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1

Autonomous microexplosives subsurface tracing system final report.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the autonomous micro-explosive subsurface tracing system is to image the location and geometry of hydraulically induced fractures in subsurface petroleum reservoirs. This system is based on the insertion of a swarm of autonomous micro-explosive packages during the fracturing process, with subsequent triggering of the energetic material to create an array of micro-seismic sources that can be detected and analyzed using existing seismic receiver arrays and analysis software. The project included investigations of energetic mixtures, triggering systems, package size and shape, and seismic output. Given the current absence of any technology capable of such high resolution mapping of subsurface structures, this technology has the potential for major impact on petroleum industry, which spends approximately $1 billion dollar per year on hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States alone.

Engler, Bruce Phillip; Nogan, John; Melof, Brian Matthew; Uhl, James Eugene; Dulleck, George R., Jr.; Ingram, Brian V.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Rivas, Raul R.; Cooper, Paul W.; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Kravitz, Stanley H.

2004-04-01

2

Microexplosions in Tellurite Glasses  

SciTech Connect

Femtosecond laser pulses were used to initiate microexplosions in baseline, Al2O3-doped, and La2O3-doped sodium tellurite glasses. Single or multiple-shots were used in the experiments. Writing of simple structures (periodic array of voxels as well as lines) was demonstrated. The regions of microexplosion and writing were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) postmortem. Fingerprints of microexplosions, concentric lines within the region and a concentric ring outside the region due to shock wave generated during the microexplosions were evident. In the case of the baseline glass, no chemistry change was observed within the region of microexplosion. But, Al2O3-doped and La2O3-doped glasses showed depletion of the dopant from the edge to the center of the region of microexplosions, indicating chemistry gradient within the regions. Interrogation of the bulk and laser-treated regions using micro-Raman spectroscopy revealed no structural change due the microexplosions and writing within these glasses. These data were attributed to the localization of the effect to small regions due to tightly focused laser pulses used in the experiments.

Sundaram, S. K.; Schaffer, C. B.; Mazur, E.

2003-03-01

3

Coulomb Microexplosions of Ferroelectric Ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Energetic neutral and extreme ultraviolet emission initiated by the dense plasma propagation along a ferroelectric surface has been found. It was shown that the emission of neutrals is characterized by a large divergence and velocities up to 7x10{sup 7} cm/s. This phenomenon is explained by an extremely large electric field with amplitude {>=}10{sup 6} V/cm and rise time {approx}10{sup -10} s which appears at the plasma front due to the fast fall in the driving pulse. This electric field causes microexplosions of the ferroelectric surface due to inertia in the ion polarization response.

Yarmolich, D.; Vekselman, V.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, 32000 Haifa (Israel)

2008-02-22

4

Micro-explosion of compound drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introducing water into spray combustion systems, by either water-in-oil emulsification or supplementary water injection, is one of the major techniques for combustion improvement and NOx reduction. Plentiful researches are available on combustion of water-in-oil emulsion fuel drops. The emulsified liquid is a heterogeneous mixture of immiscible liquids. One component forms the continuous phase and the other component forms the discrete phase. The discrete phase consists of globules of the one fluid that are suspended in the continuous phase fluid. Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly considered for combustion applications because emulsions can result in micro-explosion, thereby reducing the average drop diameter to enhance liquid vaporization, and suppressing the formation of soot and NOx. However, the water addition generally does not exceed about 20% for smooth engine operations[!, 21. The combustion characteristics and micro-explosion of emulsion drop were studied by many researchers. The micro-explosion of water in fuel emulsion drops was caused by very fast growth of superheated water vapor bubbles, its superheat limits must be lower than the boiling point temperature of the fuel. These bubbles were primarily governed by the pressure difference between the superheated vapor and the liquid, and by the inertia imparted to the liquid by the motion of the bubble surface[3 6 In this study, we used a coaxial nozzle to generation the multi-component drop. The different type of water-in-oil fuel drops called the compound drops. Unlike an emulsion drop, a compound drop consists of a water core and a fuel shell, which can originate from the phase separation of emulsion[7, 81 or a water drop colliding with a fuel drop[9, 101 Burning and micro-explosion of compound drops have been found to be distinct from those of emulsion drops[9-111 Wang et al.[9 , 101 studied the combustion characteristics of collision merged alkane-water drops. The merged drops appeared in adhesive and inserted manners. The drop ignition delay time increased with increasing water content. The average burning rate of alkane-water drops decreased with increasing water content. In the burning process, hexadecane-water drops exhibited flash vaporization or flame extinction. Heterogeneous explosion was occasionally observed in drops with trapped air bubbles. The air bubbles were assumed to be the nucleation points of the heterogeneous explosions. Chen and Lin[11 studied the characteristics of water-in-dodecane compound drop with different water content, diameter of drop and environmental oxygen concentration. The vaporization rate increased with increasing environmental oxygen concentration. The compound drops micro-exploded during the burning process in a random way. The number of micro-explosions was majorly influenced by drop diameter, followed by environmental oxygen concentration. Water content had a weaker effect on micro-explosion. As available literature and research results of compound drop burning are scarce, their combustion and micro-explosion behaviors are still poorly understood. In this regard, we changed the drop nature as compound drops to study their combustion characteristics and micro-explosion phenomena.

Chen, Chun-Kuei; Lin, Ta-Hui

2014-08-01

5

Physics of puffing and microexplosion of emulsion fuel droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physics of water-in-oil emulsion droplet microexplosion/puffing has been investigated using high-fidelity interface-capturing simulation. Varying the dispersed-phase (water) sub-droplet size/location and the initiation location of explosive boiling (bubble formation), the droplet breakup processes have been well revealed. The bubble growth leads to local and partial breakup of the parent oil droplet, i.e., puffing. The water sub-droplet size and location determine the after-puffing dynamics. The boiling surface of the water sub-droplet is unstable and evolves further. Finally, the sub-droplet is wrapped by boiled water vapor and detaches itself from the parent oil droplet. When the water sub-droplet is small, the detachment is quick, and the oil droplet breakup is limited. When it is large and initially located toward the parent droplet center, the droplet breakup is more extensive. For microexplosion triggered by the simultaneous growth of multiple separate bubbles, each explosion is local and independent initially, but their mutual interactions occur at a later stage. The degree of breakup can be larger due to interactions among multiple explosions. These findings suggest that controlling microexplosion/puffing is possible in a fuel spray, if the emulsion-fuel blend and the ambient flow conditions such as heating are properly designed. The current study also gives us an insight into modeling the puffing and microexplosion of emulsion droplets and sprays.

Shinjo, J.; Xia, J.; Ganippa, L. C.; Megaritis, A.

2014-10-01

6

Evidence of superdense aluminium synthesized by ultrafast microexplosion  

SciTech Connect

At extreme pressures and temperatures, such as those inside planets and stars, common materials form new dense phases with compacted atomic arrangements and unusual physical properties. The synthesis and study of new phases of matter at pressures above 100 GPa and temperatures above 10{sup 4} K - warm dense matter - may reveal the functional details of planet and star interiors, and may lead to materials with extraordinary properties. Many phases have been predicted theoretically that may be realized once appropriate formation conditions are found. Here we report the synthesis of a superdense stable phase of body-centred-cubic aluminium, predicted by first-principles theories to exist at pressures above 380 GPa. The superdense Al phase was synthesized in the non-equilibrium conditions of an ultrafast laser-induced microexplosion confined inside sapphire ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Confined microexplosions offer a strategy to create and recover high-density polymorphs, and a simple method for tabletop study of warm dense matter.

Vailionis, Arturas; Gamaly, Eugene G.; Mizeikis, Vygantas; Yang, Wenge; Rode, Andrei V.; Juodkazis, Saulius (Swinburne); (Stanford); (CIW); (ANU); (Shinshu-MED)

2011-09-20

7

An Experimental Investigation of Microexplosion in Emulsified Vegetable-Methanol Blend  

E-print Network

the microexplosion point of view using custom made electric furnace equipment with a high speed camera system and an acoustic sensor system. The main goal of this study is to understand the effect of emulsion compositions, chamber temperatures, and droplet sizes...

Nam, Hyungseok

2012-07-16

8

Thermal Imaging of Subsurface Coal Fires by means of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the Autonomous Province Xinjiang, PRC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous combustion of coal and resulting coal fires lead to very high temperatures in the subsurface. To a large amount the heat is transferred to the surface by convective and conductive transport inducing a more or less pronounced thermal anomaly. During the past decade satellite-based infrared-imaging (ASTER, MODIS) was the method of choice for coal fire detection on a local and regional scale. However, the resolution is by far too low for a detailed analysis of single coal fires which is essential prerequisite for corrective measures (i.e. fire fighting) and calculation of carbon dioxide emission based on a complex correlation between energy release and CO2 generation. Consequently, within the framework of the Sino-German research project "Innovative Technologies for Exploration, Extinction and Monitoring of Coal Fires in Northern China", a new concept was developed and successfully tested. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was equipped with a lightweight camera for thermografic (resolution 160 by 120 pixel, dynamic range -20 to 250°C) and for visual imaging. The UAV designed as an octocopter is able to hover at GPS controlled waypoints during predefined flight missions. The application of a UAV has several advantages. Compared to point measurements on the ground the thermal imagery quickly provides the spatial distribution of the temperature anomaly with a much better resolution. Areas otherwise not accessible (due to topography, fire induced cracks, etc.) can easily be investigated. The results of areal surveys on two coal fires in Xinjiang are presented. Georeferenced thermal and visual images were mosaicked together and analyzed. UAV-born data do well compared to temperatures measured directly on the ground and cover large areas in detail. However, measuring surface temperature alone is not sufficient. Simultaneous measurements made at the surface and in roughly 15cm depth proved substantial temperature gradients in the upper soil. Thus the temperature measured at the surface underestimates the energy emitted by the subsurface coal fire. In addition, surface temperature is strongly influenced by solar radiation and the prevailing ambient conditions (wind, temperature, humidity). As a consequence there is no simple correlation between surface and subsurface soil temperature. Efforts have been made to set up a coupled energy transport and energy balance model for the near surface considering thermal conduction, solar irradiation, thermal radiative energy and ambient temperature so far. The model can help to validate space-born and UAV-born thermal imagery and link surface to subsurface temperature but depends on in-situ measurements for input parameter determination and calibration. Results obtained so far strongly necessitate the integration of different data sources (in-situ / remote; point / area; local / medium scale) to obtain a reliable energy release estimation which is then used for coal fire characterization.

Vasterling, Margarete; Schloemer, Stefan; Fischer, Christian; Ehrler, Christoph

2010-05-01

9

Numerical simulation of emulsified fuel spray combustion with puffing and micro-explosion  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to develop numerical simulation of spray combustion of emulsified fuel with considering puffing and micro-explosion. First, a mathematical model for puffing was proposed. In the proposed puffing model, the rate of mass change of a droplet during puffing was expressed by the evaporation rate of dispersed water and the mass change rate due to fine droplets spouted from the droplet surface. The mass change rate due to fine droplets was related to the evaporation rate of the dispersed water and each liquid content. This model had only one experimental parameter. The essential feature of this model was that it was simple to apply to numerical simulation of spray combustion. First, the validity of the proposed puffing model was investigated with the experimental results for a single droplet. The calculated results for a single droplet with the experimental parameter varying from 5.0 to 10 were in good agreement with the experimental results. Moreover, numerical simulation of spray combustion of emulsified fuel was carried out. The occurrence of puffing and micro-explosion was determined by the inner droplet temperature. When micro-explosion occurred, a droplet changed to vapor rapidly. When the proposed puffing model was used in numerical simulation of spray combustion, the experimental parameter in the puffing model was determined for each droplet by random numbers within the range 5.0-10. The calculated results of spray combustion of emulsified fuel without considering puffing or micro-explosions were different from the experimental results even where combustion reactions were almost terminated. Meanwhile, the calculated results when considering puffing and micro-explosions were in good agreement with experimental results at the same location. (author)

Watanabe, Hirotatsu [JSPS Research Fellow, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University 6-6-07 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Matsushita, Yohsuke; Aoki, Hideyuki; Miura, Takatoshi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-07 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2010-05-15

10

Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on structural characterization of void-structures created by a micro-explosion at the locus of a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse inside the crystalline phase of Al2O3 (R3c space group). The transmission electron microscopy (TEM), micro-X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and Raman scattering revealed a presence of strongly structurally modified amorphous regions around the void-structures. We discuss issues of achieving the

Vygantas Mizeikis; Shigeru Kimura; Nikolay V. Surovtsev; Vygandas Jarutis; Akira Saito; Hiroaki Misawa; Saulius Juodkazis

2009-01-01

11

On Heating Large Bright Coronal Loops by Magnetic Microexplosions at their Feet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In previous work, by registering Yohkoh SXT coronal X-ray images with MSFC vector magnetograms, we found that: (1) many of the larger bright coronal loops rooted at one or both ends in an active region are rooted around magnetic islands of included polarity, (2) the core field encasing the neutral line encircling the island is strongly sheared, and (3) this sheared core field is the seat of frequent microflares. This suggests that the coronal heating in these extended bright loops is driven by many small explosive releases of stored magnetic energy from the sheared core field at their feet, some of which magnetic microexplosions also produce the microflare heating in the core fields. In this paper, we show that this scenario is feasible in terms of the energy Abstract: required for the observed coronal heating and the magnetic energy available in the observed sheared core fields. In a representative active region, from the X-ray and vector field data, we estimate the coronal heating consumption by a selected typical large bright loop, the coronal heating consumption by a typical microflare at the foot of this loop, the frequency of microflares at the foot, and the available magnetic energy in the microflaring core field. We find that: (1) the rate of magnetic energy release to power the microflares at the foot (approx. 6 x 10(ext 25)erg/s) is enough to also power the coronal heating in the body of the extended loop (approx. 2 x l0(exp 25 erg/s), and (2) there is enough stored magnetic energy in the sheared core field to sustain the microflaring and extended loop heating for about a day, which is a typical time for buildup of neutral-line magnetic shear in an active region. This work was funded by the Solar Physics Branch of NASA's Office of Space Science through the SR&T Program and the SEC Guest Investigator Program.

Moore, Ronald L; Falconer, D. A.; Porter, Jason G.

1999-01-01

12

Autonomous and Autonomic Swarms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A watershed in systems engineering is represented by the advent of swarm-based systems that accomplish missions through cooperative action by a (large) group of autonomous individuals each having simple capabilities and no global knowledge of the group s objective. Such systems, with individuals capable of surviving in hostile environments, pose unprecedented challenges to system developers. Design and testing and verification at much higher levels will be required, together with the corresponding tools, to bring such systems to fruition. Concepts for possible future NASA space exploration missions include autonomous, autonomic swarms. Engineering swarm-based missions begins with understanding autonomy and autonomicity and how to design, test, and verify systems that have those properties and, simultaneously, the capability to accomplish prescribed mission goals. Formal methods-based technologies, both projected and in development, are described in terms of their potential utility to swarm-based system developers.

Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter F.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Sterritt, Roy

2005-01-01

13

The droplet group microexplosions in water-in-oil emulsion sprays and their effects on diesel engine combustion  

SciTech Connect

To clarify the combustion mechanism of water-in-diesel fuel emulsion sprays and to evaluate the possible benefit of emulsions in practical usage, combustion bomb experiments, dynamic engine tests, and computer simulation were carried out, and some useful conclusions have been reached. The droplet group (lump-fashioned) microexplosions in water-in-diesel fuel emulsion sprays on an eddy-size scale during the atomization, evaporation, and combustion processes in a high-pressure, high-temperature bomb were observed with a multipulsed, off-axis, image-plane, ruby laser holocamera and a high-speed camera. The explosions eject droplet fragments from the spray region to several millimeters away, improving the fuel-air mixing process and speeding up the flame propagation. A no-water layer formed by a Hill vortex was also observed in emulsion droplets. The ambient temperature has the most important influence on the occurrence and violence of the microexplosion. Road-load-simulation engine tests were carried out on a dynamic engine test bed. The experimental results show that emulsion fuels have no significant influence on fuel consumption and reduce engine torque if no adjustment is made for the injection system, but that smoke emission is much improved when emulsion fuel is used. The combustion characteristics and the rate of heat release are also analyzed to reveal the difference between emulsion and diesel fuel. The relationships between the optimum water percentages and fuel consumption under various operating conditions were analyzed by numerical combustion modeling.

Sheng, H.Z.; Chen, L.; Zhang, Z.P.; Wu, C.K. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Mechanics; An, C.; Cheng, C.Q. [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Dept. of Vehicle Engineering

1994-12-31

14

Autonomic neuropathies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A limited autonomic neuropathy may underlie some unusual clinical syndromes, including the postural tachycardia syndrome, pseudo-obstruction syndrome, heat intolerance, and perhaps chronic fatigue syndrome. Antibodies to autonomic structures are common in diabetes, but their specificity is unknown. The presence of autonomic failure worsens prognosis in the diabetic state. Some autonomic neuropathies are treatable. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy may respond to liver transplantation. There are anecdotal reports of acute panautonomic neuropathy responding to intravenous gamma globulin. Orthostatic hypotension may respond to erythropoietin or midodrine.

Low, P. A.

1998-01-01

15

Autonomous Soaring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the autonomous soaring flight of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). It reviews energy sources for UAVs, and two examples of UAV's that used alternative energy sources, and thermal currents for soaring. Examples of flight tests, plans, and results are given. Ultimately, the concept of a UAV harvesting energy from the atmosphere has been shown to be feasible with existing technology.

Lin, Victor P.

2007-01-01

16

Autonomous pedestrians  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the difficult open problem of emulating the rich complexity of real pedestrians in urban environments. Our artificial life approach integrates motor, perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive components within a model of pedestrians as individuals. Our comprehensive model features innovations in these components, as well as in their combination, yielding results of unprecedented fidelity and complexity for fully autonomous multi-human

Wei Shao; Demetri Terzopoulos

2007-01-01

17

Autonomous pedestrians  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the difficult open problem of emulating the rich complexity of real pedestrians in urban environments. Our artificial life approach integrates motor, perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive components within a model of pedestrians as individuals. Our comprehensive model feature innovations in these components, as well as in their combination, yielding results of unprecedented fidelity and complexity for fully autonomous multi-human

Wei Shao; Demetri Terzopoulos

2005-01-01

18

Subsurface Microorganisms: Ecological significance  

SciTech Connect

Terrestrial subsurface environments are inhabited almost exclusively by microorganisms and are in essence 'aphotic' ecosystems. Photosynthesis plays only an indirect role in subsurface microbial ecology, providing reduced organic compounds that can be metabolized by aerobic or anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria. Organic compounds are introduced into the subsurface, in general, via burial of detrital organic matter or as solutes that are transported to the subsurface in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in waters that percolate downward and recharge aquifers. Microbial generation of energy in deep subsurface environments results from biochemical reactions involving the oxidation of reduced compounds and the subsequent transfer of electrons to an adjacent oxidized compound. It is these metabolic processes that have a great impact on microbial ecological interactions in the subsurface and subsequent impacts of microbial metabolism on groundwater geochemistry and geological processes such as diagenesis (1). This article will provide an overview of the sources of energy that drive microbial metabolism in the subsurface and the physical constraints on the presence and function of subsurface microorganisms. The distributions and general characteristics of microorganisms in the subsurface will be examined and critical issues with regards to sampling the subsurface and enumerating associated microorganisms will be discussed. Finally, the extent of the subsurface biosphere on earth will be explored along with how this concept has focused the search for life elsewhere in the solar system to the subsurface of other planetary bodies.

Fredrickson, Jim K.

2003-01-15

19

Autonomous vehicles  

SciTech Connect

There are various kinds of autonomous vehicles (AV`s) which can operate with varying levels of autonomy. This paper is concerned with underwater, ground, and aerial vehicles operating in a fully autonomous (nonteleoperated) mode. Further, this paper deals with AV`s as a special kind of device, rather than full-scale manned vehicles operating unmanned. The distinction is one in which the AV is likely to be designed for autonomous operation rather than being adapted for it as would be the case for manned vehicles. The authors provide a survey of the technological progress that has been made in AV`s, the current research issues and approaches that are continuing that progress, and the applications which motivate this work. It should be noted that issues of control are pervasive regardless of the kind of AV being considered, but that there are special considerations in the design and operation of AV`s depending on whether the focus is on vehicles underwater, on the ground, or in the air. The authors have separated the discussion into sections treating each of these categories.

Meyrowitz, A.L. [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States)] [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States); Blidberg, D.R. [Autonomous Undersea Systems Inst., Lee, NH (United States)] [Autonomous Undersea Systems Inst., Lee, NH (United States); Michelson, R.C. [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Smyrna, GA (United States)] [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Smyrna, GA (United States); [International Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems, Smyrna, GA (United States)

1996-08-01

20

Autonomous control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KSC has been developing the Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE), which is a tool for performing automated monitoring, diagnosis, and control of electromechanical devices. KATE employs artificial intelligence computing techniques to perform these functions. The KATE system consists of a generic shell and a knowledge base. The KATE shell is the portion of the system which performs the monitoring, diagnosis, and control functions. It is generic in the sense that it is application independent. This means that the monitoring activity, for instance, will be performed with the same algorithms regardless of the particular physical device being used. The knowledge base is the portion of the system which contains specific functional and behavorial information about the physical device KATE is working with. Work is nearing completion on a project at KSC to interface a Texas Instruments Explorer running a LISP version of KATE with a Generic Checkout System (GCS) test-bed to control a physical simulation of a shuttle tanking system (humorously called the Red Wagon because of its color and mobility). The Autonomous Control System (ACS) project supplements and extends the KATE/GCS project by adding three other major activities. The activities include: porting KATE from the Texas Instruments Explorer machine to an Intel 80386-based UNIX workstation in the LISP language; rewriting KATE as necessary to run on the same 80386 workstation but in the Ada language; and investigating software and techniques to translate ANSI Standard Common LISP to Mil Standard Ada. Primary goals of this task are as follows: (1) establish the advantages of using expert systems to provide intelligent autonomous software for Space Station Freedom applications; (2) determine the feasibility of using Ada as the run-time environment for model-based expert systems; (3) provide insight into the advantages and disadvantagesof using LISP or Ada in the run-time environment for expert systems; and (4) compare the performance of the 80386 processor to a symbolic processor as a delivery vehicle for expert systems.

Brown, Barbara

1990-01-01

21

Autonomic Function in Infancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research that uses autonomic responses of human infants as dependent measures. Focuses on the history of research on the autonomic nervous system, measurement issues, and autonomic correlates of infant behavior and systems. (RJC)

Fox, Nathan A.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

1990-01-01

22

Subsurface Microbiology and Biogeochemistry  

SciTech Connect

Jim contributed a chapter to this book, in addition to co-editing it with Madilyn Fletcher. Fredrickson, J. K., and M. Fletcher. (eds.) 2001 Subsurface Microbiology and Biogeochemistry. Wiley-Liss, Inc., New York.

Fredrickson, Jim K.; Fletcher, Madilyn

2001-05-01

23

Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to develop a Subsurface Facility layout that is capable of accommodating the statutory capacity of 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU), as well as an option to expand the inventory capacity, if authorized, to 97,000 MTU. The layout configuration also requires a degree of flexibility to accommodate potential changes in site conditions or program requirements. The objective of this analysis is to provide a conceptual design of the Subsurface Facility sufficient to support the development of the Subsurface Facility System Description Document (CRWMS M&O 2000e) and the ''Emplacement Drift System Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 2000i). As well, this analysis provides input to the Site Recommendation Consideration Report. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Evaluation of the existing facilities and their integration into the Subsurface Facility design. (2) Identification and incorporation of factors influencing Subsurface Facility design, such as geological constraints, thermal loading, constructibility, subsurface ventilation, drainage control, radiological considerations, and the Test and Evaluation Facilities. (3) Development of a layout showing an available area in the primary area sufficient to support both the waste inventories and individual layouts showing the emplacement area required for 70,000 MTU and, if authorized, 97,000 MTU.

C.L. Linden

2000-06-28

24

Autonomous Soaring Flight Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

Allen, Michael J.

2006-01-01

25

Autonomic failure in hydrencephaly  

PubMed Central

Autonomic functions were studied in three patients with hydrencephalus and five with hydrocephalus. Autonomic failure of central origin was found in the patients with hydrencephalus; whereas, those suffering from hydrocephalus had essentially normal autonomic function. In two patients with hydrencephalus, the hypothalamus was markedly abnormal but the rest of the autonomic nervous system was histologically normal. From this it is concluded that in some patients with mental and motor retardation, autonomic failure may be of cerebral origin but that this is not a feature of patients with hydrocephalus. Images PMID:5505683

Appenzeller, Otto; Snyder, Russell; Kornfeld, Mario

1970-01-01

26

The autonomic laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The autonomic nervous system can now be studied quantitatively, noninvasively, and reproducibly in a clinical autonomic laboratory. The approach at the Mayo Clinic is to study the postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers of peripheral nerve (using the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test [QSART]), the parasympathetic nerves to the heart (cardiovagal tests), and the regulation of blood pressure by the baroreflexes (adrenergic tests). Patient preparation is extremely important, since the state of the patient influences the results of autonomic function tests. The autonomic technologist in this evolving field needs to have a solid core of knowledge of autonomic physiology and autonomic function tests, followed by training in the performance of these tests in a standardized fashion. The range and utilization of tests of autonomic function will likely continue to evolve.

Low, P. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.

1999-01-01

27

Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters  

SciTech Connect

A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Bass, Ronald Marshall (Houston, TX); Kim, Dong Sub (Sugar Land, TX); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX); Keltner, Thomas Joseph (Spring, TX); Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon (Houston, TX)

2010-12-28

28

Precision autonomous underwater navigation  

E-print Network

Deep-sea archaeology, an emerging application of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) technology, requires precise navigation and guidance. As science requirements and engineering capabilities converge, navigating in the ...

Bingham, Brian S. (Brian Steven), 1973-

2003-01-01

29

The MDS autonomous control architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the autonomous control architecture for the JPL Mission Data System (MDS). MDS is a comprehensive new software infrastructure for supporting unmanned space exploration. The autonomous control architecture is one component of MDS designed to enable autonomous operations.

Gat, E.

2000-01-01

30

Subsurface contaminants focus area  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

NONE

1996-08-01

31

Learning for Autonomous Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous navigation by a mobile robot through L natural, unstructured terrain is one of the premier k challenges in field robotics. Tremendous advances V in autonomous navigation have been made recently in field robotics. Machine learning has played an increasingly important role in these advances. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) UGCV-Perceptor Integration (UPI) program was conceived to take

James Bagnell; David Bradley; David Silver; Boris Sofman; Anthony Stentz

2010-01-01

32

Asteroid Exploration with Autonomic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. The prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission comprises autonomous agents including \\

Walt Truszkowski; James L. Rash; Christopher Rouff; Michael G. Hinchey

2004-01-01

33

Subsurface Drainage Contribution to Streamflow in Subsurface Drained Agricultural Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In intensively subsurface drained agricultural watersheds, subsurface drainage influences both the streamflow pattern and the water quality of the receiving streams. Quantification of subsurface drainage volume may improve flood forecasting, enable estimation of contaminant loading through subsurface drains and assist in identification of target areas for load reduction and water conservation measures. The streamflow in a typical subsurface drained watershed consists of direct runoff (surface and subsurface runoff), drain flow (subsurface drainage) and base flow. During and immediately following storm events, drain flow can be considered part of both direct runoff and base flow, and in between the storms, drain flow can be part of base flow. As a first step, we explore quantifying the subsurface drainage contribution to observed streamflow using traditional hydrograph separation combined with surface runoff estimation. Annual average base flow contribution is estimated using average base flow during the driest two months of the year (August and September), when the drain flow can be considered negligible. The methodology was first evaluated using observations of drain flow from two experimental study sites in the Hoagland watershed in west central Indiana, USA and predictions of total watershed drain flow from a distributed application of the DRAINMOD drainage model. The methodology was then applied to other gauged rivers throughout the Wabash River basin in Indiana and compared to maps of estimated subsurface drainage extent.

Ale, S.; Bowling, L. C.

2010-12-01

34

Explicit Substitution Internal Languages for Autonomous and *Autonomous Categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a family of explicit substitution type theories as internal languagesfor autonomous (or symmetric monoidal closed) and -autonomous categories, inthe same sense that the simply-typed -calculus with surjective pairing is the internallanguage for cartesian closed categories. We show that the eight equalityand three commutation congruence axioms of the -autonomous type theory characterise -autonomous categories exactly. The associated rewrite systems

T. W. Koh; C. h L. Ong

1999-01-01

35

Manual on Subsurface Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of twelve modules that constitute a comprehensive training course in geotechnical and foundation engineering. Sponsored by the National Highway Institute (NHI) of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the training course is given at different locations in the U.S. The intended audience includes civil engineers and engineering geologists involved in the design and construction of transportation facilities. This manual is designed to present the latest methodologies in the planning,execution and interpretation of the various subsurface investigation methods, and the development of appropriate soil and rock parameters for engineering applications

2008-10-13

36

Collapsed Subsurface Channel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

16 April 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows evidence of a collapsed lava tube (or other form of subterranean channel) on the plains northwest of the Elysium volcanoes. Lava or another fluid (e.g., water) was transported through a subsurface channel; later, the roof collapsed to form a series of pits and troughs, revealing the channel's location. This landform is located near 32.7oN, 219.5oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

2004-01-01

37

Subsurface marker emplacement test plan  

SciTech Connect

Current plans propose placing subsurface markers within protective barriers to deter potential human intrusion into disposed radioactive wastes. The subsurface markers would provide warning to the digging intruder should surface markers be removed, destroyed, or ignored. This plan sets forth procedures for testing the survivability of the subsurface markers during construction of the barrier. After the tests described herein are concluded, a decision can be made as to whether subsurface markers will require protection during barrier construction. If protection is required, additional tests will be needed to test the effectiveness of various protective approaches.

Adams, M.R.; Carlson, R.A.

1986-05-30

38

Autonomic Determinism: The Modes of Autonomic Control, the Doctrine of Autonomic Space, and the Laws of Autonomic Constraint.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is proposed that the doctrine of autonomic reciprocity be subsumed by a notion of autonomic space, with elements that include principles of autonomic organization and control consistent with a two-dimensional autonomic space. A quantitative model is derived that describes translation of the model into a functional output surface. (SLD)

Berntson, Gary G.; And Others

1991-01-01

39

Inherited autonomic neuropathies.  

PubMed

Inherited autonomic neuropathies are a rare group of disorders associated with sensory dysfunction. As a group they are termed the "hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies" (HSAN). Classification of the various autonomic and sensory disorders is ongoing. In addition to the numerical classification of four distinct forms proposed by Dyck and Ohta (1975), additional entities have been described. The best known and most intensively studied of the HSANs are familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN type III) and congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (HSAN type IV). Diagnosis of the HSANs depends primarily on clinical examinations and specific sensory and autonomic assessments. Pathologic examinations are helpful in confirming the diagnosis and in differentiating between the different disorders. In recent years identification of specific genetic mutations for some disorders has aided diagnosis. Replacement or definitive therapies are not available for any of the disorders so that treatment remains supportive and directed toward specific symptoms. PMID:15088259

Axelrod, Felicia B; Hilz, Max J

2003-12-01

40

Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is our aim by launching a series of workshops on the topic of highly autonomous systems to reach out to the larger community interested in technology development for remotely deployed systems, particularly those for exploration.

Doyle, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Man, G.; Patel, K.

1998-01-01

41

The Deep Subsurface Microbiology Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Princeton Deep Subsurface Microbiology Group website contains links to information about deep subsurface microbiology. Readers can access information about Princeton's geomicrobiological program, including research being done, people involved, select publications, information about teaching environmental chemistry and exobiology, and related links by using the links provided on the left side of the page.

Geosciences, Princeton U.

42

Nonintrusive subsurface surveying capability  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes the capabilities of a ground-pentrating radar (GPR) system developed by EG&G Energy Measurements (EM), a prime contractor to the Department of Energy (DOE). The focus of the presentation will be on the subsurface survey of DOE site TA-21 in Los Alamos, New Mexico. EG&G EM developed the system for the Department of Defense. The system is owned by the Department of the Army and currently resides at KO in Albuquerque. EM is pursuing efforts to transfer this technology to environmental applications such as waste-site characterization with DOE encouragement. The Army has already granted permission to use the system for the waste-site characterization activities.

Tunnell, T.W.; Cave, S.P.

1994-06-01

43

Containment of subsurface contaminants  

DOEpatents

A barrier is disclosed for reducing the spread of a plume of subsurface contaminants. The apparatus includes a well system for injecting a fluid, such as air, just outside and below the periphery of the plume. The fluid is injected at a pressure sufficient to lower the hydraulic conductivity of the soil from the point of injection to the surface thus establishing a curtain-like barrier to groundwater movement. The barrier is established upgradient of the plume to divert groundwater away, or preferably completely around the plume to reduce the flow of groundwater into or out of the plume. The barrier enables the remediation of the confined contamination and then, when the injection of the fluid is halted, the barrier quickly dissipates. 5 figs.

