These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Autonomous microexplosives subsurface tracing system final report.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the autonomous micro-explosive subsurface tracing system is to image the location and geometry of hydraulically induced fractures in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This system is based on the insertion of a swarm of autonomous micro-explosive packages during the fracturing process, with subsequent triggering of the energetic material to create an array of micro-seismic sources that can be detected and analyzed using existing seismic receiver arrays and analysis software. The project included investigations of energetic mixtures, triggering systems, package size and shape, and seismic output. Given the current absence of any technology capable of such high resolution mapping of subsurface structures, this technology has the potential for major impact on petroleum industry, which spends approximately $1 billion dollar per year on hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States alone.

Engler, Bruce Phillip; Nogan, John; Melof, Brian Matthew; Uhl, James Eugene; Dulleck, George R., Jr.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Rivas, Raul R.; Cooper, Paul W.; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Kravitz, Stanley H.

2004-04-01

2

Micro-explosion of compound drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introducing water into spray combustion systems, by either water-in-oil emulsification or supplementary water injection, is one of the major techniques for combustion improvement and NOx reduction. Plentiful researches are available on combustion of water-in-oil emulsion fuel drops. The emulsified liquid is a heterogeneous mixture of immiscible liquids. One component forms the continuous phase and the other component forms the discrete phase. The discrete phase consists of globules of the one fluid that are suspended in the continuous phase fluid. Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly considered for combustion applications because emulsions can result in micro-explosion, thereby reducing the average drop diameter to enhance liquid vaporization, and suppressing the formation of soot and NOx. However, the water addition generally does not exceed about 20% for smooth engine operations[!, 21. The combustion characteristics and micro-explosion of emulsion drop were studied by many researchers. The micro-explosion of water in fuel emulsion drops was caused by very fast growth of superheated water vapor bubbles, its superheat limits must be lower than the boiling point temperature of the fuel. These bubbles were primarily governed by the pressure difference between the superheated vapor and the liquid, and by the inertia imparted to the liquid by the motion of the bubble surface[3 6 In this study, we used a coaxial nozzle to generation the multi-component drop. The different type of water-in-oil fuel drops called the compound drops. Unlike an emulsion drop, a compound drop consists of a water core and a fuel shell, which can originate from the phase separation of emulsion[7, 81 or a water drop colliding with a fuel drop[9, 101 Burning and micro-explosion of compound drops have been found to be distinct from those of emulsion drops[9-111 Wang et al.[9 , 101 studied the combustion characteristics of collision merged alkane-water drops. The merged drops appeared in adhesive and inserted manners. The drop ignition delay time increased with increasing water content. The average burning rate of alkane-water drops decreased with increasing water content. In the burning process, hexadecane-water drops exhibited flash vaporization or flame extinction. Heterogeneous explosion was occasionally observed in drops with trapped air bubbles. The air bubbles were assumed to be the nucleation points of the heterogeneous explosions. Chen and Lin[11 studied the characteristics of water-in-dodecane compound drop with different water content, diameter of drop and environmental oxygen concentration. The vaporization rate increased with increasing environmental oxygen concentration. The compound drops micro-exploded during the burning process in a random way. The number of micro-explosions was majorly influenced by drop diameter, followed by environmental oxygen concentration. Water content had a weaker effect on micro-explosion. As available literature and research results of compound drop burning are scarce, their combustion and micro-explosion behaviors are still poorly understood. In this regard, we changed the drop nature as compound drops to study their combustion characteristics and micro-explosion phenomena.

Chen, Chun-Kuei; Lin, Ta-Hui

2014-08-01

3

Autonomous robot for detecting subsurface voids and tunnels using microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tunnels have been used to evade security of defensive positions both during times of war and peace for hundreds of years. Tunnels are presently being built under the Mexican Border by drug smugglers and possibly terrorists. Several have been discovered at the border crossing at Nogales near Tucson, Arizona, along with others at other border towns. During this war on terror, tunnels under the Mexican Border pose a significant threat for the security of the United States. It is also possible that terrorists will attempt to tunnel under strategic buildings and possibly discharge explosives. The Center for Cave and Karst Study (CCKS) at Western Kentucky University has a long and successful history of determining the location of caves and subsurface voids using microgravity technology. Currently, the CCKS is developing a remotely controlled robot which will be used to locate voids underground. The robot will be a remotely controlled vehicle that will use microgravity and GPS to accurately detect and measure voids below the surface. It is hoped that this robot will also be used in military applications to locate other types of voids underground such as tunnels and bunkers. It is anticipated that the robot will be able to function up to a mile from the operator. This paper will describe the construction of the robot and the use of microgravity technology to locate subsurface voids with the robot.

Wilson, Stacy S.; Crawford, Nicholas C.; Croft, Leigh Ann; Howard, Michael; Miller, Stephen; Rippy, Thomas

2006-05-01

4

Physics of puffing and microexplosion of emulsion fuel droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physics of water-in-oil emulsion droplet microexplosion/puffing has been investigated using high-fidelity interface-capturing simulation. Varying the dispersed-phase (water) sub-droplet size/location and the initiation location of explosive boiling (bubble formation), the droplet breakup processes have been well revealed. The bubble growth leads to local and partial breakup of the parent oil droplet, i.e., puffing. The water sub-droplet size and location determine the after-puffing dynamics. The boiling surface of the water sub-droplet is unstable and evolves further. Finally, the sub-droplet is wrapped by boiled water vapor and detaches itself from the parent oil droplet. When the water sub-droplet is small, the detachment is quick, and the oil droplet breakup is limited. When it is large and initially located toward the parent droplet center, the droplet breakup is more extensive. For microexplosion triggered by the simultaneous growth of multiple separate bubbles, each explosion is local and independent initially, but their mutual interactions occur at a later stage. The degree of breakup can be larger due to interactions among multiple explosions. These findings suggest that controlling microexplosion/puffing is possible in a fuel spray, if the emulsion-fuel blend and the ambient flow conditions such as heating are properly designed. The current study also gives us an insight into modeling the puffing and microexplosion of emulsion droplets and sprays.

Shinjo, J.; Xia, J.; Ganippa, L. C.; Megaritis, A.

2014-10-01

5

An Experimental Investigation of Microexplosion in Emulsified Vegetable-Methanol Blend  

E-print Network

in emulsions causes a high probability of microexplosion event due to the sudden expansion of the emulsified fluid. Also, the effect of size on microexplosion was evident in the greater probability of explosion. Methanol-in-canola oil emulsion with 15...

Nam, Hyungseok

2012-07-16

6

Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion.  

PubMed

At extreme pressures and temperatures, such as those inside planets and stars, common materials form new dense phases with compacted atomic arrangements and unusual physical properties. The synthesis and study of new phases of matter at pressures above 100 GPa and temperatures above 10(4) K--warm dense matter--may reveal the functional details of planet and star interiors, and may lead to materials with extraordinary properties. Many phases have been predicted theoretically that may be realized once appropriate formation conditions are found. Here we report the synthesis of a superdense stable phase of body-centred-cubic aluminium, predicted by first-principles theories to exist at pressures above 380 GPa. The superdense Al phase was synthesized in the non-equilibrium conditions of an ultrafast laser-induced microexplosion confined inside sapphire (?-Al(2)O(3)). Confined microexplosions offer a strategy to create and recover high-density polymorphs, and a simple method for tabletop study of warm dense matter. PMID:21863012

Vailionis, Arturas; Gamaly, Eugene G; Mizeikis, Vygantas; Yang, Wenge; Rode, Andrei V; Juodkazis, Saulius

2011-01-01

7

Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion  

PubMed Central

At extreme pressures and temperatures, such as those inside planets and stars, common materials form new dense phases with compacted atomic arrangements and unusual physical properties. The synthesis and study of new phases of matter at pressures above 100 GPa and temperatures above 104 K—warm dense matter—may reveal the functional details of planet and star interiors, and may lead to materials with extraordinary properties. Many phases have been predicted theoretically that may be realized once appropriate formation conditions are found. Here we report the synthesis of a superdense stable phase of body-centred-cubic aluminium, predicted by first-principles theories to exist at pressures above 380 GPa. The superdense Al phase was synthesized in the non-equilibrium conditions of an ultrafast laser-induced microexplosion confined inside sapphire (?-Al2O3). Confined microexplosions offer a strategy to create and recover high-density polymorphs, and a simple method for tabletop study of warm dense matter. PMID:21863012

Vailionis, Arturas; Gamaly, Eugene G.; Mizeikis, Vygantas; Yang, Wenge; Rode, Andrei V.; Juodkazis, Saulius

2011-01-01

8

Design, implementation and results of an autonomous hydrogeophysical monitoring system to monitor subsurface flow at the Hanford 300 area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time lapse electrical data (both self potential and electrical resistivity data) can provide information on subsurface flow, and over the last several years there has been an increase in the interest of automating hydrogeophysical data acquisition systems. Such systems require both adaptations to hardware and system setup, and a well designed computational backend allowing for the management and processing of

R. J. Versteeg; A. Ward

2007-01-01

9

Warm dense matter at the bench-top: Fs-laser-induced confined micro-explosion  

SciTech Connect

We report the experimental evidence for creation of Warm Dense Matter (WDM) in ultrafast laser-induced micro-explosion inside a sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) crystal. We show that the WDM can be formed by a 100 nJ fs-pulse if the following conditions are satisfied: (1) the laser pulse is tightly focused to inside of the bulk of transparent material so the intensity at focus is two orders of magnitude higher than the optical breakdown threshold; (2) the pulse duration is shorter than the electron-ion energy exchange time; and, (3) the absorbed energy density is above the Young's modulus for the material studied. The empty void created inside a sapphire crystal surrounded by a shell of compressed material provides the direct evidence of the maximum pressure above the Young's modulus of sapphire ({approx}400 GPa). Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the shell revealed the presence of novel super-dense bcc-Al crystalline phase predicted at pressures above {approx}380 GPa theoretically, which has never been observed experimentally before neither in nature in laboratory experiments. These results show that confined micro-explosion induced by tightly focused fs-laser inside a transparent solid opens new routes for synthesis of new materials and study of WDM at a laboratory bench-top.

Gamaly, E.G.; Vailionis, A.; Mizeikis, V.; Yang, W.; Rode, A.V.; Juodkazis, S. (Swinburne); (Stanford); (Shizuoka); (CIW); (ANU)

2012-02-07

10

Autonomous and Autonomic Swarms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A watershed in systems engineering is represented by the advent of swarm-based systems that accomplish missions through cooperative action by a (large) group of autonomous individuals each having simple capabilities and no global knowledge of the group s objective. Such systems, with individuals capable of surviving in hostile environments, pose unprecedented challenges to system developers. Design and testing and verification at much higher levels will be required, together with the corresponding tools, to bring such systems to fruition. Concepts for possible future NASA space exploration missions include autonomous, autonomic swarms. Engineering swarm-based missions begins with understanding autonomy and autonomicity and how to design, test, and verify systems that have those properties and, simultaneously, the capability to accomplish prescribed mission goals. Formal methods-based technologies, both projected and in development, are described in terms of their potential utility to swarm-based system developers.

Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter F.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Sterritt, Roy

2005-01-01

11

Subsurface Mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Target areas for sinking base holes, underground pipelines, etc., can be identified with the assistance of NASA Ames developed technology, by Airborne Pipeline Services, Inc. Subsurface features are computer processed; the system can cover 250 miles a day and was first developed by Applied Science, Inc.

1985-01-01

12

Autonomic Dysreflexia  

MedlinePLUS

... you have concerns, talk with your doctor. MEDICAL ALERT CARD Autonomic dysreflexia is a potentially fatal condition ... medical personnel and insist that the card MEDICAL ALERT Autonomic Dysreflexia (AD) A potentially life-threatening condition ...

13

Autonomous Pseudomonoids  

E-print Network

for autonomous pseudomonoids 59 4.1 Duals in convolution hom-categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 4.1.1 Opposite and bidual autonomous pseudomonoids . . . . . . 61 4.1.2 Duals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 4.2 Radford...

Lopez Franco, Ignacio

2009-04-25

14

Autonomic neuropathies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A limited autonomic neuropathy may underlie some unusual clinical syndromes, including the postural tachycardia syndrome, pseudo-obstruction syndrome, heat intolerance, and perhaps chronic fatigue syndrome. Antibodies to autonomic structures are common in diabetes, but their specificity is unknown. The presence of autonomic failure worsens prognosis in the diabetic state. Some autonomic neuropathies are treatable. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy may respond to liver transplantation. There are anecdotal reports of acute panautonomic neuropathy responding to intravenous gamma globulin. Orthostatic hypotension may respond to erythropoietin or midodrine.

Low, P. A.

1998-01-01

15

Inductive Power System for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater inductive coupling is used to recharge a lithium-ion battery pack for an underwater mooring profiler operating on a cabled deep-ocean mooring sensor network. The mooring profiler is a motor driven autonomous underwater vehicle that is attached to a vertical mooring cable suspended between the seafloor at 900 m and subsurface float structure at a depth of 160 m (to

T. McGinnis; C. P. Henze; K. Conroy

2007-01-01

16

Autonomic hyperreflexia  

MedlinePLUS

The most common cause of autonomic hyperreflexia is spinal cord injury. The nervous system of people with this condition ... Flushed (red) skin above the level of the spinal cord injury High blood pressure Slow pulse or fast pulse ...

17

Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy  

MedlinePLUS

... Mediated Syncope (NMS) Familial Dysautonomia (FD) Learn More Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy What is autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG)? Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is ...

18

Autonomous Soaring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the autonomous soaring flight of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). It reviews energy sources for UAVs, and two examples of UAV's that used alternative energy sources, and thermal currents for soaring. Examples of flight tests, plans, and results are given. Ultimately, the concept of a UAV harvesting energy from the atmosphere has been shown to be feasible with existing technology.

Lin, Victor P.

2007-01-01

19

Subsurface Drainage Contribution to Streamflow in Subsurface Drained Agricultural Watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In intensively subsurface drained agricultural watersheds, subsurface drainage influences both the streamflow pattern and the water quality of the receiving streams. Quantification of subsurface drainage volume may improve flood forecasting, enable estimation of contaminant loading through subsurface drains and assist in identification of target areas for load reduction and water conservation measures. The streamflow in a typical subsurface drained watershed

S. Ale; L. C. Bowling

2010-01-01

20

Dynamic response and maneuvering strategies of a hybrid autonomous underwater vehicle in hovering  

E-print Network

The Odyssey IV autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is the next generation of unmanned subsurface robots from the MIT Sea Grant AUV Laboratory. The Odyssey IV AUV has a novel propulsion system, which includes a pair of ...

Cooney, Lauren Alise

2009-01-01

21

Autonomous vehicles  

SciTech Connect

There are various kinds of autonomous vehicles (AV`s) which can operate with varying levels of autonomy. This paper is concerned with underwater, ground, and aerial vehicles operating in a fully autonomous (nonteleoperated) mode. Further, this paper deals with AV`s as a special kind of device, rather than full-scale manned vehicles operating unmanned. The distinction is one in which the AV is likely to be designed for autonomous operation rather than being adapted for it as would be the case for manned vehicles. The authors provide a survey of the technological progress that has been made in AV`s, the current research issues and approaches that are continuing that progress, and the applications which motivate this work. It should be noted that issues of control are pervasive regardless of the kind of AV being considered, but that there are special considerations in the design and operation of AV`s depending on whether the focus is on vehicles underwater, on the ground, or in the air. The authors have separated the discussion into sections treating each of these categories.

Meyrowitz, A.L. [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States)] [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States); Blidberg, D.R. [Autonomous Undersea Systems Inst., Lee, NH (United States)] [Autonomous Undersea Systems Inst., Lee, NH (United States); Michelson, R.C. [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Smyrna, GA (United States)] [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Smyrna, GA (United States); [International Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems, Smyrna, GA (United States)

1996-08-01

22

Dysréflexie autonome  

PubMed Central

Résumé Objectif Sensibiliser davantage les médecins de famille à la dysréflexie autonome (DA) chez les patients victimes d’une lésion médullaire (LM) et proposer certaines interventions. Sources de l’information On a fait une recension dans MEDLINE de 1970 à juillet 2011 à l’aide des expressions en anglais autonomic dysreflexia et spinal cord injury, ainsi que family medicine ou primary care. On a aussi passé en revue et utilisé d’autres ressources et guides de pratique pertinents. Message principal Il arrive souvent que les médecins de famille ne se sentent pas confiants de traiter des patients ayant une LM dont les problèmes sont complexes et exigent beaucoup de temps. Les médecins de famille ont l’impression de n’avoir pas la formation nécessaire pour répondre à leurs besoins. Pourtant, ils offrent une composante essentielle des soins à de tels patients et il est important qu’ils comprennent les problèmes médicaux particuliers aux LM. La dysréflexie autonome est un important et fréquent problème potentiellement sérieux que connaissent mal de nombreux médecins de famille. Cet article passe en revue les signes et les symptômes de la DA et présente certaines options de prise en charge aiguë, ainsi que des stratégies de prévention à l’intention des médecins de famille. Conclusion Les médecins de famille devraient savoir quels patients traumatisés médullaires sont susceptibles d’avoir une DA et surveiller ceux qui sont touchés par ce problème. Une explication est donnée dans cet article quant à l’approche à suivre pour la prise en charge aiguë. Les médecins de famille jouent un rôle essentiel dans la prévention de la DA, notamment par l’éducation (du patient et des autres professionnels de la santé) et la consignation dans le dossier médical de stratégies comme les soins appropriés de la vessie, de l’intestin et de la peau, d’avertissements et de plans de prise en charge.

Milligan, James; Lee, Joseph; McMillan, Colleen; Klassen, Hilary

2012-01-01

23

Subsurface Microbiology and Biogeochemistry  

SciTech Connect

Jim contributed a chapter to this book, in addition to co-editing it with Madilyn Fletcher. Fredrickson, J. K., and M. Fletcher. (eds.) 2001 Subsurface Microbiology and Biogeochemistry. Wiley-Liss, Inc., New York.

Fredrickson, Jim K.; Fletcher, Madilyn

2001-05-01

24

Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to develop a Subsurface Facility layout that is capable of accommodating the statutory capacity of 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU), as well as an option to expand the inventory capacity, if authorized, to 97,000 MTU. The layout configuration also requires a degree of flexibility to accommodate potential changes in site conditions or program requirements. The objective of this analysis is to provide a conceptual design of the Subsurface Facility sufficient to support the development of the Subsurface Facility System Description Document (CRWMS M&O 2000e) and the ''Emplacement Drift System Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 2000i). As well, this analysis provides input to the Site Recommendation Consideration Report. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Evaluation of the existing facilities and their integration into the Subsurface Facility design. (2) Identification and incorporation of factors influencing Subsurface Facility design, such as geological constraints, thermal loading, constructibility, subsurface ventilation, drainage control, radiological considerations, and the Test and Evaluation Facilities. (3) Development of a layout showing an available area in the primary area sufficient to support both the waste inventories and individual layouts showing the emplacement area required for 70,000 MTU and, if authorized, 97,000 MTU.

C.L. Linden

2000-06-28

25

Subsurface Contamination Control  

SciTech Connect

There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the subsurface repository; (2) provides a table of derived LRCL for nuclides of radiological importance; (3) Provides an as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) evaluation of the derived LRCL by comparing potential onsite and offsite doses to documented ALARA requirements; (4) Provides a method for estimating potential releases from a defective WP; (5) Provides an evaluation of potential radioactive releases from a defective WP that may become airborne and result in contamination of the subsurface facility; and (6) Provides a preliminary analysis of the detectability of a potential WP leak to support the design of an airborne release monitoring system.

Y. Yuan

2001-12-12

26

Subsurface Contamination Control  

SciTech Connect

There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the subsurface repository; (2) provides a table of derived LRCL for nuclides of radiological importance; (3) Provides an as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) evaluation of the derived LRCL by comparing potential onsite and offsite doses to documented ALARA requirements; (4) Provides a method for estimating potential releases from a defective WP; (5) Provides an evaluation of potential radioactive releases from a defective WP that may become airborne and result in contamination of the subsurface facility; and (6) Provides a preliminary analysis of the detectability of a potential WP leak to support the design of an airborne release monitoring system.

Y. Yuan

2001-11-16

27

Tracking Subsurface Water  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Jeff Wynn, Herb Pierce and Chris Lockett (R to L) observe the incoming data used to measure water conductivity in the deep (900+ m) subsurface at Mount St. Helens. Water, from rain, melting snow and ice, seeps into the rubble of the crater floor. The water fills the pore spaces and interacts with st...

28

Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters  

DOEpatents

A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Bass, Ronald Marshall (Houston, TX); Kim, Dong Sub (Sugar Land, TX); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX); Keltner, Thomas Joseph (Spring, TX); Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon (Houston, TX)

2010-12-28

29

Mars penetrator: Subsurface science mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A penetrator system to emplace subsurface science on the planet Mars is described. The need for subsurface science is discussed, and the technologies for achieving successful atmospheric entry, Mars penetration, and data retrieval are presented.

Lumpkin, C. K.

1974-01-01

30

Autonomous Soaring Flight Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

Allen, Michael J.

2006-01-01

31

Autonomic Nervous System Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

32

Subsurface Ice Probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subsurface ice probe (SIPR) is a proposed apparatus that would bore into ice to depths as great as hundreds of meters by melting the ice and pumping the samples of meltwater to the surface. Originally intended for use in exploration of subsurface ice on Mars and other remote planets, the SIPR could also be used on Earth as an alternative to coring, drilling, and melting apparatuses heretofore used to sample Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets. The SIPR would include an assembly of instrumentation and electronic control equipment at the surface, connected via a tether to a compact assembly of boring, sampling, and sensor equipment in the borehole (see figure). Placing as much equipment as possible at the surface would help to attain primary objectives of minimizing power consumption, sampling with high depth resolution, and unobstructed imaging of the borehole wall. To the degree to which these requirements would be satisfied, the SIPR would offer advantages over the aforementioned ice-probing systems.

Hecht, Michael; Carsey, Frank

2005-01-01

33

Subsurface contaminants focus area  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

NONE

1996-08-01

34

The autonomic laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The autonomic nervous system can now be studied quantitatively, noninvasively, and reproducibly in a clinical autonomic laboratory. The approach at the Mayo Clinic is to study the postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers of peripheral nerve (using the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test [QSART]), the parasympathetic nerves to the heart (cardiovagal tests), and the regulation of blood pressure by the baroreflexes (adrenergic tests). Patient preparation is extremely important, since the state of the patient influences the results of autonomic function tests. The autonomic technologist in this evolving field needs to have a solid core of knowledge of autonomic physiology and autonomic function tests, followed by training in the performance of these tests in a standardized fashion. The range and utilization of tests of autonomic function will likely continue to evolve.

Low, P. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.

1999-01-01

35

Subsurface Drainage Contribution to Streamflow in Subsurface Drained Agricultural Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In intensively subsurface drained agricultural watersheds, subsurface drainage influences both the streamflow pattern and the water quality of the receiving streams. Quantification of subsurface drainage volume may improve flood forecasting, enable estimation of contaminant loading through subsurface drains and assist in identification of target areas for load reduction and water conservation measures. The streamflow in a typical subsurface drained watershed consists of direct runoff (surface and subsurface runoff), drain flow (subsurface drainage) and base flow. During and immediately following storm events, drain flow can be considered part of both direct runoff and base flow, and in between the storms, drain flow can be part of base flow. As a first step, we explore quantifying the subsurface drainage contribution to observed streamflow using traditional hydrograph separation combined with surface runoff estimation. Annual average base flow contribution is estimated using average base flow during the driest two months of the year (August and September), when the drain flow can be considered negligible. The methodology was first evaluated using observations of drain flow from two experimental study sites in the Hoagland watershed in west central Indiana, USA and predictions of total watershed drain flow from a distributed application of the DRAINMOD drainage model. The methodology was then applied to other gauged rivers throughout the Wabash River basin in Indiana and compared to maps of estimated subsurface drainage extent.

Ale, S.; Bowling, L. C.

2010-12-01

36

Surface controlled subsurface safety valve  

SciTech Connect

A surface controlled subsurface safety valve is disclosed for deep well service. Communication of control fluid to the subsurface safety valve is controlled by a pilot valve at a subsurface location in close proximity to the safety valve. Responsiveness of the subsurface safety valve to decrease in control fluid pressure is thereby increased and the safety valve's closure speed is also increased. The pilot valve controllably communicates pressurized control fluid to open the safety valve and allows control fluid to be displaced into the flow path through the safety valve during valve closure.

Adams, J.B. Jr.

1984-02-14

37

Subsurface fracture spacing  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken in order to document and analyze the unique set of data on subsurface fracture characteristics, especially spacing, provided by the US Department of Energy's Slant Hole Completion Test well (SHCT-1) in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Two hundred thirty-six (236) ft (71.9 m) of slant core and 115 ft (35.1 m) of horizontal core show irregular, but remarkably close, spacings for 72 natural fractures cored in sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde Group. Over 4200 ft (1280 m) of vertical core (containing 275 fractures) from the vertical Multiwell Experiment wells at the same location provide valuable information on fracture orientation, termination, and height, but only data from the SHCT-1 core allow calculations of relative fracture spacing. Within the 162-ft (49-m) thick zone of overlapping core from the vertical and deviated wellbores, only one fracture is present in vertical core whereas 52 fractures occur in the equivalent SHCT-1 core. The irregular distribution of regional-type fractures in these heterogeneous reservoirs suggests that measurements of average fracture spacing'' are of questionable value as direct input parameters into reservoir engineering models. Rather, deviated core provides data on the relative degree of fracturing, and confirms that cross fractures can be rare in the subsurface. 13 refs., 11 figs.

Lorenz, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Hill, R.E. (CER Corp., Las Vegas, NV (USA))

1991-01-01

38

Precision autonomous underwater navigation  

E-print Network

Deep-sea archaeology, an emerging application of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) technology, requires precise navigation and guidance. As science requirements and engineering capabilities converge, navigating in the ...

Bingham, Brian S. (Brian Steven), 1973-

2003-01-01

39

SUBSURFACE FACILITY WORKER DOES ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this design calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the subsurface facility of the repository performing emplacement, maintenance, and retrieval operations under normal conditions. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the subsurface facilities and provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application.

V. Arakali; E. Faillace; A. Linden

2004-02-27

40

The Deep Subsurface Microbiology Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Princeton Deep Subsurface Microbiology Group website contains links to information about deep subsurface microbiology. Readers can access information about Princeton's geomicrobiological program, including research being done, people involved, select publications, information about teaching environmental chemistry and exobiology, and related links by using the links provided on the left side of the page.

Princeton University Department of Geosciences

41

Surface controlled subsurface safety valve  

SciTech Connect

A pilot valve is described for operating a subsurface safety valve installed in a well production string comprising: a pilot valve housing; locking assembly means connected with the housing for releasably locking the housing in a receptacle along the production string near the subsurface safety valve; first flow passage means in the housing for flow connection with a surface control fluid line extending to the subsurface safety valve; port means in the housing for communication with the production string above the subsurface safety valve; second flow passage means in the housing in communication with the port means; a flow control valve in the housing between the first and second flow passage means; an electrical valve operator in the housing connected with the flow control valve for opening and closing the flow control valve independently of the surface controlled fluid line to the subsurface valve; and electrical conducting means connected with the valve operator for supplying electrical power to the valve operator.

Rumbaugh, W.D.; Waters, F.A.

1987-05-26

42

Containment of subsurface contaminants  

DOEpatents

A barrier for reducing the spread of a plume of subsurface contaminants. The apparatus includes a well system for injecting a fluid, such as air, just outside and below the periphery of the plume. The fluid is injected at a pressure sufficient to lower the hydraulic conductivity of the soil from the point of injection to the surface thus establishing a curtain-like barrier to groundwater movement. The barrier is established upgradient of the plume to divert groundwater away, or preferably completely around the plume to reduce the flow of groundwater into or out of the plume. The barrier enables the remediation of the confined contamination and then, when the injection of the fluid is halted, the barrier quickly dissipates.

Corey, John C. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01

43

Containment of subsurface contaminants  

DOEpatents

A barrier is disclosed for reducing the spread of a plume of subsurface contaminants. The apparatus includes a well system for injecting a fluid, such as air, just outside and below the periphery of the plume. The fluid is injected at a pressure sufficient to lower the hydraulic conductivity of the soil from the point of injection to the surface thus establishing a curtain-like barrier to groundwater movement. The barrier is established upgradient of the plume to divert groundwater away, or preferably completely around the plume to reduce the flow of groundwater into or out of the plume. The barrier enables the remediation of the confined contamination and then, when the injection of the fluid is halted, the barrier quickly dissipates. 5 figs.

Corey, J.C.

1994-09-06

44

Toward autonomic pervasive computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Autonomic Pervasive Computing can simplify the complexity of the configuration, maintenance and management of pervasive environments such as smart spaces. The Pervasive Computing is a paradigm where the information processes are distributed in the environment components, bringing processes more closer to the information context. On the other hand, the Autonomic Computing allows to simplify the complexity caused by the

Charles Gouin-vallerand; Bessam Abdulrazak; Sylvain Giroux; Mounir Mokhtari

2008-01-01

45

Adverse possession of subsurface minerals  

SciTech Connect

Concepts applicable to adverse possession of subsurface minerals are generally the same as those that apply to adverse possession of all real estate. However, special requirements must be satisfied in order to perfect title to subsurface minerals by adverse possession, particularly when there has been a severance of the true title between surface and subsurface minerals. In those jurisdictions where senior and junior grants came from the state or commonwealth covering the same or some of the same land and in those areas where descriptions of land were vague or not carefully drawn, adverse possession serves to solidify land and mineral ownership. There may be some public, social, and economic justification in rewarding, with good title, those who take possession and use real estate for its intended use, including the extraction of subsurface minerals. 96 refernces.

Bowles, P.N.

1983-01-01

46

Maintaining Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems  

E-print Network

A subsurface drip irrigation system should last more than 20 years if properly maintained. Important maintenance procedures include cleaning the filters, flushing the lines, adding chlorine and injecting acids. Details of these procedures...

Enciso, Juan; Porter, Dana; Bordovsky, Jim; Fipps, Guy

2004-09-07

47

Microbial Transport in the Subsurface  

SciTech Connect

In this article we focus on the physical, chemical, and biological processes involved in the transport of bacteria in the saturated subsurface. We will first review conceptual models of bacterial phases in the subsurface, and then the processes controlling fate and transport on short (e.g., bioremediation) time scales. Finally we briefly review field bacterial transport experiments and discuss a number of issues that impact the application of current process descriptions and models at the field scale.

Ginn, Timothy R.; Camesano, Terri; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Nelson, Kirk B.; Clement, T. P.; Wood, Brian D.

2005-12-01

48

First Science Results from MARSIS Subsurface Sounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS), aboard the Mars Express orbiter, began routine science observations in early July, 2005. The radar operates in two primary modes, subsurface sounding and ionospheric sounding. The objective of the subsurface experiment is to detect and characterize subsurface material discontinuities in the upper several km of the martian crust, some of

J. J. Plaut; G. Picardi; D. Calabrese; A. Cicchetti; S. Clifford; W. Farrell; C. Federico; A. Frigeri; D. Gurnett; R. Huff; A. Ivanov; W. Johnson; R. Jordan; D. Kirchner; C. Leuschen; A. Masdea; R. Orosei; R. Phillips; A. Safaeinili; R. Seu; E. Stofan; T. Watters

2005-01-01

49

Animated autonomous personal representatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the research goals and issues inconstructing autonomous personalrepresentatives, and the desirability of usingsynthetic characters as the user interface forsuch artifacts. An application of theseautonomous representatives is then describedin which characters can be attached to adocument to express a user's point of view orgive guided tours or presentations of thedocument's contents.1.1 KeywordsAvatar, Self-Presentation, Autonomous Agent, SyntheticCharacter2.

Timothy W. Bickmore; Linda K. Cook; Elizabeth F. Churchill; Joseph W. Sullivan

1998-01-01

50

Towards autonomous fuzzy control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The efficient implementation of on-line adaptation in real time is an important research problem in fuzzy control. The goal is to develop autonomous self-organizing controllers employing system-independent control meta-knowledge which enables them to adjust their control policies depending on the systems they control and the environments in which they operate. An autonomous fuzzy controller would continuously observe system behavior while implementing its control actions and would use the outcomes of these actions to refine its control policy. It could be designed to lie dormant when its control actions give rise to adequate performance characteristics but could rapidly and autonomously initiate real-time adaptation whenever its performance degrades. Such an autonomous fuzzy controller would have immense practical value. It could accommodate individual variations in system characteristics and also compensate for degradations in system characteristics caused by wear and tear. It could also potentially deal with black-box systems and control scenarios. On-going research in autonomous fuzzy control is reported. The ultimate research objective is to develop robust and relatively inexpensive autonomous fuzzy control hardware suitable for use in real time environments.

Shenoi, Sujeet; Ramer, Arthur

1993-01-01

51

Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Autonomic neuropathy, once considered to be the Cinderella of diabetes complications, has come of age. The autonomic nervous system innervates the entire human body, and is involved in the regulation of every single organ in the body. Thus, perturbations in autonomic function account for everything from abnormalities in pupillary function to gastroparesis, intestinal dysmotility, diabetic diarrhea, genitourinary dysfunction, amongst others. "Know autonomic function and one knows the whole of medicine!" It is now becoming apparent that before the advent of severe pathological damage to the autonomic nervous system there may be an imbalance between the two major arms, namely the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers that innervate the heart and blood vessels, resulting in abnormalities in heart rate control and vascular dynamics. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) has been linked to resting tachycardia, postural hypotension, orthostatic bradycardia and orthostatic tachycardia (POTTS), exercise intolerance, decreased hypoxia-induced respiratory drive, loss of baroreceptor sensitivity, enhanced intraoperative or perioperative cardiovascular lability, increased incidence of asymptomatic ischemia, myocardial infarction, and decreased rate of survival after myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. Autonomic dysfunction can affect daily activities of individuals with diabetes and may invoke potentially life-threatening outcomes. Intensification of glycemic control in the presence of autonomic dysfunction (more so if combined with peripheral neuropathy) increases the likelihood of sudden death and is a caveat for aggressive glycemic control. Advances in technology, built on decades of research and clinical testing, now make it possible to objectively identify early stages of CAN with the use of careful measurement of time and frequency domain analyses of autonomic function. Fifteen studies using different end points report prevalence rates of 1% to 90%. CAN may be present at diagnosis, and prevalence increases with age, duration of diabetes, obesity, smoking, and poor glycemic control. CAN also cosegregates with distal symmetric polyneuropathy, microangiopathy, and macroangiopathy. It now appears that autonomic imbalance may precede the development of the inflammatory cascade in type 2 diabetes and there is a role for central loss of dopaminergic restraint on sympathetic overactivity. Restoration of dopaminergic tone suppresses the sympathetic dominance and reduces cardiovascular events and mortality by close to 50%. Cinderella's slipper can now be worn! PMID:24095132

Vinik, Aaron I; Erbas, Tomris

2013-01-01

52

Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce conclusions derived from the pool of data gathered within a full QA-controlled domain. An evaluation of the completeness of the current data is provided with respect to the requirements for geotechnical data to support design and performance assessment.

D. Rigby; M. Mrugala; G. Shideler; T. Davidsavor; J. Leem; D. Buesch; Y. Sun; D. Potyondy; M. Christianson

2003-12-17

53

Autonomic cardiac innervation  

PubMed Central

Autonomic cardiac neurons have a common origin in the neural crest but undergo distinct developmental differentiation as they mature toward their adult phenotype. Progenitor cells respond to repulsive cues during migration, followed by differentiation cues from paracrine sources that promote neurochemistry and differentiation. When autonomic axons start to innervate cardiac tissue, neurotrophic factors from vascular tissue are essential for maintenance of neurons before they reach their targets, upon which target-derived trophic factors take over final maturation, synaptic strength and postnatal survival. Although target-derived neurotrophins have a central role to play in development, alternative sources of neurotrophins may also modulate innervation. Both developing and adult sympathetic neurons express proNGF, and adult parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons also synthesize and release NGF. The physiological function of these “non-classical” cardiac sources of neurotrophins remains to be determined, especially in relation to autocrine/paracrine sustenance during development.   Cardiac autonomic nerves are closely spatially associated in cardiac plexuses, ganglia and pacemaker regions and so are sensitive to release of neurotransmitter, neuropeptides and trophic factors from adjacent nerves. As such, in many cardiac pathologies, it is an imbalance within the two arms of the autonomic system that is critical for disease progression. Although this crosstalk between sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves has been well established for adult nerves, it is unclear whether a degree of paracrine regulation occurs across the autonomic limbs during development. Aberrant nerve remodeling is a common occurrence in many adult cardiovascular pathologies, and the mechanisms regulating outgrowth or denervation are disparate. However, autonomic neurons display considerable plasticity in this regard with neurotrophins and inflammatory cytokines having a central regulatory function, including in possible neurotransmitter changes. Certainly, neurotrophins and cytokines regulate transcriptional factors in adult autonomic neurons that have vital differentiation roles in development. Particularly for parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons, additional examinations of developmental regulatory mechanisms will potentially aid in understanding attenuated parasympathetic function in a number of conditions, including heart failure. PMID:23872607

Hasan, Wohaib

2013-01-01

54

FEDERAL STAFF INFORMATION: SUBSURFACE REMEDIATION BRANCH (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Subsurface Remediation Branch in NRMRL's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division conducts research into defining the chemical, physical and biological processes that affect the fate, transport, and remediation of contaminants in the subsurface. The Branch's focus is o...

55

Autonomic disturbances in narcolepsy.  

