protection and remediation and ecosystem restoration. The SRIC maintains a b...

  13. Issues in subsurface exploration of ice sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, L.; Carsey, F.; Zimmerman, W.

    2000-01-01

    Exploration of the deep subsurface ice sheets of Earth, Mars, Europa, and Titan has become a major consideration in addressing scientific objectives in climate change, extremophile biology, exobiology,chemical weathering, planetary evolution and ice dynamics.

  14. Subsurface Geomicrobiology of the Iberian Pyritic Belt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Amils; David Fernández-Remolar; Felipe Gómez; Elena González-Toril; Nuria Rodríguez; Carlos Briones; Olga Prieto-Ballesteros; José Luis Sanz; Emiliano Díaz; Todd O. Stevens; Carol R. Stoker

    Terrestrial subsurface geomicrobiology is a matter of growing interest. On a fundamental level, it seeks to determine whether\\u000a life can be sustained in the absence of radiation, whereas it also aims to develop practical applications in environmental\\u000a biotechnology. Subsurface ecosystems are also intriguing exobiological models, useful for the re-creation of life on early\\u000a Earth (Widdel et al. 1993) or the

  15. Asteroid Exploration with Autonomic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Rouff, Christopher; Hinchey, Mike

    2004-01-01

    NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. The prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission comprises autonomous agents including worker agents (small spacecra3) designed to cooperate in asteroid exploration under the overall authoriq of at least one ruler agent (a larger spacecraft) whose goal is to cause science data to be returned to Earth. The ANTS team (ruler plus workers and messenger agents), but not necessarily any individual on the team, will exhibit behaviors that qualify it as an autonomic system, where an autonomic system is defined as a system that self-reconfigures, self-optimizes, self-heals, and self-protects. Autonomic system concepts lead naturally to realistic, scalable architectures rich in capabilities and behaviors. In-depth consideration of a major mission like ANTS in terms of autonomic systems brings new insights into alternative definitions of autonomic behavior. This paper gives an overview of the ANTS mission and discusses the autonomic properties of the mission.

  16. Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen

    E-print Network

    Wood, Stephen L.

    26 Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen Florida Institute of Technology United States and environmental data gathering capacities. Included in these types are autonomous underwater gliders that have four classes of underwater gliders: 1) those that use mechanical or electrical means of changing

  17. Sensory prediction for autonomous robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryo Saegusa; Francesco Nori; Giulio Sandini; Giorgio Metta; Sophie Sakka

    2007-01-01

    For a complex autonomous robotic system such as a humanoid robot, the learning-based sensory prediction is considered effective to develop a perceptual environment model by itself. We developed a learning system for an autonomous robot to predict the next sensory information from the current sensory information and the expected action. The system we consider contains a learning procedure and a

  18. The potential for improving remote primary productivity estimates through subsurface chlorophyll and irradiance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacox, Michael G.; Edwards, Christopher A.; Kahru, Mati; Rudnick, Daniel L.; Kudela, Raphael M.

    2015-02-01

    A 26-year record of depth integrated primary productivity (PP) in the Southern California Current System (SCCS) is analyzed with the goal of improving satellite net primary productivity (PP) estimates. Modest improvements in PP model performance are achieved by tuning existing algorithms for the SCCS, particularly by parameterizing carbon fixation rate in the vertically generalized production model as a function of surface chlorophyll concentration and distance from shore. Much larger improvements are enabled by improving the accuracy of subsurface chlorophyll and light profiles. In a simple vertically resolved production model for the SCCS (VRPM-SC), substitution of in situ surface data for remote sensing estimates offers only marginal improvements in model r2 (from 0.54 to 0.56) and total log10 root mean squared difference (from 0.22 to 0.21), while inclusion of in situ chlorophyll and light profiles improves these metrics to 0.77 and 0.15, respectively. Autonomous underwater gliders, capable of measuring subsurface properties on long-term, long-range deployments, significantly improve PP model fidelity in the SCCS. We suggest their use (and that of other autonomous profilers such as Argo floats) in conjunction with satellites as a way forward for large-scale improvements in PP estimation.

  19. Autonomous wildfire surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Jan S.

    1993-11-01

    Until recently, problems resulting from fires in forests and natural areas were solved on a national rather than international level. This resulted in duplicating research efforts. The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) tries to enhance the cooperation between European countries to stimulate research on the causes and the technological developments for wildfire prevention, detection, and fighting. One result of these efforts has been the start of an international project on the development of a demonstration system that will be used to aid wild land managers and fire fighters in preventing and fighting wild fires. The system will consist of a decision support system and an autonomous wild fire detection system. The basic information that is used by the decision support system is on the one hand a database system with historical, topographical, logistic, meteorological and geographic information and on the other hand `real-time' data from automated cameras and weather sensors. Also, in other large countries outside Europe, such as Canada, the United States and Australia, technological approaches are being developed to reduce hazards as a result of wild fires. In this paper a summary is given on the various problems and solutions in the area of autonomous wild fire detection and surveillance in the CEC and some other parts of the world.

  20. Learning for Autonomous Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

  1. Nemesis Autonomous Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barltrop, Kevin J.; Lee, Cin-Young; Horvath, Gregory A,; Clement, Bradley J.

    2012-01-01

    A generalized framework has been developed for systems validation that can be applied to both traditional and autonomous systems. The framework consists of an automated test case generation and execution system called Nemesis that rapidly and thoroughly identifies flaws or vulnerabilities within a system. By applying genetic optimization and goal-seeking algorithms on the test equipment side, a "war game" is conducted between a system and its complementary nemesis. The end result of the war games is a collection of scenarios that reveals any undesirable behaviors of the system under test. The software provides a reusable framework to evolve test scenarios using genetic algorithms using an operation model of the system under test. It can automatically generate and execute test cases that reveal flaws in behaviorally complex systems. Genetic algorithms focus the exploration of tests on the set of test cases that most effectively reveals the flaws and vulnerabilities of the system under test. It leverages advances in state- and model-based engineering, which are essential in defining the behavior of autonomous systems. It also uses goal networks to describe test scenarios.

  2. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

  3. Autonomous Control of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Towing a Vector Sensor Array

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Henrik

    Autonomous Control of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Towing a Vector Sensor Array Michael R,arjunab@mit.edu Abstract-- This paper is about the autonomous control of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV the vehicles to adapt their missions and behave autonomously as events unfold. Conversely, practical concerns

  4. A Mission Controller for High Level Control of Autonomous and Semi-Autonomous Underwater

    E-print Network

    Whitcomb, Louis L.

    A Mission Controller for High Level Control of Autonomous and Semi-Autonomous Underwater Vehicles to provide high-level control for autonomous and semi- autonomous vehicle operation. The mission controller autonomous AUVs, acoustically controlled AUVs and a new class of hybrid vehicle capable of operating both

  5. An industry survey of autonomic infrastructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Keith Nunez; Gary Mueller

    2009-01-01

    Autonomic Computing is in the initial stage of definition and development. A key step in the development of autonomic systems is the building and adoption of standard middleware or infrastructure. Infrastructure provides the plumbing and support structure for autonomic systems. Key infrastructure components for autonomic systems include hardware and software sensors, standard communication links, protocols including packet and payload, metadata

  6. Autonomous software: Myth or magic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, A.; Naylor, T.; Saunders, E. S.

    2008-03-01

    We discuss work by the eSTAR project which demonstrates a fully closed loop autonomous system for the follow up of possible micro-lensing anomalies. Not only are the initial micro-lensing detections followed up in real time, but ongoing events are prioritised and continually monitored, with the returned data being analysed automatically. If the ``smart software'' running the observing campaign detects a planet-like anomaly, further follow-up will be scheduled autonomously and other telescopes and telescope networks alerted to the possible planetary detection. We further discuss the implications of this, and how such projects can be used to build more general autonomous observing and control systems.

  7. Autonomous software: Myth or magic?

    E-print Network

    Alasdair Allan; Tim Naylor; Eric S. Saunders

    2008-02-04

    We discuss work by the eSTAR project which demonstrates a fully closed loop autonomous system for the follow up of possible micro-lensing anomalies. Not only are the initial micro-lensing detections followed up in real time, but ongoing events are prioritised and continually monitored, with the returned data being analysed automatically. If the ``smart software'' running the observing campaign detects a planet-like anomaly, further follow-up will be scheduled autonomously and other telescopes and telescope networks alerted to the possible planetary detection. We further discuss the implications of this, and how such projects can be used to build more general autonomous observing and control systems.

  8. SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    C.J. Fernado

    1998-09-17

    The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I&C) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I&C systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures that present preliminary concepts for integrating the diverse set of control systems to be used within the subsurface repository facility (Presented in Section 7.3). (5) Develop initial concepts for an overall subsurface data communication system that can be used to integrate critical and data-intensive control systems (Presented in Section 7.4). (6) Discuss technology trends and control system design issues (Presented in Section 7.5).

  9. Marine subsurface eukaryotes: the fungal majority.

    PubMed

    Edgcomb, Virginia P; Beaudoin, David; Gast, Rebecca; Biddle, Jennifer F; Teske, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the microbial communities of deep subsurface sediments have indicated the presence of Bacteria and Archaea throughout the sediment column. Microbial eukaryotes could also be present in deep-sea subsurface sediments; either bacterivorous protists or eukaryotes capable of assimilating buried organic carbon. DNA- and RNA-based clone library analyses are used here to examine the microbial eukaryotic diversity and identify the potentially active members in deep-sea sediment cores of the Peru Margin and the Peru Trench. We compared surface communities with those much deeper in the same cores, and compared cores from different sites. Fungal sequences were most often recovered from both DNA- and RNA-based clone libraries, with variable overall abundances of different sequence types and different dominant clone types in the RNA-based and the DNA-based libraries. Surficial sediment communities were different from each other and from the deep subsurface samples. Some fungal sequences represented potentially novel organisms as well as ones with a cosmopolitan distribution in terrestrial, fresh and salt water environments. Our results indicate that fungi are the most consistently detected eukaryotes in the marine sedimentary subsurface; further, some species may be specifically adapted to the deep subsurface and may play important roles in the utilization and recycling of nutrients. PMID:21199255

  10. Parametrized maneuvers for autonomous vehicles

    E-print Network

    Dever, Christopher W. (Christopher Walden), 1972-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents a method for creating continuously parametrized maneuver classes for autonomous vehicles. These classes provide useful tools for motion planners, bundling sets of related vehicle motions based on a ...

  11. Microbial activities in deep subsurface environments

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, T.J.; Raione, E.G.; White, D.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Inst. for Applied Microbiology]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., Knoxville, TN (United States); Fliermans, C.B. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Plant

    1988-12-31

    Activities of microorganisms residing in terrestrial deep subsurface sediments were examined in forty-six sediment samples from three aseptically sampled boreholes. Radiolabeled time course experiments assessing in situ microbial activities were initiated within 30 minutes of core recovery. [{sup 14}C-1-] Acetate incorporation into lipids. [methyl-{sup 3}H-]thymidine incorporation into DNA, [{sup 14}C-2-]acetate and [{sup 14}C-U-]glucose mineralization in addition to microbial enrichment and enumeration studies were examined in surface and subsurface sediments. Surface soils contained the greatest biomass and activities followed by the shallow aquifer zones. Water saturated subsurface sediments exhibited three to four orders of magnitude greater activity and culturable microorganisms than the dense clay zones. Regardless of depth, sediments which contained more than 20% clays exhibited the lowest activities and culturable microorganisms.

  12. MSTS - Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator theory manual

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.D.; Nichols, W.E.

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy, through the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office, has designated the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada for detailed study as the candidate US geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Site characterization will determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for the potential waste repository. If the site is determined suitable, subsequent studies and characterization will be conducted to obtain authorization from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to construct the potential waste repository. A principal component of the characterization and licensing processes involves numerically predicting the thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment of the Yucca Mountain site to the potential repository over a 10,000-year period. The thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment to the repository is anticipated to include complex processes of countercurrent vapor and liquid migration, multiple-phase heat transfer, multiple-phase transport, and geochemical reactions. Numerical simulators based on mathematical descriptions of these subsurface phenomena are required to make numerical predictions of the thermal and hydrologic response of the Yucca Mountain subsurface environment The engineering simulator called the Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator (MSTS) was developed at the request of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office to produce numerical predictions of subsurface flow and transport phenomena at the potential Yucca Mountain site. This document delineates the design architecture and describes the specific computational algorithms that compose MSTS. Details for using MSTS and sample problems are given in the {open_quotes}User`s Guide and Reference{close_quotes} companion document.

  13. Autonomic and Trusted Computing Paradigms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaolin Li; Hui Kang; Patrick Harrington; Johnson Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The emerging autonomic computing technology has been hailed by world-wide researchers and professionals in academia and in- dustry. Besides four key capabilities, well known as self-CHOP, we pro- pose an additional self-regulating capability to explicitly emphasize the policy-driven self-manageability and dynamic policy derivation and en- actment. Essentially, these five capabilities, coined as Self-CHROP, define an autonomic system along with other

  14. Apparatus for passive removal of subsurface contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Pemberton, B.E.; May, C.P.; Rossabi, J.

    1997-06-24

    An apparatus is provided which passively removes contaminated gases from a subsurface. The apparatus includes a riser pipe extending into a subsurface which has an exterior end in fluid communication with a valve. When well pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure, the valve opens to release contaminants into the atmosphere, and when well pressure is less than atmospheric pressure, the valve closes to prevent flow of air into the well. The valve assembly of the invention comprises a lightweight ball which is lifted from its valve seat with a slight pressure drop between the well and the atmosphere. 7 figs.

  15. Apparatus for passive removal of subsurface contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Pemberton, Bradley E. (Aiken, SC); May, Christopher P. (Fairfax, VA); Rossabi, Joseph (Aiken, SC)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus is provided which passively removes contaminated gases from a subsurface. The apparatus includes a riser pipe extending into a subsurface which has an exterior end in fluid communication with a valve. When well pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure, the valve opens to release contaminants into the atmosphere, and when well pressure is less than atmospheric pressure, the valve closes to prevent flow of air into the well. The valve assembly of the invention comprises a lightweight ball which is lifted from its valve seat with a slight pressure drop between the well and the atmosphere.

  16. Autonomous power system brassboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merolla, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the brassboard hardware and intelligent controlling software, fault circuits have been developed and integrated as part of the brassboard. A description of these fault circuits and their function is included. The brassboard has become an extremely useful test facility, promoting artificial intelligence (AI) applications for power distribution systems. However, there are elements of the brassboard which could be enhanced, thus improving system performance. Modifications and enhancements to improve the brassboard's operation are discussed.

  17. Autonomous power system brassboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merolla, Anthony

    1992-10-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the brassboard hardware and intelligent controlling software, fault circuits have been developed and integrated as part of the brassboard. A description of these fault circuits and their function is included. The brassboard has become an extremely useful test facility, promoting artificial intelligence (AI) applications for power distribution systems.

  18. Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirovi?, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John

    2015-04-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  19. Allowing autonomous agents freedom.

    PubMed

    Cronin, A J

    2008-03-01

    Living-donor kidney transplantation is the "gold standard" treatment for many individuals with end-stage renal failure. Superior outcomes for the graft and the transplant recipient have prompted the implementation of new strategies promoting living-donor kidney transplantation, and the number of such transplants has increased considerably over recent years. Living donors are undoubtedly exposed to risk. In his editorial "underestimating the risk in living kidney donation", Walter Glannon suggests that more data on long-term outcomes for living donors are needed to determine whether this risk is permissible and the extent to which physicians and transplant surgeons should promote living-donor kidney transplantation. In this paper I argue that it is not clear that medical professionals have underestimated this risk, nor is it clear that more data on long-term outcomes are needed in order to determine whether it is permissible for individual autonomous agents to expose themselves to this or, indeed, any risk. The global shortage of organs available for transplantation ultimately means that every year thousands of individuals who value their life die needlessly. This is an unacceptable loss of human life. Saving life is one of the most wonderful things an individual can do for another. Promoting any strategy that will assist in saving life and preventing human suffering within acceptable moral limits is legitimate. PMID:18316449

  20. Autonomous Aerobraking at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, Jill L.; Tolson, Robert; Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer; Dec, John

    2002-01-01

    Aerobraking has become a proven approach for orbital missions at Mars. A launch of a 1000 kg class spacecraft on a Delta class booster saves 90% of the post-MOI fuel otherwise required to circularize the orbit. In 1997, Mars Global Surveyor demonstrated the feasibility and Mars 2001 Odyssey completed a nearly trouble free aerobraking phase in January 2002. In 2006, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will also utilize aerobraking. From the flight operations standpoint, however, aerobraking is labor intensive and high risk due to the large density variability in the Mars thermosphere. The maximum rate of aerobraking is typically limited by the maximum allowable temperature of the solar array which is the primary drag surface. Prior missions have used a surrogate variable, usually maximum free stream heat flux, as a basis for performing periapsis altitude corridor control maneuvers. This paper provides an adaptive sequential method for operationally relating measured temperatures to heat flux profile characteristics and performing maneuvers based directly on measured temperatures and atmospheric properties derived from the heat flux profiles. Simulations of autonomous aerobraking are performed using Odyssey mission data.

  1. 75 FR 1276 - Requirements for Subsurface Safety Valve Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service 30 CFR Part 250...for Subsurface Safety Valve Equipment AGENCY: Minerals Management Service (MMS), Interior...for Subsurface Safety Valve Equipment (API Spec 14A) into...

  2. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Subsurface Drip Distribution

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    1999-09-06

    A subsurface drip system distributes wastewater to the lawn through a system of tubing installed below the ground. This publication explains the advantages and disadvantages of subsurface drip distribution systems, as well as estimated costs...

  3. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Subsurface Drip Distribution 

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    1999-09-06

    A subsurface drip system distributes wastewater to the lawn through a system of tubing installed below the ground. This publication explains the advantages and disadvantages of subsurface drip distribution systems, as well ...

  4. Is Europa's Subsurface Water Ocean Warm?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, H. J.; Ekholm, A. G.; Showman, A. P.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2002-01-01

    Europa's subsurface water ocean may be warm: that is, at the temperature of water's maximum density. This provides a natural explanation of chaos melt-through events and leads to a correct estimate of the age of its surface. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. BIODEGRADATION OF ATRAZINE IN SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pesticide atrazine is frequently detected in ground water, including ground water used as drinking water. Little information is available on the fate of atrazine in the subsurface, including its biodegradability. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the biodegradabil...

  6. Characterization of imidacloprid availability in subsurface soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degradation and sorption/desorption are the most important processes affecting the leaching of pesticides through soil because they control the amount of pesticide available for transport. Once pesticides move past the surface soil layers, variations in subsurface soil physical, chemical, and biolog...

  7. Land uplift due to subsurface fluid injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pietro Teatini; Giuseppe Gambolati; Massimiliano Ferronato; Dale Walters

    2011-01-01

    The subsurface injection of fluid (water, gas, vapour) occurs worldwide for a variety of purposes, e.g. to enhance oil production (EOR), store gas in depleted gas\\/oil fields, recharge overdrafted aquifer systems (ASR), and mitigate anthropogenic land subsidence. Irrespective of the injection target, some areas have experienced an observed land uplift ranging from a few millimetres to tens of centimetres over

  8. Subsurface Exploration Technologies and Strategies for Europa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. French; F. S. Anderson; F. D. Carsey; J. R. Green; W. F. Zimmerman

    2001-01-01

    The Galileo data from Europa has resulted in the strong suggestion of a large, cold, salty, old subglacial ocean and is of great importance. We have examined technology requirements for subsurface exploration of Europa and determined that scientific access to the hypothesized Europa ocean is a key requirement. By 'scientific access' we intend to direct attention to the fact that

  9. Moisture monitoring with subsurface transmission lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Brandelik; Christof Huebner

    1999-01-01

    Waste disposals are covered with high density and highly saturated clay layers, which prevent rain penetration through waste into groundwater. These layers without monitoring are overdesigned to achieve long term performance. In case of a containment control, which means water content control, the construction can be less expensive and defects can be selectively repaired. We developed a new subsurface moisture

  10. Subsurface manure application to reduce ammonia emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation into soil is generally recommended to reduce ammonia volatilization and nutrient runoff following land application of manures. A range of subsurface applicators are available for manure incorporation with minimal soil disturbance in reduced tillage systems, but none have been widely a...

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Subsurface clade of Geobacteraceae

    E-print Network

    Lovley, Derek

    undergoing in situ bioremediation; (2) an acetate-impacted aquifer that serves as an analog for the long-term acetate amendments proposed for in situ uranium bioremediation and (3) a petroleum-contaminated aquifer subsurface bioremediation of metal and organic contaminants. The ISME Journal (2007) 1, 663­677; doi:10

  12. SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION (HOME PAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Subsurface Protection and Remediastion Division(SPRD)conducts EPA-investigator led laboratory and field research to provide the scientific basis to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground and surface water quality within a watershe...

  13. Modeling Subsurface Transport of Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This U.S. EPA website contains information on the modeling of subsurface transport of petroleum hydrocarbons and other contaminants. There are a few course modules on the fate and transport of contaminants. There are also OnSite on-line calculators for site-specific assessment calculations.

  14. OVERVIEW -- SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division located in Ada, Oklahoma, conducts EPA-investigator led laboratory and field research to provide the scientific basis to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground and surface water q...

  15. Liquefaction in Subsurface Layer of Sand

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Ground shaking triggered liquefaction in a subsurface layer of sand, producing differential lateral and vertical movement in a overlying carapace of unliquified sand and silt, which moved from right to left toward the Pajaro River. This mode of ground failure, termed "lateral spreading,

  16. A Cloud-Assisted Design for Autonomous Driving Swarun Kumar

    E-print Network

    from autonomous vehicles as well as the roadside infrastruc- ture. The cloud assists autonomous- Communications Networks GENERAL TERMS Algorithms, Design, Performance KEYWORDS Autonomous Vehicles, Cloud. Thus, autonomous vehicles need detailed and real-time information about their sur- roundings [11

  17. Tool samples subsurface soil free of surface contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemmerer, W. W.; Wooley, B. C.

    1967-01-01

    Sampling device obtains pure subsurface soil that is free of any foreign substance that may exist on the surface. It is introduced through a contaminated surface area in a closed condition, opened, and a subsurface sample collected, sealed while in the subsurface position, and then withdrawn.

  18. Towards an Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) with Reflex Autonomicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Hinchey, Mike; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of providing a fault-tolerant environment and achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications. However, the task of manually managing and configuring a cluster quickly becomes daunting as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing, with its vision to provide self-management, can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management and its evolution to include reflex reactions via pulse monitoring.

  19. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  20. Autonomous inverted helicopter flight via reinforcement learning

    E-print Network

    Ng, Andrew Y.

    Autonomous inverted helicopter flight via reinforcement learning Andrew Y. Ng1 , Adam Coates1 Science Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 2 Whirled Air Helicopters, Menlo Park, CA 94025 Abstract. Helicopters have highly stochastic, nonlinear, dynamics, and autonomous helicopter

  1. Autonomous inverted helicopter flight via reinforcement learning

    E-print Network

    Ng, Andrew Y.

    Autonomous inverted helicopter flight via reinforcement learning Andrew Y. Ng 1 , Adam Coates 1 Computer Science Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 2 Whirled Air Helicopters, Menlo Park, CA 94025 Abstract. Helicopters have highly stochastic, nonlinear, dynamics, and autonomous helicopter

  2. Parameterized Maneuver Learning for Autonomous Helicopter Flight

    E-print Network

    O'Brien, James F.

    Parameterized Maneuver Learning for Autonomous Helicopter Flight Jie Tang, Arjun Singh, Nimbus aerobatic maneuvers by our autonomous helicopter. I. INTRODUCTION Trajectory following is a fundamental probabilistic model that enabled them to extract an expert helicopter pilot's intended trajectory from multiple

  3. A Robust Compositional Architecture for Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brat, Guillaume; Deney, Ewen; Farrell, Kimberley; Giannakopoulos, Dimitra; Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy; Bobby, Mark; Carpenter, Todd; Estlin, Tara

    2006-01-01

    Space exploration applications can benefit greatly from autonomous systems. Great distances, limited communications and high costs make direct operations impossible while mandating operations reliability and efficiency beyond what traditional commanding can provide. Autonomous systems can improve reliability and enhance spacecraft capability significantly. However, there is reluctance to utilizing autonomous systems. In part this is due to general hesitation about new technologies, but a more tangible concern is that of reliability of predictability of autonomous software. In this paper, we describe ongoing work aimed at increasing robustness and predictability of autonomous software, with the ultimate goal of building trust in such systems. The work combines state-of-the-art technologies and capabilities in autonomous systems with advanced validation and synthesis techniques. The focus of this paper is on the autonomous system architecture that has been defined, and on how it enables the application of validation techniques for resulting autonomous systems.

  4. AUTONOMIC MULTIMEDIA DELIVERY SERVICES SELF-CONFIGURATION

    E-print Network

    AUTONOMIC MULTIMEDIA DELIVERY SERVICES SELF-CONFIGURATION I. Al-oqily1 , A. Alshtnawi2 , K.M. Al-configuration architecture for multimedia delivery services. Index Terms-- self-configuration, autonomic computing, overlay

  5. Autonomous Intersection Management for Semi-Autonomous Vehicles Tsz-Chiu Au

    E-print Network

    Stone, Peter

    Autonomous Intersection Management for Semi-Autonomous Vehicles Tsz-Chiu Au School of Electrical@cs.utexas.edu Abstract-- Recent advances in autonomous vehicle technology will open the door to highly efficient control protocol designed for fully autonomous vehicles. We, however, anticipate there will be a long

  6. Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pien, Homer

    1992-01-01

    During GFY 91, Draper Laboratory was awarded a task by NASA-JSC under contract number NAS9-18426 to study and evaluate the potential for achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using an on-board autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) system. This report describes the results of that study. The AHDA task had four objectives: to demonstrate, via a closed-loop simulation, the ability to autonomously select safe landing sites and the ability to maneuver to the selected site; to identify key issues in the development of AHDA systems; to produce strawman designs for AHDA sensors and algorithms; and to perform initial trade studies leading to better understanding of the effect of sensor/terrain/viewing parameters on AHDA algorithm performance. This report summarizes the progress made during the first year, with primary emphasis on describing the tools developed for simulating a closed-loop AHDA landing. Some cursory performance evaluation results are also presented.

  7. Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia sine headache.

    PubMed

    Haane, D Y P; Koehler, P J; Te Lintelo, M P; Peatfield, R

    2011-04-01

    Cluster headache without headache (CH-H) has been described several times. We add three new CH-H patients and a patient with (probable) paroxysmal hemicrania without headache (PH-H). We searched the literature and found some more cases of CH-H and PH-H. CH-H attacks may have a shorter minimal attack duration than CH attacks. We propose the term trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia without headache (TAC-H) for autonomic attacks and/or extracephalic pain or sensory symptoms with an attack duration and distribution and/or response to therapy suggesting one of the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, but without accompanying headache. Secondary TAC-H may develop after treatment for painful TAC attacks. We discuss pathophysiological issues, particularly the central role of the hypothalamus and the suggestion that the superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) might be triggered by the diencephalic pacemaker without nociceptive activation. PMID:20976466

  8. Command and telemetry in autonomous spacecraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Some major steps are summarized in the evolution of autonomous design features for planetary exploration spacecraft. The control and data architectures for the Viking, Voyager, and Galileo spacecraft are considered. Telemetry and command capabilities are fundamental features of spacecraft design that have been successfully used for autonomous control. Also discussed is the Autonomous Redundancy and Maintenance Management Subsystem (ARMMS) concept. The software approach to autonomous control provides for modifications to the control process or the addition of new operating features during flight operations.

  9. Miniature Autonomous Robotic Vehicle (MARV)

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Spletzer, B.L.; Weber, T.M.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has recently developed a 16 cm{sup 3} (1 in{sup 3}) autonomous robotic vehicle which is capable of tracking a single conducting wire carrying a 96 kHz signal. This vehicle was developed to assess the limiting factors in using commercial technology to build miniature autonomous vehicles. Particular attention was paid to the design of the control system to search out the wire, track it, and recover if the wire was lost. This paper describes the test vehicle and the control analysis. Presented in the paper are the vehicle model, control laws, a stability analysis, simulation studies and experimental results.

  10. Discerning non-autonomous dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemson, Philip T.; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2014-09-01

    Structure and function go hand in hand. However, while a complex structure can be relatively safely broken down into the minutest parts, and technology is now delving into nanoscales, the function of complex systems requires a completely different approach. Here the complexity clearly arises from nonlinear interactions, which prevents us from obtaining a realistic description of a system by dissecting it into its structural component parts. At best, the result of such investigations does not substantially add to our understanding or at worst it can even be misleading. Not surprisingly, the dynamics of complex systems, facilitated by increasing computational efficiency, is now readily tackled in the case of measured time series. Moreover, time series can now be collected in practically every branch of science and in any structural scale-from protein dynamics in a living cell to data collected in astrophysics or even via social networks. In searching for deterministic patterns in such data we are limited by the fact that no complex system in the real world is autonomous. Hence, as an alternative to the stochastic approach that is predominantly applied to data from inherently non-autonomous complex systems, theory and methods specifically tailored to non-autonomous systems are needed. Indeed, in the last decade we have faced a huge advance in mathematical methods, including the introduction of pullback attractors, as well as time series methods that cope with the most important characteristic of non-autonomous systems-their time-dependent behaviour. Here we review current methods for the analysis of non-autonomous dynamics including those for extracting properties of interactions and the direction of couplings. We illustrate each method by applying it to three sets of systems typical for chaotic, stochastic and non-autonomous behaviour. For the chaotic class we select the Lorenz system, for the stochastic the noise-forced Duffing system and for the non-autonomous the Poincaré oscillator with quasi-periodic forcing. In this way we not only discuss and review each method, but also present properties which help to clearly distinguish the three classes of systems when analysed in an inverse approach-from measured, or numerically generated data. In particular, this review provides a framework to tackle inverse problems in these areas and clearly distinguish non-autonomous dynamics from chaos or stochasticity.

  11. Progress towards autonomous, intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1987-01-01

    An aggressive program has been initiated to develop, integrate, and implement autonomous systems technologies starting with today's expert systems and evolving to autonomous, intelligent systems by the end of the 1990s. This program includes core technology developments and demonstration projects for technology evaluation and validation. This paper discusses key operational frameworks in the content of systems autonomy applications and then identifies major technological challenges, primarily in artificial intelligence areas. Program content and progress made towards critical technologies and demonstrations that have been initiated to achieve the required future capabilities in the year 2000 era are discussed.

  12. Batch Reservations in Autonomous Intersection (Extended Abstract)

    E-print Network

    Au, Tsz-Chiu

    autonomous vehicles are feasible with current or near-future intelligent vehicle technology. Looking ahead of autonomous vehicles we can devise a reservation-based intersection control protocol that is much more Challenge in 2007 showed that fully autonomous vehicles are technologically feasi- ble with contemporary

  13. Reconsideration of the autonomous view of language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eijiro Tsuboi

    1993-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a critical examination of the autonomous view of language espoused in current generative grammar that attributes modular status to the faculty of language which is itself taken to comprise autonomous modular components. Several pieces of supposed evidence for the autonomous thesis are discussed, along with some other related topics, and shown to be critically flawed.