Corey, J.C.

1994-09-06

44

Containment of subsurface contaminants  

DOEpatents

A barrier for reducing the spread of a plume of subsurface contaminants. The apparatus includes a well system for injecting a fluid, such as air, just outside and below the periphery of the plume. The fluid is injected at a pressure sufficient to lower the hydraulic conductivity of the soil from the point of injection to the surface thus establishing a curtain-like barrier to groundwater movement. The barrier is established upgradient of the plume to divert groundwater away, or preferably completely around the plume to reduce the flow of groundwater into or out of the plume. The barrier enables the remediation of the confined contamination and then, when the injection of the fluid is halted, the barrier quickly dissipates.

Corey, John C. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01

45

Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Autonomic neuropathy, once considered to be the Cinderella of diabetes complications, has come of age. The autonomic nervous system innervates the entire human body, and is involved in the regulation of every single organ in the body. Thus, perturbations in autonomic function account for everything from abnormalities in pupillary function to gastroparesis, intestinal dysmotility, diabetic diarrhea, genitourinary dysfunction, amongst others. "Know autonomic function and one knows the whole of medicine!" It is now becoming apparent that before the advent of severe pathological damage to the autonomic nervous system there may be an imbalance between the two major arms, namely the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers that innervate the heart and blood vessels, resulting in abnormalities in heart rate control and vascular dynamics. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) has been linked to resting tachycardia, postural hypotension, orthostatic bradycardia and orthostatic tachycardia (POTTS), exercise intolerance, decreased hypoxia-induced respiratory drive, loss of baroreceptor sensitivity, enhanced intraoperative or perioperative cardiovascular lability, increased incidence of asymptomatic ischemia, myocardial infarction, and decreased rate of survival after myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. Autonomic dysfunction can affect daily activities of individuals with diabetes and may invoke potentially life-threatening outcomes. Intensification of glycemic control in the presence of autonomic dysfunction (more so if combined with peripheral neuropathy) increases the likelihood of sudden death and is a caveat for aggressive glycemic control. Advances in technology, built on decades of research and clinical testing, now make it possible to objectively identify early stages of CAN with the use of careful measurement of time and frequency domain analyses of autonomic function. Fifteen studies using different end points report prevalence rates of 1% to 90%. CAN may be present at diagnosis, and prevalence increases with age, duration of diabetes, obesity, smoking, and poor glycemic control. CAN also cosegregates with distal symmetric polyneuropathy, microangiopathy, and macroangiopathy. It now appears that autonomic imbalance may precede the development of the inflammatory cascade in type 2 diabetes and there is a role for central loss of dopaminergic restraint on sympathetic overactivity. Restoration of dopaminergic tone suppresses the sympathetic dominance and reduces cardiovascular events and mortality by close to 50%. Cinderella's slipper can now be worn! PMID:24095132

Vinik, Aaron I; Erbas, Tomris

2013-01-01

46

Subsurface Samples: Collection and Processing  

SciTech Connect

Microbiological data, interpretation, and conclusions from subsurface samples ultimately depend on the quality and representative character of the samples. Subsurface samples for environmental microbiology ideally contain only the microbial community and geochemical properties that are representative of the subsurface environment from which the sample was taken. To that end, sample contamination by exogenous microorganisms or chemical constituents must be eliminated or minimized, and sample analyses need to begin before changes in the microbial community or geochemical characteristics occur. This article presents sampling methods and sample processing techniques for collecting representative samples from a range of subsurface environments. Factors that should be considered when developing a subsurface sampling program are discussed, including potential benefits, costs, and limitations enabling researchers to evaluate the techniques that are presented and match them to their project requirements. Methods and protocols to address coring, sampling, processing and quality assessment issues are presented.

Long, Philip E.; Griffin, W. Timothy; Phelps, Tommy J.

2002-12-01

47

Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document  

SciTech Connect

The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

Eric Loros

2001-07-25

48

Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document  

SciTech Connect

The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

NONE

2000-10-12

49

Thinking Ahead: Autonomic Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The time has come for the commercial buildings industries to reconsider the very nature of the systems installed in facilities today and to establish a vision for future buildings that differs from anything in the history of human shelter. Drivers for this examination include reductions in building operation staffs; uncertain costs and reliability of electric power; growing interest in energy-efficient and resource-conserving?green? and?high-performance? commercial buildings; and a dramatic increase in security concerns since the tragic events of September 11. This paper introduces a new paradigm? autonomic buildings? which parallels the concept of autonomic computing, introduced by IBM as a fundamental change in the way computer networks work. Modeled after the human nervous system,?autonomic systems? themselves take responsibility for a large portion of their own operation and even maintenance. For commercial buildings, autonomic systems could provide environments that afford occupants greater opportunity to focus on the things we do in buildings rather than on operation of the building itself, while achieving higher performance levels, increased security, and better use of energy and other natural resources. The author uses the human body and computer networking to introduce and illustrate this new paradigm for high-performance commercial buildings. He provides a vision for the future of commercial buildings based on autonomicity, identifies current research that could contribute to this future, and highlights research and technological gaps. The paper concludes with a set of issues and needs that are key to converting this idealized future into reality.

Brambley, Michael R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-08-31

50

Architecture of autonomous systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

1986-01-01

51

Architecture of autonomous systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

1989-01-01

52

Novel subsurface imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a discovery by Igor Zuykov, Environmental Investigations (EIC) has developed a novel portable subsurface imaging system, termed the RAP PlusTM System, capable of generating detailed images of geological strata layers and underground man-made structures and objects. The system takes advantage of ever-present low-level random vibrations in the ground and detects resonances in these vibrations that naturally occur at the interfaces of strata layers and surface boundaries of structures. These resonances are detected using acoustic sensors in contact with the ground surface. No acoustical or RF signal needs to be injected into the ground, though a light tap on the surface near the sensor may enhance the processing of the received signal. The sensors detect the vibrations and convert them into electrical signals, which are amplified and detected. An algorithm based on the Fourier transform converts the signals from time into frequency domain. Another algorithm is then used to extract the information related to resonances and accurately determine the depth and shape of the strata and structure boundaries. This information is displayed as images in which the layers or structures appear in false colors. A significant advantage of this system that it is immune to electro-magnetic interference and even to strong vibration caused by passing vehicles.

Zuykov, Igor; Olejnik, Wieslaw; Martens, Alexander E.

1999-10-01

53

Autonomous Aerobraking for Mars Orbiters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous Aerobraking is a developing technology that will reduce cost and increase flexibility of an aerobraking orbiter around Mars. Currently in its second phase of development, autonomous aerobraking could be implemented for a 2018 Mars orbiter.

Prince, J. L.

2012-06-01

54

An AUV survey in the littoral zone: small-scale subsurface variability accompanying synoptic observations of surface currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of small-scale subsurface variability within the synoptic observational field of an ocean surface current radar (OSCR) using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is described. The survey involved observation of a developing upper mixed layer in a littoral zone off southeast Florida, on the edge of a strong Florida current during the summer of 1999. Complimentary in situ observations

Manhar R. Dhanak; P. Edgar An; Ken Holappa

2001-01-01

55

Maintaining Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems  

E-print Network

A subsurface drip irrigation system should last more than 20 years if properly maintained. Important maintenance procedures include cleaning the filters, flushing the lines, adding chlorine and injecting acids. Details of these procedures...

Enciso, Juan; Porter, Dana; Bordovsky, Jim; Fipps, Guy

2004-09-07

56

Microbial Transport in the Subsurface  

SciTech Connect

In this article we focus on the physical, chemical, and biological processes involved in the transport of bacteria in the saturated subsurface. We will first review conceptual models of bacterial phases in the subsurface, and then the processes controlling fate and transport on short (e.g., bioremediation) time scales. Finally we briefly review field bacterial transport experiments and discuss a number of issues that impact the application of current process descriptions and models at the field scale.

Ginn, Timothy R.; Camesano, Terri; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Nelson, Kirk B.; Clement, T. P.; Wood, Brian D.

2005-12-01

57

An Autonomous Spacecraft Agent Prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the New Millennium Remote Agent (NMRA) architecture for autonomous spacecraft control systems. The architecture supports challenging requirements of the autonomous spacecraft domain not usually addressed in mobile robot architectures, including highly reliable autonomous operations over extended time periods in the presence of tight resource constraints, hard deadlines, limited observability, and concurrent activity. A hybrid architecture, NMRA integrates

Barney Pell; Douglas E. Bernard; Steve A. Chien; Erann Gat; Nicola Muscettola; P. Pandurang Nayak; Michael D. Wagner; Brian C. Williams

1998-01-01

58

Autonomous System Confederations for BGP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Border Gateway Protocol (1) is an inter-autonomous system routing protocol designed for TCP\\/IP networks. This document describes an extension to BGP which may be used to create a confederation of autonomous systems which is represented as one single autonomous system to BGP peers external to the confederation. The intention of this extension is to aid in policy administration and reduce

P. Traina

1996-01-01

59

An Autonomous Spacecraft Agent Prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

. This paper describes the New Millennium Remote Agent (NMRA) architecture for autonomous spacecraft control systems. The architecture supports challenging requirements of the autonomous spacecraft domain not usually addressed in mobile robot architectures, including highly reliable autonomous operations over extended time periods in the presence of tight resource constraints, hard deadlines, limited observability, and concurrent activity. A hybrid architecture, NMRA

Barney Pell; Douglas E. Bernard; Steve A. Chien; Erann Gat; Nicola Muscettola; P. Pandurang Nayak; Michael D. Wagner; Brian C. Williams

1998-01-01

60

Autonomous Interface Agents Henry Lieberman  

E-print Network

, autonomous agents, Web, browsing, search, learning. I NTRODUCT I ON The definition of an agent is the subjectAutonomous Interface Agents Henry Lieberman Media Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology in operating an interactive interface, and autonomous agents, software that takes action without user

61

An Autonomous Gliding Micro  

E-print Network

An Autonomous Palm-Sized Gliding Micro Air Vehicle 1070-9932/07/$25.00©2007 IEEEIEEE Robotics micro air vehicle (MAV) with the final goal of locating and flying toward a target while avoiding composite microstructures, high performance microactuators, low power biomimetic sen- sors, and efficient

Sanders, Seth

62

Autonomous Landing Guidance Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

All weather tactical aircraft recovery and high sortie generation rates from forward, possibly battle damaged landing areas will reqire autonomous landing guidance systems which are independent of ground-based cooperative aids. A recently completed study has examined the operational requirements and assessed current and near term technology for an answer to this need. The Landing Systems Requirements\\/Synthesis Study has defined the

Edmond F. Roy; John W. Davison

1986-01-01

63

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1997-03-25

64

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

1997-01-01

65

Universiteit IASintelligent autonomous systems  

E-print Network

-02 Rodent behavior annotation from video J.J. Verbeek Intelligent Systems Laboratory Amsterdam, University 11 Intelligent Autonomous Systems Informatics Institute, Faculty of Science University of Amsterdam in an arena with the behaviors exhibited by the animal throughout the video. Automatic annotation is desirable

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

66

Diabetic autonomic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This review attempts to outline the present understanding of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The clinical features have been increasingly recognised but knowledge of the localization and morphology of the lesions and their pathogenesis remains fragmentary. A metabolic causation as postulated in somatic nerves accords best with clinical observations. Most bodily systems, particularly the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and urogenital, are involved with added

B. F. Clarke; D. J. Ewing; I. W. Campbell

1979-01-01

67

FEDERAL STAFF INFORMATION: ECOSYSTEM AND SUBSURFACE PROTECTION BRANCH (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Ecosystem and Subsurface Protection Branch in NRMRL's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division (SPRD) conducts research into assessing potential impacts of manmade and natural processes (physical, chemical, and biological) on aquatic (surface and subsurface) and terrest...

68

FEDERAL STAFF INFORMATION: SUBSURFACE REMEDIATION BRANCH (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Subsurface Remediation Branch in NRMRL's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division conducts research into defining the chemical, physical and biological processes that affect the fate, transport, and remediation of contaminants in the subsurface. The Branch's focus is o...

69

Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.

2004-01-01

70

The autonomous sciencecraft constellations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat 21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2006. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. In this paper we discuss how these AI technologies are synergistically integrated in a hybrid multi-layer control architecture to enable a virtual spacecraft science agent. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight environment will open up tremendous new opportunities in planetary science, space physics, and earth science that would be unreachable without this technology.

Sherwood, R. L.; Chien, S.; Castano, R.; Rabideau, G.

2003-01-01

71

Autonomic Nervous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The autonomic nervous system and the role it plays in governing the behavior of the cardiovascular system is immense in both\\u000a its complexity and importance to life. The antagonistic nature of the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of this system\\u000a allows rapid and essential changes in cardiac parameters such as heart rate, contractility, and stroke volume in order to\\u000a deliver metabolites

Kevin Fitzgerald; Robert F. Wilson; Paul A. Iaizzo

72

Autonomy of Autonomous Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomy is one of the most notable attributes of agency, and this paper presents a formal framework for modelling it. By\\u000a representing the mental states of agents, we provide an analysis of some attributes of autonomy. In particular, we define\\u000a three sorts of autonomous agents and examine their structure. We also outline features of higher autonomy. Our framework can\\u000a be

Dongmo Zhang; Norman Y. Foo

2000-01-01

73

Autonomous power expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling and dynamic replanning.

Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

1990-01-01

74

Pharmacotherapy of autonomic failure  

PubMed Central

The clinical picture of autonomic failure is characterized by severe and disabling orthostatic hypotension. These disorders can develop as a result of damage of central neural pathways or peripheral autonomic nerves, caused either by a primary autonomic neurodegenerative disorder or secondary to systemic illness. Treatment should be focused on decreasing presyncopal symptoms instead of achieving blood pressure goals. Non-pharmacologic strategies such as physical counter-maneuvers, dietary changes (i.e. high salt diet, rapid water drinking or compression garments) are the first line therapy. Affected patients should be screened for co-morbid conditions such as post-prandial hypotension and supine hypertension that can worsen orthostatic hypotension if not treated. If symptoms are not controlled with these conservative measures the next step is to start pharmacological agents; these interventions should be aimed at increasing intravascular volume either by promoting water and salt retention (fludrocortisone) or by increasing red blood cell mass when anemia is present (recombinant erythropoietin). When pressor agents are needed, direct pressor agents (midodrine) or agents that potentiate sympathetic activity (atomoxetine, yohimbine, pyridostigmine) can be used. It is preferable to use short-acting pressor agents that can be taken on as needed basis in preparation for upright activities. PMID:21664375

Shibao, Cyndya; Okamoto, Luis; Biaggioni, Italo

2012-01-01

75

Autonomous Sample Acquisition for Planetary and Small Body Explorations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robotic drilling and autonomous sample acquisition are considered as the key technology requirements in future planetary or small body exploration missions. Core sampling or subsurface drilling operation is envisioned to be off rovers or landers. These supporting platforms are inherently flexible, light, and can withstand only limited amount of reaction forces and torques. This, together with unknown properties of sampled materials, makes the sampling operation a tedious task and quite challenging. This paper highlights the recent advancements in the sample acquisition control system design and development for the in situ scientific exploration of planetary and small interplanetary missions.

Ghavimi, Ali R.; Serricchio, Frederick; Dolgin, Ben; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

2000-01-01

76

Towed Subsurface Optical Communications Buoy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The innovation allows critical, high-bandwidth submarine communications at speed and depth. This reported innovation is a subsurface optical communications buoy, with active neutral buoyancy and streamlined flow surface veins for depth control. This novel subsurface positioning for the towed communications buoy enables substantial reduction in water-absorption and increased optical transmission by eliminating the intervening water absorption and dispersion, as well as by reducing or eliminating the beam spread and the pulse spreading that is associated with submarine-launched optical beams.

Stirbl, Robert C.; Farr, William H.

2013-01-01

77

Autonomic Disorders in Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease leading to disseminated lesions of the central nervous system resulting in both somatomotor and autonomic disturbances. These involve the central centers of the autonomic nervous system, as well as the automatic control and pathway systems. All autonomic functions may be disordered individually or in combined form. There is no other disease with a clinical picture so multifaceted. Besides cardiovascular dysfunctions disorders of bladder and rectum have become apparent. Somatomotor and autonomic disturbances occur with similar frequency; however the focused exam often heavily favors somatomotor symptoms. Autonomic disturbances should primarily be taken into account on history taking and clinical examination. Individual diagnosis and treatment is a secondary feature. Impairments of the autonomic nervous systems in multiple sclerosis are frequently overlooked. PMID:21603189

Lensch, E.; Jost, W. H.

2011-01-01

78

Clockwork: A new movement in autonomic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statically tuned computing systems may perform poorly when running time-varying workloads. Current work on autonomic tuning largely involves reactive autonomicity, based on feedback control. This paper identifies a new way of thinking about autonomic tuning, that is, predictive autonomicity, based on feedforward control. A general method, called Clockwork, for constructing predictive autonomic systems is proposed. The method is based on

Lance W. Russell; Stephen P. Morgan; Edward G. Chron

2003-01-01

79

Cardiovascular manifestations of autonomic epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a   Cardiovascular autonomic manifestations of seizures occur frequently in the epileptic population. Common manifestations include\\u000a alterations in heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure, ECG changes and chest pain. The neuroanatomical and neurophysiological\\u000a underpinnings of these autonomic manifestations are not been fully elucidated. Diagnostic confusion may arise when ictal symptoms\\u000a are confined to the autonomic nervous system; conversely, such symptoms in

Roy Freeman

2006-01-01

80

SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of difficulty and complexity in determining requirements in adapting existing data communication highways to support the subsurface visual alarm system. These requirements would include such things as added or new communication cables, added Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Inputs and Outputs (I/O), and communication hardware components, and human machine interfaces and their software operating system. (4) Select the best data communication highway system based on this review of adapting or integrating with existing data communication systems.

D.W. Markman

2001-08-06

81

Morally autonomous practice?  

PubMed

The structures and contexts within which nurses work results in the moral agency and moral autonomy of the nurse being compromised. This claim results from a confusion of (1) the concept of autonomy with those of freedom and independence; and (2) a confusion of the notion of moral autonomy with that of autonomous professional practice. The drawing of appropriate distinctions allows clarification of the relevant concepts. It also underlines the responsibility of practitioners to recognize the moral dimension of their practice, and the moral implications of their actions, as they attempt to meet the health care needs of their patients and develop practice professionally. PMID:9845488

Scott, P A

1998-12-01

82

Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Palomar Adaptive Optics System actively corrects for changing aberrations in light due to atmospheric turbulence. However, the underlying internal static error is unknown and uncorrected by this process. The dedicated wavefront sensor device necessarily lies along a different path than the science camera, and, therefore, doesn't measure the true errors along the path leading to the final detected imagery. This is a standard problem in adaptive optics (AO) called "non-common path error." The Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration (APRC) software suite performs automated sensing and correction iterations to calibrate the Palomar AO system to levels that were previously unreachable.

Estlin, Tara A.; Chien, Steve A.; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel M.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Schoolcraft, Josua B.; Oyake, Amalaye; Vaughs, Ashton G.; Torgerson, Jordan L.

2011-01-01

83

Cooperative Autonomous Online Learning  

E-print Network

Online learning is becoming increasingly popular for training on large datasets. However, the sequential nature of online learning requires a centralized learner to store data and update parameters. In this paper, we consider a fully decentralized setting, cooperative autonomous online learning, with a distributed data source. The learners perform learning with local parameters while periodically communicating with a small subset of neighbors to exchange information. We define the regret in terms of an implicit aggregated parameter of the learners for such a setting and prove regret bounds similar to the classical sequential online learning.

Yan, Feng; Qi, Yuan

2010-01-01

84

KEYNOTEADDRESS Towards Autonomous Intelligent Control Systems  

E-print Network

KEYNOTEADDRESS Towards Autonomous Intelligent Control Systems Panos J. Antsaklis Dept. of ElectricalEngineering Universityof Notre Dame Notre Dame, IN 46556 Autonomous intelligent control systems and concepts of conventional Control Systems Theory, certain important issues in Autonomous Intelligent Control

Antsaklis, Panos

85

Remote Real-Time Monitoring of Subsurface Landfill Gas Migration  

PubMed Central

The cost of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites is of major concern for regulatory authorities. The current monitoring procedure is recognised as labour intensive, requiring agency inspectors to physically travel to perimeter borehole wells in rough terrain and manually measure gas concentration levels with expensive hand-held instrumentation. In this article we present a cost-effective and efficient system for remotely monitoring landfill subsurface migration of methane and carbon dioxide concentration levels. Based purely on an autonomous sensing architecture, the proposed sensing platform was capable of performing complex analytical measurements in situ and successfully communicating the data remotely to a cloud database. A web tool was developed to present the sensed data to relevant stakeholders. We report our experiences in deploying such an approach in the field over a period of approximately 16 months. PMID:22163975

Fay, Cormac; Doherty, Aiden R.; Beirne, Stephen; Collins, Fiachra; Foley, Colum; Healy, John; Kiernan, Breda M.; Lee, Hyowon; Maher, Damien; Orpen, Dylan; Phelan, Thomas; Qiu, Zhengwei; Zhang, Kirk; Gurrin, Cathal; Corcoran, Brian; O'Connor, Noel E.; Smeaton, Alan F.; Diamond, Dermot

2011-01-01

86

Autonomous Formation Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

2004-01-01

87

Nemesis Autonomous Test System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A generalized framework has been developed for systems validation that can be applied to both traditional and autonomous systems. The framework consists of an automated test case generation and execution system called Nemesis that rapidly and thoroughly identifies flaws or vulnerabilities within a system. By applying genetic optimization and goal-seeking algorithms on the test equipment side, a "war game" is conducted between a system and its complementary nemesis. The end result of the war games is a collection of scenarios that reveals any undesirable behaviors of the system under test. The software provides a reusable framework to evolve test scenarios using genetic algorithms using an operation model of the system under test. It can automatically generate and execute test cases that reveal flaws in behaviorally complex systems. Genetic algorithms focus the exploration of tests on the set of test cases that most effectively reveals the flaws and vulnerabilities of the system under test. It leverages advances in state- and model-based engineering, which are essential in defining the behavior of autonomous systems. It also uses goal networks to describe test scenarios.

Barltrop, Kevin J.; Lee, Cin-Young; Horvath, Gregory A,; Clement, Bradley J.

2012-01-01

88

UVOT autonomous operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SWIFT/UVOT has a requirement for on-board autonomous control of exposures, health and safety. It is anticipated that the optimal form of control may not emerge until after launch and may change during the course of the mission. A flexible and readily re-configurable system is therefore required. Two schemes have been adopted. As well as the more usual approach of tables of experimental configurations, action tables mapping command sequences to key events have been implemented. The command sequences, consisting of a series of command words located in EEPROM, are executed using a stack-based software 'virtual CPU.' Each command word, analogous to hardware CPU assembler instructions, results in the execution of well-checked Ada code fragments. As well as implementing the UVOT commands, the code includes functionality such as delaying a specified time, awaiting action completion, 'subroutine' calls and simple flow control. These permit the construction of complex control sequences. A C-like language is used to describe the required sequences. A translator converts them to the required command word sequence that is then validated on a simulator. Reloading the command sequence or the tables referring to it alters the autonomous behavior of the instrument.

Huckle, Howard E.; Smith, Philip J.

2004-02-01

89

Autonomic Responses to Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this report is to describe how changes in autonomic nervous system responses may be used as an index of individual differences in adaptational capacity to space flight. During two separate Spacelab missions, six crewmembers wore an ambulatory monitoring system which enabled continuous recording of their physiological responses for up to twelve hours a day for 3 to 5 mission days. The responses recorded were electrocardiography, respiration wave form, skin conductance level, hand temperature, blood flow to the hands and triaxial accelerations of the head and upper body. Three of these subjects had been given training, before the mission, in voluntary control of these autonomic responses as a means of facilitating adaptation to space. Three of these subjects served as Controls, i.e., did not receive this training but took anti-motion sickness medication. Nearly 300 hours of flight data are summarized. These data were examined using time-series analyses, spectral analyses of heart rate variability, and analyses of variance. Information was obtained on responses to space motion sickness, inflight medications, circadian rhythm, workload and fatigue. Preliminary assessment was made on the effectiveness of self-regulation training as a means of facilitating adaptation, with recommendations for future flights.

Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.; Miller, N. E.

1994-01-01

90

Autonomous Flight Safety System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

2004-01-01

91

Autonomous Navigation for Airborne Applications  

E-print Network

of inertial navigation techniques are required in order to allow for prediction of state information, whichAutonomous Navigation for Airborne Applications Jonghyuk Kim A thesis submitted in fulfillment Navigation for Airborne Applications Autonomous navigation (or localisation) is the process of determining

Kim, Jonghyuk "Jon"

92

Autonomous Navigation for Forest Machines  

E-print Network

Inertial navigation system (INS) ..............................................................19 WheelAutonomous Navigation for Forest Machines a Pre-Study by Thomas Hellström Department of Computing Science Umeå University Umeå, Sweden 2002-10-18 #12;Autonomous Navigation for Forest Machines ­ a Pre

Hellström, Thomas

93

Towards an Autonomic Wisdom Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi agent systems, Grid technology, Semantic Web, Autonomic Com- puting, and Web Intelligence paradigms are modern approaches in information technologies, which we put together in our research effort described in this pa- per to create a new-generation infrastructure called the Autonomic Wisdom Grid (AWG) with the mission to maintain, share, discover, and expand knowledge in geographically distributed environments. This paper

Peter Brezany; Ivan Janciak; Andrzej Goscinski; A. Min Tjoa

94

Engineering autonomously controlled logistic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today enterprises are exposed to an increasingly dynamic environment. Last but not least increasing competition caused by globalization more and more requires gaining competitive advantages by improved process control, within and beyond an enterprise. Autonomous control of logistic processes is proposed as a means to better face dynamics and complexity. Autonomous control means the ability of logistic objects to process

B. Scholz-Reiter; J. Kolditz; T. Hildebrandt

2009-01-01

95

Method of installing subsurface barrier  

DOEpatents

Systems, components, and methods relating to subterranean containment barriers. Laterally adjacent tubular casings having male interlock structures and multiple female interlock structures defining recesses for receiving a male interlock structure are used to create subterranean barriers for containing and treating buried waste and its effluents. The multiple female interlock structures enable the barriers to be varied around subsurface objects and to form barrier sidewalls. The barrier may be used for treating and monitoring a zone of interest.

Nickelson, Reva A. (Shelley, ID); Richardson, John G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sloan, Paul A. (Rigby, ID)

2007-10-09

96

Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers  

SciTech Connect

An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier.

Borns, D.J.

1995-08-01

97

Refined gasoline in the subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Geologists today are being called upon not only to find naturally occurring petroleum, but also to help assess and remediate the problem of refined hydrocarbons and other man-made contaminants in the subsurface that may endanger freshwater resources or human health. Petroleum geologists already have many of the skills required and are at ease working with fluid flow in the subsurface. If called for environmental projects, however, they will need to know the language and additional concepts necessary to deal with the hydrogeologic problems. Most releases of refined hydrocarbons and other man-made contaminants occur in the shallow unconfined groundwater environment. This is divided into three zones: the saturated zone, unsaturated zone, and capillary fringe. All three have unique characteristics, and contamination behaves differently in each. Gasoline contamination partitions into four phases in this environment; vapor phase, residual phase, free phase, and dissolved phase. Each has a different degree of mobility in the three subsurface zones. Their direction and rate of movement can be estimated using basic concepts, but geological complexities frequently complicate this issue. 24 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

Bruce, L.G. (Amoco Corporation, Tulsa, OK (United States))

1993-02-01

98

Autonomous magnetocumulative power supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helical magnetocumulative generators (MCGs) fed from explosive piezo generators (EPGs) are the most compact power supplies with an output energy of 1-10 kJ. EPGs are successfully coupled with MCGs in the operation mode and in structural parameters; these generators are easy to operate and do not require transformers or commutators. We report on the results of designing an autonomous small-size power supply based on EPGs and MCGs. Owing to bidirectional impact loading of the piezoceramic block of an EPG, the energy at the piezo generator output attains values of ˜25 J and is transferred to the helical MCG with an initial inductance of ˜1000 ?H. The power supply is constructed in the form of a monoblock with a volume of ˜2 dm3 or in the form of two separate devices connected by a high-voltage cable.

Demidov, V. A.; Sadunov, V. D.; Kazakov, S. A.; Boriskin, A. S.; Golosov, S. N.; Vlasov, Yu. V.; Utenkov, A. A.; Antipov, M. V.; Blinov, A. V.

2013-08-01

99

Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition  

E-print Network

We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21cm absorption spectra from the 21cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the HI line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the up...

Lindner, Robert R; Murray, Claire E; Stanimirovi?, Snežana; Babler, Brian L; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W M; Dickey, John

2014-01-01

100

Autonomous Navigation Using Celestial Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the twenty-first century, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Enterprises envision frequent low-cost missions to explore the solar system, observe the universe, and study our planet. Satellite autonomy is a key technology required to reduce satellite operating costs. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center (GNCC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) currently sponsors several initiatives associated with the development of advanced spacecraft systems to provide autonomous navigation and control. Autonomous navigation has the potential both to increase spacecraft navigation system performance and to reduce total mission cost. By eliminating the need for routine ground-based orbit determination and special tracking services, autonomous navigation can streamline spacecraft ground systems. Autonomous navigation products can be included in the science telemetry and forwarded directly to the scientific investigators. In addition, autonomous navigation products are available onboard to enable other autonomous capabilities, such as attitude control, maneuver planning and orbit control, and communications signal acquisition. Autonomous navigation is required to support advanced mission concepts such as satellite formation flying. GNCC has successfully developed high-accuracy autonomous navigation systems for near-Earth spacecraft using NASA's space and ground communications systems and the Global Positioning System (GPS). Recently, GNCC has expanded its autonomous navigation initiative to include satellite orbits that are beyond the regime in which use of GPS is possible. Currently, GNCC is assessing the feasibility of using standard spacecraft attitude sensors and communication components to provide autonomous navigation for missions including: libration point, gravity assist, high-Earth, and interplanetary orbits. The concept being evaluated uses a combination of star, Sun, and Earth sensor measurements along with forward-link Doppler measurements from the command link carrier to autonomously estimate the spacecraft's orbit and reference oscillator's frequency. To support autonomous attitude determination and control and maneuver planning and control, the orbit determination accuracy should be on the order of kilometers in position and centimeters per second in velocity. A less accurate solution (one hundred kilometers in position) could be used for acquisition purposes for command and science downloads. This paper provides performance results for both libration point orbiting and high Earth orbiting satellites as a function of sensor measurement accuracy, measurement types, measurement frequency, initial state errors, and dynamic modeling errors.

Folta, David; Gramling, Cheryl; Leung, Dominic; Belur, Sheela; Long, Anne

1999-01-01

101

Autonomous software: Myth or magic?  

E-print Network

We discuss work by the eSTAR project which demonstrates a fully closed loop autonomous system for the follow up of possible micro-lensing anomalies. Not only are the initial micro-lensing detections followed up in real time, but ongoing events are prioritised and continually monitored, with the returned data being analysed automatically. If the ``smart software'' running the observing campaign detects a planet-like anomaly, further follow-up will be scheduled autonomously and other telescopes and telescope networks alerted to the possible planetary detection. We further discuss the implications of this, and how such projects can be used to build more general autonomous observing and control systems.

Alasdair Allan; Tim Naylor; Eric S. Saunders

2008-02-04

102

Autonomous Robotic Monitoring of Underground Cable Systems  

E-print Network

Autonomous Robotic Monitoring of Underground Cable Systems Bing Jiang, Student Member, IEEE, and autonomous operation. This paper describes the electromechanical and sensing system design of the autonomous-bed for the autonomous mobile platform designed for periodic measurement of system parameters. This project is supported

Mamishev, Alexander

103

Numerical Results for Modified Image Theory Quasi-Static Range Subsurface-to-Subsurface and Subsurface-to-Air Propagation Equations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerical results are presented for the previously derived horizontal electric dipole modified image-theory quasi-static range field component approximations. Both subsurface-to-subsurface and subsurface-to-air propagation cases are considered. It is show...

P. R. Bannister, R. L. Dube

1977-01-01

104

Parametrized maneuvers for autonomous vehicles  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a method for creating continuously parametrized maneuver classes for autonomous vehicles. These classes provide useful tools for motion planners, bundling sets of related vehicle motions based on a ...