PubMed

Narcolepsy is a clinical condition characterized mainly by excessive sleepiness and cataplexy. Hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis complete the narcoleptic tetrad; disrupted night sleep, automatic behaviors and weight gain are also usual complaints. Different studies focus on autonomic changes or dysfunctions among narcoleptic patients, such as pupillary abnormalities, fainting spells, erectile dysfunction, night sweats, gastric problems, low body temperature, systemic hypotension, dry mouth, heart palpitations, headache and extremities dysthermia. Even if many studies lack sufficient standardization or their results have not been replicated, a non-secondary involvement of the autonomic nervous system in narcolepsy is strongly suggested, mainly by metabolic and cardiovascular findings. Furthermore, the recent discovery of a high risk for overweight and for metabolic syndrome in narcoleptic patients represents an important warning for clinicians in order to monitor and follow them up for their autonomic functions. We review here studies on autonomic functions and clinical disturbances in narcoleptic patients, trying to shed light on the possible contribute of alterations of the hypocretin system in autonomic pathophysiology. PMID:20634114

Plazzi, Giuseppe; Moghadam, Keivan Kaveh; Maggi, Leonardo Serra; Donadio, Vincenzo; Vetrugno, Roberto; Liguori, Rocco; Zoccoli, Giovanna; Poli, Francesca; Pizza, Fabio; Pagotto, Uberto; Ferri, Raffaele

2011-06-01

56

ESF Subsurface Standby Generator Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to outline and recommend two standby generator systems. These systems shall provide power during a utility outage to critical Alcove No.5's thermal test loads and to subsurface flow through ventilation loads. Critical loads that will be supported by these generator systems will be identified and evaluated. Additionally, other requirements from the Exploratory Studies Facilities Design Requirements (ESFDR) document will be evaluated. Finally, the standby generator systems will be integrated into the existing ESF subsurface distribution system. The objective of this analysis is to provide design inputs for an efficient and reliable standby generator systems which will provide power for critical loads during a power outage; specifically, Alcove No.5's thermal test loads and the subsurface flow through ventilation loads. Additionally, preliminary one-line diagrams will be developed using this analysis as a primary input.

L. Fernandez

1998-04-17

57

Measuring isotropic subsurface light transport.  

PubMed

Subsurface light transport can affect the visual appearance of materials significantly. Measuring and modeling this phenomenon is crucial for accurately reproducing colors in printing or for rendering translucent objects on displays. In this paper, we propose an apparatus to measure subsurface light transport employing a reference material to cancel out adverse signals that may bias the results. In contrast to other approaches, the setup enables improved focusing on rough surfaces (e.g. uncoated paper). We derive a measurement equation that may be used to deduce the point spread function (PSF) of subsurface light transport. Main contributions are the usage of spectrally-narrowband exchangeable LEDs allowing spectrally-resolved measurements and an approach based on quadratic programming for reconstructing PSFs in the case of isotropic light transport. PMID:24787793

Happel, Kathrin; Dörsam, Edgar; Urban, Philipp

2014-04-21

58

Subsurface microbial habitats on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We developed scenarios for shallow and deep subsurface cryptic niches for microbial life on Mars. Such habitats could have considerably prolonged the persistence of life on Mars as surface conditions became increasingly inhospitable. The scenarios rely on geothermal hot spots existing below the near or deep subsurface of Mars. Recent advances in the comparatively new field of deep subsurface microbiology have revealed previously unsuspected rich aerobic and anaerobic microbal communities far below the surface of the Earth. Such habitats, protected from the grim surface conditions on Mars, could receive warmth from below and maintain water in its liquid state. In addition, geothermally or volcanically reduced gases percolating from below through a microbiologically active zone could provide the reducing power needed for a closed or semi-closed microbial ecosystem to thrive.

Boston, P. J.; Mckay, C. P.

1991-01-01

59

IBM Research: Autonomic Computing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IBM's Autonomic Computing research site examines a dangerous trend in the information technology (IT) industry and proposes an unprecedented solution. Citing a serious lack of skilled IT workers and constantly growing complexity in computer systems, IBM envisions a time in the near future when maintaining these systems will become an impossible task. To prevent this, a drastic change in computer design and operation is required. Autonomic computing, IBM believes, is the answer. This technology could create computer systems that largely maintain themselves with little to no human involvement. The Web site offers an overview of autonomic computing and implications for business and academia. There is also a manifesto in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format that delves further into the technology.

60

Architecture of autonomous systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

1986-01-01

61

Subsurface Fire Hazards Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The results from this report are preliminary and cannot be used as input into documents supporting procurement, fabrication, or construction. This technical report identifies fire hazards and proposes their mitigation for the subsurface repository fire protection system. The proposed mitigation establishes the minimum level of fire protection to meet NRC regulations, DOE fire protection orders, that ensure fire containment, adequate life safety provisions, and minimize property loss. Equipment requiring automatic fire suppression systems is identified. The subsurface fire hazards that are identified can be adequately mitigated.

Logan, R.C.

1999-09-27

62

Towed Subsurface Optical Communications Buoy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The innovation allows critical, high-bandwidth submarine communications at speed and depth. This reported innovation is a subsurface optical communications buoy, with active neutral buoyancy and streamlined flow surface veins for depth control. This novel subsurface positioning for the towed communications buoy enables substantial reduction in water-absorption and increased optical transmission by eliminating the intervening water absorption and dispersion, as well as by reducing or eliminating the beam spread and the pulse spreading that is associated with submarine-launched optical beams.

Stirbl, Robert C.; Farr, William H.

2013-01-01

63

Autonomous In-Situ Resources Prospector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation will describe the concept of an autonomous, intelligent, rover-based rapid surveying system to identify and map several key lunar resources to optimize their ISRU (In Situ Resource Utilization) extraction potential. Prior to an extraction phase for any target resource, ground-based surveys are needed to provide confirmation of remote observation, to quantify and map their 3-D distribution, and to locate optimal extraction sites (e.g. ore bodies) with precision to maximize their economic benefit. The system will search for and quantify optimal minerals for oxygen production feedstock, water ice, and high glass-content regolith that can be used for building materials. These are targeted because of their utility and because they are, or are likely to be, variable in quantity over spatial scales accessible to a rover (i.e., few km). Oxygen has benefits for life support systems and as an oxidizer for propellants. Water is a key resource for sustainable exploration, with utility for life support, propellants, and other industrial processes. High glass-content regolith has utility as a feedstock for building materials as it readily sinters upon heating into a cohesive matrix more readily than other regolith materials or crystalline basalts. Lunar glasses are also a potential feedstock for oxygen production, as many are rich in iron and titanium oxides that are optimal for oxygen extraction. To accomplish this task, a system of sensors and decision-making algorithms for an autonomous prospecting rover is described. One set of sensors will be located in the wheel tread of the robotic search vehicle providing contact sensor data on regolith composition. Another set of instruments will be housed on the platform of the rover, including VIS-NIR imagers and spectrometers, both for far-field context and near-field characterization of the regolith in the immediate vicinity of the rover. Also included in the sensor suite are a neutron spectrometer, ground-penetrating radar, and an instrumented cone penetrometer for subsurface assessment. Output from these sensors will be evaluated autonomously in real-time by decision-making software to evaluate if any of the targeted resources has been detected, and if so, to quantify their abundance. Algorithms for optimizing the mapping strategy based on target resource abundance and distribution are also included in the autonomous software. This approach emphasizes on-the-fly survey measurements to enable efficient and rapid prospecting of large areas, which will improve the economics of ISRU system approaches. The mature technology will enable autonomous rovers to create in-situ resource maps of lunar or other planetary surfaces, which will facilitate human and robotic exploration.

Dissly, R. W.; Buehler, M. G.; Schaap, M. G.; Nicks, D.; Taylor, G. J.; Castano, R.; Suarez, D.

2004-01-01

64

SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of difficulty and complexity in determining requirements in adapting existing data communication highways to support the subsurface visual alarm system. These requirements would include such things as added or new communication cables, added Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Inputs and Outputs (I/O), and communication hardware components, and human machine interfaces and their software operating system. (4) Select the best data communication highway system based on this review of adapting or integrating with existing data communication systems.

D.W. Markman

2001-08-06

65

Developing Autonomous Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines the concept of autonomous learning. Presents the Strategies Program for Effective Learning/Thinking (SPELT), including its underlying assumptions, instructional model, teacher training procedures, research findings, and anticipated future development. Research results include implications for learning-disabled and gifted students. (KS)

Mulcahy, Robert F.

1991-01-01

66

Diabetic autonomic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This review attempts to outline the present understanding of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The clinical features have been increasingly recognised but knowledge of the localization and morphology of the lesions and their pathogenesis remains fragmentary. A metabolic causation as postulated in somatic nerves accords best with clinical observations. Most bodily systems, particularly the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and urogenital, are involved with added

B. F. Clarke; D. J. Ewing; I. W. Campbell

1979-01-01

67

Learning for autonomous navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomous off-road navigation of robotic ground vehicles has important applications on Earth and in space exploration. Progress in this domain has been retarded by the limited lookahead range of 3-D sensors and by the difficulty of preprogramming systems to understand the traversability of the wide variety of terrain they can encounter.

Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

2005-01-01

68

Autonomous Optical Lunar Navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of optical autonomous navigation is investigated for low lunar orbits and for high elliptical lunar orbits. Various options for employing the camera measurements are presented and compared. Strategies for improving navigation performance are developed and applied to the Orion vehicle lunar mission

Zanetti, Renato; Crouse, Brian; D'souza, Chris

2009-01-01

69

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

1997-01-01

70

Autonomous formation flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes an approach to close-formation flight of autonomous aircraft. A standard LQ-based structure was synthesized for each vehicle and for formation position error control using linearized equations of motion and a lifting line model of the aircraft wake. We also consider the definition of a formation management structure, capable of dealing with a variety of generic transmission and

F. Giulietti; L. Pollini; M. Innocenti

2000-01-01

71

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1997-03-25

72

GLRT-detection performance in subsurface sounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of subsurface deep sounding is investigated with reference to the radar sounder, MARSIS (Mars advanced radar for subsurface and ionosphere sounding), aboard the Mars Express mission, designed to investigate the presence of water-related interfaces in the subsurface of Mars. The analysis aims at providing the necessary tools for (i) performance prediction and (ii) data processor design. Using well

Massimo Sciotti; Debora Pastina; P. Lombardo

2004-01-01

73

Remote Real-Time Monitoring of Subsurface Landfill Gas Migration  

PubMed Central

The cost of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites is of major concern for regulatory authorities. The current monitoring procedure is recognised as labour intensive, requiring agency inspectors to physically travel to perimeter borehole wells in rough terrain and manually measure gas concentration levels with expensive hand-held instrumentation. In this article we present a cost-effective and efficient system for remotely monitoring landfill subsurface migration of methane and carbon dioxide concentration levels. Based purely on an autonomous sensing architecture, the proposed sensing platform was capable of performing complex analytical measurements in situ and successfully communicating the data remotely to a cloud database. A web tool was developed to present the sensed data to relevant stakeholders. We report our experiences in deploying such an approach in the field over a period of approximately 16 months. PMID:22163975

Fay, Cormac; Doherty, Aiden R.; Beirne, Stephen; Collins, Fiachra; Foley, Colum; Healy, John; Kiernan, Breda M.; Lee, Hyowon; Maher, Damien; Orpen, Dylan; Phelan, Thomas; Qiu, Zhengwei; Zhang, Kirk; Gurrin, Cathal; Corcoran, Brian; O’Connor, Noel E.; Smeaton, Alan F.; Diamond, Dermot

2011-01-01

74

Remote real-time monitoring of subsurface landfill gas migration.  

PubMed

The cost of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites is of major concern for regulatory authorities. The current monitoring procedure is recognised as labour intensive, requiring agency inspectors to physically travel to perimeter borehole wells in rough terrain and manually measure gas concentration levels with expensive hand-held instrumentation. In this article we present a cost-effective and efficient system for remotely monitoring landfill subsurface migration of methane and carbon dioxide concentration levels. Based purely on an autonomous sensing architecture, the proposed sensing platform was capable of performing complex analytical measurements in situ and successfully communicating the data remotely to a cloud database. A web tool was developed to present the sensed data to relevant stakeholders. We report our experiences in deploying such an approach in the field over a period of approximately 16 months. PMID:22163975

Fay, Cormac; Doherty, Aiden R; Beirne, Stephen; Collins, Fiachra; Foley, Colum; Healy, John; Kiernan, Breda M; Lee, Hyowon; Maher, Damien; Orpen, Dylan; Phelan, Thomas; Qiu, Zhengwei; Zhang, Kirk; Gurrin, Cathal; Corcoran, Brian; O'Connor, Noel E; Smeaton, Alan F; Diamond, Dermot

2011-01-01

75

Method of installing subsurface barrier  

DOEpatents

Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

Nickelson, Reva A. (Shelley, ID); Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sloan, Paul A. (Rigby, ID)

2007-10-09

76

Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.

2004-01-01

77

INL Subsurface Wireless Sensor Platform  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory is developing a versatile micro-power sensor interface platform for periodic subsurface sensing of environmental variables important to waste disposal sites such as volumetric moisture, water potential, and temperature. The key characteristics of the platform architecture are that the platform is passive until externally energized --no internal power source is required -- and that it communicates with a "reader" via short-range telemetry - no wires penetrate the subsurface. Other significant attributes include the potential for a long service life and a compact size that makes it well suited for retrofitting existing landfill structures. Functionally, the sensor package is "read" by a short-range induction coil that activates and powers the sensor platform as well as detects the sensor output via a radio frequency signal generated by the onboard programmable interface controller microchip. As a result, the platform has a functional subsurface communication range of approximately 10 to 12 ft. and can only accept sensors that require low power to operate.

Dennis C. Kunerth; John M. Svoboda; James T. Johnson

2005-10-01

78

Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers  

SciTech Connect

An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier.

Borns, D.J.

1995-08-01

79

Nature's Autonomous Oscillators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

2012-01-01

80

Autonomous power expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling and dynamic replanning.

Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

1990-01-01

81

Autonomous helicopter flight via reinforcement learning  

E-print Network

Autonomous helicopter flight via reinforcement learning Andrew Y. Ng Stanford University Stanford 94720 Abstract Autonomous helicopter flight represents a challenging control problem, with complex to autonomous helicopter flight. We first fit a stochastic, nonlinear model of the helicopter dynamics. We

Jordan, Michael I.

82

Autonomous helicopter flight via Reinforcement Learning  

E-print Network

Autonomous helicopter flight via Reinforcement Learning Andrew Y. Ng Stanford University Stanford 94720 Abstract Autonomous helicopter flight represents a challenging control problem, with complex to autonomous helicopter flight. We first fit a stochastic, nonlinear model of the helicopter dynamics. We

Sastry, S. Shankar

83

Submesoscale Coastal Ocean Flows Detected by Very High Frequency Radar and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a 29-day time series in July 1999, an ocean surface current radar (OSCR) in very high frequency (VHF) mode mapped the surface velocity field at 250-m resolution at 700 cells off Fort Lauderdale, Florida. During the experiment, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), equipped with upward- and downward-looking 1.2- MHz acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs), measured subsurface current structure over four

Lynn K. Shay; Thomas M. Cook; P. Edgar An

2003-01-01

84

Are subsurface flows and coronal holes related?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study synoptic maps of solar subsurface flows covering six Carrington rotations (2050 to 2055). The subsurface flows are determined with a ring-diagram analysis of GONG high-resolution Doppler data. We identify the locations of coronal holes in synoptic maps of EUV images at 195Å from the EIT instrument and determine the characteristics of associated subsurface flows. We study two long-lived coronal holes that are present during this epoch. We find that large-scale patterns are present in the subsurface flows but appear to be unrelated to these coronal holes. The horizontal subsurface flows associated with the two long-lived coronal holes are weakly divergent (upflows) with small cyclonic vorticity. These flows are thus similar to subsurface flows of quiet regions with regard to the vertical flows and similar to flows of active regions with regard to vorticity.

Komm, R.; Howe, R.; González Hernández, I.; Harra, L.; Baker, D.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.

2013-06-01

85

Autonomous Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The continued assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) is the cornerstone within NASA's overall Strategic P an. As indicated in NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), the International Space Station requires Shuttle to fly through at least the middle of the next decade to complete assembly of the Station, provide crew transport, and to provide heavy lift up and down mass capability. The ISTP reflects a tight coupling among the Station, Shuttle, and OSP programs to support our Nation's space goal . While the Shuttle is a critical component of this ISTP, there is a new emphasis for the need to achieve greater efficiency and safety in transporting crews to and from the Space Station. This need is being addressed through the Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program. However, the OSP is being designed to "complement" the Shuttle as the primary means for crew transfer, and will not replace all the Shuttle's capabilities. The unique heavy lift capabilities of the Space Shuttle is essential for both ISS, as well as other potential missions extending beyond low Earth orbit. One concept under discussion to better fulfill this role of a heavy lift carrier, is the transformation of the Shuttle to an "un-piloted" autonomous system. This concept would eliminate the loss of crew risk, while providing a substantial increase in payload to orbit capability. Using the guidelines reflected in the NASA ISTP, the autonomous Shuttle a simplified concept of operations can be described as; "a re-supply of cargo to the ISS through the use of an un-piloted Shuttle vehicle from launch through landing". Although this is the primary mission profile, the other major consideration in developing an autonomous Shuttle is maintaining a crew transportation capability to ISS as an assured human access to space capability.

Siders, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Robert H.

2004-01-01

86

Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Palomar Adaptive Optics System actively corrects for changing aberrations in light due to atmospheric turbulence. However, the underlying internal static error is unknown and uncorrected by this process. The dedicated wavefront sensor device necessarily lies along a different path than the science camera, and, therefore, doesn't measure the true errors along the path leading to the final detected imagery. This is a standard problem in adaptive optics (AO) called "non-common path error." The Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration (APRC) software suite performs automated sensing and correction iterations to calibrate the Palomar AO system to levels that were previously unreachable.

Estlin, Tara A.; Chien, Steve A.; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel M.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Schoolcraft, Josua B.; Oyake, Amalaye; Vaughs, Ashton G.; Torgerson, Jordan L.

2011-01-01

87

NASA: Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has undertaken the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) to "demonstrate the potential for space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect, analyze, and respond to science events, and to downlink only the highest value science data." The website features ASE updates, publications, and a list of the potential impacts of this research. Users can discover the autonomy software components that are aboard the ASE flight. The site includes links to information about the Artificial Intelligence Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and its other projects.

88

Autonomous mobile robot teams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

1994-01-01

89

Autonomous interplanetary constellation design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to NASA's integrated space technology roadmaps, space-based infrastructures are envisioned as necessary ingredients to a sustained effort in continuing space exploration. Whether it be for extra-terrestrial habitats, roving/cargo vehicles, or space tourism, autonomous space networks will provide a vital communications lifeline for both future robotic and human missions alike. Projecting that the Moon will be a bustling hub of activity within a few decades, a near-term opportunity for in-situ infrastructure development is within reach. This dissertation addresses the anticipated need for in-space infrastructure by investigating a general design methodology for autonomous interplanetary constellations; to illustrate the theory, this manuscript presents results from an application to the Earth-Moon neighborhood. The constellation design methodology is formulated as an optimization problem, involving a trajectory design step followed by a spacecraft placement sequence. Modeling the dynamics as a restricted 3-body problem, the investigated design space consists of families of periodic orbits which play host to the constellations, punctuated by arrangements of spacecraft autonomously guided by a navigation strategy called LiAISON (Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation). Instead of more traditional exhaustive search methods, a numerical continuation approach is implemented to map the admissible configuration space. In particular, Keller's pseudo-arclength technique is used to follow folding/bifurcating solution manifolds, which are otherwise inaccessible with other parameter continuation schemes. A succinct characterization of the underlying structure of the local, as well as global, extrema is thus achievable with little a priori intuition of the solution space. Furthermore, the proposed design methodology offers benefits in computation speed plus the ability to handle mildly stochastic systems. An application of the constellation design methodology to the restricted Earth-Moon system, reveals optimal pairwise configurations for various L1, L2, and L5 (halo, axial, and vertical) periodic orbit families. Navigation accuracies, ranging from O (10+/-1) meters in position space, are obtained for the optimal Earth-Moon constellations, given measurement noise on the order of 1 meter.

Chow, Cornelius Channing, II

90

Experiments in autonomous robotics  

SciTech Connect

The Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) is performing basic research in autonomous robotics for energy-related applications in hazardous environments. The CESAR research agenda includes a strong experimental component to assure practical evaluation of new concepts and theories. An evolutionary sequence of mobile research robots has been planned to support research in robot navigation, world sensing, and object manipulation. A number of experiments have been performed in studying robot navigation and path planning with planar sonar sensing. Future experiments will address more complex tasks involving three-dimensional sensing, dexterous manipulation, and human-scale operations.

Hamel, W.R.

1987-01-01

91

Manual on Subsurface Investigations National Highway Institute  

E-print Network

in subsurface investigation, exploration methods, equipment types and their suitability are discussed. Various methods are covered. Laboratory index, strength, and stiffness testing are reviewed in complement

Mayne, Paul W.

92

Autonomous Navigation for Airborne Applications  

E-print Network

of inertial navigation techniques are required in order to allow for prediction of state information, whichAutonomous Navigation for Airborne Applications Jonghyuk Kim A thesis submitted in fulfillment Navigation for Airborne Applications Autonomous navigation (or localisation) is the process of determining

Kim, Jonghyuk "Jon"

93

Autonomous Navigation for Forest Machines  

E-print Network

Inertial navigation system (INS) ..............................................................19 WheelAutonomous Navigation for Forest Machines a Pre-Study by Thomas Hellström Department of Computing Science Umeå University Umeå, Sweden 2002-10-18 #12;Autonomous Navigation for Forest Machines ­ a Pre

Hellström, Thomas

94

MARE: Marine Autonomous Robotic Explorer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present MARE, an autonomous airboat robot that is suitable for exploration-oriented tasks, such as inspection of coral reefs and shallow seabeds. The combination of this platform's particular mechanical properties and its powerful software framework enables it to function in a multitude of potential capacities, including autonomous surveillance, map- ping, and search operations. In this paper we describe two different

Yogesh Girdhar; Anqi Xu; Bir Bikram Dey; Malika Meghjani; Florian Shkurti; Ioannis Rekleitis; Gregory Dudek

2011-01-01

95

MARE: Marine Autonomous Robotic Explorer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present MARE, an autonomous airboat robot that is suitable for exploration-oriented tasks, such as inspection of coral reefs and shallow seabeds. The combination of this platform's particular mechanical properties and its powerful software framework enables it to function in a multitude of potential capacities, including autonomous surveillance, mapping, and search operations. In this paper we describe two different exploration

Yogesh Girdhar; Anqi Xu; Bir Bikram Dey; Malika Meghjani; Florian Shkurti; Ioannis Rekleitis; Gregory Dudek

2011-01-01

96

Asteroid Exploration with Autonomic Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. The prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission comprises autonomous agents including worker agents (small spacecra3) designed to cooperate in asteroid exploration under the overall authoriq of at least one ruler agent (a larger spacecraft) whose goal is to cause science data to be returned to Earth. The ANTS team (ruler plus workers and messenger agents), but not necessarily any individual on the team, will exhibit behaviors that qualify it as an autonomic system, where an autonomic system is defined as a system that self-reconfigures, self-optimizes, self-heals, and self-protects. Autonomic system concepts lead naturally to realistic, scalable architectures rich in capabilities and behaviors. In-depth consideration of a major mission like ANTS in terms of autonomic systems brings new insights into alternative definitions of autonomic behavior. This paper gives an overview of the ANTS mission and discusses the autonomic properties of the mission.

Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Rouff, Christopher; Hinchey, Mike

2004-01-01

97

Autonomous Interface Agents Henry Lieberman  

E-print Network

the user and the agent "take turns" acting. Autonomous interface agents lead to a somewhat different design "agents" that are gaining currency are interface agents, software that actively assists a user in operating an interactive interface, and autonomous agents, software that takes action without user

98

Phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

This project involves the development of group specific 16S ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the rapid detection of specific types of subsurface organisms (e.g., groups of microbes that share certain physiological traits). Major accomplishments for the period of 6/91 to 12/1/91 are described. Nine new probes have been synthesized on the basis of published 16S rRNA sequence data from the Ribosomal Database Project. We have initiated rapid screening of many of the subsurface microbial isolates obtained from the P24 borehole at the Savannah River Site. To date, we have screened approximately 50% of the isolates from P24. We have optimized our {und in situ} hybridization technique, and have developed a cell blot hybridization technique to screen 96 samples on a single blot. This is much faster than reading 96 individual slides. Preliminary experiments have been carried out which indicate specific nutrients can be used to amplify rRNA only in those organisms capable of metabolizing those nutrients. 1 tab., 2 figs.

Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.

1991-01-01

99

Nemesis Autonomous Test System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generalized framework has been developed for systems validation that can be applied to both traditional and autonomous systems. The framework consists of an automated test case generation and execution system called Nemesis that rapidly and thoroughly identifies flaws or vulnerabilities within a system. By applying genetic optimization and goal-seeking algorithms on the test equipment side, a "war game" is conducted between a system and its complementary nemesis. The end result of the war games is a collection of scenarios that reveals any undesirable behaviors of the system under test. The software provides a reusable framework to evolve test scenarios using genetic algorithms using an operation model of the system under test. It can automatically generate and execute test cases that reveal flaws in behaviorally complex systems. Genetic algorithms focus the exploration of tests on the set of test cases that most effectively reveals the flaws and vulnerabilities of the system under test. It leverages advances in state- and model-based engineering, which are essential in defining the behavior of autonomous systems. It also uses goal networks to describe test scenarios.

Barltrop, Kevin J.; Lee, Cin-Young; Horvath, Gregory A,; Clement, Bradley J.

2012-01-01

100

Learning for Autonomous Navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

2005-01-01

101

Autonomous Formation Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

2004-01-01

102

Autonomic Responses to Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this report is to describe how changes in autonomic nervous system responses may be used as an index of individual differences in adaptational capacity to space flight. During two separate Spacelab missions, six crewmembers wore an ambulatory monitoring system which enabled continuous recording of their physiological responses for up to twelve hours a day for 3 to 5 mission days. The responses recorded were electrocardiography, respiration wave form, skin conductance level, hand temperature, blood flow to the hands and triaxial accelerations of the head and upper body. Three of these subjects had been given training, before the mission, in voluntary control of these autonomic responses as a means of facilitating adaptation to space. Three of these subjects served as Controls, i.e., did not receive this training but took anti-motion sickness medication. Nearly 300 hours of flight data are summarized. These data were examined using time-series analyses, spectral analyses of heart rate variability, and analyses of variance. Information was obtained on responses to space motion sickness, inflight medications, circadian rhythm, workload and fatigue. Preliminary assessment was made on the effectiveness of self-regulation training as a means of facilitating adaptation, with recommendations for future flights.

Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.; Miller, N. E.

1994-01-01

103

Performance testing of subsurface safety valves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test facility for performance testing of oil and gas well subsurface safety valves in accordance with the American Petroleum Institute's Spec. 14A, Specification for Subsurface Safety Valves is described. The facility is designed to ensure that the valves meet minimum specifications concerning leak rates, opening and closing operations, erosion resistance, and pressure ratings. Four separate valves up to 4-in

J. L. Holster; R. L. Bass; E. C. Schroeder

1975-01-01

104

The MRO Subsurface Sounding Shallow Radar (SHARAD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SHARAD (SHAllow RADar) is a subsurface sounding radar provided by ASI as a Facility Instrument to NASA's 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The primary objective of the SHARAD experiment is to map dielectric interfaces to several hundred meters depth in the Martian subsurface.

R. Seu; R. Orosei; D. Biccari; A. Masdea

2003-01-01

105

Real-Time Approximate Subsurface Scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface scattering is a complex physical process, which, in many cases, significantly affects the appearance of certain materials. In the pursuit of generating ever more realistic scenes, it is a phenomenon which must be incorporated into rendering frameworks. However, the complexity of the physical process which causes subsurface scattering has a tremendous effect on rendering time. Though such rendering costs

Robert Patro

2007-01-01

106

Fabricating spatially-varying subsurface scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many real world surfaces exhibit translucent appearance due to subsurface scattering. Although various methods exists to measure, edit and render subsurface scattering effects, no solution exists for manufacturing physical objects with desired translucent appearance. In this paper, we present a complete solution for fabricating a material volume with a desired surface BSSRDF. We stack layers from a fixed set of

Yue Dong; Jiaping Wang; Fabio Pellacini; Xin Tong; Baining Guo

2010-01-01

107

CENTER FOR SUBSURFACE MODELING SUPPORT (CSMOS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division's (SPRD)Center for Subsurface Modeling Support (CSMoS) provides public domain groundwater and vadose zone modeling software and services to public agencies and private companies throughout the nation. CSMoS is located in Ada, Ok...

108

Geobacter uraniireducens sp. nov., isolated from subsurface sediment undergoing uranium  

E-print Network

Geobacter uraniireducens sp. nov., isolated from subsurface sediment undergoing uranium with acetate oxidation, was isolated from subsurface sediment undergoing uranium bioremediation. The 16S r was to recover an environmentally relevant Geobacter strain from subsurface sediments undergoing in situ uranium

Lovley, Derek

109

Tigerbot: Autonomous Robot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper demonstrates artificial intelligence through the construction of a simple robot developed by converting a toy vehicle. The circuitry of the toy vehicle was redesigned and incorporated with proximity sensors, thereby turning the vehicle into an autonomous self-contained robot ("Tigerbot"). This robot has the ability to roam, avoid obstacles without human intervention, and is speech capable. The authors demonstrate how machines can be designed to be aware of their surroundings and adapt accordingly. In the future, artificial intelligence concepts employed in this project may be applied in the design of other machines that would assist humans in performing common household chores. This article represents efforts by students implementing knowledge acquired in a Capstone Senior Project course.

Darayan, Shahryar

110

Autonomous Flying Controls Testbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis,Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights.

Motter, Mark A.

2005-01-01

111

Autonomous Navigation Using Celestial Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the twenty-first century, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Enterprises envision frequent low-cost missions to explore the solar system, observe the universe, and study our planet. Satellite autonomy is a key technology required to reduce satellite operating costs. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center (GNCC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) currently sponsors several initiatives associated with the development of advanced spacecraft systems to provide autonomous navigation and control. Autonomous navigation has the potential both to increase spacecraft navigation system performance and to reduce total mission cost. By eliminating the need for routine ground-based orbit determination and special tracking services, autonomous navigation can streamline spacecraft ground systems. Autonomous navigation products can be included in the science telemetry and forwarded directly to the scientific investigators. In addition, autonomous navigation products are available onboard to enable other autonomous capabilities, such as attitude control, maneuver planning and orbit control, and communications signal acquisition. Autonomous navigation is required to support advanced mission concepts such as satellite formation flying. GNCC has successfully developed high-accuracy autonomous navigation systems for near-Earth spacecraft using NASA's space and ground communications systems and the Global Positioning System (GPS). Recently, GNCC has expanded its autonomous navigation initiative to include satellite orbits that are beyond the regime in which use of GPS is possible. Currently, GNCC is assessing the feasibility of using standard spacecraft attitude sensors and communication components to provide autonomous navigation for missions including: libration point, gravity assist, high-Earth, and interplanetary orbits. The concept being evaluated uses a combination of star, Sun, and Earth sensor measurements along with forward-link Doppler measurements from the command link carrier to autonomously estimate the spacecraft's orbit and reference oscillator's frequency. To support autonomous attitude determination and control and maneuver planning and control, the orbit determination accuracy should be on the order of kilometers in position and centimeters per second in velocity. A less accurate solution (one hundred kilometers in position) could be used for acquisition purposes for command and science downloads. This paper provides performance results for both libration point orbiting and high Earth orbiting satellites as a function of sensor measurement accuracy, measurement types, measurement frequency, initial state errors, and dynamic modeling errors.

Folta, David; Gramling, Cheryl; Leung, Dominic; Belur, Sheela; Long, Anne

1999-01-01

112

Autonomous software: Myth or magic?  

E-print Network

We discuss work by the eSTAR project which demonstrates a fully closed loop autonomous system for the follow up of possible micro-lensing anomalies. Not only are the initial micro-lensing detections followed up in real time, but ongoing events are prioritised and continually monitored, with the returned data being analysed automatically. If the ``smart software'' running the observing campaign detects a planet-like anomaly, further follow-up will be scheduled autonomously and other telescopes and telescope networks alerted to the possible planetary detection. We further discuss the implications of this, and how such projects can be used to build more general autonomous observing and control systems.

Alasdair Allan; Tim Naylor; Eric S. Saunders

2008-02-04

113

Autonomous software: Myth or magic?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss work by the eSTAR project which demonstrates a fully closed loop autonomous system for the follow up of possible micro-lensing anomalies. Not only are the initial micro-lensing detections followed up in real time, but ongoing events are prioritised and continually monitored, with the returned data being analysed automatically. If the ``smart software'' running the observing campaign detects a planet-like anomaly, further follow-up will be scheduled autonomously and other telescopes and telescope networks alerted to the possible planetary detection. We further discuss the implications of this, and how such projects can be used to build more general autonomous observing and control systems.

Allan, A.; Naylor, T.; Saunders, E. S.

2008-03-01

114

Autonomous software: Myth or magic?  

E-print Network

We discuss work by the eSTAR project which demonstrates a fully closed loop autonomous system for the follow up of possible micro-lensing anomalies. Not only are the initial micro-lensing detections followed up in real time, but ongoing events are prioritised and continually monitored, with the returned data being analysed automatically. If the ``smart software'' running the observing campaign detects a planet-like anomaly, further follow-up will be scheduled autonomously and other telescopes and telescope networks alerted to the possible planetary detection. We further discuss the implications of this, and how such projects can be used to build more general autonomous observing and control systems.

Allan, Alasdair; Saunders, Eric S

2008-01-01

115

State discovery for autonomous learning  

E-print Network

This thesis is devoted to the study of algorithms for early perceptual learning for an autonomous agent in the presence of feedback. In the framework of associative perceptual learning with indirect supervision, three ...

Ivanov, Yuri A., 1967-

2002-01-01

116

Parametrized maneuvers for autonomous vehicles  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a method for creating continuously parametrized maneuver classes for autonomous vehicles. These classes provide useful tools for motion planners, bundling sets of related vehicle motions based on a ...

Dever, Christopher W. (Christopher Walden), 1972-

2004-01-01

117

Autonomic dysfunction in neurodegenerative dementias.  

PubMed

Syncope associated to orthostatic hypotension (OH), urinary incontinence and constipation is common symptoms in demented patients, mainly in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and in Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Alzheimer's disease (AD) and fronto temporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) show less autonomic dysfunction. Urinary symptoms are a prominent component of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). There are non invasive tests including standard cardiovascular tests, 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanide (MIBG) cardiac scintigraphy, urodynamic tests, gastrointestinal motility studies, sweating reflexes and pupillary responses that assess autonomic dysfunction in these patients. The study of autonomic symptoms and abnormal tests in patients with dementia is useful to prevent morbidity due falls, severe constipation and to avoid side effects of drugs that interfere with autonomic function. PMID:21440258

Idiaquez, Juan; Roman, Gustavo C

2011-06-15

118

Autonomic disorders predicting Parkinson disease  

PubMed Central

It is now well recognized that there is a premotor phase of Parkinson disease with hyposmia and REM sleep behavior disorder caused by degeneration of specific CNS neurons. Most patients with PD describe autonomic symptoms at the time of diagnosis suggesting that these features may have potential sensitivity as clinical biomarkers of the premotor phase. The recognition that damage to peripheral autonomic neurons is present in the early stages of Parkinson disease has led to a search for specific abnormalities in autonomic function that could serve as predictive biomarkers. There is evidence that constipation, urinary and sexual dysfunction and more recently decreased cardiac chronotropic response during exercise, are part of the premotor parkinsonian phenotype. The sensitivity and specificity of these features has yet to be accurately assessed. We briefly review the evidence for autonomic dysfunction as biomarkers of premotor PD. PMID:24262198

Palma, Jose-Alberto; Kaufmann, Horacio

2014-01-01

119

Autonomous adaptive acoustic relay positioning  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of maximizing underwater acoustic data transmission by adaptively positioning an autonomous mobile relay so as to learn and exploit spatial variations in channel performance. The acoustic channel ...

Cheung, Mei Yi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

120

Autonomic dysfunction in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most frequent chronic neurological disease affecting young persons in developed countries.\\u000a MS is, however, considered as a secondary cause, of central origin, for autonomic dysfunction. The most common autonomic symptoms\\u000a in MS are disorders of micturation, impotence, sudomotor and gastrointestinal disturbances, orthostatic intolerance as well\\u000a as sleep disorders. The majority of the patients suffer at

Carl-Albrecht Haensch; Johannes Jörg

2006-01-01

121

A survey of autonomic communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic communications seek to improve the ability of network and services to cope with unpredicted change, including changes in topology, load, task, the physical and logical characteristics of the networks that can be accessed, and so forth. Broad-ranging autonomic solutions require designers to account for a range of end-to-end issues affecting programming models, network and contextual modeling and reasoning, decentralised

Simon Dobson; Spyros G. Denazis; Antonio Fernández; Dominique Gaïti; Erol Gelenbe; Fabio Massacci; Paddy Nixon; Fabrice Saffre; Nikita Schmidt; Franco Zambonelli

2006-01-01

122

Autonomic and Trusted Computing Paradigms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging autonomic computing technology has been hailed by world-wide researchers and professionals in academia and in- dustry. Besides four key capabilities, well known as self-CHOP, we pro- pose an additional self-regulating capability to explicitly emphasize the policy-driven self-manageability and dynamic policy derivation and en- actment. Essentially, these five capabilities, coined as Self-CHROP, define an autonomic system along with other

Xiaolin Li; Hui Kang; Patrick Harrington; Johnson Thomas

2006-01-01

123

Autonomous power system brassboard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the brassboard hardware and intelligent controlling software, fault circuits have been developed and integrated as part of the brassboard. A description of these fault circuits and their function is included. The brassboard has become an extremely useful test facility, promoting artificial intelligence (AI) applications for power distribution systems. However, there are elements of the brassboard which could be enhanced, thus improving system performance. Modifications and enhancements to improve the brassboard's operation are discussed.

Merolla, Anthony

1992-01-01

124

Autonomous power system brassboard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the brassboard hardware and intelligent controlling software, fault circuits have been developed and integrated as part of the brassboard. A description of these fault circuits and their function is included. The brassboard has become an extremely useful test facility, promoting artificial intelligence (AI) applications for power distribution systems.

Merolla, Anthony

1992-10-01

125

Persulfate activation by subsurface minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Persulfate dynamics in the presence of subsurface minerals was investigated as a basis for understanding persulfate activation for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). The mineral-mediated decomposition of persulfate and generation of oxidants and reductants was investigated with four iron and manganese oxides and two clay minerals at both low pH (< 7) and high pH (> 12). The manganese oxide birnessite was the most effective initiator of persulfate for degrading the oxidant probe nitrobenzene, indicating that oxidants are generated at both low and high pH regimes. The iron oxide goethite was the most effective mineral for degrading the reductant probe hexachloroethane. A natural soil and two soil fractions were used to confirm persulfate activation by synthetic minerals. The soil and soil fractions did not effectively promote the generation of oxidants or reductants. However, soil organic matter was found to promote reductant generation at high pH. The results of this research demonstrate that synthetic iron and manganese oxides can activate persulfate to generate reductants and oxidants; however, iron and manganese oxides in the natural soil studied do not show the same reactivity, most likely due to the lower masses of the metal oxides in the soil relative to the masses studied in isolated mineral systems.

Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L.; Watts, Richard J.

2010-06-01

126

Persulfate activation by subsurface minerals.  

PubMed

Persulfate dynamics in the presence of subsurface minerals was investigated as a basis for understanding persulfate activation for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). The mineral-mediated decomposition of persulfate and generation of oxidants and reductants was investigated with four iron and manganese oxides and two clay minerals at both low pH (<7) and high pH (>12). The manganese oxide birnessite was the most effective initiator of persulfate for degrading the oxidant probe nitrobenzene, indicating that oxidants are generated at both low and high pH regimes. The iron oxide goethite was the most effective mineral for degrading the reductant probe hexachloroethane. A natural soil and two soil fractions were used to confirm persulfate activation by synthetic minerals. The soil and soil fractions did not effectively promote the generation of oxidants or reductants. However, soil organic matter was found to promote reductant generation at high pH. The results of this research demonstrate that synthetic iron and manganese oxides can activate persulfate to generate reductants and oxidants; however, iron and manganese oxides in the natural soil studied do not show the same reactivity, most likely due to the lower masses of the metal oxides in the soil relative to the masses studied in isolated mineral systems. PMID:20439128

Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J

2010-06-25

127

Simple autonomous Mars walker  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a contract with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Martin Marietta has developed several alternative rover concepts for unmanned exploration of the planet Mars. One of those concepts, the 'Walking Beam', is the subject of this paper. This concept was developed with the goal of achieving many of the capabilities of more sophisticated articulated-leg walkers with a much simpler, more robust, less computationally demanding and more power efficient design. It consists of two large-base tripods nested one within the other which alternately translate with respect to each other along a 5-meter beam to propel the vehicle. The semiautonomous navigation system relies on terrain geometry sensors and tacticle feedback from each foot to autonomously select a path which avoids hazards along a route designated from earth. Both mobility and navigation features of this concept are discussed including a top-level description of the vehicle's physical characteristics, deployment strategy, mobility elements, sensor suite, theory of operation, navigation and control processes, and estimated performance.

Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.

1989-01-01

128

Autonomous Mission Operations Roadmap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As light time delays increase, the number of such situations in which crew autonomy is the best way to conduct the mission is expected to increase. However, there are significant open questions regarding which functions to allocate to ground and crew as the time delays increase. In situations where the ideal solution is to allocate responsibility to the crew and the vehicle, a second question arises: should the activity be the responsibility of the crew or an automated vehicle function? More specifically, we must answer the following questions: What aspects of mission operation responsibilities (Plan, Train, Fly) should be allocated to ground based or vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control in the presence of significant light-time delay between the vehicle and the Earth?How should the allocated ground based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed across the flight control team and ground system automation? How should the allocated vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed between the flight crew and onboard system automation?When during the mission should responsibility shift from flight control team to crew or from crew to vehicle, and what should the process of shifting responsibility be as the mission progresses? NASA is developing a roadmap of capabilities for Autonomous Mission Operations for human spaceflight. This presentation will describe the current state of development of this roadmap, with specific attention to in-space inspection tasks that crews might perform with minimum assistance from the ground.

Frank, Jeremy David

2014-01-01

129

Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirovi?, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John

2015-04-01

130

Autonomous underwater barcode recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide area symbol recognition is a task that plagues many autonomous vehicles. A process is needed first to recognize if the symbol is present, and if so where it is. Once the symbol's position is detected it must be analyzed and recognized. In this scenario we have a submersible attempting to locate man made objects on the bottom of a large water basin. These man made objects have bar codes on them that need to be read and the position of the code needs to be recorded relative to where it is in the entire pond. A two step process has been developed to allow the position recognition within a frame to be dealt with on a separate DSP associated with one of three total cameras. The object recognition is then dealt with on a high speed computer aboard the vehicle to read the proper code. The reading is done using a statistics based approach that assumes a noisy, but contrasting background. This approach has proven to be effective in environments in which the background has very little ordered noise, such as the bottom of lakes and ponds, but requires very high clarity in order to capture a suitable image.

Schulze, Karl R.

2003-11-01

131

CONTINUOUS SUBSURFACE INJECTION OF LIQUID DAIRY MANURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The research has involved the development and evaluation of an efficient, economical, continuous subsurface injection machine. The application site was instrumented so the quality of water percolating beneath the injection zone could be measured. Wells located around the sites we...

132

SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this document is to develop a preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architecture for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines an overall control system concept that encompasses and integrates the many diverse process and communication systems being developed for the subsurface repository design. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System design will be composed of a series of diverse process systems and communication networks. The subsurface repository design contains many systems related to instrumentation and control (I&C) for both repository development and waste emplacement operations. These systems include waste emplacement, waste retrieval, ventilation, radiological and air monitoring, rail transportation, construction development, utility systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire protection, backfill emplacement, and performance confirmation. Each of these systems involves some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communications network throughout the subsurface facility. The subsurface I&C systems will also interface with multiple surface-based systems such as site operations, rail transportation, security and safeguards, and electrical/piped utilities. In addition to the I&C systems, the subsurface repository design also contains systems related to voice and video communications. The components for each of these systems will be distributed and linked over voice and video communication networks throughout the subsurface facility. The scope and primary objectives of this design analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system-level functions and interfaces (Section 6.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels the engineered process systems will be monitored, controlled, and interfaced (Section 6.2). (3) Develop a preliminary design for the overall Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System functional architecture and graphically depict the operational features of this design through a series of control system functional block diagrams (Section 6.2). (4) Develop a physical architecture that presents a viable yet preliminary physical implementation for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System functional architecture (Section 6.3). (5) Develop an initial concept for an overall subsurface data communications network that can be used to integrate the various control systems comprising the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.4). (6) Develop a preliminary central control room design for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.5). (7) Identify and discuss the general safety-related issues and design strategies with respect to development of the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.6). (8) Discuss plans for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System's response to off-normal operations (Section 6.7). (9) Discuss plans and strategies for developing software for the Subsurface Repository Integrated Control System (Section 6.8).

D.C. Randle

2000-01-07

133

PUBLICATIONS (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

SPRD's Subsurface Remediation Information Center (SRIC) provides publication distribution of highly specialized scientific and technical information developed by and through SPRD relating to groundwater protection and remediation and ecosystem restoration. The SRIC maintains a b...

134

MONTHLY HIGHLIGHTS (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division (SPRD) produces monthly highlights describing research accomplishments, involvement in current technical assistance activities, and staff participation in scientific meetings and conferences. Announcements of the release and avai...

135

Evaluating Subsurface Damage in Optical Glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hard brittle materials (e.g. glasses and ceramics) increasingly appeal to general interests because of their excellent physical, mechanical and chemical properties such as super hardness and strength at extreme temperature and chemical stability. The precision manufacturing of these materials is primarily achieved by grinding and polishing, which generally employs abrasives to wear the materials. With this manufacturing technology, the materials are removed due principally to the fracture of brittle materials, which will leave a cracked layer on the surface of manufactured components, namely subsurface damage (SSD). The subsurface damage affects the strength, performance and lifetime of components. As a result, investigation into the subsurface damage is needed. A host of characterizing techniques have been developed during the past several decades. These techniques based on different mechanisms provide researchers with invaluable information on the subsurface damage in various materials. In this article the typical SSD evaluation techniques are reviewed, which are regularly used in optical workshops or laboratories.

Lee, Y.

2011-02-01

136

Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations  

DOEpatents

A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in a first opening in the subsurface formation. Three electrical conductors are located in the conduit. A return conductor is located inside the conduit. The return conductor is electrically coupled to the ends of the electrical conductors distal from the surface of the formation. Insulation is located inside the conduit. The insulation electrically insulates the three electrical conductors, the return conductor, and the conduit from each other.

Burns, David; Goodwin, Charles R.

2014-07-29

137

Microbial life in the deep terrestrial subsurface  

SciTech Connect

The distribution and function of microorganisms is a vital issue in microbial ecology. The US Department of Energy`s Program, ``Microbiology of the Deep Subsurface,`` concentrates on establishing fundamental scientific information about organisms at depth, and the use of these organisms for remediation of contaminants in deep vadose zone and groundwater environments. This investigation effectively extends the Biosphere hundreds of meters into the Geosphere and has implications to a variety of subsurface activities.

Fliermans, C.B. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Lab.; Balkwill, D.L. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Beeman, R.E. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)] [and others

1988-12-31

138

Quantitative Subsurface Imaging by Acoustic AFM Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the modeling techniques developed for analyzing the effects of 2-D and 3-D subsurface structures on the stiffness measurements by acoustic AFM. Starting from the analytical Hertzian model, we describe important parameters such as penetration depth and subsurface resolution for acoustic AFM imaging. These definitions point to the need for analytical-numerical models based on mechanical surface impedance method and finite element modeling of arbitrary 2-D and 3-D structures buried under the surface. By using the 2-D and 3-D models, the dependence of penetration depth and subsurface resolution on material properties, subsurface structure geometry, and imaging parameters are investigated. It has been shown that high contrast between subsurface structure and substrate increases the detectability of the structure and the visible depth of the structure depends highly on the contact radius. Soft subsurface structures or voids can be detected with appropriate tip radius and force even if they are as deep as 450 nm. However, the sensitivity is higher while detecting stiff structures under thin soft layers. These results can be extrapolated for different applications using the presented guidelines.

Parlak, Zehra; Degertekin, Levent F.

139

Towards an Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) with Reflex Autonomicity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of providing a fault-tolerant environment and achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications. However, the task of manually managing and configuring a cluster quickly becomes daunting as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing, with its vision to provide self-management, can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management and its evolution to include reflex reactions via pulse monitoring.

Truszkowski, Walt; Hinchey, Mike; Sterritt, Roy

2005-01-01

140

Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

2013-01-01

141

An intelligent subsurface buoy design for measuring ocean ambient noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A type of ultra-low power subsurface buoy system is designed to measure and record ocean ambient noise data. The buoy utilizes a vector hydrophone (pass band 20Hz-1.2kHz) and a 6-element vertical hydrophone array (pass band 20Hz-2kHz) to measure ocean ambient noise. The acoustic signals are passed through an automatically modified gain, a band pass filter, and an analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion module. They are then stored in high-capacity flash memory. In order to identify the direction of noise source, the vector sensor measuring system has integrated an electric-magnetic compass. The system provides a low-rate underwater acoustic communication system which is used to report the buoy state information and a high-speed USB interface which is used to retrieve the recorded data on deck. The whole system weighs about 125kg and can operate autonomously for more than 72 hours. The system's main architecture and the sea-trial test results are provided in this paper.

Li, Bing; Wang, Lei

2012-11-01

142

?-Synuclein in cutaneous autonomic nerves  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop a cutaneous biomarker for Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: Twenty patients with PD and 14 age- and sex-matched control subjects underwent examinations, autonomic testing, and skin biopsies at the distal leg, distal thigh, and proximal thigh. ?-Synuclein deposition and the density of intraepidermal, sudomotor, and pilomotor nerve fibers were measured. ?-Synuclein deposition was normalized to nerve fiber density (the ?-synuclein ratio). Results were compared with examination scores and autonomic function testing. Results: Patients with PD had a distal sensory and autonomic neuropathy characterized by loss of intraepidermal and pilomotor fibers (p < 0.05 vs controls, all sites) and morphologic changes to sudomotor nerve fibers. Patients with PD had greater ?-synuclein deposition and higher ?-synuclein ratios compared with controls within pilomotor nerves and sudomotor nerves (p < 0.01, all sites) but not sensory nerves. Higher ?-synuclein ratios correlated with Hoehn and Yahr scores (r = 0.58–0.71, p < 0.01), with sympathetic adrenergic function (r = ?0.40 to ?0.66, p < 0.01), and with parasympathetic function (r = ?0.66 to ?0.77, p > 0.01). Conclusions: We conclude that ?-synuclein deposition is increased in cutaneous sympathetic adrenergic and sympathetic cholinergic fibers but not sensory fibers of patients with PD. Higher ?-synuclein deposition is associated with greater autonomic dysfunction and more advanced PD. These data suggest that measures of ?-synuclein deposition in cutaneous autonomic nerves may be a useful biomarker in patients with PD. PMID:24089386

Wang, Ningshan; Gibbons, Christopher H.; Lafo, Jacob

2013-01-01

143

Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During GFY 91, Draper Laboratory was awarded a task by NASA-JSC under contract number NAS9-18426 to study and evaluate the potential for achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using an on-board autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) system. This report describes the results of that study. The AHDA task had four objectives: to demonstrate, via a closed-loop simulation, the ability to autonomously select safe landing sites and the ability to maneuver to the selected site; to identify key issues in the development of AHDA systems; to produce strawman designs for AHDA sensors and algorithms; and to perform initial trade studies leading to better understanding of the effect of sensor/terrain/viewing parameters on AHDA algorithm performance. This report summarizes the progress made during the first year, with primary emphasis on describing the tools developed for simulating a closed-loop AHDA landing. Some cursory performance evaluation results are also presented.

Pien, Homer

1992-01-01

144

Continuous observation planning for autonomous exploration  

E-print Network

Many applications of autonomous robots depend on the robot being able to navigate in real world environments. In order to navigate or path plan, the robot often needs to consult a map of its surroundings. A truly autonomous ...

Hasegawa, Bradley R

2004-01-01

145

Autonomous inverted helicopter flight via reinforcement learning  

E-print Network

Autonomous inverted helicopter flight via reinforcement learning Andrew Y. Ng 1 , Adam Coates 1 Computer Science Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 2 Whirled Air Helicopters, Menlo Park, CA 94025 Abstract. Helicopters have highly stochastic, nonlinear, dynamics, and autonomous helicopter

Ng, Andrew Y.

146

Parameterized Maneuver Learning for Autonomous Helicopter Flight  

E-print Network

Parameterized Maneuver Learning for Autonomous Helicopter Flight Jie Tang, Arjun Singh, Nimbus aerobatic maneuvers by our autonomous helicopter. I. INTRODUCTION Trajectory following is a fundamental probabilistic model that enabled them to extract an expert helicopter pilot's intended trajectory from multiple

O'Brien, James F.

147

Autonomous inverted helicopter flight via reinforcement learning  

E-print Network

Autonomous inverted helicopter flight via reinforcement learning Andrew Y. Ng1 , Adam Coates1 Science Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 2 Whirled Air Helicopters, Menlo Park, CA 94025 Abstract. Helicopters have highly stochastic, nonlinear, dynamics, and autonomous helicopter

Ng, Andrew Y.

148

Autonomous DNA-Molecule Computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA molecules autonomously change their forms from the single strand to the double helix by specific binding between complementary sequences according to the Watson-Crick base pairing rule. This paring rule allows us to control connections among molecules and to construct various structures by sequence design. Further, the motion of constructed structures can also be designed by considering sequential bindings. Recently, the feasibility to utilize the programmed DNA structural change for information processing was studied. In the present paper, we report an efficient synthetic chain reaction based on autonomous binding of DNA to realize a computing system, which enable us to implement computational intelligence in vitro.

Komiya, Ken; Rose, John A.; Yamamura, Masayuki

149

Autonomic failure in primary amyloidosis.  

PubMed

Amyloidosis is an uncommon plasma cell dyscrasia affecting Multisystem, characterized by deposition of amyloid proteins in extracellular spaces and the tissues. Reported incidence of amyloidosis is 8 cases per million per year. Deposition of amyloid fibrils occurs in peripheral nerves in 20% of the cases in Primary Amyloidosis. Though. polyneuropathy is one of the presenting manifestations in cases of Primary Amyloidosis, pure autonomic failure without involving peripheral nerves is not a documented entity. Here, we present a case of Primary Amyloidosis presenting as Pure Autonomic Failure (Dysautonomia). PMID:19322983

Pandit, Aditi; Gangurde, Savita; Gupta, S B

2008-12-01

150

Miniature Autonomous Robotic Vehicle (MARV)  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has recently developed a 16 cm{sup 3} (1 in{sup 3}) autonomous robotic vehicle which is capable of tracking a single conducting wire carrying a 96 kHz signal. This vehicle was developed to assess the limiting factors in using commercial technology to build miniature autonomous vehicles. Particular attention was paid to the design of the control system to search out the wire, track it, and recover if the wire was lost. This paper describes the test vehicle and the control analysis. Presented in the paper are the vehicle model, control laws, a stability analysis, simulation studies and experimental results.

Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Spletzer, B.L.; Weber, T.M.

1996-12-31

151

Discerning non-autonomous dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structure and function go hand in hand. However, while a complex structure can be relatively safely broken down into the minutest parts, and technology is now delving into nanoscales, the function of complex systems requires a completely different approach. Here the complexity clearly arises from nonlinear interactions, which prevents us from obtaining a realistic description of a system by dissecting it into its structural component parts. At best, the result of such investigations does not substantially add to our understanding or at worst it can even be misleading. Not surprisingly, the dynamics of complex systems, facilitated by increasing computational efficiency, is now readily tackled in the case of measured time series. Moreover, time series can now be collected in practically every branch of science and in any structural scale-from protein dynamics in a living cell to data collected in astrophysics or even via social networks. In searching for deterministic patterns in such data we are limited by the fact that no complex system in the real world is autonomous. Hence, as an alternative to the stochastic approach that is predominantly applied to data from inherently non-autonomous complex systems, theory and methods specifically tailored to non-autonomous systems are needed. Indeed, in the last decade we have faced a huge advance in mathematical methods, including the introduction of pullback attractors, as well as time series methods that cope with the most important characteristic of non-autonomous systems-their time-dependent behaviour. Here we review current methods for the analysis of non-autonomous dynamics including those for extracting properties of interactions and the direction of couplings. We illustrate each method by applying it to three sets of systems typical for chaotic, stochastic and non-autonomous behaviour. For the chaotic class we select the Lorenz system, for the stochastic the noise-forced Duffing system and for the non-autonomous the Poincaré oscillator with quasi-periodic forcing. In this way we not only discuss and review each method, but also present properties which help to clearly distinguish the three classes of systems when analysed in an inverse approach-from measured, or numerically generated data. In particular, this review provides a framework to tackle inverse problems in these areas and clearly distinguish non-autonomous dynamics from chaos or stochasticity.

Clemson, Philip T.; Stefanovska, Aneta

2014-09-01

152

SUBSURFACE REPOSITORY INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to develop preliminary high-level functional and physical control system architectures for the proposed subsurface repository at Yucca Mountain. This document outlines overall control system concepts that encompass and integrate the many diverse systems being considered for use within the subsurface repository. This document presents integrated design concepts for monitoring and controlling the diverse set of subsurface operations. The subsurface repository design will be composed of a series of diverse systems that will be integrated to accomplish a set of overall functions and objectives. The subsurface repository contains several Instrumentation and Control (I&C) related systems including: waste emplacement systems, ventilation systems, communication systems, radiation monitoring systems, rail transportation systems, ground control monitoring systems, utility monitoring systems (electrical, lighting, water, compressed air, etc.), fire detection and protection systems, retrieval systems, and performance confirmation systems. Each of these systems involve some level of I&C and will typically be integrated over a data communication network. The subsurface I&C systems will also integrate with multiple surface-based site-wide systems such as emergency response, health physics, security and safeguards, communications, utilities and others. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Identify preliminary system level functions and interface needs (Presented in the functional diagrams in Section 7.2). (2) Examine the overall system complexity and determine how and on what levels these control systems will be controlled and integrated (Presented in Section 7.2). (3) Develop a preliminary subsurface facility-wide design for an overall control system architecture, and depict this design by a series of control system functional block diagrams (Presented in Section 7.2). (4) Develop a series of physical architectures that present preliminary concepts for integrating the diverse set of control systems to be used within the subsurface repository facility (Presented in Section 7.3). (5) Develop initial concepts for an overall subsurface data communication system that can be used to integrate critical and data-intensive control systems (Presented in Section 7.4). (6) Discuss technology trends and control system design issues (Presented in Section 7.5).

C.J. Fernado

1998-09-17

153

Autonomic Nervous System Activity Distinguishes among Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion-specific activity in the autonomic nervous system was generated by constructing facial prototypes of emotion muscle by muscle and by reliving past emotional experiences. The autonomic activity produced distinguished not only between positive and negative emotions, but also among negative emotions. This finding challenges emotion theories that have proposed autonomic activity to be undifferentiated or that have failed to address

Paul Ekman; Robert W. Levenson; Wallace V. Friesen

1983-01-01

154

Autonomic dysfunction in peripheral nerve disorders.  

PubMed

The autonomic nervous system is affected by most conditions that cause peripheral neuropathy. Autonomic dysfunction may be clinically significant in some conditions such as diabetes, amyloidosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome and porphyria, but in many the autonomic disturbances are of only minor clinical importance. Clinical tests of both sympathetic and parasympathetic function are necessary to establish the diagnosis. PMID:1325223

McLeod, J G

1992-08-01

155

Wave-Based Subsurface Guide Star  

SciTech Connect

Astronomical or optical guide stars are either natural or artificial point sources located above the Earth's atmosphere. When imaged from ground-based telescopes, they are distorted by atmospheric effects. Knowing the guide star is a point source, the atmospheric distortions may be estimated and, deconvolved or mitigated in subsequent imagery. Extending the guide star concept to wave-based measurement systems to include acoustic, seismo-acoustic, ultrasonic, and radar, a strong artificial scatterer (either acoustic or electromagnetic) may be buried or inserted, or a pre-existing or natural sub-surface point scatterer may be identified, imaged, and used as a guide star to determine properties of the sub-surface volume. That is, a data collection is performed on the guide star and the sub-surface environment reconstructed or imaged using an optimizer assuming the guide star is a point scatterer. The optimization parameters are the transceiver height and bulk sub-surface background refractive index. Once identified, the refractive index may be used in subsequent reconstructions of sub-surface measurements. The wave-base guide star description presented in this document is for a multimonostatic ground penetrating radar (GPR) but is applicable to acoustic, seismo-acoustic, and ultrasonic measurement systems operating in multimonostatic, multistatic, multibistatic, etc., modes.

Lehman, S K

2011-07-26

156

Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen  

E-print Network

chemicals. Thus, dangerous substances in the sea can be detected earlier and their harmful effects can26 Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen Florida Institute of Technology United States to make complex studies on topics such as the effect of metals, pesticides and nutrients on fish abundance

Wood, Stephen L.

157

Liability for Autonomous Agent Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though exciting scientifically, autonomous agent design can result in legal liability. This paper surveys those legal concerns, focusing on issues arising from the unique qualities of agents not found in conventional software. Informed designers can more effectively reduce their liability exposure and influence emerging agent liability law and policies.

Carey Heckman; Jacob O. Wobbrock

1999-01-01

158

Liability for autonomous agent design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though exciting scientifically, autonomous agent design can result in legal liability. This paper surveys those legal concerns, focusing on issues arising from the unique qualities of agents not found in conventional software. Informed designers can more effectively reduce their liability exposure and influence emerging agent liability law and policies.

Carey Heckman; Jacob O. Wobbrock

1998-01-01

159

The Functioning of Autonomous Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The college gets separated from the university, though not completely, when it is an autonomous college, which is practice in India. Academic package will become flexible and the decision-making is internalized, changes and updating could be easily carried out, depending on the need as reflected from the feedback taken from alumni, user sectors,…

Rao, V. Pala Prasada; Rao, Digumarti Bhaskara

2012-01-01

160

Electrical Engineering for Autonomousfor Autonomous  

E-print Network

Electrical Engineering for Autonomousfor Autonomous Exploration Robots Minor EE-Mi-109-11 Electrical Engineering Do you want to know more about EE? is all around us Electrical Engineering enables an introduction to Electrical Engineering for (mainly) students in Physics and in the constructive sciences

161

SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR AUTONOMOUS ROBOTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The security aspects of autonomous robots are analyzed by modeling a robot as a set of sensors, effectors, optional communications resources, and processing elements whose behavior is tightly coupled to the sensed characteristics of its environment. A simple taxonomy of potential generic threat types is presented, comprising both the possible direct external threat paths and the derived consequent internal threat

Douglas W. Gage

1985-01-01

162

AARD - Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph document reviews the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration program, and NASA Dryden's work in the program. The primary goal of the program is to make one fully automatic probe-to-drogue engagement using the AARD system. There are pictures of the aircraft approaching to the docking.

Ewers, Dick

2007-01-01

163

Autonomic Computing in SQL Server  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing size of enterprise data, the task of managing a database is becoming more and more complex as well as time-consuming. A database administrator spends most of his time in activities that can be made automatic. Also, scarcity of skilled database administrators have motivated the database industry to develop autonomic database management systems (ADBMS) which can alleviate many

Abdul Mateen; Basit Raza; Tauqeer Hussain; Mian M. Awais

2008-01-01

164

An Autonomic Defragmentation File System  

Microsoft Academic Search

To solve above problems, we propose the autonomic defragmentation file system without a degradation of system performance. At first, we design the Automatic Layout Scoring(ALS) system which is used for measuring the fragmentation ratio of the files. The ALS counts the number of contiguous blocks in a file when the blocks are allocated for the file. We can recognize the

Hyun-Chan Park; Jun-Seok Lee; Chuck Yoo

165

Microbial activities in deep subsurface environments  

SciTech Connect

Activities of microorganisms residing in terrestrial deep subsurface sediments were examined in forty-six sediment samples from three aseptically sampled boreholes. Radiolabeled time course experiments assessing in situ microbial activities were initiated within 30 minutes of core recovery. [{sup 14}C-1-] Acetate incorporation into lipids. [methyl-{sup 3}H-]thymidine incorporation into DNA, [{sup 14}C-2-]acetate and [{sup 14}C-U-]glucose mineralization in addition to microbial enrichment and enumeration studies were examined in surface and subsurface sediments. Surface soils contained the greatest biomass and activities followed by the shallow aquifer zones. Water saturated subsurface sediments exhibited three to four orders of magnitude greater activity and culturable microorganisms than the dense clay zones. Regardless of depth, sediments which contained more than 20% clays exhibited the lowest activities and culturable microorganisms.

Phelps, T.J.; Raione, E.G.; White, D.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Inst. for Applied Microbiology]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., Knoxville, TN (United States); Fliermans, C.B. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Plant

1988-12-31

166

Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area annual report 1997  

SciTech Connect

In support of its vision for technological excellence, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) has identified three strategic goals. The three goals of the SCFA are: Contain and/or stabilize contamination sources that pose an imminent threat to surface and ground waters; Delineate DNAPL contamination in the subsurface and remediate DNAPL-contaminated soils and ground water; and Remove a full range of metal and radionuclide contamination in soils and ground water. To meet the challenges of remediating subsurface contaminants in soils and ground water, SCFA funded more than 40 technologies in fiscal year 1997. These technologies are grouped according to the following product lines: Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids; Metals and Radionuclides; Source Term Containment; and Source Term Remediation. This report briefly describes the SCFA 1997 technologies and showcases a few key technologies in each product line.

NONE

1997-12-31

167

Complete Subsurface Elemental Composition Measurements With PING  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Probing In situ with Neutrons and Gamma rays (PING) instrument will measure the complete bulk elemental composition of the subsurface of Mars as well as any other solid planetary body. PING can thus be a highly effective tool for both detailed local geochemistry science investigations and precision measurements of Mars subsurface reSOurces in preparation for future human exploration. As such, PING is thus fully capable of meeting a majority of both ncar and far term elements in Challenge #1 presented for this conference. Measuring the ncar subsurface composition of Mars will enable many of the MEPAG science goals and will be key to filling an important Strategic Knowledge Gap with regard to In situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) needs for human exploration. [1, 2] PING will thus fill an important niche in the Mars Exploration Program.

Parsons, A. M.

2012-01-01

168

MSTS - Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator theory manual  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, through the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office, has designated the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada for detailed study as the candidate US geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Site characterization will determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for the potential waste repository. If the site is determined suitable, subsequent studies and characterization will be conducted to obtain authorization from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to construct the potential waste repository. A principal component of the characterization and licensing processes involves numerically predicting the thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment of the Yucca Mountain site to the potential repository over a 10,000-year period. The thermal and hydrologic response of the subsurface environment to the repository is anticipated to include complex processes of countercurrent vapor and liquid migration, multiple-phase heat transfer, multiple-phase transport, and geochemical reactions. Numerical simulators based on mathematical descriptions of these subsurface phenomena are required to make numerical predictions of the thermal and hydrologic response of the Yucca Mountain subsurface environment The engineering simulator called the Multiphase Subsurface Transport Simulator (MSTS) was developed at the request of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office to produce numerical predictions of subsurface flow and transport phenomena at the potential Yucca Mountain site. This document delineates the design architecture and describes the specific computational algorithms that compose MSTS. Details for using MSTS and sample problems are given in the {open_quotes}User`s Guide and Reference{close_quotes} companion document.

White, M.D.; Nichols, W.E.

1993-05-01

169

Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations  

SciTech Connect

A heating system for a subsurface formation includes an elongated electrical conductor located in the subsurface formation. The electrical conductor extends between at least a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact. A ferromagnetic conductor at least partially surrounds and at least partially extends lengthwise around the electrical conductor. The electrical conductor, when energized with time-varying electrical current, induces sufficient electrical current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor such that the ferromagnetic conductor resistively heats to a temperature of at least about 300.degree. C.

Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Bass, Ronald M. (Houston, TX)

2012-04-24

170

Apparatus for passive removal of subsurface contaminants  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided which passively removes contaminated gases from a subsurface. The apparatus includes a riser pipe extending into a subsurface which has an exterior end in fluid communication with a valve. When well pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure, the valve opens to release contaminants into the atmosphere, and when well pressure is less than atmospheric pressure, the valve closes to prevent flow of air into the well. The valve assembly of the invention comprises a lightweight ball which is lifted from its valve seat with a slight pressure drop between the well and the atmosphere. 7 figs.

Pemberton, B.E.; May, C.P.; Rossabi, J.

1997-06-24

171

Heating systems for heating subsurface formations  

DOEpatents

Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2011-04-26

172

Subsurface clade of Geobacteraceae that predominates in a diversity of Fe(III)-reducing subsurface environments  

SciTech Connect

There are distinct differences in the physiology of Geobacter species available in pure culture. Therefore, to understand the ecology of Geobacter species in subsurface environments, it is important to know which species predominate. Clone libraries were assembled with 16S rRNA genes and transcripts amplified from three subsurface environments in which Geobacter species are known to be important members of the microbial community: (1) a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, CO, USA undergoing in situ bioremediation; (2) an acetate-impacted aquifer that serves as an analog for the long-term acetate amendments proposed for in situ uranium bioremediation and (3) a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which Geobacter species play a role in the oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons coupled with the reduction of Fe(III). The majority of Geobacteraceae 16S rRNA sequences found in these environments clustered in a phylogenetically coherent subsurface clade, which also contains a number of Geobacter species isolated from subsurface environments. Concatamers constructed with 43 Geobacter genes amplified from these sites also clustered within this subsurface clade. 16S rRNA transcript and gene sequences in the sediments and groundwater at the Rifle site were highly similar, suggesting that sampling groundwater via monitoring wells can recover the most active Geobacter species. These results suggest that further study of Geobacter species in the subsurface clade is necessary to accurately model the behavior of Geobacter species during subsurface bioremediation of metal and organic contaminants

Holmes, Dawn; O'Neil, Regina; Vrionis, Helen A.; N'guessan, Lucie A.; Ortiz-Bernad, Irene; Larrahondo, Maria J.; Adams, Lorrie A.; Ward, Joy A.; Nicoll, Julie S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Chavan, Milind A.; Johnson, Jessica P.; Long, Philip E.; Lovely, Derek R.

2007-12-01

173

Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Simulation Software, KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), is used to demonstrate the automatic identification of faults in a system. The ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operation) project uses KATE to monitor and find faults in the loading of the cryogenics int o a vehicle fuel tank. The KATE software interfaces with the IHM (Integrated Health Management) systems bus to communicate with other systems that are part of ACLO. One system that KATE uses the IHM bus to communicate with is AIS (Advanced Inspection System). KATE will send messages to AIS when there is a detected anomaly. These messages include visual inspection of specific valves, pressure gauges and control messages to have AIS open or close manual valves. My goals include implementing the connection to the IHM bus within KATE and for the AIS project. I will also be working on implementing changes to KATE's Ul and implementing the physics objects in KATE that will model portions of the cryogenics loading operation.

Wehner, Walter S.

2012-01-01

174

Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

Wehner, Walter S., Jr.

2013-01-01

175

SEQUESTRATION OF SUBSURFACE ELEMENTAL MERCURY (HG0)  

EPA Science Inventory

Elemental mercury (Hg0) is a metal with a number of atypical properties, which has resulted in its use in myriad anthropogenic processes. However, these same properties have also led to severe local subsurface contamination at many places where it has been used. As...

176

Modeling Subsurface Transport of Petroleum Hydrocarbons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. EPA website contains information on the modeling of subsurface transport of petroleum hydrocarbons and other contaminants. There are a few course modules on the fate and transport of contaminants. There are also OnSite on-line calculators for site-specific assessment calculations.

177

Methods for forming long subsurface heaters  

DOEpatents

A method for forming a longitudinal subsurface heater includes longitudinally welding an electrically conductive sheath of an insulated conductor heater along at least one longitudinal strip of metal. The longitudinal strip is formed into a tubular around the insulated conductor heater with the insulated conductor heater welded along the inside surface of the tubular.

Kim, Dong Sub

2013-09-17

178

SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION (HOME PAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Subsurface Protection and Remediastion Division(SPRD)conducts EPA-investigator led laboratory and field research to provide the scientific basis to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground and surface water quality within a watershe...

179

Geophysical subsurface imaging for ecological applications.  

PubMed

Ecologists, ecohydrologists, and biogeochemists need detailed insights into belowground properties and processes, including changes in water, salts, and other elements that can influence ecosystem productivity and functioning. Relying on traditional sampling and observation techniques for such insights can be costly, time consuming, and infeasible, especially if the spatial scales involved are large. Geophysical imaging provides an alternative or complement to traditional methods to gather subsurface variables across time and space. In this paper, we review aspects of geophysical imaging, particularly electrical and electromagnetic imaging, that may benefit ecologists seeking clearer understanding of the shallow subsurface. Using electrical resistivity imaging, for example, we have been able to successfully show the effect of land-use conversions to agriculture on salt mobilization and leaching across kilometer-long transects and to depths of tens of meters. Recent advances in ground-penetrating radar and other geophysical imaging methods currently provide opportunities for subsurface imaging with sufficient detail to locate small (?5 cm diameter) animal burrows and plant roots, observe soil-water and vegetation spatial correlations in small watersheds, estuaries, and marshes, and quantify changes in groundwater storage at local to regional scales using geophysical data from ground- and space-based platforms. Ecologists should benefit from adopting these minimally invasive, scalable imaging technologies to explore the subsurface and advance our collective research. PMID:24649489

Jayawickreme, Dushmantha H; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Jackson, Robert B

2014-03-01

180

OVERVIEW -- SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division located in Ada, Oklahoma, conducts EPA-investigator led laboratory and field research to provide the scientific basis to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground and surface water q...

181

MODELING MICROBIAL FATE IN THE SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The biological, chemical, and physical factors which are known to influence virus and bacterial survival and transport in the subsurface are discussed. Models used to predict the fate of microorganisms are presented. The models that have been developed to predict the fate of micr...

182

Subsurface Remote Sensing of Kelp Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macrocystis pyrifera, or giant kelp, provides structure and support for many marine species, and its forests rank as one of the most ecologically productive systems in the world. Traditional, in situ measurements of kelp biomass and productivity are episodic, costly, and provide limited spatial coverage across the often wide swaths of kelp ecosystems. While satellite methods have been developed to estimate kelp biomass and productivity, satellite observations are also limited, as standard practices for measuring terrestrial vegetation cannot be applied with the same confidence to marine vegetation. Here, data gathered from flights with the MASTER sensor over the Santa Barbara Channel allowed the development of two algorithms to assess the surface and subsurface areal extent of kelp in multispectral imagery. The first, a marine vegetation index (MVI), was developed from imagery to capture both surface and sub-surface vegetation pixels. The second algorithm is based on a spectral library for kelp radiance collected from field samples and modeled using the radiative transfer equations with the HydroLight software package. The endmember collection from this library was used in the Spectral Angle Mapping tool in ENVI to identify kelp at various depths. Outputs from each of these algorithms were then compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Analyzing spectral properties of sub-surface features will facilitate the use of satellites in measuring extent and productivity of marine ecosystems. Furthermore, these tools allow researchers to directly quantify the depth and extent of subsurface vegetation, greatly enhancing existing methods.

Allen, J. G.; Palacios, S. L.; Kudela, R. M.

2012-12-01

183

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Subsurface clade of Geobacteraceae  

E-print Network

undergoing in situ bioremediation; (2) an acetate-impacted aquifer that serves as an analog for the long-term acetate amendments proposed for in situ uranium bioremediation and (3) a petroleum-contaminated aquifer subsurface bioremediation of metal and organic contaminants. The ISME Journal (2007) 1, 663­677; doi:10

Lovley, Derek

184

MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF THE TERRESTRIAL SUBSURFACE  

EPA Science Inventory

A current view is presented of the microbial ecology of the terrestrial subsurface by considering primarily the ecology of shallow aquifer sediments. The properties of the aquifer sediments and groundwater determine their ability to support microbial life and control the abundanc...

185

Lateral gene transfer in the subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is an important adaptive mechanism among prokaryotic organisms. This mechanism is particularly important for the response of microorganisms to changing environmental conditions because it facilitates the transfer of a large number of genes and their rapid expression. Together the transferred genes promote rapid genetic and metabolic changes that may enhance survival to newly established and sometimes hostile environmental conditions. The goal of our project was to examine if and how LGT enhances microbial adaptation to toxic heavy metals in subsurface environments that had been contaminated by mixed wastes due to activities associated with the production of nuclear energy and weapons. This task has been accomplished by dividing the project to several sub-tasks. Thus, we: (1) Determined the level of resistance of subsurface bacterial isolates to several toxic metals, all identified as pollutants of concern in subsurface environments; (2) Designed, tested, and applied, a molecular approach that determined whether metal resistance genes had evolved by LGT among subsurface bacteria; and (3) Developed a DNA hybridization array for the identification of broad host range plasmids and of metal resistance plasmids. The results are briefly summarized below with references to published papers and manuscripts in preparation where details about our research can be found. Additional information may be found in copies of our published manuscripts and conference proceedings, and our yearly reports that were submitted through the RIMS system.