  14. Autonomic Nervous System Activity Distinguishes among Emotions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Ekman; Robert W. Levenson; Wallace V. Friesen

    1983-01-01

    Emotion-specific activity in the autonomic nervous system was generated by constructing facial prototypes of emotion muscle by muscle and by reliving past emotional experiences. The autonomic activity produced distinguished not only between positive and negative emotions, but also among negative emotions. This finding challenges emotion theories that have proposed autonomic activity to be undifferentiated or that have failed to address

  15. Autonomous Sonar Classification Using Expert Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald P. Brutzman; Mark A. Compton; Yutaka Kanayama

    1992-01-01

    (408) 656-2149 work, (408) 656-2595 fax Abstract - An expert system can process active sonar returns, perform geometric analysis and autonomously classify detected underwater objects. Autonomous classification of objects is an essential requirement for independent operation by autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Most AUVs are only capable of rudimentary sensor analysis, since standard approaches to evaluation and classification of sonar data

  16. Autonomic function following cervical spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei Krassioukov

    2009-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is commonly associated with devastating paralysis. However, this condition also results in a variety of autonomic dysfunctions, primarily: cardiovascular, broncho-pulmonary, urinary, gastrointestinal, sexual, and thermoregulatory. SCI and the resultant unstable autonomic control are responsible for increased mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory disease among individuals with SCI.Injury level and severity directly correlate to the severity of autonomic

  17. Semiotic oriented autonomous intelligent systems engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Gonçalves; Ricardo Gudwin

    1998-01-01

    Introduces a first proposal on how to use semiotics in order to improve software engineering methods, when intelligent autonomous systems are targeted. First we investigate the current flaws in software engineering, concerning intelligent autonomous systems. Then we propose a knowledge taxonomy, based on semiotic ideas, aiming at a tool to understand the information domain of intelligent autonomous systems. Further, we

  18. Microbial methanogenesis in subsurface oil and coal.

    PubMed

    Meslé, Margaux; Dromart, Gilles; Oger, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    It is now clear that active methanogens are present in the deep-subsurface. This paper reviews microbial population structures and the biodegradation of organic compounds to methane in situ within oil reservoirs and coal deposits. It summarizes our current knowledge of methanogenes and methanogenesis, fermenters, synthrophs and microbial metabolism of complex organic compounds in these two widely occurring organic-rich subsurface environments. This review is not intended to be an exhaustive report of microbial diversity. Rather, it illustrates the similarities and differences between the two environments with specific examples, from the nature of the organic molecules to the methanogenic metabolic pathways and the structure of the microbial populations to demonstrate that widely diverging microbial populations show surprisingly similar metabolic capabilities. PMID:23872511

  19. Spreadsheet log analysis in subsurface geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doveton, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the direct knowledge of the geology of the subsurface is gained from the examination of core and drill-cuttings recovered from boreholes drilled by the petroleum and water industries. Wireline logs run in these same boreholes generally have been restricted to tasks of lithostratigraphic correlation and thee location of hydrocarbon pay zones. However, the range of petrophysical measurements has expanded markedly in recent years, so that log traces now can be transformed to estimates of rock composition. Increasingly, logs are available in a digital format that can be read easily by a desktop computer and processed by simple spreadsheet software methods. Taken together, these developments offer accessible tools for new insights into subsurface geology that complement the traditional, but limited, sources of core and cutting observations.

  20. Subsurface contamination monitoring using laser fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Balshaw-Biddle, K.; Oubre, C.L.; Ward, C.H. [eds.] [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Kenny, J.E.; Pepper, J.W.; Wright, A.O.; Chen, Y.M. [Tufts Univ., MA (United States); Shelton, C.G. [Shell Research, Ltd. (United States)

    1999-11-01

    While innovative technologies in remediation need to be developed, so do innovative ways of site assessment. This monograph describes the development, testing, and performance of a new laser-induced fluorescence soil probe. A screening tool for site characterization, this probe has the potential to provide an economical, rapid assessment of contaminated sites. Cone Penetrometer testing equipment advances the probe into the subsurface. The probe identifies hydrocarbon classes using a multi-channel excitation-emission matrix. This technique facilitates the collection of significant amounts of subsurface information--surpassing conventional data collection methods--that can be used to rapidly identify areas of concern beneath a site. The technology has significant application for the following: rapid environmental site assessment; monitoring remediation programs; and monitoring manufacturing processes and industrial waste water operations.

  1. Modeling gas transport in the Martian subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloesener, Elodie; Karatekin, Özgür; Dehant, Véronique

    2015-04-01

    Modeling gas transport through Martian subsurface and outgassing processes is essential in the study of atmospheric evolution of Mars. We present an overview of gas transport in Martian soil focusing on water vapor and methane diffusion to explain the recent observations of methane in Martian atmosphere with a diffusive transport model. The range of parameters that have the largest effect on transport in Martian conditions is investigated. Among the possible sources of methane, clathrate hydrates destabilization is one potential mechanism. Hydrate stability zone in subsurface is also investigated. In 2016, ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) will have the capabilities to detect and characterize trace gases in Martian atmosphere and will bring additional information to validate the different possible outgassing scenarios.

  2. Magnetic Polarity Streams and Subsurface Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, R.; Baker, D.; Harra, L.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Komm, R.; Hill, F.; González Hernández, I.

    2013-12-01

    An important feature of the solar cycle is the transport of unbalanced magnetic flux from active regions towards the poles, which eventually results in polarity reversal. This transport takes the form of distinct “polarity streams” that are visible in the magnetic butterfly diagram. We compare the poleward migration rate estimated from such streams to that derived from the subsurface meridional flows measured in helioseismic data from the GONG network since 2001, and find that the results are in reasonable agreement.

  3. Radionuclide Sensors for Subsurface Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy DeVol

    2006-06-30

    Contamination of the subsurface by radionuclides is a persistent and vexing problem for the Department of Energy. These radionuclides must be measured in field studies and monitoed in the long term when they cannot be removed. However, no radionuclide sensors existed for groundwater monitoring prior to this team's research under the EMSP program Detection of a and b decays from radionuclides in water is difficult due to their short ranges in condensed media.

  4. Episodic Particle Dynamics in the Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, J. R.; Mays, D. C.

    2001-12-01

    Particles exist in the subsurface suspended in water and attached to solid surfaces. Models for particle deposition in the subsurface have largely adopted clean bed filtration conditions of constant flow rate, homogeneous porous media, and minimal particle accumulation on the solid surfaces. On the other hand,actual porous and fractured media have particles interacting with already deposited particles. These interactions result in porous, fragile deposits, which are subjected to hydrodynamic and chemical forces from episodic wetting fronts, changes in seasonal flow rates and water chemistry, pumping induced stresses near well bores, and shocks associated with explosions and earthquakes. Empirical evidence is summarized from the literature on deep-bed filtration for water treatment, colloidal release associated with groundwater sampling, water level fluctuations following explosions, earthquake induced changes in spring flow, well levels and streamflows, and groundwater turbidity following earthquakes. These observations suggest that particles in the colloidal size range can undergo erosion and deposition leading to an order of magnitude change in local permeability. Erosion can instantly increase the permeability while formation clogging can take from days to years depending upon local conditions. Models for particle and associated contaminant transport should account for the episodic nature of the forces controlling particle dynamics. Steady state flow models are unlikely to have predictive capability under natural subsurface conditions as needed in understanding waste isolation, pathogen mobility and regional groundwater flow.

  5. Resonant seismic emission of subsurface objects

    SciTech Connect

    Korneev, Valeri A.

    2009-04-15

    Numerical modeling results and field data indicate that some contrasting subsurface objects (such as tunnels, caves, pipes, filled pits, and fluid-filled fractures) are capable of generating durable resonant oscillations after trapping seismic energy. These oscillations consist of surface types of circumferential waves that repeatedly propagate around the object. The resonant emission of such trapped energy occurs primarily in the form of shear body waves that can be detected by remotely placed receivers. Resonant emission reveals itself in the form of sharp resonant peaks for the late parts of the records, when all strong direct and primary reflected waves are gone. These peaks were observed in field data for a buried barrel filled with water, in 2D finite-difference modeling results, and in the exact canonical solution for a fluid-filled sphere. A computed animation for the diffraction of a plane wave upon a low-velocity elastic sphere confirms the generation of resonances by durable surface waves. Resonant emission has characteristic quasi-hyperbolic traveltime patterns on shot gathers. The inversion of these patterns can be performed in the frequency domain after muting the strong direct and primary scattered waves. Subsurface objects can be detected and imaged at a single resonance frequency without an accurate knowledge of source trigger time. The imaging of subsurface objects requires information about the shear velocity distribution in an embedding medium, which can be done interactively during inversion.

  6. Monitoring Subsurface Objects Using Resonant Seismic Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinov, V.; Korneev, V.

    2008-12-01

    The numerical modeling results and field data indicate that some contrast subsurface objects (such as tunnels, caves, pipes, filled pits, and fluid-filled fractures) are capable to trap seismic energy and generate durable resonant oscillations. These oscillations are comprised of surface types of circumferential waves which multiply rotate around the object. Resonant emission of such trapped energy occurs primarily in form of shear body waves that can be detected by remotely placed receivers. Resonant emission reveals itself in form of sharp resonant peaks for the late parts of the records, when all strong direct and primary reflected waves are gone. These peaks are observed in the field data for a buried barrel filled with water, in 2D finite- difference modeling results and in exact canonical solution for a fluid-filled sphere. Computed movie for diffraction of a plane wave upon low-velocity elastic sphere confirms generation of resonances by durable surface waves. We show that resonant emission has characteristic quasi-hyperbolic travel-time patterns on shot-gathers. Inversion of these patterns can be performed in frequency domain after muting strong direct and primary scattered waves. Subsurface objects can be detected and imaged at a single resonance frequency without an accurate knowledge about source trigger time. Imaging of subsurface objects requires information about shear velocity distribution in an embedding medium, which can be done interactively during inversion. Resonant emission data processing is done using KinetiK Professional visualization and processing software.

  7. AARD - Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewers, Dick

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration program, and NASA Dryden's work in the program. The primary goal of the program is to make one fully automatic probe-to-drogue engagement using the AARD system. There are pictures of the aircraft approaching to the docking.

  8. Structured control for autonomous robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reid G. Simmons

    1994-01-01

    To operate in rich, dynamic environments, autonomous robots must be able to effectively utilize and coordinate their limited physical and computational resources. As complexity increases, it becomes necessary to impose explicit constraints on the control of planning, perception, and action to ensure that unwanted interactions between behaviors do not occur. This paper advocates developing complex robot systems by layering reactive

  9. Integrating Autonomous Heterogeneous Information Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rex Jakobovits

    1997-01-01

    this paper, most attempts at implementing a multidatabase system have had their handsfull dealing with the heterogeneities of much simpler domains. This is crossoverresearch, combining complex data type management with integration issues [SSU96].This paper is a survey of the existing computer science research approaches to achievinginteroperability between autonomous heterogeneous data sources.B. Schematic Conflicts

  10. Intrusion detection using autonomous agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene H. Spafford; Diego Zamboni

    2000-01-01

    AAFID is a distributed intrusion detection architecture and system, developed in CERIAS at Purdue University. AAFID was the first architecture that proposed the use of autonomous agents for doing intrusion detection. With its prototype implementation, it constitutes a useful framework for the research and testing of intrusion detection algo- rithms and mechanisms. We describe the AAFID architecture and the existing

  11. Simulated Visual Perception for Autonomous

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Flower; Burkhard Wünsche; Werner Guesgen

    As the number of robots in the world increases, from automatic vacuum cleaners, to toy robot dogs, to autonomous vehicles for the military, the need for effective algorithms to control these agents is becoming increasingly more important. Conventional path finding techniques have relied on having a representation of the world that could be analysed mathematically to find the best path.

  12. An Autonomous Reliabilit Cloud Comput

    E-print Network

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    An Autonomous Reliabilit Ami Cloud Comput Department of Computing and Informa Abstract--Cloud computing paradigm allo based access to computing and storages s Internet. Since with advances of Cloud. Keywords- Cloud computing; SLA negotiat I. INTRODUCTION Cloud computing has transferred the services

  13. Towards an Autonomic Computing Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy Sterritt; David W. Bustard

    2003-01-01

    Autonomic Computing is a promising new concept in system development. It aims to (i) increase reliability by designing systems to be self-protecting and self-healing; and (ii) increase autonomy and performance by enabling systems to adapt to changing circumstances, using self-configuring and self-optimizing mechanisms. This paper discusses the type of system architecture needed to support such objectives.

  14. Towards Autonomously-Powered CRFIDs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shane S. Clark; Jeremy Gummeson; Kevin Fu; Deepak Ganesan

    Batteryless Computational RFID (CRFID) devices pres- ent exciting possibilities for ubiquitous computing ap- plications. Theyrequireminimalmaintenance, arecheap to manufacture, and have small form factors. However, CRFIDs lack autonomy because of the need for constant power from an RFID reader—hindering deployment. In this paper, we propose hybrid power harvesting tech- niques as a mechanism for designing autonomous CR- FIDs. We show that

  15. Autonomous ground vehicle path tracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Wit; Carl D. Crane III; David G. Armstrong II

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous ground vehicle navigation requires the integration of many technologies such as path planning, position and orientation sensing, vehicle control, and obstacle avoidance. The work presented here focuses on the control of a nonholonomic ground vehicle as it tracks a given path. A new path tracking technique called ''vector pursuit'' is presented. This new technique is based on the theory

  16. Autonomic Computing: Freedom or a Threat?

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Frincke, Deb

    2007-12-01

    No longer is the question whether autonomic computing will gain general acceptance but when. Experts expect autonomic computing to be widely used within 10 years. When it does become mainstream, how will autonomics change system administration and corporations, and will the change be for better or worse? The answer depends on how well we anticipate the limitations of what autonomic systems are suited to do, whether we can collectively address the vulnerabilities of autonomic approaches as we draw upon the advantages, and whether administrators, companies, partners, and users are prepared for the transition. This article presents some design considerations to address the first two issues and some suggested survival techniques for the third.

  17. Towards Autonomic ComputingTowards Autonomic ComputingTowards Autonomic Computing Alexander V. Konstantinou

    E-print Network

    Yemini, Yechiam

    functions at design time Change propagation model, language, and analysis Autonomic platform prototype Processes & architecture to effect knowledge Safety & security CISCO SNMPAccess Protocol Fault Analysis IP element & manager language NtpService boolean enabled long reqCount Socket sock JSpoon Runtime JVM Ntp

  18. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, Walter S., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

  19. Crystal structure of laser-induced subsurface modifications in Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verburg, P. C.; Smillie, L. A.; Römer, G. R. B. E.; Haberl, B.; Bradby, J. E.; Williams, J. S.; Huis in't Veld, A. J.

    2015-06-01

    Laser-induced subsurface modification of dielectric materials is a well-known technology. Applications include the production of optical components and selective etching. In addition to dielectric materials, the subsurface modification technology can be applied to silicon, by employing near to mid-infrared radiation. An application of subsurface modifications in silicon is laser-induced subsurface separation, which is a method to separate wafers into individual dies. Other applications for which proofs of concept exist are the formation of waveguides and resistivity tuning. However, limited knowledge is available about the crystal structure of subsurface modifications in silicon. In this work, we investigate the geometry and crystal structure of laser-induced subsurface modifications in monocrystalline silicon wafers. In addition to the generation of lattice defects, we found that transformations to amorphous silicon and Siuc(-iii)/Siuc(-xii) occur as a result of the laser irradiation.

  20. Subsurface Tectonics and Pingos of Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skirvin, S.; Casavant, R.; Burr, D.

    2008-12-01

    We describe preliminary results of a two-phase study that investigated links between subsurface structural and stratigraphic controls, and distribution of hydrostatic pingos on the central coastal plain of Arctic Alaska. Our 2300 km2 study area is underlain by a complete petroleum system that supports gas, oil and water production from 3 of the largest oil fields in North America. In addition, gas hydrate deposits exist in this area within and just below the permafrost interval at depths of 600 to 1800 feet below sea level. Phase 1 of the study compared locations of subsurface faults and pingos for evidence of linkages between faulting and pingo genesis and distribution. Several hundred discrete fault features were digitized from published data and georeferenced in a GIS database. Fault types were determined by geometry and sense of slip derived from well log and seismic maps. More than 200 pingos and surface sediment type associated with their locations were digitized from regional surficial geology maps within an area that included wire line and seismic data coverage. Beneath the pingos lies an assemblage of high-angle normal and transtensional faults that trend NNE and NW; subsidiary trends are EW and NNW. Quaternary fault reactivation is evidenced by faults that displaced strata at depths exceeding 3000 meters below sea level and intersect near-surface units. Unpublished seismic images and cross-section analysis support this interpretation. Kinematics and distribution of reactivated faults are linked to polyphase deformational history of the region that includes Mesozoic rift events, succeeded by crustal shortening and uplift of the Brooks Range to the south, and differential subsidence and segmentation of a related foreland basin margin beneath the study area. Upward fluid migration, a normal process in basin formation and fault reactivation, may play yet unrecognized roles in the genesis (e.g. fluid charging) of pingos and groundwater hydrology. Preliminary analysis shows that more than half the pingos occur within 150 m of the vertical projections of subsurface fault plane traces. In a previous, unpublished geostatistical study, comparison of pingo and random locations indicated a non-random NE-trending alignment of pingos. This trend in particular matches the dominant orientation of fault sets that are linked to the most recent tectonic deformation of the region. A concurrent Phase 2 of the study examines the potential role of near-surface stratigraphic units in regard to both pingos and faults. Both surface and subsurface coarse-grained deposits across the region are often controlled by fault structures; this study is the first to assess any relationship between reservoir rocks and pingo locations. Cross-sections were constructed from well log data to depths of 100 meters. Subsurface elements were compared with surface features. Although some studies have linked fine-grained surface sediments with pingo occurrence, our analysis hints that coarse-grained sediments underlie pingos and may be related to near-surface fluid transmissivity, as suggested by other researchers. We also investigated pingo occurrence in relationship to upthrown or downthrown fault blocks that vary in the degree of deformation and fluid transmission. Results will guide a proposed pingo drilling project to test linkages between pingos, subsurface geology, hydrology, and petroleum systems. Findings from this study could aid research and planning for field exploration of similar settings on Earth and Mars.

  1. Phylogenetic characterization of bacteria in the subsurface microbial culture collection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L Balkwill; Robert H Reeves; Gwendolyn R Drake; Jane Y Reeves; Fiona H Crocker; Melody Baldwin King; David R Boone

    1997-01-01

    The Subsurface Microbial Culture Collection (SMCC) was established by the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) and contains nearly 10,000 strains of microorganisms (mostly bacteria) isolated from terrestrial subsurface environments. Selected groups of bacterial isolates from three sample sites situated above geochemically and hydrologically different subsurface environments have been characterized by phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene nucleotide sequences.

  2. Simulating the fate of subsurface-banded urea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Shah; M. L. Wolfe

    2004-01-01

    Compared to surface broadcasting of nitrogen (N), subsurface-banding increases crop yield and N removal, reducing the N amount available for loss into the environment. Subsurface banding results in two-dimensional (2-D) N movement and high localized N concentrations that reduce N transformation rates. A physically-based, field-scale model was developed and tested for its ability to simulate the fate of subsurface-banded N.

  3. Detection of subsurface defects using laser based technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kromine, A. K.; Fomitchov, P. A.; Krishnaswamy, S.; Achenbach, J. D.

    2001-04-01

    The Scanning Laser Source (SLS) technique for the detection of sub-surface defects is presented. This approach monitors the changes in the time and frequency domain signals of laser generated ultrasound resulting from the changed conditions under which the ultrasound is generated over areas with and without defects. Results are presented for detection of small sub-surface defects using a fiberized laser based system. The SLS technique allows detection of subsurface defects smaller than the ultrasonic wavelength.

  4. Tree Distributions, Subsurface Characteristics and Nitrogen Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, L.; Wallace, M. C.; Brush, G.

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the connection between vegetation and geologic, soil and hydrologic subsurface characteristics of a natural deciduous forest in Oregon Ridge Park, located in the Piedmont physiographic province in Maryland, USA. A preliminary study showed the relationship between nitrogen cycling and four different species occurring on a coarse grained schist and a fine grained schist. Mineralization values for Liriodendon tulipifera were positive on the coarser grained substrate and negative on the fine grained substrate. Nitrification values were positive on both substrates. Mineralization and nitrification values were both positive for Quercus prinus on both the coarse and fine substrates. Mineralization values for Acer rubrum were negative on the coarse substrate and positive on the finer substrate, while mineralization for Quercus rubra was negative on the coarse substrate and positive on the fine schist. Nitrification was positive for Q. rubra on the coarse schist and both positive and negative on the fine schist. Resistivity analyses were performed in collaboration with the Wyoming Center for Environmental Hydrology and Geophysics (WyCEHG) along two perpendicular transects at the study site. This analysis provides indirect information on subsurface conductivity, with low resistivity being interpreted as subsurface water or clay. One transect crossed a valley with a first-order stream in the center, while the second transect was taken along the break and slope of the hillslope. All trees were identified and diameter at breast height (DBH) measured in sixty-three randomly located plots along both transects. A principle components analysis of all tree data showed four associations of species. The plots were labelled as to association. The position of the associations along the transects show a relationship between wet, dry and mesic associations with differences in transect resistivity.

  5. Nonisothermal multiphase subsurface transport on parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.J.; Hopkins, P.L.; Shadid, J.N.

    1997-10-01

    We present a numerical method for nonisothermal, multiphase subsurface transport in heterogeneous porous media. The mathematical model considers nonisothermal two-phase (liquid/gas) flow, including capillary pressure effects, binary diffusion in the gas phase, conductive, latent, and sensible heat transport. The Galerkin finite element method is used for spatial discretization, and temporal integration is accomplished via a predictor/corrector scheme. Message-passing and domain decomposition techniques are used for implementing a scalable algorithm for distributed memory parallel computers. An illustrative application is shown to demonstrate capabilities and performance.

  6. Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); McKinzie, II. Billy John (Houston, TX)

    2009-08-18

    A system for monitoring temperature of a subsurface low temperature zone is described. The system includes a plurality of freeze wells configured to form the low temperature zone, one or more lasers, and a fiber optic cable coupled to at least one laser. A portion of the fiber optic cable is positioned in at least one freeze well. At least one laser is configured to transmit light pulses into a first end of the fiber optic cable. An analyzer is coupled to the fiber optic cable. The analyzer is configured to receive return signals from the light pulses.

  7. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1991-06-01

    This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

  8. Subsurface near-field scanning tomography.

    PubMed

    Gaikovich, K P

    2007-05-01

    The scanning tomography method is developed for electromagnetic sounding of a 3D structure of an inhomogeneous dielectric half-space. It is shown that known methods of physical diagnostics are suitable for this tomography with the depth of analysis from nanometers at optical frequencies up to several kilometers at ultralow frequencies. The areas of application include nanophysics, biological and medical diagnostics, subsurface remote sensing in geophysics and geology, etc. This approach is realized in the microwave scanning tomography of living tissues where a subwavelength resolution is achieved. PMID:17501576

  9. Surface modification by subsurface pressure induced diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, Claus G. [EADS Astrium, 81663 Munich (Germany)

    2012-01-23

    Polycrystalline Ag, covered with a nm thin siloxane layer, was irradiated with ultraviolet light in vacuum at 500 K. Ag particles of different aspect ratios, 50-1000 nm in size, formed on the surface, including a small fraction of nanorods. Pressurized water vapor bubbles are created in the subsurface region by hydrogen radicals photo-chemically released by the siloxane layer. They provide the driving force for a diffusive material flux along grain boundaries to the surface. This mechanism was modeled and found to agree with the experimental timescale: approximately 300 h are required for a 1000 nm particle to form.

  10. Modeling subsurface stormflow initiation in low-relief landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, Luisa; Vaché, Kellie B.; Rhett Jackson, C.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2015-04-01

    Shallow lateral subsurface flow as a runoff generating mechanism at the hillslope scale has mostly been studied in steeper terrain with typical hillside angles of 10 - 45 degrees. These studies have shown that subsurface stormflow is often initiated at the interface between a permeable upper soil layer and a lower conductivity impeding layer, e.g. a B horizon or bedrock. Many studies have identified thresholds of event size and soil moisture states that need to be exceeded before subsurface stormflow is initiated. However, subsurface stormflow generation on low-relief hillslopes has been much less studied. Here we present a modeling study that investigates the initiation of subsurface stormflow on low-relief hillslopes in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. Hillslopes in this region typically have slope angles of 2-5 degrees. Topsoils are sandy, underlain by a low-conductivity sandy clay loam Bt horizon. Subsurface stormflow has only been intercepted occasionally in a 120 m long trench, and often subsurface flow was not well correlated with stream signals, suggesting a disconnect between subsurface flow on the hillslopes and stream flow. We therefore used a hydrologic model to better understand which conditions promote the initiation of subsurface flow in this landscape, addressing following questions: Is there a threshold event size and soil moisture state for producing lateral subsurface flow? What role does the spatial pattern of depth to the impeding clay layer play for subsurface stormflow dynamics? We reproduced a section of a hillslope, for which high-resolution topographic data and depth to clay measurements were available, in the hydrologic model HYDRUS-3D. Soil hydraulic parameters were based on experimentally-derived data. The threshold analysis was first performed using hourly climate data records for 2009-2010 from the study site to drive the simulation. For this period also trench measurements of subsurface flow were available. In addition, we also ran a longer-term simulation, using daily climate data for a nine year period to include more variable climate conditions in the threshold analysis. The model captured the observed subsurface flow instances very well. The threshold analysis indicated that the occurrence of subsurface stormflow uncommon, with a large proportion of the water perching above the clay layer percolating vertically into the clay layer. Event sizes of approximately 70-80 mm were required for initiating subsurface stormflow. The hourly data from 2009-2010 was subsequently used to test if the actual spatial distribution of depth to clay is a major control for the occurrence and magnitude of lateral subsurface flow. Results suggest that in this low-relief landscape also a spatially uniform mean depth to clay reproduces well the hydrologic behavior.

  11. Autonomous Robotic Vehicle Road Following

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darwin T. Kuan; Gary Phipps; A.-CHUAN HSUEH

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of the system architecture of an autonomous vehicle and its real-time adaptive vision system for road-following. The vehicle is a 10-ton armored personnel carrier modified for robotic control. A color transformation that best discriminates road and nonroad regions is derived from labeled data samples. A maximum-likelihood pixel classification technique is then used to classify pixels in

  12. Autonomous Optimization of Business Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Kress; Detlef Seese

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a In this paper we introduce the intelligent Executable Product Model (iEPM) approach for the autonomous optimization of service\\u000a industry’s business processes. Instead of using a process model, we use an Executable Product Model (EPM). EPMs provide a\\u000a compact representation of the set of possible execution paths of a business process by defining information dependencies instead\\u000a of the order of activities.

  13. Autonomous Generator for Technical Oxygen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Rosca; V. Stanciu; V. Cimpoiasu; R. Scorei; D. Rosca

    2004-01-01

    The Autonomous Generator of Technical Oxygen(AGTO)has been achieved at ICMET Craiova, in cooperation with ICSI Rm. Valcea. It represents a product finalizing a scientific research theme financed by the romanian Ministry of Education and Research.The AGTO is intended to the brazing, welding and oxygas flame cutting processes, technical fields which can be actually found in all industrial applications. The presented

  14. Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Bordano; G. G. McSwain; S. T. Fernandes

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) Bridging program is reviewed to demonstrate the program plan and GN&C systems for the Space Shuttle. The ascent CN&C system is described in terms of elements such as the general-purpose digital computers, sensors for the navigation subsystem, the guidance-system software, and the flight-control subsystem. Balloon-based and lidar wind soundings are used for

  15. Autonomic cardiovascular regulation in obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Laederach-Hofmann; L Mussgay

    2000-01-01

    Obese persons suffer from an increased mortality risk supposedly due to cardiovascular disorders related to either continuously lowered parasympathetic or altered sympa- thetic activation. Our cross-sectional correlation study establishes the relationship between obesity and autonomic regulation as well as salivary cortisol levels. Three patient cohorts were sampled, covering ranges of body mass index (BMI) of 27-32 (n=17), 33-39 (n=13) and

  16. Towards Autonomic Service Provisioning Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Mazzucco

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses our experience in building SPIRE, an autonomic system\\u000afor service provision. The architecture consists of a set of hosted Web\\u000aServices subject to QoS constraints, and a certain number of servers used to\\u000arun session-based traffic. Customers pay for having their jobs run, but require\\u000ain turn certain quality guarantees: there are different SLAs specifying charges\\u000afor

  17. Integrated System for Autonomous Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Robert; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Castano, Rebecca; Rabideau, Gregg; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Shulman, Seth; Doggett, Thomas; Ip, Felipe; Greeley, Ron; Baker, Victor; Dohn, James; Boyer, Darrell

    2006-01-01

    The New Millennium Program Space Technology 6 Project Autonomous Sciencecraft software implements an integrated system for autonomous planning and execution of scientific, engineering, and spacecraft-coordination actions. A prior version of this software was reported in "The TechSat 21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment" (NPO-30784), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 3 (March 2004), page 33. This software is now in continuous use aboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) spacecraft mission and is being adapted for use in the Mars Odyssey and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. This software enables EO-1 to detect and respond to such events of scientific interest as volcanic activity, flooding, and freezing and thawing of water. It uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect changes, including events of scientific interest. Detection of such events triggers acquisition of follow-up imagery. The mission-planning component of the software develops a response plan that accounts for visibility of targets and operational constraints. The plan is then executed under control by a task-execution component of the software that is capable of responding to anomalies.

  18. Autonomic Computing: Panacea or Poppycock?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Autonomic Computing arose out of a need for a means to cope with rapidly growing complexity of integrating, managing, and operating computer-based systems as well as a need to reduce the total cost of ownership of today's systems. Autonomic Computing (AC) as a discipline was proposed by IBM in 2001, with the vision to develop self-managing systems. As the name implies, the influence for the new paradigm is the human body's autonomic system, which regulates vital bodily functions such as the control of heart rate, the body's temperature and blood flow-all without conscious effort. The vision is to create selfivare through self-* properties. The initial set of properties, in terms of objectives, were self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protecting, along with attributes of self-awareness, self-monitoring and self-adjusting. This self-* list has grown: self-anticipating, self-critical, self-defining, self-destructing, self-diagnosis, self-governing, self-organized, self-reflecting, and self-simulation, for instance.

  19. Land uplift due to subsurface fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, Pietro; Gambolati, Giuseppe; Ferronato, Massimiliano; Settari, A. (Tony); Walters, Dale

    2011-01-01

    The subsurface injection of fluid (water, gas, vapour) occurs worldwide for a variety of purposes, e.g. to enhance oil production (EOR), store gas in depleted gas/oil fields, recharge overdrafted aquifer systems (ASR), and mitigate anthropogenic land subsidence. Irrespective of the injection target, some areas have experienced an observed land uplift ranging from a few millimetres to tens of centimetres over a time period of a few months to several years depending on the quantity and spatial distribution of the fluid used, pore pressure increase, geological setting (depth, thickness, and area extent), and hydro-geomechanical properties of the injected formation. The present paper reviews the fundamental geomechanical processes that govern land upheaval due to fluid injection in the subsurface and presents a survey of some interesting examples of anthropogenic uplift measured in the past by the traditional levelling technique and in recent times with the aid of satellite technology. The examples addressed include Long Beach, Santa Clara Valley, and Santa Ana basin, California; Las Vegas Valley, Nevada; Cold Lake and other similar sites, Canada; Tokyo and Osaka, Japan; Taipei, Taiwan; Krechba, Algeria; Upper Palatinate, Germany; Chioggia and Ravenna, Italy.

  20. Human utilization of subsurface extraterrestrial environments.

    PubMed

    Boston, P J; Frederick, R D; Welch, S M; Werker, J; Meyer, T R; Sprungman, B; Hildreth-Werker, V; Thompson, S L; Murphy, D L

    2003-06-01

    Caves have been used in the ancient past as shelter or habitat by many organisms (including humans). Since antiquity, humans have explored caves for the minerals they contain and sometimes for ceremonial purposes. Over the past century, caves have become the target of increasing exploration, scientific research, and recreation. The use of caves on extraterrestrial bodies for human habitation has been suggested by several investigators. Lunar lava tube bases received early attention because lava tubes were clearly visible in lunar images from the Apollo Era. More recently, Mars Observer Camera data has shown us clear evidence of large tubes visible in a number of volcanic regions on Mars. The budding field of cave geomicrobiology has direct application to questions about subsurface life on other planets. Caves contain many unusual organisms making their living from unlikely materials like manganese, iron, and sulfur. This makes caves and other subsurface habitats prime targets for astrobiological missions to Mars and possibly other bodies. We present the results of a completed Phase I and on-going Phase II NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) study that intensively examines the possibilities of using extraterrestrial caves as both a resource for human explorers and as a highly promising scientific target for both robotic and future human missions to Mars and beyond. PMID:12959139

  1. Phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microorganisms. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.

    1991-12-31

    This project involves the development of group specific 16S ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the rapid detection of specific types of subsurface organisms (e.g., groups of microbes that share certain physiological traits). Major accomplishments for the period of 6/91 to 12/1/91 are described. Nine new probes have been synthesized on the basis of published 16S rRNA sequence data from the Ribosomal Database Project. We have initiated rapid screening of many of the subsurface microbial isolates obtained from the P24 borehole at the Savannah River Site. To date, we have screened approximately 50% of the isolates from P24. We have optimized our {und in situ} hybridization technique, and have developed a cell blot hybridization technique to screen 96 samples on a single blot. This is much faster than reading 96 individual slides. Preliminary experiments have been carried out which indicate specific nutrients can be used to amplify rRNA only in those organisms capable of metabolizing those nutrients. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  2. Modeling the Subsurface Structure of Sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, H.; Baldner, C.; Birch, A. C.; Braun, D. C.; Cameron, R. H.; Duvall, T. L.; Gizon, L.; Haber, D.; Hanasoge, S. M.; Hindman, B. W.; Jackiewicz, J.; Khomenko, E.; Komm, R.; Rajaguru, P.; Rempel, M.; Roth, M.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Schunker, H.; Spruit, H. C.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Thompson, M. J.; Zharkov, S.