Dever, Christopher W. (Christopher Walden), 1972-

2004-01-01

105

State discovery for autonomous learning  

E-print Network

This thesis is devoted to the study of algorithms for early perceptual learning for an autonomous agent in the presence of feedback. In the framework of associative perceptual learning with indirect supervision, three ...

Ivanov, Yuri A., 1967-

2002-01-01

106

Autonomic disorders predicting Parkinson disease  

PubMed Central

It is now well recognized that there is a premotor phase of Parkinson disease with hyposmia and REM sleep behavior disorder caused by degeneration of specific CNS neurons. Most patients with PD describe autonomic symptoms at the time of diagnosis suggesting that these features may have potential sensitivity as clinical biomarkers of the premotor phase. The recognition that damage to peripheral autonomic neurons is present in the early stages of Parkinson disease has led to a search for specific abnormalities in autonomic function that could serve as predictive biomarkers. There is evidence that constipation, urinary and sexual dysfunction and more recently decreased cardiac chronotropic response during exercise, are part of the premotor parkinsonian phenotype. The sensitivity and specificity of these features has yet to be accurately assessed. We briefly review the evidence for autonomic dysfunction as biomarkers of premotor PD. PMID:24262198

Palma, Jose-Alberto; Kaufmann, Horacio

2014-01-01

107

Autonomous adaptive acoustic relay positioning  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of maximizing underwater acoustic data transmission by adaptively positioning an autonomous mobile relay so as to learn and exploit spatial variations in channel performance. The acoustic channel ...

Cheung, Mei Yi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

108

Subsurface Structure of Active Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magneto-convection simulations with horizontal, untwisted magnetic field advected into the domain at large (20Mm) depth spontaneously form magnetic loops which emerge as active regions. An active regions emerges as a fragmented, braided magnetic loop. This is what makes the magnetic flux first appear with mixed polarities, that then counter stream into the leading and following spots at the loop legs. After emergence, braided vertical legs are left behind which extend to large depths in the convection zone at the down flow boundaries of the large underlying convective cells. Movies of the emergence process and the subsurface structure underneath the active region will be presented.

Stein, Robert F.; Nordlund, Aake

2014-06-01

109

Autonomous power system brassboard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the brassboard hardware and intelligent controlling software, fault circuits have been developed and integrated as part of the brassboard. A description of these fault circuits and their function is included. The brassboard has become an extremely useful test facility, promoting artificial intelligence (AI) applications for power distribution systems. However, there are elements of the brassboard which could be enhanced, thus improving system performance. Modifications and enhancements to improve the brassboard's operation are discussed.

Merolla, Anthony

1992-01-01

110

Autonomous System Confederations for BGP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is an inter-autonomous system routing protocol designed for Transmission Control Protocol\\/Internet Protocol (TCP\\/IP) networks. BGP requires that all BGP speakers within a single autonomous system (AS) must be fully meshed. This represents a serious scaling problem that has been well documented in a number of proposals. This document describes an extension to BGP that may

D. McPherson; J. Scudder

2001-01-01

111

Autonomic control of the swimbladder.  

PubMed

The swimbladder of teleost fishes is the primary organ for controlling whole-body density, and thus buoyancy. The volume of gas in the swimbladder is adjusted to bring the organism to near neutral buoyancy at a particular depth. Swimbladder morphology varies widely among teleosts, but all species are capable of inflating and deflating this organ under reflex control by the autonomic nervous system, to achieve neutral buoyancy. Here we review the control of effectors within the swimbladder, including acid-secreting cells, vasculature and musculature, that are involved in determining gas volume. This control system is complex. It incorporates the "classical" efferent elements of the autonomic nervous system, the spinal autonomic and cranial autonomic limbs and their neurotransmitters (typically noradrenaline (NA)/adrenaline (ADR), and acetylcholine, respectively), but also non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic neurotransmitters such as peptides, purines and nitric oxide. The detailed patterns of autonomic innervation of swimbladder effectors are not well understood, nor are the relationships of terminals releasing non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic neurotransmitters onto these effectors. Furthermore, in most cases the complement of postjunctional receptor subtypes activated by adrenergic, cholinergic and other neurotransmitters, and the biological effects of these neurochemicals, have not been completely established. In order to clarify some of these issues and to provide insight into basic principles underlying autonomic control of swimbladder function, we propose the zebrafish as a potentially useful model teleost. PMID:20817620

Smith, Frank M; Croll, Roger P

2011-11-16

112

Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident  

SciTech Connect

This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-12

113

Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence development for the subsurface leak remaining subsurface accident  

SciTech Connect

This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Subsurface Leak Remaining Subsurface. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-09-19

114

Simple autonomous Mars walker  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a contract with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Martin Marietta has developed several alternative rover concepts for unmanned exploration of the planet Mars. One of those concepts, the 'Walking Beam', is the subject of this paper. This concept was developed with the goal of achieving many of the capabilities of more sophisticated articulated-leg walkers with a much simpler, more robust, less computationally demanding and more power efficient design. It consists of two large-base tripods nested one within the other which alternately translate with respect to each other along a 5-meter beam to propel the vehicle. The semiautonomous navigation system relies on terrain geometry sensors and tacticle feedback from each foot to autonomously select a path which avoids hazards along a route designated from earth. Both mobility and navigation features of this concept are discussed including a top-level description of the vehicle's physical characteristics, deployment strategy, mobility elements, sensor suite, theory of operation, navigation and control processes, and estimated performance.

Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.

1989-01-01

115

Autonomous Aerobraking at Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerobraking has become a proven approach for orbital missions at Mars. A launch of a 1000 kg class spacecraft on a Delta class booster saves 90% of the post-MOI fuel otherwise required to circularize the orbit. In 1997, Mars Global Surveyor demonstrated the feasibility and Mars 2001 Odyssey completed a nearly trouble free aerobraking phase in January 2002. In 2006, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will also utilize aerobraking. From the flight operations standpoint, however, aerobraking is labor intensive and high risk due to the large density variability in the Mars thermosphere. The maximum rate of aerobraking is typically limited by the maximum allowable temperature of the solar array which is the primary drag surface. Prior missions have used a surrogate variable, usually maximum free stream heat flux, as a basis for performing periapsis altitude corridor control maneuvers. This paper provides an adaptive sequential method for operationally relating measured temperatures to heat flux profile characteristics and performing maneuvers based directly on measured temperatures and atmospheric properties derived from the heat flux profiles. Simulations of autonomous aerobraking are performed using Odyssey mission data.

Hanna, Jill L.; Tolson, Robert; Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer; Dec, John

2002-01-01

116

Autonomous mission operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an empirical investigation of the impact of time delay on today's mission operations, and of the effect of processes and mission support tools designed to mitigate time-delay related impacts. Mission operation scenarios were designed for NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH), an analog spacecraft habitat, covering a range of activities including nominal objectives, DSH system failures, and crew medical emergencies. The scenarios were simulated at time delay values representative of Lunar (1.2-5 sec), Near Earth Object (NEO) (50 sec) and Mars (300 sec) missions. Each combination of operational scenario and time delay was tested in a Baseline configuration, designed to reflect present-day operations of the International Space Station, and a Mitigation configuration in which a variety of software tools, information displays, and crew-ground communications protocols were employed to assist both crews and Flight Control Team (FCT) members with the long-delay conditions. Preliminary findings indicate: 1) Workload of both crewmembers and FCT members generally increased along with increasing time delay. 2) Advanced procedure execution viewers, caution and warning tools, and communications protocols such as text messaging decreased the workload of both flight controllers and crew, and decreased the difficulty of coordinating activities. 3) Whereas crew workload ratings increased between 50 sec and 300 sec of time delay in the Baseline configuration, workload ratings decreased (or remained flat) in the Mitigation configuration.

Frank, J.; Spirkovska, L.; McCann, R.; Wang, Lui; Pohlkamp, K.; Morin, L.

117

Phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

This project involves the development of group specific 16S ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the rapid detection of specific types of subsurface organisms (e.g., groups of microbes that share certain physiological traits). Major accomplishments for the period of 6/91 to 12/1/91 are described. Nine new probes have been synthesized on the basis of published 16S rRNA sequence data from the Ribosomal Database Project. We have initiated rapid screening of many of the subsurface microbial isolates obtained from the P24 borehole at the Savannah River Site. To date, we have screened approximately 50% of the isolates from P24. We have optimized our {und in situ} hybridization technique, and have developed a cell blot hybridization technique to screen 96 samples on a single blot. This is much faster than reading 96 individual slides. Preliminary experiments have been carried out which indicate specific nutrients can be used to amplify rRNA only in those organisms capable of metabolizing those nutrients. 1 tab., 2 figs.

Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.

1991-01-01

118

The Design and Implementation of Instruments for Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Sounding of the Martian Subsurface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-frequency electromagnetic soundings of the subsurface can identify liquid water at depths ranging from hundreds of meters to approx. 10 km in an environment such as Mars. Among the tools necessary to perform these soundings are low-frequency electric and magnetic field sensors capable of being deployed from a lander or rover such that horizontal and vertical components of the fields can be measured free of structural or electrical interference. Under a NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP), we are currently engaged in the prototype stages of low frequency sensor implementations that will enable this technique to be performed autonomously within the constraints of a lander platform. Once developed, this technique will represent both a complementary and alternative method to orbital radar sounding investigations, as the latter may not be able to identify subsurface water without significant ambiguities. Low frequency EM methods can play a crucial role as a ground truth measurement, performing deep soundings at sites identified as high priority areas by orbital radars. Alternatively, the penetration depth and conductivity discrimination of low-frequency methods may enable detection of subsurface water in areas that render radar methods ineffective. In either case, the sensitivity and depth of penetration inherent in low frequency EM exploration makes this tool a compelling candidate method to identify subsurface liquid water from a landed platform on Mars or other targets of interest.

Delory, G. T.; Grimm, R. E.

2003-01-01

119

Towards an Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) with Reflex Autonomicity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of providing a fault-tolerant environment and achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications. However, the task of manually managing and configuring a cluster quickly becomes daunting as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing, with its vision to provide self-management, can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management and its evolution to include reflex reactions via pulse monitoring.

Truszkowski, Walt; Hinchey, Mike; Sterritt, Roy

2005-01-01

120

Fabricating spatially-varying subsurface scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many real world surfaces exhibit translucent appearance due to subsurface scattering. Although various methods exists to measure, edit and render subsurface scattering effects, no solution exists for manufacturing physical objects with desired translucent appearance. In this paper, we present a complete solution for fabricating a material volume with a desired surface BSSRDF. We stack layers from a fixed set of

Yue Dong; Jiaping Wang; Fabio Pellacini; Xin Tong; Baining Guo

2010-01-01

121

Microbial processes and subsurface contaminants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Chapman Conference entitled “Microbial Processes in the Transport, Fate, and In Situ Treatment of Subsurface Contaminants” was held in Snowbird, Utah, October 1-3, 1986. Members of the program committee and session chairmen were Lenore Clesceri (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y.), David Gibson (University of Texas, Austin), James Mercer (GeoTrans, Inc., Herndon , Va.), Donald Michelsen (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg), Fred Molz (Auburn University, Auburn, Ala.), Bruce Rittman (University of Illinois, Urbana), Gary Sayler (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), and John T. Wilson (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ada, Okla.). The following report attempts to highlight the six sessions that constituted the conference. For additional information, including a bound summary and abstracts, contact Fred J. Molz, Civil Engineering Department, Auburn University, AL 36849 (telephone: 205-826-4321).

Molz, Fred J.

122

Geobacter uraniireducens sp. nov., isolated from subsurface sediment undergoing uranium  

E-print Network

Geobacter uraniireducens sp. nov., isolated from subsurface sediment undergoing uranium with acetate oxidation, was isolated from subsurface sediment undergoing uranium bioremediation. The 16S r was to recover an environmentally relevant Geobacter strain from subsurface sediments undergoing in situ uranium

Lovley, Derek

123

Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During GFY 91, Draper Laboratory was awarded a task by NASA-JSC under contract number NAS9-18426 to study and evaluate the potential for achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using an on-board autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) system. This report describes the results of that study. The AHDA task had four objectives: to demonstrate, via a closed-loop simulation, the ability to autonomously select safe landing sites and the ability to maneuver to the selected site; to identify key issues in the development of AHDA systems; to produce strawman designs for AHDA sensors and algorithms; and to perform initial trade studies leading to better understanding of the effect of sensor/terrain/viewing parameters on AHDA algorithm performance. This report summarizes the progress made during the first year, with primary emphasis on describing the tools developed for simulating a closed-loop AHDA landing. Some cursory performance evaluation results are also presented.

Pien, Homer

1992-01-01

124

Discerning non-autonomous dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structure and function go hand in hand. However, while a complex structure can be relatively safely broken down into the minutest parts, and technology is now delving into nanoscales, the function of complex systems requires a completely different approach. Here the complexity clearly arises from nonlinear interactions, which prevents us from obtaining a realistic description of a system by dissecting it into its structural component parts. At best, the result of such investigations does not substantially add to our understanding or at worst it can even be misleading. Not surprisingly, the dynamics of complex systems, facilitated by increasing computational efficiency, is now readily tackled in the case of measured time series. Moreover, time series can now be collected in practically every branch of science and in any structural scale-from protein dynamics in a living cell to data collected in astrophysics or even via social networks. In searching for deterministic patterns in such data we are limited by the fact that no complex system in the real world is autonomous. Hence, as an alternative to the stochastic approach that is predominantly applied to data from inherently non-autonomous complex systems, theory and methods specifically tailored to non-autonomous systems are needed. Indeed, in the last decade we have faced a huge advance in mathematical methods, including the introduction of pullback attractors, as well as time series methods that cope with the most important characteristic of non-autonomous systems-their time-dependent behaviour. Here we review current methods for the analysis of non-autonomous dynamics including those for extracting properties of interactions and the direction of couplings. We illustrate each method by applying it to three sets of systems typical for chaotic, stochastic and non-autonomous behaviour. For the chaotic class we select the Lorenz system, for the stochastic the noise-forced Duffing system and for the non-autonomous the Poincaré oscillator with quasi-periodic forcing. In this way we not only discuss and review each method, but also present properties which help to clearly distinguish the three classes of systems when analysed in an inverse approach-from measured, or numerically generated data. In particular, this review provides a framework to tackle inverse problems in these areas and clearly distinguish non-autonomous dynamics from chaos or stochasticity.

Clemson, Philip T.; Stefanovska, Aneta

2014-09-01

125

Intelligent, autonomous systems in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station is expected to be equipped with intelligent, autonomous capabilities; to achieve and incorporate these capabilities, the required technologies need to be identitifed, developed and validated within realistic application scenarios. The critical technologies for the development of intelligent, autonomous systems are discussed in the context of a generalized functional architecture. The present state of this technology implies that it be introduced and applied in an evolutionary process which must start during the Space Station design phase. An approach is proposed to accomplish design information acquisition and management for knowledge-base development.

Lum, H.; Heer, E.

1988-01-01

126

Progress towards autonomous, intelligent systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aggressive program has been initiated to develop, integrate, and implement autonomous systems technologies starting with today's expert systems and evolving to autonomous, intelligent systems by the end of the 1990s. This program includes core technology developments and demonstration projects for technology evaluation and validation. This paper discusses key operational frameworks in the content of systems autonomy applications and then identifies major technological challenges, primarily in artificial intelligence areas. Program content and progress made towards critical technologies and demonstrations that have been initiated to achieve the required future capabilities in the year 2000 era are discussed.

Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

1987-01-01

127

Contingency Software in Autonomous Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of contingency software for autonomous systems. Autonomous vehicles currently have a limited capacity to diagnose and mitigate failures. There is a need to be able to handle a broader range of contingencies. The goals of the project are: 1. Speed up diagnosis and mitigation of anomalous situations.2.Automatically handle contingencies, not just failures.3.Enable projects to select a degree of autonomy consistent with their needs and to incrementally introduce more autonomy.4.Augment on-board fault protection with verified contingency scripts

Lutz, Robyn; Patterson-Hine, Ann

2006-01-01

128

Autonomic Modulation of Olfactory Signaling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The olfactory epithelium is extensively innervated by sympathetic nerve endings, which release norepinephrine, and parasympathetic nerve endings, which release acetylcholine. Because olfactory sensory neurons have adrenergic and muscarinic receptors in addition to odorant receptors, autonomic stimulation can modulate the responses of olfactory sensory neurons to odorants. Recent studies have shed light on the molecular mechanisms that underlie crosstalk between muscarinic and odorant receptor signaling. The emerging view is that the stimulation of odorant receptor signaling by odorants, which is the earliest step in olfaction, can be substantially regulated by the autonomic nervous system.

Randy A. Hall (Emory University School of Medicine;Department of Pharmacology REV)

2011-01-11

129

Adaptive sampling in autonomous marine sensor networks  

E-print Network

In this thesis, an innovative architecture for real-time adaptive and cooperative control of autonomous sensor platforms in a marine sensor network is described in the context of the autonomous oceanographic network scenario. ...

Eickstedt, Donald Patrick

2006-01-01

130

Continuous observation planning for autonomous exploration  

E-print Network

Many applications of autonomous robots depend on the robot being able to navigate in real world environments. In order to navigate or path plan, the robot often needs to consult a map of its surroundings. A truly autonomous ...

Hasegawa, Bradley R

2004-01-01

131

A Robust Compositional Architecture for Autonomous Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space exploration applications can benefit greatly from autonomous systems. Great distances, limited communications and high costs make direct operations impossible while mandating operations reliability and efficiency beyond what traditional commanding can provide. Autonomous systems can improve reliability and enhance spacecraft capability significantly. However, there is reluctance to utilizing autonomous systems. In part this is due to general hesitation about new technologies, but a more tangible concern is that of reliability of predictability of autonomous software. In this paper, we describe ongoing work aimed at increasing robustness and predictability of autonomous software, with the ultimate goal of building trust in such systems. The work combines state-of-the-art technologies and capabilities in autonomous systems with advanced validation and synthesis techniques. The focus of this paper is on the autonomous system architecture that has been defined, and on how it enables the application of validation techniques for resulting autonomous systems.

Brat, Guillaume; Deney, Ewen; Farrell, Kimberley; Giannakopoulos, Dimitra; Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy; Bobby, Mark; Carpenter, Todd; Estlin, Tara

2006-01-01

132

Autonomous decentralized systems: Concept, data field architecture and future trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of autonomous decentralized systems (ADSs) and their data field (DF) architecture are presented. An autonomous subsystem is defined as having autonomous controllability and autonomous coordinability, and a system is understood as the result of integration of autonomous subsystems. Autonomous subsystems are mutually connected through the DF, where all of the data are broadcast, and each subsystem independently elects

Kinji Mori

1993-01-01

133

Selection of Business Process for Autonomic Automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic automation is viewed as a new approach to business process automation. In this work, we propose a method to identify the best-suited business processes as candidates for an autonomic automation. Generally, this decision is made by process automation experts or inspired by management preferences. Moreover, the best candidate to an autonomic automation is possibly different from a candidate to

Luciano D. Terres; José A. Rodrigues Nt; Jano Moreira de Souza

2010-01-01

134

Designing autonomic management systems for cloud computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic Computing Systems are systems which are capable of adapting themselves to changes in their working environment in order to maintain required service level agreements, protect the execution of the system from external attacks or prevent and recover from failures. Within the field of autonomic computing, autonomic systems are developed as control loops which monitor and analyze the execution of

Bogdan Solomon; Dan Ionescu; Marin Litoiu; Gabriel Iszlai

2010-01-01

135

AUTONOMOUS CONTROL SYSTEMS: ARCHITECTURE AND FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES  

E-print Network

WP7 2:00 AUTONOMOUS CONTROL SYSTEMS: ARCHITECTURE AND FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES PJ. Antsaklis, KLM Passin Autonomous control systems must perform well under signifit uncertainties in te plant and the envionment. Such autonomous behavior is a very desirable characterisic of advanced systems. An antnommous contoller provides

Antsaklis, Panos

136

NON-AUTONOMOUS CONFORMAL ITERATED FUNCTION SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

NON-AUTONOMOUS CONFORMAL ITERATED FUNCTION SYSTEMS AND MORAN-SET CONSTRUCTIONS LASSE REMPE-GILLEN AND MARIUSZ URBA´NSKI Abstract. We study non-autonomous conformal iterated function systems, with finite or countable infinite alphabet alike. These differ from the usual (autonomous) iterated function systems

Urbanski, Mariusz

137

The EO1 autonomous science agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Autonomous Science Agent is currently flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and respond to science events occurring on the Earth. The package includes software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. Because of the deployment to a remote spacecraft, this Autonomous Science Agent has stringent

Steve Chien; Rob Sherwood; Daniel Tran; Benjamin Cichy; Gregg Rabideau; Rebecca Castano; Ashley Davies; Rachel Lee; Dan Mandl; Stuart Frye; Bruce Trout; Jerry Hengemihle; J. D'Agostino; S. Shulman; S. Ungar; T. Brakke; D. Boyer; J. Van Gaasbeck; R. Greeley; T. Doggett; V. Baker; J. Dohm; F. Ip

2004-01-01

138

The EO1 Autonomous Science Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Autonomous Science Agent is currently flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and respond to science events occurring on the Earth. The package includes software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. Because of the deployment to a remote spacecraft, this Autonomous Science Agent has stringent

Steve A. Chien; Rob Sherwood; Daniel Tran; Benjamin Cichy; Gregg Rabideau; Rebecca Castano; Ashley Davies; Rachel Lee; Dan Mandl; Stuart Frye; Bruce Trout; Jerry Hengemihle; Jeff D'Agostino; Seth Shulman; Stephen Ungar; Thomas Brakke; Darrell Boyer; Jim Van Gaasbeck; Ronald Greeley; Thomas Doggett; Victor R. Baker; James M. Dohm; Felipe Ip

2004-01-01

139

Programmable autonomous micromixers and micropumps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmable autonomous micromixers and micropumps have been designed and realized via a merger between MEMS and microfluidic tectonics (?FT). Advantages leveraged from both fabrication platforms allow for relatively simple and rapid fabrication of these microfluidic components. Nickel (Ni) microstructures, driven by an external rotating magnetic field, are patterned in situ and serve as the microactuators in the devices. ?FT permits

Abhishek K. Agarwal; Sudheer S. Sridharamurthy; David J. Beebe; Hongrui Jiang

2005-01-01

140

Algorithms for autonomous star identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Algorithms for onboard autonomous star identification are presented. The algorithms are applicable to two types of spacecraft missions, those flown with nearly inertially fixed attitude (solar maximum mission type); and those flown with smoothly time varying attitude (LANDSAT-D type).

1980-01-01

141

Representation and purposeful autonomous agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many researchers feel that an autonomous system, capable of behaving appropriately in an uncertain environment, must have an internal representation (world model) of entities, events and situations it perceives in the world, research into active vision, inattentional amnesia has implications for our views on the content of represented knowledge and raises issues concerning coupling knowledge held in the longer

Sharon Wood

2004-01-01

142

Smart Executives for Autonomous Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this article we explore the design of an executive for an autonomous spacecraft. The executive is responsible for translating high-level commands, whether they come from the ground or from an on-board planner, into the low-level commands understood directly by the spacecraft hardware.

Gat, E.; Pell, B.

1998-01-01

143

Interoperability of multiple autonomous databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Database systems were a solution to the problem of shared access to heterogeneous files created by multiple autonomous applications in a centralized environment. To make data usage easier, the files were replaced by a globally integrated database. To a large extent, the idea was successful, and many databases are now accessible through local and long-haul networks. Unavoidably, users now need

Witold Litwin; Leo Mark; Nick Roussopoulos

1990-01-01

144

Electrical Engineering for Autonomousfor Autonomous  

E-print Network

Electrical Engineering for Autonomousfor Autonomous Exploration Robots Minor EE-Mi-109-11 Electrical Engineering Do you want to know more about EE? is all around us Electrical Engineering enables an introduction to Electrical Engineering for (mainly) students in Physics and in the constructive sciences

145

World Modeling for Autonomous Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution proposes a universal, intelligent information storage and management system for autonomous systems, e. g., robots. The proposed system uses a three pillar information architecture consisting of three distinct components: prior knowledge, environment model, and real world. In the center of the architecture, the environment model is situated, which constitutes the fusion target for prior knowledge and sensory information

Ioana Gheta; Michael Heizmann; Andrey Belkin; Jurgen Beyerer

2010-01-01

146

An Autonomous Spacecraft Agent Prototype  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the New Millennium Remote Agent (NMRA) architecture for autonomous spacecraft control systems. This architecture integrates traditional real-time monitoring and control with constraint-based planning and scheduling, robust multi-threaded execution, and model-based diagnosis and reconfiguration.

Pell, Barney; Bernard, Douglas E.; Chien, Steve A.; Gat, Erann; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, P. Pandurang; Wagner, Michael D.; Williams, Brian C.

1997-01-01

147

Autonomic control of the swimbladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The swimbladder of teleost fishes is the primary organ for controlling whole-body density, and thus buoyancy. The volume of gas in the swimbladder is adjusted to bring the organism to near neutral buoyancy at a particular depth. Swimbladder morphology varies widely among teleosts, but all species are capable of inflating and deflating this organ under reflex control by the autonomic

Frank M. Smith; Roger P. Croll

2011-01-01

148

Lernmethoden fur autonome mobile Roboter  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.2 Industrie- und Dienstleistungs-Roboter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.3 Robotik als Benchmark 17 2.1 Warum Roboter-Fu�ball? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.2 Geschichte vonLernmethoden f¨ur autonome mobile Roboter 1234567891011 A B C D E F G State Changes Date Name Date

Förster, Alexander

149

The autonomic phenotype of rumination.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that ruminative thoughts may be mediators of the prolonged physiological effects of stress. We hypothesized that autonomic dysregulation plays a role in the relation between rumination and health. Rumination was induced by an anger-recall task in 45 healthy subjects. Heart rate variability (HRV), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and baroreflex effectiveness index (BEI) change scores were evaluated to obtain the autonomic phenotype of rumination. Personality traits and endothelial activation were examined for their relation to autonomic responses during rumination. Degree of endothelial activation was assessed by circulating soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1). Vagal withdrawal during rumination was greater for women than men. Larger decreases in the high frequency component of HRV were associated with higher levels of anger-in, depression, and sICAM-1 levels. BRS reactivity was negatively related to trait anxiety. BEI reactivity was positively related to anger-in, hostility, anxiety, and depression. Lower BEI and BRS recovery were associated with lower social desirability and higher anger-out, anxiety, and depression. Findings suggest that the autonomic dysregulation that characterizes rumination plays a role in the relationships between personality and cardiovascular health. PMID:19272312

Ottaviani, Cristina; Shapiro, David; Davydov, Dmitry M; Goldstein, Iris B; Mills, Paul J

2009-06-01

150

An Autonomous Reliabilit Cloud Comput  

E-print Network

An Autonomous Reliabilit Ami Cloud Comput Department of Computing and Informa Abstract--Cloud computing paradigm allo based access to computing and storages s Internet. Since with advances of Cloud. Keywords- Cloud computing; SLA negotiat I. INTRODUCTION Cloud computing has transferred the services

Buyya, Rajkumar

151

Security in an autonomic computing  

E-print Network

and administering them have grown at a steadily increasing rate. As the costs of system hard- ware and software have obey privacy policies required by national laws and business ethics. Successful autonomic systems portions, of this paper may be copied or distributed royalty free without further permission by computer

Ramkumar, Mahalingam

152

The Functioning of Autonomous Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The college gets separated from the university, though not completely, when it is an autonomous college, which is practice in India. Academic package will become flexible and the decision-making is internalized, changes and updating could be easily carried out, depending on the need as reflected from the feedback taken from alumni, user sectors,…

Rao, V. Pala Prasada; Rao, Digumarti Bhaskara

2012-01-01

153

Acetylsalicylic acid and autonomic modulation.  

PubMed

Loss of autonomic balance characterized by increased sympathetic activity and decreased vagal activity has been implicated as a major cardiovascular risk factor. Aspirin's cardioprotective abilities involve a multitude of physiologic processes. However, the effects of aspirin on cardiac autonomic activity are unknown. In a double-blind crossover study, 22 subjects randomly received either aspirin or placebo in the amounts of 325 mg with each meal (three times per day) over a 2.5-day period. The total amount of aspirin ingested was 2,275 mg, which resulted in plasma levels of 3.3 mg/dl. At the conclusion of each treatment, subjects were evaluated for autonomic physiology activity using standard autonomic tests. Power spectral analyses of the electrocardiograms were used to delineate autonomic function. A 2 x 4 repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant and favorable changes in autonomic activity after the use of aspirin. Specifically, at rest high-frequency (HF) power was significantly higher (mean, 1,090 + 1,463.5 msec2) compared with the placebo (mean, 692 742 msec2) (p <0.05). Low-frequency (LF) power was significantly reduced (mean, 963 745 msec2) after aspirin compared with placebo (mean, 1,100 906 msec2). After the aspirin treatment, a significantly lower LF-to-HF power ratio (mean, 1.7 2 msec2) was noted at rest when compared with the placebo (mean, 2.5 2.7 msec2) (p <0.05). Similar significant trends were seen during the sustained isometric contraction after aspirin therapy for HF power (mean 210 2.15 msec2) compared with placebo (mean, 213 184 msec2) (p <0.05). Accordingly, the LF-to-HF power ratio was lower as well when compared to placebo treatment (mean, 2.3 3.5 msec2) (mean, 5.3 8.4 msec2) (p <0.05). No differences were found in breathing rates for hemodynamic variables between any of the protocols. The significant reduction of LF-to-HF ratio, a marker of sympathovagal balance, for both protocols appeared to be largely due to a withdrawal of LF modulation and concomitant but lesser increase in HF modulation. Favorable alterations in autonomic outflow through prostaglandin inhibition may be one of the mechanisms by which low therapeutic amounts of aspirin provide prophylactic cardioprotection. PMID:11029017

De Meersman, R E; Zion, A S; Lieberman, J S; Downey, J A

2000-08-01

154

EVOLVING CONCEPTS OF SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, a large gap exists between theoretical advances in the understanding of how various natural processes affect subsurface contaminant transport, and our ability to translate those advances into practical applications. The lack of truly representative and reliable field t...

155

MODELING CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT THROUGH SUBSURFACE SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Modeling of contaminant transport through soil to groundwater to a receptor requires that consideration he given to the many processes which control the transport and fate of chemical constituents in the subsurface environment. hese processes include volatilization, degradation, ...

156

MODELING CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT THROUGH SUBSURFACE SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Modeling of contaminant transport through soil to groundwater to a receptor requires that consideration be given to the many processes which control the transport and fate of chemical constituents in the subsurface environment. These processes include volatilization, degradation,...

157

Component-Based Framework for Subsurface Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Simulations in the subsurface environment represent a broad range of phenomena covering an equally broad range of scales. Developing modelling capabilities that can integrate models representing different phenomena acting at different scales present formidable challenges both from the algorithmic and computer science perspective. This paper will describe the development of an integrated framework that will be used to combine different models into a single simulation. Initial work has focused on creating two frameworks, one for performing smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of fluid systems, the other for performing grid-based continuum simulations of reactive subsurface flow. The SPH framework is based on a parallel code developed for doing pore scale simulations, the continuum grid-based framework is based on the STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) code developed at PNNL. Future work will focus on combining the frameworks together to perform multiscale, multiphysics simulations of reactive subsurface flow.

Palmer, Bruce J.; Fang, Yilin; Hammond, Glenn E.; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya

2007-08-01

158

Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Subsurface Modeling (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a general framework for probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for subsurface modeling. PRA provides a natural venue for the rigorous quantification of structural (model) and parametric uncertainties inherent in predictions of subsurface flow and transport. A typical PRA starts by identifying relevant components of a subsurface system (e.g., a buried solid-waste tank, an aquitard, a remediation effort) and proceeds by using uncertainty quantification techniques to estimate the probabilities of their failure. These probabilities are then combined by means of fault-tree analyses to yield probabilistic estimates of the risk of system failure (e.g., aquifer contamination). To illustrate this general PRA framework, we discuss several examples ranging from subsurface remediation to underground excavation.

Tartakovsky, D. M.

2010-12-01

159

Lidar equation for ocean surface and subsurface.  