Barkay, Tamar; Sobecky, Patricia

2007-08-27

186

On subsurface wireless data acquisition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement, evaluation, and monitoring of subsurface objects often require wireless data transmission between an embedded sensor and an exterior host system. Such technologies find applications in many areas-medical imaging, space exploration, earth formation evaluation in oilfield industries, for example. This paper describes a complete wireless data acquisition system that includes design of a transceiver unit, as well as communication protocols

Jaideva C. Goswami; Albert E. Hoefel; Horst Schwetlick

2005-01-01

187

Subsurface manure application to reduce ammonia emissions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation into soil is generally recommended to reduce ammonia volatilization and nutrient runoff following land application of manures. A range of subsurface applicators are available for manure incorporation with minimal soil disturbance in reduced tillage systems, but none have been widely a...

188

Subsurface discrimination using electromagnetic induction sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the problem of subsurface discrimination using electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors. Typically, discrimination is based on differences in the multiaxis magnetic polarizability between different objects. They review work on frequency and time domain systems, and their interrelationship. They present the results of comprehensive measurements of the multiaxis EMI response of a variety of inert ordnance items, ordnance fragments,

Thomas H. Bell; Bruce J. Barrow; Jonathan T. Miller

2001-01-01

189

Virus transport in physically and geochemically heterogeneous subsurface porous media  

E-print Network

Virus transport in physically and geochemically heterogeneous subsurface porous media Subir for virus transport in physically and geochemically heterogeneous subsurface porous media is presented. The model involves solution of the advection­dispersion equation, which additionally considers virus

Ryan, Joe

190

On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Subsurface Drip Distribution  

E-print Network

A subsurface drip system distributes wastewater to the lawn through a system of tubing installed below the ground. This publication explains the advantages and disadvantages of subsurface drip distribution systems, as well as estimated costs...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

1999-09-06

191

On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Subsurface Drip Distribution (Spanish)  

E-print Network

A subsurface drip system distributes wastewater to the lawn through a system of tubing installed below the ground surface. This publication explains the advantages, disadvantages, maintenance steps and estimated costs of subsurface drip distribution...

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Enciso, Juan

1999-08-12

192

75 FR 1276 - Requirements for Subsurface Safety Valve Equipment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service 30 CFR Part 250...for Subsurface Safety Valve Equipment AGENCY: Minerals Management Service (MMS), Interior...for Subsurface Safety Valve Equipment (API Spec 14A) into...

2010-01-11

193

MANIPULATING SUBSURFACE COLLOIDS TO ENHANCE CLEANUPS OF DOE WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Colloidal phases, such as submicrometer iron oxyhydroxides, aluminosilicate clays, and humic macromolecules, are important subsurface sorbents for the low-solubility chemicals in DOE wastes. Recent research we have performed as part of DOE's Subsurface Science Program has demonst...

194

Validating the Autonomous Science Agent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the validation process for the Autonomous Science Agent, a software agent that will fly onboard the EO-1 spacecraft from 2003-2004. This agent will recognize science events, retarget the spacecraft to respond to the science events, and reduce data downlink to only the highest value science data. The autonomous science agent has been designed using a layered architectural approach with specific redundant safeguards to reduce the risk of an agent malfunction to the EO-1 spacecraft. This 'safe' design is also in the process of being thoroughly validated by informal validation methods and extensive testing. This paper describes the analysis used to define agent safety, elements of the design that increase the safety of the agent, and the process being used to validate agent safety prior to the agent software controlling the spacecraft.

Chien, Steve; Cichy, Benjamin; Schaffer, Steve; Tran, Danny; Rabideau, Gregg; Sherwood, Rob; Bote, Robert; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stu; Shulman, Seth; Van Gaasbeck, Jim; Boyer, Darrell

2003-01-01

195

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL LIMITING FLOW FROM SUBSURFACE SOURCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The infiltration rate of water from a subsurface cavity is affected by many factors, including the pressure in the cavity, its size and geometry, and the hydraulic properties of the surrounding soil. When a predetermined discharge of a subsurface source (e.g. a subsurface emitter) is larger than the...

196

Autonomic Clouds on the Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational clouds constructed on top of existing Grid infrastructure have the capability to provide different entities\\u000a with customized execution environments and private scheduling overlays. By designing these clouds to be autonomically self-provisioned\\u000a and adaptable to changing user demands, user-transparent resource flexibility can be achieved without substantially affecting\\u000a average job sojourn time. In addition, the overlay environment and physical Grid sites

Michael A. Murphy; Linton Abraham; Michael Fenn; Sebastien Goasguen

2010-01-01

197

Creating adaptive affective autonomous NPCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports work to create believable autonomous Non Player Characters in Video games in general and educational role\\u000a play games in particular. It aims to increase their ability to respond appropriately to the player’s actions both cognitively\\u000a and emotionally by integrating two models: the cognitive appraisal-based FAtiMA architecture, and the drives-based PSI model.\\u000a We discuss the modelling of adaptive

Mei Yii Lim; João Dias; Ruth Aylett; Ana Paiva

198

Semi autonomous mine detection system  

SciTech Connect

CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

2010-04-01

199

Semi autonomous mine detection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude - from an autonomous robotic perspective - the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

Few, Doug; Versteeg, Roelof; Herman, Herman

2010-04-01

200

Autonomic Computing: Panacea or Poppycock?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomic Computing arose out of a need for a means to cope with rapidly growing complexity of integrating, managing, and operating computer-based systems as well as a need to reduce the total cost of ownership of today's systems. Autonomic Computing (AC) as a discipline was proposed by IBM in 2001, with the vision to develop self-managing systems. As the name implies, the influence for the new paradigm is the human body's autonomic system, which regulates vital bodily functions such as the control of heart rate, the body's temperature and blood flow-all without conscious effort. The vision is to create selfivare through self-* properties. The initial set of properties, in terms of objectives, were self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protecting, along with attributes of self-awareness, self-monitoring and self-adjusting. This self-* list has grown: self-anticipating, self-critical, self-defining, self-destructing, self-diagnosis, self-governing, self-organized, self-reflecting, and self-simulation, for instance.

Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

2005-01-01

201

Integrated System for Autonomous Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The New Millennium Program Space Technology 6 Project Autonomous Sciencecraft software implements an integrated system for autonomous planning and execution of scientific, engineering, and spacecraft-coordination actions. A prior version of this software was reported in "The TechSat 21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment" (NPO-30784), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 3 (March 2004), page 33. This software is now in continuous use aboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) spacecraft mission and is being adapted for use in the Mars Odyssey and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. This software enables EO-1 to detect and respond to such events of scientific interest as volcanic activity, flooding, and freezing and thawing of water. It uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect changes, including events of scientific interest. Detection of such events triggers acquisition of follow-up imagery. The mission-planning component of the software develops a response plan that accounts for visibility of targets and operational constraints. The plan is then executed under control by a task-execution component of the software that is capable of responding to anomalies.

Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Robert; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Castano, Rebecca; Rabideau, Gregg; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Shulman, Seth; Doggett, Thomas; Ip, Felipe; Greeley, Ron; Baker, Victor; Dohn, James; Boyer, Darrell

2006-01-01

202

Autonomic Neuropathy in Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent definition, different diagnostic method, different patient cohorts studied. The pathogenesis is still unclear and probably multifactorial. Once DAN becomes clinically evident, no form of therapy has been identified, which can effectively stop or reverse it. Prevention strategies are based on strict glycemic control with intensive insulin treatment, multifactorial intervention, and lifestyle modification including control of hypertension, dyslipidemia, stop smoking, weight loss, and adequate physical exercise. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of DAN, with some mention to childhood and adolescent population. PMID:25520703

Verrotti, Alberto; Prezioso, Giovanni; Scattoni, Raffaella; Chiarelli, Francesco

2014-01-01

203

Autonomic dysfunction in peripheral nerve disease.  

PubMed

Autonomic dysfunction is a common complication of peripheral neuropathies. Frequently, it is of little clinical importance, but in some conditions there may be profound disturbance of autonomic function, including orthostatic hypotension, impairment of heart rate and bladder control, and impotence. Some autonomic neuropathies are of acute onset, but most are chronic and of gradual onset. Diseases that primarily affect small fibers in peripheral nerves or cause acute demyelination of small myelinated fibers are those most likely to cause autonomic dysfunction. Conditions that cause severe autonomic dysfunction include acute dysautonomia, familial and primary amyloidosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, diabetes, porphyria, Chagas' disease, and some hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies. Management consists of treating the underlying cause and symptomatic therapy. PMID:8384639

McLeod, J G

1993-01-01

204

Sustainable and Autonomic Space Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts to realize these survivable systems visions, with specific emphasis on developments in Autonomic Policies.

Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Rouff, Christopher; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter

2006-01-01

205

Autonomic neuropathy, II: Specific peripheral neuropathies.  

PubMed

Autonomic dysfunction is a common complication of peripheral neuropathies. It is often of little clinical importance, but some conditions may cause profound disturbance of autonomic function. These conditions include acute dysautonomia, diabetes, primary and familial amyloidosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, porphyria, and some inherited neuropathies. A wide range of neuropathies are associated with lesser degrees of autonomic dysfunction. These include hereditary neuropathies, and neuropathies associated with metabolic disturbances, alcohol abuse, malignancy, medications, infections, and connective tissue disorders. PMID:8791232

McDougall, A J; McLeod, J G

1996-06-01

206

The EO-1 Autonomous Science Agent Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Autonomous Science Agent is currently flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and respond to science events occurring on the Earth. The package includes software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. Because of the deployment to a remote spacecraft, this Autonomous Science Agent has stringent constraints of autonomy, reliability, and limited computing resources. We describe these constraints and how they are reflected in our agent architecture.

Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Lee, Rachel; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Hengemihle, Jerry; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Ungar, Stephen; Brakke, Thomas; Boyer, Darrell; Van Gaasbeck, Jim; Greeley, Ronald; Doggett, Thomas; Baker, Victor; Dohm, James; Ip, Felipe

2004-01-01

207

General autonomic components of motion sickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report refers to a body of investigations directed toward the examination of autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness. Heart rate, respiration rate, finger pulse volume, and basal skin resistance were measured on 127 men and women before, during, and after exposure to a nauseogenic rotating chair test. Significant changes in all autonomic responses were observed across the tests (p less than .05). Significant differences in autonomic responses among groups divided according to motion sickness susceptibility were also observed (p less than .05). Results suggest that the examination of autonomic responses as an objective indicator of motion sickness malaise is warranted and may contribute to the overall understanding of the syndrome.

Cowings, Patricia S.; Suter, Steve; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Naifeh, Karen

1986-01-01

208

Information for Successful Interaction with Autonomous Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interaction in heterogeneous mission operations teams is not well matched to classical models of coordination with autonomous systems. We describe methods of loose coordination and information management in mission operations. We describe an information agent and information management tool suite for managing information from many sources, including autonomous agents. We present an integrated model of levels of complexity of agent and human behavior, which shows types of information processing and points of potential error in agent activities. We discuss the types of information needed for diagnosing problems and planning interactions with an autonomous system. We discuss types of coordination for which designs are needed for autonomous system functions.

Malin, Jane T.; Johnson, Kathy A.

2003-01-01

209

Autonomic Computing for Spacecraft Ground Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomic computing for spacecraft ground systems increases the system reliability and reduces the cost of spacecraft operations and software maintenance. In this paper, we present an autonomic computing solution for spacecraft ground systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), which consists of an open standard for a message oriented architecture referred to as the GMSEC architecture (Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center), and an autonomic computing tool, the Criteria Action Table (CAT). This solution has been used in many upgraded ground systems for NASA 's missions, and provides a framework for developing solutions with higher autonomic maturity.

Li, Zhenping; Savkli, Cetin; Jones, Lori

2007-01-01

210

Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

Schrading, J. Nicolas

2013-01-01

211

Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: KSC Autonomous Test Engineer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20+ years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in. the system, As part.of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display ofthe entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledgebase, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

Shrading, Nicholas J.

2012-01-01

212

1Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems -AMOSwww.ntnu.edu/amos Autonomous Marine Operations  

E-print Network

06.06.2013 1 1Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems - AMOSwww.ntnu.edu/amos Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems AMOS 2013-2022 Cost: NOK 566 million AMOS Funding: NOK 240 million Research Council 2Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems - AMOSwww.ntnu.edu/amos Greener

Nørvåg, Kjetil

213

Lunar subsurface exploration with coherent radar.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment that is scheduled to orbit the moon on Apollo 17 consists of a three frequency coherent radar system and an optical recorder. The coherent radar can be used to measure both phase and amplitude characteristics of the radar echo. Measurement methods that are related to the phase and amplitude will be used to determine the surface profile, locate subsurface features and ascertain near surface electrical properties of the lunar surface. The key to the coherent radar measurement is a highly stable oscillator that preserves an accurate phase reference (2 or 3 electrical degrees) over a long period of time. This reference provides a means for reducing surface clutter so that subsurface features are more easily detected and also provides a means of measuring range to the surface to within a fraction of a wavelength.

Brown, W. E., Jr.

1972-01-01

214

Daily Normalized Helicity of Subsurface Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flare-productive active regions are associated with subsurface flows with large values of kinetic helicity density. Kinetic helicity is related to mixing and turbulence of fluids. Reinard et al. 2010 have developed a parameter that captures the variation of kinetic helicity with depth and time, the so-called Normalized Helicity Gradient Variance (NHGV). This parameter increases 2-3 days before a flare occurs and the NHGV values for flaring and non-flaring active regions represent clearly separate populations. We derive subsurface flows from the surface to a depth of 16 Mm using GONG and SDO/HMI Dopplergrams analyzed with the ring-diagram technique and calculate kinetic helicity density as a function of position on the solar disk. We will then calculate the NHGV parameter exploring different normalization schemes and depth ranges. We will present cases studies of active regions observed with GONG and SDO/HMI.

Komm, Rudolf; Reinard, Alysha; Hill, Frank

2014-06-01

215

Ultrasonic Atomic Force Microscopy of Subsurface Defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show principle, implementation and remarkable applications of ultrasonic atomic force microscopy (UAFM) to evaluation of components with scientific and technological importance. In particular, carbon fiber in CFRP, domain of ferroelectric PZT and subsurface delamination of electrodes in microdevices are shown. We also show lateral modulation atomic force microscopy (LM-AFM) with application to a carbon nanotube composite and discuss its extension using combination with UAFM.

Yamanaka, K.; Kobari, K.; Ide, S.; Tsuji, T.

216

New method helps to refine subsurface interpretations  

SciTech Connect

A recently developed electrotelluric surveying unit has proven successful in providing additional structural and lithologic information from any depth down to 40,000 ft. Surveying is done from the surface. A geologist with several years' experience with the tool discusses its proper applications and use. He is impressed by the amount of subsurface detail this tool can provide, better enabling an explorationist to eliminate or proceed with a project before drilling funds are spent.

Elam, J.G.

1986-10-01

217

CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE VENTILATION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface ventilation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

R.J. Garrett

1999-08-31

218

CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE EXCAVATION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface excavation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

R. Garrett

1999-08-31

219

Drill Embedded Nanosensors For Planetary Subsurface Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a carbon nanotube (CNT) sensor for water vapor detection under Martian Conditions and the miniaturized electronics can be embedded in the drill bit for collecting sensor data and transmit it to a computer wirelessly.This capability will enable the real time measurement of ice during drilling. With this real time and in-situ measurement, subsurface ice detection can be easy, fast, precise and low cost.

Li, Jing

2014-01-01

220

Subsurface materials management and containment system  

DOEpatents

Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

Nickelson, Reva A.; Richardson, John G.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Sloan, Paul A.

2006-10-17

221

Subsurface materials management and containment system  

DOEpatents

Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

Nickelson, Reva A.; Richardson, John G.; Kosteinik, Kevin M.; Sloan, Paul A.

2004-07-06

222

A cloud-assisted design for autonomous driving  

E-print Network

This paper presents Carcel, a cloud-assisted system for autonomous driving. Carcel enables the cloud to have access to sensor data from autonomous vehicles as well as the roadside infrastructure. The cloud assists autonomous ...

Suresh Kumar, Swarun

223

Resonant seismic emission of subsurface objects  

SciTech Connect

Numerical modeling results and field data indicate that some contrasting subsurface objects (such as tunnels, caves, pipes, filled pits, and fluid-filled fractures) are capable of generating durable resonant oscillations after trapping seismic energy. These oscillations consist of surface types of circumferential waves that repeatedly propagate around the object. The resonant emission of such trapped energy occurs primarily in the form of shear body waves that can be detected by remotely placed receivers. Resonant emission reveals itself in the form of sharp resonant peaks for the late parts of the records, when all strong direct and primary reflected waves are gone. These peaks were observed in field data for a buried barrel filled with water, in 2D finite-difference modeling results, and in the exact canonical solution for a fluid-filled sphere. A computed animation for the diffraction of a plane wave upon a low-velocity elastic sphere confirms the generation of resonances by durable surface waves. Resonant emission has characteristic quasi-hyperbolic traveltime patterns on shot gathers. The inversion of these patterns can be performed in the frequency domain after muting the strong direct and primary scattered waves. Subsurface objects can be detected and imaged at a single resonance frequency without an accurate knowledge of source trigger time. The imaging of subsurface objects requires information about the shear velocity distribution in an embedding medium, which can be done interactively during inversion.

Korneev, Valeri A.

2009-04-15

224

Mapping planetary caves with an autonomous, heterogeneous robot team  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caves on other planetary bodies offer sheltered habitat for future human explorers and numerous clues to a planet's past for scientists. While recent orbital imagery provides exciting new details about cave entrances on the Moon and Mars, the interiors of these caves are still unknown and not observable from orbit. Multi-robot teams offer unique solutions for exploration and modeling subsurface voids during precursor missions. Robot teams that are diverse in terms of size, mobility, sensing, and capability can provide great advantages, but this diversity, coupled with inherently distinct low-level behavior architectures, makes coordination a challenge. This paper presents a framework that consists of an autonomous frontier and capability-based task generator, a distributed market-based strategy for coordinating and allocating tasks to the different team members, and a communication paradigm for seamless interaction between the different robots in the system. Robots have different sensors, (in the representative robot team used for testing: 2D mapping sensors, 3D modeling sensors, or no exteroceptive sensors), and varying levels of mobility. Tasks are generated to explore, model, and take science samples. Based on an individual robot's capability and associated cost for executing a generated task, a robot is autonomously selected for task execution. The robots create coarse online maps and store collected data for high resolution offline modeling. The coordination approach has been field tested at a mock cave site with highly-unstructured natural terrain, as well as an outdoor patio area. Initial results are promising for applicability of the proposed multi-robot framework to exploration and modeling of planetary caves.

Husain, Ammar; Jones, Heather; Kannan, Balajee; Wong, Uland; Pimentel, Tiago; Tang, Sarah; Daftry, Shreyansh; Huber, Steven; Whittaker, William L.

225

Spirituality and Autonomic Cardiac Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Spirituality has been suggested to be associated with positive health, but potential biological mediators have not been well\\u000a characterized.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose and Methods  The present study examined, in a population-based sample of middle-aged and older adults, the potential relationship between\\u000a spirituality and patterns of cardiac autonomic control, which may have health significance. Measures of parasympathetic (high-frequency\\u000a heart rate variability) and sympathetic (pre-ejection

Gary G. Berntson; Greg J. Norman; Louise C. Hawkley; John T. Cacioppo

2008-01-01

226

The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System  

SciTech Connect

We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

2009-01-13

227

Autonomously managed electrical power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electric power systems for future spacecraft such as the Space Station will necessarily be more sophisticated and will exhibit more nearly autonomous operation than earlier spacecraft. These new power systems will be more reliable and flexible than their predecessors offering greater utility to the users. Automation approaches implemented on various power system breadboards are investigated. These breadboards include the Hubble Space Telescope power system test bed, the Common Module Power Management and Distribution system breadboard, the Autonomusly Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard, and the 20 kilohertz power system breadboard. Particular attention is given to the AMPS breadboard. Future plans for these breadboards including the employment of artificial intelligence techniques are addressed.

Callis, Charles P.

1986-01-01

228

Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the targeted system. It is envisioned that real time requirements tracing will greatly assist the movement of autoprocedures to flight software enhancing the software assurance of auto-procedures and also their acceptance as reliable commanders.

Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

2014-01-01

229

Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto-Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner- TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the targeted system. It is envisioned that real time requirements tracing will greatly assist the movement of autoprocedures to flight software enhancing the software assurance of auto-procedures and also their acceptance as reliable commanders

Plattsmier, George I.; Stetson, Howard K.

2014-01-01

230

BLAST Autonomous Daytime Star Cameras  

E-print Network

We have developed two redundant daytime star cameras to provide the fine pointing solution for the balloon-borne submillimeter telescope, BLAST. The cameras are capable of providing a reconstructed pointing solution with an absolute accuracy daytime float conditions. Each camera combines a 1 megapixel CCD with a 200 mm f/2 lens to image a 2 degree x 2.5 degree field of the sky. The instruments are autonomous. An internal computer controls the temperature, adjusts the focus, and determines a real-time pointing solution at 1 Hz. The mechanical details and flight performance of these instruments are presented.

Marie Rex; Edward Chapin; Mark J. Devlin; Joshua Gundersen; Jeff Klein; Enzo Pascale; Donald Wiebe

2006-05-01

231

BLAST Autonomous Daytime Star Cameras  

E-print Network

We have developed two redundant daytime star cameras to provide the fine pointing solution for the balloon-borne submillimeter telescope, BLAST. The cameras are capable of providing a reconstructed pointing solution with an absolute accuracy daytime float conditions. Each camera combines a 1 megapixel CCD with a 200 mm f/2 lens to image a 2 degree x 2.5 degree field of the sky. The instruments are autonomous. An internal computer controls the temperature, adjusts the focus, and determines a real-time pointing solution at 1 Hz. The mechanical details and flight performance of these instruments are presented.

Rex, M; Devlin, M J; Gundersen, J; Klein, J; Pascale, E; Wiebe, D; Rex, Marie; Chapin, Edward; Devlin, Mark J.; Gundersen, Joshua; Klein, Jeff; Pascale, Enzo; Wiebe, Donald

2006-01-01

232

Autonomous Daylight Detection of Life by Fluorescence Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated fluorescence imaging system was used to detect biomarkers from extant microbial colonies and biofilms during autonomous rover exploration. Chlorophyll and other biomarkers were visualized autonomously.

Weinstein, S.; Pane, D.; Ernst, L. A.; Minkley, E.; Lanni, F.; Wettergreen, D. S.; Wagner, M.; Heys, S.; Teza, J.; Waggoner, A. S.

2006-03-01

233

Metaknowledge for Autonomous Systems Susan L. Epstein  

E-print Network

Metaknowledge for Autonomous Systems Susan L. Epstein Department of Computer Science Hunter College and The Graduate Center of The City University of New York susan.epstein@hunter.cuny.edu Abstract An autonomous has succeeded in several domains, including game playing (Epstein 2001), path finding (Epstein 1998

Epstein, Susan L.

234

Planning Flight Paths of Autonomous Aerobots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Algorithms for planning flight paths of autonomous aerobots (robotic blimps) to be deployed in scientific exploration of remote planets are undergoing development. These algorithms are also adaptable to terrestrial applications involving robotic submarines as well as aerobots and other autonomous aircraft used to acquire scientific data or to perform surveying or monitoring functions.

Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Sharma, Shivanjli

2009-01-01

235

Digital Libraries and Autonomous Citation Indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Wide Web is revolutionizing the way that researchers access scientific information. Articles are increasingly being made available on the homepages of authors or institutions, at journal Web sites, or in online archives. However, scientific information on the Web is largely disorganized. This article introduces the creation of digital libraries incorporating Autonomous Citation Indexing (ACI). ACI autonomously creates citation

Steve Lawrence; C. Lee Giles; Kurt D. Bollacker

1999-01-01

236

Docking for an autonomous ocean sampling network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine the issues associated with docking autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) operating within an Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN). We present a system based upon an acoustic ultrashort baseline system that allows the AUV to approach the dock from any direction. A passive latch on the AUV and a pole on the dock accomplish the task of

Hanumant Singh; James G. Bellingham; Franz Hover; S. Lemer; Bradley A. Moran; Keith von der Heydt; Dana Yoerger

2001-01-01

237

Gastric emptying in diabetic autonomic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric emptying was studied in 12 diabetic patients, six with and six without objective evidence of autonomic neuropathy and in 20 non-diabetic controls, using a double isotope scinti-scanning technique which differentiated between solid and liquid emptying. Three patients with autonomic neuropathy exhibited gastric stasis, although this was detected by conventional radiology in only one. Neither the patients with stasis nor

I W Campbell; R C Heading; P Tothill; T A Buist; D J Ewing; B F Clarke

1977-01-01

238

Autonomous robot navigation using fuzzy logic controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main challenge for designers of today's autonomous robotics is to build robust control programs that reliably perform complex tasks in the face of real-world environmental uncertainties. This paper proposes a generalized framework for a behavior-based navigation strategy of autonomous robots. This framework includes goal determination, preprocessing, behavior design, behavior arbitration, and command fusion. This framework is practical and used

Meng Wang; J. N. K. Liu

2004-01-01

239

Playing Pylos with an autonomous robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, Pylos playing autonomous robot is discussed. This robot is combined with optimal game winning strategies. This results in an artificial companion which plays the board game Pylos in a fully interactive manner and up to the highest possible level. In the long term this could lead to interesting competitions between various autonomous robots playing several board games

Oswin Aichholzer; Daniel Detassis; Thomas Hackl; Gerald Steinbauer; Johannes Thonhauser

2010-01-01

240

Optimal fuzzy control of autonomous robot car  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the design of the fuzzy control system for an autonomous robot car which operates in unknown, unpredictable, and dynamic environment. The fuzzy control system must provide the fusing of data from multiple sensors and must ensure navigation of the autonomous robot car. Both - an obstacle avoidance control strategy and a target tracking control strategy - are

Ovid Farhi; Yordan Chervenkov

2008-01-01

241

Autonomous Robotic Monitoring of Underground Cable Systems  

E-print Network

competition among utilities, the economic efficiency of daily operations is becoming increasingly important portion of electric power distribution is accomplished through cable networks. A typical power utility, and autonomous operation. This paper describes the electromechanical and sensing system design of the autonomous

Mamishev, Alexander

242

The Techsat-21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Constellation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Constellation flight demonstration (ASC) will fly onboard the Air Force's TechSat-21 constellation (an unclassified mission scheduled for launch in 2004). ASC will use onboard science analysis, replanning, robust execution, model- based estimation and control, and formation flying to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight

Steve Chien; Rob Sherwood; Michael Burl; Russell Knight; Gregg Rabideau

2005-01-01

243

Sustainable and autonomic space exploration missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts

Roy Sterritt; Mike Hinchey; Christopher Rouff; James Rash; Walt Truszkowski

2006-01-01

244

Control of Autonomous Mobile Robots Magnus Egerstedt  

E-print Network

, such as autonomous vacuum cleaners, lawn mowers, and pool cleaners; · Planetary exploration robots, such as the NASA environments, such as bomb sniffers, disaster site robots, and mine sweepers. Notably absent from this list, resulting in challenging, yet standard, tracking problems. In contrast to this, autonomous mobile robots

Egerstedt, Magnus

245

Autonomous Helicopter Flight via Reinforcement Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous helicopter flight represents a challenging control problem, with complex, noisy, dynamics. In this paper, we describe a successful application of reinforcement learning to autonomous helicopter flight. We first fit a stochastic, nonlinear model of the helicopter dynamics. We then use the model to learn to hover in place, and to fly a number of maneuvers taken from an RC

Andrew Y. Ng; H. Jin Kim; Michael I. Jordan; Shankar Sastry

2003-01-01

246

A visual odometer for autonomous helicopter flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a visual odometer for autonomous helicopter flight. The odometer estimates helicopter position by visually locking on to and tracking ground objects. The paper describes the philosophy behind the odometer as well as its tracking algorithm and implementation. The paper concludes by presenting test flight data of the odometer's performance on-board indoor and outdoor prototype autonomous helicopters.

Omead Amidi; Takeo Kanade; Keisuke Fujita

1999-01-01

247

Autonomous Helicopter Aerobatics through Apprenticeship Learning  

E-print Network

Autonomous Helicopter Aerobatics through Apprenticeship Learning Pieter Abbeel1 , Adam Coates2 and Andrew Y. Ng2 Abstract Autonomous helicopter flight is widely regarded to be a highly challenging control problem. Despite this fact, human experts can reliably fly helicopters through a wide range of maneuvers

Bejerano, Gill

248

Adaptive Trajectory Control for Autonomous Helicopters  

E-print Network

Adaptive Trajectory Control for Autonomous Helicopters Eric N. Johnson and Suresh K. Kannan School-0150 For autonomous helicopter flight, it is common to separate the flight control problem into an inner loop that controls attitude and an outer loop that controls the translational trajectory of the helicopter

Johnson, Eric N.

249

Hierarchical control of small autonomous helicopters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous air vehicles have numerous applications, all of which require the vehicle to have stable and accurate control of its motion. In the paper, a hierarchical control system for small autonomous helicopters is described. The control system consists of four components: a navigation filter, an inner-loop hover control system, a waypoint guidance system, and a ground-based flight manager. All four

Christopher P. Sanders; Paul A. DeBitetto; Eric Feron; Hon Fai Vuong; Nancy Leveson

1998-01-01

250

Developmental Changes in the Behavioral and Autonomic  

E-print Network

Developmental Changes in the Behavioral and Autonomic Effects of Kappa Opioid Receptor Stimulation Psychobiology 1051 Riverside Drive New York, NY 10032 ABSTRACT: Kappa opioid receptors stimulation with U50; ultra- sonic vocalization; behavior; heart rate; autonomic nervous system; kappa opioid receptor

Barr, Gordon A.

251

New Small Autonomous Schools District Policy. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inspired by the gains in student achievement realized by the small schools movement in New York City, the Oakland Unified School District (California) has proposed creating a network of 10 new, small autonomous (NSA) schools over the next 3 years. School size will range between 250 and 500 students, depending on grade level. "Autonomous" means…

Oakland Unified School District, CA.

252

Action planning model for autonomous mobile robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main challenge for autonomous mobile robots is to interpret a new situation correctly and to react appropriately in unknown environments. Autonomous mission completion in new territory requires flexible, adaptable, complex, but also fast action planning. For most applications behavior selection cannot be simply rule-based, requiring more sophisticated evaluation systems delivering appropriate information and interpretation. This approach shows a solution

C. Roesener; R. Lang; T. Deutsch; A. Gruber; B. Palensky

2007-01-01

253

Power systems for autonomous underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine the issues involved in designing battery systems and power-transfer (charging) techniques for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) operating within an Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN). We focus on three different aspects of the problem, battery chemistry, pack management and in situ charging. We look at a number of choices for battery chemistry and evaluate these based

Albert M. Bradley; Michael D. Feezor; Hanumant Singh; F. Yates Sorrell

2001-01-01

254

A solar-powered autonomous underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the rapidly expanding requirements for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), Falmouth Scientific, Inc. (FSI) is working in cooperation with the Autonomous Undersea Systems Institute (AUSI) and Technology Systems Inc. (TSI) to develop a vehicle capable of long-term deployment and station-keeping duties. It has long been considered that AUV platforms, in principle, could provide an effective solution for surveillance (security

J. Jalbert; J. Baker; J. Duchesney; P. Pietryka; W. Dalton; D. R. Blidberg; S. Chappell; R. Nitzel; K. Holappa

2003-01-01

255

Development of an autonomous kiwifruit picking robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design concept and development status of an autonomous kiwifruit-picking robot is presented. The robot has an intelligent vision system that ensures that only ldquogoodrdquo fruit is picked. The robot receives instruction by radio link and operates autonomously as it navigates through the orchard, picking fruit, unloading full bins of fruit, fetching empty bins and protecting the picked fruit from

A. J. Scarfe; R. C. Flemmer; H. H. Bakker; C. L. Flemmer

2009-01-01

256

Autonomous buoyancy-driven underwater gliders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of small (50 kg, 2 m length), reusable autonomous underwater vehicles capable of operating at speeds of 20-30 cm\\/s with ranges several thousand kilometers and durations of months has been developed and tested. The vehicles, essentially autonomous profiling floats with wings, execute sawtooth patterns between the surface, where they are located and communicate to shore, and depths of

Russ E. Davis; Charles C. Eriksen; Clayton P. Jones

2002-01-01

257

Autonomic Physiological Response Patterns Related to Intelligence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined autonomic physiological responses induced by six different cognitive ability tasks, varying in complexity, that were selected on the basis of on Guilford's Structure of Intellect model. In a group of 52 participants, task performance was measured together with nine different autonomic response measures and respiration rate. Weighted…

Melis, Cor; van Boxtel, Anton

2007-01-01

258

Multi-agent autonomous system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

259

Autonomous power system intelligent diagnosis and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. Knowledge-based software provides a robust method of control for highly complex space-based power systems that conventional methods do not allow. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis and control, the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space based power system. The operation of the Autonomous Power System as a whole is described and the responsibilities of the three elements - APEX, AIPS, and Brassboard - are characterized. A discussion of the methodologies used in each element is provided. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Power System.

Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.; Merolla, Anthony

1991-01-01

260

Autonomous Power System intelligent diagnosis and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. Knowledge-based software provides a robust method of control for highly complex space-based power systems that conventional methods do not allow. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis and control, the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space based power system. The operation of the Autonomous Power System as a whole is described and the responsibilities of the three elements - APEX, AIPS, and Brassboard - are characterized. A discussion of the methodologies used in each element is provided. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Power System.

Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.; Merolla, Anthony

1991-01-01

261

[Evaluation of autonomic dysfunction by novel methods].  

PubMed

The autonomic nervous system innervates every organ in the body. Since autonomic disturbances affect patient survival, an understanding and recognition of these disturbances are important. We adopted several new methods to evaluate autonomic function accurately. 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy can assess the cardiac autonomic function even in the presence of cardiac arrhythmia. Laser-Doppler flowmetry, ultrasonographic study in the vessels and near-infrared spectrophotoscopy techniques serve as useful markers for screening the dysfunction of vasomotor neurons and blood circulation. Electrogastrography and the circadian rhythms of protein C secretion could be markers of the visceromotor nerves in the abdomen. Electrogastrography is a particularly useful tool for reflecting on functional changes in gastrointestinal motility. The evaluation of anemia could be a marker of autonomic dysfunction in the kidney and bone marrow in patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy, pandysautonomia, and multiple system atrophy. Normocytic and normochromic anemia correlated with the severity of autonomic dysfunction were shown in these patients. We also evaluated the dysfunction of the neuroendocrine system and sudomotor neuron using our new autonomic function tests. The glucose-tolerance test could become one of the most useful clinical tools for detecting autonomic dysfunction in the endocrine system. Microhydrography and thermography could be useful tools for diagnosing the lesion site of dyshidrosis. Moreover, it is clinically important to check the systemic circulation and autonomic function in patients treated with sildenafil citrate and organ transplantation to save their lives. Our new autonomic function tests, such as laser-Doppler flowmetry and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy, are crucial tools in supplying the best symptomatic treatment for such patients. PMID:15344558

Ando, Yukio; Obayashi, Konen

2004-07-01

262

Single cell genomics of subsurface microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have revealed unexpected abundance and diversity of microorganisms in terrestrial and marine subsurface, providing new perspectives over their biogeochemical significance, evolution, and the limits of life. The now commonly used research tools, such as metagenomics and PCR-based gene surveys enabled cultivation-unbiased analysis of genes encoded by natural microbial communities. However, these methods seldom provide direct evidence for how the discovered genes are organized inside genomes and from which organisms do they come from. Here we evaluated the feasibility of an alternative, single cell genomics approach, in the analysis of subsurface microbial community composition, metabolic potential and microevolution at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), South Dakota, and the Witwaterstrand Basin, South Africa. We successfully recovered genomic DNA from individual microbial cells from multiple locations, including ultra-deep (down to 3,500 m) and low-biomass (down to 10^3 cells mL^-1) fracture water. The obtained single amplified genomes (SAGs) from SURF contained multiple representatives of the candidate divisions OP3, OP11, OD1 and uncharacterized archaea. By sequencing eight of these SAGs, we obtained the first genome content information for these phylum-level lineages that do not contain a single cultured representative. The Witwaterstrand samples were collected from deep fractures, biogeochemical dating of which suggests isolation from tens of thousands to tens of millions of years. Thus, these fractures may be viewed as "underground Galapagos", a natural, long-term experiment of microbial evolution within well-defined temporal and spatial boundaries. We are analyzing multiple SAGs from these environments, which will provide detailed information about adaptations to life in deep subsurface, mutation rates, selective pressures and gene flux within and across microbial populations.

Stepanauskas, R.; Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C.; Kieft, T. L.; Woyke, T.; Rinke, C.; Sczyrba, A.; van Heerden, E.

2012-12-01

263

Subsurface sequence stratigraphic correlation using well logs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given hard copies of a subsurface section containing gamma and resistivity logs of nine closely-spaced (well distance varies from 1 to 3 km) wells from Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico for an interval of ~ 200 m clastic succession of Morrow sandstone of Pennsylvanian age. Core sedimentology of one of these wells is also provided. Students' task is to correlate the well logs to generate a stratigraphic cross-section of the area using sequence stratigraphic approach. As the data are from Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico, student should first gather the knowledge of regional setting of the basin, with a particular emphasis to the paleo-eustasy. (Clue: in Delaware Basin, Morrow sandstones deposited in a low accommodation settings with high-amplitude fluctuations of sea-level.) When correlating the well logs students should start with the well which has lithological information. Students should try to correlate the mudstones first. The two most prominent sequence stratigraphic surfaces with comparatively higher correlation-length are 'sequence boundary' produced by pronounced fall of sea-level, and 'maximum flooding surface' generated at the time of highest stand of sea-level. Students should pay particular attention to incised-valley-fill deposits. After completing the correlation, students should check whether their correlation satisfy our prevailing ideas of sequence stratigraphy and stratal packaging. Student should prepare a brief description of overall depositional environments and sea-level history of the area substantiating their subsurface correlation. By doing this exercise, students will learn how to apply sequence stratigraphic principles in interpreting subsurface data, particularly from well logs.

M. Royhan Gani

264

Subsurface damage distribution in the lapping process.  