    2010-11-01

    While sunspots are easily observed at the solar surface, determining their subsurface structure is not trivial. There are two main hypotheses for the subsurface structure of sunspots: the monolithic model and the cluster model. Local helioseismology is the only means by which we can investigate subphotospheric structure. However, as current linear inversion techniques do not yet allow helioseismology to probe the internal structure with sufficient confidence to distinguish between the monolith and cluster models, the development of physically realistic sunspot models are a priority for helioseismologists. This is because they are not only important indicators of the variety of physical effects that may influence helioseismic inferences in active regions, but they also enable detailed assessments of the validity of helioseismic interpretations through numerical forward modeling. In this article, we provide a critical review of the existing sunspot models and an overview of numerical methods employed to model wave propagation through model sunspots. We then carry out a helioseismic analysis of the sunspot in Active Region 9787 and address the serious inconsistencies uncovered by Gizon et al. (2009a, 2009). We find that this sunspot is most probably associated with a shallow, positive wave-speed perturbation (unlike the traditional two-layer model) and that travel-time measurements are consistent with a horizontal outflow in the surrounding moat.

  3. Calcium Carbonate Precipitation by Ureolytic Subsurface Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Y.; Colwell, Frederick Scott; Smith, Robert William; Ferris, F. G.; Lawson, R. L.

    2000-10-01

    Coprecipitation in carbonate minerals offers a means of slowing the transport of divalent radionuclides and contaminant metals (e.g.,90Sr2+, UO2+, Co2+) in the subsurface. It may be possible to accelerate this process by stimulating the native microbial community to generate chemical conditions favoring carbonate precipitation. In a preliminary evaluation of this approach, we investigated the ability of ureolytic subsurface bacteria to produce alkaline conditions conducive to calcium carbonate precipitation. Groundwater samples from the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer in Idaho were screened for urea-hydrolyzing microorganisms; three isolates were selected for further evaluation. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that two of the ESRP isolates were of the genus Pseudomonas , and the other was a Variovorax sp. The specific urease activities of the ESRP isolates appeared to be similar to each other but less than that of Bacillus pasteurii , a known urease-positive organism. However, calcium carbonate was rapidly precipitated in all cultures that were supplied with urea and calcium, and X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that calcite was always the predominant carbonate polymorph produced. The correspondence between measured calcium concentrations and equilibrium predictions suggested that the rate of calcite precipitation was directly linked to the rate of urea hydrolysis. These results are promising with respect to the potential utility of this approach for in situ remediation and indicate that further evaluation of this approach under conditions more closely simulating environmental conditions is warranted.

  4. The subsurface of Pluto from submillimetre observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, J. S.; Whitelaw, A. C. M.; Bendo, G. J.

    2015-04-01

    Surface areas on Pluto change in brightness and colour, at optical to infrared wavelengths, over time-scales as short as years. The subsurface contains a reservoir of frozen volatiles, but little is known about it because Pluto is out of reach for cm-radar. Here we present a 0.85 mm wavelength light curve of the Pluto system, from archival data taken in 1997 August with the SCUBA (Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array) camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). This wavelength probes for the first time to just below the skin depth of thermal changes over Pluto's day. The light curve differs significantly from counterparts in the mid- to far-infrared, in a longitude range that is optically dark on Pluto's surface. An estimate from Herschel of the 0.5 mm flux in 2012 is comparable to the mean 0.45 mm flux from SCUBA in 1997, suggesting that layers centimetres below the surface have not undergone any gross temperature change. The longitudes that are relatively submillimetre-faint could have a different emissivity, perhaps with a subsurface layer richer in nitrogen or methane ices than at the surface. The Radio Science Experiment (REX) instrument on New Horizons may be able to constrain physical properties deeper down, as it looks back on Pluto's nightside after the 2015 July flyby.

  5. Method and apparatus for subsurface exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A subsurface explorer (SSX) for exploring beneath the terrestrial surface of planetary bodies such as the Earth, Mars, or comets. This exploration activity utilizes appropriate sensors and instrument to evaluate the composition, structure, mineralogy and possibly biology of the subsurface medium, as well as perhaps the ability to return samples of that medium back to the surface. The vehicle comprises an elongated skin or body having a front end and a rear end, with a nose piece at the front end for imparting force to composition material of the planetary body. Force is provided by a hammer mechanism to the back side of a nose piece from within the body of the vehicle. In the preferred embodiment, a motor spins an intermediate shaft having two non-uniform threads along with a hammer which engages these threads with two conical rollers. A brake assembly halts the rotation of the intermediate shaft, causing the conical roller to spin down the non-uniform thread to rapidly and efficiently convert the rotational kinetic energy of the hammer into translational energy.

  6. The EO-1 Autonomous Science Agent Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Lee, Rachel; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Hengemihle, Jerry; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Ungar, Stephen; Brakke, Thomas; Boyer, Darrell; Van Gaasbeck, Jim; Greeley, Ronald; Doggett, Thomas; Baker, Victor; Dohm, James; Ip, Felipe

    2004-01-01

    An Autonomous Science Agent is currently flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and respond to science events occurring on the Earth. The package includes software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. Because of the deployment to a remote spacecraft, this Autonomous Science Agent has stringent constraints of autonomy, reliability, and limited computing resources. We describe these constraints and how they are reflected in our agent architecture.

  7. The Nautilus-Sub Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Eaton; Maurice Bobbitt; Melissa Reid; Garret Jarvis; Scott Frame; John Dowling; Mark Bloechl; Melody Mentzer; Rachid Manseur

    The Nautilus-Sub (NautaSub) Autonomous Underwater Vehicle is designed and developed by a group of undergraduate engineering students at the University of West Florida for the 5th International Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Competition organized and sponsored by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Office of Naval Research (ONR). The autonomous submarine has the ability to navigate in three

  8. Autonomic testing in healthy subjects – preliminary observations

    PubMed Central

    Chelimsky, Gisela; Ialacci, Sarah; Chelimsky, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic testing is used clinically. Yet, the prevalence of “abnormal” variants in the healthy population have not been reported. We report the results of autonomic testing in healthy females > 18 years, in whom we found decrease or absent sudomotor function in 1–2 locations. These findings should caution physicians in the interpretation of autonomic testing. This report underscores the need of larger studies to determine the prevalence of these findings PMID:23108501

  9. Drilling on the Moon and Mars: Developing the Science Approach for Subsurface Exploration with Human Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Zavaleta, J.; Bell, M.; Direto, S.; Foing, B.; Blake, D.; Kim, S.

    2010-01-01

    DOMEX (Drilling on the Moon and Mars in Human Exploration) is using analog missions to develop the approach for using human crews to perform science activities on the Moon and Mars involving exploration and sampling of the subsurface. Subsurface science is an important activity that may be uniquely enabled by human crews. DOMEX provides an opportunity to plan and execute planetary mission science activities without the expense and overhead of a planetary mission. Objectives: The objective of this first in a series of DOMEX missions were to 1) explore the regional area to understand the geologic context and determine stratigraphy and geologic history of various geologic units in the area. 2) Explore for and characterize sites for deploying a deep (10 m depth) drilling system in a subsequent field season. 3) Perform GPR on candidate drill sites. 4) Select sites that represent different geological units deposited in different epochs and collect soil cores using sterile procedures for mineralogical, organic and biological analysis. 5) Operate the MUM in 3 different sites representing different geological units and soil characteristics. 6) Collect rock and soil samples of sites visited and analyze them at the habitat. Results: At mission start the crew performed a regional survey to identify major geologic units that were correlated to recognized stratigraphy and regional geologic maps. Several candidate drill sites were identified. During the rest of the mission, successful GPR surveys were conducted in four locations. Soil cores were collected in 5 locations representing soils from 4 different geologic units, to depths up to 1m. Soil cores from two locations were analyzed with PCR in the laboratory. The remainder were reserved for subsequent analysis. XRD analysis was performed in the habitat and in the field on 39 samples, to assist with sample characterization, conservation, and archiving. MUM was deployed at 3 field locations and 1 test location (outside the habitat) where it operated autonomously for 2-4 hours at each site. Depths achieved ranged from 15 to 70 cm depending on the soil compressive strength and the presence and depth of subsurface indurated layers. Subsurface samples weighing 0.5 to 1 g were collected at the deepest depth encountered at each of the sites using the MUM automated sample collection system, and subsequently analyzed with XRD. Downhole inspection of holes produced by MUM with the Raman spectrometer was acquired on two of the holes and spectral features associated with selenite were identified in specific soil layers. Previously unreported fossilized remains of vertebrate fauna from the Jurassic era were discovered during our mission. Analysis of mineral biomarkers associated with this discovery are underway.

  10. General autonomic components of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Suter, Steve; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Naifeh, Karen

    1986-01-01

    This report refers to a body of investigations directed toward the examination of autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness. Heart rate, respiration rate, finger pulse volume, and basal skin resistance were measured on 127 men and women before, during, and after exposure to a nauseogenic rotating chair test. Significant changes in all autonomic responses were observed across the tests (p less than .05). Significant differences in autonomic responses among groups divided according to motion sickness susceptibility were also observed (p less than .05). Results suggest that the examination of autonomic responses as an objective indicator of motion sickness malaise is warranted and may contribute to the overall understanding of the syndrome.

  11. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrading, J. Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  12. Transportation Center Seminar... Envisioning Autonomous Vehicle Pathways through

    E-print Network

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Transportation Center Seminar... Envisioning Autonomous Vehicle Pathways through the Lens of Air Foster St., Evanston Abstract: Autonomous vehicles promise numerous transportation system benefits, from of autonomous vehicle technology showcased by numerous successful tests stands in contrast to the lagging

  13. Automated Coordinator Synthesis for Mission Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Ratnesh

    Automated Coordinator Synthesis for Mission Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles S autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) programs to meet evolving requirements and capabilities. The hierarchical architecture for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) that facilitates graphical design and code generation

  14. VECTOR PURSUIT PATH TRACKING FOR AUTONOMOUS GROUND VEHICLES

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    VECTOR PURSUIT PATH TRACKING FOR AUTONOMOUS GROUND VEHICLES By JEFFREY S. WIT A DISSERTATION. Special thanks go to Dr. Crane who gave the author the opportunity to work on the autonomous vehicle................................................................................11 Autonomous Ground Vehicle Applications

  15. A cloud-assisted design for autonomous driving

    E-print Network

    Suresh Kumar, Swarun

    This paper presents Carcel, a cloud-assisted system for autonomous driving. Carcel enables the cloud to have access to sensor data from autonomous vehicles as well as the roadside infrastructure. The cloud assists autonomous ...

  16. A Design Model for Subsurface Drip Irrigation in Arizona

    E-print Network

    Fay, Noah

    A Design Model for Subsurface Drip Irrigation in Arizona Michael Liga Advisor: Dr. Don Slack Biosystems Engineering University of Arizona #12;Water Issue Subsurface Drip Irrigation · Benefits ·Increased Drip Irrigation · Problems ·Determining appropriate depth and spacing of drip line ·Depth is of special

  17. Natural attenuation: What does the subsurface have in store?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilfred F. M. Röling; Henk W. van Verseveld

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the world, organic and inorganic substances leach intothe subsurface as a result of human activities and accidents. There, the chemicals pose director indirect threats to the environment and to increasingly scarce drinking water resources.At many contaminated sites the subsurface is able to attenuate pollutants which, potentially,lowers the costs of remediation. Natural attenuation comprises a wide range of processesof which

  18. Associations between seabirds and subsurface predators around Oahu, Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron J. Hebshi; David C. Duffy; K. David Hyrenbach

    2008-01-01

    Many species of tropical seabirds rely on subsurface predators such as tuna and dol- phins to drive prey close to the ocean's surface. We observed seabird foraging events from fishing vessels around the island of Oahu, Hawaii, to determine the prevalence and relative importance of different subsurface predators to seabird foraging. Sixty-nine seabird foraging events were observed, in 62 of

  19. Subsurface Mapping: A Question of Position and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellie, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the character and challenges inherent in the graphical portrayal of features in subsurface mapping. Subsurface structures are, by their nature, hidden and must be mapped based on drilling and/or geophysical data. Efficient use of graphical techniques is central to effectively communicating the results of expensive exploration…

  20. Temporal variability of nitrogen and phosphorus transport in subsurface drainage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface drainage is a necessity for crop production agriculture in humid climates with poorly drained soils. The Midwestern United States is the most productive agricultural area in the world. In excess of 20.6 million ha (37%) of the tillable acres in the Midwest are managed with subsurface tile...

  1. On Water Detection in the Martian Subsurface Using Sounding Radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Heggy; P. Paillou; G. Ruffie; J. M. Malezieux; F. Costard; G. Grandjean

    2001-01-01

    Several radar experiments are planned to map the martian subsurface down to several kilometers, searching for subsurface liquid water reservoirs, using different concepts and techniques, all based on the penetration property of radio frequency waves in arid soils. The penetration depth of low-frequency radar is mainly related to the electromagnetic properties of the investigated medium. Thus a good knowledge of

  2. Stability and exchange of subsurface ice on Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Schorghofer; Oded Aharonson

    2005-01-01

    We seek a better understanding of the distribution of subsurface ice on Mars, based on the physical processes governing the exchange of vapor between the atmosphere and the subsurface. Ground ice is expected down to ?49° latitude and lower latitudes at poleward facing slopes. The diffusivity of the regolith also leads to seasonal accumulation of atmospherically derived frost at latitudes

  3. Understanding the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the subsurface environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chien T. Chen

    1992-01-01

    To achieve effective remediation of subsurface petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, definite scientific and technical knowledge of their fate after they are spilled onto the ground surface or leaked from underground storage tanks is essential. The paper provides extensive details of the parameters that affect the fate of petroleum products in the underground environment. These include: the character of the subsurface environment;

  4. 30 CFR 250.119 - Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...MMS approve subsurface gas storage? 250.119 Section...Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION...approve subsurface gas storage? The Regional Supervisor may authorize subsurface storage of gas on the OCS,...

  5. 30 CFR 250.122 - What effect does subsurface storage have on the lease term?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...What effect does subsurface storage have on the lease term? ...Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION...What effect does subsurface storage have on the lease term? ...a lease area for subsurface storage of gas, it does not...

  6. Detection of microbial Life in the Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan-Lotter, H.; Fendrihan, S.; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, M.; Legat, A.; Gruber, C.; Weidler, G.; Gerbl, F.

    2007-08-01

    In recent years microbial communities were detected, which dwell in rocks, soil and caves deep below the surface of the Earth. This has led to a new view of the diversity of the terrestrial biosphere and of the physico-chemical boundaries for life. Two types of subterranean environments are Permo-Triassic salt sediments and thermal radioactive springs from igneous rocks in the Alps. Viable extremely halophilic archaea were isolated from ancient salt sediments which are estimated to be about 250 million years old (1). Chemotaxonomic and molecular characterization showed that they represent novel species, e. g. Halococcus salifodinae, Hcc. dombrowskiiand Halobacterium noricense. Simulation experiments with artificial halite suggested that these microorganisms probably survived while embedded in fluid inclusions. In the thermal springs, evidence for numerous novel microorganisms was found by 16S rDNA sequencing and probing for some metabolic genes; in addition, scanning electron microscopy of biofilms on the rock surfaces revealed great diversity of morphotypes (2). These communities appear to be active and growing, although their energy and carbon sources are entirely unknown. The characterization of subsurface inhabitants is of astrobiological relevance since extraterrestrial halite has been detected (3) and since microbial life on Mars, if existent, may have retreated into the subsurface. As a long-term goal, a thorough census of terrestrial microorganisms should be taken and their survival potential be determined in view of future missions for the search for extraterrestrial life, including planning precautions against possible forward contamination by space probes. (1) Fendrihan, S., Legat, A., Gruber, C., Pfaffenhuemer, M., Weidler, G., Gerbl, F., Stan-Lotter, H. (2006) Extremely halophilic archaea and the issue of long term microbial survival. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/technology 5, 1569-1605. (2) Weidler, G.W., Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, M., Gerbl, F.W., Heinen, W., Stan- Lotter, H. (2007) Communities of Archaea and Bacteria in a subsurface radioactive thermal spring in the Austrian Central Alps and evidence for ammonia oxidizing Crenarchaeota. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73, 259-270. (3) Stan-Lotter, H., Radax, C., McGenity, T.J., Legat, A., Pfaffenhuemer, M.,Wieland, H., Gruber, C., Denner, E.B.M. (2004) From Intraterrestrials to Extraterrestrials - Viable haloarchaea in ancient salt deposits. In: Halophilic Microorganisms. Ventosa A. (Ed.), Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 89-102.

  7. Armored Enzyme Nanoparticles for Remediation of Subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.

    2005-09-01

    The remediation of subsurface contaminants is a critical problem for the Department of Energy, other government agencies, and our nation. Severe contamination of soil and groundwater exists at several DOE sites due to various methods of intentional and unintentional release. Given the difficulties involved in conventional removal or separation processes, it is vital to develop methods to transform contaminants and contaminated earth/water to reduce risks to human health and the environment. Transformation of the contaminants themselves may involve conversion to other immobile species that do not migrate into well water or surface waters, as is proposed for metals and radionuclides; or degradation to harmless molecules, as is desired for organic contaminants. Transformation of contaminated earth (as opposed to the contaminants themselves) may entail reductions in volume or release of bound contaminants for remediation.

  8. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1992-06-01

    A variety of different media were used to isolate facultatively (FAB) and obligately anaerobic bacteria (OAB). These bacteria were isolated from core subsamples obtained from boreholes at the Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) or at the Hanford Lab. (Yakima). Core material was sampled at various depths to 600 feet below the surface. All core samples with culturable bacteria contained at least FAB making thisthe most common physiological type of anaerobic bacteria present in the deep subsurface at these two sites. INEL core samples are characterized by isolates of both FAB and OAB. No isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, or sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. Yakima core samples are characterized by a marked predominance of FAB in comparison to OAB. In addition, isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, and sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. The Yakima site has the potential for complete anaerobic mineralization of organic compounds whereas this potential appears to be lacking at INEL.

  9. Optimal joule heating of the subsurface

    DOEpatents

    Berryman, James G. (Danville, CA); Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A method for simultaneously heating the subsurface and imaging the effects of the heating. This method combines the use of tomographic imaging (electrical resistance tomography or ERT) to image electrical resistivity distribution underground, with joule heating by electrical currents injected in the ground. A potential distribution is established on a series of buried electrodes resulting in energy deposition underground which is a function of the resistivity and injection current density. Measurement of the voltages and currents also permits a tomographic reconstruction of the resistivity distribution. Using this tomographic information, the current injection pattern on the driving electrodes can be adjusted to change the current density distribution and thus optimize the heating. As the heating changes conditions, the applied current pattern can be repeatedly adjusted (based on updated resistivity tomographs) to affect real time control of the heating.

  10. Microwave radiometer for subsurface temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. A.; Bechis, K. P.

    1976-01-01

    A UHF radiometer, operating at a frequency of 800 MHz, was modified to provide an integral, three frequency voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) circuit in the radio frequency (RF) head. The VSWR circuit provides readings of power transmission at the antenna-material interface with an accuracy of plus or minus 5 percent. The power transmission readings are numerically equal to the emissivity of the material under observation. Knowledge of material emissivity is useful in the interpretation of subsurface apparent temperatures obtained on phantom models of biological tissue. The emissivities of phantom models consisting of lean beefsteak were found to lie in the range 0.623 to 0.779, depending on moisture content. Radiometric measurements performed on instrumented phantoms showed that the radiometer was capable of sensing small temperature changes occurring at depths of at least 19 to 30 mm. This is consistent with previously generated data which showed that the radiometer could sense temperatures at a depth of 38 mm.

  11. Gravimetric examination of Hagia Sophia's subsurface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jürgen; Gerstenecker, Carl; Gürkan, Onur

    1996-10-01

    The subsurface structure of Hagia Sophia, one of the oldest sacred monuments in the world built between 532 537 under the reign of Justinian in today's Istanbul, has been investigated by using two relative LaCoste-Romberg gravimeters in order to detect hidden cavities which have also served as earthquake dampers in similar constructions. On the building's ground floor a grid of 100 points with a grid size of about 4.m was measured. The mean gravimetric point error was ± 3.10-8 ms-2. The result of the examination is that cavities were not detected in the inner central part of Hagia Sophia with a larger diameter than 8.m down to a depth of about 20.m, and Hagia Sophia's foundation was found to be a slope of natural rock with a downward inclination to the East that has a small crest symmetrical to the building's East-West axis.

  12. Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richard C. Logan

    2001-07-30

    This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M&O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents.

  13. Subsurface Meridional Circulation in the Active Belts

    E-print Network

    I. Gonzalez Hernandez; S. Kholikov; F. Hill; R. Howe; R. Komm

    2008-08-26

    Temporal variations of the subsurface meridional flow with the solar cycle have been reported by several authors. The measurements are typically averaged over periods of time during which surface magnetic activity existed in the regions were the velocities are calculated. The present work examines the possible contamination of these measurements due to the extra velocity fields associated with active regions plus the uncertainties in the data obtained where strong magnetic fields are present. We perform a systematic analysis of more than five years of GONG data and compare meridional flows obtained by ring-diagram analysis before and after removing the areas of strong magnetic field. The overall trend of increased amplitude of the meridional flow towards solar minimum remains after removal of large areas associated with surface activity. We also find residual circulation toward the active belts that persist even after the removal of the surface magnetic activity, suggesting the existence of a global pattern or longitudinally-located organized flows.

  14. ARCHITECTURAL SUPPORT FOR AUTONOMIC PROTECTION AGAINST STEALTH BY ROOTKIT

    E-print Network

    Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

    ARCHITECTURAL SUPPORT FOR AUTONOMIC PROTECTION AGAINST STEALTH BY ROOTKIT EXPLOITS A Thesis of Technology Nov 2008 #12;ARCHITECTURAL SUPPORT FOR AUTONOMIC PROTECTION AGAINST STEALTH BY ROOTKIT EXPLOITS

  15. Fuzzy logic path planning system for collision avoidance by an autonomous rover vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Michael G.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative of the United States will make great demands upon NASA and its limited resources. One aspect of great importance will be providing for autonomous (unmanned) operation of vehicles and/or subsystems in space flight and surface exploration. An additional, complicating factor is that much of the need for autonomy of operation will take place under conditions of great uncertainty or ambiguity. Issues in developing an autonomous collision avoidance subsystem within a path planning system for application in a remote, hostile environment that does not lend itself well to remote manipulation by Earth-based telecommunications is addressed. A good focus is unmanned surface exploration of Mars. The uncertainties involved indicate that robust approaches such as fuzzy logic control are particularly appropriate. Four major issues addressed are (1) avoidance of a fuzzy moving obstacle; (2) backoff from a deadend in a static obstacle environment; (3) fusion of sensor data to detect obstacles; and (4) options for adaptive learning in a path planning system. Examples of the need for collision avoidance by an autonomous rover vehicle on the surface of Mars with a moving obstacle would be wind-blown debris, surface flow or anomalies due to subsurface disturbances, another vehicle, etc. The other issues of backoff, sensor fusion, and adaptive learning are important in the overall path planning system.

  16. Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) Lead Laboratory Providing Technical Assistance to the DOE Weapons Complex in Subsurface Contamination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Jr. Wright; J. C. Corey

    2002-01-01

    The Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA), a DOE-HQ EM-50 organization, is hosted and managed at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. SCFA is an integrated program chartered to find technology and scientific solutions to address DOE subsurface environmental restoration problems throughout the DOE Weapons Complex. Since its inception in 1989, the SCFA program has resulted in a total

  17. Subsurface Controls on Habitability of Hydrothermal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fristad, K. E.; Som, S. M.; Hoehler, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Liquid water alone does not make an environment habitable. Environmental settings dominated by water-rock reactions such as in hydrothermal vents and springs are natural targets for astrobiological investigation of waterworlds because the rich geochemical diversity at these locales provides abundant energy in solvent to support microbial life. Hydrogen oxidizers are of particular interest because H2-based metabolisms are widespread and deeply rooted throughout the phylogenetic tree of life, implying they may have emerged extremely early in the evolution, and possibly even the origin, of life on Earth and potentially any other rocky bodies bearing liquid water. Dihydrogen (H2) can be lithogenically produced by the hydrolytic oxidation of the ferrous iron component in Fe-bearing minerals as well as by radiolytic cleavage of water by ?, ?, or ? radiation produced during the decay of radioactive isotopes. Lithogenic H2 production mechanisms operate across a range of rock types, but the concentration of dissolved H2 available to life is controlled by a number of subsurface factors such as surface geometry, water to rock ratio, production rate, and fluid flux. These factors are often controlled by the larger geologic and structural context of a particular site. We present results of an ongoing project that surveys H2 concentrations from terrestrial hydrothermal waters in diverse chemical and physical settings. Aqueous H2 concentrations and potential subsurface controls are presented for sites across the western U.S. including Yellowstone National Park, Lassen Volcanic National Park, and Iceland. In coordination with field data, we also investigate the habitability of various sites numerically by coupling a geochemical model of water-rock interaction with that of single-cell methanogenesis and compute a habitability index for the given environment. In particular, we investigate the control that temperature, rock composition, water composition, and water to rock ratio (dilution) has on biological potential.

  18. Subsurface Carbon Cycling Below the Root Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Kim, Y.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Bill, M.; Conrad, M. E.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon in the subsurface below the root zone is an important yet poorly understood link in the terrestrial C cycle, interfacing between overlying soil and downstream aquatic systems. Thus, the nature and behavior of C in the vadose zone and groundwater, particularly the dynamics of mobile dissolved and suspended aqueous species, need to be understood for predicting C cycling and responses to climate change. This study is designed to understand the C balance (influxes, effluxes, and sequestration) and mechanisms controlling subsurface organic and inorganic C transport and transformation. Our initial investigations are being conducted at the Rifle Site floodplain along the Colorado River, in Colorado (USA). Within this floodplain, sediment samples were collected and sampling/monitoring instruments were installed down to 7 m depth at three sites. Pore water and gas samplers at 0.5 m depth intervals within the ~3.5 m deep vadose zone, and multilevel aquifer samplers have yielded depth- and time-resolved profiles of dissolved and suspended organic and inorganic C, and CO2 for over 1.5 years. Analyses conducted to determine seasonally and vertically resolved geochemical profiles show that dissolved organic matter (DOM) characteristics vary among three distinct hydrobiogeochemical zones; the vadose zone, capillary fringe, and saturated zone. The concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are many times higher in the vadose zone and the capillary fringe than in groundwater, and vary seasonally. The DOM speciation, aqueous geochemistry, solid phase analyses, and d13C isotope data show the importance of both biotic and abiotic C transformations during transport through the vertical gradients of moisture and temperature. In addition to DOM, suspended organic C and bacteria have been collected from samplers within the capillary fringe. Based on the field-based findings, long-term laboratory column experiments are being conducted under simulated field moisture, temperature, and geochemical conditions in order to gain more quantitative understanding of the C balance within different hydrobiogeochemical zones.

  19. Accelerating Subsurface Transport Simulation on Heterogeneous Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Oreste; Gawande, Nitin A.; Tumeo, Antonino

    2013-09-23

    Reactive transport numerical models simulate chemical and microbiological reactions that occur along a flowpath. These models have to compute reactions for a large number of locations. They solve the set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that describes the reaction for each location through the Newton-Raphson technique. This technique involves computing a Jacobian matrix and a residual vector for each set of equation, and then solving iteratively the linearized system by performing Gaussian Elimination and LU decomposition until convergence. STOMP, a well known subsurface flow simulation tool, employs matrices with sizes in the order of 100x100 elements and, for numerical accuracy, LU factorization with full pivoting instead of the faster partial pivoting. Modern high performance computing systems are heterogeneous machines whose nodes integrate both CPUs and GPUs, exposing unprecedented amounts of parallelism. To exploit all their computational power, applications must use both the types of processing elements. For the case of subsurface flow simulation, this mainly requires implementing efficient batched LU-based solvers and identifying efficient solutions for enabling load balancing among the different processors of the system. In this paper we discuss two approaches that allows scaling STOMP's performance on heterogeneous clusters. We initially identify the challenges in implementing batched LU-based solvers for small matrices on GPUs, and propose an implementation that fulfills STOMP's requirements. We compare this implementation to other existing solutions. Then, we combine the batched GPU solver with an OpenMP-based CPU solver, and present an adaptive load balancer that dynamically distributes the linear systems to solve between the two components inside a node. We show how these approaches, integrated into the full application, provide speed ups from 6 to 7 times on large problems, executed on up to 16 nodes of a cluster with two AMD Opteron 6272 and a Tesla M2090 per node.

  20. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  1. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the targeted system. It is envisioned that real time requirements tracing will greatly assist the movement of autoprocedures to flight software enhancing the software assurance of auto-procedures and also their acceptance as reliable commanders.

  2. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George I.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto-Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner- TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the targeted system. It is envisioned that real time requirements tracing will greatly assist the movement of autoprocedures to flight software enhancing the software assurance of auto-procedures and also their acceptance as reliable commanders

  3. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  4. Autonomously managed electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    The electric power systems for future spacecraft such as the Space Station will necessarily be more sophisticated and will exhibit more nearly autonomous operation than earlier spacecraft. These new power systems will be more reliable and flexible than their predecessors offering greater utility to the users. Automation approaches implemented on various power system breadboards are investigated. These breadboards include the Hubble Space Telescope power system test bed, the Common Module Power Management and Distribution system breadboard, the Autonomusly Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard, and the 20 kilohertz power system breadboard. Particular attention is given to the AMPS breadboard. Future plans for these breadboards including the employment of artificial intelligence techniques are addressed.

  5. A locomotion control method for autonomous vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kanayama; A. Nilipour; Charles Anthony Lelm

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a locomotion control method for autonomous vehicles. The main difficulties in controlling an autonomous vehicle lie in the fact that vehicles usually have three degrees of freedom in position and orientation in spite of having only two degrees of freedom for motion control. To use any find of path for vehicle navigation, the authors control a vehicle

  6. Using Policies to Drive Autonomic Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphael M. Bahati; Michael A. Bauer; Elvis M. Vieira; O. K. Baek; Chang-Won Ahn

    2006-01-01

    Required or desired behavior of systems and applications can be expressed in terms of management policies. Such policies can in turn be used to express expected operational characteristics of these systems and possible management actions. We feel that policies can provide the kinds of directives best used for flexible autonomic management systems. The effective use of policies in autonomic management

  7. Intrinsic Motivation Systems for Autonomous Mental Development

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , active learning. 1 The challenge of autonomous mental develop- ment All humans develop in an autonomous, hafner}@csl.sony.fr http://www.csl.sony.fr Abstract Exploratory activities seem to be intrinsically rewarding for children and crucial for their cognitive development. Can a machine be endowed

  8. HEADLAND TURNING CONTROL METHOD SIMULATION OF AUTONOMOUS

    E-print Network

    HEADLAND TURNING CONTROL METHOD SIMULATION OF AUTONOMOUS AGRICULTRUAL MACHINE BASED ON IMPROVED@scau.edu.cn Abstract: According to the features of headland turning, new path planning and headland turning control algorithms for autonomous agricultural machine were presented in this paper. The turning path planning

  9. Segway to the future [autonomous mobile robot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Voth

    2005-01-01

    The robotic mobility platform (RMP) has a small footprint, a zero turning radius, the ability to move over diverse terrains, and the capacity to carry up to 100 pounds. DARPA funded Segway's RMP development as part of its mobile autonomous robot software project and challenged researchers to create solutions for operating autonomous mobile robots in dynamic, unstructured environments. That challenge

  10. Hierarchical control of small autonomous helicopters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher P. Sanders; Paul A. DeBitetto; Eric Feron; Hon Fai Vuong; Nancy Leveson

    1998-01-01

    Autonomous air vehicles have numerous applications, all of which require the vehicle to have stable and accurate control of its motion. In the paper, a hierarchical control system for small autonomous helicopters is described. The control system consists of four components: a navigation filter, an inner-loop hover control system, a waypoint guidance system, and a ground-based flight manager. All four

  11. Autonomous Helicopter Aerobatics through Apprenticeship Learning

    E-print Network

    Bejerano, Gill

    Autonomous Helicopter Aerobatics through Apprenticeship Learning Pieter Abbeel1 , Adam Coates2 and Andrew Y. Ng2 Abstract Autonomous helicopter flight is widely regarded to be a highly challenging control problem. Despite this fact, human experts can reliably fly helicopters through a wide range of maneuvers

  12. A visual odometer for autonomous helicopter flight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omead Amidi; Takeo Kanade; Keisuke Fujita

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a visual odometer for autonomous helicopter flight. The odometer estimates helicopter position by visually locking on to and tracking ground objects. The paper describes the philosophy behind the odometer as well as its tracking algorithm and implementation. The paper concludes by presenting test flight data of the odometer's performance on-board indoor and outdoor prototype autonomous helicopters.