PubMed

The lidar equation for ocean at optical wavelengths including subsurface signals is revisited using the recent work of the radiative transfer and ocean color community for passive measurements. The previous form of the specular and subsurface echo term are corrected from their heritage, which originated from passive remote sensing of whitecaps, and is improved for more accurate use in future lidar research. A corrected expression for specular and subsurface lidar return is presented. The previous formalism does not correctly address angular dependency of specular lidar return and overestimates the subsurface term by a factor ranging from 89% to 194% for a nadir pointing lidar. Suggestions for future improvements to the lidar equation are also presented. PMID:20940981

Josset, Damien; Zhai, Peng-Wang; Hu, Yongxiang; Pelon, Jacques; Lucker, Patricia L

2010-09-27

160

Use of radar for nonintrusive subsurface investigations  

SciTech Connect

Finding and mapping buried hazardous waste can be a time-consuming process. However, advances in ground-penetrating radar technology are improving the means by which to detect subsurface features and related contamination. Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. (North Salem, New Hampshire) has developed an innovative ground-penetrating radar system. The Subsurface Interface Radar (SIR{reg_sign}) system can provide real-time and continuous-profile records that indicate the location and depth of objects within subsurfaces of soil, concrete, rock, water, or other dielectric materials. The SIR{reg_sign} system allows the user to investigate subsurface conditions in a nonintrusive manner; this radar can locate underground storage tanks and buried drums, delineate landfill boundaries and burial trenches, and in some cases, the radar can identify hydrocarbon plums.

NONE

1995-07-01

161

PUBLICATIONS (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

SPRD's Subsurface Remediation Information Center (SRIC) provides publication distribution of highly specialized scientific and technical information developed by and through SPRD relating to groundwater protection and remediation and ecosystem restoration. The SRIC maintains a b...

162

Microbial life in the deep terrestrial subsurface  

SciTech Connect

The distribution and function of microorganisms is a vital issue in microbial ecology. The US Department of Energy`s Program, ``Microbiology of the Deep Subsurface,`` concentrates on establishing fundamental scientific information about organisms at depth, and the use of these organisms for remediation of contaminants in deep vadose zone and groundwater environments. This investigation effectively extends the Biosphere hundreds of meters into the Geosphere and has implications to a variety of subsurface activities.

Fliermans, C.B. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Lab.; Balkwill, D.L. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Beeman, R.E. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)] [and others

1988-12-31

163

Modeling the Subsurface Structure of Sunspots  

Microsoft Academic Search

While sunspots are easily observed at the solar surface, determining their subsurface structure is not trivial. There are\\u000a two main hypotheses for the subsurface structure of sunspots: the monolithic model and the cluster model. Local helioseismology\\u000a is the only means by which we can investigate subphotospheric structure. However, as current linear inversion techniques do\\u000a not yet allow helioseismology to probe

H. Moradi; C. Baldner; A. C. Birch; D. C. Braun; R. H. Cameron; T. L. Duvall Jr.; L. Gizon; D. Haber; S. M. Hanasoge; B. W. Hindman; J. Jackiewicz; E. Khomenko; R. Komm; P. Rajaguru; M. Rempel; M. Roth; R. Schlichenmaier; H. J. Schunker; H. C. Spruit; K. G. Strassmeier; M. J. Thompson; S. Zharkov

2010-01-01

164

Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

Wehner, Walter S., Jr.

2013-01-01

165

An intelligent subsurface buoy design for measuring ocean ambient noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A type of ultra-low power subsurface buoy system is designed to measure and record ocean ambient noise data. The buoy utilizes a vector hydrophone (pass band 20Hz-1.2kHz) and a 6-element vertical hydrophone array (pass band 20Hz-2kHz) to measure ocean ambient noise. The acoustic signals are passed through an automatically modified gain, a band pass filter, and an analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion module. They are then stored in high-capacity flash memory. In order to identify the direction of noise source, the vector sensor measuring system has integrated an electric-magnetic compass. The system provides a low-rate underwater acoustic communication system which is used to report the buoy state information and a high-speed USB interface which is used to retrieve the recorded data on deck. The whole system weighs about 125kg and can operate autonomously for more than 72 hours. The system's main architecture and the sea-trial test results are provided in this paper.

Li, Bing; Wang, Lei

2012-11-01

166

Cardiac autonomic nerve distribution and arrhythmia?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the distribution characteristics of cardiac autonomic nerves and to explore the correlation between cardiac autonomic nerve distribution and arrhythmia. DATA RETRIEVAL: A computer-based retrieval was performed for papers examining the distribution of cardiac autonomic nerves, using heart, autonomic nerve, sympathetic nerve, vagus nerve, nerve distribution, rhythm and atrial fibrillation as the key words. SELECTION CRITERIA: A total of 165 studies examining the distribution of cardiac autonomic nerve were screened, and 46 of them were eventually included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The distribution and characteristics of cardiac autonomic nerves were observed, and immunohistochemical staining was applied to determine the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and acetylcholine transferase (main markers of cardiac autonomic nerve distribution). In addition, the correlation between cardiac autonomic nerve distribution and cardiac arrhythmia was investigated. RESULTS: Cardiac autonomic nerves were reported to exhibit a disordered distribution in different sites, mainly at the surface of the cardiac atrium and pulmonary vein, forming a ganglia plexus. The distribution of the pulmonary vein autonomic nerve was prominent at the proximal end rather than the distal end, at the upper left rather than the lower right, at the epicardial membrane rather than the endocardial membrane, at the left atrium rather than the right atrium, and at the posterior wall rather than the anterior wall. The main markers used for cardiac autonomic nerves were tyrosine hydroxylase and acetylcholine transferase. Protein gene product 9.5 was used to label the immunoreactive nerve distribution, and the distribution density of autonomic nerves was determined using a computer-aided morphometric analysis system. CONCLUSION: The uneven distribution of the cardiac autonomic nerves is the leading cause of the occurrence of arrhythmia, and the cardiac autonomic nerves play an important role in the occurrence, maintenance, and symptoms of arrhythmia.

Liu, Quan; Chen, Dongmei; Wang, Yonggang; Zhao, Xin; Zheng, Yang

2012-01-01

167

Autonomous spacecraft maintenance study group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A plan to incorporate autonomous spacecraft maintenance (ASM) capabilities into Air Force spacecraft by 1989 is outlined. It includes the successful operation of the spacecraft without ground operator intervention for extended periods of time. Mechanisms, along with a fault tolerant data processing system (including a nonvolatile backup memory) and an autonomous navigation capability, are needed to replace the routine servicing that is presently performed by the ground system. The state of the art fault handling capabilities of various spacecraft and computers are described, and a set conceptual design requirements needed to achieve ASM is established. Implementations for near term technology development needed for an ASM proof of concept demonstration by 1985, and a research agenda addressing long range academic research for an advanced ASM system for 1990s are established.

Marshall, M. H.; Low, G. D.

1981-01-01

168

Creating adaptive affective autonomous NPCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports work to create believable autonomous Non Player Characters in Video games in general and educational role\\u000a play games in particular. It aims to increase their ability to respond appropriately to the player’s actions both cognitively\\u000a and emotionally by integrating two models: the cognitive appraisal-based FAtiMA architecture, and the drives-based PSI model.\\u000a We discuss the modelling of adaptive

Mei Yii Lim; João Dias; Ruth Aylett; Ana Paiva

169

Representation and purposeful autonomous agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Although many researchers feel that an autonomous system, capable,of,behaving,appropriately,in an,uncertain environment, must have an internal representation (world model) of entities, events and situations it perceives in the world, research into active vision, inattentional amnesia (Rensink, 2000b; Wolfe, 1999) and change blindness (Rensink, 2000a; Hayhoe, 2003; Tatler, Gilchrist and Rusted, 2003) has implications for our views on the content of

Sharon Wood

2005-01-01

170

Utility Functions in Autonomic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Utility functions provide a natural and advantageous framework,for achieving self-optimization in distributedautonomic,computing,systems. We present a distributed architecture, implemented in a realistic prototype data cent er, that demonstrates,how utility functions can enable a collec - tion of autonomic,elements to continually optimize the use of computational resources in a dynamic, heterogeneous environment. Broadly, the architecture is a two-level struct ure of

William E. Walsh; Gerald Tesauro; Jeffrey O. Kephart; Rajarshi Das

2004-01-01

171

Integrated Microsensors for Autonomous Microrobots  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of a miniature mobile microrobot device and several microsystems needed to create a miniature microsensor delivery platform. This work was funded under LDRD No.10785, entitled, ''Integrated Microsensors for Autonomous Microrobots''. The approach adopted in this project was to develop a mobile platform, to which would be attached wireless RF remote control and data acquisition in addition to various microsensors. A modular approach was used to produce a versatile microrobot platform and reduce power consumption and physical size.

ADKINS, DOUGLAS R.; BYRNE, RAYMOND H.; HELLER, EDWIN J.; WOLF, JIMMIE V.

2003-02-01

172

Autonomic Computing: Panacea or Poppycock?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomic Computing arose out of a need for a means to cope with rapidly growing complexity of integrating, managing, and operating computer-based systems as well as a need to reduce the total cost of ownership of today's systems. Autonomic Computing (AC) as a discipline was proposed by IBM in 2001, with the vision to develop self-managing systems. As the name implies, the influence for the new paradigm is the human body's autonomic system, which regulates vital bodily functions such as the control of heart rate, the body's temperature and blood flow-all without conscious effort. The vision is to create selfivare through self-* properties. The initial set of properties, in terms of objectives, were self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protecting, along with attributes of self-awareness, self-monitoring and self-adjusting. This self-* list has grown: self-anticipating, self-critical, self-defining, self-destructing, self-diagnosis, self-governing, self-organized, self-reflecting, and self-simulation, for instance.

Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

2005-01-01

173

Semi autonomous mine detection system  

SciTech Connect

CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

2010-04-01

174

Integrated System for Autonomous Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The New Millennium Program Space Technology 6 Project Autonomous Sciencecraft software implements an integrated system for autonomous planning and execution of scientific, engineering, and spacecraft-coordination actions. A prior version of this software was reported in "The TechSat 21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment" (NPO-30784), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 3 (March 2004), page 33. This software is now in continuous use aboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) spacecraft mission and is being adapted for use in the Mars Odyssey and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. This software enables EO-1 to detect and respond to such events of scientific interest as volcanic activity, flooding, and freezing and thawing of water. It uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect changes, including events of scientific interest. Detection of such events triggers acquisition of follow-up imagery. The mission-planning component of the software develops a response plan that accounts for visibility of targets and operational constraints. The plan is then executed under control by a task-execution component of the software that is capable of responding to anomalies.

Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Robert; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Castano, Rebecca; Rabideau, Gregg; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Shulman, Seth; Doggett, Thomas; Ip, Felipe; Greeley, Ron; Baker, Victor; Dohn, James; Boyer, Darrell

2006-01-01

175

CSMOS GROUNDWATER MODELING SOFTWARE (CENTER FOR SUBSURFACE MODELING SUPPORT, SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Center for Subsurface Modeling Support (CSMoS), which is part of NRMRL's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division, distributes various public domain groundwater and vadose zone models. A short decription of each model is available. You can obtain both models and manuals...

176

Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: KSC Autonomous Test Engineer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20+ years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in. the system, As part.of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display ofthe entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledgebase, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

Shrading, Nicholas J.

2012-01-01

177

Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

Schrading, J. Nicolas

2013-01-01

178

Mechanoreceptors and autonomic responses to movement in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanoreceptor contribution to efferent autonomic outflow is incompletely understood. To determine the effects of mechanorceptor stimulation on autonomic reflexes, we compared autonomic responses in 34 subjects using a cross-over, counterbalanced design, in which hemodynamic, electromyographic, metabolic, and autonomic data were gathered during rest, passive, and active movement protocols. Because metaboreceptors and ventilatory responses influence autonomic outflow we verified and controlled

Ronald E. De Meersman; Adrienne S. Zion; Joseph P. Weir; James S. Lieberman; John A. Downey

1998-01-01

179

Autonomic Networking in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we address autonomic networking in termsof wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a typical example of wirelessnetworks\\u000a in pervasive computing. In order to investigate the stateof the art of autonomic networking in sensor networks and its futureprospects,\\u000a we start with a short summary of autonomic networking andSensor networks. It follows the discussion of the appliance ofautonomic\\u000a networking in WSNs

Mengjie Yu; Hala Mokhtar; Madjid Merabti

180

The EO-1 Autonomous Science Agent Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Autonomous Science Agent is currently flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and respond to science events occurring on the Earth. The package includes software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. Because of the deployment to a remote spacecraft, this Autonomous Science Agent has stringent constraints of autonomy, reliability, and limited computing resources. We describe these constraints and how they are reflected in our agent architecture.

Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Lee, Rachel; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Hengemihle, Jerry; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Ungar, Stephen; Brakke, Thomas; Boyer, Darrell; Van Gaasbeck, Jim; Greeley, Ronald; Doggett, Thomas; Baker, Victor; Dohm, James; Ip, Felipe

2004-01-01

181

Self-Optimization in Autonomic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic computing is a research area that ex- tends to numerous different fields of science. We describe ho w autonomic computing can be used to overcome many problems the IT industry is facing today. Autonomic computing systems are, by definition, self-configuring, self-healing, self-o ptimizing and self-protecting. We show some examples of existing systems that have these self-* capabilities. We look

Marko Kankaanniemi

182

Anthropogenic effects on subsurface temperature in Bangkok  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface temperatures in Bangkok, where population and density increase rapidly, were analyzed to evaluate the effects of surface warming due to urbanization. The magnitude of surface warming evaluated from subsurface temperature in Bangkok was 1.7°C which agreed with meteorological data during the last 50 years. The depth apart from steady thermal gradient, which shows an indicator of the magnitude of surface warming due to additional heat from urbanization, was deeper at the center of the city than in the suburb areas of Bangkok. In order to separate surface warming effects into global warming effect and urbanization effect, analyses of subsurface temperature have been done depending on the distance from the city center. The results show that the expansion of urbanization in Bangkok reaches up to 80 km from the city center.

Taniguchi, M.

2006-09-01

183

Microbial activities in deep subsurface environments  

SciTech Connect

Activities of microorganisms residing in terrestrial deep subsurface sediments were examined in forty-six sediment samples from three aseptically sampled boreholes. Radiolabeled time course experiments assessing in situ microbial activities were initiated within 30 minutes of core recovery. [{sup 14}C-1-] Acetate incorporation into lipids. [methyl-{sup 3}H-]thymidine incorporation into DNA, [{sup 14}C-2-]acetate and [{sup 14}C-U-]glucose mineralization in addition to microbial enrichment and enumeration studies were examined in surface and subsurface sediments. Surface soils contained the greatest biomass and activities followed by the shallow aquifer zones. Water saturated subsurface sediments exhibited three to four orders of magnitude greater activity and culturable microorganisms than the dense clay zones. Regardless of depth, sediments which contained more than 20% clays exhibited the lowest activities and culturable microorganisms.

Phelps, T.J.; Raione, E.G.; White, D.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Inst. for Applied Microbiology]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., Knoxville, TN (United States); Fliermans, C.B. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Plant

1988-12-31

184

Information for Successful Interaction with Autonomous Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interaction in heterogeneous mission operations teams is not well matched to classical models of coordination with autonomous systems. We describe methods of loose coordination and information management in mission operations. We describe an information agent and information management tool suite for managing information from many sources, including autonomous agents. We present an integrated model of levels of complexity of agent and human behavior, which shows types of information processing and points of potential error in agent activities. We discuss the types of information needed for diagnosing problems and planning interactions with an autonomous system. We discuss types of coordination for which designs are needed for autonomous system functions.

Malin, Jane T.; Johnson, Kathy A.

2003-01-01

185

General autonomic components of motion sickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report refers to a body of investigations directed toward the examination of autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness. Heart rate, respiration rate, finger pulse volume, and basal skin resistance were measured on 127 men and women before, during, and after exposure to a nauseogenic rotating chair test. Significant changes in all autonomic responses were observed across the tests (p less than .05). Significant differences in autonomic responses among groups divided according to motion sickness susceptibility were also observed (p less than .05). Results suggest that the examination of autonomic responses as an objective indicator of motion sickness malaise is warranted and may contribute to the overall understanding of the syndrome.

Cowings, Patricia S.; Suter, Steve; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Naifeh, Karen

1986-01-01

186

Autonomic Computing for Spacecraft Ground Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomic computing for spacecraft ground systems increases the system reliability and reduces the cost of spacecraft operations and software maintenance. In this paper, we present an autonomic computing solution for spacecraft ground systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), which consists of an open standard for a message oriented architecture referred to as the GMSEC architecture (Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center), and an autonomic computing tool, the Criteria Action Table (CAT). This solution has been used in many upgraded ground systems for NASA 's missions, and provides a framework for developing solutions with higher autonomic maturity.

Li, Zhenping; Savkli, Cetin; Jones, Lori

2007-01-01

187

Apparatus for passive removal of subsurface contaminants  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided which passively removes contaminated gases from a subsurface. The apparatus includes a riser pipe extending into a subsurface which has an exterior end in fluid communication with a valve. When well pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure, the valve opens to release contaminants into the atmosphere, and when well pressure is less than atmospheric pressure, the valve closes to prevent flow of air into the well. The valve assembly of the invention comprises a lightweight ball which is lifted from its valve seat with a slight pressure drop between the well and the atmosphere.

Pemberton, Bradley E. (Aiken, SC); May, Christopher P. (Fairfax, VA); Rossabi, Joseph (Aiken, SC)

1997-01-01

188

Apparatus for passive removal of subsurface contaminants  

DOEpatents

An apparatus is provided which passively removes contaminated gases from a subsurface. The apparatus includes a riser pipe extending into a subsurface which has an exterior end in fluid communication with a valve. When well pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure, the valve opens to release contaminants into the atmosphere, and when well pressure is less than atmospheric pressure, the valve closes to prevent flow of air into the well. The valve assembly of the invention comprises a lightweight ball which is lifted from its valve seat with a slight pressure drop between the well and the atmosphere. 7 figs.

Pemberton, B.E.; May, C.P.; Rossabi, J.

1997-06-24

189

1Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems -AMOSwww.ntnu.edu/amos Autonomous Marine Operations  

E-print Network

06.06.2013 1 1Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems - AMOSwww.ntnu.edu/amos Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems AMOS 2013-2022 Cost: NOK 566 million AMOS Funding: NOK 240 million Research Council 2Centre for Autonomous Marine Operations and Systems - AMOSwww.ntnu.edu/amos Greener

Nørvåg, Kjetil

190

Autonomous Control of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Towing a Vector Sensor Array  

E-print Network

Autonomous Control of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Towing a Vector Sensor Array Michael R), and the particular considerations required to allow proper control while towing a 100-meter vector sensor array on autonomous control and communications with a single AUV fitted with a vector sensor array (Fig. 1) operating

Schmidt, Henrik

191

Autonomous brains and autonomous robots: The search for a working hypothesis  

E-print Network

Autonomous Brain: A Neural Theory of Attention and Learning" by P. M. Milner #3; J. Michael Herrmann MaxAutonomous brains and autonomous robots: The search for a working hypothesis Notes on "The, that the importance of the information processing aspect is not diminished by the emphasis on behavioral autonomy

Herrmann, Michael

192

Subsurface clade of Geobacteraceae that predominates in a diversity of Fe(III)-reducing subsurface environments  

SciTech Connect

There are distinct differences in the physiology of Geobacter species available in pure culture. Therefore, to understand the ecology of Geobacter species in subsurface environments, it is important to know which species predominate. Clone libraries were assembled with 16S rRNA genes and transcripts amplified from three subsurface environments in which Geobacter species are known to be important members of the microbial community: (1) a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, CO, USA undergoing in situ bioremediation; (2) an acetate-impacted aquifer that serves as an analog for the long-term acetate amendments proposed for in situ uranium bioremediation and (3) a petroleum-contaminated aquifer in which Geobacter species play a role in the oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons coupled with the reduction of Fe(III). The majority of Geobacteraceae 16S rRNA sequences found in these environments clustered in a phylogenetically coherent subsurface clade, which also contains a number of Geobacter species isolated from subsurface environments. Concatamers constructed with 43 Geobacter genes amplified from these sites also clustered within this subsurface clade. 16S rRNA transcript and gene sequences in the sediments and groundwater at the Rifle site were highly similar, suggesting that sampling groundwater via monitoring wells can recover the most active Geobacter species. These results suggest that further study of Geobacter species in the subsurface clade is necessary to accurately model the behavior of Geobacter species during subsurface bioremediation of metal and organic contaminants

Holmes, Dawn; O'Neil, Regina; Vrionis, Helen A.; N'guessan, Lucie A.; Ortiz-Bernad, Irene; Larrahondo, Maria J.; Adams, Lorrie A.; Ward, Joy A.; Nicoll, Julie S.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Chavan, Milind A.; Johnson, Jessica P.; Long, Philip E.; Lovely, Derek R.

2007-12-01

193

Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the targeted system. It is envisioned that real time requirements tracing will greatly assist the movement of autoprocedures to flight software enhancing the software assurance of auto-procedures and also their acceptance as reliable commanders.

Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

2014-01-01

194

Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto-Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner- TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the targeted system. It is envisioned that real time requirements tracing will greatly assist the movement of autoprocedures to flight software enhancing the software assurance of auto-procedures and also their acceptance as reliable commanders

Plattsmier, George I.; Stetson, Howard K.

2014-01-01

195

Knowledge acquisition for autonomous systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knowledge-based capabilities for autonomous aerospace systems, such as the NASA Space Station, must encompass conflict-resolution functions comparable to those of human operators, with all elements of the system working toward system goals in a concurrent, asynchronous-but-coordinated fashion. Knowledge extracted from a design database will support robotic systems by furnishing geometric, structural, and causal descriptions required for repair, disassembly, and assembly. The factual knowledge for these databases will be obtained from a master database through a technical management information system, and it will in many cases have to be augmented by domain-specific heuristic knowledge acquired from domain experts.

Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

1988-01-01

196

A cloud-assisted design for autonomous driving  

E-print Network

This paper presents Carcel, a cloud-assisted system for autonomous driving. Carcel enables the cloud to have access to sensor data from autonomous vehicles as well as the roadside infrastructure. The cloud assists autonomous ...

Suresh Kumar, Swarun

197

Collaborative Remediation of Configuration Vulnerabilities in Autonomic Networks and Systems  

E-print Network

Collaborative Remediation of Configuration Vulnerabilities in Autonomic Networks and Systems Mart vulnerabilities in autonomic networks and systems. We put forward a mathematical formulation of vulnerability systems capable of managing themselves in an autonomous manner [17], [16]. Nevertheless, when self

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

198

AUTONOMOUS UNDERSEA SYSTEMS NETWORK (AUSNET) Development Status Update  

E-print Network

1 AUTONOMOUS UNDERSEA SYSTEMS NETWORK (AUSNET) Development Status Update Charles Benton and James Kenney Technology Systems, Inc. (TSI), Wiscassett, ME Steven G. Chappell and D.R. Blidberg Autonomous called AUSNET (Autonomous Undersea Systems Network). AUSNET addresses the requirements imposed

199

Sensitivity analysis of autonomous oscillations: application to biochemical systems  

E-print Network

Sensitivity analysis of autonomous oscillations: application to biochemical systems Brian P satisfactory descriptions, namely autonomously oscillating systems. Such system underly many of the periodic in [4] which address sensitivity of Fourier coefficients. Autonomously oscillating systems were treated

Ingalls, Brian

200

Direct epitaxial growth of subsurface Co nanoclusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new subsurface growth mode in the Co-Cu system is reported. This mode provides a direct subsurface growth of Co nanoclusters by depositing Co atoms on the Cu(001) surface in a single stage. The resulting subsurface Co nanoclusters are located 2 monolayers (ML) deep below the atomically flat surface of Cu(001). Although these hidden nanoclusters cannot be directly accessed by a scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) probe, their shape could be deduced using STM/STS via a careful analysis of the local deformation of the Cu(001) surface as well as local variations of surface electron density induced by the subsurface clusters. A strongly asymmetric shape of the nanoclusters is deduced: they are typically 5-10 nm in lateral size but only 2 to 3 ML in thickness. The thickness of the nanoclusters does not evolve significantly under a heat treatment. A simple model is implemented to describe the growth kinetics. The results in this study reveal that intense processes of diffusion, nucleation, and growth take place in a region 1 nm deep, thus defining the near-surface region.

Siahaan, T.; Kurnosikov, O.; Swagten, H. J. M.; Koopmans, B.

2014-10-01

201

Probable hydrologic effects of subsurface mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case history provides information on the ground-water system and presents the results of an analysis of present and future hydrologic effects of coal mining in the Appalachian coal basin. Although emphasis is on the probable hydrologic effects due to subsurface mining, examples and discussions are equally applicable to surface mine problems. The case history is based on an ongoing

Jeffrey D. Stoner

1983-01-01

202

Subsurface signatures of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sub-surface signatures of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) are identified using expendable bathythermograph (XBT) measurements of temperature from the surface down to a depth of 400 m. Basin averaged temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic at different depths display multidecadal variability with a phase shift between temperature anomalies at the surface and at depth. Westward propagation of temperature anomalies is

L. M. Frankcombe; H. A. Dijkstra; A. von der Heydt

2008-01-01

203

Liquefaction in Subsurface Layer of Sand  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Ground shaking triggered liquefaction in a subsurface layer of sand, producing differential lateral and vertical movement in a overlying carapace of unliquified sand and silt, which moved from right to left toward the Pajaro River. This mode of ground failure, termed "lateral spreading," is a p...

2009-01-26

204

Liquid cryobrines in the subsurface of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid cryobrines in the subsurface of Mars D. Mühlmann, DLR Institut für Planetenforschung, Berlin (dirk.moehlmann@dlr.de) Thermodynamics shows that undercooled liquid interfacial water must necessarily exist in the upper surface of Mars, at least temporarily. In case of a given presence of soluble salt grains in the soil with attached interfacial water (of atmospheric-or ice-origin) there must evolve liquid brines ("cryobrines"). The eutectic temperature of cryobrines can be far below 0 C and numerous known brines will remain liquid at martian temperatures. Liquid cryobrines are therefore expected to exist at appropriate sites in the subsurface of Mars, at least temporarily but also at present. Properties like eutectic phase diagrams, related water activity and stability of "Mars-relevant" salts and brines under current martian atmospheric conditions are presented and discussed. It is described that the presence of at least temporarily liquid cryobrines in the subsurface soil can be related to rheological phenomena of viscous liquid brines, and that liquid cryobrines are a current challenge in view of their possible support to a habitability of the subsurface of Mars.

Möhlmann, Diedrich

205

Geophysical subsurface imaging for ecological applications.  

PubMed

Ecologists, ecohydrologists, and biogeochemists need detailed insights into belowground properties and processes, including changes in water, salts, and other elements that can influence ecosystem productivity and functioning. Relying on traditional sampling and observation techniques for such insights can be costly, time consuming, and infeasible, especially if the spatial scales involved are large. Geophysical imaging provides an alternative or complement to traditional methods to gather subsurface variables across time and space. In this paper, we review aspects of geophysical imaging, particularly electrical and electromagnetic imaging, that may benefit ecologists seeking clearer understanding of the shallow subsurface. Using electrical resistivity imaging, for example, we have been able to successfully show the effect of land-use conversions to agriculture on salt mobilization and leaching across kilometer-long transects and to depths of tens of meters. Recent advances in ground-penetrating radar and other geophysical imaging methods currently provide opportunities for subsurface imaging with sufficient detail to locate small (?5 cm diameter) animal burrows and plant roots, observe soil-water and vegetation spatial correlations in small watersheds, estuaries, and marshes, and quantify changes in groundwater storage at local to regional scales using geophysical data from ground- and space-based platforms. Ecologists should benefit from adopting these minimally invasive, scalable imaging technologies to explore the subsurface and advance our collective research. PMID:24649489

Jayawickreme, Dushmantha H; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Jackson, Robert B

2014-03-01

206

Modeling Subsurface Transport of Petroleum Hydrocarbons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. EPA website contains information on the modeling of subsurface transport of petroleum hydrocarbons and other contaminants. There are a few course modules on the fate and transport of contaminants. There are also OnSite on-line calculators for site-specific assessment calculations.

2008-03-11

207

Quantifying Subsurface Drainage using the Variable Infiltration  

E-print Network

Quantifying Subsurface Drainage using the Variable Infiltration Capacity Model Sarah Rutkowski. #12;· Estimation of tile drainage at the watershed and regional scales will lead to improved best for large scale modeling of tile drainage. Introduction #12;Objectives Today's Presentation · Use

Cherkauer, Keith

208

SEQUESTRATION OF SUBSURFACE ELEMENTAL MERCURY (HG0)  

EPA Science Inventory

Elemental mercury (Hg0) is a metal with a number of atypical properties, which has resulted in its use in myriad anthropogenic processes. However, these same properties have also led to severe local subsurface contamination at many places where it has been used. As...

209

Autonomous perturbations of LISA orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate autonomous perturbations on the orbits of LISA, namely the effects produced by gravitational fields that can be expressed only in terms of the position, but not of time in the Hill frame. This first step in the study of the LISA orbits has been the subject of recent papers which implement analytical techniques based on a 'post-epicyclic' approximation in the Hill frame to find optimal unperturbed orbits. The natural step forward is to analyze the perturbations to purely Keplerian orbits. In this work, a particular emphasis is put on the tidal field of the Earth assumed to be stationary in the Hill frame. Other relevant classes of autonomous perturbations are those given by the corrections to the solar field responsible for a slow precession and a global stationary field, associated with sources such as the interplanetary dust or a local dark matter component. The inclusion of simple linear contributions in the expansion of these fields produces secular solutions that can be compared with the measurements and possibly used to evaluate some morphological property of the perturbing components.

Pucacco, G.; Bassan, M.; Visco, M.