PubMed

To systematically investigate the influence of lapping parameters on subsurface damage (SSD) depth and characterize the damage feature comprehensively, maximum depth and distribution of SSD generated in the optical lapping process were measured with the magnetorheological finishing wedge technique. Then, an interaction of adjacent indentations was applied to interpret the generation of maximum depth of SSD. Eventually, the lapping procedure based on the influence of lapping parameters on the material removal rate and SSD depth was proposed to improve the lapping efficiency. PMID:18382566

Wang, Zhuo; Wu, Yulie; Dai, Yifan; Li, Shengyi

2008-04-01

265

Parallel heater system for subsurface formations  

DOEpatents

A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

2011-10-25

266

Surface and subsurface mapping in hydrogeology  

SciTech Connect

This book concentrates on the often neglected but useful aspects of hydrogeological mapping. It covers geophysical survey methods and the importance of water chemistry as a tool in tracing the route of subsurface water, and goes on to lay a basic foundation in subjects needed for practice in field: stratigraphy, structural geology, mineralogy, petrography, and geochemistry. Also covers basic disciplines and techniques indispensable for geological mapping, e.g., cartography and surveying, geophysics, drilling, soil science, hydrology, and botanics. Written from a uniquely practical standpoint.

Erdelyi, M.; Galfi, J.

1987-01-01

267

Exploring Deep-Subsurface Life: Capstone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about using analogues to look for life on other planets. Learners will use the results of previous lessons to write a scientific proposal to explore another planet or moon in our solar system for signs of life. This proposal should predict the types of energy and nutrients available to sustain life and describe equipment and instruments necessary for exploration and characterization of the target environment. This is activity 4, the capstone activity, in Exploring Deep-Subsurface Life. Earth Analogues for Possible Life on Mars: Lessons and Activities.

2012-12-06

268

GEOSSAV: a simulation tool for subsurface applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geostatistical Environment fOr Subsurface Simulation And Visualization (GEOSSAV) is a tool for the integration of hard and soft data into stochastic simulation and visualization of distributions of geological structures and hydrogeological properties in the subsurface. GEOSSAV, as an interface to selected geostatistical modules (bicalib, gamv, vargplt, and sisim) from the Geostatistical Software LIBrary, GSLIB (GSLIB: Geostatistical Software Library and User's Guide, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998, 369pp), can be used for data analysis, variogram computation of regularly or irregularly spaced data, and sequential indicator simulation of subsurface heterogeneities. Sequential indicator simulation, based on various kriging techniques (simple, ordinary, and Bayesian), is suitable for the simulation of continuous variables such as hydraulic conductivity of an aquifer or chemical concentrations at a contaminated site, and categorical variables which indicate the presence or absence of a particular lithofacies. The software integration platform and development environment of GEOSSAV is Tool command language (Tcl) with its graphical user interface, Toolkit (Tk), and a number of Tcl/Tk extensions. The standard Open Graphics Library application programming interface is used for rendering three-dimensional (3D) data distributions and for slicing perpendicular to the main coordinate axis. Export options for finite-difference groundwater models allow either files that characterize single model layers (which are saved in ASCII matrix format) or files that characterize the complete 3D flow model setup for MODFLOW-based groundwater simulation systems (which are saved in block-centered flow package files (User's documentation for MODFLOW-96, an update to the US Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-485, Reston, VA, 1996, 56pp)). GEOSSAV can be used whenever stochastic solutions are preferred to solve site-specific heterogeneity problems, e.g., in the field of hydrology, groundwater, groundwater and/or soil contamination, site remediation, air pollution, and ecology. An example from the Rhine/Wiese aquifer near Basel demonstrates the application of GEOSSAV on geostatistical data analysis and subsurface visualization. GEOSSAV has been successfully tested on Microsoft Windows NT 4.0/2000/XP and on SuSE Linux 7.3. The current version is available at http://www.unibas.ch/earth/pract.

Regli, Christian; Rosenthaler, Lukas; Huggenberger, Peter

2004-04-01

269

Low temperature monitoring system for subsurface barriers  

DOEpatents

A system for monitoring temperature of a subsurface low temperature zone is described. The system includes a plurality of freeze wells configured to form the low temperature zone, one or more lasers, and a fiber optic cable coupled to at least one laser. A portion of the fiber optic cable is positioned in at least one freeze well. At least one laser is configured to transmit light pulses into a first end of the fiber optic cable. An analyzer is coupled to the fiber optic cable. The analyzer is configured to receive return signals from the light pulses.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); McKinzie, II. Billy John (Houston, TX)

2009-08-18

270

The formation of subsurface non-defect fatigue crack origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very high cycle fatigue tests have been performed for two, two-phase steel grades, one martensitic–ferritic low-alloyed steel and one martensitic–austenitic stainless steel, in order to investigate the formation of subsurface non-defect fatigue crack origins (SNDFCO). It was found that there are transitions of fatigue crack initiation from surface defects, subsurface defects like inclusions to a subsurface non-defect matrix with increasing

Guocai Chai

2006-01-01

271

The Autonomic Symptom Profile: a new instrument to assess autonomic symptoms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVE: To develop a new specific instrument called the Autonomic Symptom Profile to measure autonomic symptoms and test its validity. BACKGROUND: Measuring symptoms is important in the evaluation of quality of life outcomes. There is no validated, self-completed questionnaire on the symptoms of patients with autonomic disorders. METHODS: The questionnaire is 169 items concerning different aspects of autonomic symptoms. The Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale (COMPASS) with item-weighting was established; higher scores indicate more or worse symptoms. Autonomic function tests were performed to generate the Composite Autonomic Scoring Scale (CASS) and to quantify autonomic deficits. We compared the results of the COMPASS with the CASS derived from the Autonomic Reflex Screen to evaluate validity. RESULTS: The instrument was tested in 41 healthy controls (mean age 46.6 years), 33 patients with nonautonomic peripheral neuropathies (mean age 59.5 years), and 39 patients with autonomic failure (mean age 61.1 years). COMPASS scores correlated well with the CASS, demonstrating an acceptable level of content and criterion validity. The mean (+/-SD) overall COMPASS score was 9.8 (+/-9) in controls, 25.9 (+/-17.9) in the patients with nonautonomic peripheral neuropathies, and 52.3 (+/-24.2) in the autonomic failure group. Scores of symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and secretomotor dysfunction best predicted the CASS on multiple stepwise regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a questionnaire that measures autonomic symptoms and present evidence for its validity. The instrument shows promise in assessing autonomic symptoms in clinical trials and epidemiologic studies.

Suarez, G. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Offord, K. P.; Atkinson, E. J.; O'Brien, P. C.; Low, P. A.

1999-01-01

272

Surface and subsurface nitrate flow pathways on a watershed scale.  

PubMed

Determining the interaction and impact of surface runoff and subsurface flow processes on the environment has been hindered by our inability to characterize subsurface soil structures on a watershed scale. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) data were collected and evaluated in determining subsurface hydrology at four small watersheds in Beltsville, MD. The watersheds have similar textures, organic matter contents, and yield distributions. Although the surface slope was greater on one of the watersheds, slope alone could not explain why it also had a nitrate runoff flux that was 18 times greater than the other three watersheds. Only with knowledge of the subsurface hydrology could the surface runoff differences be explained. The subsurface hydrology was developed by combining GPR and surface topography in a geographic information system. Discrete subsurface flow pathways were identified and confirmed with color infrared imagery, real-time soil moisture monitoring, and yield monitoring. The discrete subsurface flow patterns were also useful in understanding observed nitrate levels entering the riparian wetland and first order stream. This study demonstrated the impact that subsurface stratigraphy can have on water and nitrate (NO3-N) fluxes exiting agricultural lands, even when soil properties, yield distributions, and climate are similar. Reliable protocols for measuring subsurface fluxes of water and chemicals need to be developed. PMID:12805788

Daughtry, C S; Gish, T J; Dulaney, W P; Walthall, C L; Kung, K J; McCarty, G W; Angier, J T; Buss, P

2001-11-30

273

Current challenges in autonomous vehicle development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of autonomous vehicles is a rapidly growing one, with significant interest from both government and industry sectors. Autonomous vehicles represent the intersection of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, combining decision-making with real-time control. Autonomous vehicles are desired for use in search and rescue, urban reconnaissance, mine detonation, supply convoys, and more. The general adage is to use robots for anything dull, dirty, dangerous or dumb. While a great deal of research has been done on autonomous systems, there are only a handful of fielded examples incorporating machine autonomy beyond the level of teleoperation, especially in outdoor/complex environments. In an attempt to assess and understand the current state of the art in autonomous vehicle development, a few areas where unsolved problems remain became clear. This paper outlines those areas and provides suggestions for the focus of science and technology research. The first step in evaluating the current state of autonomous vehicle development was to develop a definition of autonomy. A number of autonomy level classification systems were reviewed. The resulting working definitions and classification schemes used by the authors are summarized in the opening sections of the paper. The remainder of the report discusses current approaches and challenges in decision-making and real-time control for autonomous vehicles. Suggested research focus areas for near-, mid-, and long-term development are also presented.

Connelly, J.; Hong, W. S.; Mahoney, R. B., Jr.; Sparrow, D. A.

2006-05-01

274

Autonomous navigation system and method  

SciTech Connect

A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.

Bruemmer, David J. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-09-08

275

Implementing autonomous planetary remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future planetary exploration missions will be marked by dramatic increases in the amount of remote sensing data that can be acquired per dollar of mission cost, despite improvements in the instrumentation to retrieve data. However, planetary distances will continue to limit the amount of data that can be returned to Earth and communications will be a major factor influencing spacecraft mass, power, and ultimately cost. Remarkable advancements in spacecraft onboard data processing, fortunately, offer a solution to the downlink constriction while simultaneously reducing spacecraft operation costs on the ground by enabling autonomous and adaptive scientific data acquisition. This paper presents an approach to enhancing future space mission capabilities. We have chosen hyperspectral imaging as an example of a remote sensing technique that generates a large volume of data from a single instrument and is amenable to onboard processing and adaptive scientific data acquisition. Specific advanced hardware and software technologies from NASA and industry can be adapted to provide a feasible spacecraft implementation.

Moses, Stewart; Rourke, Kenneth; Freitag, Joseph; Uhlir, C.

1996-10-01

276

APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System  

SciTech Connect

An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts centers, mass transit systems, major sporting and entertainment events, and other high profile situations in which the public is at risk of becoming a target of bioterrorist attacks. Customizing off-the-shelf components and developing new components, a multidisciplinary team developed APDS, a stand-alone system for rapid, continuous monitoring of multiple airborne biological threat agents in the environment. The completely automated APDS samples the air, prepares fluid samples in-line, and performs two orthogonal tests: immunoassay and nucleic acid detection. When compared to competing technologies, APDS is unprecedented in terms of flexibility and system performance.

Langlois, R G; Brown, S; Burris, L; Colston, B; Jones, L; Makarewicz, T; Mariella, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Milanovich, F; Masarabadi, S; Venkateswaran, K; Marshall, G; Olson, D; Wolcott, D

2002-02-14

277

Autonomous Medical Care for Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of Autonomous Medical Care (AMC) is to ensure a healthy, well-performing crew which is a primary need for exploration. The end result of this effort will be the requirements and design for medical systems for the CEV, lunar operations, and Martian operations as well as a ground-based crew health optimization plan. Without such systems, we increase the risk of medical events occurring during a mission and we risk being unable to deal with contingencies of illness and injury, potentially threatening mission success. AMC has two major components: 1) pre-flight crew health optimization and 2) in-flight medical care. The goal of pre-flight crew health optimization is to reduce the risk of illness occurring during a mission by primary prevention and prophylactic measures. In-flight autonomous medical care is the capability to provide medical care during a mission with little or no real-time support from Earth. Crew medical officers or other crew members provide routine medical care as well as medical care to ill or injured crew members using resources available in their location. Ground support becomes telemedical consultation on-board systems/people collect relevant data for ground support to review. The AMC system provides capabilities to incorporate new procedures and training and advice as required. The on-board resources in an autonomous system should be as intelligent and integrated as is feasible, but autonomous does not mean that no human will be involved. The medical field is changing rapidly, and so a challenge is to determine which items to pursue now, which to leverage other efforts (e.g. military), and which to wait for commercial forces to mature. Given that what is used for the CEV or the Moon will likely be updated before going to Mars, a critical piece of the system design will be an architecture that provides for easy incorporation of new technologies into the system. Another challenge is to determine the level of care to provide for each mission type. The level of care refers to the amount and type of care one will render based on perceived need and ability. This is in contrast to the standard of care which is the benchmark by which that care is provided. There are certainly some devices and procedures that have unique microgravity or partial gravity requirements such that terrestrial methods will not work. For example, performing CPR on Mars cannot be done in exactly the same way as on Earth because the reduced gravity causes too large a reduction in the forces available for effective compression of the chest. Likewise, fluid behavior in microgravity may require a specialized water filtration and mixing system for the creation of intravenous fluids. This paper will outline the drivers for the design of the medical care systems, prioritization and planning techniques, key system components, and long term goals.

Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Polk, J. D.; Hines, John W.; Nall, Marsha M.

2005-01-01

278

Autonomous Spacecraft Navigation With Pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An external reference system suitable for deep space navigation can be defined by fast spinning and strongly magnetized neutron stars, called pulsars. Their beamed periodic signals have timing stabilities comparable to atomic clocks and provide characteristic temporal signatures that can be used as natural navigation beacons, quite similar to the use of GPS satellites for navigation on Earth. By comparing pulse arrival times measured on-board a spacecraft with predicted pulse arrivals at a reference location, the spacecraft position can be determined autonomously and with high accuracy everywhere in the solar system and beyond. The unique properties of pulsars make clear already today that such a navigation system will have its application in future astronautics. We will describe the basic principle of spacecraft navigation using pulsars and report on the current development status of this novel technology.

Becker, Werner

2014-08-01

279

Wireless autonomous device data transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of communicating information from a wireless autonomous device (WAD) to a base station. The WAD has a data element having a predetermined profile having a total number of sequenced possible data element combinations. The method includes receiving at the WAD an RF profile transmitted by the base station that includes a triggering portion having a number of pulses, wherein the number is at least equal to the total number of possible data element combinations. The method further includes keeping a count of received pulses and wirelessly transmitting a piece of data, preferably one bit, to the base station when the count reaches a value equal to the stored data element's particular number in the sequence. Finally, the method includes receiving the piece of data at the base station and using the receipt thereof to determine which of the possible data element combinations the stored data element is.

Sammel, Jr., David W. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Mi, Minhong (Inventor)

2013-01-01

280

Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

Seaman, R.

281

Autonomous caregiver following robotic wheelchair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, a variety of robotic/intelligent wheelchairs have been proposed to meet the need in aging society. Their main research topics are autonomous functions such as moving toward some goals while avoiding obstacles, or user-friendly interfaces. Although it is desirable for wheelchair users to go out alone, caregivers often accompany them. Therefore we have to consider not only autonomous functions and user interfaces but also how to reduce caregivers' load and support their activities in a communication aspect. From this point of view, we have proposed a robotic wheelchair moving with a caregiver side by side based on the MATLAB process. In this project we discussing about robotic wheel chair to follow a caregiver by using a microcontroller, Ultrasonic sensor, keypad, Motor drivers to operate robot. Using camera interfaced with the DM6437 (Davinci Code Processor) image is captured. The captured image are then processed by using image processing technique, the processed image are then converted into voltage levels through MAX 232 level converter and given it to the microcontroller unit serially and ultrasonic sensor to detect the obstacle in front of robot. In this robot we have mode selection switch Automatic and Manual control of robot, we use ultrasonic sensor in automatic mode to find obstacle, in Manual mode to use the keypad to operate wheel chair. In the microcontroller unit, c language coding is predefined, according to this coding the robot which connected to it was controlled. Robot which has several motors is activated by using the motor drivers. Motor drivers are nothing but a switch which ON/OFF the motor according to the control given by the microcontroller unit.

Ratnam, E. Venkata; Sivaramalingam, Sethurajan; Vignesh, A. Sri; Vasanth, Elanthendral; Joans, S. Mary

2011-12-01

282

Toward an Evolvable Model of Development for Autonomous Agent Synthesis  

E-print Network

Toward an Evolvable Model of Development for Autonomous Agent Synthesis Frank Dellaert1 and Randall@alpha.ces.cwru.edu Abstract We are interested in the synthesis of autonomous agents using evolutionary techniques. Most work autonomous agents. The design of autonomous agents is a complex task that typically involves a great deal

Beer, Randall D.

283

AFV-II: Robotic Aerial Platform for Autonomous Robot Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT An overview of an autonomous helicopter test - bed project at the Autonomous Robots Lab of the University of Southern California is presented The core of this test - bed is a new autonomous helicopter, the Autonomous Flying Vehicle - II (AFV - II) The AFV - II is an evolution of the origi - nal AFV vehicle described

M. Anthony Lewis

284

Atmospheric energy for subsurface life on Mars?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The location and density of biologically useful energy sources on Mars will limit the biomass, spatial distribution, and organism size of any biota. Subsurface Martian organisms could be supplied with a large energy flux from the oxidation of photochemically produced atmospheric H(2) and CO diffusing into the regolith. However, surface abundance measurements of these gases demonstrate that no more than a few percent of this available flux is actually being consumed, suggesting that biological activity driven by atmospheric H(2) and CO is limited in the top few hundred meters of the subsurface. This is significant because the available but unused energy is extremely large: for organisms at 30-m depth, it is 2,000 times previous estimates of hydrothermal and chemical weathering energy and far exceeds the energy derivable from other atmospheric gases. This also implies that the apparent scarcity of life on Mars is not attributable to lack of energy. Instead, the availability of liquid water may be a more important factor limiting biological activity because the photochemical energy flux can only penetrate to 100- to 1,000-m depth, where most H(2)O is probably frozen. Because both atmospheric and Viking lander soil data provide little evidence for biological activity, the detection of short-lived trace gases will probably be a better indicator of any extant Martian life.

Weiss, B. P.; Yung, Y. L.; Nealson, K. H.

2000-01-01

285

Method and apparatus for subsurface exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A subsurface explorer (SSX) for exploring beneath the terrestrial surface of planetary bodies such as the Earth, Mars, or comets. This exploration activity utilizes appropriate sensors and instrument to evaluate the composition, structure, mineralogy and possibly biology of the subsurface medium, as well as perhaps the ability to return samples of that medium back to the surface. The vehicle comprises an elongated skin or body having a front end and a rear end, with a nose piece at the front end for imparting force to composition material of the planetary body. Force is provided by a hammer mechanism to the back side of a nose piece from within the body of the vehicle. In the preferred embodiment, a motor spins an intermediate shaft having two non-uniform threads along with a hammer which engages these threads with two conical rollers. A brake assembly halts the rotation of the intermediate shaft, causing the conical roller to spin down the non-uniform thread to rapidly and efficiently convert the rotational kinetic energy of the hammer into translational energy.

Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

2002-01-01

286

Subsurface damage on ground fused silica surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low surface laser damage threshold of fused silica components in high power laser systems such as NIF restricts the improvement of the output fluence of those systems. Once damage is initiated and grows under subsequent laser shots, the components will go unusable. Subsurface damage (SSD) introduced during manufacturing has been identified as a main damage initiator. A good knowledge of SSD and how manufacturing influences it is essential to optimize manufacturing processes for damage free optics. Using the magneto-rheological finishing (MRF) wedge technique of better accuracy attributed to a tip, we have characterized the subsurface damage on fused silica optical surfaces ground with loose Al2O3 abrasives of different sizes. Larger abrasives generates longer cracks and the number density of cracks decreases sharply with the depth for each size. Rogue particles account for the occurrence of trailing indent scratches. Addition of rogue abrasives into relatively small base abrasive extends SSD more deeply than that induced by rogue abrasives alone. The linear model, with the proportional coefficient 3.511, fits the relationship between SSD depth and surface roughness (SR) better than the quadratic polynomial one. We believe SSD depth relates to SR more statistically than following some specified physical law. The linear relationship between SSD depth and the abrasive size was also established. The abrasive size turned out not to be as a good indictor of SSD depth as SR.

Xu, Jiafeng; Xu, Xueke; Gao, Wenlan; Wei, Chaoyang; Yang, Minghong; Shao, Jianda

2014-08-01

287

Robotics subsurface mapping demonstration technology test plan  

SciTech Connect

The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) contains an estimated 2 million cubic feet of contaminated, hazardous, radioactive buried waste. The waste was received in cardboard boxes, steel drums plywood boxes, and as loose material. Possible leaching of the buried waste may have created mixed hazardous fill dirt, with an estimated volume of 6 million cubic feet. The Department of Energy has committed to clean up the SDA. Cleanup efforts will include characterizing and removing the waste. Waste characterization provides information on what, where, and how much waste is buried. This information will be used to determine how the waste will be removed and treated. Limited historical data of the waste buried within the SDA exist, but have not been verified and are believed to be incorrect or incomplete in many cases. There are two objectives to the Robotics Subsurface Mapping Demonstration. The first is to demonstrate the feasibility of using a remotely operated platform to perform characterization operations. In the demonstration, the Soldier Robot Interface Project (SRIP) platform will be equipped with multiple sensors to provide data for buried waste characterization and will be remotely controlled and tracked by the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS). The second objective of the demonstration is to characterize the waste in locations within the SDA, as specified by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Project.

Griebenow, B.E.

1991-06-01

288

The subsurface of Pluto from submillimetre observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface areas on Pluto change in brightness and colour, at optical to infrared wavelengths, over time-scales as short as years. The subsurface contains a reservoir of frozen volatiles, but little is known about it because Pluto is out of reach for cm-radar. Here we present a 0.85 mm wavelength light curve of the Pluto system, from archival data taken in 1997 August with the SCUBA (Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array) camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). This wavelength probes for the first time to just below the skin depth of thermal changes over Pluto's day. The light curve differs significantly from counterparts in the mid- to far-infrared, in a longitude range that is optically dark on Pluto's surface. An estimate from Herschel of the 0.5 mm flux in 2012 is comparable to the mean 0.45 mm flux from SCUBA in 1997, suggesting that layers centimetres below the surface have not undergone any gross temperature change. The longitudes that are relatively submillimetre-faint could have a different emissivity, perhaps with a subsurface layer richer in nitrogen or methane ices than at the surface. The Radio Science Experiment (REX) instrument on New Horizons may be able to constrain physical properties deeper down, as it looks back on Pluto's nightside after the 2015 July flyby.

Greaves, J. S.; Whitelaw, A. C. M.; Bendo, G. J.

2015-04-01

289

Phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microorganisms. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This project involves the development of group specific 16S ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the rapid detection of specific types of subsurface organisms (e.g., groups of microbes that share certain physiological traits). Major accomplishments for the period of 6/91 to 12/1/91 are described. Nine new probes have been synthesized on the basis of published 16S rRNA sequence data from the Ribosomal Database Project. We have initiated rapid screening of many of the subsurface microbial isolates obtained from the P24 borehole at the Savannah River Site. To date, we have screened approximately 50% of the isolates from P24. We have optimized our {und in situ} hybridization technique, and have developed a cell blot hybridization technique to screen 96 samples on a single blot. This is much faster than reading 96 individual slides. Preliminary experiments have been carried out which indicate specific nutrients can be used to amplify rRNA only in those organisms capable of metabolizing those nutrients. 1 tab., 2 figs.

Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.

1991-12-31

290

Autonomous Demand Response for Primary Frequency Regulation  

SciTech Connect

The research documented within this report examines the use of autonomous demand response to provide primary frequency response in an interconnected power grid. The work builds on previous studies in several key areas: it uses a large realistic model (i.e., the interconnection of the western United States and Canada); it establishes a set of metrics that can be used to assess the effectiveness of autonomous demand response; and it independently adjusts various parameters associated with using autonomous demand response to assess effectiveness and to examine possible threats or vulnerabilities associated with the technology.

Donnelly, Matt; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mattix, S.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

2012-02-28

291

The NASA/Army Autonomous Rotorcraft Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the NASA Ames Research Center Autonomous Rotorcraft Project (ARP) is presented. The project brings together several technologies to address NASA and US Army autonomous vehicle needs, including a reactive planner for mission planning and execution, control system design incorporating a detailed understanding of the platform dynamics, and health monitoring and diagnostics. A candidate reconnaissance and surveillance mission is described. The autonomous agent architecture and its application to the candidate mission are presented. Details of the vehicle hardware and software development are provided.

Whalley, M.; Freed, M.; Takahashi, M.; Christian, D.; Patterson-Hine, A.; Schulein, G.; Harris, R.

2002-01-01

292

Development of Autonomous Aerobraking - Phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phase 1 of the Development of Autonomous Aerobraking (AA) Assessment investigated the technical capability of transferring the processes of aerobraking maneuver (ABM) decision-making (currently performed on the ground by an extensive workforce and communicated to the spacecraft via the deep space network) to an efficient flight software algorithm onboard the spacecraft. This document describes Phase 2 of this study, which was a 12-month effort to improve and rigorously test the AA Development Software developed in Phase 1. Aerobraking maneuver; Autonomous Aerobraking; Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software; Deep Space Network; NASA Engineering and Safety Center

Murri, Daniel G.

2013-01-01

293

Autonomous underwater pipeline monitoring navigation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details the development of an autonomous motion-control and navigation algorithm for an underwater autonomous vehicle, the Ocean Server IVER3, to track long linear features such as underwater pipelines. As part of this work, the Nonlinear and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (NAS Lab) developed an algorithm that utilizes inputs from the vehicles state of the art sensor package, which includes digital imaging, digital 3-D Sidescan Sonar, and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. The resulting algorithms should tolerate real-world waterway with episodic strong currents, low visibility, high sediment content, and a variety of small and large vessel traffic.

Mitchell, Byrel; Mahmoudian, Nina; Meadows, Guy

2014-06-01

294

Autonomous observatories for the Antarctic plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antarctic astronomical site-testing has been conducted using autonomous self-powered observatories for more than a decade (the AASTO at South Pole, the AASTINO at Dome C, and PLATO at Dome A/Dome F). More recently autonomous (PLATO) observatories have been developed and deployed to support small-scale scientific instruments, such as HEAT, a 0.6 m aperture terahertz telescope at Ridge A, and AST3, a 0.5 m optical telescope array at Dome A. This paper reviews the evolution of autonomous Antarctic astronomical observatories, and discusses the requirements and implications for observatories that will be needed for future larger-scale facilities.

Lawrence, J. S.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Storey, J. W. V.

2013-01-01

295

Pure autonomic failure with cold induced sweating.  

PubMed

Pure autonomic failure (PAF) is a progressive autonomic neurodegenerative disorder. Cold induced sweating occurred in syndromes with mutations in CRLF1 and CLCF1 genes and in a case of cervical dissection. A patient with PAF developed sweating induced by cool ambient temperatures. He had severe orthostatic hypotension, abnormal cardiovagal reflexes, and paradoxical sweating in the upper trunk at a room temperature of 18°C. Skin biopsy showed involvement of somatic epidermal unmyelinated nerve fibers. Quantitative sensory testing showed abnormal thresholds to all thermal modalities. Possible mechanisms include cold induced noradrenaline release in remaining autonomic innervation and a supersensitive sudomotor response. PMID:23511064

Idiaquez, Juan; Fadic, Ricardo; Verdugo, Renato; Idiaquez, Juan F; Iodice, Valeria; Low, David A; Mathias, C J; Lombardi, Raffaela; Lauria, Giuseppe

2013-06-01

296

Development of Autonomous Aerobraking (Phase 1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Engineering and Safety Center received a request from Mr. Daniel Murri (NASA Technical Fellow for Flight Mechanics) to develop an autonomous aerobraking capability. An initial evaluation for all phases of this assessment was approved to proceed at the NESC Review Board meeting. The purpose of phase 1 of this study was to provide an assessment of the feasibility of autonomous aerobraking. During this phase, atmospheric, aerodynamic, and thermal models for a representative spacecraft were developed for both the onboard algorithm known as Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software, and a ground-based "truth" simulation developed for testing purposes. The results of the phase 1 assessment are included in this report.

Murri, Daniel G.; Powell, Richard W.; Prince, Jill L.

2012-01-01

297

Development of autonomous magnetometer rotorcraft for wide area assessment  

SciTech Connect

Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 – 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. There is thus a need for other systems which can be used for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly characterization (through the use of dynamic acquisition, i.e. survey mission inflight reprioritization). We describe and report on a one year effort with as primary goal to provide a recommendation to SERDP for a path forward in the implementation of one or more autonomous unmanned magnetometer rotorcraft platforms. This recommendation (which is provided in chapter 6) is based on the following three elements a) An assessment on the applicability of autonomous rotorcraft magnetometer systems to the current DoD site inventory, and an initial assessment of which type(s) of autonomous unmanned magnetometer rotorcraft platforms (in terms of performance characteristics such as payload, altitude, obstacle avoidance, production rate and flight time) would be most relevant to this inventory (chapter 3); b) An evaluation of the feasibility of assembling such platforms from commercial components (unmanned rotorcraft, control systems and sensors – both magnetometer sensors and supporting sensors). This evaluation included several highly successful field tests (chapter 4 and 5); c) A recommendation of the path forward, which includes a detailed outline of the efforts required in the design, assembly and testing of different modular platforms (chapter 6)

Roelof Versteeg; Matt Anderson; Les Beard; Eric Corban; Darryl Curley; Jeff Gamey; Ross Johnson; Dwight Junkin; Mark McKay; Jared Salzmann; Mikhail Tchernychev; Suraj Unnikrishnan; Scott Vinson

2010-04-01

298

REM sleep behaviour disorder differentiates pure autonomic failure from multiple system atrophy with autonomic failure  

PubMed Central

Ten patients with primary autonomic failure, followed up in a prospective clinical and laboratory study, were finally diagnosed as pure autonomic failure or multiple system atrophy with autonomic failure. Polysomnographic studies were performed in all patients. Whereas all four patients with multiple system atrophy complained of sleep related episodes suggesting REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) confirmed by polysomnography, RBD remained absent in the remaining six patients with pure autonomic failure. The data indicate that RBD is an important clinical feature, often heralding multiple system atrophy, but which is absent throughout the course of pure autonomic failure; its recognition can thus be useful in the prognostic evaluation of early primary autonomic failure syndromes.?? PMID:9598693

Plazzi, G.; Cortelli, P.; Montagna, P.; De Monte, A.; Corsini, R.; Contin, M.; Provini, F.; Pierangeli, G.; Lugaresi, E.

1998-01-01

299

Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

1994-01-01

300

Drilling on the Moon and Mars: Developing the Science Approach for Subsurface Exploration with Human Crews  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DOMEX (Drilling on the Moon and Mars in Human Exploration) is using analog missions to develop the approach for using human crews to perform science activities on the Moon and Mars involving exploration and sampling of the subsurface. Subsurface science is an important activity that may be uniquely enabled by human crews. DOMEX provides an opportunity to plan and execute planetary mission science activities without the expense and overhead of a planetary mission. Objectives: The objective of this first in a series of DOMEX missions were to 1) explore the regional area to understand the geologic context and determine stratigraphy and geologic history of various geologic units in the area. 2) Explore for and characterize sites for deploying a deep (10 m depth) drilling system in a subsequent field season. 3) Perform GPR on candidate drill sites. 4) Select sites that represent different geological units deposited in different epochs and collect soil cores using sterile procedures for mineralogical, organic and biological analysis. 5) Operate the MUM in 3 different sites representing different geological units and soil characteristics. 6) Collect rock and soil samples of sites visited and analyze them at the habitat. Results: At mission start the crew performed a regional survey to identify major geologic units that were correlated to recognized stratigraphy and regional geologic maps. Several candidate drill sites were identified. During the rest of the mission, successful GPR surveys were conducted in four locations. Soil cores were collected in 5 locations representing soils from 4 different geologic units, to depths up to 1m. Soil cores from two locations were analyzed with PCR in the laboratory. The remainder were reserved for subsequent analysis. XRD analysis was performed in the habitat and in the field on 39 samples, to assist with sample characterization, conservation, and archiving. MUM was deployed at 3 field locations and 1 test location (outside the habitat) where it operated autonomously for 2-4 hours at each site. Depths achieved ranged from 15 to 70 cm depending on the soil compressive strength and the presence and depth of subsurface indurated layers. Subsurface samples weighing 0.5 to 1 g were collected at the deepest depth encountered at each of the sites using the MUM automated sample collection system, and subsequently analyzed with XRD. Downhole inspection of holes produced by MUM with the Raman spectrometer was acquired on two of the holes and spectral features associated with selenite were identified in specific soil layers. Previously unreported fossilized remains of vertebrate fauna from the Jurassic era were discovered during our mission. Analysis of mineral biomarkers associated with this discovery are underway.

Stoker, C. R.; Zavaleta, J.; Bell, M.; Direto, S.; Foing, B.; Blake, D.; Kim, S.

2010-01-01

301

Development of Autonomous Drills for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Honeybee Robotics has developed science driven drill systems to allow scientific instruments direct access to the subsurface. Embedded drill segment electronics accommodate sensors and actuators for high rate data transmission to the surface.

Paulsen, G. L.; Mumm, E.; Kennedy, T.; Chu, P.; Davis, K.; Frader-Thompson, S.; Petrich, K.; Glass, B.

2006-03-01

302

Autonomous thruster failure recovery for underactuated spacecraft  

E-print Network

Thruster failures historically account for a large percentage of failures that have occurred on orbit. Therefore, autonomous thruster failure detection, isolation, and recovery (FDIR) is an essential component to any robust ...

Pong, Christopher Masaru

2010-01-01

303

Rover: Autonomous concepts for Mars exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a mobile, autonomous vehicle that will be launched towards an unknown planet is considered. The rover significant constraints are: Ariane 5 compatibility, Earth/Mars transfer capability, 1000 km autonomous moving in Mars environment, on board localization, and maximum science capability. Two different types of subsystem were considered: classical subsystems (mechanical and mechanisms, thermal, telecommunications, power, onboard data processing) and robotics subsystem, (perception/navigation, autonomous displacement generation, autonomous localization). The needs of each subsystem were studied in terms of energy and data handling capability, in order to choose an on board architecture which best use the available capability, by means of specialized parts. A compromise must always be done between every subsystem in order to obtain the real need with respect to the goal, for example: between perception/navigation and the motion capability. A compromise must also be found between mechanical assembly and calibration need, which is a real problem.

Baiget, A.; Castets, B.; Chochon, H.; Hayard, M.; Lamarre, H.; Lamothe, A.

1993-01-01

304

Acupuncture Effect and Central Autonomic Regulation  

PubMed Central

Acupuncture is a therapeutic technique and part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Acupuncture has clinical efficacy on various autonomic nerve-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, anxiety and nervousness, circadian rhythm disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and subfertility. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can control autonomic nerve system (ANS) functions including blood pressure, pupil size, skin conductance, skin temperature, muscle sympathetic nerve activities, heart rate and/or pulse rate, and heart rate variability. Emerging evidence indicates that acupuncture treatment not only activates distinct brain regions in different kinds of diseases caused by imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, but also modulates adaptive neurotransmitter in related brain regions to alleviate autonomic response. This review focused on the central mechanism of acupuncture in modulating various autonomic responses, which might provide neurobiological foundations for acupuncture effects. PMID:23762116

Li, Qian-Qian; Shi, Guang-Xia; Xu, Qian; Wang, Jing; Liu, Cun-Zhi; Wang, Lin-Peng

2013-01-01

305

Autonomous aerobatic maneuvering of miniature helicopters  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I present an experimentally proven control methodology for the autonomous execution of aerobatic maneuvers with small-scale helicopters, and a low-order dynamic model which adequately describes a miniature ...

Gavrilets, Vladislav, 1975-

2003-01-01

306

A flexible design framework for autonomous mowing  

E-print Network

This work outlines the creation of a flexible design framework for autonomous mowing to meet changing customer needs and functionality across a spectrum of applications from residential areas to sport complexes. The thesis ...

Kraft, Justin (Justin A.)

2011-01-01

307

Commercial Software Tools for Intelligent Autonomous Systems  

E-print Network

differ- ent autonomous platforms. In partnership with the industrial collaborators we aim to show how "for representing and us- ing an expert's procedural knowledge for accomplish- ing goals and tasksSys Ltd, UK SciSys Ltd advertises three

Quartly, Graham

308

Autonomous Flight in Unknown Indoor Environments  

E-print Network

This paper presents our solution for enabling a quadrotor helicopter, equipped with a laser rangefinder sensor, to autonomously explore and map unstructured and unknown indoor environments. While these capabilities are ...

Bachrach, Abraham Galton

309

XAUV : modular high maneuverability autonomous underwater vehicle  

E-print Network

The design and construction of a modular test bed autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is analyzed. Although a relatively common stacked-hull design is used, the state of the art is advanced through an aggressive power ...

Walker, Daniel G. (Daniel George)

2009-01-01

310

System Engineering of Autonomous Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of the solar system requires fully autonomous systems when travelling more than 5 light minutes from Earth. This autonomy is necessary to manage a large, complex spacecraft with limited crew members and skills available. The communication latency requires the vehicle to deal with events with only limited crew interaction in most cases. The engineering of these systems requires an extensive knowledge of the spacecraft systems, information theory, and autonomous algorithm characteristics. The characteristics of the spacecraft systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm characteristics to reliably monitor and control the system. This presents a large system engineering problem. Recent work on product-focused, elegant system engineering will be applied to this application, looking at the full autonomy stack, the matching of autonomous systems to spacecraft systems, and the integration of different types of algorithms. Each of these areas will be outlined and a general approach defined for system engineering to provide the optimal solution to the given application context.

Watson, Michael D.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Trevino, Luis

2014-01-01

311

An introduction to autonomous control systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The functions, characteristics, and benefits of autonomous control are outlined. An autonomous control functional architecture for future space vehicles that incorporates the concepts and characteristics described is presented. The controller is hierarchical, with an execution level (the lowest level), coordination level (middle level), and management and organization level (highest level). The general characteristics of the overall architecture, including those of the three levels, are explained, and an example to illustrate their functions is given. Mathematical models for autonomous systems, including 'logical' discrete event system models, are discussed. An approach to the quantitative, systematic modeling, analysis, and design of autonomous controllers is also discussed. It is a hybrid approach since it uses conventional analysis techniques based on difference and differential equations and new techniques for the analysis of the systems described with a symbolic formalism such as finite automata. Some recent results from the areas of planning and expert systems, machine learning, artificial neural networks, and the area restructurable controls are briefly outlined.

Antsaklis, Panos J.; Passino, Kevin M.; Wang, S. J.