  13. Adaptive Trajectory Control for Autonomous Helicopters

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric N.

    Adaptive Trajectory Control for Autonomous Helicopters Eric N. Johnson and Suresh K. Kannan School-0150 For autonomous helicopter flight, it is common to separate the flight control problem into an inner loop that controls attitude and an outer loop that controls the translational trajectory of the helicopter

  14. LEARNING TO DRIVE: PERCEPTION FOR AUTONOMOUS CARS

    E-print Network

    Thrun, Sebastian

    LEARNING TO DRIVE: PERCEPTION FOR AUTONOMOUS CARS A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT and other preventable causes. Au- tonomous or highly aware cars have the potential to positively impact tens of millions of people. Building an autonomous car is not easy. Although the absolute number of traf- fic

  15. Autonomous Vehicle Following Using a Robotic Driver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Wong; Christopher Chambers; K. Stol; R. Halkyard

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the development of autonomous control of a passenger vehicle for vehicle following using a robotic driver. The aim is to have a modular and transferable device that can autonomously control a standard passenger car. The robot controls the car in the same way as a human driver, by rotating the steering wheel and pushing the pedals. No

  16. Autonomous buoyancy-driven underwater gliders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russ E. Davis; Charles C. Eriksen; Clayton P. Jones

    2002-01-01

    A class of small (50 kg, 2 m length), reusable autonomous underwater vehicles capable of operating at speeds of 20-30 cm\\/s with ranges several thousand kilometers and durations of months has been developed and tested. The vehicles, essentially autonomous profiling floats with wings, execute sawtooth patterns between the surface, where they are located and communicate to shore, and depths of

  17. Autonomous landmark tracking orbit determination strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. K.; Cheng, Y.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, an orbit determination strategy is described that is fully autonomous and relies on a computer-based crater detection and identification algorithm that is suitable for both automation of the ground based navigation system and autonomous spacecraft based navigation.

  18. The asymptotic stability of nonlinear autonomous systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustav S. Christensen; Mehrdad Saif

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a new general method is developed by means of which one can ascertain whether a nonlinear autonomous system is asymptotically stable. The method is essentially an extension to nonlinear systems of a theorem developed earlier by the first author for linear autonomous systems. Necessary and sufficient conditions are specified, the satisfaction of which guarantees that the system

  19. Intrinsic Adaptation in Autonomous Recurrent Neural Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitrije Markovi?; Claudius Gros

    2012-01-01

    A massively recurrent neural network responds on one side to input stimuli and is autonomously active, on the other side, in the absence of sensory inputs. Stimuli and information processing depend crucially on the qualia of the autonomous-state dynamics of the ongoing neural activity. This default neural activity may be dynamically structured in time and space, showing regular, synchronized, bursting,

  20. Autonomous Software Michael Rovatsos Gerhard Weiss

    E-print Network

    Rovatsos, Michael

    its complexity on its own. The spectrum of primary attributes associated with autonomous softwareAutonomous Software Michael Rovatsos Gerhard Weiss Institut f¨ur Informatik, Technische Universit¨at M¨unchen 85748 Garching, Germany {rovatsos,weissg}@in.tum.de Abstract Industrial-strength software

  1. Docking for an autonomous ocean sampling network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanumant Singh; James G. Bellingham; Franz Hover; S. Lemer; Bradley A. Moran; Keith von der Heydt; Dana Yoerger

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the issues associated with docking autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) operating within an Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN). We present a system based upon an acoustic ultrashort baseline system that allows the AUV to approach the dock from any direction. A passive latch on the AUV and a pole on the dock accomplish the task of

  2. Sustainable and autonomic space exploration missions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy Sterritt; Mike Hinchey; Christopher Rouff; James Rash; Walt Truszkowski

    2006-01-01

    Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts

  3. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-11-30

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

  4. New Small Autonomous Schools District Policy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland Unified School District, CA.

    Inspired by the gains in student achievement realized by the small schools movement in New York City, the Oakland Unified School District (California) has proposed creating a network of 10 new, small autonomous (NSA) schools over the next 3 years. School size will range between 250 and 500 students, depending on grade level. "Autonomous" means…

  5. Planning Flight Paths of Autonomous Aerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Sharma, Shivanjli

    2009-01-01

    Algorithms for planning flight paths of autonomous aerobots (robotic blimps) to be deployed in scientific exploration of remote planets are undergoing development. These algorithms are also adaptable to terrestrial applications involving robotic submarines as well as aerobots and other autonomous aircraft used to acquire scientific data or to perform surveying or monitoring functions.

  6. Defining Autonomic Computing: A Software Engineering Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Lin; Alexander Macarthur; John Leaney

    2005-01-01

    As a rapidly growing field, autonomic computing is a promising new approach for developing large scale distributed systems. However, while the vision of achieving self-management in computing systems is well established, the field still lacks a commonly accepted definition of 'what' an autonomic computing system is. Without a common definition to dictate the direction of development, it is not possible

  7. A cognitive system for autonomous robotic welding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Schroth; Ingo Stork; Klaus Diepold

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there is a high demand for autonomous industrial production systems. This paper outlines the development of a cognitive system for autonomous robotic welding. This system is based on dimensionality reduction techniques and Support Vector Machines, allowing the system to learn to separate between acceptable and unacceptable welding results within one batch, and to transfer this ability to a batch

  8. Digital Libraries and Autonomous Citation Indexing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Lawrence; C. Lee Giles; Kurt D. Bollacker

    1999-01-01

    The World Wide Web is revolutionizing the way that researchers access scientific information. Articles are increasingly being made available on the homepages of authors or institutions, at journal Web sites, or in online archives. However, scientific information on the Web is largely disorganized. This article introduces the creation of digital libraries incorporating Autonomous Citation Indexing (ACI). ACI autonomously creates citation

  9. How do Autonomous Agents Solve Social Dilemmas?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Ito

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the problem of cooperation of autonomous agents. Why it is important for autonomous agents to solve social dilemma problems is explained. They must be solved in a way that does not restrict the autonomy of agents. For that purpose, a social sanction by the disclosure of information is proposed. Agents were made to play the Prisoner's Dilemma

  10. The Techsat-21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Constellation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Chien; Rob Sherwood; Michael Burl; Russell Knight; Gregg Rabideau

    2005-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Constellation flight demonstration (ASC) will fly onboard the Air Force's TechSat-21 constellation (an unclassified mission scheduled for launch in 2004). ASC will use onboard science analysis, replanning, robust execution, model- based estimation and control, and formation flying to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight

  11. Autonomous Mine Detection Sensors (AMDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navish, Frank, III; May, Michael

    2006-05-01

    The Autonomous Mine Detection Sensors (AMDS) program is developing a prototype autonomous mine-detection sensor suite designed to be mounted on a small robotic platform that can find buried anti-personnel mines. Over the past two years, CyTerra Corp. and NIITEK, Inc. have developed complementary senor suites using a variety of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor configurations. The AMDS program is also working with industry and academia to develop automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms. This paper provides a brief overview of evaluations that have been performed at Army facilities. Probability of Detection (Pd) and Probability of False Alarm (Pfa) results are provided for signal-to-noise type detection algorithms and also for promising pattern classification and neural network algorithms that were developed by Duke University, the University of Missouri-Columbia, and the University of Florida. After an evaluation in October 2005, both contractors' sensors performed comparably (about 90% Pd and 40% Pfa) against low-metal anti-personnel mines at an Army test site seeded with typical clutter. In some cases, university-developed pattern classification and neural network algorithms have reduced the Pfa by a factor of two against these clutter sets.

  12. Multi-agent autonomous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  13. Robotic and Human-Tended Collaborative Drilling Automation for Subsurface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian; Cannon, Howard; Stoker, Carol; Davis, Kiel

    2005-01-01

    Future in-situ lunar/martian resource utilization and characterization, as well as the scientific search for life on Mars, will require access to the subsurface and hence drilling. Drilling on Earth is hard - an art form more than an engineering discipline. Human operators listen and feel drill string vibrations coming from kilometers underground. Abundant mass and energy make it possible for terrestrial drilling to employ brute-force approaches to failure recovery and system performance issues. Space drilling will require intelligent and autonomous systems for robotic exploration and to support human exploration. Eventual in-situ resource utilization will require deep drilling with probable human-tended operation of large-bore drills, but initial lunar subsurface exploration and near-term ISRU will be accomplished with lightweight, rover-deployable or standalone drills capable of penetrating a few tens of meters in depth. These lightweight exploration drills have a direct counterpart in terrestrial prospecting and ore-body location, and will be designed to operate either human-tended or automated. NASA and industry now are acquiring experience in developing and building low-mass automated planetary prototype drills to design and build a pre-flight lunar prototype targeted for 2011-12 flight opportunities. A successful system will include development of drilling hardware, and automated control software to operate it safely and effectively. This includes control of the drilling hardware, state estimation of both the hardware and the lithography being drilled and state of the hole, and potentially planning and scheduling software suitable for uncertain situations such as drilling. Given that Humans on the Moon or Mars are unlikely to be able to spend protracted EVA periods at a drill site, both human-tended and robotic access to planetary subsurfaces will require some degree of standalone, autonomous drilling capability. Human-robotic coordination will be important, either between a robotic drill and humans on Earth, or a human-tended drill and its visiting crew. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) is a current project that studies and simulates the remote science operations between an automated drill in Spain and a distant, distributed human science team. The Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project, by contrast: is developing and testing standalone automation at a lunar/martian impact crater analog site in Arctic Canada. The drill hardware in both projects is a hardened, evolved version of the Advanced Deep Drill (ADD) developed by Honeybee Robotics for the Mars Subsurface Program. The current ADD is capable of 20m, and the DAME project is developing diagnostic and executive software for hands-off surface operations of the evolved version of this drill. The current drill automation architecture being developed by NASA and tested in 2004-06 at analog sites in the Arctic and Spain will add downhole diagnosis of different strata, bit wear detection, and dynamic replanning capabilities when unexpected failures or drilling conditions are discovered in conjunction with simulated mission operations and remote science planning. The most important determinant of future 1unar and martian drilling automation and staffing requirements will be the actual performance of automated prototype drilling hardware systems in field trials in simulated mission operations. It is difficult to accurately predict the level of automation and human interaction that will be needed for a lunar-deployed drill without first having extensive experience with the robotic control of prototype drill systems under realistic analog field conditions. Drill-specific failure modes and software design flaws will become most apparent at this stage. DAME will develop and test drill automation software and hardware under stressful operating conditions during several planned field campaigns. Initial results from summer 2004 tests show seven identifi distinct failure modes of the drill: cuttings-removal issues with low-power drilling into permaf

  14. Phosphorus transport in agricultural subsurface drainage: a review.

    PubMed

    King, Kevin W; Williams, Mark R; Macrae, Merrin L; Fausey, Norman R; Frankenberger, Jane; Smith, Douglas R; Kleinman, Peter J A; Brown, Larry C

    2015-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields and watersheds has been an important water quality issue for decades because of the critical role P plays in eutrophication. Historically, most research has focused on P losses by surface runoff and erosion because subsurface P losses were often deemed to be negligible. Perceptions of subsurface P transport, however, have evolved, and considerable work has been conducted to better understand the magnitude and importance of subsurface P transport and to identify practices and treatments that decrease subsurface P loads to surface waters. The objectives of this paper were (i) to critically review research on P transport in subsurface drainage, (ii) to determine factors that control P losses, and (iii) to identify gaps in the current scientific understanding of the role of subsurface drainage in P transport. Factors that affect subsurface P transport are discussed within the framework of intensively drained agricultural settings. These factors include soil characteristics (e.g., preferential flow, P sorption capacity, and redox conditions), drainage design (e.g., tile spacing, tile depth, and the installation of surface inlets), prevailing conditions and management (e.g., soil-test P levels, tillage, cropping system, and the source, rate, placement, and timing of P application), and hydrologic and climatic variables (e.g., baseflow, event flow, and seasonal differences). Structural, treatment, and management approaches to mitigate subsurface P transport-such as practices that disconnect flow pathways between surface soils and tile drains, drainage water management, in-stream or end-of-tile treatments, and ditch design and management-are also discussed. The review concludes by identifying gaps in the current understanding of P transport in subsurface drains and suggesting areas where future research is needed. PMID:26023966

  15. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy methods for spectroscopic imaging of subsurface interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, L. D.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1988-01-01

    A new method for spatially-resolved, spectroscopic investigation of subsurface interface structure has been developed. The method, Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM), is based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) techniques. BEEM combines STM vacuum tunneling with unique ballistic electron spectroscopy capabilities. BEEM enables, for the first time, direct imaging of subsurface interface electronic properties with nanometer spatial resolution. STM topographic images of surface structure and BEEM images of subsurface properties are obtained simultaneously. BEEM capabilities are demonstrated by investigation of important metal-semiconductor interfaces.

  16. Enhanced bioremediation of subsurface contamination: Enzyme recruitment and redesign

    SciTech Connect

    Brockman, F.J.; Ornstein, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    Subsurface systems containing radionuclide, heavy metal, and organic wastes must be carefully attended to avoid further impacts to the environment or exposures to human populations. It is appropriate, therefore, to invest in basic research to develop the requisite tools and methods for addressing complex cleanup problems. The rational modification of subsurface microoganisms by enzyme recruitment and enzyme design, in concert with engineered systems for delivery of microorganisms and nutrients to the contaminated zone, are potentially useful tools in the spectrum of approaches that will be required for successful remediation of deep subsurface contamination.

  17. Development of autonomous magnetometer rotorcraft for wide area assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Roelof Versteeg; Matt Anderson; Les Beard; Eric Corban; Darryl Curley; Jeff Gamey; Ross Johnson; Dwight Junkin; Mark McKay; Jared Salzmann; Mikhail Tchernychev; Suraj Unnikrishnan; Scott Vinson

    2010-04-01

    Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 – 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. There is thus a need for other systems which can be used for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly characterization (through the use of dynamic acquisition, i.e. survey mission inflight reprioritization). We describe and report on a one year effort with as primary goal to provide a recommendation to SERDP for a path forward in the implementation of one or more autonomous unmanned magnetometer rotorcraft platforms. This recommendation (which is provided in chapter 6) is based on the following three elements a) An assessment on the applicability of autonomous rotorcraft magnetometer systems to the current DoD site inventory, and an initial assessment of which type(s) of autonomous unmanned magnetometer rotorcraft platforms (in terms of performance characteristics such as payload, altitude, obstacle avoidance, production rate and flight time) would be most relevant to this inventory (chapter 3); b) An evaluation of the feasibility of assembling such platforms from commercial components (unmanned rotorcraft, control systems and sensors – both magnetometer sensors and supporting sensors). This evaluation included several highly successful field tests (chapter 4 and 5); c) A recommendation of the path forward, which includes a detailed outline of the efforts required in the design, assembly and testing of different modular platforms (chapter 6)

  18. The Autonomic Symptom Profile: a new instrument to assess autonomic symptoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, G. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Offord, K. P.; Atkinson, E. J.; O'Brien, P. C.; Low, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a new specific instrument called the Autonomic Symptom Profile to measure autonomic symptoms and test its validity. BACKGROUND: Measuring symptoms is important in the evaluation of quality of life outcomes. There is no validated, self-completed questionnaire on the symptoms of patients with autonomic disorders. METHODS: The questionnaire is 169 items concerning different aspects of autonomic symptoms. The Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale (COMPASS) with item-weighting was established; higher scores indicate more or worse symptoms. Autonomic function tests were performed to generate the Composite Autonomic Scoring Scale (CASS) and to quantify autonomic deficits. We compared the results of the COMPASS with the CASS derived from the Autonomic Reflex Screen to evaluate validity. RESULTS: The instrument was tested in 41 healthy controls (mean age 46.6 years), 33 patients with nonautonomic peripheral neuropathies (mean age 59.5 years), and 39 patients with autonomic failure (mean age 61.1 years). COMPASS scores correlated well with the CASS, demonstrating an acceptable level of content and criterion validity. The mean (+/-SD) overall COMPASS score was 9.8 (+/-9) in controls, 25.9 (+/-17.9) in the patients with nonautonomic peripheral neuropathies, and 52.3 (+/-24.2) in the autonomic failure group. Scores of symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and secretomotor dysfunction best predicted the CASS on multiple stepwise regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a questionnaire that measures autonomic symptoms and present evidence for its validity. The instrument shows promise in assessing autonomic symptoms in clinical trials and epidemiologic studies.

  19. Mars Subsurface Exploration Using Schumann Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozakiewicz, Joanna; Kulak, Andrzej; Mlynarczyk, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    In a planetary environment, an electrically conductive ionosphere and ground create a spherical electromagnetic cavity. In this cavity, extremely low frequency (ELF, 3-3000 Hz) electromagnetic waves are weakly attenuated and can propagate around the globe producing global resonance. The extremely low frequency waves are generated by electrical discharges in planetary atmospheres. We have developed an analytical method that enables taking into account not only the electrical properties of the Martian ionosphere but also the Martian ground. This method allowed us to obtain the Schumann resonance frequencies and Q factors and analyze how they depend on the Martian environmental properties. We compared the results from our analytical model with previously published results from numerical modeling. In this work, we show that the Martian ground has a significant influence on the Schumann resonance parameters. Therefore, Schumann resonance can be used us a tool to study, not only the properties of the Martian atmosphere, but also the properties of the subsurface layers. It can be particularly useful in groundwater exploration. In order to study the influence of water on the Schumann resonance parameters on Mars, we assumed two cases of the Martian ground containing aquifers. In both cases, we considered the upper part of the Martian crust composed of porous basaltic rocks containing ice. Beneath this layer, we implemented water-bearing basalts. We assumed that ice and water contains some NaCl impurities or solutions. In the first case, we considered the low concentration of salts in ice and low-salinity water. In the second case, we assumed some high-impurity ice and brines. In order to compare the results of the above-mentioned cases with a situation in which the subsurface of Mars does not contain any water, we introduced the model of the Martian crust composed only of dry basaltic rocks. There are clear differences in the Schumann resonance parameters for the different cases of the Martian ground. The Schumann resonance frequencies are higher by about 15% in the cases with aquifers compared to the pure basaltic ground. The amplitudes of Schumann resonance are also higher by about 40%. For all the analyzed cases, we have calculated and presented the spectra of the Schumann resonance. Our new method used to obtain the Schumann resonance parameters on Mars can be applied also to other objects in the Solar System. Acknowledgements. This work has been supported by the National Science Centre grants: 2012/04/M/ST10/00565 and 2013/09/N/ST9/02200

  20. Development of Autonomous Drills for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, G. L.; Mumm, E.; Kennedy, T.; Chu, P.; Davis, K.; Frader-Thompson, S.; Petrich, K.; Glass, B.

    2006-03-01

    Honeybee Robotics has developed science driven drill systems to allow scientific instruments direct access to the subsurface. Embedded drill segment electronics accommodate sensors and actuators for high rate data transmission to the surface.

  1. Apoptosis and Self-Destruct: A Contribution to Autonomic Agents?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy Sterritt; Michael G. Hinchey

    2004-01-01

    Autonomic Computing (AC), a self-managing systems initiative based on the biological metaphor of the autonomic nervous system, is increasingly gaining momentum as the way forward in designing reliable systems. Agent technologies have been identified as a key enabler for engineering autonomicity in systems, both in terms of retrofitting autonomicity into legacy systems and designing new systems. The AC initiative provides

  2. A Hybrid Controller for Autonomous Vehicles Driving on Automated Highways

    E-print Network

    Girault, Alain

    A Hybrid Controller for Autonomous Vehicles Driving on Automated Highways Alain Girault a aInria Rh of the hybrid control of autonomous vehicles driving on automated highways. Vehicles are autonomous, so they do, we extend this first result to a lane of autonomous vehicles. Third, we prove that if all

  3. Autonomous Off-Road Driving in the DARPA Grand Challenge

    E-print Network

    Soatto, Stefano

    learned from two years of autonomous vehicle develop- ment. Autonomous navigation in the off road was offered for the individual or team that could build an autonomous ground vehicle capable of traversing to accelerate research and development in autonomous ground vehicles." No vehicle was able to travel more than

  4. Design Requirements for Autonomous Multivehicle Surface-Underwater Operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian S. Bingham; Eric F. Prechtl; Richard A. Wilson

    2009-01-01

    Future autonomous marine missions will depend on the seamless coordination of autonomous vehicles: unmanned surface vehicles (USVs), unmanned under- water vehicles (UUVs) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Such coordination will enable important inter-vehicle applications such as autonomous refueling, high-throughput data transfer and periodic maintenance to extend the mission length. A critical enabling capability is the autonomous capture, retrieval and de-

  5. ASTRA 2008 Workshop Autonomous Over-The-Horizon Rover Navigation

    E-print Network

    Rekleitis, Ioannis

    ASTRA 2008 Workshop Autonomous Over-The-Horizon Rover Navigation Erick Dupuis, Ioannis Rekleitis campaigns of the Canadian Space Agency's autonomous rover navigation research. In particular, results for integrated system tests whereby the rover travelled autonomously and semi-autonomously beyond its sensing

  6. Towards Autonomic Communication Mechanisms for Service Composability Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Magedanz; José A. Lozano; Florian Schreiner; Fabricio Gouveia; Juan M. González

    2008-01-01

    The Autonomic Communication Forum dedicates itself to leverage innovative mechanisms in order to provide new levels of integrated autonomicity to a future self-managed networks and network elements. Current trends in networking technologies are applying Services Oriented Architecture (SOA) principles and concepts. Trying to improve the SOA capacities with the autonomic principles, the Autonomic Communications Forum (ACF) has created the Service

  7. "Altiarchaeales": uncultivated archaea from the subsurface.

    PubMed

    Probst, Alexander J; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Due to the limited cultivability of the vast majority of microorganisms, researchers have applied environmental genomics and other state-of-the-art technologies to gain insights into the biology of uncultivated Archaea and bacteria in their natural biotope. In this review, we summarize the scientific findings on a recently proposed order-level lineage of uncultivated Archaea called Altiarchaeales, which includes "Candidatus Altiarchaeum hamiconexum" as the most well-described representative. Ca. A. hamiconexum possesses a complex biology: thriving strictly anaerobically, this microorganism is capable of forming highly-pure biofilms, connecting the cells by extraordinary cell surface appendages (the "hami") and has other highly unusual traits, such as a double-membrane-based cell wall. Indicated by genomic information from different biotopes, the Altiarchaeales seem to proliferate in deep, anoxic groundwater of Earth's crust bearing a potentially very important function: carbon fixation. Although their net carbon fixation rate has not yet been determined, they appear as highly abundant organisms in their biotopes and may thus represent an important primary producer in the subsurface. In sum, the research over more than a decade on Ca. A. hamiconexum has revealed many interesting features of its lifestyle, its genomic information, metabolism and ultrastructure, making this archaeon one of the best-studied uncultivated Archaea in the literature. PMID:25984733

  8. “Altiarchaeales”: Uncultivated Archaea from the Subsurface

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Alexander J.; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Due to the limited cultivability of the vast majority of microorganisms, researchers have applied environmental genomics and other state-of-the-art technologies to gain insights into the biology of uncultivated Archaea and bacteria in their natural biotope. In this review, we summarize the scientific findings on a recently proposed order-level lineage of uncultivated Archaea called Altiarchaeales, which includes “Candidatus Altiarchaeum hamiconexum” as the most well-described representative. Ca. A. hamiconexum possesses a complex biology: thriving strictly anaerobically, this microorganism is capable of forming highly-pure biofilms, connecting the cells by extraordinary cell surface appendages (the “hami”) and has other highly unusual traits, such as a double-membrane-based cell wall. Indicated by genomic information from different biotopes, the Altiarchaeales seem to proliferate in deep, anoxic groundwater of Earth’s crust bearing a potentially very important function: carbon fixation. Although their net carbon fixation rate has not yet been determined, they appear as highly abundant organisms in their biotopes and may thus represent an important primary producer in the subsurface. In sum, the research over more than a decade on Ca. A. hamiconexum has revealed many interesting features of its lifestyle, its genomic information, metabolism and ultrastructure, making this archaeon one of the best-studied uncultivated Archaea in the literature. PMID:25984733

  9. Subsurface Exploration Technologies and Strategies for Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, L. C.; Anderson, F. S.; Carsey, F. D.; Green, J. R.; Lane, A. L.; Zimmerman, W. F.

    2001-01-01

    The Galileo data from Europa has resulted in the strong suggestion of a large, cold, salty, old subglacial ocean and is of great importance. We have examined technology requirements for subsurface exploration of Europa and determined that scientific access to the hypothesized Europa ocean is a key requirement. By 'scientific access' we intend to direct attention to the fact that several aspects of exploration of a site such as Europa must be addressed at the system level. Specifically needed are a robotic vehicle that can descend through ice, scientific instrumentation that can interrogate the ice near the vehicle (but largely unaffected by its presence), scientific instrumentation for the subglacial ocean, communication for data and control, chemical analysis of the environment of the vehicle in the ice as well as the ocean, and methods for conducting the mission without contamination. We have embarked on a part of this extremely ambitious development sequence by developing the Active Thermal Probe, or Cryobot. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, R.

    This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

  11. Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordano, A. J.; Mcswain, G. G.; Fernandes, S. T.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) Bridging program is reviewed to demonstrate the program plan and GN&C systems for the Space Shuttle. The ascent CN&C system is described in terms of elements such as the general-purpose digital computers, sensors for the navigation subsystem, the guidance-system software, and the flight-control subsystem. Balloon-based and lidar wind soundings are used for operations assessment on the day of launch, and the guidance software is based on dedicated units for atmospheric powered flight, vacuum powered flight, and abort-specific situations. Optimization of the flight trajectories is discussed, and flight-control responses are illustrated for wavelengths of 500-6000 m. Alternate sensors are used for load relief, and adaptive GN&C systems based on alternate gain synthesis are used for systems failures.

  12. Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordano, A. J.; McSwain, G. G.; Fernandes, S. T.

    The NASA Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) Bridging program is reviewed to demonstrate the program plan and GN&C systems for the Space Shuttle. The ascent CN&C system is described in terms of elements such as the general-purpose digital computers, sensors for the navigation subsystem, the guidance-system software, and the flight-control subsystem. Balloon-based and lidar wind soundings are used for operations assessment on the day of launch, and the guidance software is based on dedicated units for atmospheric powered flight, vacuum powered flight, and abort-specific situations. Optimization of the flight trajectories is discussed, and flight-control responses are illustrated for wavelengths of 500-6000 m. Alternate sensors are used for load relief, and adaptive GN&C systems based on alternate gain synthesis are used for systems failures.

  13. Testbed for an autonomous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok K.; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    In previous works we have defined a general architectural model for autonomous systems, which can easily be mapped to describe the functions of any automated system (SDAG-86-01), and we illustrated that model by applying it to the thermal management system of a space station (SDAG-87-01). In this note, we will further develop that application and design the detail of the implementation of such a model. First we present the environment of our application by describing the thermal management problem and an abstraction, which was called TESTBED, that includes a specific function for each module in the architecture, and the nature of the interfaces between each pair of blocks.

  14. Autonomous Medical Care for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Polk, J. D.; Hines, John W.; Nall, Marsha M.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of Autonomous Medical Care (AMC) is to ensure a healthy, well-performing crew which is a primary need for exploration. The end result of this effort will be the requirements and design for medical systems for the CEV, lunar operations, and Martian operations as well as a ground-based crew health optimization plan. Without such systems, we increase the risk of medical events occurring during a mission and we risk being unable to deal with contingencies of illness and injury, potentially threatening mission success. AMC has two major components: 1) pre-flight crew health optimization and 2) in-flight medical care. The goal of pre-flight crew health optimization is to reduce the risk of illness occurring during a mission by primary prevention and prophylactic measures. In-flight autonomous medical care is the capability to provide medical care during a mission with little or no real-time support from Earth. Crew medical officers or other crew members provide routine medical care as well as medical care to ill or injured crew members using resources available in their location. Ground support becomes telemedical consultation on-board systems/people collect relevant data for ground support to review. The AMC system provides capabilities to incorporate new procedures and training and advice as required. The on-board resources in an autonomous system should be as intelligent and integrated as is feasible, but autonomous does not mean that no human will be involved. The medical field is changing rapidly, and so a challenge is to determine which items to pursue now, which to leverage other efforts (e.g. military), and which to wait for commercial forces to mature. Given that what is used for the CEV or the Moon will likely be updated before going to Mars, a critical piece of the system design will be an architecture that provides for easy incorporation of new technologies into the system. Another challenge is to determine the level of care to provide for each mission type. The level of care refers to the amount and type of care one will render based on perceived need and ability. This is in contrast to the standard of care which is the benchmark by which that care is provided. There are certainly some devices and procedures that have unique microgravity or partial gravity requirements such that terrestrial methods will not work. For example, performing CPR on Mars cannot be done in exactly the same way as on Earth because the reduced gravity causes too large a reduction in the forces available for effective compression of the chest. Likewise, fluid behavior in microgravity may require a specialized water filtration and mixing system for the creation of intravenous fluids. This paper will outline the drivers for the design of the medical care systems, prioritization and planning techniques, key system components, and long term goals.

  15. Towards Autonomic Service Provisioning Systems

    E-print Network

    Mazzucco, Michele

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses our experience in building SPIRE, an autonomic system for service provision. The architecture consists of a set of hosted Web Services subject to QoS constraints, and a certain number of servers used to run session-based traffic. Customers pay for having their jobs run, but require in turn certain quality guarantees: there are different SLAs specifying charges for running jobs and penalties for failing to meet promised performance metrics. The system is driven by an utility function, aiming at optimizing the average earned revenue per unit time. Demand and performance statistics are collected, while traffic parameters are estimated in order to make dynamic decisions concerning server allocation and admission control. Different utility functions are introduced and a number of experiments aiming at testing their performance are discussed. Results show that revenues can be dramatically improved by imposing suitable conditions for accepting incoming traffic; the proposed system performs well ...

  16. View of a subsurface Concrete Vault (Feature 9), looking westsouthwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of a subsurface Concrete Vault (Feature 9), looking west-southwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  17. Subsurface conductive isolation of refraction correlative magnetic signals (SCIRCMS) 

    E-print Network

    Erck, Eric Stephenson

    2004-11-15

    Isolation of terrestrially-observed magnetic signals by restoring their diffusive loss due to subsurface electrical conductivity sufficiently correlates these signals with those derived from the Alfven ionospheric electron ...

  18. A hydrogen-based subsurface microbial community dominated by methanogens.

    PubMed

    Chapelle, Francis H; O'Neill, Kathleen; Bradley, Paul M; Methé, Barbara A; Ciufo, Stacy A; Knobel, LeRoy L; Lovley, Derek R

    2002-01-17

    The search for extraterrestrial life may be facilitated if ecosystems can be found on Earth that exist under conditions analogous to those present on other planets or moons. It has been proposed, on the basis of geochemical and thermodynamic considerations, that geologically derived hydrogen might support subsurface microbial communities on Mars and Europa in which methanogens form the base of the ecosystem. Here we describe a unique subsurface microbial community in which hydrogen-consuming, methane-producing Archaea far outnumber the Bacteria. More than 90% of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequences recovered from hydrothermal waters circulating through deeply buried igneous rocks in Idaho are related to hydrogen-using methanogenic microorganisms. Geochemical characterization indicates that geothermal hydrogen, not organic carbon, is the primary energy source for this methanogen-dominated microbial community. These results demonstrate that hydrogen-based methanogenic communities do occur in Earth's subsurface, providing an analogue for possible subsurface microbial ecosystems on other planets. PMID:11797006

  19. BOD5 removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands

    E-print Network

    Melton, Rebecca Hobbs

    2005-08-29

    The frequency of on-site systems for treatment of domestic wastewater is increasing with new residential development in both rural and low-density suburban areas. Subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) have emerged as a viable option to achieve...

  20. Subsurface characterization of the San Jacinto River Research site

    E-print Network

    Leik, Jason Allan

    1998-01-01

    In order to develop an effective petroleum repudiation ics. strategy, the interaction between surface and shallow subsurface water was determined for the San Jacinto River Oi1 Spill Remediation Research site. The ten-acre wetland is located...

  1. Shallow Subsurface Stratigraphy of the Wetumpka Impact Structure, Alabama USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. T.; Ormo, J.; Petruny, L.; Markin, J. K.; Tabares Rodenas, P.; Johnson, R. C.; Neathery, T. L.

    2012-09-01

    Wetumpka impact structure is a small, marine target feature on the Coastal Plain of Alabama. Eight core holes have been drilled in Wetumpka and the resulting shallow subsurface stratigraphy is presented in summary here.