2010-12-01

210

Multi-agent autonomous system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

211

A SUPERVISED AUTONOMOUS SECURITY RESPONSE ROBOT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous mobile robots typically require a preconceived and very detailed navigational model (map) of their intended operating environment, but most law enforcement and urban warfare response scenarios preclude the availability of such a priori information. ROBART III is an advanced demonstration platform for non-lethal robotic response measures, incorporating a supervised autonomous navigation system specifically configured to support minimally attended operation

Donny A. Ciccimaro; H. R. Everett; Michael H. Bruch; Clifton B. Phillips

1999-01-01

212

Autonomous Systems Lab Prof. Roland Siegwart  

E-print Network

of written work in its final form. #12;#12;Abstract At the Autonomous Systems Lab, various unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) are being developed which are able to autonomously collect data such as videos and maps Strength Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.4 Antenna design

Daraio, Chiara

213

Autonomous Self-assembly in Mobile Robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— In this paper, we present a comprehensive study on autonomous self-assembly. In particular, we discuss the selfassembling capabilities of the swarm-bot, a distributed robotics concept that lies at the intersection between collective an d selfreconfigurable robotics. A swarm-bot comprises autonomous

Michael Bonani; Francesco Mondada; Marco Dorigo

2005-01-01

214

A self-testing autonomic job scheduler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although researchers have been exchanging ideas on the de- sign and development of autonomic systems, there has been little emphasis on validation. In an eort to stimulate inter- est in the area of testing these self-managing systems, some researchers have developed lightweight prototypical applica- tions to show the feasibility of dynamically validating run- time changes to autonomic systems. However, in

Alain E. Ramirez; Barbara Quinones-morales; Tariq M. King

2008-01-01

215

Autonomous Motivation, Controlled Motivation, and Goal Progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the self-concordance of goals has been repeat- edly shown to predict better goal progress, recent research suggests potential problems with aggregating autonomous and controlled moti- vations to form a summary index of self-concordance ( Judge, Bono, Erez, & Locke, 2005). The purpose of the present investigation was to further examine the relations among autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and goal

Richard Koestner; Nancy Otis; Theodore A. Powers; Luc Pelletier; Hugo Gagnon

2008-01-01

216

Autonomous Mobile Robot System for Long Distance  

E-print Network

Autonomous Mobile Robot System for Long Distance Outdoor Navigation in University Campus Shoichi:maeyama@roboken.is.tsukuba.ac.jp Keywords : Development of an autonomous mobile robot, Outdoor navigation and Execution monitor. Abstract We for outdoor navigation. Then, we report our mobile robot \\YAMABICO NAVI", which is integrated many functions

Ohya, Akihisa

217

Defining Autonomic Computing: A Software Engineering Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a rapidly growing field, autonomic computing is a promising new approach for developing large scale distributed systems. However, while the vision of achieving self-management in computing systems is well established, the field still lacks a commonly accepted definition of 'what' an autonomic computing system is. Without a common definition to dictate the direction of development, it is not possible

Paul Lin; Alexander Macarthur; John Leaney

2005-01-01

218

Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems  

SciTech Connect

Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

2007-11-30

219

Autonomous Helicopter Flight via Reinforcement Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous helicopter flight represents a challenging control problem, with complex, noisy, dynamics. In this paper, we describe a successful application of reinforcement learning to autonomous helicopter flight. We first fit a stochastic, nonlinear model of the helicopter dynamics. We then use the model to learn to hover in place, and to fly a number of maneuvers taken from an RC

Andrew Y. Ng; H. Jin Kim; Michael I. Jordan; Shankar Sastry

2003-01-01

220

Autonomous Computing Systems: A Proposed Roadmap  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomous computing system is a system that func- tions with a large degree of independence, and assumes a large amount of responsibility for its own resources and op- eration. As a counterpart to ongoing research in the software domain, this work proposes a forward-looking roadmap for systems that are able to autonomously modify their hard- ware, and considers what

Neil Steiner; Peter Athanas

2007-01-01

221

Smart Cars as Autonomous Intelligent Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study on the behavior of smart cars by considering them as autonomous intelligent agents. In particular, a smart car could behave as autonomous agent by extracting information from the surrounding environment (road, highway) and determining its position in it, detecting the motion and tracking the behavioral patterns of other moving objects (automobiles) in its own surrounding

Nikolaos G. Bourbakis; Michael Findler

2001-01-01

222

Autonomous buoyancy-driven underwater gliders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of small (50 kg, 2 m length), reusable autonomous underwater vehicles capable of operating at speeds of 20-30 cm\\/s with ranges several thousand kilometers and durations of months has been developed and tested. The vehicles, essentially autonomous profiling floats with wings, execute sawtooth patterns between the surface, where they are located and communicate to shore, and depths of

Russ E. Davis; Charles C. Eriksen; Clayton P. Jones

2002-01-01

223

A cognitive system for autonomous robotic welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, there is a high demand for autonomous industrial production systems. This paper outlines the development of a cognitive system for autonomous robotic welding. This system is based on dimensionality reduction techniques and Support Vector Machines, allowing the system to learn to separate between acceptable and unacceptable welding results within one batch, and to transfer this ability to a batch

Georg Schroth; Ingo Stork; Klaus Diepold

2009-01-01

224

Digital Libraries and Autonomous Citation Indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Wide Web is revolutionizing the way that researchers access scientific information. Articles are increasingly being made available on the homepages of authors or institutions, at journal Web sites, or in online archives. However, scientific information on the Web is largely disorganized. This article introduces the creation of digital libraries incorporating Autonomous Citation Indexing (ACI). ACI autonomously creates citation

Steve Lawrence; C. Lee Giles; Kurt D. Bollacker

1999-01-01

225

Lessons learned from autonomous sciencecraft experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Autonomous Science Agent has been flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft since 2003. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and responds to science events occurring on the Earth such as volcanoes, flooding, and snow melt. The package includes AI-based software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. This software is in

Steve A. Chien; Rob Sherwood; Daniel Tran; Benjamin Cichy; Gregg Rabideau; Rebecca Castaño; Ashley Davies; Dan Mandl; Stuart Frye; Bruce Trout; Jeff D'Agostino; Seth Shulman; Darrell Boyer; Sandra C. Hayden; Adam Sweet; Scott Christa

2005-01-01

226

The Techsat-21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Constellation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Constellation flight demonstration (ASC) will fly onboard the Air Force's TechSat-21 constellation (an unclassified mission scheduled for launch in 2004). ASC will use onboard science analysis, replanning, robust execution, model- based estimation and control, and formation flying to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight

Steve Chien; Rob Sherwood; Michael Burl; Russell Knight; Gregg Rabideau

2005-01-01

227

The autonomous sciencecraft embedded systems architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Autonomous Science Agent has been flying onboard the Earth Observing One spacecraft since 2003. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and responds to science events occurring on the Earth such as volcanoes, flooding, and snow melt. This agent includes artificial intelligence software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. This software is

Steve Chien; Rob Sherwood; Daniel Tran; Benjamin Cichy; Gregg Rabideau; Rebecca Castaño; Ashley Davies; Stuart Frye; Bruce Trout; Jeff D'Agostino; Seth Shulman; Dan Mandl; Darrell Boyer; Sandra Hayden; S. Sweet; Scott Christa

2005-01-01

228

Designs of Autonomous Unidirectional Walking DNA Devices  

E-print Network

, Oxford OX 1 3PU, UK. a.turberfield@physics.ox.ac.uk Abstract. Imagine a host of nanoscale DNA robots move basis to meet the above challenge. The missing link is a DNA walker that can autonomously move along of autonomous DNA walking devices in which a walker moves along a linear track unidirectionally. The track

Reif, John H.

229

Rover: Autonomous concepts for Mars exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a mobile, autonomous vehicle that will be launched towards an unknown planet is considered. The rover significant constraints are: Ariane 5 compatibility, Earth\\/Mars transfer capability, 1000 km autonomous moving in Mars environment, on board localization, and maximum science capability. Two different types of subsystem were considered: classical subsystems (mechanical and mechanisms, thermal, telecommunications, power, onboard data processing)

A. Baiget; B. Castets; H. Chochon; M. Hayard; H. Lamarre; A. Lamothe

1993-01-01

230

Gastric emptying in diabetic autonomic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric emptying was studied in 12 diabetic patients, six with and six without objective evidence of autonomic neuropathy and in 20 non-diabetic controls, using a double isotope scinti-scanning technique which differentiated between solid and liquid emptying. Three patients with autonomic neuropathy exhibited gastric stasis, although this was detected by conventional radiology in only one. Neither the patients with stasis nor

I W Campbell; R C Heading; P Tothill; T A Buist; D J Ewing; B F Clarke

1977-01-01

231

Adaptive Trajectory Control for Autonomous Helicopters  

E-print Network

Adaptive Trajectory Control for Autonomous Helicopters Eric N. Johnson and Suresh K. Kannan School of Aerospace Engineering, 270 Ferst Drive, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0150 For autonomous helicopter flight, it is common to separate the flight control problem into an inner loop

Johnson, Eric N.

232

Autonomous Deep-Space Optical Navigation Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project will advance the Autonomous Deep-space navigation capability applied to Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) system by testing it on hardware, particularly in a flight processor, with a goal of limit...

C. D'Souza

2014-01-01

233

On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Subsurface Drip Distribution  

E-print Network

A subsurface drip system distributes wastewater to the lawn through a system of tubing installed below the ground. This publication explains the advantages and disadvantages of subsurface drip distribution systems, as well as estimated costs...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

1999-09-06

234

On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Subsurface Drip Distribution (Spanish)  

E-print Network

A subsurface drip system distributes wastewater to the lawn through a system of tubing installed below the ground surface. This publication explains the advantages, disadvantages, maintenance steps and estimated costs of subsurface drip distribution...

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Enciso, Juan

1999-08-12

235

Dissimilatory Iron Reduction by Microorganisms Under Hot Deep Subsurface Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In subsurface environments the availability of terminal electron acceptors will be the major biogeochemical constraint, before temperature or pressure begin plays a role. Data is presented to show the impact of deep hot subsurface conditions on dissimilatory iron reduction.

Ruper, S.; Sharma, A.; Scott, J. H.

2010-04-01

236

Subsurface barrier verification technologies, informal report  

SciTech Connect

One of the more promising remediation options available to the DOE waste management community is subsurface barriers. Some of the uses of subsurface barriers include surrounding and/or containing buried waste, as secondary confinement of underground storage tanks, to direct or contain subsurface contaminant plumes and to restrict remediation methods, such as vacuum extraction, to a limited area. To be most effective the barriers should be continuous and depending on use, have few or no breaches. A breach may be formed through numerous pathways including: discontinuous grout application, from joints between panels and from cracking due to grout curing or wet-dry cycling. The ability to verify barrier integrity is valuable to the DOE, EPA, and commercial sector and will be required to gain full public acceptance of subsurface barriers as either primary or secondary confinement at waste sites. It is recognized that no suitable method exists for the verification of an emplaced barrier`s integrity. The large size and deep placement of subsurface barriers makes detection of leaks challenging. This becomes magnified if the permissible leakage from the site is low. Detection of small cracks (fractions of an inch) at depths of 100 feet or more has not been possible using existing surface geophysical techniques. Compounding the problem of locating flaws in a barrier is the fact that no placement technology can guarantee the completeness or integrity of the emplaced barrier. This report summarizes several commonly used or promising technologies that have been or may be applied to in-situ barrier continuity verification.

Heiser, J.H.

1994-06-01

237

Quantifying nonisothermal subsurface soil water evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate quantification of energy and mass transfer during soil water evaporation is critical for improving understanding of the hydrologic cycle and for many environmental, agricultural, and engineering applications. Drying of soil under radiation boundary conditions results in formation of a dry surface layer (DSL), which is accompanied by a shift in the position of the latent heat sink from the surface to the subsurface. Detailed investigation of evaporative dynamics within this active near-surface zone has mostly been limited to modeling, with few measurements available to test models. Soil column studies were conducted to quantify nonisothermal subsurface evaporation profiles using a sensible heat balance (SHB) approach. Eleven-needle heat pulse probes were used to measure soil temperature and thermal property distributions at the millimeter scale in the near-surface soil. Depth-integrated SHB evaporation rates were compared with mass balance evaporation estimates under controlled laboratory conditions. The results show that the SHB method effectively measured total subsurface evaporation rates with only 0.01-0.03 mm h-1difference from mass balance estimates. The SHB approach also quantified millimeter-scale nonisothermal subsurface evaporation profiles over a drying event, which has not been previously possible. Thickness of the DSL was also examined using measured soil thermal conductivity distributions near the drying surface. Estimates of the DSL thickness were consistent with observed evaporation profile distributions from SHB. Estimated thickness of the DSL was further used to compute diffusive vapor flux. The diffusive vapor flux also closely matched both mass balance evaporation rates and subsurface evaporation rates estimated from SHB.

Deol, Pukhraj; Heitman, Josh; Amoozegar, Aziz; Ren, Tusheng; Horton, Robert

2012-11-01

238

DEMO: The autonomous sciencecraft experiment onboard the EO-1 spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE), currently flying onboard the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft, integrates several autonomy software technologies enabling autonomous science analysis and mission planning.

Tran, Daniel; Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Castano, Rebecca; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Rabideau, Gregg

2005-01-01

239

Autonomous power system intelligent diagnosis and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. Knowledge-based software provides a robust method of control for highly complex space-based power systems that conventional methods do not allow. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis and control, the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space based power system. The operation of the Autonomous Power System as a whole is described and the responsibilities of the three elements - APEX, AIPS, and Brassboard - are characterized. A discussion of the methodologies used in each element is provided. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Power System.

Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.; Merolla, Anthony

1991-01-01

240

Autonomic dysfunction in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Autonomic deficits in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) have not been adequately quantitated. The Composite Autonomic Severity Score (CASS) is a validated instrument for laboratory quantitation of autonomic failure derived from standard autonomic reflex tests. We characterized dysautonomia in CIDP using CASS. Methods: Autonomic function was retrospectively analyzed in 47 patients meeting CIDP criteria. CASS ranges from 0 (normal) to 10 (pandysautonomia), reflecting summation of sudomotor (0–3), cardiovagal (0–3), and adrenergic (0–4) subscores. Severity of neurologic deficits was measured with Neuropathy Impairment Score (NIS). Degree of small fiber involvement was assessed with quantitative sensation testing. Thermoregulatory sweat test (TST) was available in 8 patients. Results: Patients (25 men) were middle-aged (45.0 ± 14.9 years) with longstanding CIDP (3.5 ± 4.3 years) of moderate severity (NIS, 46.5 ± 32.7). Autonomic symptoms were uncommon, mainly gastrointestinal (9/47; 19%) and genitourinary (8/47; 17%). Autonomic deficits (CASS ?1) were frequent (22/47; 47%) but very mild (CASS, 0.8 ± 0.9; CASS ?3, all cases). Deficits were predominantly sudomotor (16/47; 34%) and cardiovagal (10/47; 21%) with relative adrenergic sparing (4/47; 9%). TST was abnormal in 5 of 8 patients (anhidrosis range, 2%–59%). Sudomotor impairment was predominantly distal and postganglionic. Somatic deficits (disease duration, severity, small fiber deficits) did not predict presence of autonomic deficits. Conclusion: Our data characterize the autonomic involvement in classic CIDP as mild, cholinergic, and predominantly sudomotor mainly as a result of lesions at the distal postganglionic axon. Extensive or severe autonomic involvement (CASS ?4) in suspected CIDP should raise concern for an alternative diagnosis. PMID:22357716

Figueroa, J.J.; Dyck, P.J.B.; Laughlin, R.S.; Mercado, J.A.; Massie, R.; Sandroni, P.; Dyck, P.J.

2012-01-01

241

APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System  

SciTech Connect

An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts centers, mass transit systems, major sporting and entertainment events, and other high profile situations in which the public is at risk of becoming a target of bioterrorist attacks. Customizing off-the-shelf components and developing new components, a multidisciplinary team developed APDS, a stand-alone system for rapid, continuous monitoring of multiple airborne biological threat agents in the environment. The completely automated APDS samples the air, prepares fluid samples in-line, and performs two orthogonal tests: immunoassay and nucleic acid detection. When compared to competing technologies, APDS is unprecedented in terms of flexibility and system performance.

Langlois, R G; Brown, S; Burris, L; Colston, B; Jones, L; Makarewicz, T; Mariella, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Milanovich, F; Masarabadi, S; Venkateswaran, K; Marshall, G; Olson, D; Wolcott, D

2002-02-14

242

Testbed for an autonomous system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In previous works we have defined a general architectural model for autonomous systems, which can easily be mapped to describe the functions of any automated system (SDAG-86-01), and we illustrated that model by applying it to the thermal management system of a space station (SDAG-87-01). In this note, we will further develop that application and design the detail of the implementation of such a model. First we present the environment of our application by describing the thermal management problem and an abstraction, which was called TESTBED, that includes a specific function for each module in the architecture, and the nature of the interfaces between each pair of blocks.

Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok K.; Larsen, Ronald L.

1989-01-01

243

Autonomous power management and distribution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Autonomous Power System program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control to the Space Station Freedom's electric power testbed being developed at NASA's Lewis Research Center. Objectives are to establish artificial intelligence technology paths, craft knowledge-based tools and products for power systems, and integrate knowledge-based and conventional controllers. This program represents a joint effort between the Space Station and Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology to develop and demonstrate space electric power automation technology capable of: (1) detection and classification of system operating status, (2) diagnosis of failure causes, and (3) cooperative problem solving for power scheduling and failure recovery. Program details, status, and plans will be presented.

Dolce, Jim; Kish, Jim

1990-01-01

244

Full autonomous microline trace robot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optoelectric inspection may find applications in robotic system. In micro robotic system, smaller optoelectric inspection system is preferred. However, as miniaturizing the size of the robot, the number of the optoelectric detector becomes lack. And lack of the information makes the micro robot difficult to acquire its status. In our lab, a micro line trace robot has been designed, which autonomous acts based on its optoelectric detection. It has been programmed to follow a black line printed on the white colored ground. Besides the optoelectric inspection, logical algorithm in the microprocessor is also important. In this paper, we propose a simply logical algorithm to realize robot's intelligence. The robot's intelligence is based on a AT89C2051 microcontroller which controls its movement. The technical details of the micro robot are as follow: dimension: 30mm*25mm*35*mm; velocity: 60mm/s.

Yi, Deer; Lu, Si; Yan, Yingbai; Jin, Guofan

2000-10-01

245

Autonomous Spacecraft Navigation With Pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An external reference system suitable for deep space navigation can be defined by fast spinning and strongly magnetized neutron stars, called pulsars. Their beamed periodic signals have timing stabilities comparable to atomic clocks and provide characteristic temporal signatures that can be used as natural navigation beacons, quite similar to the use of GPS satellites for navigation on Earth. By comparing pulse arrival times measured on-board a spacecraft with predicted pulse arrivals at a reference location, the spacecraft position can be determined autonomously and with high accuracy everywhere in the solar system and beyond. The unique properties of pulsars make clear already today that such a navigation system will have its application in future astronautics. We will describe the basic principle of spacecraft navigation using pulsars and report on the current development status of this novel technology.

Becker, Werner

2014-08-01

246

Autonomous navigation system and method  

DOEpatents

A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.

Bruemmer, David J. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2009-09-08

247

Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

Seaman, R.

248

Autonomous caregiver following robotic wheelchair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, a variety of robotic/intelligent wheelchairs have been proposed to meet the need in aging society. Their main research topics are autonomous functions such as moving toward some goals while avoiding obstacles, or user-friendly interfaces. Although it is desirable for wheelchair users to go out alone, caregivers often accompany them. Therefore we have to consider not only autonomous functions and user interfaces but also how to reduce caregivers' load and support their activities in a communication aspect. From this point of view, we have proposed a robotic wheelchair moving with a caregiver side by side based on the MATLAB process. In this project we discussing about robotic wheel chair to follow a caregiver by using a microcontroller, Ultrasonic sensor, keypad, Motor drivers to operate robot. Using camera interfaced with the DM6437 (Davinci Code Processor) image is captured. The captured image are then processed by using image processing technique, the processed image are then converted into voltage levels through MAX 232 level converter and given it to the microcontroller unit serially and ultrasonic sensor to detect the obstacle in front of robot. In this robot we have mode selection switch Automatic and Manual control of robot, we use ultrasonic sensor in automatic mode to find obstacle, in Manual mode to use the keypad to operate wheel chair. In the microcontroller unit, c language coding is predefined, according to this coding the robot which connected to it was controlled. Robot which has several motors is activated by using the motor drivers. Motor drivers are nothing but a switch which ON/OFF the motor according to the control given by the microcontroller unit.

Ratnam, E. Venkata; Sivaramalingam, Sethurajan; Vignesh, A. Sri; Vasanth, Elanthendral; Joans, S. Mary

2011-12-01

249

Management Approaches to Hypertension in Autonomic Failure  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Supine hypertension is a common finding in autonomic failure that can worsen orthostatic hypotension and predispose to end-organ damage. This review focuses on non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches to manage hypertension in these patients, in the face of disabling orthostatic hypotension. Recent Findings The hypertension of autonomic failure can be driven by sympathetic dependent or independent mechanisms, depending on the site of autonomic lesions. Management of supine hypertension should include simple non-pharmacologic approaches including avoiding the supine position during the daytime and head-up tilt at night. Most patients, however, require pharmacologic treatment. Several antihypertensive therapies lower night-time pressure in autonomic failure, but none improve nocturnal volume depletion or morning orthostatic tolerance. Regardless, treatment may still be beneficial in some patients but must be determined on an individual basis, considering disease type and overnight monitoring. Further, doses must be carefully titrated as these patients are hypersensitive to depressor agents due to loss of baroreceptor reflexes. Summary Autonomic failure provides a unique opportunity to study blood pressure regulation independent of autonomic influences. Understanding mechanisms driving supine hypertension will have important implications for the treatment of autonomic failure and will improve our knowledge of cardiovascular regulation in other populations, including essential hypertension and elderly hypertensives with comorbid orthostatic hypotension. PMID:22801444

Arnold, Amy C.; Biaggioni, Italo

2013-01-01

250

Advancements in subsurface barrier wall technology  

SciTech Connect

Subsurface barrier walls are enjoying a resurgence in popularity as components of site remediation systems largely for two reasons. First, treatment technologies have shown themselves to be incapable of fully managing a large proportion of waste disposal sites, especially large landfills, DNAPL sites, and large industrial plant sites, thus underscoring the importance of site-wide containment technologies such as subsurface barrier walls. The second factor is a parallel advancement in the technologies of barrier wall construction. Advancements, include a variety of geomembrane-based barrier walls, jet grouting techniques, deep soil mixing, and the ability to construct deep barrier walls (greater than 150 feet deep) using interlocking plastic concrete panels. These advancements have led to barrier walls which are not only more impervious, more resistant to chemical attack, and capable of achieving greater depths, but in many cases are less costly than earlier technologies.

Mutch, R.D. Jr.; Ash, R.E. IV [Eckenfelder Inc., Mahwah, NJ (United States); Cavalli, N.J. [Hayward-Baker, Yonkers, NY (United States)

1994-12-31

251

Clutter models for subsurface electromagnetic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clutter models for subsurface electromagnetic applications are discussed with emphasis on tunnel detection applications. Random medium models are more versatile and require less detailed information than deterministic models. The Born approximation is used to derive expressions for the incoherent field, and electric and magnetic dipoles are treated in detail. When random inhomogeneities are located in the near field of the dipole source, an electric dipole radiates a larger incoherent field than a magnetic dipole because of its larger reactive electric field.

Hill, David A.

1989-02-01

252

Radionuclide Sensors for Subsurface Water Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of the subsurface by radionuclides is a persistent and vexing problem for the Department of Energy. These radionuclides must be measured in field studies and monitoed in the long term when they cannot be removed. However, no radionuclide sensors existed for groundwater monitoring prior to this team's research under the EMSP program Detection of a and b decays from radionuclides in water is difficult due to their short ranges in condensed media.

Timothy DeVol

2006-06-30

253

Surveillance of strategic sub-surface sanctuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic (EM) imaging techniques are being developed to survey strategic sub- surface sanctuaries. The overall goal of this study is to develop and demonstrate techniques for sub-surface profiling from ground based and\\/or airborne (or even space) platforms. This surveillance scheme combines and utilizes bistatic RCS measurement techniques, broadband GPR antenna technologies, and far-field SAR remote sensing techniques. The combined RCS\\/GPR\\/SAR

John Norgard; R. Musellman; J. Bracken; R. Brown; J. Genello

2004-01-01

254

Spatiotemporal variability in peatland subsurface methane dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peatlands are large natural sources of atmospheric methane (CH4). While many studies have measured CH4 emissions to the atmosphere, less is known about the stock and residence time of subsurface CH4. In this study we examined dissolved CH4 concentration in near-surface peatland pore waters of a poor fen near Québec City, Canada, in order to (1) investigate the variability in and potential controls on these concentrations and (2) combine measured dissolved CH4 concentration with estimated bubble CH4 stock and measured CH4 fluxes to estimate the mean residence time of subsurface CH4. Concentrations ranged from 1 to 450 ?M during both study seasons. Depth profiles were generally consistent at one location within the peatland throughout the sampling period but varied between locations. Patterns with depth were not well correlated to pore water pH or EC; however, changes in CH4 concentration through time in the upper 30 cm were related to temperature and water table at some locations. Depth profiles taken at 2- to 5-cm intervals revealed discrete concentration "spikes" which were often maintained throughout the season and are likely related to bubble CH4 dynamics. Estimated subsurface CH4 stocks indicate that even when relatively low bubble volume (5% of peat volume) is assumed, bubble CH4 accounted for greater than half of total stocks. Calculated mean residence times were 28-120 days. This implies that CH4 flux may lag changes in water table and temperature which happen on shorter timescales (hours or days). To improve our description of subsurface CH4 stocks, links between dissolved and bubble CH4 stocks and peatland CH4 residence time, coincident measurement of pore water CH4 concentrations, entrapped gas content and composition, diffusive CH4 flux, and ebullition are required.

Strack, M.; Waddington, J. M.

2008-06-01

255

CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SUBSURFACE EXCAVATION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface excavation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

R. Garrett

1999-08-31

256

New method helps to refine subsurface interpretations  

SciTech Connect

A recently developed electrotelluric surveying unit has proven successful in providing additional structural and lithologic information from any depth down to 40,000 ft. Surveying is done from the surface. A geologist with several years' experience with the tool discusses its proper applications and use. He is impressed by the amount of subsurface detail this tool can provide, better enabling an explorationist to eliminate or proceed with a project before drilling funds are spent.

Elam, J.G.

1986-10-01

257

Autonomous observatories for the Antarctic plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antarctic astronomical site-testing has been conducted using autonomous self-powered observatories for more than a decade (the AASTO at South Pole, the AASTINO at Dome C, and PLATO at Dome A/Dome F). More recently autonomous (PLATO) observatories have been developed and deployed to support small-scale scientific instruments, such as HEAT, a 0.6 m aperture terahertz telescope at Ridge A, and AST3, a 0.5 m optical telescope array at Dome A. This paper reviews the evolution of autonomous Antarctic astronomical observatories, and discusses the requirements and implications for observatories that will be needed for future larger-scale facilities.

Lawrence, J. S.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Storey, J. W. V.

2013-01-01

258

The NASA/Army Autonomous Rotorcraft Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the NASA Ames Research Center Autonomous Rotorcraft Project (ARP) is presented. The project brings together several technologies to address NASA and US Army autonomous vehicle needs, including a reactive planner for mission planning and execution, control system design incorporating a detailed understanding of the platform dynamics, and health monitoring and diagnostics. A candidate reconnaissance and surveillance mission is described. The autonomous agent architecture and its application to the candidate mission are presented. Details of the vehicle hardware and software development are provided.

Whalley, M.; Freed, M.; Takahashi, M.; Christian, D.; Patterson-Hine, A.; Schulein, G.; Harris, R.

2002-01-01

259

Development of Autonomous Aerobraking - Phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phase 1 of the Development of Autonomous Aerobraking (AA) Assessment investigated the technical capability of transferring the processes of aerobraking maneuver (ABM) decision-making (currently performed on the ground by an extensive workforce and communicated to the spacecraft via the deep space network) to an efficient flight software algorithm onboard the spacecraft. This document describes Phase 2 of this study, which was a 12-month effort to improve and rigorously test the AA Development Software developed in Phase 1. Aerobraking maneuver; Autonomous Aerobraking; Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software; Deep Space Network; NASA Engineering and Safety Center

Murri, Daniel G.

2013-01-01

260

Autonomous underwater pipeline monitoring navigation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details the development of an autonomous motion-control and navigation algorithm for an underwater autonomous vehicle, the Ocean Server IVER3, to track long linear features such as underwater pipelines. As part of this work, the Nonlinear and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (NAS Lab) developed an algorithm that utilizes inputs from the vehicles state of the art sensor package, which includes digital imaging, digital 3-D Sidescan Sonar, and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. The resulting algorithms should tolerate real-world waterway with episodic strong currents, low visibility, high sediment content, and a variety of small and large vessel traffic.

Mitchell, Byrel; Mahmoudian, Nina; Meadows, Guy

2014-06-01

261

Reconsideration of the autonomous view of language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims to provide a critical examination of the autonomous view of language espoused in current generative grammar that attributes modular status to the faculty of language which is itself taken to comprise autonomous modular components. Several pieces of supposed evidence for the autonomous thesis are discussed, along with some other related topics, and shown to be critically flawed. It is suggested in conclusion that the status of language as a product of the processes of natural selection and syntacticization should be given more recognition in order to obtain a more realistic and integrating framework for natural language.

Tsuboi, Eijiro

1993-06-01

262

Autonomous Demand Response for Primary Frequency Regulation  

SciTech Connect

The research documented within this report examines the use of autonomous demand response to provide primary frequency response in an interconnected power grid. The work builds on previous studies in several key areas: it uses a large realistic model (i.e., the interconnection of the western United States and Canada); it establishes a set of metrics that can be used to assess the effectiveness of autonomous demand response; and it independently adjusts various parameters associated with using autonomous demand response to assess effectiveness and to examine possible threats or vulnerabilities associated with the technology.

Donnelly, Matt; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mattix, S.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

2012-02-28

263

Subsurface urban heat islands in German cities.  

PubMed

Little is known about the intensity and extension of subsurface urban heat islands (UHI), and the individual role of the driving factors has not been revealed either. In this study, we compare groundwater temperatures in shallow aquifers beneath six German cities of different size (Berlin, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Karlsruhe and Darmstadt). It is revealed that hotspots of up to +20K often exist, which stem from very local heat sources, such as insufficiently insulated power plants, landfills or open geothermal systems. When visualizing the regional conditions in isotherm maps, mostly a concentric picture is found with the highest temperatures in the city centers. This reflects the long-term accumulation of thermal energy over several centuries and the interplay of various factors, particularly in heat loss from basements, elevated ground surface temperatures (GST) and subsurface infrastructure. As a primary indicator to quantify and compare large-scale UHI intensity the 10-90%-quantile range UHII(10-90) of the temperature distribution is introduced. The latter reveals, in comparison to annual atmospheric UHI intensities, an even more pronounced heating of the shallow subsurface. PMID:23178772

Menberg, Kathrin; Bayer, Peter; Zosseder, Kai; Rumohr, Sven; Blum, Philipp

2013-01-01

264

Episodic Particle Dynamics in the Subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particles exist in the subsurface suspended in water and attached to solid surfaces. Models for particle deposition in the subsurface have largely adopted clean bed filtration conditions of constant flow rate, homogeneous porous media, and minimal particle accumulation on the solid surfaces. On the other hand,actual porous and fractured media have particles interacting with already deposited particles. These interactions result in porous, fragile deposits, which are subjected to hydrodynamic and chemical forces from episodic wetting fronts, changes in seasonal flow rates and water chemistry, pumping induced stresses near well bores, and shocks associated with explosions and earthquakes. Empirical evidence is summarized from the literature on deep-bed filtration for water treatment, colloidal release associated with groundwater sampling, water level fluctuations following explosions, earthquake induced changes in spring flow, well levels and streamflows, and groundwater turbidity following earthquakes. These observations suggest that particles in the colloidal size range can undergo erosion and deposition leading to an order of magnitude change in local permeability. Erosion can instantly increase the permeability while formation clogging can take from days to years depending upon local conditions. Models for particle and associated contaminant transport should account for the episodic nature of the forces controlling particle dynamics. Steady state flow models are unlikely to have predictive capability under natural subsurface conditions as needed in understanding waste isolation, pathogen mobility and regional groundwater flow.

Hunt, J. R.; Mays, D. C.

2001-12-01

265

Chemical inversion in the subsurface hydrosphere  

SciTech Connect

A quite common nature of chemical inversion in subsurface hydrosphere is shown in examples of several oil- and gas-bearing regions of the USSR. In particular, when the data of sampling from deep wells of the Volgo-Urals, Mangyshlak, and Western Turkmenian regions were compared, it became obvious that the composite chemical profile of subsurface hydrosphere consists of a vertical alternation of three zones: of increasing (I-II-IIIa genetic types of subsurface waters), maximum (IIIb), and decreasing water mineralization (III'a-II'-I'). The depth of occurrence of the lower inversion branch of zonality depends on the geotectonic activity at depth. It is closer to the Earth's surface in regions of Alpine tectogenesis, whereas in regions of ancient folding it lies at great depths which have not yet been reached by most deep wells. The formation of the inversion zone in the Earth's crust is connected with penetration from below ascending demineralized fluids of sodium bicarbonate type (I'). The latter is due to the presence at great depths of large quantities of free carbonic acid which is involved in hydrolytic processes of decomposition of sodium-containing minerals and produces sodium-type waters.

Yezhov, Yu.A.

1980-09-01

266

Subsurface ocean changes during Heinrich events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heinrich events represent episodic, large-scale instabilities of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) that are contemporaneous with global climate change. Commonly attributed to an internally triggered instability of the LIS, the occurrence of Heinrich events during the maximum expression of the bipolar seesaw instead suggests a climate trigger external to the ice sheet. Results from coupled ocean-atmosphere models of varying complexity and recent coupled ocean-ice sheet models imply that subsurface warming of intermediate ocean waters (750-1500m) in response to a reduction of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) may destabilize the grounding lines of marine-based sectors of the eastern LIS, causing a Heinrich event. One previous study from the Labrador Sea showed 2-6°C of warming at intermediate depths prior to several Heinrich events. We will present preliminary surface- and intermediate-depth temperature reconstructions from planktic and benthic foraminifera bracketing Heinrich event 1 in five sediment cores raised from the Labrador Sea and Reykjanes Ridge to evaluate the spatial and temporal coherence of subsurface warming in the northwestern Atlantic. Results will help characterize the amplitude, timing, and spatial expression of western North Atlantic subsurface ocean changes with respect to Heinrich event 1, and potentially other Heinrich events in the same cores.

Hoffman, J. S.; Clark, P.; Mix, A. C.; Haley, B. A.

2013-12-01

267

Resonant seismic emission of subsurface objects  

SciTech Connect

Numerical modeling results and field data indicate that some contrasting subsurface objects (such as tunnels, caves, pipes, filled pits, and fluid-filled fractures) are capable of generating durable resonant oscillations after trapping seismic energy. These oscillations consist of surface types of circumferential waves that repeatedly propagate around the object. The resonant emission of such trapped energy occurs primarily in the form of shear body waves that can be detected by remotely placed receivers. Resonant emission reveals itself in the form of sharp resonant peaks for the late parts of the records, when all strong direct and primary reflected waves are gone. These peaks were observed in field data for a buried barrel filled with water, in 2D finite-difference modeling results, and in the exact canonical solution for a fluid-filled sphere. A computed animation for the diffraction of a plane wave upon a low-velocity elastic sphere confirms the generation of resonances by durable surface waves. Resonant emission has characteristic quasi-hyperbolic traveltime patterns on shot gathers. The inversion of these patterns can be performed in the frequency domain after muting the strong direct and primary scattered waves. Subsurface objects can be detected and imaged at a single resonance frequency without an accurate knowledge of source trigger time. The imaging of subsurface objects requires information about the shear velocity distribution in an embedding medium, which can be done interactively during inversion.