1991-01-01

312

Human inspiration for autonomous vehicle tactics  

E-print Network

Tactical control is needed in environments characterized by uncertainty and continuous, dynamic change. Given the likelihood of time constraints and high risks associated with poor tactical choices, current autonomous ...

Beaton, Jonathan Scott

2006-01-01

313

Controlled manipulation using autonomous aerial systems  

E-print Network

The main focus of the thesis is to design and control Autonomous Aerial Systems, also referred to as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are able to hover and navigate in space using the thrust forces generated by the ...

Srikanth, Manohar B. (Manohar Balagatte)

2013-01-01

314

Advancing Autonomous Operations Technologies for NASA Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the importance of implementing advanced autonomous technologies supporting operations of future NASA missions. The ability for crewed, uncrewed and even ground support systems to be capable of mission support without external interaction or control has become essential as space exploration moves further out into the solar system. The push to develop and utilize autonomous technologies for NASA mission operations stems in part from the need to reduce operations cost while improving and increasing capability and safety. This paper will provide examples of autonomous technologies currently in use at NASA and will identify opportunities to advance existing autonomous technologies that will enhance mission success by reducing operations cost, ameliorating inefficiencies, and mitigating catastrophic anomalies.

Cruzen, Craig; Thompson, Jerry Todd

2013-01-01

315

Autonomic dysfunction in Guillain-Barré syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The following tests of autonomic function were performed on seven patients with the Guillain-Barré syndrome and compared with controls: (1) measurement of heart rate and blood pressure in the supine and erect positions, (2) measurement of baroreflex sensitivity, (3) Valsalva's manoeuvre, (4) sweat test. In two patients the heart rates were fixed and greater than 100/min and in three there was postural hypotension. The baroflex sensitivity of four patients was abnormal and heart rate response to Valsalva's manoeuvre was impaired in two of the three patients who were able to perform the manoeuvre. Areas of anhidrosis were found in all seven patients. These abnormalities probably reflect pathological alterations of the sympathetic and parasympathetic components of the autonomic nervous system of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. The severity of autonomic involvement is not related to the degree of sensory and motor disturbance which is consistent with the patchy distribution of lesions throughout the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems. PMID:7334398

Tuck, R R; McLeod, J G

1981-01-01

316

DEMONSTRATION OF AUTONOMOUS AIR MONITORING THROUGH ROBOTICS  

EPA Science Inventory

This project included modifying an existing teleoperated robot to include autonomous navigation, large object avoidance, and air monitoring and demonstrating that prototype robot system in indoor and outdoor environments. An existing teleoperated "Surveyor" robot developed by ARD...

317

Design considerations for engineering Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

E-print Network

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) have been established as a viable tool for Oceanographic Sciences. Being untethered and independent, AUVs fill the gap in Ocean Exploration left by the existing manned submersible and ...

Shah, Vikrant P. (Vikrant Pankaj)

2007-01-01

318

Detection of microbial Life in the Subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years microbial communities were detected, which dwell in rocks, soil and caves deep below the surface of the Earth. This has led to a new view of the diversity of the terrestrial biosphere and of the physico-chemical boundaries for life. Two types of subterranean environments are Permo-Triassic salt sediments and thermal radioactive springs from igneous rocks in the Alps. Viable extremely halophilic archaea were isolated from ancient salt sediments which are estimated to be about 250 million years old (1). Chemotaxonomic and molecular characterization showed that they represent novel species, e. g. Halococcus salifodinae, Hcc. dombrowskiiand Halobacterium noricense. Simulation experiments with artificial halite suggested that these microorganisms probably survived while embedded in fluid inclusions. In the thermal springs, evidence for numerous novel microorganisms was found by 16S rDNA sequencing and probing for some metabolic genes; in addition, scanning electron microscopy of biofilms on the rock surfaces revealed great diversity of morphotypes (2). These communities appear to be active and growing, although their energy and carbon sources are entirely unknown. The characterization of subsurface inhabitants is of astrobiological relevance since extraterrestrial halite has been detected (3) and since microbial life on Mars, if existent, may have retreated into the subsurface. As a long-term goal, a thorough census of terrestrial microorganisms should be taken and their survival potential be determined in view of future missions for the search for extraterrestrial life, including planning precautions against possible forward contamination by space probes. (1) Fendrihan, S., Legat, A., Gruber, C., Pfaffenhuemer, M., Weidler, G., Gerbl, F., Stan-Lotter, H. (2006) Extremely halophilic archaea and the issue of long term microbial survival. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/technology 5, 1569-1605. (2) Weidler, G.W., Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, M., Gerbl, F.W., Heinen, W., Stan- Lotter, H. (2007) Communities of Archaea and Bacteria in a subsurface radioactive thermal spring in the Austrian Central Alps and evidence for ammonia oxidizing Crenarchaeota. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73, 259-270. (3) Stan-Lotter, H., Radax, C., McGenity, T.J., Legat, A., Pfaffenhuemer, M.,Wieland, H., Gruber, C., Denner, E.B.M. (2004) From Intraterrestrials to Extraterrestrials - Viable haloarchaea in ancient salt deposits. In: Halophilic Microorganisms. Ventosa A. (Ed.), Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 89-102.

Stan-Lotter, H.; Fendrihan, S.; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, M.; Legat, A.; Gruber, C.; Weidler, G.; Gerbl, F.

2007-08-01

319

ASSESSMENT OF THE SUBSURFACE FATE OF MONOETHANOLAMINE  

SciTech Connect

Burial of amine reclaimer unit sludges and system filters has resulted in contamination of soil at the CanOxy Okotoks decommissioned sour gas-processing plant with amines, amine byproducts, and salts. A three-phase research program was devised to investigate the natural attenuation process that controls the subsurface transport and fate of these contaminants and to apply the results toward the development of a strategy for the remediation of this type of contamination in soils. Phase I experimental activities examined interactions between monoethanolamine (MEA) and sediment, the biodegradability of MEA in soils at various concentrations and temperatures, and the biodegradability of MEA sludge contamination in a soil slurry bioreactor. The transport and fate of MEA in the subsurface was found to be highly dependant on the nature of the release, particularly MEA concentration and conditions of the subsurface environment, i.e., pH, temperature, and oxygen availability. Pure compound biodegradation experiments in soil demonstrated rapid biodegradation of MEA under aerobic conditions and moderate temperatures (>6 C). Phase II landfarming activities confirmed that these contaminants are readily biodegradable in soil under ideal laboratory conditions, yet considerable toxicity was observed in the remaining material. Examination of water extracts from the treated soil suggested that the toxicity is water-soluble. Phase II activities led to the conclusion that landfarming is not the most desirable bioremediation technique; however, an engineered biopile with a leachate collection system could remove the remaining toxic fraction from the soil. Phase III was initiated to conduct field-based experimental activities to examine the optimized remediation technology. A pilot-scale engineered biopile was constructed at a decommissioned gas-sweetening facility in Okotoks, Alberta, Canada. On the basis of a review of the analytical and performance data generated from soil and leachate samples, the biopile operation has successfully removed all identified amines and removed significant amounts of organic nitrogen and organic carbon. Salts initially present in the soil and salts generated during the biodegradation of contaminants remain to be flushed from the soil. Laboratory data show that these salts are readily removable with a simple soil leach.

James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Lori G. Kays

2000-05-01

320

Temporal variability of nitrogen and phosphorus transport in subsurface drainage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Subsurface drainage is a necessity for crop production agriculture in humid climates with poorly drained soils. The Midwestern United States is the most productive agricultural area in the world. In excess of 20.6 million ha (37%) of the tillable acres in the Midwest are managed with subsurface tile...

321

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SUBSURFACE VOLATILIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM - BROWN & ROOT ENVIRONMENTAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS*) is an in-situ vacuum extraction/air sparging and bioremediation technology for the treatment of subsurface organic contamination in soil and groundwater. The technology, developed by Billings and Associates, Inc., and o...

322

On Water Detection in the Martian Subsurface Using Sounding Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several radar experiments are planned to map the martian subsurface down to several kilometers, searching for subsurface liquid water reservoirs, using different concepts and techniques, all based on the penetration property of radio frequency waves in arid soils. The penetration depth of low-frequency radar is mainly related to the electromagnetic properties of the investigated medium. Thus a good knowledge of

E. Heggy; P. Paillou; G. Ruffie; J. M. Malezieux; F. Costard; G. Grandjean

2001-01-01

323

A ground penetrating radar to explore the Martian subsurface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the frame of the NETLANDER project we are presently developing a ground penetrating radar, the GPR experiment, aimed at the exploration of the Martian subsurface. Initial observations of the geological features in the subsurface and the detection of water reservoirs either in the form of ground ice or of liquid water are among the main objectives of all missions

J. J. Berthelier; V. Ciarletti; C. Duvanaud; M. Hamelin; B. Martinat; D. Nevejans; R. Ney; A. Reineix

2003-01-01

324

Development of stochastic partial differential equations for subsurface hydrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of stochastic models in subsurface hydrology is growing at a logistic pace. To tie together a number of different stochastic methodologies for deriving subsurface transport equations, we have put together a brief review of some of the more common techniques. Our attention is confined to a few select methodologies so that we might delve in detail into assumptions

J. H. Cushman

1987-01-01

325

CSMOS USER REGISTRATION (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Center for Subsurface Modeling Support (CSMoS)provides public domain groundwater and vadose zone modeling software and services to public agencies and private companies nationwide. CSMoS is part of NRMRL's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division. The primary objectives...

326

Subsurface ocean argon disequilibrium reveals the equatorial Pacific shadow zone  

E-print Network

Subsurface ocean argon disequilibrium reveals the equatorial Pacific shadow zone Eric Gehrie,1 outcrops in high latitudes. We present dissolved argon data that distinguishes a diapycnally ventilated), Subsurface ocean argon disequilibrium reveals the equatorial Pacific shadow zone, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L

Archer, David

327

DETERMINATION OF MICROBIAL CELL NUMBERS IN SUBSURFACE SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ground-water pollution by organic compounds has become a major environmental concern. Because the transport and fate of the organic pollutants may be influenced by microorganisms present in subsurface material, reliable measurements of the number of organisms in subsurface sample...

328

Subsurface Water Flow and its Subsequent Impact on Chemical Behavior  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The impact of the subsurface stratigraphy on crop growth and agrichemical behavior has been studied for several years at the OPE3 research site located at the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, in Beltsville Maryland. This site contains subsurface restricting layers that have been id...

329

Threshold phenomena in erosion driven by subsurface flow  

E-print Network

by subsurface (groundwater) flow in a laboratory experiment. The pressure of the water entering the sand pile: Erosion and sedimentation; 1824 Hydrology: Geomorphology (1625); 1832 Hydrology: Groundwater transport as seepage erosion, or sapping, occurs when a subsurface flow emerges on the surface. Here the eroding

Kudrolli, Arshad

330

"Phytoscreening": The Use of Trees for Discovering Subsurface  

E-print Network

"Phytoscreening": The Use of Trees for Discovering Subsurface Contamination by VOCs A . S O R E K, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, POB 6, Bet Dagan 50250 Israel, Institute of Plant October 31, 2007. We tested the possibility of using tree cores to detect unknown subsurface contamination

Weisbrod, Noam

331

Subsurface Mapping: A Question of Position and Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the character and challenges inherent in the graphical portrayal of features in subsurface mapping. Subsurface structures are, by their nature, hidden and must be mapped based on drilling and/or geophysical data. Efficient use of graphical techniques is central to effectively communicating the results of expensive exploration…

Kellie, Andrew C.

2009-01-01

332

Imperilled Subsurface Waters in Australia: Biodiversity, Threatening Processes and Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface waters in Australia span massive aquifers to small cave streams and fluctuating hyporheic zones where stream water exchanges with groundwater. Groundwater resources have been exploited heavily, especially in the arid zone, and usage is predicted to increase. Ironically, preliminary surveys of some groundwater habitats in arid northwestern Australia indicate an extraordinarily diverse subsurface fauna with apparently highly localised distributions.

A. J. Boulton; W. F. Humphreys; S. M. Eberhard

2003-01-01

333

1D subsurface electromagnetic fields excited by energized steel casing  

E-print Network

1D subsurface electromagnetic fields excited by energized steel casing Wei Yang1 , Carlos Torres the possibility of enabling steel-cased wells as galvanic sources to detect and quantify spatial variations of electrical conductivity in the subsurface. The study assumes a vertical steel-cased well that penetrates

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

334

Simulating Subsurface Flow and Transport on Ultrascale Computers using PFLOTRAN  

E-print Network

subsurface flow and reactive transport using massively parallel computers. PFLOTRAN is built on top of PETSc outline our future plans for the code. 1. Introduction Detailed modeling of reactive flows in geologic PFLOTRAN, a recently developed and highly scalable code for simulating subsurface flow and reactive

Mills, Richard

335

TECHNICAL SUPPORT CENTER RESOURCES (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division's Technical Support Center consists of a core team of in-house scientists and engineers strongly supported by other in-house and extramural researchers, the Center for Subsurface Modeling Support, and a technical support cont...

336

Geochemical characterization of subsurface sediments in the netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, the Netherlands' subsurface is mainly used to obtain good quality drinking and industrial waters from the different aquifers. Due to the lack of space on the surface, increasing environmental problems and demand for energy, the subsurface will be used increasingly for other activities, including large underground infrastructural projects, underground storage of waste and greenhousegasses and underground storage capacity for

D. J. Huisman

1998-01-01

337

The Subsurface Fluid Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage  

E-print Network

The Subsurface Fluid Mechanics of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage by Michael Lawrence Szulczewski S the fluid mechanics of CO2 storage, with the goal of informing two practical questions. The first question by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heidi M. Nepf Chair, Departmental Committee for Graduate Students #12;2 #12;The Subsurface Fluid

338

Autonomous navigation ability: FIDO test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The FIDO platform of the JPL has been used to evaluate the ability of autonomous obstacle avoidance developed by JPL and CNES autonomous long range path planning. The test results show that only a very small amount of energy and computing time is used to implement autonomy and that the capabilities of the rover are fully used, allowing a much longer daily traverse than purely ground-planned strategies.

Baumgartner, E.; Maurette, M.

2000-01-01

339

Basic and Clinical Pharmacology of Autonomic Drugs  

PubMed Central

Autonomic drugs are used clinically to either imitate or inhibit the normal functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. A large number of additional drug classes also interact with these systems to produce a stunning number of possible side effects. This article reviews the basic function of the autonomic nervous system and the various drug classes that act within these neural synapses. PMID:23241039

Becker, Daniel E.

2012-01-01

340

An autonomous flying robot for Mars exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An autonomous flying robot with vertical take-off/landing capabilities in the Martian atmosphere, which uses the lifting force of a rotor, is described. The Martian rotorcraft is powered by solar cells placed on the upper side of the rotor blades. Preliminary calculations demonstrate the feasibility of an autonomous solar-powered helicopter for Mars exploration based on the existing level of technology. A mission profile for a solar-powered helicopter for Mars is presented.

Savu, G.; Oprisiu, C.; Trifu, O.

1993-10-01

341

Self-healing for autonomic pervasive computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-healing is one of the main challenges to growing autonomic pervasive computing. Fault detection and recovery are the main steps of self-healing. Due to the characteristics of pervasive computing the self-healing becomes difficult. In this paper, the challenges of self-healing have been addressed and an approach to develop a self-healing service for autonomic pervasive computing is presented. The self-healing service

Shameem Ahmed; Sheikh Iqbal Ahamed; Moushumi Sharmin; Munirul M. Haque

2007-01-01

342

Role-based systems are autonomic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic Computing is a newly emerging computing paradigm in order to create computer systems capable of self-management and overcome the rapidly growing complexity of computing systems management. To possess self-* properties, there must be mechanisms to support self-awareness, i.e., an autonomic system should be able to perceive the abnormality of its components. After abnormality is checked, a process of self-healing

Haibin Zhu

2008-01-01

343

A roadmap for autonomous robotic assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the components (“software agents ”) that are needed in an autonomous robotic assembly system. Such a system is called “autonomous” if it is able to cope with all uncertainties in the real-world execution (control and sensing) of an assembly task that was planned off-line, and with the (re)planning itself. For each component, the paper answers the following three questions:

H. Bruyninckx; T. Lefebvre; L. Mihaylova; E. Staffetti; J. De Schutter; J. Xiao

2001-01-01

344

Autonomous Robots as a Generic Teaching Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

An undergraduate bioengineering laboratory course using small autonomous robots has been developed to demonstrate control theory, learning, and behavior. The lab consists of several modules that demonstrate concepts in classical control theory, fuzzy logic, neural network control, and genetic algorithms. The autonomous agents are easy-to-build, inexpensive kit robots. Each robot functions independently in a real-world environment. Students program and retrieve

Abraham Howell; Roy McGrann; Robert Woods

2006-01-01

345

Tele-robotic/autonomous control using controlshell  

SciTech Connect

A tele-robotic and autonomous controller architecture for waste handling and sorting has been developed which uses tele-robotics, autonomous grasping and image processing. As a starting point, prior work from LLNL and ORNL was restructured and ported to a special real-time development environment. Significant improvements in collision avoidance, force compliance, and shared control aspects were then developed. Several orders of magnitude improvement were made in some areas to meet the speed and robustness requirements of the application.

Wilhelmsen, K.C.; Hurd, R.L.; Couture, S.

1996-12-10

346

The Techsat-21 autonomous space science agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat-21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2004. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. In this paper we

Steve A. Chien; Rob Sherwood; Gregg Rabideau; Rebecca Castano; Ashley Davies; Michael C. Burl; Russell Knight; Timothy M. Stough; Joseph Roden; Paul Zetocha; Ross Wainwright; Pete Klupar; Jim Van Gaasbeck; Pat Cappelaere; Dean Oswald

2002-01-01

347

Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

2014-01-01

348

Autonomous control systems - Architecture and fundamental issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hierarchical functional autonomous controller architecture is introduced. In particular, the architecture for the control of future space vehicles is described in detail; it is designed to ensure the autonomous operation of the control system and it allows interaction with the pilot and crew/ground station, and the systems on board the autonomous vehicle. The fundamental issues in autonomous control system modeling and analysis are discussed. It is proposed to utilize a hybrid approach to modeling and analysis of autonomous systems. This will incorporate conventional control methods based on differential equations and techniques for the analysis of systems described with a symbolic formalism. In this way, the theory of conventional control can be fully utilized. It is stressed that autonomy is the design requirement and intelligent control methods appear at present, to offer some of the necessary tools to achieve autonomy. A conventional approach may evolve and replace some or all of the `intelligent' functions. It is shown that in addition to conventional controllers, the autonomous control system incorporates planning, learning, and FDI (fault detection and identification).

Antsaklis, P. J.; Passino, K. M.; Wang, S. J.

1988-01-01

349

Gravimetric examination of Hagia Sophia's subsurface structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subsurface structure of Hagia Sophia, one of the oldest sacred monuments in the world built between 532 537 under the reign of Justinian in today's Istanbul, has been investigated by using two relative LaCoste-Romberg gravimeters in order to detect hidden cavities which have also served as earthquake dampers in similar constructions. On the building's ground floor a grid of 100 points with a grid size of about 4.m was measured. The mean gravimetric point error was ± 3.10-8 ms-2. The result of the examination is that cavities were not detected in the inner central part of Hagia Sophia with a larger diameter than 8.m down to a depth of about 20.m, and Hagia Sophia's foundation was found to be a slope of natural rock with a downward inclination to the East that has a small crest symmetrical to the building's East-West axis.

Friedrich, Jürgen; Gerstenecker, Carl; Gürkan, Onur

1996-10-01

350

Letter report: Ari Patrinos -- Subsurface bioremediation  

SciTech Connect

During the past summer, the authors had the opportunity to examine aspects of the remediation program of the Department of Energy (DOE). The most important conclusion that they have come to is that there is an urgent need to mount a comprehensive research program in remediation. It is also clear to them that DOE does not have the funding to carry out a program on the scale that is required. On the other hand, Environmental Management could very well fund such activities. They would hope that in the future there would be close collaboration between Environmental Management and Energy Research in putting together a comprehensive and well thought-out research program. Here, the authors comment on one aspect of remediation: subsurface bioremediation.

Happer, W.; MacDonald, G.J.; Ruderman, M.A.; Treiman, S.B.

1995-07-26

351

Armored Enzyme Nanoparticles for Remediation of Subsurface  

SciTech Connect

The remediation of subsurface contaminants is a critical problem for the Department of Energy, other government agencies, and our nation. Severe contamination of soil and groundwater exists at several DOE sites due to various methods of intentional and unintentional release. Given the difficulties involved in conventional removal or separation processes, it is vital to develop methods to transform contaminants and contaminated earth/water to reduce risks to human health and the environment. Transformation of the contaminants themselves may involve conversion to other immobile species that do not migrate into well water or surface waters, as is proposed for metals and radionuclides; or degradation to harmless molecules, as is desired for organic contaminants. Transformation of contaminated earth (as opposed to the contaminants themselves) may entail reductions in volume or release of bound contaminants for remediation.

Grate, Jay W.

2005-09-01

352

Locating subsurface gravel with thermal imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method was discussed for using 6 band thermal imagery to locate subsurface gravel deposits in vegetated areas. Geologic history is reviewed to select potential areas of study. An overflight was made using a thermal scanner. The data were processed with a computerized system to delineate areas showing a quartz signature radiated by a gravel deposit. The method was developed during a search for gravel on National Forest land in Louisiana. Processed data from thermal imagery was compared with known gravel deposits and exploratory drill hole logs. A high correlation was noted for a wide range of deposits, from commercial pits to trace deposits only a foot thick. Overburden at these sites varied from zero to sixty feet, near the maximum annual penetration by the thermal wave. It was concluded that the method can be used to locate buried gravel deposits and that more time and effort are needed to verify the usefulness for developing gravel pits adjacent to proposed construction sites.

Scholen, Douglas E.; Clerke, William H.; Luepke, Douglas E.

1986-01-01

353

Optimal joule heating of the subsurface  

DOEpatents

A method for simultaneously heating the subsurface and imaging the effects of the heating is disclosed. This method combines the use of tomographic imaging (electrical resistance tomography or ERT) to image electrical resistivity distribution underground, with joule heating by electrical currents injected in the ground. A potential distribution is established on a series of buried electrodes resulting in energy deposition underground which is a function of the resistivity and injection current density. Measurement of the voltages and currents also permits a tomographic reconstruction of the resistivity distribution. Using this tomographic information, the current injection pattern on the driving electrodes can be adjusted to change the current density distribution and thus optimize the heating. As the heating changes conditions, the applied current pattern can be repeatedly adjusted (based on updated resistivity tomographs) to affect real time control of the heating.

Berryman, J.G.; Daily, W.D.

1994-07-05

354

Optimal joule heating of the subsurface  

DOEpatents

A method for simultaneously heating the subsurface and imaging the effects of the heating. This method combines the use of tomographic imaging (electrical resistance tomography or ERT) to image electrical resistivity distribution underground, with joule heating by electrical currents injected in the ground. A potential distribution is established on a series of buried electrodes resulting in energy deposition underground which is a function of the resistivity and injection current density. Measurement of the voltages and currents also permits a tomographic reconstruction of the resistivity distribution. Using this tomographic information, the current injection pattern on the driving electrodes can be adjusted to change the current density distribution and thus optimize the heating. As the heating changes conditions, the applied current pattern can be repeatedly adjusted (based on updated resistivity tomographs) to affect real time control of the heating.

Berryman, James G. (Danville, CA); Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

355

Delineate subsurface structures with ground penetrating radar  

SciTech Connect

High resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were conducted at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina in late 1991 to demonstrate the radar techniques in imaging shallow utility and soil structures. Targets of interest at two selected sites, designated as H- and D-areas, were a buried backfilled trench, buried drums, geologic stratas, and water table. Multiple offset 2-D and single offset 3-D survey methods were used to acquire high resolution radar data. This digital data was processed using standard seismic processing software to enhance signal quality and improve resolution. Finally, using a graphics workstation, the 3D data was interpreted. In addition, a small 3D survey was acquired in The Woodlands, Texas, with very dense spatial sampling. This data set adequately demonstrated the potential of this technology in imaging subsurface features.

Wyatt, D.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Hu, L.Z. [New Wave Technology, Houston, TX (United States); Ramaswamy, M. [Houston Advanced Research Center, Woodlands, TX (United States); Sexton, B.G. [Microseeps, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1992-10-01

356

Solving subsurface structural problems using a computer  

SciTech Connect

Until recently, the solution of subsurface structural problems has required a combination of graphical construction, trigonometry, time, and patience. Recent advances in software available for both mainframe and microcomputers now reduce the time and potential error of these calculations by an order of magnitude. Software for analysis of deviated wells, three point problems, apparent dip, apparent thickness, and the intersection of two planes, as well as the plotting and interpretation of these data can be used to allow timely and accurate exploration or operational decisions. The available computer software provides a set of utilities, or tools, rather than a comprehensive, intelligent system. The burden for selection of appropriate techniques, computation methods, and interpretations still lies with the explorationist user.

Witte, D.M. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (USA))

1987-02-01

357

Microwave radiometer for subsurface temperature measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A UHF radiometer, operating at a frequency of 800 MHz, was modified to provide an integral, three frequency voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) circuit in the radio frequency (RF) head. The VSWR circuit provides readings of power transmission at the antenna-material interface with an accuracy of plus or minus 5 percent. The power transmission readings are numerically equal to the emissivity of the material under observation. Knowledge of material emissivity is useful in the interpretation of subsurface apparent temperatures obtained on phantom models of biological tissue. The emissivities of phantom models consisting of lean beefsteak were found to lie in the range 0.623 to 0.779, depending on moisture content. Radiometric measurements performed on instrumented phantoms showed that the radiometer was capable of sensing small temperature changes occurring at depths of at least 19 to 30 mm. This is consistent with previously generated data which showed that the radiometer could sense temperatures at a depth of 38 mm.

Porter, R. A.; Bechis, K. P.

1976-01-01

358

30 CFR 550.122 - What effect does subsurface storage have on the lease term?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What effect does subsurface storage have on the lease term? ...Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...What effect does subsurface storage have on the lease term? ...a lease area for subsurface storage of gas, it does not...

2013-07-01

359

30 CFR 550.119 - Will BOEM approve subsurface gas storage?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...BOEM approve subsurface gas storage? 550.119 Section...Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT...BOEM approve subsurface gas storage? The Regional Supervisor may authorize subsurface storage of gas on the...

2013-07-01

360

30 CFR 250.119 - Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MMS approve subsurface gas storage? 250.119 Section...Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION...approve subsurface gas storage? The Regional Supervisor may authorize subsurface storage of gas on the OCS,...

2011-07-01

361

30 CFR 550.122 - What effect does subsurface storage have on the lease term?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...What effect does subsurface storage have on the lease term? ...Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...What effect does subsurface storage have on the lease term? ...a lease area for subsurface storage of gas, it does not...

2012-07-01

362

30 CFR 550.119 - Will BOEM approve subsurface gas storage?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...BOEM approve subsurface gas storage? 550.119 Section...Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT...BOEM approve subsurface gas storage? The Regional Supervisor may authorize subsurface storage of gas on the...

2012-07-01

363

30 CFR 250.122 - What effect does subsurface storage have on the lease term?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...What effect does subsurface storage have on the lease term? ...Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION...What effect does subsurface storage have on the lease term? ...a lease area for subsurface storage of gas, it does not...

2011-07-01

364

30 CFR 550.122 - What effect does subsurface storage have on the lease term?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...What effect does subsurface storage have on the lease term? ...Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...What effect does subsurface storage have on the lease term? ...a lease area for subsurface storage of gas, it does not...

2014-07-01

365

30 CFR 550.119 - Will BOEM approve subsurface gas storage?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...BOEM approve subsurface gas storage? 550.119 Section...Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT...BOEM approve subsurface gas storage? The Regional Supervisor may authorize subsurface storage of gas on the...

2014-07-01

366

Characterization of Microexplosion Phenomena of Methanol-Glycerol Mixtures  

E-print Network

volume vii Greek symbols ø Volume fraction of water in an emulsified oil ? contact angle ?solid-gas surface tension between solid and gas (dyne/cm) ?solid....8 Droplet Size Measurement ..................................................................................... 31 4.9 Oleophobic Coating of the Acoustic Sensor Platinum Wire .................................. 32 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION...

Fan, Ge-Yi

2014-07-17

367

resources in Inner Mongolian Autonomous  

E-print Network

Background: This paper was based on ethnobotanical investigations conducted from 2004-2006 in Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of northern China. Today, due to their nutritious and relatively pollution-free characteristics, wild vegetables are playing an increasingly important role in peoples ’ health and well-being. This paper aims to provide scientific clues for the selection of special and high quality wild vegetables species. Methods: An ethnobotanical study, consisting of a literature survey, open-ended and semi-structured interviews, and collection and identification of voucher specimens was carried out to gather information on wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia. Next, an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables was performed using the linearity weighted integrative mathematical analysis method. Results: According to an integrated assessment of 90 species of wild vegetables in Inner Mongolia, there are 5 species with the highest integrated value, 40 species of high-integrated value, 43 species of general integrated value, and 2 species of low value. The results indicate that the vast majority of wild vegetables have high value in Inner Mongolia. Conclusions: Inner Mongolia is rich in wild vegetable resources. A comprehensive assessment indicates that the vast majority of wild vegetables are of high value. However, these wild vegetables are seldom collected or cultivated by local people. Most of the collected species require further research and investigation into their nutrient content, toxicity and ethnobotany to illuminate their potential as new cultivars or products.

Wujisguleng Wujisguleng; Khasbagen Khasbagen

368

Autonomic and Coevolutionary Sensor Networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(WSNs) applications are often required to balance the tradeoffs among conflicting operational objectives (e.g., latency and power consumption) and operate at an optimal tradeoff. This chapter proposes and evaluates a architecture, called BiSNET/e, which allows WSN applications to overcome this issue. BiSNET/e is designed to support three major types of WSN applications: , and hybrid applications. Each application is implemented as a decentralized group of, which is analogous to a bee colony (application) consisting of bees (agents). Agents collect sensor data or detect an event (a significant change in sensor reading) on individual nodes, and carry sensor data to base stations. They perform these data collection and event detection functionalities by sensing their surrounding network conditions and adaptively invoking behaviors such as pheromone emission, reproduction, migration, swarming and death. Each agent has its own behavior policy, as a set of genes, which defines how to invoke its behaviors. BiSNET/e allows agents to evolve their behavior policies (genes) across generations and autonomously adapt their performance to given objectives. Simulation results demonstrate that, in all three types of applications, agents evolve to find optimal tradeoffs among conflicting objectives and adapt to dynamic network conditions such as traffic fluctuations and node failures/additions. Simulation results also illustrate that, in hybrid applications, data collection agents and event detection agents coevolve to augment their adaptability and performance.

Boonma, Pruet; Suzuki, Junichi

369

Is acting on delusions autonomous?  

PubMed Central

In this paper the question of autonomy in delusional disorders is investigated using a phenomenological approach. I refer to the distinction between freedom of intentional action, and freedom of the will, and develop phenomenological descriptions of lived autonomy, taking into account the distinction between a pre-reflective and a reflective type. Drawing on a case report, I deliver finely-grained phenomenological descriptions of lived autonomy and experienced self-determination when acting on delusions. This analysis seeks to demonstrate that a person with delusions can be described as responsible for her behaviour on a ‘framed’ level (level of freedom of intentional action), even though she is not autonomous on a higher (‘framing’) level (level of freedom of the will), if, and only if, the goods of agency for herself and others are respected. In these cases the person with delusions is very nearly comparable to people in love, who are also not free to choose their convictions, and who could also be rightly held responsible for the behaviour flowing from their convictions. PMID:24125114

2013-01-01

370

Autonomic dysregulation in headache patients.  

PubMed

To analyze autonomic nervous system activity in headache subjects, measurements of heart rate variability (HRV), skin temperature, skin conductance, and respiration were compared to a matched control group. HRV data were recorded in time and frequency domains. Subjects also completed self-report questionnaires assessing psychological distress, fatigue, and sleep dysfunction. Twenty-one headache and nineteen control subjects participated. In the time domain, the number of consecutive R-to-R intervals that varied by more than 50 ms and the standard deviation of the normalized R-to-R intervals, both indices of parasympathetic nervous system activity, were significantly lower in the headache group than the control group. Groups did not differ statistically on HRV measures in the frequency domain. Self-report measures showed significantly increased somatization, hostility, anxiety, symptom distress, fatigue, and sleep problems in the headache group. The results suggest headache subjects have increased sympathetic nervous system activity and decreased parasympathetic activity compared to non-headache control subjects. Headaches subjects also showed greater emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep problems. The results indicate an association between headaches and cardiovascular functioning suggestive of sympathetic nervous system activation in this sample of mixed migraine and tension-type headache sufferers. PMID:23912525

Gass, Jason J; Glaros, Alan G

2013-12-01

371

Software for Autonomous Spacecraft Maneuvers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AutoCon computer programs facilitate and accelerate the planning and execution of orbital control maneuvers of spacecraft while analyzing and resolving mission constraints. AutoCon-F is executed aboard spacecraft, enabling the spacecraft to plan and execute maneuvers autonomously; AutoCon-G is designed for use on the ground. The AutoCon programs utilize advanced techniques of artificial intelligence, including those of fuzzy logic and natural-language scripting, to resolve multiple conflicting constraints and automatically plan maneuvers. These programs can be used to satisfy requirements for missions that involve orbits around the Earth, the Moon, or any planet, and are especially useful for missions in which there are requirements for frequent maneuvers and for resolution of complex conflicting constraints. During operations, the software targets new trajectories, places and sizes maneuvers, and controls spacecraft burns. AutoCon-G provides a userfriendly graphical interface, and can be used effectively by an analyst with minimal training. AutoCon-F reduces latency and supports multiple-spacecraft and formation-flying missions. The AutoCon architecture supports distributive processing, which can be critical for formation- control missions. AutoCon is completely object-oriented and can easily be enhanced by adding new objects and events. AutoCon-F was flight demonstrated onboard GSFC's EO-1 spacecraft flying in formation with Landsat-7.

Bristow, John; Folta, Dave; Hawkins, Al; Dell, Greg

2004-01-01

372

Agency Autonomization in Korea: Some Issues in Cross-polity Transfer of Agency Autonomization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes some of the issues surrounding South Korea's introduction of autonomous executive agencies as one component of its new public management (NPM) reform. Particular emphasis is given to some problems and critiques surrounding implementation. The research defines the concept of autonomous public agencies, explains why South Korea's government embraced the concept, and analyzes some critiques of its deployment.

Dong-Young Rhee; Hindy Lauer Schachter

2010-01-01

373

Autonomous Intersection Management for Semi-Autonomous Vehicles Tsz-Chiu Au  

E-print Network

of this trend and allows autonomous intersections to handle a traffic mixture with different types of vehicles directions simultaneously. Our experiments show that this protocol can greatly decrease traffic delay when most vehicles are semi-autonomous. Our incremental deployment study reveals that traffic delay keeps

Stone, Peter

374

A Mission Controller for High Level Control of Autonomous and SemiAutonomous Underwater Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the development of a new mission controller to provide high-level control for autonomous and semi-autonomous vehicle operation. The mission controller is capable of: (a) the continuous monitor, detection and response to vehicle subsystem status, (b) the detection and response to the availability of a tethered (fiber optic) or untethered (acoustic) telemetry link, and (c) the ability to

Stephen C. Martin; L. L. Whitcomb; D. Yoerger; H. Singh

2006-01-01

375

Robotic and Human-Tended Collaborative Drilling Automation for Subsurface Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future in-situ lunar/martian resource utilization and characterization, as well as the scientific search for life on Mars, will require access to the subsurface and hence drilling. Drilling on Earth is hard - an art form more than an engineering discipline. Human operators listen and feel drill string vibrations coming from kilometers underground. Abundant mass and energy make it possible for terrestrial drilling to employ brute-force approaches to failure recovery and system performance issues. Space drilling will require intelligent and autonomous systems for robotic exploration and to support human exploration. Eventual in-situ resource utilization will require deep drilling with probable human-tended operation of large-bore drills, but initial lunar subsurface exploration and near-term ISRU will be accomplished with lightweight, rover-deployable or standalone drills capable of penetrating a few tens of meters in depth. These lightweight exploration drills have a direct counterpart in terrestrial prospecting and ore-body location, and will be designed to operate either human-tended or automated. NASA and industry now are acquiring experience in developing and building low-mass automated planetary prototype drills to design and build a pre-flight lunar prototype targeted for 2011-12 flight opportunities. A successful system will include development of drilling hardware, and automated control software to operate it safely and effectively. This includes control of the drilling hardware, state estimation of both the hardware and the lithography being drilled and state of the hole, and potentially planning and scheduling software suitable for uncertain situations such as drilling. Given that Humans on the Moon or Mars are unlikely to be able to spend protracted EVA periods at a drill site, both human-tended and robotic access to planetary subsurfaces will require some degree of standalone, autonomous drilling capability. Human-robotic coordination will be important, either between a robotic drill and humans on Earth, or a human-tended drill and its visiting crew. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) is a current project that studies and simulates the remote science operations between an automated drill in Spain and a distant, distributed human science team. The Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project, by contrast: is developing and testing standalone automation at a lunar/martian impact crater analog site in Arctic Canada. The drill hardware in both projects is a hardened, evolved version of the Advanced Deep Drill (ADD) developed by Honeybee Robotics for the Mars Subsurface Program. The current ADD is capable of 20m, and the DAME project is developing diagnostic and executive software for hands-off surface operations of the evolved version of this drill. The current drill automation architecture being developed by NASA and tested in 2004-06 at analog sites in the Arctic and Spain will add downhole diagnosis of different strata, bit wear detection, and dynamic replanning capabilities when unexpected failures or drilling conditions are discovered in conjunction with simulated mission operations and remote science planning. The most important determinant of future 1unar and martian drilling automation and staffing requirements will be the actual performance of automated prototype drilling hardware systems in field trials in simulated mission operations. It is difficult to accurately predict the level of automation and human interaction that will be needed for a lunar-deployed drill without first having extensive experience with the robotic control of prototype drill systems under realistic analog field conditions. Drill-specific failure modes and software design flaws will become most apparent at this stage. DAME will develop and test drill automation software and hardware under stressful operating conditions during several planned field campaigns. Initial results from summer 2004 tests show seven identifi distinct failure modes of the drill: cuttings-removal issues with low-power drilling into permaf

Glass, Brian; Cannon, Howard; Stoker, Carol; Davis, Kiel

2005-01-01

376

Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction: diagnosis and prognosis.  