  2. A hydrogen-based subsurface microbial community dominated by methanogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; O'Neill, K.; Bradley, P.M.; Methe, B.A.; Ciufo, S.A.; Knobel, L.L.; Lovley, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    The search for extraterrestrial life may be facilitated if ecosystems can be found on Earth that exist under conditions analogous to those present on other planets or moons. It has been proposed, on the basis of geochemical and thermodynamic considerations, that geologically derived hydrogen might support subsurface microbial communities on Mars and Europa in which methanogens form the base of the ecosystem1-5. Here we describe a unique subsurface microbial community in which hydrogen-consuming, methane-producing Archaea far outnumber the Bacteria. More than 90% of the 16s ribosomal DNA sequences recovered from hydrothermal waters circulating through deeply buried igneous rocks in Idaho are related to hydrogen-using methanogenic microorganisms. Geochemical characterization indicates that geothermal hydrogen, not organic carbon, is the primary energy source for this methanogen-dominated microbial community. These results demonstrate that hydrogen-based methanogenic communities do occur in Earth's subsurface, providing an analogue for possible subsurface microbial ecosystems on other planets.

  3. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Subsurface Drip Distribution (Spanish) 

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Enciso, Juan

    1999-08-12

    A subsurface drip system distributes wastewater to the lawn through a system of tubing installed below the ground surface. This publication explains the advantages, disadvantages, maintenance steps and estimated costs of ...

  4. UNDERSTANDING THE FATE OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN THE SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To achieve effective remediation of subsurface petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, definite scientific and technical knowledge of their fate after they are spilled onto the ground surface or leaked from underground storage tanks is essential. his paper provides extensive details...

  5. Evaluation of the application uniformity of subsurface drip distribution systems 

    E-print Network

    Weynand, Vance Leo

    2004-09-30

    The goal of this research was to evaluate the application uniformity of subsurface drip distribution systems and the recovery of emitter flow rates. Emission volume in the field, and laboratory measured flow rates were ...

  6. Development of Autonomous Aerobraking (Phase 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Powell, Richard W.; Prince, Jill L.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center received a request from Mr. Daniel Murri (NASA Technical Fellow for Flight Mechanics) to develop an autonomous aerobraking capability. An initial evaluation for all phases of this assessment was approved to proceed at the NESC Review Board meeting. The purpose of phase 1 of this study was to provide an assessment of the feasibility of autonomous aerobraking. During this phase, atmospheric, aerodynamic, and thermal models for a representative spacecraft were developed for both the onboard algorithm known as Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software, and a ground-based "truth" simulation developed for testing purposes. The results of the phase 1 assessment are included in this report.

  7. Pure autonomic failure with cold induced sweating.

    PubMed

    Idiaquez, Juan; Fadic, Ricardo; Verdugo, Renato; Idiaquez, Juan F; Iodice, Valeria; Low, David A; Mathias, C J; Lombardi, Raffaela; Lauria, Giuseppe

    2013-06-01

    Pure autonomic failure (PAF) is a progressive autonomic neurodegenerative disorder. Cold induced sweating occurred in syndromes with mutations in CRLF1 and CLCF1 genes and in a case of cervical dissection. A patient with PAF developed sweating induced by cool ambient temperatures. He had severe orthostatic hypotension, abnormal cardiovagal reflexes, and paradoxical sweating in the upper trunk at a room temperature of 18°C. Skin biopsy showed involvement of somatic epidermal unmyelinated nerve fibers. Quantitative sensory testing showed abnormal thresholds to all thermal modalities. Possible mechanisms include cold induced noradrenaline release in remaining autonomic innervation and a supersensitive sudomotor response. PMID:23511064

  8. Autonomous observatories for the Antarctic plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, J. S.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Storey, J. W. V.

    2013-01-01

    Antarctic astronomical site-testing has been conducted using autonomous self-powered observatories for more than a decade (the AASTO at South Pole, the AASTINO at Dome C, and PLATO at Dome A/Dome F). More recently autonomous (PLATO) observatories have been developed and deployed to support small-scale scientific instruments, such as HEAT, a 0.6 m aperture terahertz telescope at Ridge A, and AST3, a 0.5 m optical telescope array at Dome A. This paper reviews the evolution of autonomous Antarctic astronomical observatories, and discusses the requirements and implications for observatories that will be needed for future larger-scale facilities.

  9. Development of Autonomous Aerobraking - Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.

    2013-01-01

    Phase 1 of the Development of Autonomous Aerobraking (AA) Assessment investigated the technical capability of transferring the processes of aerobraking maneuver (ABM) decision-making (currently performed on the ground by an extensive workforce and communicated to the spacecraft via the deep space network) to an efficient flight software algorithm onboard the spacecraft. This document describes Phase 2 of this study, which was a 12-month effort to improve and rigorously test the AA Development Software developed in Phase 1. Aerobraking maneuver; Autonomous Aerobraking; Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software; Deep Space Network; NASA Engineering and Safety Center

  10. Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    1994-01-01

    A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

  11. Survival and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of surface and subsurface bacteria in natural sediment microcosms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS L. KIEFT; ELLEN WILCH

    1997-01-01

    Although starvation survival has been characterized for many bacteria, few subsurface bacteria have been tested, and few if any have been tested in natural subsurface porous media. We hypothesized that subsurface bacteria may be uniquely adapted for long-term survival in situ. We further hypothesized that subsurface conditions (sediment type and moisture content) would influence microbial survival. We compared starvation survival

  12. Subsurface and surface oceanic diffusion experiments near Freeport, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Berry, Alan Dale

    1981-01-01

    horrzontal and vertical diffusion coefficients in 60 ft (19 m) of water off the coast of Freeport, Texas. Borizontal diffusion data was obtained for surface and subsurface dye releases, and vertical diffusion data was obtained for subsurface releases only... diffusion coefficients and related parameters for the study area are suggested. ACKNQWLEDGEMENTS The author gratefully acknowledces the technical, editorial and academic guidance provided by my committee chairman, Robert E. Randall...

  13. Monitoring the subsurface with quasi-static deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Sneider, Roel; Spetzler, Hartmut

    2013-09-06

    This project consisted of three sub-projects that are all aimed at monitoring the subsurface with geophysical methods. The objectives of these sub-projects are: to investigate the use of seismic waves for remote monitoring of temperature changes in the Yucca Mountain nuclear repository; to investigate the use of measured changes in the tidal tilt as a diagnostic for the infiltration of fluids in the subsurface; and to extract the electrostatic response from dynamic field fluctuations.

  14. Long-term hydraulic properties of subsurface flow constructed wetlands

    E-print Network

    Turner, Glenn Allen

    1994-01-01

    LONG-TERM HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF SUBSURFACE FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS A Thesis by GLENN ALLEN TURNER Submitted to the Office of Graduate studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1994 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering LONG-TERM HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF SUBSURFACE FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS by GLENN ALLEN TURNER Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfdlment of the requirements for the degree...

  15. Subsurface Ocean dynamics during two flavors of El Nino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, J.; Reischmann, E.; Rial, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    This study focuses on ocean subsurface temperature and its dynamics during two types of El Nino events, CP and EP. For the last 10-15 years, CP El Nino has been more frequently observed than EP El Nino. The atmospheric dynamics and different effects of the two types of El Nino on local climate have been extensively studied while the corresponding ocean dynamics under the sea surface have been less explored. Using SODA 2.2.4 dataset, we investigate how the subsurface water temperature is differentiated during two types of El Nino, especially focusing on onset and termination of the El Nino. We found that CP and EP El Nino have different origins of subsurface warm water over western Pacific Ocean. And we also show that subsurface cold water along the equator plays a role in terminating the both types of El Nino. The relationship between the subsurface water and wind stress curl is investigated to see whether the ocean-atmospheric teleconnections have different dynamics during CP and EP El Nino. This study will provide better understanding on the CP and EP El Nino dynamics especially under the sea surface and the subsurface dynamics can be exploited as one of the predictors of the El Nino events.

  16. Natural attenuation: what does the subsurface have in store?

    PubMed

    Röling, Wilfred F M; van Verseveld, Henk W

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the world, organic and inorganic substances leach into the subsurface as a result of human activities and accidents. There, the chemicals pose direct or indirect threats to the environment and to increasingly scarce drinking water resources. At many contaminated sites the subsurface is able to attenuate pollutants which, potentially, lowers the costs of remediation. Natural attenuation comprises a wide range of processes of which the microbiological component, which is responsible for intrinsic bioremediation, can decrease the mass and toxicity of the contaminants and is, therefore, the most important. Reliance on intrinsic bioremediation requires methods to monitor the process. The subject of this review is how knowledge of subsurface geology and hydrology, microbial ecology and degradation processes is used and can be used to monitor the potential and capacity for intrinsic bioremediation in the subsurface and to verify degradation in situ. As research on natural attenuation in the subsurface has been rather fragmented and limited and often allows only conclusions to be drawn of the site under investigation, we provide a concept based on Environmental Specimen Banking which will contribute to further understanding subsurface natural attenuation processes and will help to develop and implement new monitoring techniques. PMID:12222955

  17. Autonomous adaptive environmental assessment and feature tracking via autonomous underwater vehicles

    E-print Network

    Petillo, Stephanie Marie

    In the underwater environment, spatiotemporally dynamic environmental conditions pose challenges to the detection and tracking of hydrographic features. A useful tool in combating these challenge is Autonomous Adaptive ...

  18. Design of a minimalist autonomous robotic vehicle

    E-print Network

    Spadafora, Mark (Mark A.)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate design alternatives for the creation of a minimalist autonomous robotic vehicle, based on the Ford Escape. The work builds on prior work performed by the MIT DARPA Urban Challenge ...

  19. Human inspiration for autonomous vehicle tactics

    E-print Network

    Beaton, Jonathan Scott

    2006-01-01

    Tactical control is needed in environments characterized by uncertainty and continuous, dynamic change. Given the likelihood of time constraints and high risks associated with poor tactical choices, current autonomous ...

  20. System Engineering of Autonomous Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Trevino, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system requires fully autonomous systems when travelling more than 5 light minutes from Earth. This autonomy is necessary to manage a large, complex spacecraft with limited crew members and skills available. The communication latency requires the vehicle to deal with events with only limited crew interaction in most cases. The engineering of these systems requires an extensive knowledge of the spacecraft systems, information theory, and autonomous algorithm characteristics. The characteristics of the spacecraft systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm characteristics to reliably monitor and control the system. This presents a large system engineering problem. Recent work on product-focused, elegant system engineering will be applied to this application, looking at the full autonomy stack, the matching of autonomous systems to spacecraft systems, and the integration of different types of algorithms. Each of these areas will be outlined and a general approach defined for system engineering to provide the optimal solution to the given application context.

  1. XAUV : modular high maneuverability autonomous underwater vehicle

    E-print Network

    Walker, Daniel G. (Daniel George)

    2009-01-01

    The design and construction of a modular test bed autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is analyzed. Although a relatively common stacked-hull design is used, the state of the art is advanced through an aggressive power ...

  2. Multimodal interaction with an autonomous forklift

    E-print Network

    Correa, Andrew Thomas

    We describe a multimodal framework for interacting with an autonomous robotic forklift. A key element enabling effective interaction is a wireless, handheld tablet with which a human supervisor can command the forklift ...

  3. Exploring Mars via Autonomously Networked Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, E. J.; Burleigh, S. C.; Clare, L. P.; Torgerson, J. L.; Wagstaff, K. L.

    2012-06-01

    Enabling multiple assets to coordinate their activities autonomously via space networking techniques can significantly improve the way we explore Mars by enabling collaborative observations to improve science return and flexibility to reduce risk.

  4. Physics-Aware Planning for Autonomous Robots

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Satyandra K.

    ;Overview Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) Autonomous operations in complex environments require combination using machine learning and simulation Simulation Environment #12;USV Simulation · Test done on boat acceleration Initial State USV Simulation Model Speed Up Developed high-fidelity simulation model

  5. Orexin links emotional stress to autonomic functions.

    PubMed

    Kuwaki, Tomoyuki

    2011-04-26

    We studied autonomic functions in orexin-deficient mice and found abnormalities in the emotional state-dependent adjustment of the central autonomic regulation on circulation and respiration. These are summarized as follows. 1) Orexin-deficient mice exposed to a stressor exhibited an attenuated fight-or-flight response, including increases in respiration and blood pressure and stress-induced analgesia. 2) Stimulation to the amygdala (AMG) or the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), both of which are implicated in the stress-induced autonomic responses, induced long-lasting cardiorespiratory excitation in wild-type mice but not in the orexin neuron-ablated mice. Hence, it is likely that the orexin system is one of the essential modulators required for orchestrating the neural circuits controlling autonomic functions and emotional behaviors. PMID:20813590

  6. A flexible design framework for autonomous mowing

    E-print Network

    Kraft, Justin (Justin A.)

    2011-01-01

    This work outlines the creation of a flexible design framework for autonomous mowing to meet changing customer needs and functionality across a spectrum of applications from residential areas to sport complexes. The thesis ...

  7. Autonomous Organization-Based Adaptive Information Systems

    E-print Network

    Deloach, Scott A.

    Autonomous Organization-Based Adaptive Information Systems Eric Matson Department of Computer. To be successful, a battlefield information system must provide a continuous flow of information and thus tolerance information systems using an organizational model. We introduce our organizational model

  8. A Comparison of Autonomic Decision Making Techniques

    E-print Network

    Maggio, Martina

    2011-04-01

    Autonomic computing systems are capable of adapting their behavior and resources thousands of times a second to automatically decide the best way to accomplish a given goal despite changing environmental conditions and ...

  9. Controlled manipulation using autonomous aerial systems

    E-print Network

    Srikanth, Manohar B. (Manohar Balagatte)

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of the thesis is to design and control Autonomous Aerial Systems, also referred to as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are able to hover and navigate in space using the thrust forces generated by the ...

  10. Path planning methods for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Yi?it, Konuralp

    2011-01-01

    From naval operations to ocean science missions, the importance of autonomous vehicles is increasing with the advances in underwater robotics technology. Due to the dynamic and intermittent underwater environment and the ...

  11. Advancing Autonomous Operations Technologies for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruzen, Craig; Thompson, Jerry Todd

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of implementing advanced autonomous technologies supporting operations of future NASA missions. The ability for crewed, uncrewed and even ground support systems to be capable of mission support without external interaction or control has become essential as space exploration moves further out into the solar system. The push to develop and utilize autonomous technologies for NASA mission operations stems in part from the need to reduce operations cost while improving and increasing capability and safety. This paper will provide examples of autonomous technologies currently in use at NASA and will identify opportunities to advance existing autonomous technologies that will enhance mission success by reducing operations cost, ameliorating inefficiencies, and mitigating catastrophic anomalies.

  12. Autonomous thruster failure recovery for underactuated spacecraft

    E-print Network

    Pong, Christopher Masaru

    2010-01-01

    Thruster failures historically account for a large percentage of failures that have occurred on orbit. Therefore, autonomous thruster failure detection, isolation, and recovery (FDIR) is an essential component to any robust ...

  13. DWH MC 252: Subsurface Oil Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beegle-Krause, C. J.; Boyer, T.; Murray, D.

    2010-12-01

    Before reaching the ocean surface, the oil and gas released from the DWH MC 252 blowout at 1500 m moves as a buoyant plume until the trapping depth and plume transition point are reached (Zheng et al 2002). At the transition point, the oil droplets and bubbles move independently of each other, and rise at a rate related to their diameter. The oil density, droplet size distribution and currents primarily determine the distribution of the oil between: Large droplets that rise quickly and create a surface expression of the oil. Moderate size droplets that rise over the course of days, and so spread out quite differently than the surface oil, and commonly do not reach the surface in large enough quantities to create a surface sheen. These droplets separate in the currents, particularly in the strong current shear in upper 500 m currents. Very tiny droplets that rise very slowly, over the course or weeks to months, and may be removed by dissolution, biodegradation or marine snow before ever reaching the surface. Modeling and observations (Joint Analysis Group, 2010) confirm the presence of a deep layer of oil and gas between approximately 1100 and 1300 m over the release location and spreading out along the isopycnal surfaces. Later in the event, a small oxygen depression was a proxy for where oil and gas had been. The DWH MC252 well is located at intermediate depth in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The water mass is Antarctic Intermediate Water, which enters and exits the GoM through the Yucatan Straits. Surface influences, such as Loop Current Frontal Eddies (e.g. Berger et al 2000) can reach down to these depths, and alter the flow within De Soto Canyon. The water mass containing the deep layer of oil droplets changes depth within the GoM, but does not reach above a depth of about 900 m. There are no physical processes that could cause this deep layer of oil to reach the continental shelf or the Florida Straits. Observed and historical hydrographic data, observations, previous research and modeling were combined to tell the story of the DWH MC 252 from the subsurface perspective. The Comprehensive Deepwater Oil and Gas model (CDOG, Yapa and Xie, 2005), and the General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment (GNOME, Beegle-Krause, 1999) were used with the NOAA Gulf of Mexico Model nowcast/forecast model to understand the 3D evolution of the subsurface spill. Model/observational comparisons are favorable, though limitations of the available models are apparent. Historical perspective on Thunder Horse (a deepwater well incident that was a dress-rehearsal for the DWH MC 252, Beegle-Krause and Walton, 2004), transitioning models from research to operations, and research needs will also be discussed.

  14. Paracetamol removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranieri, Ezio; Verlicchi, Paola; Young, Thomas M.

    2011-07-01

    SummaryIn this study two pilot scale Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands (HSFCWs) near Lecce, Italy, planted with different macrophytes ( Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia) and an unplanted control were assessed for their effectiveness in removing paracetamol. Residence time distributions (RTDs) for the two beds indicated that the Typha bed was characterized by a void volume fraction (porosity) of 0.16 and exhibited more ideal plug flow behavior (Pe = 29.7) than the Phragmites bed (Pe = 26.7), which had similar porosity. The measured hydraulic residence times in the planted beds were 35.8 and 36.7 h when the flow was equal to 1 m 3/d. The Phragmites bed exhibited a range of paracetamol removals from 51.7% for a Hydraulic Loading Rate (HLR) of 240 mm/d to 87% with 120 mm/d HLR and 99.9% with 30 mm/d. The Typha bed showed a similar behavior with percentages of removal slightly lower, ranging from 46.7% (HLR of 240 mm/d) to >99.9% (hydraulic loading rate of 30 mm/d). At the same HLR values the unplanted bed removed between 51.3% and 97.6% of the paracetamol. In all three treatments the paracetamol removal was higher with flow of 1 m 3/d and an area of approx. 7.5 m 2 (half bed) than in the case of flow equal to 0.5 m 3/d with a surface treatment of approx. 3.75 m 2. A first order model for paracetamol removal was evaluated and half lives of 5.16 to 10.2 h were obtained.

  15. Subsurface void detection using seismic tomographic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gritto, Roland

    2003-06-26

    Tomographic imaging has been widely used in scientific and medical fields to remotely image media in a nondestructive way. This paper introduces a spectrum of seismic imaging applications to detect and characterize voids in coal mines. The application of seismic waves to detect changes in coal relies on two types of waves: body waves refracted along the interface between coal and bedrock (i.e., refracted P-waves) and channel waves that propagate directly through the coal (dispersive wave trains of the Rayleigh or Love type). For example, a P-wave tomography study to find underlying old mine workings in a coal mine in England, produced velocity patterns that revealed increases in velocity where high stress concentrations occur in the rock, which are most likely connected to old pillars left in support of the old working areas. At the same time, low velocities were found in areas of low stress concentrations, which are related to roof collapses indicating the locations of mined areas below. The application of channel wave tomography to directly image the presence of gaseous CO{sub 2} in a low velocity oil reservoir showed that the injected CO{sub 2} followed an ancient flow channel in the reservoir migrating from the injector to the producer well. The study showed how channel waves are preferable over refracted P-waves, as the latter were only marginally affected by the presence of the gas in the low-velocity channel. Similar approaches show great promise for the detection of voids in coal mines. Finally, a newly developed technique, based on scattering theory, revealed that the location and the size of a subsurface cavity could be accurately determined even in the presence of strong correlated and uncorrelated noise.

  16. Magnetotelluric Sensor Development for Planetary Subsurface Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuqua, H.; Delory, G. T.; De Pater, I.; Grimm, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) Sounding is a powerful geophysical investigation technique capable of constraining planetary subsurface structure, including core size, mantle and crustal temperature profiles, and the distribution of electrical conductivity at depth. Natural sources of EM activity, including solar wind turbulence and plasma waves, can induce electric and magnetic fields in the Moon and other small bodies. These induced fields respond according to the electrical conductivity as a function of skin depth of the body in question. In a branch of EM Sounding known as Magnetotellurics (MT), measurements of the horizontal electric and magnetic fields at the planetary surface are inverted to produce constraints on the interior. MT is particularly worthwhile in that geophysically meaningful results can be obtained from a single station, thus avoiding network mission architectures. While surface magnetic field measurements were taken on the Moon during the Apollo era, to date no measurements of the surface horizontal electric field have been attempted. However electric field measurements on the lunar surface should be feasible given their long successful history on spacecraft missions in similar environments. Building upon the heritage of electric field sensor technology at the UC Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory, we describe a development plan for this instrument from component level to a fully functional instrument assembly for use in EM sounding, highlighting operational requirements, science capabilities, required testing, anticipated results and challenges to overcome. Upon development, this lander electric field sensor will enable future MT surveys on the Moon, and will provide a new exploration method for other small airless bodies from a single station.

  17. Autonomous vehicle control using AI techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Keirsey, D.; Mitchell, J.; Bullock, B.; Nussmeier, T.; Tseng, D.

    1983-11-01

    A review of early work on a project for developing autonomous vehicle control technology is presented. The primary goal of this effort is the development of a generic capability that can be specialized to a wide range of DOD applications. Project emphasis is on development of the fundamental AI-based technology required by autonomous systems and the implementation of a testbed environment to evaluate and demonstrate the system capabilities. 10 references.

  18. Autonomous support for microorganism research in space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Fleet; J. D. Smith; D. M. Klaus; M. W. Luttges

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary design for performing on orbit, autonomous research on microorganisms and cultured cells\\/tissues is presented. The payload is designed to be compatible with the COMercial Experiment Transporter (COMET), an orbiter middeck locker interface and with Space Station Freedom. Uplink\\/downlink capabilities and sample return through controlled reentry are available for all carriers. Autonomous testing activities are preprogrammed with in-flight reprogrammability.

  19. Fully autonomous mobile mini-robot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Buechi; Daniel Rohrer; Christian Schmid; Roland Siegwart

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, many new designs of micro robots have been developed. Miniaturization is a challenge and most mechanisms designed up to now are not autonomous, i.e. they don't have their intelligence and\\/or power supply on board. A new fully autonomous miniature mobile robot has been designed in our lab in a final year project. It has been programmed to

  20. The Techsat-21 autonomous space science agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve A. Chien; Rob Sherwood; Gregg Rabideau; Rebecca Castano; Ashley Davies; Michael C. Burl; Russell Knight; Timothy M. Stough; Joseph Roden; Paul Zetocha; Ross Wainwright; Pete Klupar; Jim Van Gaasbeck; Pat Cappelaere; Dean Oswald

    2002-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat-21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2004. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. In this paper we

  1. Tele-robotic/autonomous control using controlshell

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, K.C.; Hurd, R.L.; Couture, S.

    1996-12-10

    A tele-robotic and autonomous controller architecture for waste handling and sorting has been developed which uses tele-robotics, autonomous grasping and image processing. As a starting point, prior work from LLNL and ORNL was restructured and ported to a special real-time development environment. Significant improvements in collision avoidance, force compliance, and shared control aspects were then developed. Several orders of magnitude improvement were made in some areas to meet the speed and robustness requirements of the application.

  2. Autonomic Computing - A Means of Achieving Dependability?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy Sterritt; David W. Bustard

    2003-01-01

    Autonomic Computing is emerging a s a significant new approach to the design o f computing systems. Its goal is the development of systems that are self- configuring, self-healing, self-protecting and self- optimizing. Dependability is a long-standing d esirable property of all computer-based systems. The purpose of this paper is to consider how Autonomic Computing can provide a framework for

  3. Autonomous control systems - Architecture and fundamental issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antsaklis, P. J.; Passino, K. M.; Wang, S. J.

    1988-01-01

    A hierarchical functional autonomous controller architecture is introduced. In particular, the architecture for the control of future space vehicles is described in detail; it is designed to ensure the autonomous operation of the control system and it allows interaction with the pilot and crew/ground station, and the systems on board the autonomous vehicle. The fundamental issues in autonomous control system modeling and analysis are discussed. It is proposed to utilize a hybrid approach to modeling and analysis of autonomous systems. This will incorporate conventional control methods based on differential equations and techniques for the analysis of systems described with a symbolic formalism. In this way, the theory of conventional control can be fully utilized. It is stressed that autonomy is the design requirement and intelligent control methods appear at present, to offer some of the necessary tools to achieve autonomy. A conventional approach may evolve and replace some or all of the `intelligent' functions. It is shown that in addition to conventional controllers, the autonomous control system incorporates planning, learning, and FDI (fault detection and identification).

  4. Autonomous Repair Fault Tolerant Dynamic Reconfigurable Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahara, Kentaro; Kouyama, Shin'ichi; Izumi, Tomonori; Ochi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yukihiro

    Recently, reconfigurable devices are widely used in the fields of small amount production and trial production. They are also expected to be utilized in such mission-critical fields as space development, because system update and pseudo-repair can be achieved remotely by reconfiguring. However, in the case of conventional reconfigurable devices, configuration memory upsets caused by radiation and alpha particles reconfigure the device unpredictably, resulting in fatal system failures. Therefore, a reconfigurable device with high fault-tolerance against configuration upsets is required. In this paper, we propose an architecture of a fault-tolerant reconfigurable device that autonomously repairs configuration upsets by itself without interrupting system operations. The device consists of a 2D array of “Autonomous-Repair Cells” each of which repairs its upsets autonomously. The architecture has a scalability in fault tolerance; a finer-grained Autonomous-Repair Cell provides higher fault-tolerance. To determine the architecture, we analyze four autonomous repair techniques of the cell experimentally. Then, two autonomous repair techniques, simple multiplexing (S.M.) and memory multiplexing (M.M.), are applied; the former to programmable logics and the latter to cell-to-cell routing resources. Through evaluation, we show that proposed device achieves more than 10 years average lifetime against configuration upsets even in a severe situation such as a satellite orbit.

  5. Autonomic networks and network-enabled capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillings, James

    2004-07-01

    Changes in the nature of battlespace information services, combined with the drive to digitization, are raising expectations of the ability of network-centric systems to provide information throughput and timeliness. At a level often abstracted from the systems perspective, it becomes necessary to consider the nature of the underlying network and its ability to adapt, recover, and organise in the face of increasing demands and non-optimal environments. Without this consideration, it may be that the capabilities of the underlying network act to restrict the exploitation of Network-Enabled Capability. Autonomic networks and autonomic computing are being presented as a possible aid to sustaining critical infrastructures of dynamic nodes. Although the focus of much commercial activity, autonomic networks are also believed to have relevance in the military environment and, most importantly, in supporting emerging battlespace information systems and digitization initiatives. Albeit well understood in biological contexts, autonomic principles have yet to be proven in commercial technological environments and, more importantly, in the context of military demands. Derived from this, key issues relate to the true nature of autonomic networks, the benefits accruing from such networks, and those challenges compounded by increasing demands from the ongoing development of military technology and digitization trends. This paper presents an examination of the demands made by the evolution of battlespace information services, some of the applicable technologies to address those demands, and examines the state of current and emerging technology to determine the perceived nature of autonomic networks in the context of Network-Enabled Capability.

  6. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  7. Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications. PMID:18598141

  8. Drilling Systems for Extraterrestrial Subsurface Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Brennan, M.; Briggs, G.; Cooper, G.; Davis, K.; Dolgin, B.; Glaser, D.; Glass, B.; Gorevan, S.; Guerrero, J.; McKay, C.; Paulsen, G.; Stanley, S.; Stoker, C.

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications.

  9. PREDICTING BIOTRANSFORMATIONS IN THE SUBSURFACE: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ATP (ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE) CONTENT OF SUBSURFACE MATERIAL AND THE CAPACITY OF SUBSURFACE ORGANISMS TO DEGRADE TOLUENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deeper subsurface material was collected in a manner that prevented contamination by surface microorganisms. This material was analyzed for ATP content, and for its capacity to degrade toluene, a common organic contaminant of ground water originating from release of petroleum pro...

  10. Autonomous synergic control of nanomotors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meihan; Hou, Ruizheng; Cheng, Juan; Loh, Iong Ying; Sreelatha, Sarangapani; Tey, Ju Nie; Wei, Jun; Wang, Zhisong

    2014-02-25

    Control is a hallmark of machines; effective control over a nanoscale system is necessary to turn it into a nanomachine. Nanomotors from biology often integrate a ratchet-like passive control and a power-stroke-like active control, and this synergic active-plus-passive control is critical to efficient utilization of energy. It remains a challenge to integrate the two differing types of control in rationally designed nanomotor systems. Recently a light-powered track-walking DNA nanomotor was developed from a bioinspired design principle that has the potential to integrate both controls. However, it is difficult to separate experimental signals for either control due to a tight coupling of both controls. Here we present a systematic study of the motor and new derivatives using different fluorescence labeling schemes and light operations. The experimental data suggest that the motor achieves the two controls autonomously through a mechanics-mediated symmetry breaking. This study presents an experimental validation for the bioinspired design principle of mechanical breaking of symmetry for synergic ratchet-plus-power stroke control. Augmented by mechanical and kinetic modeling, this experimental study provides mechanistic insights that may help advance molecular control in future nanotechnological systems. PMID:24422493

  11. Autonomic dysregulation in headache patients.

    PubMed

    Gass, Jason J; Glaros, Alan G

    2013-12-01

    To analyze autonomic nervous system activity in headache subjects, measurements of heart rate variability (HRV), skin temperature, skin conductance, and respiration were compared to a matched control group. HRV data were recorded in time and frequency domains. Subjects also completed self-report questionnaires assessing psychological distress, fatigue, and sleep dysfunction. Twenty-one headache and nineteen control subjects participated. In the time domain, the number of consecutive R-to-R intervals that varied by more than 50 ms and the standard deviation of the normalized R-to-R intervals, both indices of parasympathetic nervous system activity, were significantly lower in the headache group than the control group. Groups did not differ statistically on HRV measures in the frequency domain. Self-report measures showed significantly increased somatization, hostility, anxiety, symptom distress, fatigue, and sleep problems in the headache group. The results suggest headache subjects have increased sympathetic nervous system activity and decreased parasympathetic activity compared to non-headache control subjects. Headaches subjects also showed greater emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep problems. The results indicate an association between headaches and cardiovascular functioning suggestive of sympathetic nervous system activation in this sample of mixed migraine and tension-type headache sufferers. PMID:23912525

  12. Is acting on delusions autonomous?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the question of autonomy in delusional disorders is investigated using a phenomenological approach. I refer to the distinction between freedom of intentional action, and freedom of the will, and develop phenomenological descriptions of lived autonomy, taking into account the distinction between a pre-reflective and a reflective type. Drawing on a case report, I deliver finely-grained phenomenological descriptions of lived autonomy and experienced self-determination when acting on delusions. This analysis seeks to demonstrate that a person with delusions can be described as responsible for her behaviour on a ‘framed’ level (level of freedom of intentional action), even though she is not autonomous on a higher (‘framing’) level (level of freedom of the will), if, and only if, the goods of agency for herself and others are respected. In these cases the person with delusions is very nearly comparable to people in love, who are also not free to choose their convictions, and who could also be rightly held responsible for the behaviour flowing from their convictions. PMID:24125114

  13. Autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, Marc; Bomer, Thierry T.; Calesse, C.; Dudych, L.; L'Hoist, P.

    1995-01-01

    Autonomous intelligent cruise control (AICC) systems are not only controlling vehicles' speed but acting on the throttle and eventually on the brakes they could automatically maintain the relative speed and distance between two vehicles in the same lane. And more than just for comfort it appears that these new systems should improve the safety on highways. By applying a technique issued from the space research carried out by MATRA, a sensor based on a charge coupled device (CCD) was designed to acquire the reflected light on standard-mounted car reflectors of pulsed laser diodes emission. The CCD is working in a unique mode called flash during transfer (FDT) which allows identification of target patterns in severe optical environments. It provides high accuracy for distance and angular position of targets. The absence of moving mechanical parts ensures high reliability for this sensor. The large field of view and the high measurement rate give a global situation assessment and a short reaction time. Then, tracking and filtering algorithms have been developed in order to select the target, on which the equipped vehicle determines its safety distance and speed, taking into account its maneuvering and the behaviors of other vehicles.