Korneev, Valeri A.

2009-04-15

268

Satellite-derived subsurface urban heat island.  

PubMed

The subsurface urban heat island (SubUHI) is one part of the overall UHI specifying the relative warmth of urban ground temperatures against the rural background. To combat the challenge on measuring extensive underground temperatures with in situ instruments, we utilized satellite-based moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer data to reconstruct the subsurface thermal field over the Beijing metropolis through a three-time-scale model. The results show the SubUHI's high spatial heterogeneity. Within the depths shallower than 0.5 m, the SubUHI dominates along the depth profiles and analyses imply the moments for the SubUHI intensity reaching first and second extremes during a diurnal temperature cycle are delayed about 3.25 and 1.97 h per 0.1 m, respectively. At depths shallower than 0.05 m in particular, there is a subsurface urban cool island (UCI) in spring daytime, mainly owing to the surface UCI that occurs in this period. At depths between 0.5 and 10 m, the time for the SubUHI intensity getting to its extremes during an annual temperature cycle is lagged 26.2 days per meter. Within these depths, the SubUHI prevails without exception, with an average intensity of 4.3 K, varying from 3.2 to 5.3 K. PMID:25222374

Zhan, Wenfeng; Ju, Weimin; Hai, Shuoping; Ferguson, Grant; Quan, Jinling; Tang, Chaosheng; Guo, Zhen; Kong, Fanhua

2014-10-21

269

Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

1994-01-01

270

REM sleep behaviour disorder differentiates pure autonomic failure from multiple system atrophy with autonomic failure  

PubMed Central

Ten patients with primary autonomic failure, followed up in a prospective clinical and laboratory study, were finally diagnosed as pure autonomic failure or multiple system atrophy with autonomic failure. Polysomnographic studies were performed in all patients. Whereas all four patients with multiple system atrophy complained of sleep related episodes suggesting REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) confirmed by polysomnography, RBD remained absent in the remaining six patients with pure autonomic failure. The data indicate that RBD is an important clinical feature, often heralding multiple system atrophy, but which is absent throughout the course of pure autonomic failure; its recognition can thus be useful in the prognostic evaluation of early primary autonomic failure syndromes.?? PMID:9598693

Plazzi, G.; Cortelli, P.; Montagna, P.; De Monte, A.; Corsini, R.; Contin, M.; Provini, F.; Pierangeli, G.; Lugaresi, E.

1998-01-01

271

Adjustable Autonomy for Human-Centered Autonomous Systems on Mars  

E-print Network

Adjustable Autonomy for Human-Centered Autonomous Systems on Mars Gregory A. Dorais [gadorais expect a variety of autonomous systems, from rovers to life-support systems, to play a critical role such autonomous systems human-centered in contrast with traditional Ã?black-boxÃ? autonomous systems. Our goal

Kortenkamp, David

272

Apoptosis and Self-Destruct: A Contribution to Autonomic Agents?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic Computing (AC), a self-managing systems initiative based on the biological metaphor of the autonomic nervous system, is increasingly gaining momentum as the way forward in designing reliable systems. Agent technologies have been identified as a key enabler for engineering autonomicity in systems, both in terms of retrofitting autonomicity into legacy systems and designing new systems. The AC initiative provides

Roy Sterritt; Michael G. Hinchey

2004-01-01

273

Development of autonomous magnetometer rotorcraft for wide area assessment  

SciTech Connect

Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 – 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. There is thus a need for other systems which can be used for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly characterization (through the use of dynamic acquisition, i.e. survey mission inflight reprioritization). We describe and report on a one year effort with as primary goal to provide a recommendation to SERDP for a path forward in the implementation of one or more autonomous unmanned magnetometer rotorcraft platforms. This recommendation (which is provided in chapter 6) is based on the following three elements a) An assessment on the applicability of autonomous rotorcraft magnetometer systems to the current DoD site inventory, and an initial assessment of which type(s) of autonomous unmanned magnetometer rotorcraft platforms (in terms of performance characteristics such as payload, altitude, obstacle avoidance, production rate and flight time) would be most relevant to this inventory (chapter 3); b) An evaluation of the feasibility of assembling such platforms from commercial components (unmanned rotorcraft, control systems and sensors – both magnetometer sensors and supporting sensors). This evaluation included several highly successful field tests (chapter 4 and 5); c) A recommendation of the path forward, which includes a detailed outline of the efforts required in the design, assembly and testing of different modular platforms (chapter 6)

Roelof Versteeg; Matt Anderson; Les Beard; Eric Corban; Darryl Curley; Jeff Gamey; Ross Johnson; Dwight Junkin; Mark McKay; Jared Salzmann; Mikhail Tchernychev; Suraj Unnikrishnan; Scott Vinson

2010-04-01

274

A flexible design framework for autonomous mowing  

E-print Network

This work outlines the creation of a flexible design framework for autonomous mowing to meet changing customer needs and functionality across a spectrum of applications from residential areas to sport complexes. The thesis ...

Kraft, Justin (Justin A.)

2011-01-01

275

Autonomous aerobatic maneuvering of miniature helicopters  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I present an experimentally proven control methodology for the autonomous execution of aerobatic maneuvers with small-scale helicopters, and a low-order dynamic model which adequately describes a miniature ...

Gavrilets, Vladislav, 1975-

2003-01-01

276

6 Natural Resources Contested in Autonomous Councils  

E-print Network

efforts at decentralisa- tion of powers to Autonomous Councils, violence between different ethnic groups and the Council are the theme of section 6.5, while section 6.6 provides some explanations for the com- plex

Richner, Heinz

277

Design considerations for engineering Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

E-print Network

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) have been established as a viable tool for Oceanographic Sciences. Being untethered and independent, AUVs fill the gap in Ocean Exploration left by the existing manned submersible and ...

Shah, Vikrant P. (Vikrant Pankaj)

2007-01-01

278

Advancing Autonomous Operations Technologies for NASA Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the importance of implementing advanced autonomous technologies supporting operations of future NASA missions. The ability for crewed, uncrewed and even ground support systems to be capable of mission support without external interaction or control has become essential as space exploration moves further out into the solar system. The push to develop and utilize autonomous technologies for NASA mission operations stems in part from the need to reduce operations cost while improving and increasing capability and safety. This paper will provide examples of autonomous technologies currently in use at NASA and will identify opportunities to advance existing autonomous technologies that will enhance mission success by reducing operations cost, ameliorating inefficiencies, and mitigating catastrophic anomalies.

Cruzen, Craig; Thompson, Jerry Todd

2013-01-01

279

Autonomous Flight in Unknown Indoor Environments  

E-print Network

This paper presents our solution for enabling a quadrotor helicopter, equipped with a laser rangefinder sensor, to autonomously explore and map unstructured and unknown indoor environments. While these capabilities are ...

Bachrach, Abraham Galton

280

Autonomously replicating sequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

A method is presented for isolating DNA segments capable of autonomous replication from Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomal DNA based on the differential transforming ability of autonomously replicating plasmids and nonreplicating plasmids. DNA plasmids that are capable of self-replication in yeast transform yeast spheroplasts at about 1000-fold higher frequency than nonreplicating plasmids. We have cloned from total yeast DNA a number of DNA segments that permit the pBR322 plasmid carrying the yeast LEU2 gene to replicate autonomously. These plasmid clones are characterized by their ability to transform Leu- spheroplasts to Leu+ at a high frequency and their ability to replicate autonomously. Analysis of the insert DNAs carried in some of these self-replicating plasmids divides them into two categories: those that are unique in the yeast genome and those that are repetitive. Images PMID:7005897

Chan, C S; Tye, B K

1980-01-01

281

Local autonomic failure affecting a limb.  

PubMed Central

Three patients are described who presented with autonomic failure affecting predominantly one limb. Physiological studies revealed that there was sweating loss in the limb which appeared to be due to a preganglionic autonomic lesion and not to a sweat gland abnormality. In all three patients there was also evidence of failure of vasomotor control. There was no evidence of more generalised autonomic failure or neurological deficit. In two patients the condition appeared to be static and, according to the patients' accounts was life long. In the third the sweating loss was present for three years prior to pain loss becoming evident from C2/3 to T1 on the same side as the sweating loss. These patients, together with two recent case reports, indicate that isolated local autonomic failure, probably from a discrete cord lesion, can be a cause of presenting symptoms related to sweating loss or to change in temperature in a limb. PMID:3612155

Johnson, R H; Robinson, B J

1987-01-01

282

Advancing Autonomous Operations Technologies for NASA Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the importance of implementing advanced autonomous technologies supporting operations of future NASA missions. The ability for crewed, uncrewed and even ground support systems to be capable of mission support without external interaction or control has become essential as space exploration moves further out into the solar system. The push to develop and utilize autonomous technologies for NASA mission operations stems in part from the need to reduce cost while improving and increasing capability and safety. This paper will provide examples of autonomous technologies currently in use at NASA and will identify opportunities to advance existing autonomous technologies that will enhance mission success by reducing cost, ameliorating inefficiencies, and mitigating catastrophic anomalies

Cruzen, Craig; Thompson, Jerry T.

2013-01-01

283

An introduction to autonomous control systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The functions, characteristics, and benefits of autonomous control are outlined. An autonomous control functional architecture for future space vehicles that incorporates the concepts and characteristics described is presented. The controller is hierarchical, with an execution level (the lowest level), coordination level (middle level), and management and organization level (highest level). The general characteristics of the overall architecture, including those of the three levels, are explained, and an example to illustrate their functions is given. Mathematical models for autonomous systems, including 'logical' discrete event system models, are discussed. An approach to the quantitative, systematic modeling, analysis, and design of autonomous controllers is also discussed. It is a hybrid approach since it uses conventional analysis techniques based on difference and differential equations and new techniques for the analysis of the systems described with a symbolic formalism such as finite automata. Some recent results from the areas of planning and expert systems, machine learning, artificial neural networks, and the area restructurable controls are briefly outlined.

Antsaklis, Panos J.; Passino, Kevin M.; Wang, S. J.

1991-01-01

284

Cooperative Autonomic Management in Dynamic Distributed Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The centralized management of large distributed systems is often impractical, particularly when the both the topology and status of the system change dynamically. This paper proposes an approach to application-centric self-management in large distributed systems consisting of a collection of autonomic components that join and leave the system dynamically. Cooperative autonomic components self-organize into a dynamically created overlay network. Through local information sharing with neighbors, each component gains access to global information as needed for optimizing performance of applications. The approach has been validated and evaluated by developing a decentralized autonomic system consisting of multiple autonomic application managers previously developed for the In-VIGO grid-computing system. Using analytical results from complex random network and measurements done in a prototype system, we demonstrate the robustness, self-organization and adaptability of our approach, both theoretically and experimentally.

Xu, Jing; Zhao, Ming; Fortes, José A. B.

285

Acupuncture Effect and Central Autonomic Regulation  

PubMed Central

Acupuncture is a therapeutic technique and part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Acupuncture has clinical efficacy on various autonomic nerve-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, anxiety and nervousness, circadian rhythm disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and subfertility. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture can control autonomic nerve system (ANS) functions including blood pressure, pupil size, skin conductance, skin temperature, muscle sympathetic nerve activities, heart rate and/or pulse rate, and heart rate variability. Emerging evidence indicates that acupuncture treatment not only activates distinct brain regions in different kinds of diseases caused by imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, but also modulates adaptive neurotransmitter in related brain regions to alleviate autonomic response. This review focused on the central mechanism of acupuncture in modulating various autonomic responses, which might provide neurobiological foundations for acupuncture effects. PMID:23762116

Li, Qian-Qian; Shi, Guang-Xia; Xu, Qian; Wang, Jing; Liu, Cun-Zhi; Wang, Lin-Peng

2013-01-01

286

Controlled manipulation using autonomous aerial systems  

E-print Network

The main focus of the thesis is to design and control Autonomous Aerial Systems, also referred to as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are able to hover and navigate in space using the thrust forces generated by the ...

Srikanth, Manohar B. (Manohar Balagatte)

2013-01-01

287

Path planning methods for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

E-print Network

From naval operations to ocean science missions, the importance of autonomous vehicles is increasing with the advances in underwater robotics technology. Due to the dynamic and intermittent underwater environment and the ...

Yi?it, Konuralp

2011-01-01

288

Achieving Autonomous Power Management Using Reinforcement Learning  

E-print Network

Additional Key Words and Phrases: Power management, thermal management, machine learning, computer ACM24 Achieving Autonomous Power Management Using Reinforcement Learning HAO SHEN, Syracuse University University System level power management must consider the uncertainty and variability that come from

Qiu, Qinru

289

Human inspiration for autonomous vehicle tactics  

E-print Network

Tactical control is needed in environments characterized by uncertainty and continuous, dynamic change. Given the likelihood of time constraints and high risks associated with poor tactical choices, current autonomous ...

Beaton, Jonathan Scott

2006-01-01

290

Orexin links emotional stress to autonomic functions.  

PubMed

We studied autonomic functions in orexin-deficient mice and found abnormalities in the emotional state-dependent adjustment of the central autonomic regulation on circulation and respiration. These are summarized as follows. 1) Orexin-deficient mice exposed to a stressor exhibited an attenuated fight-or-flight response, including increases in respiration and blood pressure and stress-induced analgesia. 2) Stimulation to the amygdala (AMG) or the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), both of which are implicated in the stress-induced autonomic responses, induced long-lasting cardiorespiratory excitation in wild-type mice but not in the orexin neuron-ablated mice. Hence, it is likely that the orexin system is one of the essential modulators required for orchestrating the neural circuits controlling autonomic functions and emotional behaviors. PMID:20813590

Kuwaki, Tomoyuki

2011-04-26

291

XAUV : modular high maneuverability autonomous underwater vehicle  

E-print Network

The design and construction of a modular test bed autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is analyzed. Although a relatively common stacked-hull design is used, the state of the art is advanced through an aggressive power ...

Walker, Daniel G. (Daniel George)

2009-01-01

292

Autonomous Distant Visual Surveillance of Satellites (PREPRINT).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper develops three new, interconnected techniques useful for the autonomous distant visual inspection of satellites. First, silhouetting of man made, erratically illuminated satellites is performed. Illumination cases include full sun from an arbit...

J. E. McInroy, L. M. Robertson, R. S. Erwin

2006-01-01

293

Autonomous thruster failure recovery for underactuated spacecraft  

E-print Network

Thruster failures historically account for a large percentage of failures that have occurred on orbit. Therefore, autonomous thruster failure detection, isolation, and recovery (FDIR) is an essential component to any robust ...

Pong, Christopher Masaru

2010-01-01

294

System Engineering of Autonomous Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human exploration of the solar system requires fully autonomous systems when travelling more than 5 light minutes from Earth. This autonomy is necessary to manage a large, complex spacecraft with limited crew members and skills available. The communication latency requires the vehicle to deal with events with only limited crew interaction in most cases. The engineering of these systems requires an extensive knowledge of the spacecraft systems, information theory, and autonomous algorithm characteristics. The characteristics of the spacecraft systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm characteristics to reliably monitor and control the system. This presents a large system engineering problem. Recent work on product-focused, elegant system engineering will be applied to this application, looking at the full autonomy stack, the matching of autonomous systems to spacecraft systems, and the integration of different types of algorithms. Each of these areas will be outlined and a general approach defined for system engineering to provide the optimal solution to the given application context.

Watson, Michael D.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Trevino, Luis

2014-01-01

295

An integrated architecture for autonomous vehicles simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling and simulation tools are being increasingly acclaimed in the research field of autonomous vehicles systems, as they provide suitable test beds for the development and evaluation of such complex systems. However, these tools still do not account for some integration capabilities amongst several state-of-the-art Intelligent Transportation Systems, e.g. to study autonomous driving behaviors in human-steered urban traffic scenarios, which

José L. F. Pereira; Rosaldo J. F. Rossetti

2012-01-01

296

Tele-robotic/autonomous control using controlshell  

SciTech Connect

A tele-robotic and autonomous controller architecture for waste handling and sorting has been developed which uses tele-robotics, autonomous grasping and image processing. As a starting point, prior work from LLNL and ORNL was restructured and ported to a special real-time development environment. Significant improvements in collision avoidance, force compliance, and shared control aspects were then developed. Several orders of magnitude improvement were made in some areas to meet the speed and robustness requirements of the application.

Wilhelmsen, K.C.; Hurd, R.L.; Couture, S.

1996-12-10

297

Autonomic Communications for Space: The Next Frontier?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomic communications has been gaining ground as a vision for next generation communications. The success and flexibility of the Internet has lead to evaluations of utilizing IP for communications in space. The limitations of today's Internet ultimately also imply limitations for an IP deployment in space. Issues affecting the design of a future self-directing and self-managing data communications network for future space missions based on autonomic communications concepts are described and examined.

Rash, James L.; Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Michael G.

2006-01-01

298

AUTONOMOUS OPERATIONS THROUGH ONBOARD ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat 21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2006. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learn- ing and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. Demonstration of

Rob Sherwood; Steve Chien; Rebecca Castano; Gregg Rabideau

2006-01-01

299

The Techsat-21 autonomous space science agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat-21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2004. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. In this paper we

Steve A. Chien; Rob Sherwood; Gregg Rabideau; Rebecca Castano; Ashley Davies; Michael C. Burl; Russell Knight; Timothy M. Stough; Joseph Roden; Paul Zetocha; Ross Wainwright; Pete Klupar; Jim Van Gaasbeck; Pat Cappelaere; Dean Oswald

2002-01-01

300

Subsurface planetary investigation techniques and their role for assessing subsurface planetary composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface planetary investigation techniques are of high interest and importance for the scientific community. Not only they can enhance our knowledge of the history of planetary formation but also can lead to information about its future. Whether the investigation is being conducted remotely using imagers, radars or physically using penetrometers or drills, a pre-existed knowledge of the mechanical and electrical properties of the subsurface regolith should be acquired for better data interpretation and analysis. Therefore, the main objective of this work is to investigate the mechanical and electrical properties of planetary analogs, understand their role for assessing the subsurface structure and identify their character for subsurface investigation techniques. Through-out this research, we investigated the mechanical and electrical properties of regolith analogs with emphasis on testing the feasibility of using penetrometer to explore the subsurface of planetary bodies and estimate their structure and layering. We found probe's diameter and regolith density are the most dominant factors which affect penetration forces. We correlated the mechanical and electrical properties of regolith analogs to geomorphological shape formation. An increase in gully total length corresponds to an increase in dielectric constant, friction angle and formation bulk density which will enhance previous, current and future modelling, interpretation and analysis of optical imagery and radar data. We performed dielectric permittivity and hardness measurements for volcanic rocks in order to provide a cross relation between the dielectric constant of the investigated material and its hardness property. A linear increase in dielectric constant observed along with an increase in rock hardness. This will enhance characterization of the shallow subsurface when investigated using radar and drill/penetrometer.

ElShafie, Ahmed Mohamed

301

Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

2014-01-01

302

Autonomous control systems - Architecture and fundamental issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hierarchical functional autonomous controller architecture is introduced. In particular, the architecture for the control of future space vehicles is described in detail; it is designed to ensure the autonomous operation of the control system and it allows interaction with the pilot and crew/ground station, and the systems on board the autonomous vehicle. The fundamental issues in autonomous control system modeling and analysis are discussed. It is proposed to utilize a hybrid approach to modeling and analysis of autonomous systems. This will incorporate conventional control methods based on differential equations and techniques for the analysis of systems described with a symbolic formalism. In this way, the theory of conventional control can be fully utilized. It is stressed that autonomy is the design requirement and intelligent control methods appear at present, to offer some of the necessary tools to achieve autonomy. A conventional approach may evolve and replace some or all of the `intelligent' functions. It is shown that in addition to conventional controllers, the autonomous control system incorporates planning, learning, and FDI (fault detection and identification).

Antsaklis, P. J.; Passino, K. M.; Wang, S. J.

1988-01-01

303

The role of autonomic testing in syncope.  

PubMed

Syncope is a common presenting complaint in both the inpatient and outpatient settings. The main goals in the clinical evaluation of syncope are to identify an underlying etiology, to stratify risk and to guide plans for therapeutic intervention. Testing begins with an initial electrocardiogram to screen for any cardiac rhythm abnormalities. Heart rate variability to paced breathing provides a standard measure of cardiac parasympathetic function and offers clues towards an autonomic cause of syncope. A Valsalva maneuver is used to evaluate for parasympathetic dysfunction through the Valsalva ratio. In addition, sympathetic adrenergic function is assessed through evaluation of blood pressure response during the Valsalva maneuver. Abnormalities to the Valsalva maneuver can suggest clues towards an autonomic cause of syncope. Head-up tilt table testing is an important part of the autonomic evaluation of patients with syncope, and can be diagnostic for many disorders that result in syncope including orthostatic hypotension, neurally mediated syncope, postural tachycardia syndrome or delayed orthostatic hypotension. Autonomic function testing provides a safe and controlled environment for evaluation of patients, and plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of syncope, particularly in challenging cases. While the initial clinical evaluation of syncope involves a detailed history and physical examination; in situations where the diagnosis is unknown, the addition of autonomic testing is complementary and can lead to identification of autonomic causes of syncope. PMID:24948113

Jones, Pearl K; Gibbons, Christopher H

2014-09-01

304

Fast autonomous holographic adaptive optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an adaptive optics system incorporating a holographic wavefront sensor with the autonomous closed-loop control of a MEMS deformable mirror. HALOS incorporates a multiplexed holographic recording of the response functions of each actuator in a deformable mirror. On reconstruction with an arbitrary input beam, multiple focal spots are produced. By measuring the relative intensities of these spots a full measurement of the absolute phase can be constructed. Using fast photodiodes, direct feedback correction can be applied to the actuators.In this talk we will present the results from an all-optical, ultra-compact system that runs in closed-loop without the need for a computer. The 32-actuator HALOS runs at a 100kHz bandwidth, but the speed is independent of the number of actuators and should run equally fast with 32 million. Additionally, the system is largely insensitive to obscuration unlike the more conventional Shack-Hartmann WFS. We will present information on how HALOS can be used for image correction and beam propagation as well as several other novel applications.

Andersen, Geoff; Ghebremichael, Fassil; Gelsinger-Austin, Paul; MacDonald, Ken; Gaddipati, Ravi; Gaddipati, Phani

2013-12-01

305

Is acting on delusions autonomous?  

PubMed Central

In this paper the question of autonomy in delusional disorders is investigated using a phenomenological approach. I refer to the distinction between freedom of intentional action, and freedom of the will, and develop phenomenological descriptions of lived autonomy, taking into account the distinction between a pre-reflective and a reflective type. Drawing on a case report, I deliver finely-grained phenomenological descriptions of lived autonomy and experienced self-determination when acting on delusions. This analysis seeks to demonstrate that a person with delusions can be described as responsible for her behaviour on a ‘framed’ level (level of freedom of intentional action), even though she is not autonomous on a higher (‘framing’) level (level of freedom of the will), if, and only if, the goods of agency for herself and others are respected. In these cases the person with delusions is very nearly comparable to people in love, who are also not free to choose their convictions, and who could also be rightly held responsible for the behaviour flowing from their convictions. PMID:24125114

2013-01-01

306

Autonomous negotiation of freeway traffic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new approach for autonomously negotiating freeway traffic. It is based on the concept of Velocity Obstacle (VO) which maps the set of vehicle's velocities that would result in a collision with the other moving vehicles. The Velocity Obstacle is computed by measuring the relative velocities and positions of the neighboring vehicles. The vehicle then negotiates through the moving traffic by selecting velocities that are out of that set, but are directed towards the intermediate goal, which may be an exit ramp or another lane. The computation of the VO and the feasible velocity is repeated at regular time intervals, to account for the time evolution of the freeway traffic. This representation can be used to automatically plan the vehicle's motion, or to advise the driver of potential unsafe maneuvers. For automatic planning, we developed heuristics that select the safe velocity based on the location of the goal and the acceptable risk level of the maneuvering vehicle. For advisory purposes, we developed a graphic representation of the VO which clearly shows the unsafe velocities to be avoided at all times. Attempting to drive at an unsafe velocity may sound an alarm and suggest a corrective maneuver. This representation is computationally efficient, and is applicable for on-line planning and warning. The method is demonstrated in simulations for planning the trajectory of an automated vehicle in an Intelligent vehicle Highway System (IVHS) scenario.

Shiller, Zvi; Fiorini, Paolo

1995-12-01

307

Subsurface Tectonics and Pingos of Northern Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe preliminary results of a two-phase study that investigated links between subsurface structural and stratigraphic controls, and distribution of hydrostatic pingos on the central coastal plain of Arctic Alaska. Our 2300 km2 study area is underlain by a complete petroleum system that supports gas, oil and water production from 3 of the largest oil fields in North America. In addition, gas hydrate deposits exist in this area within and just below the permafrost interval at depths of 600 to 1800 feet below sea level. Phase 1 of the study compared locations of subsurface faults and pingos for evidence of linkages between faulting and pingo genesis and distribution. Several hundred discrete fault features were digitized from published data and georeferenced in a GIS database. Fault types were determined by geometry and sense of slip derived from well log and seismic maps. More than 200 pingos and surface sediment type associated with their locations were digitized from regional surficial geology maps within an area that included wire line and seismic data coverage. Beneath the pingos lies an assemblage of high-angle normal and transtensional faults that trend NNE and NW; subsidiary trends are EW and NNW. Quaternary fault reactivation is evidenced by faults that displaced strata at depths exceeding 3000 meters below sea level and intersect near-surface units. Unpublished seismic images and cross-section analysis support this interpretation. Kinematics and distribution of reactivated faults are linked to polyphase deformational history of the region that includes Mesozoic rift events, succeeded by crustal shortening and uplift of the Brooks Range to the south, and differential subsidence and segmentation of a related foreland basin margin beneath the study area. Upward fluid migration, a normal process in basin formation and fault reactivation, may play yet unrecognized roles in the genesis (e.g. fluid charging) of pingos and groundwater hydrology. Preliminary analysis shows that more than half the pingos occur within 150 m of the vertical projections of subsurface fault plane traces. In a previous, unpublished geostatistical study, comparison of pingo and random locations indicated a non-random NE-trending alignment of pingos. This trend in particular matches the dominant orientation of fault sets that are linked to the most recent tectonic deformation of the region. A concurrent Phase 2 of the study examines the potential role of near-surface stratigraphic units in regard to both pingos and faults. Both surface and subsurface coarse-grained deposits across the region are often controlled by fault structures; this study is the first to assess any relationship between reservoir rocks and pingo locations. Cross-sections were constructed from well log data to depths of 100 meters. Subsurface elements were compared with surface features. Although some studies have linked fine-grained surface sediments with pingo occurrence, our analysis hints that coarse-grained sediments underlie pingos and may be related to near-surface fluid transmissivity, as suggested by other researchers. We also investigated pingo occurrence in relationship to upthrown or downthrown fault blocks that vary in the degree of deformation and fluid transmission. Results will guide a proposed pingo drilling project to test linkages between pingos, subsurface geology, hydrology, and petroleum systems. Findings from this study could aid research and planning for field exploration of similar settings on Earth and Mars.

Skirvin, S.; Casavant, R.; Burr, D.

2008-12-01

308

Subsurface sequence stratigraphic correlation using well logs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given hard copies of a subsurface section containing gamma and resistivity logs of nine closely-spaced (well distance varies from 1 to 3 km) wells from Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico for an interval of ~ 200 m clastic succession of Morrow sandstone of Pennsylvanian age. Core sedimentology of one of these wells is also provided. Students' task is to correlate the well logs to generate a stratigraphic cross-section of the area using sequence stratigraphic approach. As the data are from Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico, student should first gather the knowledge of regional setting of the basin, with a particular emphasis to the paleo-eustasy. (Clue: in Delaware Basin, Morrow sandstones deposited in a low accommodation settings with high-amplitude fluctuations of sea-level.) When correlating the well logs students should start with the well which has lithological information. Students should try to correlate the mudstones first. The two most prominent sequence stratigraphic surfaces with comparatively higher correlation-length are 'sequence boundary' produced by pronounced fall of sea-level, and 'maximum flooding surface' generated at the time of highest stand of sea-level. Students should pay particular attention to incised-valley-fill deposits. After completing the correlation, students should check whether their correlation satisfy our prevailing ideas of sequence stratigraphy and stratal packaging. Student should prepare a brief description of overall depositional environments and sea-level history of the area substantiating their subsurface correlation. By doing this exercise, students will learn how to apply sequence stratigraphic principles in interpreting subsurface data, particularly from well logs.

Gani, M. R.

309

Single cell genomics of subsurface microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have revealed unexpected abundance and diversity of microorganisms in terrestrial and marine subsurface, providing new perspectives over their biogeochemical significance, evolution, and the limits of life. The now commonly used research tools, such as metagenomics and PCR-based gene surveys enabled cultivation-unbiased analysis of genes encoded by natural microbial communities. However, these methods seldom provide direct evidence for how the discovered genes are organized inside genomes and from which organisms do they come from. Here we evaluated the feasibility of an alternative, single cell genomics approach, in the analysis of subsurface microbial community composition, metabolic potential and microevolution at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), South Dakota, and the Witwaterstrand Basin, South Africa. We successfully recovered genomic DNA from individual microbial cells from multiple locations, including ultra-deep (down to 3,500 m) and low-biomass (down to 10^3 cells mL^-1) fracture water. The obtained single amplified genomes (SAGs) from SURF contained multiple representatives of the candidate divisions OP3, OP11, OD1 and uncharacterized archaea. By sequencing eight of these SAGs, we obtained the first genome content information for these phylum-level lineages that do not contain a single cultured representative. The Witwaterstrand samples were collected from deep fractures, biogeochemical dating of which suggests isolation from tens of thousands to tens of millions of years. Thus, these fractures may be viewed as "underground Galapagos", a natural, long-term experiment of microbial evolution within well-defined temporal and spatial boundaries. We are analyzing multiple SAGs from these environments, which will provide detailed information about adaptations to life in deep subsurface, mutation rates, selective pressures and gene flux within and across microbial populations.

Stepanauskas, R.; Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C.; Kieft, T. L.; Woyke, T.; Rinke, C.; Sczyrba, A.; van Heerden, E.

2012-12-01

310

Nonisothermal multiphase subsurface transport on parallel computers  

SciTech Connect

We present a numerical method for nonisothermal, multiphase subsurface transport in heterogeneous porous media. The mathematical model considers nonisothermal two-phase (liquid/gas) flow, including capillary pressure effects, binary diffusion in the gas phase, conductive, latent, and sensible heat transport. The Galerkin finite element method is used for spatial discretization, and temporal integration is accomplished via a predictor/corrector scheme. Message-passing and domain decomposition techniques are used for implementing a scalable algorithm for distributed memory parallel computers. An illustrative application is shown to demonstrate capabilities and performance.

Martinez, M.J.; Hopkins, P.L.; Shadid, J.N.

1997-10-01

311

Instrumented Moles for Planetary Subsurface Regolith Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil-like materials, or regolith, on solar system objects provide a record of physical and/or chemical weathering processes on the object in question and as such possess significant scientific relevance for study by landed planetary missions. In the case of Mars, a complex interplay has been at work between impact gardening, aeolian as well as possibly fluvial processes. This resulted in regolith that is texturally as well as compositionally layered as hinted at by results from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions which are capable of accessing shallow subsurface soils by wheel trenching. Significant subsurface soil access on Mars, i.e. to depths of a meter or more, remains to be accomplished on future missions. This has been one of the objectives of the unsuccessful Beagle 2 landed element of the ESA Mars Express mission having been equipped with the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO) subsurface soil sampling Mole system capable of self-penetration into regolith due to an internal electro-mechanical hammering mechanism. This lightweight device of less than 900 g mass was designed to repeatedly obtain and deliver to the lander regolith samples from depths down to 2 m which would have been analysed for organic matter and, specifically, organic carbon from potential extinct microbial activity. With funding from the ESA technology programme, an evolved Mole system - the Instrumented Mole System (IMS) - has now been developed to a readiness level of TRL 6. The IMS is to serve as a carrier for in situ instruments for measurements in planetary subsurface soils. This could complement or even eliminate the need to recover samples to the surface. The Engineering Model hardware having been developed within this effort is designed for accommodating a geophysical instrument package (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package, HP3) that would be capable of measuring regolith physical properties and planetary heat flow. The chosen design encompasses a two-body Mole consisting of a 'tractor' element containing the hammering mechanism jointed to a trailed compartment housing the instruments as well as some front-end electronics, tethered to surface controls and instruments. This presentation will highlight the design of the IMS and will describe results of comprehensive functional and environmental tests that included soil penetration to depths beyond 2 m, thermal vacuum functional tests, as well as vibration testing of the stowed system. Mission scenarios that are being considered for the IMS are discussed (including the ExoMars mission of ESA), and an update is given on parallel tests of the HP3 instrument package that is being developed in a dedicated, ESA-funded effort.