PubMed

The symptoms of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction may be subtle and occur late in the course of diabetes. They include abnormal exercise-induced cardiovascular performance, postural hypotension, and cardiac denervation syndrome. Autonomic nervous system testing involves an evaluation of the responses of complex reflex pathways. Some of the most commonly used and validated cardiovascular autonomic tests are RR-variation, the Valsalva manoeuvre, and postural testing. Sinus arrhythmia during breathing is termed RR-variation. In diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy the magnitude of the RR-variation is decreased. Abnormal exercise-induced cardiovascular performance has been observed in diabetic subjects with abnormal RR-variation due to autonomic neuropathy. The Valsalva manoeuvre consists of forced expiration against a standardized resistance for a specified period of time. The reflex bradycardia that follows the Valsalva period in normal subjects is lacking in diabetic patients with clinical evidence of autonomic neuropathy. Postural hypotension in diabetics may be due to neuropathy or to a variety of secondary causes. An algorithm is presented to facilitate assessment of diabetic patients with postural symptoms. Treatment of postural hypotension should be directed primarily to the correction of secondary causes, in the absence of which the symptoms can be controlled by mechanical measures, plasma volume expansion, and vasoconstriction. Cardiac denervation syndrome may result in denervation supersensitivity and afferent (pain) nerve dysfunction. The RR-variation is a sensitive indicator of impairment of cardiac autonomic innervation and is a simple method for identifying asymptomatic patients at risk for painless ischaemia. Formal cardiovascular stress testing may be prudent before initiating an exercise programme in such individuals. PMID:1825967

Broadstone, V L; Roy, T; Self, M; Pfeifer, M A

1991-01-01

377

Autonomic Involvement in Subacute and Chronic Immune-Mediated Neuropathies  

PubMed Central

Autonomic function can be impaired in many disorders in which sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric arms of the autonomic nervous system are affected. Signs and symptoms of autonomic involvement are related to impairment of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, urogenital, thermoregulatory, sudomotor, and pupillomotor autonomic functions. Availability of noninvasive, sensitive, and reproducible tests can help to recognize these disorders and to better understand specific mechanisms of some, potentially treatable, immune-mediated autonomic neuropathies. This paper describes autonomic involvement in immune-mediated neuropathies with a subacute or chronic course. PMID:23853716

Mazzeo, Anna; Stancanelli, Claudia; Vita, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

378

RADIOIODINE GEOCHEMISTRY IN THE SRS SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT  

SciTech Connect

Iodine-129 is one of the key risk drivers for several Savannah River Site (SRS) performance assessments (PA), including that for the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility in E-Area. In an effort to reduce the uncertainty associated with the conceptual model and the input values used in PA, several studies have recently been conducted dealing with radioiodine geochemistry at the SRS. The objective of this report was to review these recent studies and evaluate their implications on SRS PA calculations. For the first time, these studies measured iodine speciation in SRS groundwater and provided technical justification for assuming the presence of more strongly sorbing species (iodate and organo-iodine), and measured greater iodine sediment sorption when experiments included these newly identified species; specifically they measured greater sorption coefficients (K{sub d} values: the concentration ratio of iodine on the solid phase divided by the concentration in the aqueous phase). Based on these recent studies, new best estimates were proposed for future PA calculations. The new K{sub d} values are greater than previous recommended values. These proposed K{sub d} values reflect a better understanding of iodine geochemistry in the SRS subsurface environment, which permits reducing the associated conservatism included in the original estimates to account for uncertainty. Among the key contributing discoveries supporting the contention that the K{sub d} values should be increased are that: 1) not only iodide (I{sup -}), but also the more strongly sorbing iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}) species exists in SRS groundwater (average total iodine = 15% iodide, 42% iodate, and 43% organoiodine), 2) when iodine was added as iodate, the measured K{sub d} values were 2 to 6 times greater than when the iodine was added as iodide, and perhaps most importantly, 3) higher desorption (10 to 20 mL/g) than (ad)sorption (all previous studies) K{sub d} values were measured. The implications of this latter point is that the iodine desorption process would be appreciably slower than the (ad)sorption process, and as such would control the rate (and the PA K{sub d} value) that iodine sorbed to and therefore migrated through the subsurface sediment. High desorption K{sub d} values would result in the “effective K{sub d}” for a reactive transport model being closer to the desorption K{sub d} value (the rate limiting value) than the (ad)sorption K{sub d} value. In summary, our understanding of {sup 129}I geochemistry has greatly improved, reducing the uncertainty associated with the PA’s conceptual model, thereby permitting us to reduce the conservatism presently incorporated in PA input values to describe {sup 129}I fate and transport in the SRS subsurface environment.

Kaplan, D.; Emerson, H.; Powell, B.; Roberts, K.; Zhang, S.; Xu, C.; Schwer, K.; Li, H.; Ho, Y.; Denham, M.; Yeager, C.; Santschi, P.

2013-05-16

379

Compact Autonomous Hemispheric Vision System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar System Exploration camera implementations to date have involved either single cameras with wide field-of-view (FOV) and consequently coarser spatial resolution, cameras on a movable mast, or single cameras necessitating rotation of the host vehicle to afford visibility outside a relatively narrow FOV. These cameras require detailed commanding from the ground or separate onboard computers to operate properly, and are incapable of making decisions based on image content that control pointing and downlink strategy. For color, a filter wheel having selectable positions was often added, which added moving parts, size, mass, power, and reduced reliability. A system was developed based on a general-purpose miniature visible-light camera using advanced CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) imager technology. The baseline camera has a 92 FOV and six cameras are arranged in an angled-up carousel fashion, with FOV overlaps such that the system has a 360 FOV (azimuth). A seventh camera, also with a FOV of 92 , is installed normal to the plane of the other 6 cameras giving the system a > 90 FOV in elevation and completing the hemispheric vision system. A central unit houses the common electronics box (CEB) controlling the system (power conversion, data processing, memory, and control software). Stereo is achieved by adding a second system on a baseline, and color is achieved by stacking two more systems (for a total of three, each system equipped with its own filter.) Two connectors on the bottom of the CEB provide a connection to a carrier (rover, spacecraft, balloon, etc.) for telemetry, commands, and power. This system has no moving parts. The system's onboard software (SW) supports autonomous operations such as pattern recognition and tracking.

Pingree, Paula J.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Walch, Marc J.; Staehle, Robert L.

2012-01-01

380

Mars Subsurface Exploration Using Schumann Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a planetary environment, an electrically conductive ionosphere and ground create a spherical electromagnetic cavity. In this cavity, extremely low frequency (ELF, 3-3000 Hz) electromagnetic waves are weakly attenuated and can propagate around the globe producing global resonance. The extremely low frequency waves are generated by electrical discharges in planetary atmospheres. We have developed an analytical method that enables taking into account not only the electrical properties of the Martian ionosphere but also the Martian ground. This method allowed us to obtain the Schumann resonance frequencies and Q factors and analyze how they depend on the Martian environmental properties. We compared the results from our analytical model with previously published results from numerical modeling. In this work, we show that the Martian ground has a significant influence on the Schumann resonance parameters. Therefore, Schumann resonance can be used us a tool to study, not only the properties of the Martian atmosphere, but also the properties of the subsurface layers. It can be particularly useful in groundwater exploration. In order to study the influence of water on the Schumann resonance parameters on Mars, we assumed two cases of the Martian ground containing aquifers. In both cases, we considered the upper part of the Martian crust composed of porous basaltic rocks containing ice. Beneath this layer, we implemented water-bearing basalts. We assumed that ice and water contains some NaCl impurities or solutions. In the first case, we considered the low concentration of salts in ice and low-salinity water. In the second case, we assumed some high-impurity ice and brines. In order to compare the results of the above-mentioned cases with a situation in which the subsurface of Mars does not contain any water, we introduced the model of the Martian crust composed only of dry basaltic rocks. There are clear differences in the Schumann resonance parameters for the different cases of the Martian ground. The Schumann resonance frequencies are higher by about 15% in the cases with aquifers compared to the pure basaltic ground. The amplitudes of Schumann resonance are also higher by about 40%. For all the analyzed cases, we have calculated and presented the spectra of the Schumann resonance. Our new method used to obtain the Schumann resonance parameters on Mars can be applied also to other objects in the Solar System. Acknowledgements. This work has been supported by the National Science Centre grants: 2012/04/M/ST10/00565 and 2013/09/N/ST9/02200

Kozakiewicz, Joanna; Kulak, Andrzej; Mlynarczyk, Janusz

2014-05-01

381

Re-Defining the Subsurface Biosphere: Characterization of Fungal Populations from Energy Limited Deep Marine Subsurface Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection and characterization of metabolically active fungal populations within the deep marine subsurface will alter current ecosystem models that are limited to bacterial and archaeal populations. Although marine fungi have been studied for over fifty years, a detailed description of fungal populations within the deep subsurface is lacking. Fungi possess metabolic pathways capable of utilizing previously considered non-bioavailable energy reserves. Therefore, metabolically active fungi would occupy a unique niche within subsurface ecosystems, with the potential to provide an organic carbon source for heterotrophic prokaryotic populations not currently being considered in subsurface energy budgets. Sediments from the South Pacific Gyre subsurface, one of the most energy-limited environments on Earth, were collected during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 329. Anaerobic and aerobic sediment slurry cultures using fresh sediment began directly following the completion of the Expedition (December 2010). From these cultures, multiple fungal lineages have been isolated on several media types that vary in carbon concentrations. Physical growth parameters of these subsurface fungal isolates were determined and compared to previously characterized lineages. Additionally, the overall diversity of metabolically active and dormant fungal populations was determined using high throughput sequencing of nucleic acids extracted from in situ cryopreserved South Pacific Gyre sediments. This project provides a robust step in determining the importance and impact of fungal populations within the marine subsurface biosphere.

Reese, B. K.; Ariza, M.; St. Peter, C.; Hoffman, C.; Edwards, K. J.; Mills, H. J.

2012-12-01

382

Geomicrobiology of extremely acidic subsurface environments.  

PubMed

Extreme acidophiles (microorganisms with pH optima of < 3) can colonize and exploit subterranean environments, such as abandoned metal sulfide mines, that have the potential for developing widespread or isolated pockets of acidity. Although acidophiles can utilize a wide range of electron donors, inorganic materials (reduced sulfur, ferrous iron, and possibly hydrogen) are often the most abundant sources of energy for acidophiles in the subsurface. The diversity and interactions of acidophilic microbial communities in two abandoned sulfide mineral mines (in Iron Mountain, California, and the Harz mountains in Germany) and a sulfidic cave (Frasissi, Italy) are reviewed. In addition, the contrasting geomicrobiology of two abandoned sulfide mineral mines in north Wales is described. Both are extremely acidic (pH~2) and low-temperature (8-9 °C) sites, but one (Cae Coch) is essentially a dry mine with isolated pockets of water, while the other (Mynydd Parys) contains a vast underground lake that was partially drained several years ago. The microbial communities in these two mines exhibit different relative abundances and often different species of archaea and bacteria. Wooden pit props, submerged in the underground lake, act as a slow-release source of organic carbon in the subterranean Mynydd Parys lake, supporting a microbial community that is more enriched with heterotrophic microorganisms. PMID:22224750

Johnson, David Barrie

2012-07-01

383

Evidence for a subsurface ocean on Europa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-based spectroscopy of Jupiter's moon Europa, combined with gravity data, suggests that the satellite has an icy crust roughly 150 km thick and a rocky interior. In addition, images obtained by the Voyager spacecraft revealed that Europa's surface is crossed by numerous intersecting ridges and dark bands (called lineae) and is sparsely cratered, indicating that the terrain is probably significantly younger than that of Ganymede and Callisto. It has been suggested that Europa's thin outer ice shell might be separated from the moon's silicate interior by a liquid water layer, delayed or prevented from freezing by tidal heating; in this model, the lineae could be explained by repetitive tidal deformation of the outer ice shell. However, observational confirmation of a subsurface ocean was largely frustrated by the low resolution (>2 km per pixel) of the Voyager images. Here we present high-resolution (54 m per pixel) Galileo spacecraft images of Europa, in which we find evidence for mobile 'icebergs'. The detailed morphology of the terrain strongly supports the presence of liquid water at shallow depths below the surface, either today or at some time in the past. Moreover, lower- resolution observations of much larger regions suggest that the phenomena reported here are widespread.

Carr, M.H.; Belton, M.J.S.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Geissler, P.; Greenberg, R.; McEwen, A.S.; Tufts, B.R.; Greeley, R.; Sullivan, R.; Head, J.W.; Pappalardo, R.T.; Klaasen, K.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Kaufman, J.; Senske, D.; Moore, J.; Neukum, G.; Schubert, G.; Burns, J.A.; Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.

1998-01-01

384

Shh-mediated degradation of Hhip allows cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous Shh signaling  

PubMed Central

The distribution of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is a highly regulated and critical process for development. Several negative feedback mechanisms are in place, including the Shh-induced upregulation of Hedgehog interacting protein (Hhip). Hhip sequesters Shh, leading to a non-cell autonomous inhibition of the pathway. Hhip over-expression has a severe effect on neural tube development, raising the question why normal sites of Hhip expression have a seemingly unimpaired response to Shh. Here we show that while Hhip is able to leave its sites of synthesis to inhibit Shh non-cell autonomously, activation of Smoothened (Smo) drastically increases Hhip internalization and degradation cell autonomously. Although Hhip is unable to cell autonomously inhibit the consequences of Smo activation, it can inhibit the Shh response non-cell autonomously. Our data provide a mechanism by which the Shh ligand can activate the response and negate cell autonomous effects of Hhip, while Hhip can still induce non-cell autonomous inhibition. PMID:25215859

Kwong, Lina; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Roelink, Henk

2014-01-01

385

Draper Laboratory small autonomous aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. and students from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston University have cooperated to develop an autonomous aerial vehicle that won the 1996 International Aerial Robotics Competition. This paper describes the approach, system architecture and subsystem designs for the entry. This entry represents a combination of many technology areas: navigation, guidance, control, vision processing, human factors, packaging, power, real-time software, and others. The aerial vehicle, an autonomous helicopter, performs navigation and control functions using multiple sensors: differential GPS, inertial measurement unit, sonar altimeter, and a flux compass. The aerial transmits video imagery to the ground. A ground based vision processor converts the image data into target position and classification estimates. The system was designed, built, and flown in less than one year and has provided many lessons about autonomous vehicle systems, several of which are discussed. In an appendix, our current research in augmenting the navigation system with vision- based estimates is presented.

DeBitetto, Paul A.; Johnson, Eric N.; Bosse, Michael C.; Trott, Christian A.

1997-06-01

386

Functional organization of autonomic neural pathways  

PubMed Central

There is now abundant functional and anatomical evidence that autonomic motor pathways represent a highly organized output of the central nervous system. Simplistic notions of antagonistic all-or-none activation of sympathetic or parasympathetic pathways are clearly wrong. Sympathetic or parasympathetic pathways to specific target tissues generally can be activated tonically or phasically, depending on current physiological requirements. For example, at rest, many sympathetic pathways are tonically active, such as those limiting blood flow to the skin, inhibiting gastrointestinal tract motility and secretion, or allowing continence in the urinary bladder. Phasic parasympathetic activity can be seen in lacrimation, salivation or urination. Activity in autonomic motor pathways can be modulated by diverse sensory inputs, including the visual, auditory and vestibular systems, in addition to various functional populations of visceral afferents. Identifying the central pathways responsible for coordinated autonomic activity has made considerable progress, but much more needs to be done. PMID:23872517

Gibbins, Ian

2013-01-01

387

Autonomous Deep-Space Optical Navigation Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project will advance the Autonomous Deep-space navigation capability applied to Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) system by testing it on hardware, particularly in a flight processor, with a goal of limited testing in the Integrated Power, Avionics and Software (IPAS) with the ARCM (Asteroid Retrieval Crewed Mission) DRO (Distant Retrograde Orbit) Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) scenario. The technology, which will be harnessed, is called 'optical flow', also known as 'visual odometry'. It is being matured in the automotive and SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) applications but has yet to be applied to spacecraft navigation. In light of the tremendous potential of this technique, we believe that NASA needs to design a optical navigation architecture that will use this technique. It is flexible enough to be applicable to navigating around planetary bodies, such as asteroids.

D'Souza, Christopher

2014-01-01

388

[Cardiovascular autonomic regulation following orthoptic heart transplantation].  

PubMed

Numerous recent observations have indicated autonomic reinnervation of transplanted human hearts. In order to assess autonomic regulation 5 patients were studied 1 to 5 years following cardiac transplantation. A series of tests were performed, including blood pressure and ECG recordings on rest, during 15/min patterned breathing, isometric handgrip exercise, and Valsalva manoeuvre. The time domain indices (SDRR, pNN50, rMSSD) and the frequency domain indices of heart rate variability were also studied. Among the five patients under study only one exhibited features compatible with both sympathetic and parasympathetic reinnervation. Traditional autonomic reflex tests and the analysis of time and frequency domain indices of HRV serve as simple tool in primary assessment of cardiac reinnervation. PMID:9846063

Török, T; Petrohai, A; Merkely, B; Kardos, A; Gingl, Z; Rudas, L; Bodor, E

1998-11-22

389

Pupillary signs in diabetic autonomic neuropathy.  

PubMed Central

Pupillary function was investigated in 36 insulin-dependent diabetics and 36 controls matched for age and sex. About half of the diabetics had evidence of peripheral somatic or autonomic neuropathy, or both. The diabetic patients had abnormally small pupil diameters in the dark and less fluctuation in pupil size (hippus) during continuous illumination than the controls. They also had reduced reflex responses to light flashes of an intensity adjusted for individual retinal sensitivities. The pupillary findings were compared with results of five tests of cardiovascular function and five tests of peripheral sensory and motor nerve function. Almost all the patients with autonomic neuropathy had pupillary signs, which we therefore conclude are a common manifestation of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. PMID:709128

Smith, S E; Smith, S A; Brown, P M; Fox, C; Sönksen, P H

1978-01-01

390

Automated Negotiations Among Autonomous Agents In Negotiation Hrishikesh J. Goradia  

E-print Network

Automated Negotiations Among Autonomous Agents In Negotiation Networks by Hrishikesh J. Goradia's computing environment. These systems typically comprise of many autonomous components that interact- interest of the components they represent (their owners), and make decisions that maximize the expected

Vidal, Jose M.

391

Robust distributed planning strategies for autonomous multi-agent teams  

E-print Network

The increased use of autonomous robotic agents, such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and ground rovers, for complex missions has motivated the development of autonomous task allocation and planning methods that ensure ...

Ponda, Sameera S

2012-01-01

392

Service Oriented Approach for Autonomous Exception Management in Supply Chains  

E-print Network

Service Oriented Approach for Autonomous Exception Management in Supply Chains Armando Business Process to support Autonomous Exception Management in Supply chains. Keywords: Supply Chain and consequently this triggers a rescheduling task. Current Supply Chain Management Systems lack of systematic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

393

Laser range and bearing finder for autonomous missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has recently re-confirmed their interest in autonomous systems as an enabling technology for future missions. In order for autonomous missions to be possible, highly-capable relative sensor systems are needed to determine an object\\

Stephen R. Granade

2005-01-01

394

Decentralized planning for autonomous agents cooperating in complex missions  

E-print Network

Planning for autonomous vehicles remains an important and challenging research topic. This thesis focuses on decentralized planning for autonomous agents performing complex missions. These types of missions often involve ...

Whitten, Andrew (Andrew Koo)

2010-01-01

395

Experiments in Competence Acquisition for Autonomous Mobile Robots   

E-print Network

This thesis addresses the problem of intelligent control of autonomous mobile robots, particularly under circumstances unforeseen by the designer.As the range of applications for autonomous robots widens and increasingly includes operation...

Nehmzow, Ulrich

396

Interception algorithm for autonomous vehicles with imperfect information  

E-print Network

Autonomous vehicles often operate in environments with imperfect information. This thesis addresses the case of a system of autonomous vehicles and sensors attempting to intercept a moving object of interest that arrives ...

Hickman, Randal E

2005-01-01

397

Systems/Circuits The Autonomic Brain: An Activation Likelihood Estimation  

E-print Network

Systems/Circuits The Autonomic Brain: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis for Central, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129 The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is of paramount importance for daily life. Its regulatory action on respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive

Napadow, Vitaly

398

Installing a Subsurface Drip Irrigation System for Row Crops  

E-print Network

This publication describes the components of a subsurface drip irrigation system and the procedure for installing such a system. Each step is outlined and illustrated. Steps include tape injection, trenching, connecting drip lines, back...

Enciso, Juan

2004-09-07

399

SAMPLING FOR ORGANIC CHEMICALS AND MICROORGANISMS IN THE SUBSURFACE  

EPA Science Inventory

Procedures currently used by the Ground Water Research Branch of the Environmental Protection Agency for sampling for organic pollutants and microorganisms in ground waters and subsurface earth solids are presented. Technology is described for construction of wells capable of pro...

400

High Sensitivity Subsurface Elemental Composition Measurements with PING  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Probing In situ with Neutrons and Gamma rays (PING) instrument, with its PNG and gamma and neutron spectrometers, is a promising technology for measuring the bulk elemental composition of the subsurface of any rocky body in the solar system.

Parsons, A. M.; Bodnarik, J. G.; Evans, L. G.; McClanahan, T. P.; Namkung, M.; Nowicki, S. F.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Starr, R. D.; Trombka, J. I.

2012-10-01

401

SOME CONCEPTS PERTAINING TO INVESTIGATIVE METHODOLOGY FOR SUBSURFACE PROCESS RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Problems of investigative methodology comprise a critical and often preponderant element of research to delineate and quantitate processes which govern the transport and fate of pollutants in subsurface environments. Examination of several recent research studies illustrates that...

402

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE TECHNOLOGY OF SUBSURFACE WASTEWATER INJECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

An introduction to the design, construction, operation, and abandonment of subsurface wastewater injection systems is presented. Local geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the injection and confining intervals are considered along with the physical, chemical, and biological...

403

A hydrogen-based subsurface microbial community dominated by methanogens  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The search for extraterrestrial life may be facilitated if ecosystems can be found on Earth that exist under conditions analogous to those present on other planets or moons. It has been proposed, on the basis of geochemical and thermodynamic considerations, that geologically derived hydrogen might support subsurface microbial communities on Mars and Europa in which methanogens form the base of the ecosystem1-5. Here we describe a unique subsurface microbial community in which hydrogen-consuming, methane-producing Archaea far outnumber the Bacteria. More than 90% of the 16s ribosomal DNA sequences recovered from hydrothermal waters circulating through deeply buried igneous rocks in Idaho are related to hydrogen-using methanogenic microorganisms. Geochemical characterization indicates that geothermal hydrogen, not organic carbon, is the primary energy source for this methanogen-dominated microbial community. These results demonstrate that hydrogen-based methanogenic communities do occur in Earth's subsurface, providing an analogue for possible subsurface microbial ecosystems on other planets.

Chapelle, F.H.; O'Neill, K.; Bradley, P.M.; Methe, B.A.; Ciufo, S.A.; Knobel, L.L.; Lovley, D.R.

2002-01-01

404

Subsurface Characterization To Support Evaluation Of Radionuclide Transport And Attenuation  

EPA Science Inventory

Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attenuation) within the subsurface. In gene...

405

Subsurface conductive isolation of refraction correlative magnetic signals (SCIRCMS)  

E-print Network

Isolation of terrestrially-observed magnetic signals by restoring their diffusive loss due to subsurface electrical conductivity sufficiently correlates these signals with those derived from the Alfven ionospheric electron movement of refraction...

Erck, Eric Stephenson

2004-11-15

406

View of a subsurface Concrete Vault (Feature 9), looking westsouthwest ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of a subsurface Concrete Vault (Feature 9), looking west-southwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

407

SUBSURFACE VOLATIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (SVVS) - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the findings associated with a Demonstration Test of Environmental Improvement Technologies? (EIT) Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS) process. The technology was evaluated under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) ...

408

Laboratory simulation of subsurface airflow beneath a building  

E-print Network

Vapor intrusion is the vapor-phase migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings due to subsurface soil or groundwater contamination. Oxygen replenishment rates beneath a building are significant for ...

Corsello, Joseph William

2014-01-01

409

A hydrogen-based subsurface microbial community dominated by methanogens.  

PubMed

The search for extraterrestrial life may be facilitated if ecosystems can be found on Earth that exist under conditions analogous to those present on other planets or moons. It has been proposed, on the basis of geochemical and thermodynamic considerations, that geologically derived hydrogen might support subsurface microbial communities on Mars and Europa in which methanogens form the base of the ecosystem. Here we describe a unique subsurface microbial community in which hydrogen-consuming, methane-producing Archaea far outnumber the Bacteria. More than 90% of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequences recovered from hydrothermal waters circulating through deeply buried igneous rocks in Idaho are related to hydrogen-using methanogenic microorganisms. Geochemical characterization indicates that geothermal hydrogen, not organic carbon, is the primary energy source for this methanogen-dominated microbial community. These results demonstrate that hydrogen-based methanogenic communities do occur in Earth's subsurface, providing an analogue for possible subsurface microbial ecosystems on other planets. PMID:11797006

Chapelle, Francis H; O'Neill, Kathleen; Bradley, Paul M; Methé, Barbara A; Ciufo, Stacy A; Knobel, LeRoy L; Lovley, Derek R

2002-01-17

410

Autonomous Environment-Monitoring Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomous environment-monitoring networks (AEMNs) are artificial neural networks that are specialized for recognizing familiarity and, conversely, novelty. Like a biological neural network, an AEMN receives a constant stream of inputs. For purposes of computational implementation, the inputs are vector representations of the information of interest. As long as the most recent input vector is similar to the previous input vectors, no action is taken. Action is taken only when a novel vector is encountered. Whether a given input vector is regarded as novel depends on the previous vectors; hence, the same input vector could be regarded as familiar or novel, depending on the context of previous input vectors. AEMNs have been proposed as means to enable exploratory robots on remote planets to recognize novel features that could merit closer scientific attention. AEMNs could also be useful for processing data from medical instrumentation for automated monitoring or diagnosis. The primary substructure of an AEMN is called a spindle. In its simplest form, a spindle consists of a central vector (C), a scalar (r), and algorithms for changing C and r. The vector C is constructed from all the vectors in a given continuous stream of inputs, such that it is minimally distant from those vectors. The scalar r is the distance between C and the most remote vector in the same set. The construction of a spindle involves four vital parameters: setup size, spindle-population size, and the radii of two novelty boundaries. The setup size is the number of vectors that are taken into account before computing C. The spindle-population size is the total number of input vectors used in constructing the spindle counting both those that arrive before and those that arrive after the computation of C. The novelty-boundary radii are distances from C that partition the neighborhood around C into three concentric regions (see Figure 1). During construction of the spindle, the changing spindle radius is denoted by h. It is the final value of h, reached before beginning construction on the next spindle, that is denoted by r. During construction of a spindle, if a new vector falls between C and the inner boundary, the vector is regarded as completely familiar and no action is taken. If the new vector falls into the region between the inner and outer boundaries, it is considered unusual enough to warrant the adjustment of C and r by use of the aforementioned algorithms, but not unusual enough to be considered novel. If a vector falls outside the outer boundary, it is considered novel, in which case one of several appropriate responses could be initiation of construction of a new spindle.

Hand, Charles

2004-01-01

411

A power autonomous monopedal robot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design and initial results of a power-autonomous planar monopedal robot. The robot is a gasoline powered, two degree of freedom robot that runs in a circle, constrained by a boom. The robot uses hydraulic Series Elastic Actuators, force-controllable actuators which provide high force fidelity, moderate bandwidth, and low impedance. The actuators are mounted in the body of the robot, with cable drives transmitting power to the hip and knee joints of the leg. A two-stroke, gasoline engine drives a constant displacement pump which pressurizes an accumulator. Absolute position and spring deflection of each of the Series Elastic Actuators are measured using linear encoders. The spring deflection is translated into force output and compared to desired force in a closed loop force-control algorithm implemented in software. The output signal of each force controller drives high performance servo valves which control flow to each of the pistons of the actuators. In designing the robot, we used a simulation-based iterative design approach. Preliminary estimates of the robot's physical parameters were based on past experience and used to create a physically realistic simulation model of the robot. Next, a control algorithm was implemented in simulation to produce planar hopping. Using the joint power requirements and range of motions from simulation, we worked backward specifying pulley diameter, piston diameter and stroke, hydraulic pressure and flow, servo valve flow and bandwidth, gear pump flow, and engine power requirements. Components that meet or exceed these specifications were chosen and integrated into the robot design. Using CAD software, we calculated the physical parameters of the robot design, replaced the original estimates with the CAD estimates, and produced new joint power requirements. We iterated on this process, resulting in a design which was prototyped and tested. The Monopod currently runs at approximately 1.2 m/s with the weight of all the power generating components, but powered from an off-board pump. On a test stand, the eventual on-board power system generates enough pressure and flow to meet the requirements of these runs and we are currently integrating the power system into the real robot. When operated from an off-board system without carrying the weight of the power generating components, the robot currently runs at approximately 2.25 m/s. Ongoing work is focused on integrating the power system into the robot, improving the control algorithm, and investigating methods for improving efficiency.

Krupp, Benjamin T.; Pratt, Jerry E.

2006-05-01

412

Monitoring the greater San Pedro Bay region using autonomous underwater gliders during fall of 2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glider surveys of the greater San Pedro Bay region in the Southern California Bight during the fall of 2006 demonstrated the utility of autonomous underwater gliders in a coastal region with complex flow and significant anthropogenic inputs. Three Spray gliders repeatedly surveyed between Santa Catalina Island and the coast of Southern California collecting profiles of temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll fluorescence and estimates of vertically averaged currents. These observations provided context for shelf transport studies during the Huntington Beach 2006 experiment and showed the transition from summer to winter conditions. Vertically averaged currents were predominantly poleward following topography with horizontal scales of approximately 20 km. The gliders surveyed a small cyclonic eddy near Santa Catalina Island and provided a unique view of the structure of the eddy. Nitrate concentration within the euphotic zone was estimated to be 19% greater within the eddy and led to significantly elevated chlorophyll concentrations at the subsurface maximum. Glider observations of salinity reliably detected the distinctly fresh signature of the effluent plume from an ocean outfall near Huntington Beach, California. The salinity anomaly caused by the plume was used to track the spread of the plume as it was advected poleward and away from the coast while remaining subsurface.

Todd, Robert E.; Rudnick, Daniel L.; Davis, Russ E.

2009-06-01

413

MARSIS and SHARAD Data Recovery for Subsurface Features Estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary scientific objectives that can be accomplished by orbiting Ground Penetrating Radars like the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) and the Shallow Radar (SHARAD) are the surface characterization and the subsurface geological probing in search of waters reservoirs, both liquid and solid in the upper portion of the crust. The subsurface geological probing requires the estimation of the subsurface dielectric constant via a data inversion approach. More clearly, the data inversion process is the estimation of the dielectric constant of the material composing the different detected interfaces including any impurity within the host material of each layer and its percentage. Geologists will then select the proper materials according to the estimated dielectric constants. In the backscattered signal are simultaneously present the material feature and the geometric contribution. Therefore, it is necessary to study the scattering behavior of the surface/subsurface, related to its characteristics (flat or rough). This implies, in particular, the selection of the backscattering model among Physical Optics, Geometrical Optics and Fractal Models. MARSIS and SHARAD also have a Doppler Beam Sharpening capability to reduce the clutter coming from the topographic features not immediately below the radar. From the available data (frames) it is possible to measure the surface echo power Ps, the subsurface echo power Pss, and the relevant time delay ??. Assuming the surface reflectivity known it is possible, using a multi-frequency approach, to estimate the crust attenuation and the values of the dielectric constant for the various subsurface interfaces prior detected in products such as frames and radargrams. The selection of stationary regions is a primary task in order to find clustered areas with uniform attenuation and similar subsurface features. In particular, several stationary areas have been identified by MARSIS on the Mars South Pole. The proposed procedure is a fully automatic technique that can be applied over stationary areas.

Picardi, Giovanni; Cassenti, Francesco; Masdea, Arturo; Mastrogiuseppe, Marco; Restano, Marco; Seu, Roberto

2013-04-01

414

A VSP transformation technique for the determination of subsurface structure  

E-print Network

A VSP TRANSFORMATION TECHNIQUE FOR THE DETERMINATION OF SUBSURFACE STRUCTURE A Thesis by JEFFREY EDWARD MALLOY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1985 Major Subject: Geophysics A VSP TRANSFORMATION TECHNIQUE FOR THE DETERMINATION OF SUBSURFACE STRUCTURE A Thesis JEFFREY EDWARD MALLOY Approved as to style and content by: Terry W. pencer (Ch rman) Nichele Caputo (Nember...

Malloy, Jeffrey Edward

1985-01-01

415

Monitoring the subsurface with quasi-static deformation  

SciTech Connect

This project consisted of three sub-projects that are all aimed at monitoring the subsurface with geophysical methods. The objectives of these sub-projects are: to investigate the use of seismic waves for remote monitoring of temperature changes in the Yucca Mountain nuclear repository; to investigate the use of measured changes in the tidal tilt as a diagnostic for the infiltration of fluids in the subsurface; and to extract the electrostatic response from dynamic field fluctuations.

Sneider, Roel; Spetzler, Hartmut

2013-09-06

416

[Management of autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease].  

PubMed

Autonomic dysfunction is a common manifestation in patients with in Parkinson's disease, which can sometimes precede motor impairment. It can be expressed as orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, supine hypertension, hypersalivation, constipation, delayed gastric emptying, dyshidrosis, bladder and sexual dysfunction. It impairs the quality of life of patients and complicates the management of motor symptoms. Evidence available to treat complications is low. Our aim is to review the pathophysiology and clinical features of autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease and provide a practical approach to handling the available evidence. PMID:25857860

Crespo-Burillo, J A; Alarcia-Alejos, R

2015-04-16

417

Design of an autonomous exterior security robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the requirements and preliminary design of robotic vehicle designed for performing autonomous exterior perimeter security patrols around warehouse areas, ammunition supply depots, and industrial parks for the U.S. Department of Defense. The preliminary design allows for the operation of up to eight vehicles in a six kilometer by six kilometer zone with autonomous navigation and obstacle avoidance. In addition to detection of crawling intruders at 100 meters, the system must perform real-time inventory checking and database comparisons using a microwave tags system.

Myers, Scott D.

1994-01-01

418

Forebrain organization for autonomic cardiovascular control.  

PubMed

This brief review discusses the current state of knowledge regarding the cortical circuitry associated with autonomic cardiovascular responses to volitional exercise in conscious humans. Studies to date have emphasized the autonomic nervous system adjustments that occur through top-down central command features as well as bottom-up signals arising from skeletal muscle. While in its infancy, the pattern of cortical circuitry associated with exercise seem to depend on the nature of the exercise but with common patterns arising in the insula cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus. PMID:25458433

Shoemaker, J Kevin; Norton, Katelyn N; Baker, J; Luchyshyn, T

2015-03-01

419

Autonomous operations through onboard artificial intelligence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat 21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2006. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight environment will open up tremendous new opportunities in planetary science, space physics, and earth science that would be unreachable without this technology.

Sherwood, R. L.; Chien, S.; Castano, R.; Rabideau, G.

2002-01-01

420

Planning and Execution for an Autonomous Aerobot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aerial Onboard Autonomous Science Investigation System (AerOASIS) system provides autonomous planning and execution capabilities for aerial vehicles (see figure). The system is capable of generating high-quality operations plans that integrate observation requests from ground planning teams, as well as opportunistic science events detected onboard the vehicle while respecting mission and resource constraints. AerOASIS allows an airborne planetary exploration vehicle to summarize and prioritize the most scientifically relevant data; identify and select high-value science sites for additional investigation; and dynamically plan, schedule, and monitor the various science activities being performed, even during extended communications blackout periods with Earth.

Gaines, Daniel M.; Estlin, Tara A.; Schaffer, Steven R.; Chouinard, Caroline M.

2010-01-01

421

Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the work towards technology that will result in an autonomous landing on the lunar surface, that will avoid the hazards of lunar landing. In October 2005, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters assigned the development of new technologies to support the return to the moon. One of these was Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology now known as ALHAT ALHAT is a lunar descent and landing GNC technology development project led by Johnson Space Center (JSC) with team members from Langley Research Center (LaRC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Draper Laboratories (CSDL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL)

Epp, Chirold

2007-01-01

422

NEURON: enabling autonomicity in wireless sensor networks.  

PubMed

Future Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) will be ubiquitous, large-scale networks interconnected with the existing IP infrastructure. Autonomic functionalities have to be designed in order to reduce the complexity of their operation and management, and support the dissemination of knowledge within a WSN. In this paper a novel protocol for energy efficient deployment, clustering and routing in WSNs is proposed that focuses on the incorporation of autonomic functionalities in the existing approaches. The design of the protocol facilitates the design of innovative applications and services that are based on overlay topologies created through cooperation among the sensor nodes. PMID:22399931

Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Gouvas, Panagiotis; Liakopoulos, Athanassios; Mentzas, Gregoris; Mitrou, Nikolas

2010-01-01

423

Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical models of system components have long been used to allow simulators to predict system behavior to various stimuli. Recent efforts to monitor, diagnose, and control real-time systems using component models have experienced similar success. NASA Kennedy is continuing the development of a tool for implementing real-time knowledge-based diagnostic and control systems called KATE (Knowledge based Autonomous Test Engineer). KATE is a model-based reasoning shell designed to provide autonomous control, monitoring, fault detection, and diagnostics for complex engineering systems by applying its reasoning techniques to an exchangeable quantitative model describing the structure and function of the various system components and their systemic behavior.

Parrish, Carrie L.; Brown, Barbara L.

1991-01-01

424

Autonomous scheduling technology for Earth orbital missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a dynamic autonomous system (DYASS) of resources for the mission support of near-Earth NASA spacecraft is discussed and the current NASA space data system is described from a functional perspective. The future (late 80's and early 90's) NASA space data system is discussed. The DYASS concept, the autonomous process control, and the NASA space data system are introduced. Scheduling and related disciplines are surveyed. DYASS as a scheduling problem is also discussed. Artificial intelligence and knowledge representation is considered as well as the NUDGE system and the I-Space system.

Srivastava, S.