  14. Autonomic healing of polymer composites.

    PubMed

    White, S R; Sottos, N R; Geubelle, P H; Moore, J S; Kessler, M R; Sriram, S R; Brown, E N; Viswanathan, S

    2001-02-15

    Structural polymers are susceptible to damage in the form of cracks, which form deep within the structure where detection is difficult and repair is almost impossible. Cracking leads to mechanical degradation of fibre-reinforced polymer composites; in microelectronic polymeric components it can also lead to electrical failure. Microcracking induced by thermal and mechanical fatigue is also a long-standing problem in polymer adhesives. Regardless of the application, once cracks have formed within polymeric materials, the integrity of the structure is significantly compromised. Experiments exploring the concept of self-repair have been previously reported, but the only successful crack-healing methods that have been reported so far require some form of manual intervention. Here we report a structural polymeric material with the ability to autonomically heal cracks. The material incorporates a microencapsulated healing agent that is released upon crack intrusion. Polymerization of the healing agent is then triggered by contact with an embedded catalyst, bonding the crack faces. Our fracture experiments yield as much as 75% recovery in toughness, and we expect that our approach will be applicable to other brittle materials systems (including ceramics and glasses). PMID:11236987

  15. Self-Consciousness and Self-Presentation: Being Autonomous Versus Appearing Autonomous

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry R. Schlenker; Michael F. Weigold

    1990-01-01

    Privately self-conscious people may resist social pressures because (a) they tune out the social matrix and express their beliefs irrespective of how they make them appear to an audience (the social obliviousness hypothesis) or (b) they prefer to create an identity of being autonomous and will monitor and control their self-presentations to construct this image for audiences (the autonomous identity

  16. Assessment and evaluation of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies with autonomic and neurophysiological examinations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max J. Hilz

    2002-01-01

    The five different types of the rare hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are classified by their mode of inheritance, pathology, natural history, biochemical, neurophysiologic and autonomic abnormalities. Clinically, the different types of HSANs can be identified by a detailed history and examination and 'bedside' tests of sympathetic or parasympathetic function such as active standing, metronomic breathing or the Valsalva

  17. TrustworthyNetworkingProgram Autonomous System IsolationAutonomous System Isolation

    E-print Network

    Trajkovic, Ljiljana

    researchers characterize the design space: risks, mitigation techniques and deployment costs. ­ Expedite1 TrustworthyNetworkingProgram Autonomous System IsolationAutonomous System Isolation Under BGP@nist.gov, dougm@nist.gov November 9, 2005November 9, 2005 This research was supported by the Department

  18. Intercellular Genomics of Subsurface Microbial Colonies

    SciTech Connect

    Ortoleva, Peter; Tuncay, Kagan; Gannon, Dennis; Meile, Christof

    2007-02-14

    This report summarizes progress in the second year of this project. The objective is to develop methods and software to predict the spatial configuration, properties and temporal evolution of microbial colonies in the subsurface. To accomplish this, we integrate models of intracellular processes, cell-host medium exchange and reaction-transport dynamics on the colony scale. At the conclusion of the project, we aim to have the foundations of a predictive mathematical model and software that captures the three scales of these systems – the intracellular, pore, and colony wide spatial scales. In the second year of the project, we refined our transcriptional regulatory network discovery (TRND) approach that utilizes gene expression data along with phylogenic similarity and gene ontology analyses and applied it successfully to E.coli, human B cells, and Geobacter sulfurreducens. We have developed a new Web interface, GeoGen, which is tailored to the reconstruction of microbial TRNs and solely focuses on Geobacter as one of DOE’s high priority microbes. Our developments are designed such that the frameworks for the TRND and GeoGen can readily be used for other microbes of interest to the DOE. In the context of modeling a single bacterium, we are actively pursuing both steady-state and kinetic approaches. The steady-state approach is based on a flux balance that uses maximizing biomass growth rate as its objective, subjected to various biochemical constraints, for the optimal values of reaction rates and uptake/release of metabolites. For the kinetic approach, we use Karyote, a rigorous cell model developed by us for an earlier DOE grant and the DARPA BioSPICE Project. We are also investigating the interplay between bacterial colonies and environment at both pore and macroscopic scales. The pore scale models use detailed representations for realistic porous media accounting for the distribution of grain size whereas the macroscopic models employ the Darcy-type flow equations and up-scaled advective-diffusive transport equations for chemical species. We are rigorously testing the relationship between these two scales by evaluating macroscopic parameters using the volume averaging methodology applied to pore scale model results.

  19. Geophysical subsurface imaging and interface identification.

    SciTech Connect

    Pendley, Kevin; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Day, David Minot; Robinson, Allen Conrad; Weiss, Chester Joseph

    2005-09-01

    Electromagnetic induction is a classic geophysical exploration method designed for subsurface characterization--in particular, sensing the presence of geologic heterogeneities and fluids such as groundwater and hydrocarbons. Several approaches to the computational problems associated with predicting and interpreting electromagnetic phenomena in and around the earth are addressed herein. Publications resulting from the project include [31]. To obtain accurate and physically meaningful numerical simulations of natural phenomena, computational algorithms should operate in discrete settings that reflect the structure of governing mathematical models. In section 2, the extension of algebraic multigrid methods for the time domain eddy current equations to the frequency domain problem is discussed. Software was developed and is available in Trilinos ML package. In section 3 we consider finite element approximations of De Rham's complex. We describe how to develop a family of finite element spaces that forms an exact sequence on hexahedral grids. The ensuing family of non-affine finite elements is called a van Welij complex, after the work [37] of van Welij who first proposed a general method for developing tangentially and normally continuous vector fields on hexahedral elements. The use of this complex is illustrated for the eddy current equations and a conservation law problem. Software was developed and is available in the Ptenos finite element package. The more popular methods of geophysical inversion seek solutions to an unconstrained optimization problem by imposing stabilizing constraints in the form of smoothing operators on some enormous set of model parameters (i.e. ''over-parametrize and regularize''). In contrast we investigate an alternative approach whereby sharp jumps in material properties are preserved in the solution by choosing as model parameters a modest set of variables which describe an interface between adjacent regions in physical space. While still over-parametrized, this choice of model space contains far fewer parameters than before, thus easing the computational burden, in some cases, of the optimization problem. And most importantly, the associated finite element discretization is aligned with the abrupt changes in material properties associated with lithologic boundaries as well as the interface between buried cultural artifacts and the surrounding Earth. In section 4, algorithms and tools are described that associate a smooth interface surface to a given triangulation. In particular, the tools support surface refinement and coarsening. Section 5 describes some preliminary results on the application of interface identification methods to some model problems in geophysical inversion. Due to time constraints, the results described here use the GNU Triangulated Surface Library for the manipulation of surface meshes and the TetGen software library for the generation of tetrahedral meshes.

  20. Microbial iron-redox cycling in subsurface environments.

    PubMed

    Roden, Eric E

    2012-12-01

    In addition to its central role in mediating electron-transfer reactions within all living cells, iron undergoes extracellular redox transformations linked to microbial energy generation through utilization of Fe(II) as a source of chemical energy or Fe(III) as an electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration. These processes permit microbial populations and communities to engage in cyclic coupled iron oxidation and reduction within redox transition zones in subsurface environments. In the present paper, I review and synthesize a few case studies of iron-redox cycling in subsurface environments, highlighting key biochemical aspects of the extracellular iron-redox metabolisms involved. Of specific interest are the coupling of iron oxidation and reduction in field and experimental systems that model redox gradients and fluctuations in the subsurface, and novel pathways and organisms involved in the redox cycling of insoluble iron-bearing minerals. These findings set the stage for rapid expansion in our knowledge of the range of extracellular electron-transfer mechanisms utilized by subsurface micro-organisms. The observation that closely coupled oxidation and reduction of iron can take place under conditions common to the subsurface motivates this expansion in pursuit of molecular tools for studying iron-redox cycling communities in situ. PMID:23176463

  1. Anaerobic oxidation of methane in the terrestrial subsurface environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, M.; Yoshioka, H.; Seo, Y.; Tanabe, S.; Tamaki, H.; Kamagata, Y.; Takahashi, H. A.; Igari, S.; Mayumi, D.; Sakata, S.

    2010-12-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is one of the important processes involved in the global cycle of carbon. Microorganisms involved in AOM in marine sediments have been extensively studied, and various groups of anaerobic methane oxidizing archaea (ANME) are known to be involved in AOM in marine sediments. On the other hand, little is known about AOM and the related microorganisms in the terrestrial subsurface. DNA related to ANME has been detected in some terrestrial subsurface environments harboring freshwater. However, it is not still clear if these microbes are active there. In this study, we aimed to reveal activity, distribution, and phylogeny of ANME in terrestrial subsurface harboring freshwater. We obtained sediment core samples in the Kanto Plain, Japan, and conducted molecular analyses (community analysis based on DNA and RNA, real-time PCR) and activity measurement using stable isotope. Molecular analyses revealed that distinct subgroup of ANME archaea was the dominant group in the active archaeal community. Potential activity measurement using 13C-methane detected continuous enrichment of 13C in dissolved CO2 under anaerobic condition during 4 months of incubation. We conclude that AOM occurs in the terrestrial subsurface environment harboring freshwater, and ANME is likely to be involved in the process. This group of microorganisms is considered to play an important role in the carbon cycle in the terrestrial subsurface environment.

  2. Subsurface thermal effects of deforestation and borehole climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitoiu, D.; Beltrami, H.

    2004-12-01

    Changes in land surface conditions such as deforestation or forest fires modify the energy balance at the ground surface. Such energy imbalances appear as subsurface transient thermal signals superimposed on the climatic signal and the steady state geothermal field. Removal of the forest canopy increases the solar radiation reaching the ground surface. The associated increase in albedo is compensated by a decrease in evapotranspiration and the ground gains energy causing the surface temperature to increase. In the context of the ground surface energy balance and the thermal regime of the subsurface, the forest floor organic matter layer acts as a thermal insulator and moisture-retaining layer covering the ground. The integrated transient thermal signals caused by the rearrangement of the energy budget at the air-ground interface and by the variation of forest floor organic matter layer after deforestation are propagated and recorded in the subsurface. In this study, we examine the effects of deforestation on borehole temperature data by applying a first-order correction method to the subsurface data. We simulate the ground surface temperature variation following deforestation using a combined power and exponential function, based on data obtained from a chronosequence study of the evolution of forest floor organic matter mass. We show that the effects of deforestation on the subsurface temperatures, though important, are much smaller than previously thought. The application of this correction to the borehole temperature data from areas affected by land use changes may allow their incorporation into climatological studies.

  3. Lower-Temperature Subsurface Layout and Ventilation Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Christine L. Linden; Edward G. Thomas

    2001-06-20

    This analysis combines work scope identified as subsurface facility (SSF) low temperature (LT) Facilities System and SSF LT Ventilation System in the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M&O 2001b, pp. 6 and 7, and pp. 13 and 14). In accordance with this technical work plan (TWP), this analysis is performed using AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models. It also incorporates the procedure AP-SI.1Q, Software Management. The purpose of this analysis is to develop an overall subsurface layout system and the overall ventilation system concepts that address a lower-temperature operating mode for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The objective of this analysis is to provide a technical design product that supports the lower-temperature operating mode concept for the revision of the system description documents and to provide a basis for the system description document design descriptions. The overall subsurface layout analysis develops and describes the overall subsurface layout, including performance confirmation facilities (also referred to as Test and Evaluation Facilities) for the Site Recommendation design. This analysis also incorporates current program directives for thermal management.

  4. Autonomic Involvement in Subacute and Chronic Immune-Mediated Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Mazzeo, Anna; Stancanelli, Claudia; Vita, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Autonomic function can be impaired in many disorders in which sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric arms of the autonomic nervous system are affected. Signs and symptoms of autonomic involvement are related to impairment of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, urogenital, thermoregulatory, sudomotor, and pupillomotor autonomic functions. Availability of noninvasive, sensitive, and reproducible tests can help to recognize these disorders and to better understand specific mechanisms of some, potentially treatable, immune-mediated autonomic neuropathies. This paper describes autonomic involvement in immune-mediated neuropathies with a subacute or chronic course. PMID:23853716

  5. How to Access and Sample the Deep Subsurface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, G.; Blacic, J.; Dreesen, D.; Mockler, T.

    2000-01-01

    We are developing a technology roadmap to support a series of Mars lander missions aimed at successively deeper and more comprehensive explorations of the Martian subsurface. The proposed mission sequence is outlined. Key to this approach is development of a drilling and sampling technology robust and flexible enough to successfully penetrate the presently unknown subsurface geology and structure. Martian environmental conditions, mission constraints of power and mass and a requirement for a high degree of automation all limit applicability of many proven terrestrial drilling technologies. Planetary protection and bioscience objectives further complicate selection of candidate systems. Nevertheless, recent advances in drilling technologies for the oil & gas, mining, underground utility and other specialty drilling industries convinces us that it will be possible to meet science and operational objectives of Mars subsurface exploration.

  6. Subsurface barrier demonstration test strategy and performance specification

    SciTech Connect

    Treat, R.L.; Cruse, J.M.

    1994-05-01

    This document was developed to help specify a major demonstration test project of subsurface barrier systems supporting the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The document focuses discussion on requirements applicable to demonstration of three subsurface barrier concepts: (1) Injected Material, (2) Cryogenic, and (3) Desiccant. Detailed requirements are provided for initial qualification of a technology proposal followed by the pre-demonstration and demonstration test requirements and specifications. Each requirement and specification is accompanied by a discussion of the rationale for it. The document also includes information on the Hanford Site tank farms and related data; the related and currently active technology development projects within the DOE`s EM-50 Program; and the overall demonstration test strategy. Procurement activities and other preparations for actual demonstration testing are on hold until a decision is made regarding further development of subsurface barriers. Accordingly, this document is being issued for information only.

  7. Improved autonomous star identification algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Li-Yan; Xu, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Hua; Sun, Jing-Rong

    2015-06-01

    The log–polar transform (LPT) is introduced into the star identification because of its rotation invariance. An improved autonomous star identification algorithm is proposed in this paper to avoid the circular shift of the feature vector and to reduce the time consumed in the star identification algorithm using LPT. In the proposed algorithm, the star pattern of the same navigation star remains unchanged when the stellar image is rotated, which makes it able to reduce the star identification time. The logarithmic values of the plane distances between the navigation and its neighbor stars are adopted to structure the feature vector of the navigation star, which enhances the robustness of star identification. In addition, some efforts are made to make it able to find the identification result with fewer comparisons, instead of searching the whole feature database. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition rate and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the LPT algorithm and the modified grid algorithm. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61172138 and 61401340), the Open Research Fund of the Academy of Satellite Application, China (Grant No. 2014_CXJJ-DH_12), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. JB141303 and 201413B), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013JQ8040), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130203120004), and the Xi’an Science and Technology Plan, China (Grant. No CXY1350(4)).

  8. Autonomous Rovers for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Corin; Bresina, John; Golden, Keith; Smith, David E.; Smith, Trey; Washington, Richard; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Rovers will play a critical role in the exploration of Mars. Near-term mission plans call for long traverses over unknown terrain, robust navigation and instrument placement, and reliable operations for extended periods of time. Longer-term missions may visit multiple science sites in a single day and perform opportunistic science data collection, as well as complex scouting, construction, and maintenance tasks in preparation for an eventual human presence. The Pathfinder mission demonstrated the potential for robotic Mars exploration but at the same time indicated the need for more rover autonomy. The highly ground-intensive control with infrequent communication and high latency limited the effectiveness of the Sojourner rover. When failures occurred, Sojourner often sat idle for extended periods of time, awaiting further commands from earth. In future missions, the tasks will be more complex and extended; hence there will be even more situations where things do not go exactly as planned. Significant advances in rover autonomy are needed to cope with increasing task complexity and greater execution uncertainty. Towards this end, we have designed an on-board executive architecture that incorporates robust operation, resource utilization, and failure recovery. In addition, we have designed ground tools to produce and refine contingent schedules that take advantage of the on-board architecture's flexible execution characteristics. Together, the on-board executive and the ground tools constitute an integrated rover autonomy architecture. This work draws from our experience with the Deep Space One autonomy experiment, with enhancements to ensure robust operation in the face of the unpredictable, complex environment that the rover will encounter on Mars. The rover autonomy architecture is currently being developed and deployed on the Marsokhod rover platform at NASA Ames Research Center. The capabilities of the rover autonomy architecture to support autonomous operations will be demonstrated concretely in upcoming field tests.

  9. Diabetic Autonomic Imbalance and Glycemic Variability

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic autonomic neural imbalance is a severe complication of long-term diabetes patients and may progress to diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). The prevalence of DAN is reported to be between 20 and 70%, depending on the studies. The pathogenesis of DAN remains unresolved. However, emerging evidence suggests that glycemic variability (GV) may be associated with autonomic imbalance in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. As symptoms are initially weak and uncharacteristic, the condition often remains undiagnosed until late manifestations present themselves. Predominant symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, gastroparesis, involuntary diarrhea, postural hypotension, voiding difficulties, and sexual dysfunction. Analyzing the patterns of heart rate variability carries the potential for detection of autonomic imbalance in the subclinical and asymptomatic stages. In this context, GV may affect the sympathovagal balance by increasing oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines. Establishing a GV risk profile could therefore be important in determining risk factors in diabetes patients. This review addresses the issues above and in particular the possible association between diabetic autonomic imbalance and GV. PMID:23063048

  10. Subsurface Barrier Validation of a Colloidal Silica and a Jet Grouted Barrier with the SEAtrace System

    SciTech Connect

    Betsill, J. David; Chipman, Veraun; Dunn, Sandra Dalvit; Lowry, William; Merewether, Daniel; Stockton, Jerry; Walsh, Robert; Williams, Cecelia V.

    1999-06-01

    Subsurface barriers are being constructed at both government and private sites to control hazardous material migration. The Department of Energy, in particular, is developing new barrier construction methods and materials for applications in saturated and unsaturated soils. These containment systems are meant to control high-risk contaminants that are too difficult to remove with current methods and/or pose a near-term, high risk to public health. Such systems are also implemented at sites where remediation techniques may have unintentionally mobilized contamination and threatened the water table. Since subsurface barriers are typically applied in high-risk circumstances, knowledge of their emplaced and long-term integrity is crucial. Current verification and monitoring practices (hydraulic testing, construction materials and methods QA) are limited in their ability to locate, discriminate, and resolve flaws in barrier construction. SEAtracem is a gaseous tracer verification and monitoring system developed to locate and estimate the size of flaws in subsurface barriers located above the water table. The system incorporates injection of a non-hazardous gaseous tracer in the barrier interior, multiple soil vapor sampling points located outside of the barrier, and an automated sampling and analysis system. SEAtraceTM is an autonomous, remotely accessible monitoring system intended for long duration, unattended operation. It not only collects and analyzes soil gas samples, but also applies real time data inversion to locate and size flaws in the barrier construction. The SEAtraceTM methodology was deployed at two test barrier installations sponsored by the Department of Energy Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area. The first was a small scale thinwall jet ~wouting barrier demonstration at the Groundwater Remediation Field Laboratory, Dover Air Force Base, and the second a large scale thickwall colloidal silica permeation grouted barrier at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. At the Dover site two test barriers and one buried known leak source were evaluated using the SEAtracem methodology. A prototype automated soil gas sampling and analysis system provided data that was analyzed on a desktop computer system. During these tests six non-engineered and one engineered flaw were detected in the barrier panels. These flaws indicated the presence of open areas in the barrier panels that allowed diffusion of tracer gas out into the soil surrounding the barriers. The buried leak source was located within 0.2m of its actual position. A fully integrated SEAtracem system was deployed to test a colloidal silica barrier at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This system incorporated 64 sampling locations, real-time data analysis, solar powered operation, and remote access via cellular phone communication. Eleven flaws were located by automated operation of the SEAtracem system. Other verification techniques such as geophysics, hydraulics, and peffluorocarbon gaseous tracers were used at both the Dover and Brookhaven test barriers. Results from these techniques were in good agreement when they could be compared. This report documents the design of the SEAtracem system, the numerical analysis that supports the evaluation of the inversion methodology, the design of the test installations, and the demonstrations at the Dover and Brookhaven sites.

  11. Subsurface Barrier Validation of a Colloidal Silica and a Jet Grouted Barrier with the SEAtrace System

    SciTech Connect

    Betsill, J. David; Chipman, Veraun; Dunn, Sandra Dalvit; Lowry, William; Merewether, Daniel; Stockton, Jerry; Walsh, Robert; Williams, Cecelia V.

    1999-06-01

    Subsurface barriers are being constructed at both government and private sites to control hazardous material migration. The Department of Energy, in particular, is developing new barrier construction methods and materials for applications in saturated and unsaturated soils. These containment systems are meant to control high-risk contaminants that are too difficult to remove with current methods and/or pose a near-term, high risk to public health. Such systems are also implemented at sites where remediation techniques may have unintentionally mobilized contamination and threatened the water table. Since subsurface barriers are typically applied in high-risk circumstances, knowledge of their emplaced and long-term integrity is crucial. Current verification and monitoring practices (hydraulic testing, construction materials and methods QA) are limited in their ability to locate, discriminate, and resolve flaws in barrier construction. SEAtracem is a gaseous tracer verification and monitoring system developed to locate and estimate the size of flaws in subsurface barriers located above the water table. The system incorporates injection of a non-hazardous gaseous tracer in the barrier interior, multiple soil vapor sampling points located outside of the barrier, and an automated sampling and analysis system. SEAtraceTM is an autonomous, remotely accessible monitoring system intended for long duration, unattended operation. It not only collects and analyzes soil gas samples, but also applies real time data inversion to locate and size flaws in the barrier construction. The SEAtraceTM methodology was deployed at two test barrier installations sponsored by the Department of Energy Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area. The first was a small scale thinwall jet wouting barrier demonstration at the Groundwater Remediation Field Laboratory, Dover Air Force Base, and the second a large scale thickwall colloidal silica permeation grouted barrier at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. At the Dover site two test barriers and one buried known leak source were evaluated using the SEAtracem methodology. A prototype automated soil gas sampling and analysis system provided data that was analyzed on a desktop computer system. During these tests six non-engineered and one engineered flaw were detected in the barrier panels. These flaws indicated the presence of open areas in the barrier panels that allowed diffusion of tracer gas out into the soil surrounding the barriers. The buried leak source was located within 0.2m of its actual position. A fully integrated SEAtracem system was deployed to test a colloidal silica barrier at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This system incorporated 64 sampling locations, real-time data analysis, solar powered operation, and remote access via cellular phone communication. Eleven flaws were located by automated operation of the SEAtracem system. Other verification techniques such as geophysics, hydraulics, and peffluorocarbon gaseous tracers were used at both the Dover and Brookhaven test barriers. Results from these techniques were in good agreement when they could be compared. This report documents the design of the SEAtracem system, the numerical analysis that supports the evaluation of the inversion methodology, the design of the test installations, and the demonstrations at the Dover and Brookhaven sites.

  12. DETERMINATION OF IMPORTANCE EVALUATION FOR THE SUBSURFACE EXPORATORY STUDIES FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    W.J. Clark

    1999-06-28

    This Determination of Importance Evaluation (DIE) applies to the Subsurface Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), encompassing the Topopah Spring (TS) Loop from Station 0+00 meters (m) at the North Portal to breakthrough at the South Portal (approximately 78+77 m), the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) East-West Cross Drift Starter Tunnel (to approximate ECRB Station 0+26 m), and ancillary test and operation support areas in the TS Loop. This evaluation applies to the construction, operation, and maintenance of these excavations. A more detailed description of these items is provided in Section 6.0. Testing activities are not evaluated in this DIE. Certain construction activities with respect to testing activities are evaluated; but the testing activities themselves are not evaluated. The DIE for ESF Subsurface Testing Activities (BAJ3000000-01717-2200-00011 Rev 01) (CRWMS M&O 1998a) evaluates Subsurface ESF Testing activities. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the TS Loop niches and alcove slot cuts is evaluated herein and is also discussed in CRWMS M&O 1998a. The construction, operation, and maintenance of the Busted Butte subsurface test area in support of the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Transport Test is evaluated in CRWMS M&O 1998a. Potential test-to-test interference and the waste isolation impacts of testing activities are evaluated in the ESF Subsurface Testing Activities DIE and other applicable evaluation(s) for the Job Package (JP), Test Planning Package (TPP), and/or Field Work Package (FWP). The objectives of this DIE are to determine whether the Subsurface ESF TS Loop and associated excavations, including activities associated with their construction and operation, potentially impact site characterization testing or the waste isolation capabilities of the site. Controls needed to limit any potential impacts are identified. The validity and veracity of the individual tests, including data collection, are the responsibility of the assigned Principal Investigator(s) (PIs) and are not evaluated in this DIE.

  13. Subsurface event detection and classification using Wireless Signal Networks.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Suk-Un; Ghazanfari, Ehsan; Cheng, Liang; Pamukcu, Sibel; Suleiman, Muhannad T

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface environment sensing and monitoring applications such as detection of water intrusion or a landslide, which could significantly change the physical properties of the host soil, can be accomplished using a novel concept, Wireless Signal Networks (WSiNs). The wireless signal networks take advantage of the variations of radio signal strength on the distributed underground sensor nodes of WSiNs to monitor and characterize the sensed area. To characterize subsurface environments for event detection and classification, this paper provides a detailed list and experimental data of soil properties on how radio propagation is affected by soil properties in subsurface communication environments. Experiments demonstrated that calibrated wireless signal strength variations can be used as indicators to sense changes in the subsurface environment. The concept of WSiNs for the subsurface event detection is evaluated with applications such as detection of water intrusion, relative density change, and relative motion using actual underground sensor nodes. To classify geo-events using the measured signal strength as a main indicator of geo-events, we propose a window-based minimum distance classifier based on Bayesian decision theory. The window-based classifier for wireless signal networks has two steps: event detection and event classification. With the event detection, the window-based classifier classifies geo-events on the event occurring regions that are called a classification window. The proposed window-based classification method is evaluated with a water leakage experiment in which the data has been measured in laboratory experiments. In these experiments, the proposed detection and classification method based on wireless signal network can detect and classify subsurface events. PMID:23202191

  14. Lipids biomarkers of the deep terrestrial subsurface biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osburn, M. R.; Momper, L.; Schubotz, F.; Summons, R. E.; Amend, J.

    2014-12-01

    Lipid biomarkers are key tools for the interpretation of past and present environments, and specifically, intact polar lipids (IPLs) reflect contributions from the living biosphere. While several studies have documented intact polar lipid (IPL) distributions in the marine subsurface, the organic geochemistry of terrestrial subsurface communities remains poorly characterized. Here we present IPL distributions from a portal into deep terrestrial biosphere, the former Homestake Mine, SD USA. Interpretation of IPL distributions can be hampered by a lack of comparative pure culture information or comparative molecular and geochemical data, thus we performed IPL analysis in conjunction with detailed geochemistry and DNA sequencing. A large diversity of lipid structures is observed including phospholipids, aminolipids, glycolipids, GDGTs, and a number of unidentified compounds. Variability in lipid distributions is not random with individual samples clustering based on physical and geochemical parameters. For instance, biofilm samples contain abundant aminolipids relative to filtered subsurface fluid samples. Does this difference reflect phosphorus scarcity in the biofilms, or production of aminolipids by specific microbial phyla? Using comparative analysis between the IPL, molecular, and geochemical datasets we address this, and similar questions, as well as identify potential microbial sources of unknown biomarkers. In the case of the aminolipids, we observe strong covariation between the lipid distribution and that of the bacteroidetes, epsilonproteobacteria, and spirochaetes, but no correlation with P concentration. We can also extend this comparison globally; asking how similar IPL distributions of the deep terrestrial subsurface are previously studied sites. A surprising finding from this work is the total lack of similarity between deep marine and terrestrial subsurface sites. This contribution will help to define the phylogenetic and geochemical mechanisms driving the lipid biomarker signature of the deep terrestrial subsurface biosphere.

  15. Subsurface Contamination Focus Area technical requirements. Volume 1: Requirements summary

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelson, D.; Nonte, J.; Richardson, J.

    1996-10-01

    This document summarizes functions and requirements for remediation of source term and plume sites identified by the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area. Included are detailed requirements and supporting information for source term and plume containment, stabilization, retrieval, and selective retrieval remedial activities. This information will be useful both to the decision-makers within the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area (SCFA) and to the technology providers who are developing and demonstrating technologies and systems. Requirements are often expressed as graphs or charts, which reflect the site-specific nature of the functions that must be performed. Many of the tradeoff studies associated with cost savings are identified in the text.

  16. Acoustic subwavelength imaging of subsurface objects with acoustic resonant metalens

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ying; Liu, XiaoJun, E-mail: liuxiaojun@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China) [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhou, Chen; Wei, Qi; Wu, DaJian [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2013-11-25

    Early research into acoustic metamaterials has shown the possibility of achieving subwavelength near-field acoustic imaging. However, a major restriction of acoustic metamaterials is that the imaging objects must be placed in close vicinity of the devices. Here, we present an approach for acoustic imaging of subsurface objects far below the diffraction limit. An acoustic metalens made of holey-structured metamaterials is used to magnify evanescent waves, which can rebuild an image at the central plane. Without changing the physical structure of the metalens, our proposed approach can image objects located at certain distances from the input surface, which provides subsurface signatures of the objects with subwavelength spatial resolution.

  17. Subsurface ablation of atherosclerotic plaque using ultrafast laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Lanvin, Thomas; Conkey, Donald B.; Frobert, Aurelien; Valentin, Jeremy; Goy, Jean-Jacques; Cook, Stéphane; Giraud, Marie-Noelle; Psaltis, Demetri

    2015-01-01

    We perform subsurface ablation of atherosclerotic plaque using ultrafast pulses. Excised mouse aortas containing atherosclerotic plaque were ablated with ultrafast near-infrared (NIR) laser pulses. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to observe the ablation result, while the physical damage was inspected in histological sections. We characterize the effects of incident pulse energy on surface damage, ablation hole size, and filament propagation. We find that it is possible to ablate plaque just below the surface without causing surface damage, which motivates further investigation of ultrafast ablation for subsurface atherosclerotic plaque removal.

  18. Trails of Kilovolt Ions Created by Subsurface Channeling

    SciTech Connect

    Redinger, Alex; Standop, Sebastian; Michely, Thomas [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Koeln, Zuelpicherstrasse 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Rosandi, Yudi; Urbassek, Herbert M. [Fachbereich Physik und Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Strasse, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2010-02-19

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we observe the damage trails produced by keV noble-gas ions incident at glancing angles onto Pt(111). Surface vacancies and adatoms aligned along the ion trajectory constitute the ion trails. Atomistic simulations reveal that these straight trails are produced by nuclear (elastic) collisions with surface layer atoms during subsurface channeling of the projectiles. In a small energy window around 5 keV, Xe{sup +} ions create vacancy grooves that mark the ion trajectory with atomic precision. The asymmetry of the adatom production on the two sides of the projectile path is traced back to the asymmetry of the ion's subsurface channel.

  19. Method for formation of subsurface barriers using viscous colloids

    DOEpatents

    Apps, J.A.; Persoff, P.; Moridis, G.; Pruess, K.

    1998-11-17

    A method is described for formation of subsurface barriers using viscous liquids where a viscous liquid solidifies at a controlled rate after injection into soil and forms impermeable isolation of the material enclosed within the subsurface barriers. The viscous liquid is selected from the group consisting of polybutenes, polysiloxanes, colloidal silica and modified colloidal silica of which solidification is controlled by gelling, cooling or cross-linking. Solidification timing is controlled by dilution, addition of brines, coating with alumina, stabilization with various agents and by temperature. 17 figs.

  20. Method for formation of subsurface barriers using viscous colloids

    DOEpatents

    Apps, John A. (Lafayette, CA); Persoff, Peter (Piedmont, CA); Moridis, George (Oakland, CA); Pruess, Karsten (Berkeley, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A method for formation of subsurface barriers using viscous liquids where a viscous liquid solidifies at a controlled rate after injection into soil and forms impermeable isolation of the material enclosed within the subsurface barriers. The viscous liquid is selected from the group consisting of polybutenes, polysilotanes, colloidal silica and modified colloidal silica of which solidification is controlled by gelling, cooling or cross-linking. Solidification timing is controlled by dilution, addition of brines, coating with alumina, stabilization with various agents and by temperature.

  1. Characterization of Microexplosion Phenomena of Methanol-Glycerol Mixtures 

    E-print Network

    Fan, Ge-Yi

    2014-07-17

    Due to the fast growth of biodiesel production capacity, the amount of glycerol has increased rapidly. Furthermore, the supply of glycerol has exceeded the demand needs in the market. In addition, there is a great demand for finding other new...

  2. Decentralized cooperative trajectory estimation for autonomous underwater vehicles

    E-print Network

    Paull, Liam

    Autonomous agents that can communicate and make relative measurements of each other can improve their collective localization accuracies. This is referred to as cooperative localization (CL). Autonomous underwater vehicle ...

  3. Robust distributed planning strategies for autonomous multi-agent teams

    E-print Network

    Ponda, Sameera S

    2012-01-01

    The increased use of autonomous robotic agents, such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and ground rovers, for complex missions has motivated the development of autonomous task allocation and planning methods that ensure ...