Richter, L. O.; Coste, P. A.; Grzesik, A.; Knollenberg, J.; Magnani, P.; Nadalini, R.; Re, E.; Romstedt, J.; Sohl, F.; Spohn, T.

2006-12-01

312

GEOSSAV: a simulation tool for subsurface applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geostatistical Environment fOr Subsurface Simulation And Visualization (GEOSSAV) is a tool for the integration of hard and soft data into stochastic simulation and visualization of distributions of geological structures and hydrogeological properties in the subsurface. GEOSSAV, as an interface to selected geostatistical modules (bicalib, gamv, vargplt, and sisim) from the Geostatistical Software LIBrary, GSLIB (GSLIB: Geostatistical Software Library and User's Guide, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998, 369pp), can be used for data analysis, variogram computation of regularly or irregularly spaced data, and sequential indicator simulation of subsurface heterogeneities. Sequential indicator simulation, based on various kriging techniques (simple, ordinary, and Bayesian), is suitable for the simulation of continuous variables such as hydraulic conductivity of an aquifer or chemical concentrations at a contaminated site, and categorical variables which indicate the presence or absence of a particular lithofacies. The software integration platform and development environment of GEOSSAV is Tool command language (Tcl) with its graphical user interface, Toolkit (Tk), and a number of Tcl/Tk extensions. The standard Open Graphics Library application programming interface is used for rendering three-dimensional (3D) data distributions and for slicing perpendicular to the main coordinate axis. Export options for finite-difference groundwater models allow either files that characterize single model layers (which are saved in ASCII matrix format) or files that characterize the complete 3D flow model setup for MODFLOW-based groundwater simulation systems (which are saved in block-centered flow package files (User's documentation for MODFLOW-96, an update to the US Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-485, Reston, VA, 1996, 56pp)). GEOSSAV can be used whenever stochastic solutions are preferred to solve site-specific heterogeneity problems, e.g., in the field of hydrology, groundwater, groundwater and/or soil contamination, site remediation, air pollution, and ecology. An example from the Rhine/Wiese aquifer near Basel demonstrates the application of GEOSSAV on geostatistical data analysis and subsurface visualization. GEOSSAV has been successfully tested on Microsoft Windows NT 4.0/2000/XP and on SuSE Linux 7.3. The current version is available at http://www.unibas.ch/earth/pract.

Regli, Christian; Rosenthaler, Lukas; Huggenberger, Peter

2004-04-01

313

Detection of microbes in the subsurface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The search for evidence of microbial life in the deep subsurface of Earth has implications for the Mars Rover Sampling Return Missions program. If suitably protected environments can be found on Mars then the instrumentation to detect biomarkers could be used to examine the molecular details. Finding a lipid in Martian soil would represent possibly the simplest test for extant or extinct life. A device that could do a rapid extraction possibly using the supercritical fluid technology under development now with a detection of the carbon content would clearly indicate a sample to be returned.

White, David C.; Tunlid, Anders

1989-01-01

314

Surface and subsurface mapping in hydrogeology  

SciTech Connect

This book concentrates on the often neglected but useful aspects of hydrogeological mapping. It covers geophysical survey methods and the importance of water chemistry as a tool in tracing the route of subsurface water, and goes on to lay a basic foundation in subjects needed for practice in field: stratigraphy, structural geology, mineralogy, petrography, and geochemistry. Also covers basic disciplines and techniques indispensable for geological mapping, e.g., cartography and surveying, geophysics, drilling, soil science, hydrology, and botanics. Written from a uniquely practical standpoint.

Erdelyi, M.; Galfi, J.

1987-01-01

315

Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2010-01-04

316

Exploring Deep-Subsurface Life: Capstone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about using analogues to look for life on other planets. Learners will use the results of previous lessons to write a scientific proposal to explore another planet or moon in our solar system for signs of life. This proposal should predict the types of energy and nutrients available to sustain life and describe equipment and instruments necessary for exploration and characterization of the target environment. This is activity 4, the capstone activity, in Exploring Deep-Subsurface Life. Earth Analogues for Possible Life on Mars: Lessons and Activities.

317

Subsurface Near-Field Scanning Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scanning tomography method is developed for electromagnetic sounding of a 3D structure of an inhomogeneous dielectric half-space. It is shown that known methods of physical diagnostics are suitable for this tomography with the depth of analysis from nanometers at optical frequencies up to several kilometers at ultralow frequencies. The areas of application include nanophysics, biological and medical diagnostics, subsurface remote sensing in geophysics and geology, etc. This approach is realized in the microwave scanning tomography of living tissues where a subwavelength resolution is achieved.

Gaikovich, K. P.

2007-05-01

318

Root-supplied carbon in surface and subsurface soils of forested riparian zones in New England Running Head: Riparian subsurface root carbon  

E-print Network

riparian zones in New England Running Head: Riparian subsurface root carbon Noel P. Gurwick Department (continuously saturated) subsurface soils beneath riparian forests on glaciofluvial deposits in New England

Gurwick, Noel P.

319

Assessment and evaluation of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies with autonomic and neurophysiological examinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The five different types of the rare hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are classified by their mode of inheritance, pathology, natural history, biochemical, neurophysiologic and autonomic abnormalities. Clinically, the different types of HSANs can be identified by a detailed history and examination and 'bedside' tests of sympathetic or parasympathetic function such as active standing, metronomic breathing or the Valsalva

Max J. Hilz

2002-01-01

320

Autonomous Rovers for Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rovers will play a critical role in the exploration of Mars. Near-term mission plans call for long traverses over unknown terrain, robust navigation and instrument placement, and reliable operations for extended periods of time. Longer-term missions may visit multiple science sites in a single day and perform opportunistic science data collection, as well as complex scouting, construction, and maintenance tasks in preparation for an eventual human presence. The Pathfinder mission demonstrated the potential for robotic Mars exploration but at the same time indicated the need for more rover autonomy. The highly ground-intensive control with infrequent communication and high latency limited the effectiveness of the Sojourner rover. When failures occurred, Sojourner often sat idle for extended periods of time, awaiting further commands from earth. In future missions, the tasks will be more complex and extended; hence there will be even more situations where things do not go exactly as planned. Significant advances in rover autonomy are needed to cope with increasing task complexity and greater execution uncertainty. Towards this end, we have designed an on-board executive architecture that incorporates robust operation, resource utilization, and failure recovery. In addition, we have designed ground tools to produce and refine contingent schedules that take advantage of the on-board architecture's flexible execution characteristics. Together, the on-board executive and the ground tools constitute an integrated rover autonomy architecture. This work draws from our experience with the Deep Space One autonomy experiment, with enhancements to ensure robust operation in the face of the unpredictable, complex environment that the rover will encounter on Mars. The rover autonomy architecture is currently being developed and deployed on the Marsokhod rover platform at NASA Ames Research Center. The capabilities of the rover autonomy architecture to support autonomous operations will be demonstrated concretely in upcoming field tests.

Anderson, Corin; Bresina, John; Golden, Keith; Smith, David E.; Smith, Trey; Washington, Richard; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

321

Compact Autonomous Hemispheric Vision System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar System Exploration camera implementations to date have involved either single cameras with wide field-of-view (FOV) and consequently coarser spatial resolution, cameras on a movable mast, or single cameras necessitating rotation of the host vehicle to afford visibility outside a relatively narrow FOV. These cameras require detailed commanding from the ground or separate onboard computers to operate properly, and are incapable of making decisions based on image content that control pointing and downlink strategy. For color, a filter wheel having selectable positions was often added, which added moving parts, size, mass, power, and reduced reliability. A system was developed based on a general-purpose miniature visible-light camera using advanced CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) imager technology. The baseline camera has a 92 FOV and six cameras are arranged in an angled-up carousel fashion, with FOV overlaps such that the system has a 360 FOV (azimuth). A seventh camera, also with a FOV of 92 , is installed normal to the plane of the other 6 cameras giving the system a > 90 FOV in elevation and completing the hemispheric vision system. A central unit houses the common electronics box (CEB) controlling the system (power conversion, data processing, memory, and control software). Stereo is achieved by adding a second system on a baseline, and color is achieved by stacking two more systems (for a total of three, each system equipped with its own filter.) Two connectors on the bottom of the CEB provide a connection to a carrier (rover, spacecraft, balloon, etc.) for telemetry, commands, and power. This system has no moving parts. The system's onboard software (SW) supports autonomous operations such as pattern recognition and tracking.

Pingree, Paula J.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Walch, Marc J.; Staehle, Robert L.

2012-01-01

322

Surface and subsurface nitrate flow pathways on a watershed scale.  

PubMed

Determining the interaction and impact of surface runoff and subsurface flow processes on the environment has been hindered by our inability to characterize subsurface soil structures on a watershed scale. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) data were collected and evaluated in determining subsurface hydrology at four small watersheds in Beltsville, MD. The watersheds have similar textures, organic matter contents, and yield distributions. Although the surface slope was greater on one of the watersheds, slope alone could not explain why it also had a nitrate runoff flux that was 18 times greater than the other three watersheds. Only with knowledge of the subsurface hydrology could the surface runoff differences be explained. The subsurface hydrology was developed by combining GPR and surface topography in a geographic information system. Discrete subsurface flow pathways were identified and confirmed with color infrared imagery, real-time soil moisture monitoring, and yield monitoring. The discrete subsurface flow patterns were also useful in understanding observed nitrate levels entering the riparian wetland and first order stream. This study demonstrated the impact that subsurface stratigraphy can have on water and nitrate (NO3-N) fluxes exiting agricultural lands, even when soil properties, yield distributions, and climate are similar. Reliable protocols for measuring subsurface fluxes of water and chemicals need to be developed. PMID:12805788

Daughtry, C S; Gish, T J; Dulaney, W P; Walthall, C L; Kung, K J; McCarty, G W; Angier, J T; Buss, P

2001-11-30

323

Phylogenetic relationships among subsurface microorganisms. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This project involves the development of group specific 16S ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the rapid detection of specific types of subsurface organisms (e.g., groups of microbes that share certain physiological traits). Major accomplishments for the period of 6/91 to 12/1/91 are described. Nine new probes have been synthesized on the basis of published 16S rRNA sequence data from the Ribosomal Database Project. We have initiated rapid screening of many of the subsurface microbial isolates obtained from the P24 borehole at the Savannah River Site. To date, we have screened approximately 50% of the isolates from P24. We have optimized our {und in situ} hybridization technique, and have developed a cell blot hybridization technique to screen 96 samples on a single blot. This is much faster than reading 96 individual slides. Preliminary experiments have been carried out which indicate specific nutrients can be used to amplify rRNA only in those organisms capable of metabolizing those nutrients. 1 tab., 2 figs.

Nierzwicki-Bauer, S.A.

1991-12-31

324

Predictability of Subsurface Temperature and the AMOC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GEOS 5 coupled model is extensively used for experimental decadal climate prediction. Understanding the limits of decadal ocean predictability is critical for making progress in these efforts. Using this model, we study the subsurface temperature initial value predictability, the variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and its impacts on the global climate. Our approach is to utilize the idealized data assimilation technology developed at the GMAO. The technique 'replay' allows us to assess, for example, the impact of the surface wind stresses and/or precipitation on the ocean in a very well controlled environment. By running the coupled model in replay mode we can in fact constrain the model using any existing reanalysis data set. We replay the model constraining (nudging) it to the MERRA reanalysis in various fields from 1948-2012. The fields, u,v,T,q,ps, are adjusted towards the 6-hourly analyzed fields in atmosphere. The simulated AMOC variability is studied with a 400-year-long segment of replay integration. The 84 cases of 10-year hindcasts are initialized from 4 different replay cycles. Here, the variability and predictability are examined further by a measure to quantify how much the subsurface temperature and AMOC variability has been influenced by atmospheric forcing and by ocean internal variability. The simulated impact of the AMOC on the multi-decadal variability of the SST, sea surface height (SSH) and sea ice extent is also studied.

Chang, Y.; Schubert, S. D.

2013-12-01

325

Subsurface damage on ground fused silica surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low surface laser damage threshold of fused silica components in high power laser systems such as NIF restricts the improvement of the output fluence of those systems. Once damage is initiated and grows under subsequent laser shots, the components will go unusable. Subsurface damage (SSD) introduced during manufacturing has been identified as a main damage initiator. A good knowledge of SSD and how manufacturing influences it is essential to optimize manufacturing processes for damage free optics. Using the magneto-rheological finishing (MRF) wedge technique of better accuracy attributed to a tip, we have characterized the subsurface damage on fused silica optical surfaces ground with loose Al2O3 abrasives of different sizes. Larger abrasives generates longer cracks and the number density of cracks decreases sharply with the depth for each size. Rogue particles account for the occurrence of trailing indent scratches. Addition of rogue abrasives into relatively small base abrasive extends SSD more deeply than that induced by rogue abrasives alone. The linear model, with the proportional coefficient 3.511, fits the relationship between SSD depth and surface roughness (SR) better than the quadratic polynomial one. We believe SSD depth relates to SR more statistically than following some specified physical law. The linear relationship between SSD depth and the abrasive size was also established. The abrasive size turned out not to be as a good indictor of SSD depth as SR.

Xu, Jiafeng; Xu, Xueke; Gao, Wenlan; Wei, Chaoyang; Yang, Minghong; Shao, Jianda

2014-08-01

326

Human utilization of subsurface extraterrestrial environments.  

PubMed

Caves have been used in the ancient past as shelter or habitat by many organisms (including humans). Since antiquity, humans have explored caves for the minerals they contain and sometimes for ceremonial purposes. Over the past century, caves have become the target of increasing exploration, scientific research, and recreation. The use of caves on extraterrestrial bodies for human habitation has been suggested by several investigators. Lunar lava tube bases received early attention because lava tubes were clearly visible in lunar images from the Apollo Era. More recently, Mars Observer Camera data has shown us clear evidence of large tubes visible in a number of volcanic regions on Mars. The budding field of cave geomicrobiology has direct application to questions about subsurface life on other planets. Caves contain many unusual organisms making their living from unlikely materials like manganese, iron, and sulfur. This makes caves and other subsurface habitats prime targets for astrobiological missions to Mars and possibly other bodies. We present the results of a completed Phase I and on-going Phase II NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) study that intensively examines the possibilities of using extraterrestrial caves as both a resource for human explorers and as a highly promising scientific target for both robotic and future human missions to Mars and beyond. PMID:12959139

Boston, P J; Frederick, R D; Welch, S M; Werker, J; Meyer, T R; Sprungman, B; Hildreth-Werker, V; Thompson, S L; Murphy, D L

2003-06-01

327

Robotics subsurface mapping demonstration technology test plan  

SciTech Connect

The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) contains an estimated 2 million cubic feet of contaminated, hazardous, radioactive buried waste. The waste was received in cardboard boxes, steel drums plywood boxes, and as loose material. Possible leaching of the buried waste may have created mixed hazardous fill dirt, with an estimated volume of 6 million cubic feet. The Department of Energy has committed to clean up the SDA. Cleanup efforts will include characterizing and removing the waste. Waste characterization provides information on what, where, and how much waste is buried. This information will be used to determine how the waste will be removed and treated. Limited historical data of the waste buried within the SDA exist, but have not been verified and are believed to be incorrect or incomplete in many cases. There are two objectives to the Robotics Subsurface Mapping Demonstration. The first is to demonstrate the feasibility of using a remotely operated platform to perform characterization operations. In the demonstration, the Soldier Robot Interface Project (SRIP) platform will be equipped with multiple sensors to provide data for buried waste characterization and will be remotely controlled and tracked by the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS). The second objective of the demonstration is to characterize the waste in locations within the SDA, as specified by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Project.

Griebenow, B.E.

1991-06-01

328

Method and apparatus for subsurface exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A subsurface explorer (SSX) for exploring beneath the terrestrial surface of planetary bodies such as the Earth, Mars, or comets. This exploration activity utilizes appropriate sensors and instrument to evaluate the composition, structure, mineralogy and possibly biology of the subsurface medium, as well as perhaps the ability to return samples of that medium back to the surface. The vehicle comprises an elongated skin or body having a front end and a rear end, with a nose piece at the front end for imparting force to composition material of the planetary body. Force is provided by a hammer mechanism to the back side of a nose piece from within the body of the vehicle. In the preferred embodiment, a motor spins an intermediate shaft having two non-uniform threads along with a hammer which engages these threads with two conical rollers. A brake assembly halts the rotation of the intermediate shaft, causing the conical roller to spin down the non-uniform thread to rapidly and efficiently convert the rotational kinetic energy of the hammer into translational energy.

Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

2002-01-01

329

In situ analysis of subsurface materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From radio and radar observations, providing information on the upper 0.1 to 10 m of the Martian crust, we know that subsurface properties seem to be slightly different from those at the surface, suggesting subsurface layering in many places. This idea has been strongly strengthened by the recent observation in sedimentary areas of the Martian surface, made by MGS and Odyssey Spacecrafts. Moreover indications on the presence of shallow water has been also suggested. Unfortunately many doubts exist on the nature, timing and duration of alteration and sedimentation processes on Mars. This study will permit to infer the history of erosion, transport and deposition of loose material. This material can reach a thickness ranging from a few centimeters to meters. Up to present, the Viking and Pathfinder investigations have studied only the upper layers of the soil. The Martian soil analyzed by the two Viking landers showed a surprising similarity, despite the great distance between the two landing sites: it will be extremely important to verify if this similarity is also present in different areas and, particularly, in the subsurface layers. The study of the Mars subsurface can give us an indication of how deeply the weathering has modified the Martian surface. The ASI driller will be able to penetrate different kinds of materials, both loose and hard. The drill will be able to cut both hard rock and loose soil as well as mixtures of them. Thanks to the ASI drill it will be possible to investigate at least the first half-meter of this complex structure. We describe here a miniaturized imaging spectrometer that can be included in the drill tip in order to infer the mineralogical characteristics of subsurface layers. The data are acquired through a flat optical window on the drill wall: through this window the inner surface of the hole is illuminated by means of different lamps. The image is acquired by an array of optical fibers simulating a slit. An optical system situated inside the drill will permit to observe details from few tenths of microns to hundreds of microns and to perform low resolution spectroscopy in the range 0.8-2.8 microns. The linear array of optical fibers mimics the slit. The focal plane is a two-dimensional matrix of HgCdTe or PbS of 32-64 pixels in the spatial direction by 25-256 pixels in the spectral direction. The spectral reflectance in the visible and near infrared can provide information on the mineralogy and petrology of surface materials, and therefore on crust composition and Fe mineralogy. Analysis of VIS and NIR reflectance spectra of low albedo areas is a primary source of evidence for basaltic crust on Mars, with the identification of abundant clinopyroxenes and other mafic minerals. The instrument prototype has already been tested in laboratory and we will show some of the obtained results.

Coradini, A.; de Sanctis, M. C.; Piccioni, G.; Amici, S.; Bianchi, R.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; di Lellis, A. M.; Espinasse, S.; Federico, C.

2003-04-01

330

Drilling on the Moon and Mars: Developing the Science Approach for Subsurface Exploration with Human Crews  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

DOMEX (Drilling on the Moon and Mars in Human Exploration) is using analog missions to develop the approach for using human crews to perform science activities on the Moon and Mars involving exploration and sampling of the subsurface. Subsurface science is an important activity that may be uniquely enabled by human crews. DOMEX provides an opportunity to plan and execute planetary mission science activities without the expense and overhead of a planetary mission. Objectives: The objective of this first in a series of DOMEX missions were to 1) explore the regional area to understand the geologic context and determine stratigraphy and geologic history of various geologic units in the area. 2) Explore for and characterize sites for deploying a deep (10 m depth) drilling system in a subsequent field season. 3) Perform GPR on candidate drill sites. 4) Select sites that represent different geological units deposited in different epochs and collect soil cores using sterile procedures for mineralogical, organic and biological analysis. 5) Operate the MUM in 3 different sites representing different geological units and soil characteristics. 6) Collect rock and soil samples of sites visited and analyze them at the habitat. Results: At mission start the crew performed a regional survey to identify major geologic units that were correlated to recognized stratigraphy and regional geologic maps. Several candidate drill sites were identified. During the rest of the mission, successful GPR surveys were conducted in four locations. Soil cores were collected in 5 locations representing soils from 4 different geologic units, to depths up to 1m. Soil cores from two locations were analyzed with PCR in the laboratory. The remainder were reserved for subsequent analysis. XRD analysis was performed in the habitat and in the field on 39 samples, to assist with sample characterization, conservation, and archiving. MUM was deployed at 3 field locations and 1 test location (outside the habitat) where it operated autonomously for 2-4 hours at each site. Depths achieved ranged from 15 to 70 cm depending on the soil compressive strength and the presence and depth of subsurface indurated layers. Subsurface samples weighing 0.5 to 1 g were collected at the deepest depth encountered at each of the sites using the MUM automated sample collection system, and subsequently analyzed with XRD. Downhole inspection of holes produced by MUM with the Raman spectrometer was acquired on two of the holes and spectral features associated with selenite were identified in specific soil layers. Previously unreported fossilized remains of vertebrate fauna from the Jurassic era were discovered during our mission. Analysis of mineral biomarkers associated with this discovery are underway.

Stoker, C. R.; Zavaleta, J.; Bell, M.; Direto, S.; Foing, B.; Blake, D.; Kim, S.

2010-01-01

331

Advanced avionics concepts: Autonomous spacecraft control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large increase in space operations activities is expected because of Space Station Freedom (SSF) and long range Lunar base missions and Mars exploration. Space operations will also increase as a result of space commercialization (especially the increase in satellite networks). It is anticipated that the level of satellite servicing operations will grow tenfold from the current level within the next 20 years. This growth can be sustained only if the cost effectiveness of space operations is improved. Cost effectiveness is operational efficiency with proper effectiveness. A concept is presented of advanced avionics, autonomous spacecraft control, that will enable the desired growth, as well as maintain the cost effectiveness (operational efficiency) in satellite servicing operations. The concept of advanced avionics that allows autonomous spacecraft control is described along with a brief description of each component. Some of the benefits of autonomous operations are also described. A technology utilization breakdown is provided in terms of applications.

1990-01-01

332

An Expert System for Autonomous Spacecraft Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE), part of the New Millennium Space Technology 6 Project, is flying onboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) mission. The ASE software enables EO-1 to autonomously detect and respond to science events such as: volcanic activity, flooding, and water freeze/thaw. ASE uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect chang-e and science events. Detection of these events is then used to trigger follow-up imagery. Onboard mission planning software then develops a response plan that accounts for target visibility and operations constraints. This plan is then executed using a task execution system that can deal with run-time anomalies. In this paper we describe the autonomy flight software and how it enables a new paradigm of autonomous science and mission operations. We will also describe the current experiment status and future plans.

Sherwood, Rob; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Rabideau, Gregg

2005-01-01

333

Self-healing for Autonomic Pervasive Computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To ensure smooth functioning of numerous handheld devices anywhere anytime, the importance of a self-healing mechanism cannot be overlooked. This is one of the main challenges to growing autonomic pervasive computing. Incorporation of efficient fault detection and recovery in the device itself is the ultimate quest but there is no existing selfhealing scheme for devices running in autonomic pervasive computing environments that can be claimed as the ultimate solution. Moreover, the highest degree of transparency, security and privacy should also be maintained. In this book chapter, an approach to develop a self-healing service for autonomic pervasive computing is presented. The self-healing service has been developed and integrated into the middleware named MARKS+ (Middleware Adaptability for Resource discovery, Knowledge usability, and Self-healing). The self-healing approach has been evaluated on a test bed of PDAs. An application has been developed by using the service. The evaluation results are also presented in this book chapter.

Ahmed, Shameem; Ahamed, Sheikh I.; Sharmin, Moushumi; Hasan, Chowdhury S.

334

An Autonomous Reference Frame for Relativistic GNSS  

E-print Network

Current GNSS systems rely on global reference frames which are fixed to the Earth (via the ground stations) so their precision and stability in time are limited by our knowledge of the Earth dynamics. These drawbacks could be avoided by giving to the constellation of satellites the possibility of constituting by itself a primary and autonomous positioning system, without any a priori realization of a terrestrial reference frame. Our work shows that it is possible to construct such a system, an Autonomous Basis of Coordinates, via emission coordinates. Here we present the idea of the Autonomous Basis of Coordinates and its implementation in the perturbed space-time of Earth, where the motion of satellites, light propagation, and gravitational perturbations are treated in the formalism of general relativity.

Uroš Kosti?; Martin Horvat; Sante Carloni; Pacôme Delva; Andreja Gomboc

2014-01-19

335

An Autonomous Reference Frame for Relativistic GNSS  

E-print Network

Current GNSS systems rely on global reference frames which are fixed to the Earth (via the ground stations) so their precision and stability in time are limited by our knowledge of the Earth dynamics. These drawbacks could be avoided by giving to the constellation of satellites the possibility of constituting by itself a primary and autonomous positioning system, without any a priori realization of a terrestrial reference frame. Our work shows that it is possible to construct such a system, an Autonomous Basis of Coordinates, via emission coordinates. Here we present the idea of the Autonomous Basis of Coordinates and its implementation in the perturbed space-time of Earth, where the motion of satellites, light propagation, and gravitational perturbations are treated in the formalism of general relativity.

Kosti?, Uroš; Carloni, Sante; Delva, Pacôme; Gomboc, Andreja

2014-01-01

336

Functional organization of autonomic neural pathways  

PubMed Central

There is now abundant functional and anatomical evidence that autonomic motor pathways represent a highly organized output of the central nervous system. Simplistic notions of antagonistic all-or-none activation of sympathetic or parasympathetic pathways are clearly wrong. Sympathetic or parasympathetic pathways to specific target tissues generally can be activated tonically or phasically, depending on current physiological requirements. For example, at rest, many sympathetic pathways are tonically active, such as those limiting blood flow to the skin, inhibiting gastrointestinal tract motility and secretion, or allowing continence in the urinary bladder. Phasic parasympathetic activity can be seen in lacrimation, salivation or urination. Activity in autonomic motor pathways can be modulated by diverse sensory inputs, including the visual, auditory and vestibular systems, in addition to various functional populations of visceral afferents. Identifying the central pathways responsible for coordinated autonomic activity has made considerable progress, but much more needs to be done. PMID:23872517

Gibbins, Ian

2013-01-01

337

ASSESSMENT OF THE SUBSURFACE FATE OF MONOETHANOLAMINE  

SciTech Connect

Burial of amine reclaimer unit sludges and system filters has resulted in contamination of soil at the CanOxy Okotoks decommissioned sour gas-processing plant with amines, amine byproducts, and salts. A three-phase research program was devised to investigate the natural attenuation process that controls the subsurface transport and fate of these contaminants and to apply the results toward the development of a strategy for the remediation of this type of contamination in soils. Phase I experimental activities examined interactions between monoethanolamine (MEA) and sediment, the biodegradability of MEA in soils at various concentrations and temperatures, and the biodegradability of MEA sludge contamination in a soil slurry bioreactor. The transport and fate of MEA in the subsurface was found to be highly dependant on the nature of the release, particularly MEA concentration and conditions of the subsurface environment, i.e., pH, temperature, and oxygen availability. Pure compound biodegradation experiments in soil demonstrated rapid biodegradation of MEA under aerobic conditions and moderate temperatures (>6 C). Phase II landfarming activities confirmed that these contaminants are readily biodegradable in soil under ideal laboratory conditions, yet considerable toxicity was observed in the remaining material. Examination of water extracts from the treated soil suggested that the toxicity is water-soluble. Phase II activities led to the conclusion that landfarming is not the most desirable bioremediation technique; however, an engineered biopile with a leachate collection system could remove the remaining toxic fraction from the soil. Phase III was initiated to conduct field-based experimental activities to examine the optimized remediation technology. A pilot-scale engineered biopile was constructed at a decommissioned gas-sweetening facility in Okotoks, Alberta, Canada. On the basis of a review of the analytical and performance data generated from soil and leachate samples, the biopile operation has successfully removed all identified amines and removed significant amounts of organic nitrogen and organic carbon. Salts initially present in the soil and salts generated during the biodegradation of contaminants remain to be flushed from the soil. Laboratory data show that these salts are readily removable with a simple soil leach.

James A. Sorensen; John R. Gallagher; Lori G. Kays

2000-05-01

338

Spatial Mapping System For Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (MAUV) project at the National Bureau of Standards, a spatial mapping system has been developed to provide a model of the underwater environment suitable for autonomous navigation. The system is composed of multi-resolution depth maps designed to integrate sensor data with an a priori model, an object/attribute database for storing information about detected objects, and a set of flags to monitor abnormal or emergency conditions in the environment. This paper describes the struc-ture of the mapping system and the algorithms used to map terrain and obstacles detected by acoustic sonar.

Oskard, David N.; Hong, Tsai-Hong; Shaffer, Clifford A.

1989-01-01

339

Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the work towards technology that will result in an autonomous landing on the lunar surface, that will avoid the hazards of lunar landing. In October 2005, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters assigned the development of new technologies to support the return to the moon. One of these was Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology now known as ALHAT ALHAT is a lunar descent and landing GNC technology development project led by Johnson Space Center (JSC) with team members from Langley Research Center (LaRC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Draper Laboratories (CSDL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL)

Epp, Chirold

2007-01-01

340

Lessons Learned from Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Autonomous Science Agent has been flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft since 2003. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and responds to science events occurring on the Earth such as volcanoes, flooding, and snow melt. The package includes AI-based software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. This software is in routine use to fly the EO-l mission. In this paper we briefly review the agent architecture and discuss lessons learned from this multi-year flight effort pertinent to deployment of software agents to critical applications.

Chien, Steve A.; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Boyer, Darrell; Hayden, Sandra; Sweet, Adam; Christa, Scott

2005-01-01

341

NEURON: Enabling Autonomicity in Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Future Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) will be ubiquitous, large-scale networks interconnected with the existing IP infrastructure. Autonomic functionalities have to be designed in order to reduce the complexity of their operation and management, and support the dissemination of knowledge within a WSN. In this paper a novel protocol for energy efficient deployment, clustering and routing in WSNs is proposed that focuses on the incorporation of autonomic functionalities in the existing approaches. The design of the protocol facilitates the design of innovative applications and services that are based on overlay topologies created through cooperation among the sensor nodes. PMID:22399931

Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Gouvas, Panagiotis; Liakopoulos, Athanassios; Mentzas, Gregoris; Mitrou, Nikolas

2010-01-01

342

Radar Detectability of a Subsurface Ocean on Europa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spacecraft in orbit around Jupiter's moon Europa can use ice penetrating radar to probe for a possible liquid water ocean beneath Europa's surface ice and to characterize other important subsurface structure. Consideration of available constraints on the properties of Europa's ice, possible subsurface temperature gradients, and possible impurities in the ice places an upper limit of about 10 km

Christopher F. Chyba; Steven J. Ostro; Bradley C. Edwards

1998-01-01

343

Subsurface Sounding of Mars: The Effects of Surface Roughness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) will conduct a global survey of Mars from the Mars Express Orbiter starting in 2004. The primary objective of the subsurface observations is to detect material interfaces in the upper several kilometers of the crust of Mars, with a particular emphasis on mapping the 3D distribution of water and ice in that portion of the crust. In order to detect subsurface interfaces, the returned echo from the subsurface must be distinguished from noise and clutter, which can arise from a variety of sources. One source of clutter is surface topography that generates backscattered energy at the same time delay as the subsurface region of interest. Surface topography can affect the detectability of subsurface features in several other ways. Surface roughness at scales comparable or somewhat smaller than the radar wavelength reduces the coherency of the wave as it passes the upper interface. Also, surface slope (tilt) at scales of the radar footprint and larger (> 5 km) affects the apparent Doppler signature of the echoes, and effectively disperses the wave transmitted into the subsurface, making processing and interpretation difficult. In this paper, we report on the roughness characteristics of Mars at these various scales as measured by the Mars Global Surveyor Laser Altimeter (MOLA), and consider the implications for achieving the subsurface sounding goals of MARSIS. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Plaut, J. J.; Jordan, R.; Safaeinili, A.; Safaenelli, A.; Seu, R.; Orosei, R.

2001-01-01

344

Changes in subsurface radon concentration associated with earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of radon at shallow subsurface depths (approx.1 m) changes in response to the vertical flow of fluids past the measuring site. Thus locally produced radon serves as a tracer gas to detect the flow of subsurface fluids which may occur in association with earthquakes. Therefore it is not ecessary to invoke either changes in the local rate of

A. Mogro-Campero; R. L. Fleischer; R. S. Likes

1980-01-01

345

DETERMINATION OF MICROBIAL CELL NUMBERS IN SUBSURFACE SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ground-water pollution by organic compounds has become a major environmental concern. Because the transport and fate of the organic pollutants may be influenced by microorganisms present in subsurface material, reliable measurements of the number of organisms in subsurface sample...