1982-01-01

425

NEURON: Enabling Autonomicity in Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Future Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) will be ubiquitous, large-scale networks interconnected with the existing IP infrastructure. Autonomic functionalities have to be designed in order to reduce the complexity of their operation and management, and support the dissemination of knowledge within a WSN. In this paper a novel protocol for energy efficient deployment, clustering and routing in WSNs is proposed that focuses on the incorporation of autonomic functionalities in the existing approaches. The design of the protocol facilitates the design of innovative applications and services that are based on overlay topologies created through cooperation among the sensor nodes. PMID:22399931

Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Gouvas, Panagiotis; Liakopoulos, Athanassios; Mentzas, Gregoris; Mitrou, Nikolas

2010-01-01

426

Lessons Learned from Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Autonomous Science Agent has been flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft since 2003. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and responds to science events occurring on the Earth such as volcanoes, flooding, and snow melt. The package includes AI-based software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. This software is in routine use to fly the EO-l mission. In this paper we briefly review the agent architecture and discuss lessons learned from this multi-year flight effort pertinent to deployment of software agents to critical applications.

Chien, Steve A.; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Boyer, Darrell; Hayden, Sandra; Sweet, Adam; Christa, Scott

2005-01-01

427

Why Computer-Based Systems Should be Autonomic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this paper is to discuss why computer-based systems should be autonomic, where autonomicity implies self-managing, often conceptualized in terms of being self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing, self-protecting and self-aware. We look at motivations for autonomicity, examine how more and more systems are exhibiting autonomic behavior, and finally look at future directions.

Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

2005-01-01

428

Ocean subsurface studies with the CALIPSO spaceborne lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission is to study the climate impact of clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere. However, recent studies have demonstrated that CALIPSO also collects information about the ocean subsurface. The objective of this study is to estimate the ocean subsurface backscatter from CALIPSO lidar measurements. The effects of the lidar receiver's transient response on the attenuated backscatter were first removed in order to obtain the correct attenuated backscatter profile. The empirical relationship between sea surface lidar backscatter and wind speed was used to estimate the theoretical ocean surface backscatter. Then the two-way atmospheric transmittance was estimated as the ratio between the corrected ocean surface backscatter and the theoretical one. The ocean subsurface backscatter was finally derived from the subsurface attenuated backscatter divided by the two-way atmospheric transmittance. Significant relationships between integrated subsurface backscatter and chlorophyll-a concentration and between integrated subsurface backscatter and particulate organic carbon were found, which indicate a potential use of CALIPSO lidar to estimate global chlorophyll-a and particulate organic carbon concentrations.

Lu, Xiaomei; Hu, Yongxiang; Trepte, Charles; Zeng, Shan; Churnside, James H.

2014-07-01

429

Control of Construction Vibrations with an Autonomous Crack Comparometer  

E-print Network

(s) Long-term and Vibration Displacement Neighbors/Owners/ Regulators Server Autonomously Produces WWWControl of Construction Vibrations with an Autonomous Crack Comparometer Charles H. Dowding-induced cracking has led to development of a new approach to vibration monitoring, an autonomous crack comparometer

430

Chronic cervical spinal cord injury and autonomic hyperreflexia in rats  

E-print Network

Chronic cervical spinal cord injury and autonomic hyperreflexia in rats JOHN W. OSBORN, ROBERT F cervical spinal cord injury and autonomic hyperreflexia in rats. Am. J. Physiol. 258(Regulatory Integra spinal cord injury are proneto acute, marked,hypertensive episodes,i.e., autonomic hyperreflexia

Schramm, Lawrence P.

431

Visualizing Internet Evolution on the Autonomous Systems Level  

E-print Network

Visualizing Internet Evolution on the Autonomous Systems Level Krists Boitmanis , Ulrik Brandes Internet topology on the autonomous-systems (AS) level. To the best of our knowledge, there are no dynamic and Related Work An autonomous system, or AS for short, is a group of computer networks typ- ically under

Brandes, Ulrik

432

Visualizing Internet Evolution on the Autonomous Systems Level  

E-print Network

Visualizing Internet Evolution on the Autonomous Systems Level Krists Boitmanis , Ulrik Brandes on the autonomous systems level over time. 1 Introduction Visualization of large evolving relational data sets Internet topology on the autonomous-systems (AS) level. To the best of our knowledge, there are no dynamic

Reiterer, Harald

433

Distributed Task Plan: A Model for Designing Autonomous Mobile Agents  

E-print Network

Distributed Task Plan: A Model for Designing Autonomous Mobile Agents Wei Li Department present DTP (Distributed Task Plan), a model to depict distributed tasks for executions by mobile agents. DTP is composed of autonomous primitives and can generate the autonomous workflow when a mobile agent

Zhang, Minjie

434

Autonomous Control of Production Networks using a Pheromone Approach  

E-print Network

Autonomous Control of Production Networks using a Pheromone Approach D. Armbruster 1 , C. de Beer 2 network with an autonomously controlled flow of parts based on backward propagated information (pheromone concept). Key words: Production Networks, Autonomous Control, Pheromones, DES Models, Fluid Models 1

Ringhofer, Christian

435

Multifunctional Intelligent Autonomous Parking Controllers for Carlike Mobile Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of carlike mobile robot (CLMR) studies have addressed the issues of autonomous parking and obstacle avoidance. An autonomous parking controller can provide convenience to a novice driver. However, if the controller is not designed adequately, it may endanger the car and the driver. Therefore, this paper presents a novel multifunctional intelligent autonomous parking controller that is capable

Tzuu-Hseng S. Li; Ying-Chieh Yeh; Jyun-Da Wu; Ming-Ying Hsiao; Chih-Yang Chen

2010-01-01

436

Technical Note Brain correlates of autonomic modulation: Combining heart rate  

E-print Network

Technical Note Brain correlates of autonomic modulation: Combining heart rate variability with f-gated fMRI timeseries with continuous- time heart rate variability (HRV) to estimate central autonomic pro reserved. Keywords: HF; HRV; Cardiovagal; Exercise; Handgrip Introduction The autonomic nervous system (ANS

Napadow, Vitaly

437

Autonomic Neurotransmission: 60 Years Since Sir Henry Dale  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early twentieth century, Sir Henry Dale and others described brilliant studies of autonomic neurotransmission utilizing acetylcholine and nora- drenaline. However, within the past 60 years, new discoveries have changed our understanding of the organization of the autonomic nervous system, including the structure and function of the nonsynaptic autonomic neu- roeffector junction, the multiplicity of neurotransmitters, cotransmission, neuromodulation, dual

Geoffrey Burnstock

2009-01-01

438

TOWARDS MULTIMODAL OMNIDIRECTIONAL OBSTACLE DETECTION FOR AUTONOMOUS UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES  

E-print Network

TOWARDS MULTIMODAL OMNIDIRECTIONAL OBSTACLE DETECTION FOR AUTONOMOUS UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES Dirk, droeschel, schreiber, behnke}@ais.uni-bonn.de KEY WORDS: Autonomous UAVs, Multimodal Sensor Setup, 3D Laser propose a hardware setup and processing pipeline that allows a fully autonomous UAV to perceive obstacles

Behnke, Sven

439

An adaptive location strategy of underwater autonomous robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Location system is a key technique of autonomous robot. The location system of a underwater autonomous robot is studied in this paper The robot can move in mud according to the prearranged trajectory. It is used to dig the hole in the mud underwater to place the wire rope for elevating the sunken wreck The location system of the autonomous

Qingmei Yang; Jianmin Sun

2008-01-01

440

AUTONOMOUS BEHAVIOR-BASED EXPLORATION OF OFFICE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-print Network

, Germany {d schmi, luksch, wettach, berns}@informatik.uni-kl.de Keywords: Mobile robots, autonomous, it has been used to develop completely autonomous exploration strategies for deriving topological to guide the robot autonomously through priori unknown environments only based on 2D distance information

Berns, Karsten

441

The autonomic nervous system and Dretske on phenomenal consciousness  

E-print Network

1 The autonomic nervous system and Dretske on phenomenal consciousness Dan Ryder1 and C.B. Martin2, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) ought to be conscious - but of course it's not. In this paper, we'll describe a counterexample - the autonomic nervous system - which shows at least that representationalists have a lot of work

Ryder, Dan

442

RESEARCH Open Access Autonomous exoskeleton reduces metabolic cost  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Autonomous exoskeleton reduces metabolic cost of human walking during load. In this study, the design and testing of an autonomous leg exoskeleton is presented. The aim of the device developed exoskeletons. Methods: We developed an autonomous battery powered exoskeleton that is capable

Herr, Hugh

443

Subsurface Chloride Transport in Shallow Groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High soil spatial heterogeneity was identified at the USDA-ARS Beltsville OPE3 field site using geophysical surveys (ground-penetrating radar) and soil textural analysis. It was confirmed with data on crop yields and pesticide concentrations in wells. To assess effects of soil heterogeneity on soil hydrological regime, four locations with different soil texture were selected at a 13 x 14 m field plot. The locations were instrumented with Multisensor Capacitance Probes (MCPs, SENTEK) and tensiometers to measure soil water content and matric potential at depths from 10 to 100 cm with the 10-cm increment, and wells to monitor groundwater depth. Standard meteorological data were measured in the vicinity of the plot. The soil water and weather monitoring was conducted with 15-min frequency at the locations for two years. Results of the monitoring revealed differences in the hydrological regime in four locations. Soil water contents at depths of 10 and 30 cm were consistently higher at the location 3 compared to other locations; consistently low water contents were observed at depths of 60 and 70 cm at the location 2. Groundwater at the location 2 was consistently deeper during wet periods and shallower during dry periods than at other locations. Decrease in the groundwater depth was generally faster at the locations 3 and 4, than at locations 1 and 2. The tracer experiment followed the monitoring study to evaluate the effect of differences in hydrological regimes on the solute transport in the vadose zone and groundwater. A pulse of the KCl solution was applied with irrigation water from a rainfall simulator on the monitoring plot. After that, the plot was irrigated every 8 hours for 4 months at the rate of 2 cm/d. Five additional locations at the distance of 7 m and three locations at the distance of 14 m downslope from the irrigated plot were equipped with MCPs and observation wells to monitor soil water content and to sample groundwater at three depths (1.1 m, 1.4 m, and 1.7 m). The wells were designed to prevent the tracer mixing within them. Similar wells were installed at four locations at the irrigated plot. Chloride concentrations were measured in the groundwater samples twice a day during the first month and once a day during three subsequent months. Runoff from the irrigation events was captured, measured, and sampled for Cl. The area around the irrigated plot was kept at natural conditions. Results of the tracer experiment indicated that both matrix and preferential flow processes affected Cl transport. The fast increase followed by the fast decrease in groundwater Cl content was observed at locations 1 and 4, while changes in Cl content were relatively slow at locations 2 and 3. Chloride concentrations in groundwater at the not irrigated area was different at different depths and locations, and was affected by the rainfall water and by the subsurface lateral groundwater flow. The degree of mixing and dilution after rainfalls varied among wells according to a definite spatial trend. The arrival time of the Cl differed between wells and depths, and was from seventy to one hundred days at the 7-m distance from the irrigated plot. The dispersion of Cl inferred from the breakthrough concentrations was different for each spatial location. Vertical concentration profiles were not monotonous, and inversions of Cl concentrations were observed in some wells. Some of the observed differences in the Cl breakthrough between the observation wells could be interpreted using the ground penetration radar data and the borehole data that revealed substantial variability of the subsurface texture and structure.

Guber, A. K.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Gish, T. J.; Nicholson, T. J.; Cady, R. E.; Daughtry, C. T. S.; Rowland, R. A.; McKee, L. G.; White, W. A.

2009-04-01

444

Magnetotelluric Sensor Development for Planetary Subsurface Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic (EM) Sounding is a powerful geophysical investigation technique capable of constraining planetary subsurface structure, including core size, mantle and crustal temperature profiles, and the distribution of electrical conductivity at depth. Natural sources of EM activity, including solar wind turbulence and plasma waves, can induce electric and magnetic fields in the Moon and other small bodies. These induced fields respond according to the electrical conductivity as a function of skin depth of the body in question. In a branch of EM Sounding known as Magnetotellurics (MT), measurements of the horizontal electric and magnetic fields at the planetary surface are inverted to produce constraints on the interior. MT is particularly worthwhile in that geophysically meaningful results can be obtained from a single station, thus avoiding network mission architectures. While surface magnetic field measurements were taken on the Moon during the Apollo era, to date no measurements of the surface horizontal electric field have been attempted. However electric field measurements on the lunar surface should be feasible given their long successful history on spacecraft missions in similar environments. Building upon the heritage of electric field sensor technology at the UC Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory, we describe a development plan for this instrument from component level to a fully functional instrument assembly for use in EM sounding, highlighting operational requirements, science capabilities, required testing, anticipated results and challenges to overcome. Upon development, this lander electric field sensor will enable future MT surveys on the Moon, and will provide a new exploration method for other small airless bodies from a single station.

Fuqua, H.; Delory, G. T.; De Pater, I.; Grimm, R. E.

2012-12-01

445

Paracetamol removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryIn this study two pilot scale Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands (HSFCWs) near Lecce, Italy, planted with different macrophytes ( Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia) and an unplanted control were assessed for their effectiveness in removing paracetamol. Residence time distributions (RTDs) for the two beds indicated that the Typha bed was characterized by a void volume fraction (porosity) of 0.16 and exhibited more ideal plug flow behavior (Pe = 29.7) than the Phragmites bed (Pe = 26.7), which had similar porosity. The measured hydraulic residence times in the planted beds were 35.8 and 36.7 h when the flow was equal to 1 m 3/d. The Phragmites bed exhibited a range of paracetamol removals from 51.7% for a Hydraulic Loading Rate (HLR) of 240 mm/d to 87% with 120 mm/d HLR and 99.9% with 30 mm/d. The Typha bed showed a similar behavior with percentages of removal slightly lower, ranging from 46.7% (HLR of 240 mm/d) to >99.9% (hydraulic loading rate of 30 mm/d). At the same HLR values the unplanted bed removed between 51.3% and 97.6% of the paracetamol. In all three treatments the paracetamol removal was higher with flow of 1 m 3/d and an area of approx. 7.5 m 2 (half bed) than in the case of flow equal to 0.5 m 3/d with a surface treatment of approx. 3.75 m 2. A first order model for paracetamol removal was evaluated and half lives of 5.16 to 10.2 h were obtained.

Ranieri, Ezio; Verlicchi, Paola; Young, Thomas M.

2011-07-01

446

S. Pellissier et al. Psychological and autonomic dysfunctions in IBD and IBS Psychological adjustment and autonomic disturbances in inflammatory  

E-print Network

S. Pellissier et al. Psychological and autonomic dysfunctions in IBD and IBS 1 Psychological: Psychological and autonomic dysfunctions in IBD and IBS * Corresponding author at E-mail address: : Clinique.psyneuen.2009.10.004 #12;S. Pellissier et al. Psychological and autonomic dysfunctions in IBD and IBS 2 Summary

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

447

Designing for MFOP: towards the autonomous aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

BAe Airbus has studied the application of the maintenance free operating period (MFOP) concept to Airbus aircraft in order to meet a growing demand for autonomous operation. This concept can apply to both civil and military aircraft and, most recently, has resulted in Airbus Military Company including the MFOP as part of its formal proposal for a new military transport

Paul F. Cini; Paul Griffith

1999-01-01

448

Securing Security Policies in Autonomic Computing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protecting valuable enterprise assets, such as data, computer systems, and networks is becoming increasingly complex especially in autonomic computing systems due to their reduced reliance on human intervention and verification, and increased reliance on the ability of the system to make business or strategic decisions. This naturally makes the system extremely vulnerable to security breaches and malicious attacks. Successfully mitigating

Ghassan Jabbour; Daniel A. Menascé

2008-01-01

449

Autonomous parking carrier for intelligent vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider a parking method for autonomous vehicle in an underground car park. The implemented method is decomposed into three tasks. Starting from configuration given by the vehicle owner, the first one is the motion control of the vehicle from his residence to the car park. After joining the underground car park thanks to the implementation of

E. Seignez; A. Lambert; T. Maurin

2005-01-01

450

Integrating the autonomous subsystems management process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ways in which the ranking of the Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution testbed may be achieved and an individual subsystem's internal priorities may be managed within the complete system are examined. The application of these results in the integration and performance leveling of the autonomously managed system is discussed.

Ashworth, Barry R.

1992-01-01

451

Autonomous target following by unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an algorithm for the autonomous navigation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) following a moving target. The UAV in consideration is a fixed wing aircraft that has physical constraints on airspeed and maneuverability. The target however is not considered to be constrained and can move in any general pattern. We show a single circular pattern

S Khan; K Shafiq; M Shah

2006-01-01

452

Autonomous mission management for unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an on-board architecture designed to enable an unmanned aerial vehicle to carry out an observation mission autonomously. The management performed by the architecture relates to the objectives of the mission. The response time to an external event does not need to be strictly defined; the architecture behaves like a soft real-time system. The mission of the vehicle

Magali Barbier; Elodie Chanthery

2004-01-01

453

A Voice Command System for Autonomous Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

How to promote students' interest is very important in undergraduate engineering education. One of the techniques for achieving this is to select appropriate projects and to integrate them with regular courses. In this paper, a voice recognition system for autonomous robots is proposed as a project to educate students about microprocessors efficiently. The proposed system consists of a microprocessor and

Soon-Hyuk Hong; Jae Wook Jeon

2001-01-01

454

FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL FOR AN AUTONOMOUS ROBOT  

E-print Network

to control the robot's motion along the predefined path. The robot was first modeled in Matlab SimulinkFUZZY LOGIC CONTROL FOR AN AUTONOMOUS ROBOT Vamsi Mohan Peri Dan Simon Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Cleveland State University Cleveland

Simon, Dan

455

A Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on microencapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of existing microcapsulation designs, the corrosion controlled release function that triggers the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand, only when and where needed. Microencapsulation of self-healing agents for autonomous repair of mechanical damage to the coating is also being pursued. Corrosion indicators, corrosion inhibitors, as well as self-healing agents, have been encapsulated and dispersed into several paint systems to test the corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing properties of the coating. Key words: Corrosion, coating, autonomous corrosion control, corrosion indication, corrosion inhibition, self-healing coating, smart coating, multifunctional coating, microencapsulation.

Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott t.

2011-01-01

456

Tardigrada of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively little is known of the Tardigrada fauna of China, and there are no previous tardigrade records for Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China's largest administrative division. Moss specimens of the Missouri Botanical Garden Herbarium (St. Louis, U.S.A.) were used as a source of tardigrades from this region. Of the 270 moss specimens sampled, 78 yielded tardigrades. Species found were Bryodelphax

Clark W. BEASLEY; William R. MILLER

457

Robotany : autonomous vehicles that care for houseplants  

E-print Network

Robotany is a system of autonomous robots that act on behalf of houseplants that rest on top of their chassis. Their duty is to do what plants would if they had the gift of mobility - namely to seek out sunlight or water ...

Cinnamon, Sara Elizabeth, 1979-

2004-01-01

458

Autonomous Rovers for Human Exploration of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Autonomous rovers are a critical element for the success of human exploration of Mars The robotic tasks required for human presence on Mars are beyond the ability of current rovers; these tasks include landing - site scouting and mining, as well as emplacement and maintenance of a habitat, fuel production facility, and power generator These tasks are required before

David E. Smith; Gregory A. Dorais; John Bresina; Keith Golden; Richard Washington

1998-01-01

459

AUTONOMOUS BURIED PIPE DETECTION USING NEURAL NETWORKS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An autonomous pipe detection algorithm using two independent Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) in two dimensional GPR data has been developed. And a pipe orientation estimation method has been discussed. The first neural network, called step-l ANN, was trained with a waveform reflected from a pipe in...

460

Perception through Scattering Media for Autonomous Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perception of the environment is a fundamental task for autonomous robots. Unfortunately, the performances of the vision systems are drastically altered in presence of bad weather, especially fog. Indeed, due to the scattering of light by atmospheric particles, the quality of the light signal is reduced, compared to what it is in clean air. Detecting and quantifying these degradations,

Nicolas Hautière; Raphaël Labayrade; Clément Boussard; Jean-Philippe Tarel; Didier Aubert

2008-01-01

461

Autonomous Soaring: The Montague Cross Country Challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method was developed for locating and allowing gliders to stay in thermals (convective updrafts). The method was applied to a 5 kg, glider, called ALOFT (autonomous locator of thermals), that was entered in the 2008 Montague Cross-Country Challenge held on 13-15 June 2008 in Montague, California. In this competition, RC (remote controlled) gliders in the 5 kg class competed on the basis of speed and distance. ALOFT was the first known autonomously soaring aircraft to enter a soaring competition and its entry provided a valuable comparison between the effectiveness of manual soaring and autonomous soaring. ALOFT placed third in the competition in overall points, outperforming manually-flown aircraft in its ability to center and utilize updrafts, especially at higher altitudes and in the presence of wind, to fly more optimal airspeeds, and to fly directly between turn points. The results confirm that autonomous soaring is a bona fide engineering sub-discipline, which is expected to be of interest to engineers who might find this has some utility in the aviation industry.

Edwards, Daniel J.

462

Autonomous biomorphic robots as platforms for sensors  

SciTech Connect

The idea of building autonomous robots that can carry out complex and nonrepetitive tasks is an old one, so far unrealized in any meaningful hardware. Tilden has shown recently that there are simple, processor-free solutions to building autonomous mobile machines that continuously adapt to unknown and hostile environments, are designed primarily to survive, and are extremely resistant to damage. These devices use smart mechanics and simple (low component count) electronic neuron control structures having the functionality of biological organisms from simple invertebrates to sophisticated members of the insect and crab family. These devices are paradigms for the development of autonomous machines that can carry out directed goals. The machine then becomes a robust survivalist platform that can carry sensors or instruments. These autonomous roving machines, now in an early stage of development (several proof-of-concept prototype walkers have been built), can be developed so that they are inexpensive, robust, and versatile carriers for a variety of instrument packages. Applications are immediate and many, in areas as diverse as prosthetics, medicine, space, construction, nanoscience, defense, remote sensing, environmental cleanup, and biotechnology.

Tilden, M.; Hasslacher, B.; Mainieri, R.; Moses, J.

1996-10-01

463

Autonomous proximity awareness of Bluetooth devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on designing autonomous device discovery algorithms for Bluetooth networks. We first extend the conventional asymmetric Bluetooth link model to three point-to-point symmetric link models. Their performances are compared analytically. To achieve proximity awareness among a group of Bluetooth devices, three control information exchanging methods are also proposed. Combining with the three link models, this gives 9 possible

Changlei Liu; Kwan L. Yeung

2005-01-01

464

Autonomic dysfunction in a Jack Russell terrier  

PubMed Central

A 4-year-old Jack Russell terrier was presented with an array of clinical signs suggestive of autonomic dysfunction. Many of the clinical signs were consistent with a diagnosis of dysautonomia; however, both chronicity and resolution of signs contradicted a diagnosis of this disease. PMID:21629424

Caines, Deanne; Pinard, Chantale L.; Kruth, Stephen; Orr, Jeremy; James, Fiona

2011-01-01

465

Archeology through Swarms of Autonomous Vehicles  

E-print Network

and document underwater artifacts and wreckage with archaeological and ethno-anthropological value. In particular, specially designed Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) will be used to systematically explore the sea floor in a cooperative way, by collecting and analyzing in real time heterogeneous

M. Dellepiane; F. Niccolucci; S. Pena Serna; H. Rushmeier; L. Van Gool (editors

466

Electrically actuated thrusters for autonomous underwater vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is to present the design, development and prototyping of an electrically actuated thruster as a direct drive propulsion system based on a 3-phase permanent magnet brushless machine for an autonomous underwater vehicle. The non-linear design and analysis of the permanent magnet brushless motor are entirely performed in 2-d finite element method. The motor is then coupled directly to

D. Ishak; N. A. A. Manap; M. S. Ahmad; M. R. Arshad

2010-01-01

467

Formation control of weak autonomous robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation of autonomous mobile robots to an arbitrary geometric pattern in a distributed fashion is a fundamental problem in formation control. This paper presents a new fully distributed, memoryless (oblivious) algorithm to the formation control problem via distributed optimization techniques. The optimization minimizes an appropriately defined difference function between the current robot distribution and target geometric pattern. The optimization processes

Huan Zhang; Pubudu N. Pathirana

2011-01-01

468

Learning Qualitative Models by an Autonomous Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a qualitative exploration strat- egy for an autonomous robot that learns by experimen- tation. Particularly, we describe a domain in which a mobile robot observes a ball and learns qualitative pre- diction models from its actions and observation data. At all times it uses these models to predict the results of the actions that it

Ashok C Mohan

469

Stochastic Strategies for Autonomous Robotic Surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider a team of autonomous mobile robotic agents engaged in a surveillance mission. It is desirable not to have the agents move in a predictable fashion so no intruder or invader can plan their movements to avoid the surveillance agents. This paper investigates the use of stochastic rules to guide the motions of the agents throughout

Jeremy Grace; John Baillieul

2005-01-01

470

Cooperative search algorithm for distributed autonomous robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a cooperative random search algorithm for distributed independent autonomous robots. Our focus is to develop a distributed algorithm for a team of simple robots searching for targets in an unknown environment The search algorithm consists of five simple behavioral rules for each robot. It is implemented in both simulation and physical robots. The results we obtained demonstrated

Chee Kong Cheng; Gerard Leng

2004-01-01

471

Control algorithms for autonomous robot navigation  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines control algorithm requirements for autonomous robot navigation outside laboratory environments. Three aspects of navigation are considered: navigation control in explored terrain, environment interactions with robot sensors, and navigation control in unanticipated situations. Major navigation methods are presented and relevance of traditional human learning theory is discussed. A new navigation technique linking graph theory and incidental learning is introduced.

Jorgensen, C.C.

1985-09-20

472

Adaptive region control for autonomous underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new control concept called adaptive region control, for autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). In this new control concept, the desired objective can be specified as a region instead of a point. The proposed control law does not require any knowledge of the inertia matrix, Coriolis and centripetal force, hydrodynamic damping, and parameters of the gravity

C. C. Cheah; Y. C. Sun

2004-01-01

473

Onboard Locating System Of Autonomous Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new onboard locating system of an autonomous vehicle using signposts put along routes. The locating system estimates location and direction of the vehicle on the basis of the observa- tion of signposts and revolution counts of main wheels. The Kalman filter is employed to estimate the loca- tion and direction of the vehicle on real time

Satoshi MURATA; Takeshi HIROSE

1989-01-01

474

AUTONOMOUS REGULATION OF FREE CA2+ CONCENTRATIONS  

E-print Network

AUTONOMOUS REGULATION OF FREE CA2+ CONCENTRATIONS IN ISOLATED PLANT CELL NUCLEI: A MATHEMATICAL] or nuclei [5-7]. Nuclei are separated from the other cell compartments by a double membrane system and cytosolic calcium may be regulated independently. In nuclei of HepG2 cells, nuclear calcium signals may

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

475

Multisensor navigation system for an autonomous helicopter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) require avionics systems that enable them to maintain a stable attitude and to follow a desired flight path. This paper considers the design and development of such an avionics system that provides navigational and terrain information to the flight computer of a rotorcraft UAV. The process includes the design and testing of flight hardware and

Joerg S. Dittrich; Eric N. Johnson

2002-01-01

476

Onmidirectional vision for an autonomous helicopter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and implementation of an omnidirectionalvision system used for sideways-looking sensingon an autonomous helicopter. To demonstrate the capabilitiesof the system, a visual servoing task was designedwhich required the helicopter to locate and move towardsthe centroid of a number of visual targets. Results are presentedshowing that the task was successfully completedby a Pioneer ground robot equipped with the

Stefan Hrabar; Gaurav S. Sukhatme

2003-01-01

477

Autonomous Helicopter Formation using Model Predictive Control  

E-print Network

Autonomous Helicopter Formation using Model Predictive Control Hoam Chung and S. Shankar Sastry for teams of helicopters. However, the potential for accidents is greatly increased when helicopter teams to the problem of helicopter formations comprised of heterogenous vehicles. The disturbance attenuation property

Sastry, S. Shankar

478

Adaptive Trajectory Control for Autonomous Helicopters  

Microsoft Academic Search

For autonomous helicopter ?ight, it is common to separate the ?ight control problem into an inner loop that controls attitude and an outer loop that controls the translational trajectory of the helicopter. In previous work, dynamic inversion and neural-network-based adaptation was used to increase performance of the attitude control system and the method of pseudocontrol hedging (PCH) was used to

Eric N. Johnson; Suresh K. Kannany

2005-01-01

479

Comparative anatomy of the autonomic nervous system.  

PubMed

This short review aims to point out the general anatomical features of the autonomic nervous systems of non-mammalian vertebrates. In addition it attempts to outline the similarities and also the increased complexity of the autonomic nervous patterns from fish to tetrapods. With the possible exception of the cyclostomes, perhaps the most striking feature of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system is the similarity between the vertebrate classes. An evolution of the complexity of the system can be seen, with the segmental ganglia of elasmobranchs incompletely connected longitudinally, while well developed paired sympathetic chains are present in teleosts and the tetrapods. In some groups the sympathetic chains may be reduced (dipnoans and caecilians), and have yet to be properly described in snakes. Cranial autonomic pathways are present in the oculomotor (III) and vagus (X) nerves of gnathostome fish and the tetrapods, and with the evolution of salivary and lachrymal glands in the tetrapods, also in the facial (VII) and glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves. PMID:20444653

Nilsson, Stefan

2011-11-16

480

Intelligent Planning for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

E-print Network

techniques that will enable Autonomous Un- derwater Vehicles (AUVs) to locate hydrothermal vents on the ocean oor. Hydrothermal vents are superheated outgassings of water found on mid-ocean ridges, hydrothermal vents can be detected from a great distance because they emit a chemical-containing plume

Yao, Xin

481

Intelligent Planning for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

E-print Network

techniques that will enable Autonomous Un- derwater Vehicles (AUVs) to locate hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. Hydrothermal vents are superheated outgassings of water found on mid-ocean ridges oceans, hydrothermal vents can be detected from a great distance because they emit a chemical

Yao, Xin

482

An Autonomous Helicopter with Vision Based Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an autonomous helicopter with vision based navigation called South China University of Technology unmanned aerial vehicle (SCUAV). A GPS\\/INS system has been designed and implemented for getting stable navigation information. A Kalman filtering has been used in this system for data fusion. A real-time computer vision system is presented in this paper as the complement

Pei Luo; Hailong Pei

2007-01-01

483

Simple, Robust Autonomous Grasping in Unstructured Environments  

E-print Network

-fingered hand is driven by a single actuator, yet can grasp objects spanning a wide range of size, shape., Cambridge, MA, USA). A single motor drives all eight joints of the hand Fig. 2. Four-fingered SDM graspingSimple, Robust Autonomous Grasping in Unstructured Environments Aaron M. Dollar, Student Member

Dollar, Aaron M.

484

Experimental results of an autonomous underwater vehicle \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC) has advanced the development of an ocean going autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Technical problem on an AUV is to develop instruments for digital telemetry, highly accurate positioning in the sea and an efficient power source. The AUV in JAMSTEC has digital telemetry, accurate positioning system and high energy density battery. Sea test started

S. Tsukioka; T. Aoki; T. Murashima; H. Yoshida; H. Nakajoh; T. Hyakudome; S. Ishibashi; K. Hirokawa

2003-01-01

485

Negotiation decision functions for autonomous agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a formal model of negotiation between autonomous agents. The purposeof the negotiation is to reach an agreement about the provision of a service byone agent for another. The model defines a range of strategies and tactics that agentscan employ to generate initial offers, evaluate proposals and offer counter proposals.The model is based on computationally tractable assumptions, demonstrated in

Peyman Faratin; Carles Sierra; Nicholas R. Jennings

1998-01-01

486

A fully autonomous microrobotic endoscopy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, design of an autonomous microrobotic endoscopy system is presented. The proposed microrobotic endoscope is a vision-guided device, developed to facilitate navigation inside a human colon. The design of the entire system is divided into three areas viz. design of a microrobotic carrier, path planning and guidance, and an off-board control system. A microrobotic design based on pneumatic

Vijayan K. Asari; Sanjiv Kumar; Irwan M. Kassim

2000-01-01

487

A Prototype of Autonomous Intelligent Surveillance Cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an architecture and an FPGAbased prototype of an autonomous intelligent video surveillance camera. The camera takes the advantage of high resolution of CMOS image sensors and enables instantly automatic pan, tilt and zoom adjustment based upon motion activity. It performs automated scene analysis and provides immediate response to suspicious events by optimizing camera capturing parameters. The video

Wanqing Li; Igor Kharitonenko; Serge Lichman; Chaminda Weerasinghe

2006-01-01

488

Multisensor autonomous tracking for Maritime Surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fusion of multiple monitoring systems is essential to build an accurate recognised traffic picture in support to maritime surveillance. In this paper, a novel approach to perform autonomous data correlation is described, focussing on the alignment of tracks originated by different sensors and technologies into a common spatial and time reference system, and introducing the quality characterisation of the

Michele Vespe; Massimo Sciotti; Giulia Battistello

2008-01-01

489

Control theory for autonomously guided missile platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes an effort to develop analytical and computational techniques for performance evaluation of Autonomously Guided Platforms with Multiple Sensors (AGPMS). A classical analysis of seeker pointing and tracking servomechanism performance for missile guidance problems is developed as a baseline for comparison with theoretical studies of nonlinear stochastic control laws. Stochastic control theory is applied to the AGPMS problem.

J. S. Baras; G. L. Blankenship; H. G. Kwatny

1986-01-01

490

AUTONOMOUS NETWORKED TACTICAL SENTRIES* John B. Bowles  

E-print Network

, Richard W. Tobaben , Sanath Yekollu , and Hareesh Kolpuru Electrical and Computer Engineering Raytheon the array of sensors, coordination and control is distributed with the local processor analyzing the local. The Autonomous Networked Software is an enabling technology for ANTS. It consists of Java-like applets residing

Huhns, Michael N.

491

Longitudinal fuzzy control for autonomous overtaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperati ve maneuver among autonomous and con­ ventional vehicles can be considered one of the next steps for ob­ taining a safer and more comfortable driving. Some examples of these maneuvers are: Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), intelligent intersection management or automatic overtaking maneuvering, among others. One of the most important aims of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) is to use

Joshue Perez; Vicente Milanes; Enrique Onieva; Jorge Godoy; Javier Alonso

2011-01-01

492

Real-time coordination of autonomous vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous vehicles seem to be a promising approach to both reducing traffic congestion and improving road safety. However, for such vehicles to coexist safely, they need to coordinate their behaviour to ensure that they do not collide with each other. This coordination is typically based on (wireless) communication between vehicles and needs to satisfy stringent real-time constraints. However, realtime message

Mélanie Bouroche; Barbara Hughes; Vinny Cahill

2006-01-01

493

Advanced Autonomous Systems for Space Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New missions of exploration and space operations will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Inherently high levels of complexity, cost, and communication distances will preclude the degree of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of not only meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, but simultaneously dramatically reducing the design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health management capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of advanced space operations, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints will limit the current practice of monitoring and controlling missions by a standing army of ground-based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such on-board systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communication` distances as are not otherwise possible, as well as many more efficient and low cost applications. In addition, utilizing component and system modeling and reasoning capabilities, autonomous systems will play an increasing role in ground operations for space missions, where they will both reduce the human workload as well as provide greater levels of monitoring and system safety. This paper will focus specifically on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operations. Topics to be presented will include a brief description of key autonomous control concepts, the Remote Agent program that commanded the Deep Space 1 spacecraft to new levels of system autonomy, recent advances in distributed autonomous system capabilities, and concepts for autonomous vehicle health management systems. A brief description of teaming spacecraft and rovers for complex exploration missions will also be provided. New on-board software for autonomous science data acquisition for planetary exploration will be described, as well as advanced systems for safe planetary landings. A new multi-agent architecture that addresses some of the challenges of autonomous systems will be presented. Autonomous operation of ground systems will also be considered, including software for autonomous in-situ propellant production and management, and closed- loop ecological life support systems (CELSS). Finally, plans and directions for the future will be discussed.

Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Muscettola, N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Clancy, D. J.

2002-01-01

494

Invited review: autonomic dysfunction in peripheral nerve disease.  

PubMed

The autonomic nervous system is affected in most peripheral neuropathies, but only in a small number of conditions, such as diabetes, amyloidosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, porphyria, and familiar dysautonomia, is autonomic dysfunction of clinical importance. The pathological changes in the peripheral autonomic nervous system are similar to those in the peripheral somatic nerves. Autonomic disturbances are most likely to occur when there is acute demyelination or damage to small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers. Autonomic investigations should include tests of both sympathetic and parasympathetic function. Treatment consists of management of the underlying cause of peripheral neuropathy, physical and pharmacological measures. PMID:1310158

McLeod, J G

1992-01-01

495

Apoptosis and Self-Destruct: A Contribution to Autonomic Agents?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomic Computing (AC), a self-managing systems initiative based on the biological metaphor of the autonomic nervous system, is increasingly gaining momentum as the way forward in designing reliable systems. Agent technologies have been identified as a key enabler for engineering autonomicity in systems, both in terms of retrofitting autonomicity into legacy systems and designing new systems. The AC initiative provides an opportunity to consider other biological systems and principles in seeking new design strategies. This paper reports on one such investigation; utilizing the apoptosis metaphor of biological systems to provide a dynamic health indicator signal between autonomic agents.

Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

2004-01-01

496

How does subsurface characterization affect simulations of hyporheic exchange?  

PubMed

We investigated the role of increasingly well-constrained geologic structures in the subsurface (i.e., subsurface architecture) in predicting streambed flux and hyporheic residence time distribution (RTD) for a headwater stream. Five subsurface realizations with increasingly resolved lithological boundaries were simulated in which model geometries were based on increasing information about flow and transport using soil and geologic maps, surface observations, probing to depth to refusal, seismic refraction, electrical resistivity (ER) imaging of subsurface architecture, and time-lapse ER imaging during a solute tracer study. Particle tracking was used to generate RTDs for each model run. We demonstrate how improved characterization of complex lithological boundaries and calibration of porosity and hydraulic conductivity affect model prediction of hyporheic flow and transport. Models using hydraulic conductivity calibrated using transient ER data yield estimates of streambed flux that are three orders of magnitude larger than uncalibrated models using estimated values for hydraulic conductivity based on values published for nearby hillslopes (10(-4) vs. 10(-7) m(2)/s, respectively). Median residence times for uncalibrated and calibrated models are 10(3) and 10(0) h, respectively. Increasingly well-resolved subsurface arch