  4. Decentralized planning for autonomous agents cooperating in complex missions

    E-print Network

    Whitten, Andrew (Andrew Koo)

    2010-01-01

    Planning for autonomous vehicles remains an important and challenging research topic. This thesis focuses on decentralized planning for autonomous agents performing complex missions. These types of missions often involve ...

  5. Sensor modeling for the virtual autonomous navigation environment

    E-print Network

    Liu, Linda Y.

    The Virtual Autonomous Navigation Environment (VANE) is a high fidelity, physics-based simulation process that produces realistic simulated sensor output for use in the development and testing of Autonomous Mobility Systems ...

  6. Implementation of GPS based trajectory control of an autonomous sailboat

    E-print Network

    Wirekoh, Jackson O

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous robotic systems are increasingly becoming a major component of modern society. In order to gain a better understanding of the capabilities of these autonomous systems, experimentation was conducted using a ...

  7. Good Experimental Methodologies and Simulation in Autonomous Mobile Robotics

    E-print Network

    Amigoni, Francesco

    Good Experimental Methodologies and Simulation in Autonomous Mobile Robotics Francesco Amigoni and Viola Schiaffonati Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Laboratory, Dipartimento di Elettronica e to characterize analytically, as it is often the case in autonomous mobile robotics. Although their importance

  8. Autonomic SoC node Florian Kluge,1

    E-print Network

    Ungerer, Theo

    concurrent to the hard-real-time application thread. KEYWORDS: Autonomic computing, organic computing systems. Our solution is to fulfill the Autonomic and Organic Computing (AC/OC) and the hard- real

  9. Interception algorithm for autonomous vehicles with imperfect information

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Randal E

    2005-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles often operate in environments with imperfect information. This thesis addresses the case of a system of autonomous vehicles and sensors attempting to intercept a moving object of interest that arrives ...

  10. SUBSURFACE BARRIER VALIDATION WITH THE SEAFACE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Sandra Dalvit Dunn

    1997-11-30

    The overall objective of the effort was to develop and demonstrate an integrated methodology and field system to evaluate the integrity of in situ, impermeable barriers constructed in the vadose zone. An autonomous, remotely accessible, automatic monitoring and analysis system was designed and fabricated. It was thoroughly tested under field conditions, and was able to function as designed throughout the test period. Data inversion software was developed with enhanced capabilities over the previous prototype version, and integrated with the monitoring system for real time operation. Analytical simulations were performed to determine the inversion code's sensitivity to model parameters. Numerical simulations were performed to better understand how typical field conditions differ from the ideal model(s) which are used (or have been developed for use) in the inversion code and to further validate the flux limited forward model developed for use with the system. Results from the analytical and numerical assessment of the inversion code showed that the SEAtrace{trademark} approach could locate leaks within 0.4 to 1.2 m. Leak size determination was less accurate, but produced results within a factor of 3 to 8 for leaks in the 2.5 to 10 cm diameter range. The smallest engineered leak in the test 1.1 cm diameter, could be located but its size estimate was high by a factor of 30. Data analysis was performed automatically after each gas scan was completed, yielding results in less than thirty minutes, although the bulk of the results reported required post test data analysis to remove effects of high background concentrations. The field test of the integrated system was problematic, primarily due to unanticipated, unintentional leaks formed in the impermeable liner. The test facility constructed to proof the system was ambitious, initially having 11 engineered leaks of various dimensions that could be independently operated. While a great deal of care went into the construction of the facility to assure there would be no undesired leaks, the primary barrier to diffusion (a 30-mil high density polyethylene membrane) failed. The unanticipated leaks were large enough that tracer gas diffusing from them masked the designed leaks. The test facility was re-excavated and a new membrane installed. Initial tests of this barrier showed that it also leaked near the bottom of the barrier. However, careful control of the subsequent tracer gas injections, coupled with extensive data analysis to minimize the effects of the high background tracer gas concentrations, allowed leak characterization to be completed successfully. The proposed Phase II demonstration for this project is a double wall, jet grouted coffer dam at the Dover Air Force Base Groundwater Remediation Field Laboratory. This barrier will be constructed of multiple thin wall panels (nominally 6 to 10-inch thick) installed to form a vertical right circular cylinder, approximately 30 ft. in diameter. The barrier will be keyed into a clay layer at the 45 ft. depth, forming the bottom of the barrier.

  11. An Expert System for Autonomous Spacecraft Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Rob; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Rabideau, Gregg

    2005-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE), part of the New Millennium Space Technology 6 Project, is flying onboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) mission. The ASE software enables EO-1 to autonomously detect and respond to science events such as: volcanic activity, flooding, and water freeze/thaw. ASE uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect chang-e and science events. Detection of these events is then used to trigger follow-up imagery. Onboard mission planning software then develops a response plan that accounts for target visibility and operations constraints. This plan is then executed using a task execution system that can deal with run-time anomalies. In this paper we describe the autonomy flight software and how it enables a new paradigm of autonomous science and mission operations. We will also describe the current experiment status and future plans.

  12. [HIV-1 associated autonomic dysfunction (HIVAD)].

    PubMed

    Malessa, R; Ohrmann, P; Agelink, M W; Brockmeyer, N H; Diener, H C

    1996-02-01

    In a controlled prospective study we used peripheral autonomic surface potentials (PASP) and an autonomic test battery (valsalva, 30:15 ratio, deep breathing, sustained handgrip, Schellong test) to evaluate HIV-1 associated autonomic dysfunction (HIVAD) in 38 HIV-seropositive patients. Criteria of exclusion were drug or alcohol abuse, concurrent infections, neoplasms, wasting syndrome and neurotoxic medication. We found increased PASP onset latencies and lower PASP amplitudes even in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients (p < 0.0125, Bonferroni corrected p-value). A mild or marked HIVAD was detected in 21% of the patients each. Heart rate and blood pressure responses were similarly affected. HIVAD was not related to HIV-1 associated changes in sural and tibial nerve conduction parameters. Our data suggest that HIVAD is a frequent complication of HIV-1 infection and that HIV-1 plays a direct role in its pathogenesis. Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS appear to be similarly affected. PMID:8851296

  13. Self-healing for Autonomic Pervasive Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Shameem; Ahamed, Sheikh I.; Sharmin, Moushumi; Hasan, Chowdhury S.

    To ensure smooth functioning of numerous handheld devices anywhere anytime, the importance of a self-healing mechanism cannot be overlooked. This is one of the main challenges to growing autonomic pervasive computing. Incorporation of efficient fault detection and recovery in the device itself is the ultimate quest but there is no existing selfhealing scheme for devices running in autonomic pervasive computing environments that can be claimed as the ultimate solution. Moreover, the highest degree of transparency, security and privacy should also be maintained. In this book chapter, an approach to develop a self-healing service for autonomic pervasive computing is presented. The self-healing service has been developed and integrated into the middleware named MARKS+ (Middleware Adaptability for Resource discovery, Knowledge usability, and Self-healing). The self-healing approach has been evaluated on a test bed of PDAs. An application has been developed by using the service. The evaluation results are also presented in this book chapter.

  14. Software control architecture for autonomous vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; DeAnda, Juan R.; Fox, Richard K.; Meng, Xiannong

    1999-07-01

    The Strategic-Tactical-Execution Software Control Architecture (STESCA) is a tri-level approach to controlling autonomous vehicles. Using an object-oriented approach, STESCA has been developed as a generalization of the Rational Behavior Model (RBM). STESCA was initially implemented for the Phoenix Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (Naval Postgraduate School -- Monterey, CA), and is currently being implemented for the Pioneer AT land-based wheeled vehicle. The goals of STESCA are twofold. First is to create a generic framework to simplify the process of creating a software control architecture for autonomous vehicles of any type. Second is to allow for mission specification system by 'anyone' with minimal training to control the overall vehicle functionality. This paper describes the prototype implementation of STESCA for the Pioneer AT.

  15. Subclinical autonomic dysfunction in patients with ?-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Stamboulis, Elefterios; Vlachou, Nikoleta; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos; Andrikopoulou, Athina; Arvaniti, Chrisa; Tsivgoulis, Athanasios; Athanasiadis, Dimitrios; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Tentolouris, Nikolaos; Triantafyllidi, Heleni; Drossou-Servou, Marouso; Loutradi-Anagnostou, Aphrodite; Tsivgoulis, Georgios

    2012-06-01

    We electrophysiologically evaluated the autonomic function (AF) in a consecutive series of patients with beta-thalassemia and in normal individuals. Six quantitative autonomic function tests (AFTs) were used: tilt test, hand grip test and sympathetic skin response for sympathetic function; R-R interval, inspiration-expiration difference and 30/15 ratio for parasympathetic function. The prevalence of impaired AF was higher in beta-thalassemia patients (13%, n = 5) than in control subjects (0%, n = 0; p = 0.026). Subclinical autonomic dysfunction appeared to be more prevalent in beta-thalassemia patients compared to controls in our series. Further independent validation of this finding is required in larger cohorts of beta-thalassemia patients. PMID:22170296

  16. Why Computer-Based Systems Should be Autonomic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss why computer-based systems should be autonomic, where autonomicity implies self-managing, often conceptualized in terms of being self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing, self-protecting and self-aware. We look at motivations for autonomicity, examine how more and more systems are exhibiting autonomic behavior, and finally look at future directions.

  17. Lessons Learned from Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Boyer, Darrell; Hayden, Sandra; Sweet, Adam; Christa, Scott

    2005-01-01

    An Autonomous Science Agent has been flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft since 2003. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and responds to science events occurring on the Earth such as volcanoes, flooding, and snow melt. The package includes AI-based software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. This software is in routine use to fly the EO-l mission. In this paper we briefly review the agent architecture and discuss lessons learned from this multi-year flight effort pertinent to deployment of software agents to critical applications.

  18. Planning and Execution for an Autonomous Aerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, Daniel M.; Estlin, Tara A.; Schaffer, Steven R.; Chouinard, Caroline M.

    2010-01-01

    The Aerial Onboard Autonomous Science Investigation System (AerOASIS) system provides autonomous planning and execution capabilities for aerial vehicles (see figure). The system is capable of generating high-quality operations plans that integrate observation requests from ground planning teams, as well as opportunistic science events detected onboard the vehicle while respecting mission and resource constraints. AerOASIS allows an airborne planetary exploration vehicle to summarize and prioritize the most scientifically relevant data; identify and select high-value science sites for additional investigation; and dynamically plan, schedule, and monitor the various science activities being performed, even during extended communications blackout periods with Earth.

  19. Autonomous scheduling technology for Earth orbital missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a dynamic autonomous system (DYASS) of resources for the mission support of near-Earth NASA spacecraft is discussed and the current NASA space data system is described from a functional perspective. The future (late 80's and early 90's) NASA space data system is discussed. The DYASS concept, the autonomous process control, and the NASA space data system are introduced. Scheduling and related disciplines are surveyed. DYASS as a scheduling problem is also discussed. Artificial intelligence and knowledge representation is considered as well as the NUDGE system and the I-Space system.

  20. NEURON: enabling autonomicity in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Gouvas, Panagiotis; Liakopoulos, Athanassios; Mentzas, Gregoris; Mitrou, Nikolas

    2010-01-01

    Future Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) will be ubiquitous, large-scale networks interconnected with the existing IP infrastructure. Autonomic functionalities have to be designed in order to reduce the complexity of their operation and management, and support the dissemination of knowledge within a WSN. In this paper a novel protocol for energy efficient deployment, clustering and routing in WSNs is proposed that focuses on the incorporation of autonomic functionalities in the existing approaches. The design of the protocol facilitates the design of innovative applications and services that are based on overlay topologies created through cooperation among the sensor nodes. PMID:22399931

  1. Sensorpedia: Information Sharing Across Autonomous Sensor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, Bryan L [ORNL; Resseguie, David R [ORNL; Tomkins-Tinch, Christopher H [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The concept of adapting social media technologies is introduced as a means of achieving information sharing across autonomous sensor systems. Historical examples of interoperability as an underlying principle in loosely-coupled systems is compared and contrasted with corresponding tightly-coupled, integrated systems. Examples of ad hoc information sharing solutions based on Web 2.0 social networks, mashups, blogs, wikis, and data tags are presented and discussed. The underlying technologies of these solutions are isolated and defined, and Sensorpedia is presented as a formalized application for implementing sensor information sharing across large-scale enterprises with incompatible autonomous sensor systems.

  2. CMU's autonomous helicopter explores new territory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, J.

    1998-10-01

    In the summer of 1998, several members of Carnegie Mellon University's (CMUs) Autonomous Helicopter Project team joined NASA on a multidisciplinary expedition to the Canadian Arctic's Haughton Crater. NASA was willing to travel to such a remote corner of the globe because of its similarity to an even more remote locale - Mars. Researchers are studying the 23-million-year-old meteorite impact crater in the hope of learning more about Mars's environment. While there, they also tested a number of technologies that will enable future exploration of Mars, including CMU's autonomous helicopter.

  3. Autonomic Regulation Therapy in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Una; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Ardell, Jeffrey L

    2015-08-01

    Autonomic regulation therapy (ART) is a rapidly emerging therapy in the management of congestive heart failure secondary to systolic dysfunction. Modulation of the cardiac neuronal hierarchy can be achieved with bioelectronics modulation of the spinal cord, cervical vagus, baroreceptor, or renal nerve ablation. This review will discuss relevant preclinical and clinical research in ART for systolic heart failure. Understanding mechanistically what is being stimulated within the autonomic nervous system by such device-based therapy and how the system reacts to such stimuli is essential for optimizing stimulation parameters and for the future development of effective ART. PMID:26054327

  4. Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, Chirold

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work towards technology that will result in an autonomous landing on the lunar surface, that will avoid the hazards of lunar landing. In October 2005, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters assigned the development of new technologies to support the return to the moon. One of these was Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology now known as ALHAT ALHAT is a lunar descent and landing GNC technology development project led by Johnson Space Center (JSC) with team members from Langley Research Center (LaRC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Draper Laboratories (CSDL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL)

  5. Autonomous Environment-Monitoring Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hand, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous environment-monitoring networks (AEMNs) are artificial neural networks that are specialized for recognizing familiarity and, conversely, novelty. Like a biological neural network, an AEMN receives a constant stream of inputs. For purposes of computational implementation, the inputs are vector representations of the information of interest. As long as the most recent input vector is similar to the previous input vectors, no action is taken. Action is taken only when a novel vector is encountered. Whether a given input vector is regarded as novel depends on the previous vectors; hence, the same input vector could be regarded as familiar or novel, depending on the context of previous input vectors. AEMNs have been proposed as means to enable exploratory robots on remote planets to recognize novel features that could merit closer scientific attention. AEMNs could also be useful for processing data from medical instrumentation for automated monitoring or diagnosis. The primary substructure of an AEMN is called a spindle. In its simplest form, a spindle consists of a central vector (C), a scalar (r), and algorithms for changing C and r. The vector C is constructed from all the vectors in a given continuous stream of inputs, such that it is minimally distant from those vectors. The scalar r is the distance between C and the most remote vector in the same set. The construction of a spindle involves four vital parameters: setup size, spindle-population size, and the radii of two novelty boundaries. The setup size is the number of vectors that are taken into account before computing C. The spindle-population size is the total number of input vectors used in constructing the spindle counting both those that arrive before and those that arrive after the computation of C. The novelty-boundary radii are distances from C that partition the neighborhood around C into three concentric regions (see Figure 1). During construction of the spindle, the changing spindle radius is denoted by h. It is the final value of h, reached before beginning construction on the next spindle, that is denoted by r. During construction of a spindle, if a new vector falls between C and the inner boundary, the vector is regarded as completely familiar and no action is taken. If the new vector falls into the region between the inner and outer boundaries, it is considered unusual enough to warrant the adjustment of C and r by use of the aforementioned algorithms, but not unusual enough to be considered novel. If a vector falls outside the outer boundary, it is considered novel, in which case one of several appropriate responses could be initiation of construction of a new spindle.

  6. Robust Hybrid Control for Autonomous Vehicle Motion Planning

    E-print Network

    Sontag, Eduardo

    Robust Hybrid Control for Autonomous Vehicle Motion Planning Emilio Frazzoli 1 Munther A. Dahleh 2 Eric Feron 3 Abstract The operation of an autonomous vehicle in an unknown, dynamic environment and reachability. For the case of autonomous vehicles, we provide su cient conditions to guarantee reachability

  7. Distributed Collaborative Controlled Autonomous Vehicle Systems over Wireless Networks

    E-print Network

    Baras, John S.

    Distributed Collaborative Controlled Autonomous Vehicle Systems over Wireless Networks Hua Chen, it is desirable yet challenging to develop net- worked systems of autonomous vehicles and sensors in dynamic planning of a group of autonomous vehicles in an adversarial environment. We propose distributed algorithms

  8. Guidance Based Collision Avoidance of Coordinated Nonholonomic Autonomous Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Guidance Based Collision Avoidance of Coordinated Nonholonomic Autonomous Vehicles Xianbo Xiang, as coordinated and cooperative autonomous vehicles can be operated at sea, on land, in the air, in space control; in [3], this method is proposed for two underwater autonomous vehicles (AUVs) following two

  9. GIBBS SAMPLER-BASED PATH PLANNING FOR AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES

    E-print Network

    Baras, John S.

    GIBBS SAMPLER-BASED PATH PLANNING FOR AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES: CONVERGENCE ANALYSIS Wei Xi Xiaobo Tan: Markov random fields; Gibbs sampler; Decentralized control; Autonomous vehicles; Convergence 1, autonomous unmanned vehicles (AUVs) are ex- pected to cooperatively perform dangerous or ex- plorative tasks

  10. Autonomous vehicle guidance using analog VLSI neuromorphic sensors

    E-print Network

    Autonomous vehicle guidance using analog VLSI neuromorphic sensors Giacomo Indiveri and Paul step towards the design of a fully autonomous vehicle that will safely navigate using only inputs from of compact low-power autonomous systems. We describe such a system, consisting of a mobile robot equipped

  11. RAVON --The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation

    E-print Network

    Berns, Karsten

    RAVON -- The Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation C. Armbrust, T. Braun, T. Föhst, M Lab at the University of Kaiserslautern started the development of an entirely autonomous vehicle, the Robust Autonomous Vehicle for Off-road Navigation (see figure 1). A sophisticated hazard detection

  12. COOPERATIVE PATH-PLANNING FOR AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES USING DYNAMIC

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Emmanuel

    COOPERATIVE PATH-PLANNING FOR AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES USING DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING 1 Matthew Flint, Marios@ececs.uc.edu Abstract: It is shown how to model a cooperative path planning system for multiple autonomous air vehicles of uncertainty and constraints on movement and computational power. Keywords: Agent, Autonomous Vehicle, Co

  13. A Hybrid Controller for Autonomous Vehicles Driving on Automated Highways #

    E-print Network

    Girault, Alain

    A Hybrid Controller for Autonomous Vehicles Driving on Automated Highways # Alain Girault a a Inria the problem of the hybrid control of autonomous vehicles driving on automated highways. Vehicles with its leading vehicle. Second, we extend this first result to a lane of autonomous vehicles. Third, we

  14. GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR A SINGLE-TRACK VEHICLE AUTONOMOUS PILOT

    E-print Network

    Vrajitoru, Dana

    GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR A SINGLE-TRACK VEHICLE AUTONOMOUS PILOT Dana Vrajitoru Intelligent Systems algorithms to an autonomous pilot designed for motorized single-track vehicles (motorcycles). The pilot-agents, autonomous pilot. 1 #12;1 Introduction Single track vehicles (STV) present somewhat different challenges than

  15. A GLOBAL ROAD SCENE ANALYSIS SYSTEM FOR AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A GLOBAL ROAD SCENE ANALYSIS SYSTEM FOR AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES F. Jurie, P. Martinet, J. Gallice L Research on autonomous vehicle navigation from imagery acquired from a vehicle mounted camera are being an on-board camera. 1.1. The PSA-LASMEA autonomous vehicle The foundations of our work were presented

  16. Opportunistic Communications for Networked Controlled Systems of Autonomous Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Baras, John S.

    Opportunistic Communications for Networked Controlled Systems of Autonomous Vehicles Hua Chen of communication connectivity in networks of autonomous vehicles. It is difficult to overcome deep fading from time of autonomous vehicles with energy con- sumption and total operation time constraints in an adversarial

  17. HIERARCHICAL SEARCH STRATEGY FOR A TEAM OF AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES

    E-print Network

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    HIERARCHICAL SEARCH STRATEGY FOR A TEAM OF AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES Jorge Silva Alberto Speranzon Jo-Robot Systems, Simplex Algorithm, Discrete-Event Systems, Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). 1. INTRODUCTION field, we desire to coordinate the motions of a group of autonomous vehicles with sensing and very

  18. Robust Hybrid Control for Autonomous Vehicle Motion Planning

    E-print Network

    Feron, Eric

    Robust Hybrid Control for Autonomous Vehicle Motion Planning Emilio Frazzoli Munther A. Dahleh y Eric Feron z Abstract The operation of an autonomous vehicle in an unknown, dynamic environment, to the design, development and operation of autonomous aerial, underwater, and ground vehicles. The possibility

  19. Applications of HUGIN to Diagnosis and Control of Autonomous Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Applications of HUGIN to Diagnosis and Control of Autonomous Vehicles Anders L. Madsen1 and Uffe B of HUGIN to solve problems related to diag- nosis and control of autonomous vehicles. The application of diagnosis and con- trol of autonomous vehicles. Based on the HUGIN tool, limited memory influence diagrams

  20. A MOOS MODULE FOR MONITORING ENERGY USAGE OF AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES

    E-print Network

    Idaho, University of

    A MOOS MODULE FOR MONITORING ENERGY USAGE OF AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES Anthony Kanago, Kevin Roos, James--Tracking the energy usage of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and making accurate data available provides make better decisions regarding resource allocation. I. INTRODUCTION The adoption of autonomous vehicle

  1. Multi-Agent Autonomous Pilot for Motorcycles Dana Vrajitoru

    E-print Network

    Vrajitoru, Dana

    . Introduction The autonomous pilots are an important aspect of devel- oping the vehicles of the future-agent autonomous pilot using perceptual informa- tion. The application aims to control the vehicle in a non to make decisions. In this paper we introduce a simulation of a vehicle with a multi-agent autonomous

  2. Optical Delineation of Benthic Habitat Using an Autonomous

    E-print Network

    Moline, Mark

    Optical Delineation of Benthic Habitat Using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Mark A. Moline. Autonomous underwater vehicles AUVs with active propulsion are especially well suited for studies . Autonomous underwater vehicles AUVs are especially well suited for studies of the coastal ocean because

  3. The autonomic nervous system and Dretske on phenomenal consciousness

    E-print Network

    Ryder, Dan

    1 The autonomic nervous system and Dretske on phenomenal consciousness Dan Ryder1 and C.B. Martin2, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) ought to be conscious - but of course it's not. In this paper, we'll describe a counterexample - the autonomic nervous system - which shows at least that representationalists have a lot of work

  4. State estimation for autonomous flight in cluttered environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob Willem Langelaan

    2006-01-01

    Safe, autonomous operation in complex, cluttered environments is a critical challenge facing autonomous mobile systems. The research described in this dissertation was motivated by a particularly difficult example of autonomous mobility: flight of a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) through a forest. In cluttered environments (such as forests or natural and urban canyons) signals from navigation beacons such as GPS

  5. Autonomous Shopping Cart Platform for People with Mobility Impairments

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Autonomous Shopping Cart Platform for People with Mobility Impairments Luca Marchetti1 and Daniele the problem of designing an autonomous shopping cart. We assume that the shopping cart is set-up on a unicycle exemplified by a mobile robot that follows the user. An autonomous shopping cart is a simple application

  6. Remote controlling an autonomous car with an iPhone

    E-print Network

    Rojas, Raúl

    Remote controlling an autonomous car with an iPhone Miao Wang, Tinosch Ganjineh B-10-02 March 2010 #12;Remote controlling an autonomous car with an iPhone Miao Wang, Tinosch Ganjineh Free University" is a com- pletely autonomous car developed by the Free University of Berlin which is capable of unmanned

  7. Bringing simulation to life: A mixed reality autonomous intersection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Quinlan; Tsz-Chiu Au; Jesse Zhu; Nicolae Stiurca; Peter Stone

    2010-01-01

    Fully autonomous vehicles are technologically feasible with the current generation of hardware, as demonstrated by recent robot car competitions. Dresner and Stone proposed a new intersection control protocol called Autonomous Intersection Management (AIM) and showed that with autonomous vehicles it is possible to make intersection control much more efficient than the traditional control mechanisms such as traffic signals and stop

  8. RESEARCH Open Access Autonomous exoskeleton reduces metabolic cost

    E-print Network

    Herr, Hugh

    RESEARCH Open Access Autonomous exoskeleton reduces metabolic cost of human walking during load. In this study, the design and testing of an autonomous leg exoskeleton is presented. The aim of the device developed exoskeletons. Methods: We developed an autonomous battery powered exoskeleton that is capable

  9. www.postersession.com Autonomous Underwater Vehicle: Powered Glider

    E-print Network

    Wood, Stephen L.

    printed by www.postersession.com Autonomous Underwater Vehicle: Powered Glider Department of Marine. Stephen Wood, P.E. A new generation of Autonomous Underwater Gliders is currently being developed will be an autonomous powered glider that collects video, acoustic, and physical data, simultaneously obtains water

  10. Autonomous stationkeeping of geosynchronous satellites using a GPS receiver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Chao; H. Bernstein; W. H. Boyce; R. J. Perkins

    1992-01-01

    Many space missions are considering the use of a GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver as a means of onboard autonomous ephemeris determination due to its portability, accuracy and low cost. A feasibility study on autonomous stationkeeing using a GPS receiver has been performed. This paper describes three strategies for autonomous stationkeeping with onboard GPS measurements. Algorithms are developed and accuracies

  11. Vulnerability Assessment in Autonomic Networks and Services: A Survey

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Vulnerability Assessment in Autonomic Networks and Services: A Survey Mart´in Barr`ere, R security attacks. We focus in this survey on the assessment of vulnerabilities in autonomic environments to fully integrate this process into the autonomic management plane. Index Terms--Vulnerability assessment

  12. Chronic cervical spinal cord injury and autonomic hyperreflexia in rats

    E-print Network

    Schramm, Lawrence P.

    Chronic cervical spinal cord injury and autonomic hyperreflexia in rats JOHN W. OSBORN, ROBERT F cervical spinal cord injury and autonomic hyperreflexia in rats. Am. J. Physiol. 258(Regulatory Integra spinal cord injury are proneto acute, marked,hypertensive episodes,i.e., autonomic hyperreflexia

  13. Emergence as a General Architecture for Distributed Autonomic Computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom De Wolf; Tom Holvoet

    Today's systems are becoming more and more complex, i.e. dis- tributed, situated, open, and dynamic. Autonomic computing aims to deal with the complexity autonomously. Hence, distributed auto- nomic computing systems tend to consist out of autonomous entities because of the increased distribution. This increased complexity and autonomy makes it dicult to build systems with a global coherent behaviour as a

  14. Research issues in autonomous control of tactical UAVs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Chandler; M. Pachter

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes the enabling technologies for an autonomous tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Current technologies are adequate for semi-autonomous UAVs that operate in a relatively structured environment. For tactical UAVs in a rapidly changing uncertain environment the present techniques are inadequate. The essence of autonomous control is rapid in-flight replanning under uncertainty. This is cast as a large optimization

  15. BENEFITS OF AUTONOMOUS SELFING UNDER UNPREDICTABLE POLLINATOR ENVIRONMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Kalisz; Donna W. Vogler

    2003-01-01

    Pollinator unpredictability favors evolutionary shifts from outcrossing to autonomous selfing, which provides reproductive assurance. Our goal was to quantify the reproductive assurance benefit of autonomous selfing and the stochastic nature of pollinator- mediated pollen receipt using three wild populations of the annual species Collinsia verna (Scrophulariaceae) over three years. The timing of autonomous self-pollination in C. verna ranges from competing

  16. Experiments in remote monitoring and control of autonomous underwater vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Kim; B. A. Moran; J. J. LeonardL; J. G. Bellingham; S. T. Tuohy

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes research on remote monitoring and control of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). This work is part of a larger effort to create autonomous ocean sampling networks (AOSN), a new concept for collecting synoptic oceanographic data. AOSN is based on the operation of small, low cost autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) within an array of moorings that provide communication and

  17. Autonomous navigation and guidance for pinpoint lunar soft landing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangyu Huang; Dayi Wang

    2007-01-01

    An autonomous navigation and guidance system scheme for pinpoint lunar soft landing is studied in this paper. First, the descriptions of outline of lunar soft landing process are provided. Second, a GNC system scheme for lunar soft landing spacecraft is described. Third, the autonomous navigation based on measurement-updated IMU for lunar soft landing is presented. Fourth, the autonomous explicit guidance

  18. Multi-thread technology based autonomous underwater vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng Qin; Jason Gu

    2010-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is implemented with multi-thread technology under QNX Neutrino Real time Operating System. The hybrid system and autonomous control principle of AUV are introduced. The event generator thread and event analysis and decision making thread are two key threads in the autonomous control system to handle discrete events, which are described in detail. Also the histogram

  19. Research of Autonomous landing control of unmanned combat air vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaoyan Li; Zongji Chen

    2003-01-01

    This paper is to present a robust controller design method for developing autonomous landing systems of Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV). We first analyze the characteristic of autonomous landing of UCAV, and put forward its landing performance specifications. Structure singular value mu| synthesis is used to develop autonomous landing systems to accurately follow the pre-designed ideal landing track or online

  20. Animating Autonomous Pedestrians A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment

    E-print Network

    Mohri, Mehryar

    for fully autonomous multi­human simulation in large urban environments. Our pedestrian model is entirely­time simulation can be achieved for well over a thousand autonomous pedestrians. With each pedestrian under his/her own autonomous control, the self­animated characters imbue the virtual world with liveliness, social

  1. 25 CFR 211.22 - Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. 211.22...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF...22 Leases for subsurface storage of oil or gas. (a) The...mineral owners, may approve storage leases, or...

  2. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF THE SUBSURFACE AT AN ABANDONED CREOSOTE WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial ecology of pristine, slightly contaminated, and heavily contaminated subsurface materials, and four subsurface materials on the periphery of the plume at an abandoned creosote waste site was investigated. xcept for the unsaturated zone of the heavily contaminated ma...

  3. IMPACT OF REDOX DISEQUILIBRIA ON CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT AND REMEDIATION IN SUBSURFACE SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Partitioning to mineral surfaces exerts significant control on inorganic contaminant transport in subsurface systems. Remedial technologies for in-situ treatment of subsurface contamination are frequently designed to optimize the efficiency of contaminant partitioning to solid s...

  4. SUBSURFACE SOIL CONDITIONS BENEATH AND NEAR BUILDINGS AND THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS ON SOIL VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Migration of volatile chemicals from the subsurface into overlying buildings is called vapor intrusion. Volatile organic chemicals in contaminated soils or groundwater can emit vapors that may migrate through subsurface soils and enter indoor air spaces of overlying buildings. T...

  5. The correlation between surface temperature and subsurface velocity during evaporative convection

    E-print Network

    Saylor, John R.

    The correlation between surface temperature and subsurface velocity during evaporative convection J tempera- ture and subsurface velocity is presented for water un- dergoing evaporative convection of underwater objects via infrared imaging are discussed. 1 Introduction Evaporative convection is the natural

  6. A Unified Discipline of Subsurface Sensing and Imaging Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Silevitch; S. W. McKnight; C. Rappaport

    2000-01-01

    Subsurface sensing and imaging seeks to locate and identify objects or conditions underneath an obscuring media by monitoring a probe or wave outside the surface. Many of the mathematical and physical models used in this process are common to underground and underwater environmental exploration, medical imaging, and three-dimensional microscopies, allowing a common framework of physic-based signal processing (PBSP) to be

  7. Gum containing calcium fluoride reinforces enamel subsurface lesions in situ.

    PubMed

    Kitasako, Y; Sadr, A; Hamba, H; Ikeda, M; Tagami, J

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chewing gum containing phosphoryl oligosaccharides of calcium (POs-Ca) and a low concentration of fluoride (F) on the hardness of enamel subsurface lesions, utilizing a double-blind, randomized, and controlled in situ model. Fifteen individuals wore removable lingual appliances with 3 bovine-enamel insets containing subsurface demineralized lesions. Three times a day for 14 days, they chewed one of the 3 chewing gums (placebo, POs-Ca, POs-Ca+F). After the treatment period, cross-sectional mineral content, nanoindentation hardness, and fluoride ion mapping by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) were evaluated. Although there were no statistical differences in overall mineral content and hardness recovery rates between POs-Ca and POs-Ca+F subsurface lesions (p > 0.05), nanoindentation at 1-?m distance increments from the surface showed statistical differences in hardness recovery rate between POs-Ca and POs-Ca+F in the superficial 20-?m region (p < 0.05). Fluoride mapping revealed distribution of the ion up to 20 ?m from the surface in the POs-Ca+F group. Nanoindentation and TOF-SIMS results highlighted the benefits of bioavailability of fluoride ion on reinforcement of the superficial zone of subsurface lesions in situ (NCT01377493). PMID:22337700

  8. COUPLED IRON CORROSION AND CHROMATE REDUCTION: MECHANISMS FOR SUBSURFACE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reduction of chromium from the Cr(VI) to the Cr(III) state by the presence of elemental, or zero-oxidation-state, iron metal was studied to evaluate the feasibility of such a process for subsurface chromate remediation. eactions were studied in systems of natural aquifer mate...

  9. Effect of dripline flushing on subsurface drip irrigation systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The velocity of dripline flushing in subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems affects system design, cost, management, performance, and longevity. A 30-day field study was conducted at Kansas State University to analyze the effect of four targeted flushing velocities (0.23, 0.30, 0.46, and 0.61 m/s)...

  10. In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Akhil; Gieg, Lisa M

    2013-01-01

    Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contributing to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more beneficial technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes) metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments. PMID:23761789

  11. COUPLED IRON CORROSION AND CHROMATE REDUCTION: MECHANISMS FOR SUBSURFACE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reduction of chromium from the Cr(VI) to the Cr- (Ill) state by the presence of elemental, or zero-oxidation-state, iron metal was studied to evaluate the feasibility of such a process for subsurface chromate remediation. Reactions were studied in systems of natural aquifer m...

  12. A SIMPLE MODEL TO ESTIMATE ARTIFICIAL SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE LOSSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential of winter cover crops to reduce nitrate nitrogen (nitrate-N) loading from artificial subsurface drainage systems is being researched in the Northern Corn Belt. A soil-plant-atmosphere simulation model, RyeGro, was developed to investigate the efficacy of winter rye over the long term....

  13. Subsurface monitoring using low frequency wireless signal networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suk-Un Yoon; Liang Cheng; Ehsan Ghazanfari; Zi Wang; Xiaotong Zhang; Sibel Pamukcu; Muhannad T. Suleiman

    2012-01-01

    The Wireless Signal Networks (WSNs) use the signal strength variation of wireless nodes in the host medium as the main indicator of events or physical property changes in the medium. With the concept and application of the Underground Wireless Signal Networks (UWSNs) where the host medium is a soil, the real-time global subsurface monitoring of wireless underground sensor networks can

  14. Geophysical subsurface probing with radio-frequency interferometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. KONG; L. Tsang; GENE SIMMONS

    1974-01-01

    The radio-frequency interferometry method can be used to probe interiors of celestial bodies and terrestrial areas with low conductivity. Several glaciers have been studied with this technique. An experiment based on this method was designed for Apollo 17 to examine the lunar subsurface. In order to interpret the interference patterns, We have studied theoretically the electromagnetic fields due to a

  15. Optimal Maneuvering of Seismic Sensors for Localization of Subsurface Targets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mubashir Alam; Volkan Cevher; James H. McClellan; Gregg D. Larson; Waymond R. Scott Jr

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of detecting and locating subsurface objects by using a maneuvering array that receives scattered seismic surface waves. We demonstrate an adaptive system that moves an array of receivers according to an optimal positioning algorithm that is based on the theory of optimal experiments. The goal is to minimize the number of distinct measurements (array movements) needed

  16. 1D subsurface electromagnetic fields excited by energized steel casing

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    - length thin wire of piecewise-constant electric conductivity and magnetic permeability. The steel1D subsurface electromagnetic fields excited by energized steel casing Wei Yang1 , Carlos Torres the possibility of enabling steel-cased wells as galvanic sources to detect and quantify spatial variations

  17. Phosphorus lateral movement through subsoil to subsurface tile drains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vertical subsurface P transport to tile drains is well documented, however little research has focused on lateral P transport. A replicated field study investigated the lateral movement of P through 3.0 m of typical Iowa subsoil (sandy loam texture, pH 7.7, 2 mg kg-1 Olsen P) between a 1.2-m deep tr...

  18. Continuous subsurface velocity measurement with coda wave interferometry

    E-print Network

    Niu, Fenglin

    to 10À8 PaÀ1 [e.g., Birch, 1960, 1961; Simmons, 1964]. Such dependence is attributed to the opening, and B. Wang (2008), Continuous subsurface velocity measurement with coda wave interferometry, J. Geophys/closing of micro- cracks in response to changes in the stress normal to the crack surface [e.g., Walsh, 1965; Nur

  19. FORAGE SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION USING TREATED SWINE EFFLUENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experimental subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system was initiated to evaluate the use of treated swine effluent on a bermuda grass forage crop. The SDI system was installed in Duplin County, North Carolina, at the location of an innovative swine wastewater treatment system. The effluent from the...

  20. Forage subsurface drip irrigation using treated swine effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experimental subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system was initiated to evaluate the use of treated swine effluent on a bermuda grass forage crop. The SDI system was installed in Duplin County, North Carolina, at the location of an innovative swine wastewater treatment system. The effluent from the...

  1. Subsurface Radar Sounding of the Jovian Moon Ganymede

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenzo Bruzzone; Giovanni Alberti; Claudio Catallo; Adamo Ferro; Wlodek Kofman; Roberto Orosei

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) and of its scientific objectives, focusing the attention on the subsurface radar (SSR) instru- ment included in the model payload of the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The SSR instrument is a radar sounder system at low frequency (HF\\/VHF band) designed to penetrate the sur- face of Ganymede icy

  2. Quantification of subsurface pore pressure through IODP drilling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Saffer; P. B. Flemings

    2010-01-01

    It is critical to understand the magnitude and distribution of subsurface pore fluid pressure: it controls effective stress and thus mechanical strength, slope stability, and sediment compaction. Elevated pore pressures also drive fluid flows that serve as agents of mass, solute, and heat fluxes. The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) have provided important avenues to

  3. Review of potential subsurface permeable barrier emplacement and monitoring technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Riggsbee, W.H.; Treat, R.L.; Stansfield, H.J.; Schwarz, R.M. [Ebasco Environmental, Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Phillips, S.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This report focuses on subsurface permeable barrier technologies potentially applicable to existing waste disposal sites. This report describes candidate subsurface permeable barriers, methods for emplacing these barriers, and methods used to monitor the barrier performance. Two types of subsurface barrier systems are described: those that apply to contamination.in the unsaturated zone, and those that apply to groundwater and to mobile contamination near the groundwater table. These barriers may be emplaced either horizontally or vertically depending on waste and site characteristics. Materials for creating permeable subsurface barriers are emplaced using one of three basic methods: injection, in situ mechanical mixing, or excavation-insertion. Injection is the emplacement of dissolved reagents or colloidal suspensions into the soil at elevated pressures. In situ mechanical mixing is the physical blending of the soil and the barrier material underground. Excavation-insertion is the removal of a soil volume and adding barrier materials to the space created. Major vertical barrier emplacement technologies include trenching-backfilling; slurry trenching; and vertical drilling and injection, including boring (earth augering), cable tool drilling, rotary drilling, sonic drilling, jetting methods, injection-mixing in drilled holes, and deep soil mixing. Major horizontal barrier emplacement technologies include horizontal drilling, microtunneling, compaction boring, horizontal emplacement, longwall mining, hydraulic fracturing, and jetting methods.

  4. Tactile Imaging Sensor for Subsurface Tumor Detection in Prostate Phantom

    E-print Network

    Won, Chang-Hee

    the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. For example, tumor identifying sensor may be usedTactile Imaging Sensor for Subsurface Tumor Detection in Prostate Phantom Jong-Ha Lee1 , Chang-Hee Won1 , Yan Yu2 , Kaiguo Yan2 INTRODUCTION DENTIFYING and locating prostate tumors will greatly enhance

  5. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TRICHLOROETHENE IN A VARIETY OF SUBSURFACE MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abilities of three types of sediment to biotransform trichloroethene (TCE) were compared to determine the influence of environmental factors that differ among sediments of different composition. The results could suggest TCE behavior at spill sites in a variety of subsurface ...

  6. SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE MODIFICATIONS TO REDUCE NITRATE LOSSES IN DRAINAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrate in water leaving subsurface drain ('tile') systems often exceeds the 10 mg-N/ L maximum contaminant level (MCL) set by the U.S. EPA for drinking water and has been implicated in contributing to the hypoxia problem within the Gulf of Mexico. Much of the nitrate present in surface waters with...

  7. Evaluation of subsurface Catahoula Formation in Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Albertson; D. W. Harrelson; S. L. Lee

    1986-01-01

    Subsurface Catahoula Formation samples were collected near Marco, Louisiana, by the US Army Corps of Engineers for the Red River Lock and Dam 3 investigation. Core samples were classified in the field by geologists and were analyzed in the lab for grain size, sorting, and mineralogy, compiled cross sections based on core and electric log data portray local stratigraphic facies

  8. Quantum Cascade Terahertz Emitters for Subsurface Defect Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam T. Cooney; Andrew M. Sarangan; Thomas R. Nelson; Rashid Alkuwari; Peter E. Powers; Andres Rodriguez; Mark Kleeman; Gary Lamont; James L. Blackshire; Joseph W. Haus

    2006-01-01

    The transmission and penetration capability of electromagnetic waves with terahertz frequencies promises nondestructive subsurface inspection capabilities using low energy, non-harmful radiation. The development of compact and portable terahertz frequency radiation sources and detectors is crucial to the practical implementation of future terahertz based nondestructive evaluation tools for aerospace, medical, security, and electronic industries. Recent progress in the bandstructure engineering of

  9. The Mojave Subsurface Bio-Geochemistry Explorer (MOSBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerrero, J.; Beegle, L.; Abbey, W.; Bhartia, R.; Kounaves, S.; Russell, M.; Towles, D.

    2012-01-01

    The MOSBE Team has developed a terrestrial field campaign to explore two subsurface biological habitats under the Mojave Desert. This field campaign will not only help us understand terrestrial desert biology, but also will develop methodologies and strategies for potential future Mars missions that would seek to explore the Martian subsurface. We have proposed to the ASTEP program to integrate a suite of field demonstrated instruments with a 20 m subsurface drill as a coherent unit, the Mojave Subsurface Bio-geochemistry Explorer. The ATK Space Modular Planetary Drill System (MPDS) requires no drilling fluid, which allows aseptic sampling, can penetrate lithic ground up to 20 meters of depth, and utilizes less than 100 Watts throughout the entire depth. The drill has been developed and demonstrated in field testing to a depth of 10 meters in Arizona, December 2002. In addition to caching a continuous core throughout the drilling depth, it also generates and caches cuttings and fines that are strata-graphically correlated with the core. As a core segment is brought to the surface, it will be analyzed for texture and structure by a color microscopic imager and for relevant chemistry and mineralogy with a UV fluorescence/Raman spectrometer. Organic and soluble ionic species will be identified through two instruments -- a microcapillary electrophoresis, and an ion trap mass spectrometer that have been developed under PIDDP, ASTID and MIDP funding.

  10. Drill System Development for the Lunar Subsurface Exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kris Zacny; Kiel Davis; Gale Paulsen; Dustyn Roberts; Jack Wilson; Wilson Hernandez

    2008-01-01

    Reaching the cold traps at the lunar poles and directly sensing the subsurface regolith is a primary goal of lunar exploration, especially as a means of prospecting for future In Situ Resource Utilization efforts. As part of the development of a lunar drill capable of reaching a depth of two meters or more, Honeybee Robotics has built a laboratory drill

  11. Geobacter uraniireducens sp. nov., isolated from subsurface sediment undergoing uranium

    E-print Network

    Lovley, Derek

    bioremediation Evgenya S. Shelobolina,1 3 Helen A. Vrionis,1 Robert H. Findlay2 and Derek R. Lovley1 with acetate oxidation, was isolated from subsurface sediment undergoing uranium bioremediation. The 16S r bioremediation. The Abbreviations: AQDS, anthraquinone-2,6-

  12. THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF PAVEMENT SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yinhui Liu

    2005-01-01

    Pavement subsurface drainage systems (PSDS) are designed to drain the entrapped water out of pavement. To investigate the effects of various factors on the performance of PSDS, three dimensional models were developed using the finite element method to simulate the unsaturated drainage process in pavement. The finite element models were calibrated using the field information on outflow, peak flow, layer

  13. Reflection from Layered Surfaces due to Subsurface Scattering Pat Hanrahan

    E-print Network

    Ramamoorthi, Ravi

    Reflection from Layered Surfaces due to Subsurface Scattering Pat Hanrahan Department of Computer Research Center for Computer Science Abstract The reflection of light from most materials consists of two ma- jor terms: the specular and the diffuse. Specular reflection may be modeled from first principles

  14. Feasibility study of tank leakage mitigation using subsurface barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Treat, R.L.; Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormak, W.D.; Trenkler, T.; Walters, M.F. [Ensearch Environmental, Inc. (United States); Rouse, J.K.; McLaughlin, T.J. [Bovay Northwest, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Cruse, J.M. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-21

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to satisfy manage and dispose of the waste currently stored in the underground storage tanks. The retrieval element of TWRS includes a work scope to develop subsurface impermeable barriers beneath SSTs. The barriers could serve as a means to contain leakage that may result from waste retrieval operations and could also support site closure activities by facilitating cleanup. Three types of subsurface barrier systems have emerged for further consideration: (1) chemical grout, (2) freeze walls, and (3) desiccant, represented in this feasibility study as a circulating air barrier. This report contains analyses of the costs and relative risks associated with combinations retrieval technologies and barrier technologies that from 14 alternatives. Eight of the alternatives include the use of subsurface barriers; the remaining six nonbarrier alternative are included in order to compare the costs, relative risks and other values of retrieval with subsurface barriers. Each alternative includes various combinations of technologies that can impact the risks associated with future contamination of the groundwater beneath the Hanford Site to varying degrees. Other potential risks associated with these alternatives, such as those related to accidents and airborne contamination resulting from retrieval and barrier emplacement operations, are not quantitatively evaluated in this report.

  15. Subsurface Ambient Thermoelectric Power for Moles and Penetrators1

    E-print Network

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    for electrical power generation for planetary exploration applications using thermoelectric conversion of `ground source' thermoelectric generation. #12;2 We may note that although thermoelectric conversion [3] is1 Subsurface Ambient Thermoelectric Power for Moles and Penetrators1 Ralph D. Lorenz, Lunar

  16. EFFECT OF FENTON'S REAGENT ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIOLOGY AND BIODEGRADATION CAPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microcosm studies were conducted to determine the effect of Fenton's reagent on subsurface microbiology and biodegradation capacity in a DNAPL (PCE/TCE) contaminated aquifer previously treated with the reagent. Groundwater pH declined from 5 to 2.4 immediately after the treatmen...

  17. Interaction between a surface crack and a subsurface inclusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Andreasen; B. L. Karihaloo

    1993-01-01

    A numerical method for the integration of the singular integral equation resulting from the interaction of a surface crack with a subsurface inclusion is presented. The crack is modelled as a pile-up of dislocations, and the dislocation density function is partitioned into three parts: A singular term due to the load discontinuity imposed by the inclusion, a square root singular

  18. UNDERSTANDING THE FATE OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN THE SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sinca a significant number of the two or more million underground storage tank (UST) systems used for petroleum products leak, their cleanup poses a major environmental challenge. Our understnading of the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the subsurface environment is critical t...

  19. ENGINEERING ISSUE: IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED UNSATURATED SUBSURFACE SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An emerging technology for the remediation of unsaturated subsurface soils involves the use of microorganisms to degrade contaminants which are present in such soils. Understanding the processes which drive in situ bioremediation, as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of th...

  20. ENUMERATION AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIA INDIGENOUS TO SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Subsurface samples from a rapid infiltration wastewater system under construction at Ft. Polk, LA were examined by employing aseptic sampling devices, acridine orange (AO)-fluorescent cell counts, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Samples contained 1 to 10 million AO-fl...

  1. Subsurface ground temperature: Implications for a district cooling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. McCabe; J. J. Bender; K. R. Potter

    1995-01-01

    Elevated ground temperatures represent an undesirable source of heat gain for uninsulated buried piping found in many district cooling systems. It has been customary for the owners of district cooling systems in northern climates not to insulate their buried chilled water piping. Utility engineers for a large district cooling system at one northern US university have relied on published subsurface

  2. A BIOVENTING APPROACH TO REMEDIATE A GASONLINE CONTAMINATED SUBSURFACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioventing is a subsurface process using an air stream to enhance biodegradation of oily contaminants. wo pilot-scale bioventing systems were installed at a field site. rocess operations began in October 1990. he field site is located at an air station. pill in 1969 of about 100,...

  3. Variability of the methane trapping in martian subsurface clathrate hydrates

    E-print Network

    Caroline Thomas; Olivier Mousis; Sylvain Picaud; Vincent Ballenegger

    2008-10-23

    Recent observations have evidenced traces of methane CH4 heterogeneously distributed in the martian atmosphere. However, because the lifetime of CH4 in the atmosphere of Mars is estimated to be around 300-600 years on the basis of photochemistry, its release from a subsurface reservoir or an active primary source of methane have been invoked in the recent literature. Among the existing scenarios, it has been proposed that clathrate hydrates located in the near subsurface of Mars could be at the origin of the small quantities of the detected CH4. Here, we accurately determine the composition of these clathrate hydrates, as a function of temperature and gas phase composition, by using a hybrid statistical thermodynamic model based on experimental data. Compared to other recent works, our model allows us to calculate the composition of clathrate hydrates formed from a more plausible composition of the martian atmosphere by considering its main compounds, i.e. carbon dioxyde, nitrogen and argon, together with methane. Besides, because there is no low temperature restriction in our model, we are able to determine the composition of clathrate hydrates formed at temperatures corresponding to the extreme ones measured in the polar caps. Our results show that methane enriched clathrate hydrates could be stable in the subsurface of Mars only if a primitive CH4-rich atmosphere has existed or if a subsurface source of CH4 has been (or is still) present.

  4. ADSORPTION AND TRANSPORT OF U(VI) IN SUBSURFACE MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    U(VI) adsorption and transport in three natural, heterogeneous subsurface media were investigated in batch and column experiments. The rate of U(VI) adsorption to the natural samples was rapid over the first few hours of the experiments, and then slowed appreciably after twenty-f...

  5. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of t...

  6. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 STORAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of the...

  7. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 SEQUESTRATION (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of the...

  8. Ultraviolet disinfection of effluent from subsurface flow constructed wetlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Y. Richter; R. W. Weaver

    2003-01-01

    Subsurface flow constructed wetlands are becoming increasingly common for on?site treatment of domestic wastewater. Before spray application, wetland effluent must be disinfected. Traditionally, tablet chlorination has been used, but an alternative is needed to increase dependability. Consequently, we investigated the use of ultraviolet light disinfection of effluent from constructed wetlands. Two low pressure (254 nm) and two medium pressure ultraviolet

  9. Efficient Rendering of Local Subsurface Scattering Tom Mertens1

    E-print Network

    Kautz, Jan

    translucent at first sight, such as skin for example, subsur- face scattering is very important. Fine geometric detail, e.g. small wrinkles and bumps, is smoothed out by subsurface scattering and appears less objects with fixed, possibly inhomogeneous, subsur- face scattering properties. The method by Hao et al

  10. Lunar subsurface investigated from correlation of seismic noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Larose; A. Khan; Y. Nakamura; M. Campillo

    2005-01-01

    Correlation of Earth's seismic noise is an emerging and promising technique to image the subsurface. It was recently and successfully applied to surface wave tomography in California [Shapiro et al. Science (2005), Sabra et al. GRL (2005)], where the ocean and the atmosphere were found to be the most energetic sources of seismic noise. Is this technique applicable to other

  11. Lunar subsurface investigated from correlation of seismic noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Larose; A. Khan; Y. Nakamura; M. Campillo

    2005-01-01

    [1] By correlating seismic noise recorded by four sensors placed on the Moon during the Apollo 17 mission, we have retrieved a well-defined dispersed Rayleigh wave pulse. Inversion of its group velocity provides new constraints on the lunar subsurface structure. The estimated ‘‘signal-tonoise’’ ratio (SNR) of the retrieved Rayleigh wave train is strongly dependent on solar illumination, effectively making solar

  12. Applicability of MICP in Subsurface and Fractured Environments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, A. J.; Eldring, J.; Hiebert, R.; Lauchnor, E. G.; Mitchell, A.; Esposito, R.; Gerlach, R.; Cunningham, A. B.; Spangler, L.

    2013-12-01

    Subsurface leakage mitigation strategies using ureolytic biofilm- or microbially-induced calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation (MICP) have been investigated for sealing high permeability regions, like fractures under subsurface relevant conditions. This technology may help in the deep subsurface to improve security of geologically stored carbon dioxide, seal subsurface hydraulic fractures, or enhance oil recovery. Sealing technologies using low-viscosity fluids, such as those used to promote MICP are advantageous since they may penetrate small aperture fractures not reachable by cement-based sealing technologies. MICP has also been researched by others for applications such as: consolidating porous materials, improving or repairing construction materials and remediating environmental concerns. Firstly, injection strategies to control saturation conditions and region-specific precipitation were developed in two-foot long sand-filled columns. Sporosarcina pasteurii biofilms were promoted and calcium and urea solutions were injected to stimulate mineralization. These injection strategies resulted in: 1) promoting homogeneous CaCO3 distribution along the flow path; 2) minimizing near-injection point plugging; and 3) enhancing precipitation efficiency by periodically reviving ureolytic activity. Secondly, the developed injection strategies were used to reduce permeability and ultimately twice seal a hydraulically fractured, 74 cm diameter (meso-scale) Boyles Sandstone core under ambient pressures. Thirdly, a novel high pressure test vessel was developed to study MICP at subsurface relevant pressures (up to 96 bar) (Figure 1). The fractured core's permeability was reduced by more than two orders of magnitude after promoting MICP under 44 bar of confining pressure. In a recent high pressure meso- scale MICP experiment, non-homogeneous, preferential flow paths were observed as cemented regions in a porous media sand pack. The preferential cementation was hypothesized to be formed due to density differences and gravity-driven flow between urea/calcium medium and the confining fluids. These studies suggest biofilm-induced CaCO3 precipitation technologies may potentially strengthen or seal high permeability regions or fractures, but point to the need to further study and model MICP under relevant subsurface pressure conditions. Figure 1. A novel high pressure test system for the examination of MICP under relevant subsurface pressures.

  13. Connecting Surface Planting with Subsurface Erosion Due to Groundwater Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, M.; Curran, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Bank erosion and failure is a major contributor of fine sediment to streams and rivers, and can be driven by subsurface flow. In restoration projects, vegetation is often planted on banks to reduce erosion and stabilize the banks. However, the relationship between subsurface flow, erosion and vegetation remains somewhat speculative. A comparative study quantified the effect of surface planting on subsurface erosion and soil strength. Six 32-gallon containers were layered with a sandy loam overlying a highly conductive sand layer and a confining clay. Three treatments were applied in pairs: switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), sod (turf-type tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass mix), and no vegetation. After a vegetation establishment period, the 2, 10, and 100 year rainfalls were simulated. Samples collected from ports in the containers were analyzed for subsurface drainage volume and suspended sediment concentration. After all rainfall simulations, a sediment core was taken from each container to measure shear strength and root density. Results indicate the relative benefits of vegetative planting to reduce subsurface erosion during storms and enhance soil strength. Switchgrass reduced the total amount of sediment removed from containers during all three storms when compared to the sod and during the 10 and 100 year storms when compared to the bare ground. Results from the volume analysis were more variable. Switchgrass retained the greatest volume of water from the 100 year storm event, but also released the largest fraction of water in the 2 and 10 year storms. Both sod and switchgrass planting considerably increased the time required for the soil samples to fail despite reducing the shear stress at failure. Where switchgrass grew long, woody roots, the sod developed a dense mat of interconnected thin roots. We suspect the different root patterns between sod and switchgrass to be a dominant factor in the response of the different containers.

  14. Urban heat islands in the subsurface of German cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menberg, K.; Blum, P.; Zhu, K.; Bayer, P.

    2012-04-01

    In the subsurface of many cities there are widespread and persistent thermal anomalies (subsurface urban heat islands) that result in a warming of urban aquifers. The reasons for this heating are manifold. Possible heat sources are basements of buildings, leakage of sewage systems, buried district heating networks, re-injection of cooling water and solar irradiation on paved surfaces. In the current study, the reported groundwater temperatures in several German cities, such as Berlin, Munich, Cologne and Karlsruhe, are compared. Available data sets are supplemented by temperature measurements and depth profiles in observation wells. Trend analyses are conducted with time series of groundwater temperatures, and three-dimensional groundwater temperature maps are provided. In all investigated cities, pronounced positive temperature anomalies are present. The distribution of groundwater temperatures appears to be spatially and temporally highly variable. Apparently, the increased heat input into the urban subsurface is controlled by very local and site-specific parameters. In the long-run, the superposition of various heat sources results in an extensive temperature increase. In many cases, the maximum temperature elevation is found close to the city centre. Regional groundwater temperature differences between the city centre and the rural background are up to 5 °C, with local hot spots of even more pronounced anomalies. Particular heat sources, like cooling water injections or case-specific underground constructions, can cause local temperatures > 20°C in the subsurface. Examination of the long-term variations in isotherm maps shows that temperatures have increased by about 1°C in the city, as well as in the rural background areas over the last decades. This increase could be reproduced with trend analysis of temperature data gathered from several groundwater wells. Comparison between groundwater and air temperatures in Karlsruhe, for example, also indicates a spatial correlation between the urban heat island effect in the subsurface and in the atmosphere.

  15. Dynamics of decadally cycling carbon in subsurface soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koarashi, Jun; Hockaday, William C.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Trumbore, Susan E.

    2012-09-01

    Subsurface horizons contain more than half of the global soil carbon (C), yet the dynamics of this C remains poorly understood. We estimated the amount of decadally cycling subsurface C (˜20 to 60 cm depth) from the incorporation of `bomb' radiocarbon (14C) using samples taken over 50 years from grassland and forest soils in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California. The radiocarbon content of all organic matter fractions (roots, low-density (LF), high-density (HF), and non-oxidizable HF) increased from the pre- to post-bomb samples, indicating ˜1-6 kgC m-2, or about half of the subsoil C, consists of C fixed since 1963. Low-density (LF-C) represented <24% (grassland) to 40-55% (forest) of the subsurface C and represented a mixture of post-bomb C and varying amounts of pre-1950 charcoal, identified using13C-NMR spectroscopy. The14C content of HF-C increased rapidly from 1992 to 2009, indicating a significant time lag (>20 years) for the arrival of `bomb'14C to this fraction. A two-pool (fast-cycling and passive) model including >20 year time lag showed that 28-73% of the subsoil mineral-associated C had turnover times of 10-95 years. Microbially respired C was enriched in bomb14C compared to both LF and HF fractions in 2009. Overall, we estimate that C fluxes through decadally cycling pools in the subsurface are equivalent to 1-9% (grassland) to 10-54% (forest) of the surface litterfall at these sites. Our results demonstrate the importance of decadally cycling C for ecosystem C balance, and that a lagged response of the large subsurface C stores to changes in environmental conditions is possible.

  16. On the subsurface countercurrents in the Philippine Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fan; Zang, Nan; Li, Yuanlong; Hu, Dunxin

    2015-01-01

    subsurface countercurrents in the Philippine Sea and their roles in water mass transportation have been reported in previous studies. Their existence is still controversial, and the underlying dynamics remains unclear. This study investigates the climatological structures and relationships of three subsurface countercurrents, namely the Mindanao Undercurrent (MUC), the Luzon Undercurrent (LUC), and the North Equatorial Undercurrent (NEUC), using recently available hydrographic and satellite altimeter data. The three subsurface currents below and opposite to the surface currents are confirmed by multisections analysis. The MUC, as traced at zonal sections between 6.5°N and 10.5°N, shows two northward velocity cores, both with maximum speed larger than 10 cm s-1. The LUC exhibits an obscure core with southward velocity larger than 2 cm s-1 under the Kuroshio at 18°N and 16.25°N sections. The eastward flowing NEUC also has two separated cores at 128.2°E and 130°E sections with velocity larger than 1 cm s-1. Analyses of ?-S relationship suggest that the southern part of NEUC is fed by the MUC with the South Pacific water and South/North Pacific water mixture, while the northern NEUC is likely a destiny of the North Pacific water carried by the LUC. Tightly associated with the opposite horizontal gradients between sea surface height (SSH) and the depth of thermocline (DTC), the subsurface countercurrents exist in connected zones where the baroclinic adjustment below the thermocline overcomes the barotropic forcing at the sea surface, which indicates the dynamical linkages among the three subsurface countercurrents.

  17. Subsurface Stress Fields in FCC Single Crystal Anisotropic Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Knudsen, Erik; Swanson, Gregory R.; Duke, Gregory; Ham-Battista, Gilda

    2004-01-01

    Single crystal superalloy turbine blades used in high pressure turbomachinery are subject to conditions of high temperature, triaxial steady and alternating stresses, fretting stresses in the blade attachment and damper contact locations, and exposure to high-pressure hydrogen. The blades are also subjected to extreme variations in temperature during start-up and shutdown transients. The most prevalent high cycle fatigue (HCF) failure modes observed in these blades during operation include crystallographic crack initiation/propagation on octahedral planes, and non-crystallographic initiation with crystallographic growth. Numerous cases of crack initiation and crack propagation at the blade leading edge tip, blade attachment regions, and damper contact locations have been documented. Understanding crack initiation/propagation under mixed-mode loading conditions is critical for establishing a systematic procedure for evaluating HCF life of single crystal turbine blades. This paper presents analytical and numerical techniques for evaluating two and three dimensional subsurface stress fields in anisotropic contacts. The subsurface stress results are required for evaluating contact fatigue life at damper contacts and dovetail attachment regions in single crystal nickel-base superalloy turbine blades. An analytical procedure is presented for evaluating the subsurface stresses in the elastic half-space, based on the adaptation of a stress function method outlined by Lekhnitskii. Numerical results are presented for cylindrical and spherical anisotropic contacts, using finite element analysis (FEA). Effects of crystal orientation on stress response and fatigue life are examined. Obtaining accurate subsurface stress results for anisotropic single crystal contact problems require extremely refined three-dimensional (3-D) finite element grids, especially in the edge of contact region. Obtaining resolved shear stresses (RSS) on the principal slip planes also involves considerable post-processing work. For these reasons it is very advantageous to develop analytical solution schemes for subsurface stresses, whenever possible.

  18. Advances in ground-penetrating radar for road subsurface measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, James L.; Fisher, John W., III; Skau, Gordon; Armaghani, Jashmid; Moxley, Jonathan G.

    1997-06-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is becoming an increasingly useful tool for road subsurface characterization. The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) has recently obtained a new 1 GHz ground penetrating radar with the ability to make high resolution measurements. Depth profile scan rates of the new radar are about 50 scan/sec and the radar operates on a test van travelling at speeds up to 50 - 55 MHz. The time domain data collected by the GPR allow the determination of thickness of the road surface and subsurface layers and, with appropriate signal processing, the data can provide information about voids and other anomalies within road layer interfaces. This paper will describe the salient features of the Florida DOT ground penetrating radar, recent measurement results, and applications of GPR for road assessments. It will also describe preliminary results of a University of Florida project which is employing advanced signal processing techniques to detect and classify subsurface anomalies in road layers. As a precursor to anomaly detection we are developing improved techniques for finding road layer thicknesses and dielectric constants. The processing techniques being developed include matched filter and slope detection algorithms. A goal of the current work is to develop signal processing techniques that will allow FDOT to evaluate subsurface conditions for large sections of road throughout Florida in a more accurate and rapid manner. It is expected that the GPR and the results of current research will assist the FDOT in more accurately determining road layer thickness profiles, in assessing road subsurface conditions with less coring, and aid in rehabilitating roads with less manpower than is now required. Such capabilities will allow potentially serious problems to be corrected before they become costly and will also provide a useful tool for future road design and improvement.

  19. 43 CFR 3138.11 - How do I apply for a subsurface storage agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false How do I apply for a subsurface storage agreement? 3138.11 Section 3138...PETROLEUM RESERVE, ALASKA Subsurface Storage Agreements in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska...11 How do I apply for a subsurface storage agreement? (a) You must submit...

  20. 43 CFR 3138.11 - How do I apply for a subsurface storage agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false How do I apply for a subsurface storage agreement? 3138.11 Section 3138...PETROLEUM RESERVE, ALASKA Subsurface Storage Agreements in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska...11 How do I apply for a subsurface storage agreement? (a) You must submit...