346

Interaction between Surface and Subsurface Flows: Somme Basin  

E-print Network

Interaction between Surface and Subsurface Flows: Somme Basin The aim of this application example to represent the flows in a large river basin that is linked up to subsurface groundwater. 13.1. Problematic of the river basin and the mechanisms that trigger flooding of this type, and, on the other hand, to develop

347

Efficiency of subsurface flow constructed wetland with trickling filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective wastewater purification in subsurface flow constructed wetlands must include adequate pretreatment and ensure a sufficient amount of dissolved oxygen. In a pilot-scale operation, a subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW) consisted of a primary settlement tank, a trickling filter for pretreatment and two serially assembled basins. The trickling filter was added to ensure sufficient aeration, increase purification of the wastewater

Aleksandra Anic Vucinic; Jasna Hrenovic; Predrag Tepes

2011-01-01

348

Efficiency of subsurface flow constructed wetland with trickling filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective wastewater purification in subsurface flow constructed wetlands must include adequate pretreatment and ensure a sufficient amount of dissolved oxygen. In a pilot-scale operation, a subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW) consisted of a primary settlement tank, a trickling filter for pretreatment and two serially assembled basins. The trickling filter was added to ensure sufficient aeration, increase purification of the wastewater

Aleksandra Anic Vucinic; Jasna Hrenovic; Predrag Tepes

2012-01-01

349

THE ROLE OF SUBSURFACE WATER IN CONTRIBUTING TO STREAMBANK EROSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface flow is known to contribute significantly to stream flow but its contribution to streambank failure, a process which may contribute significantly to sediment loading in streams, is not well known. Research is needed in understanding the contribution of concentrated, lateral subsurface flow to streambank failure and the hydraulic properties controlling seepage erosion. Laboratory experiments were conducted with two-dimensional soil

Garey A. Fox; Glenn V. Wilson; Raja Periketi; Bobby F. Cullum; Leili Gordji

350

Impact Excavation and the Search for Subsurface Life on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the ubiquity of subsurface microbial life on Earth, examination of the subsurface of Mars could provide an answer to the question of whether microorganisms exist or ever existed on that planet. Impact craters provide a natural mechanism for accessing the deep substrate of Mars and exploring its exobiological potential. Based on equations that relate impact crater diameters to

Charles S Cockell; Nadine G Barlow

2002-01-01

351

Subsurface geological-geotechnical modelling to sustain underground civil planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the paper was to document the use of 3D subsurface geological-geotechnical modelling to optimise the planning and development of subsurface structures in city areas. The proposed procedure was applied to the analysis of the subsoil of the City of Turin (Northern Italy). The results of more than 300 boreholes were analysed to develop a model of the

F. de Rienzo; P. Oreste; S. Pelizza

2008-01-01

352

AUTOMATIC RAILWAY CLASSIFICATION USING SURFACE AND SUBSURFACE MEASUREMENTS  

E-print Network

. Subsurface measurements were made using ground penetrating radar (GPR). Principal component analysis was used, railroad, ground penetrating radar 1 INTRODUCTION The railroad network must be continuously maintained. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is used to detect subsurface anomalies in the ballast, or substructure

Singh, Sanjiv

353

On Water Detection in the Martian Subsurface Using Sounding Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several radar experiments are planned to map the martian subsurface down to several kilometers, searching for subsurface liquid water reservoirs, using different concepts and techniques, all based on the penetration property of radio frequency waves in arid soils. The penetration depth of low-frequency radar is mainly related to the electromagnetic properties of the investigated medium. Thus a good knowledge of

E. Heggy; P. Paillou; G. Ruffie; J. M. Malezieux; F. Costard; G. Grandjean

2001-01-01

354

Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of nitrilotriacetate in subsurface soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted to characterize mineralization of nitrilotriacetate (NTA) in subsurface soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Chemical (redox indicator, resazurin) and biological (dentrification) markers were used as indicators of anaerobic conditions in the test system. The indigenous microflora in subsurface soils previously exposed to septage containing NTA were able to rapidly mineralize NTA under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The

T WARD

1986-01-01

355

Development of stochastic partial differential equations for subsurface hydrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of stochastic models in subsurface hydrology is growing at a logistic pace. To tie together a number of different stochastic methodologies for deriving subsurface transport equations, we have put together a brief review of some of the more common techniques. Our attention is confined to a few select methodologies so that we might delve in detail into assumptions

J. H. Cushman

1987-01-01

356

Mineralization of ancient carbon in the subsurface of riparian forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial activity in saturated, subsurface sediments in riparian forests may be supported by recent photosynthate or ancient (>500 ybp) soil organic carbon (SOC) in buried horizons. Metabolism of ancient SOC may be particularly important in riparian zones, considered denitrification hot spots, because denitrification in the riparian subsurface is often C-limited, because buried horizons intersect deep flow paths, and because low

Noel P. Gurwick; Daniel M. McCorkle; Peter M. Groffman; Arthur J. Gold; D. Q. Kellogg; Peter Seitz-Rundlett

2008-01-01

357

Service Oriented Approach for Autonomous Exception Management in Supply Chains  

E-print Network

Service Oriented Approach for Autonomous Exception Management in Supply Chains Armando Business Process to support Autonomous Exception Management in Supply chains. Keywords: Supply Chain and consequently this triggers a rescheduling task. Current Supply Chain Management Systems lack of systematic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

358

Sensor modeling for the virtual autonomous navigation environment  

E-print Network

The Virtual Autonomous Navigation Environment (VANE) is a high fidelity, physics-based simulation process that produces realistic simulated sensor output for use in the development and testing of Autonomous Mobility Systems ...

Liu, Linda Y.

359

Interception algorithm for autonomous vehicles with imperfect information  

E-print Network

Autonomous vehicles often operate in environments with imperfect information. This thesis addresses the case of a system of autonomous vehicles and sensors attempting to intercept a moving object of interest that arrives ...

Hickman, Randal E

2005-01-01

360

Good Experimental Methodologies and Simulation in Autonomous Mobile Robotics  

E-print Network

Good Experimental Methodologies and Simulation in Autonomous Mobile Robotics Francesco Amigoni and Viola Schiaffonati Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Laboratory, Dipartimento di Elettronica e to characterize analytically, as it is often the case in autonomous mobile robotics. Although their importance

Amigoni, Francesco

361

Sympathetic skin responses and autonomic dysfunction in spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Abstract Sympathetic skin responses (SSRs), a measure of sympathetic cholinergic sudomotor function, have been used in the assessment of autonomic dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). This review highlights the basic mechanisms underlying SSRs as well as their application to the SCI population. We address the utility of SSRs in assessing autonomic function, the relationship between autonomic and sensorimotor impairment, and the association between SSRs and the sequelae of autonomic dysfunction in SCI, particularly autonomic dysreflexia and orthostatic hypotension. Overall, SSRs are a rapid, convenient and non-invasive method illustrating that the severity of autonomic impairment can be independent from sensorimotor impairment. We suggest that SSRs be used in conjunction with other validated autonomic tests in order to predict or document autonomic dysfunction in SCI. PMID:24874269

Berger, Michael J; Hubli, Michèle; Krassioukov, Andrei V

2014-09-15

362

Robust distributed planning strategies for autonomous multi-agent teams  

E-print Network

The increased use of autonomous robotic agents, such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and ground rovers, for complex missions has motivated the development of autonomous task allocation and planning methods that ensure ...

Ponda, Sameera S

2012-01-01

363

Advances in autonomous systems for space exploration missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper focuses on new and innovative software for remote, autonomous, space systems flight operation, including distributed autonomous systems, flight test results, and implications and directions for future systems.

Smith, B. D.; Gross, A. R.; Clancy, D. J.; Cannon, H. N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Muscettola, N.; Chien, S.; Johnson, A.

2001-01-01

364

Implementation of GPS based trajectory control of an autonomous sailboat  

E-print Network

Autonomous robotic systems are increasingly becoming a major component of modern society. In order to gain a better understanding of the capabilities of these autonomous systems, experimentation was conducted using a ...

Wirekoh, Jackson O

2013-01-01

365

Multiserver queueing in supervisory control of autonomous unmanned vehicles  

E-print Network

Multiserver queueing in supervisory control of autonomous unmanned vehicles Nathan D. Powel control of autonomous unmanned vehicles Nathan D. Powel Chair of the Supervisory Committee: Associate Professor Kristi Morgansen Aeronautics & Astronautics Widespread adoption of unmanned aerial vehicles has

Morgansen, Kristi

366

Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M&O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents.

Richard C. Logan

2001-07-30

367

Gravimetric examination of Hagia Sophia's subsurface structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subsurface structure of Hagia Sophia, one of the oldest sacred monuments in the world built between 532 537 under the reign of Justinian in today's Istanbul, has been investigated by using two relative LaCoste-Romberg gravimeters in order to detect hidden cavities which have also served as earthquake dampers in similar constructions. On the building's ground floor a grid of 100 points with a grid size of about 4.m was measured. The mean gravimetric point error was ± 3.10-8 ms-2. The result of the examination is that cavities were not detected in the inner central part of Hagia Sophia with a larger diameter than 8.m down to a depth of about 20.m, and Hagia Sophia's foundation was found to be a slope of natural rock with a downward inclination to the East that has a small crest symmetrical to the building's East-West axis.

Friedrich, Jürgen; Gerstenecker, Carl; Gürkan, Onur

1996-10-01

368

Optimal joule heating of the subsurface  

DOEpatents

A method for simultaneously heating the subsurface and imaging the effects of the heating is disclosed. This method combines the use of tomographic imaging (electrical resistance tomography or ERT) to image electrical resistivity distribution underground, with joule heating by electrical currents injected in the ground. A potential distribution is established on a series of buried electrodes resulting in energy deposition underground which is a function of the resistivity and injection current density. Measurement of the voltages and currents also permits a tomographic reconstruction of the resistivity distribution. Using this tomographic information, the current injection pattern on the driving electrodes can be adjusted to change the current density distribution and thus optimize the heating. As the heating changes conditions, the applied current pattern can be repeatedly adjusted (based on updated resistivity tomographs) to affect real time control of the heating.

Berryman, J.G.; Daily, W.D.

1994-07-05

369

Optimal joule heating of the subsurface  

SciTech Connect

A method for simultaneously heating the subsurface and imaging the effects of the heating. This method combines the use of tomographic imaging (electrical resistance tomography or ERT) to image electrical resistivity distribution underground, with joule heating by electrical currents injected in the ground. A potential distribution is established on a series of buried electrodes resulting in energy deposition underground which is a function of the resistivity and injection current density. Measurement of the voltages and currents also permits a tomographic reconstruction of the resistivity distribution. Using this tomographic information, the current injection pattern on the driving electrodes can be adjusted to change the current density distribution and thus optimize the heating. As the heating changes conditions, the applied current pattern can be repeatedly adjusted (based on updated resistivity tomographs) to affect real time control of the heating.

Berryman, James G. (Danville, CA); Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

370

Accelerating Subsurface Transport Simulation on Heterogeneous Clusters  

SciTech Connect

Reactive transport numerical models simulate chemical and microbiological reactions that occur along a flowpath. These models have to compute reactions for a large number of locations. They solve the set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that describes the reaction for each location through the Newton-Raphson technique. This technique involves computing a Jacobian matrix and a residual vector for each set of equation, and then solving iteratively the linearized system by performing Gaussian Elimination and LU decomposition until convergence. STOMP, a well known subsurface flow simulation tool, employs matrices with sizes in the order of 100x100 elements and, for numerical accuracy, LU factorization with full pivoting instead of the faster partial pivoting. Modern high performance computing systems are heterogeneous machines whose nodes integrate both CPUs and GPUs, exposing unprecedented amounts of parallelism. To exploit all their computational power, applications must use both the types of processing elements. For the case of subsurface flow simulation, this mainly requires implementing efficient batched LU-based solvers and identifying efficient solutions for enabling load balancing among the different processors of the system. In this paper we discuss two approaches that allows scaling STOMP's performance on heterogeneous clusters. We initially identify the challenges in implementing batched LU-based solvers for small matrices on GPUs, and propose an implementation that fulfills STOMP's requirements. We compare this implementation to other existing solutions. Then, we combine the batched GPU solver with an OpenMP-based CPU solver, and present an adaptive load balancer that dynamically distributes the linear systems to solve between the two components inside a node. We show how these approaches, integrated into the full application, provide speed ups from 6 to 7 times on large problems, executed on up to 16 nodes of a cluster with two AMD Opteron 6272 and a Tesla M2090 per node.

Villa, Oreste; Gawande, Nitin A.; Tumeo, Antonino

2013-09-23

371

Why Computer-Based Systems Should be Autonomic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this paper is to discuss why computer-based systems should be autonomic, where autonomicity implies self-managing, often conceptualized in terms of being self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing, self-protecting and self-aware. We look at motivations for autonomicity, examine how more and more systems are exhibiting autonomic behavior, and finally look at future directions.

Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

2005-01-01

372

Self-Management Framework for Mobile Autonomous Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of mobile and ubiquitous systems has enabled the development of autonomous systems such as wireless-sensors for\\u000a environmental data collection and teams of collaborating Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles (UAVs) used in missions unsuitable for\\u000a humans. However, with these range of new application-domains comes a new challenge—enabling self-management in mobile autonomous\\u000a systems. Autonomous systems have to be able to manage themselves

Eskindir Asmare; Anandha Gopalan; Morris Sloman; Naranker Dulay; Emil Lupu

373

A Hybrid Controller for Autonomous Vehicles Driving on Automated Highways  

E-print Network

A Hybrid Controller for Autonomous Vehicles Driving on Automated Highways Alain Girault a aInria Rh of the hybrid control of autonomous vehicles driving on automated highways. Vehicles are autonomous, so they do driving in a single-lane highway must never collide with its leading vehicle; and a vehicle entering

Girault, Alain

374

Research issues in autonomous control of tactical UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the enabling technologies for an autonomous tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Current technologies are adequate for semi-autonomous UAVs that operate in a relatively structured environment. For tactical UAVs in a rapidly changing uncertain environment the present techniques are inadequate. The essence of autonomous control is rapid in-flight replanning under uncertainty. This is cast as a large optimization

P. R. Chandler; M. Pachter

1998-01-01

375

Multifunctional Intelligent Autonomous Parking Controllers for Carlike Mobile Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of carlike mobile robot (CLMR) studies have addressed the issues of autonomous parking and obstacle avoidance. An autonomous parking controller can provide convenience to a novice driver. However, if the controller is not designed adequately, it may endanger the car and the driver. Therefore, this paper presents a novel multifunctional intelligent autonomous parking controller that is capable

Tzuu-Hseng S. Li; Ying-Chieh Yeh; Jyun-Da Wu; Ming-Ying Hsiao; Chih-Yang Chen

2010-01-01

376

Autonomous Robot Calibration for Hand-Eye Coordination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous robot calibration is defined as the process of determining a robot's model by using only its internal sen sors. It is shown that autonomous calibration of a manip ulator and stereo camera system is possible. The pro posed autonomous calibration algorithm may obtain the manipulator kinematic parameters, external kinematic camera parameters, and internal camera parameters. To do this, only

David J. Bennett; Davi Geiger; John M. Hollerbach

1991-01-01

377

An Integrated Self-Testing Framework for Autonomic Computing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the technologies of autonomic computing be- come more prevalent, it is essential to develop methodolo- gies for testing their dynamic self-management operations. Self-management features in autonomic systems induce structural and behavioral changes to the system during its execution, which need to be validated to avoid costly system failures. The high level of automation in autonomic systems also means that

Tariq M. King; Alain E. Ramirez; Rodolfo Cruz; Peter J. Clarke

2007-01-01

378

Worry and heart rate variables: autonomic rigidity under challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Borkovec, T. D. (1994). Worrying: perspectives on theory, assessment and treatment (pp. 5-34). West Sussex: Wiley] proposes that the cognitive activity of worry restricts autonomic nervous system activity, producing autonomic rigidity. Autonomic rigidity affects both sympathetic nervous system [Behav. Res. Ther. 28 (1990) 69.] and parasympathetic nervous system activity [Behav. Ther. 26 (1995) 457.]. Three experiments investigated the relationship between

Maryanne Davis; Iain Montgomery; George Wilson

2002-01-01

379

Convergence of Autonomous Mobile Robots With Inaccurate Sensors and Movements  

E-print Network

Convergence of Autonomous Mobile Robots With Inaccurate Sensors and Movements (Extended abstract. The common theoretical model adopted in recent studies on algorithms for systems of autonomous mobile robots and calculation errors. 1 Introduction Background. Distributed systems consisting of autonomous mobile robots (a

Cohen, Reuven

380

Convergence of Autonomous Mobile Robots With Inaccurate Sensors and Movements  

E-print Network

Convergence of Autonomous Mobile Robots With Inaccurate Sensors and Movements Reuven Cohen David and coordination in systems of autonomous mobile robots. The common theoretical model adopted in these studies that humans may find extremely boring or tiresome. Subsequently, studies of autonomous mobile robot systems

Cohen, Reuven

381

Intelligent Systems for the Autonomous Exploration of Titan and Enceladus  

E-print Network

Intelligent Systems for the Autonomous Exploration of Titan and Enceladus Roberto Furfaro System will require higher levels of onboard automation, including autonomous determination of sites systems for onboard-based, autonomous science to be performed in the course of outer satellites

Arizona, University of

382

Systems/Circuits The Autonomic Brain: An Activation Likelihood Estimation  

E-print Network

Systems/Circuits The Autonomic Brain: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis for Central, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129 The autonomic nervous system (ANS The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is involved in virtually every aspect of our daily life. The motor arm

Napadow, Vitaly

383

Towards a systematic approach for designing autonomic systems1  

E-print Network

Towards a systematic approach for designing autonomic systems1 Walamitien H. Oyenan and Scott A. De 66506, USA E-mail: {oyenan, sdeloach}@ksu.edu Abstract. An autonomic system is a system capable of managing itself and adjusting its actions in the face of environmental changes. Autonomic systems

Deloach, Scott A.

384

Situated vs. Global Aggregation Schemes for Autonomous Management Systems  

E-print Network

Situated vs. Global Aggregation Schemes for Autonomous Management Systems Rafik Makhloufi to ensure the efficiency of an autonomous management system. Thus, in this paper, we perform an exhaustive Managers (AMs) of an autonomous management system need to collect management information from the network

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

385

THE 1996 MIT / BOSTON UNIVERSITY / DRAPER LABORATORY AUTONOMOUS HELICOPTER SYSTEM  

E-print Network

THE 1996 MIT / BOSTON UNIVERSITY / DRAPER LABORATORY AUTONOMOUS HELICOPTER SYSTEM E. N. Johnson, built, and flown in less than one year and has provided many lessons about autonomous vehicle systems an autonomous vehicle system with many of the same features, components, and potential pitfalls as fielded

Johnson, Eric N.

386

Case studies in discrete control for autonomic system administration  

E-print Network

Case studies in discrete control for autonomic system administration Fabienne Boyer, Noël De Palma of autonomic system admin- istration issues that can be addressed and solved as dis- crete control problems problems in autonomic systems belonging to the class of logical, discrete systems, and illustrate how

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

387

Component-Based Autonomic Management System Jeremy Philippe  

E-print Network

Component-Based Autonomic Management System Jeremy Philippe , Sylvain Sicard ,Christophe Taton INP is to implement administration as an autonomic software. Such a software can be used to deploy and configure such as failures or overloads and reconfigure applications accordingly and autonomously. The main advantages

Pous, Damien

388

IBM Systems Journal Q3 2002 Comparing Autonomic & Proactive Computing  

E-print Network

IBM Systems Journal Q3 2002 Comparing Autonomic & Proactive Computing Roy Want , Trevor Pering between proactive computing and autonomic computing, considering the design of systems that are beyond The Relationship of Computing Paradigms At Intel Research we enthusiastically support the aims of autonomic systems

Somayaji, Anil

389

BEHAVIOR PREDICTION FOR DECISION AND CONTROL IN COGNITIVE AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

BEHAVIOR PREDICTION FOR DECISION AND CONTROL IN COGNITIVE AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS ASOK RAY*, SHASHI for decision and control in cognitive autonomous systems. The objective is to coordinate human­machine collaboration such that human operators can assess and enable autonomous systems to utilize their experi- ential

Ray, Asok

390

Non-Autonomous Systems: Asymptotic Behaviour and Weak Invariance Principles *  

E-print Network

Non-Autonomous Systems: Asymptotic Behaviour and Weak Invariance Principles * H Logemann & E P Ryan asymptotically autonomous systems and adaptively controlled systems are highlighted. Key Words: adaptive control, nonlinear systems, stability. 1. INTRODUCTION The initial-value problem for a non-autonomous ordinary di#11

Bath, University of

391

Achieving an acceptable design model for autonomic systems Simon Dobson  

E-print Network

Achieving an acceptable design model for autonomic systems Simon Dobson Systems Research Group School of Computer Science and Informatics UCD Dublin IE simon.dobson@ucd.ie Abstract Autonomic systems-generation design methods. 1 Introduction Autonomic systems present unique opportunities and unique challenges

Dobson, Simon

392

DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTONOMOUS AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE SYSTEM AT GEORGIA TECH  

E-print Network

1 DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTONOMOUS AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE SYSTEM AT GEORGIA TECH Eric N. Johnson for a distance of 3 kilometers. Level 2 requires an autonomous system to identify a building and open portals. Level 3 requires an autonomous system to enter a building and return a picture. Level 4 requires all

Johnson, Eric N.

393

The autonomic nervous system and Dretske on phenomenal consciousness  

E-print Network

1 The autonomic nervous system and Dretske on phenomenal consciousness Dan Ryder1 and C.B. Martin2, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) ought to be conscious - but of course it's not. In this paper, we'll describe a counterexample - the autonomic nervous system - which shows at least that representationalists have a lot of work

Ryder, Dan

394

A Model Function for NonAutonomous Bifurcations of Maps  

E-print Network

A Model Function for Non­Autonomous Bifurcations of Maps Thorsten HË?uls # FakultË?at fË?ur Mathematik for analyzing various notions of non­autonomous transcritical and pitchfork bifurcations that have been recently developed in the literature. Keywords: Non­autonomous bifurcation theory, Transcritical bifurcation, Pitch

Bielefeld, Universität

395

NSF/NASA Workshop on Autonomous Mobile Manipulation (AMM)  

E-print Network

NSF/NASA Workshop on Autonomous Mobile Manipulation (AMM) Houston, Texas, March 10/11, 2005 Final University of Massachusetts Amherst #12;Executive Summary Research in Autonomous Mobile Manipulation (AMM management. Many countries have initiated well-funded and focused research programs in Autonomous Mo- bile

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

396

Autonomous Science Target Identification and Acquisition (ASTIA) for planetary exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce an autonomous planetary explo- ration software architecture being developed for the purpose of autonomous science target identification and surface sample acquisition. Our motivation is to maximise planetary science data return whilst minimising the need for ground-based human intervention during long duration planetary robotic exploration missions. Our Autonomous Science Target Identification and Acquisition (ASTIA) architecture incorporates a number of

David Preston Barnes; Stephen Medwyn Pugh; Laurence Gethyn Tyler

2009-01-01

397

Robust Hybrid Control for Autonomous Vehicle Motion Planning  

E-print Network

Eric Feron 3 Abstract The operation of an autonomous vehicle in an unknown, dynamic environment the vehicle's dynamics. Even though our main focus is con- trol of autonomous vehicles, the concepts that weRobust Hybrid Control for Autonomous Vehicle Motion Planning Emilio Frazzoli 1 Munther A. Dahleh 2

Sontag, Eduardo

398

Dealing with ghosts: Managing the user experience of autonomic computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the goal of autonomic computing is to make systems that work continuously, robustly, and simply, no one imagines that people can be excluded entirely. Whether it is end users getting their jobs done by interacting with autonomic systems or system administrators maintaining, monitoring, and debugging large-scale systems with autonomic components, humans will always be part of the computational process.

Daniel M. Russell; Paul P. Maglio; Rowan Dordick; Chalapathy Neti

2003-01-01

399

Dynamic risk assessment in autonomous vehicles motion planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguing that an autonomous mobile system is sufficiently safe to operate in presence of other vehicles and objects is an important element in development of such systems. Traditional approach to assure safety is to distinguish between safe and unsafe area and prevent the autonomous vehicle from entering the unsafe area. The paper presents a model of autonomous vehicle control system

A. Wardzinski

2008-01-01

400

A Comprehensive Evaluation on China's EFL Learners' Autonomous Learning Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been numerous studies on autonomous learning competence, but most of them deal principally with the introduction and analysis of the theoretical background, application, strategy implementation and course design principles for autonomous language learning. So far no effort has been made to construct an evaluation index system and evaluation model to evaluate EFL learners' autonomous English learning competence in

Weiping Wu; Jinfen Xu

2010-01-01

401

Probing into autonomous learning in college English instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to encourage autonomy of college students in their studies and help them develop towards autonomy in their life-long learning, it is vital to study autonomous learning in college English instruction. After analysis of definitions of autonomous learning and a series of college English textbooks as well as based on the autonomous factors of Gardner and Miller, this paper

Yi Luo

2010-01-01

402

Autonomous Navigation and Sign Detector Learning Liam Ellis1  

E-print Network

Autonomous Navigation and Sign Detector Learning Liam Ellis1 , Nicolas Pugeault2 , Kristoffer ¨Ofj This article presents an autonomous robotic platform that learns to navigate on a track and discovers¨oping, Sweden 2 CVSSP, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK Abstract This paper presents an autonomous robotic

Bowden, Richard

403

Lessons Learned from Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment Steve Chien, Rob Sherwood,  

E-print Network

Lessons Learned from Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment Steve Chien, Rob Sherwood, Daniel Tran [19]. This software uses several integrated autonomy technologies to enable autonomous science Christa6 NASA Ames Research Center Abstract. An Autonomous Science Agent has been flying onboard the Earth

Schaffer, Steven

404

Enhancing Autonomous Agents Evolution with Learning by Imitation Elhanan Borenstein  

E-print Network

Enhancing Autonomous Agents Evolution with Learning by Imitation Elhanan Borenstein School of autonomous agents, when other forms of learning are not possible. 1 Introduction A large body of work@post.tau.ac.il Abstract This paper presents a new mechanism to enhance the evolutionary process of autonomous agents

Borenstein, Elhanan

405

Peripheral autonomic neuropathy: diagnostic contribution of skin biopsy.  

PubMed

Skin biopsy has gained widespread use for the diagnosis of somatic small-fiber neuropathy, but it also provides information on sympathetic fiber morphology. We aimed to ascertain the diagnostic accuracy of skin biopsy in disclosing sympathetic nerve abnormalities in patients with autonomic neuropathy. Peripheral nerve fiber autonomic involvement was confirmed by routine autonomic laboratory test abnormalities. Punch skin biopsies were taken from the thigh and lower leg of 28 patients with various types of autonomic neuropathy for quantitative evaluation of skin autonomic innervation. Results were compared with scores obtained from 32 age-matched healthy controls and 25 patients with somatic neuropathy. The autonomic cutoff score was calculated using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Skin biopsy disclosed a significant autonomic innervation decrease in autonomic neuropathy patients versus controls and somatic neuropathy patients. Autonomic innervation density was abnormal in 96% of patients in the lower leg and in 79% of patients in the thigh. The abnormal findings disclosed by routine autonomic tests ranged from 48% to 82%. These data indicate the high sensitivity and specificity of skin biopsy in detecting sympathetic abnormalities; this method should be useful for the diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy, together with currently available routine autonomic testing. PMID:23037327

Donadio, Vincenzo; Incensi, Alex; Giannoccaro, Maria Pia; Cortelli, Pietro; Di Stasi, Vitantonio; Pizza, Fabio; Jaber, Masen Abdel; Baruzzi, Agostino; Liguori, Rocco

2012-11-01

406

On commuting Tonelli Hamiltonians: Autonomous case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the Aubry sets, the Mañé sets and the barrier functions are the same for two commuting autonomous Tonelli Hamiltonians. We also show the quasi-linearity of ?-functions from the viewpoint of dynamics and the existence of common C critical subsolution for their associated Hamilton-Jacobi equations.

Cui, Xiaojun; Li, Ji

2011-06-01

407

Autonomous Soaring: The Montague Cross Country Challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method was developed for locating and allowing gliders to stay in thermals (convective updrafts). The method was applied to a 5 kg, glider, called ALOFT (autonomous locator of thermals), that was entered in the 2008 Montague Cross-Country Challenge held on 13-15 June 2008 in Montague, California. In this competition, RC (remote controlled) gliders in the 5 kg class competed on the basis of speed and distance. ALOFT was the first known autonomously soaring aircraft to enter a soaring competition and its entry provided a valuable comparison between the effectiveness of manual soaring and autonomous soaring. ALOFT placed third in the competition in overall points, outperforming manually-flown aircraft in its ability to center and utilize updrafts, especially at higher altitudes and in the presence of wind, to fly more optimal airspeeds, and to fly directly between turn points. The results confirm that autonomous soaring is a bona fide engineering sub-discipline, which is expected to be of interest to engineers who might find this has some utility in the aviation industry.

Edwards, Daniel J.

408

Resource deployment based on autonomous system clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective placement of resources used to support distributed services in the Internet depends on an accurate representation of Internet topology and routing. Representations of autonomous system (AS) level topology derived solely from BGP tables show only a subset of the connections that actually get used. However, in many cases, missing connections can be discovered by simple traceroutes. In addition, the

Jim Gast; Paul Barford

2002-01-01

409

Autonomous biomorphic robots as platforms for sensors  

SciTech Connect

The idea of building autonomous robots that can carry out complex and nonrepetitive tasks is an old one, so far unrealized in any meaningful hardware. Tilden has shown recently that there are simple, processor-free solutions to building autonomous mobile machines that continuously adapt to unknown and hostile environments, are designed primarily to survive, and are extremely resistant to damage. These devices use smart mechanics and simple (low component count) electronic neuron control structures having the functionality of biological organisms from simple invertebrates to sophisticated members of the insect and crab family. These devices are paradigms for the development of autonomous machines that can carry out directed goals. The machine then becomes a robust survivalist platform that can carry sensors or instruments. These autonomous roving machines, now in an early stage of development (several proof-of-concept prototype walkers have been built), can be developed so that they are inexpensive, robust, and versatile carriers for a variety of instrument packages. Applications are immediate and many, in areas as diverse as prosthetics, medicine, space, construction, nanoscience, defense, remote sensing, environmental cleanup, and biotechnology.

Tilden, M.; Hasslacher, B.; Mainieri, R.; Moses, J.

1996-10-01

410

[Autonomic neuropathy of the gastrointestinal tract].  

PubMed

The paper focuses on the issues of diabetic autonomic neuropathy in the gastrointestinal tract. It describes the aethiopathogenesis of diabetic polyneuropathy. More detailed discussion is then provided with respect to gastrointestinal tract. The clinical picture and options available for the diagnosis and treatment when various parts of the gastrointestinal tract are involvement are examined. PMID:21612065

Olsovský, J

2011-04-01

411

An intelligent robot vision for autonomous navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vision system for an autonomous robotic vehicle is described in detail. The vision system utilizes fuzzy logic and artificial neural network technologies. This go-cart sized vehicle guided itself through an obstacle course in an international competition held at Disney World mid-July of 1996. A brief history of the competition an overview of the vehicle itself and the vision system's

K. Ashenayi

1997-01-01

412

Multifunctional Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This slide presentation reviews the effects of corrosion on various structures at the Kennedy Space Center, and the work to discover a corrosion control coating that will be autonomous and will indicate corrosion at an early point in the process. Kennedy ...

J. W. Buhrow, L. M. Calle, P. E. Hintze, S. T. Jolley, W. Li

2011-01-01

413

MANAGING CHANGE IN HETEROGENEOUS AUTONOMOUS DATABASES  

E-print Network

MANAGING CHANGE IN HETEROGENEOUS AUTONOMOUS DATABASES a dissertation submitted to the department of Philosophy. Serge Abiteboul Approved for the University Committee on Graduate Studies: iii #12;iv #12 of databases operated by several competing enti- ties. Making e ective use of such collections of heterogeneous

Chawathe, Sudarshan S.

414

Control algorithms for autonomous robot navigation  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines control algorithm requirements for autonomous robot navigation outside laboratory environments. Three aspects of navigation are considered: navigation control in explored terrain, environment interactions with robot sensors, and navigation control in unanticipated situations. Major navigation methods are presented and relevance of traditional human learning theory is discussed. A new navigation technique linking graph theory and incidental learning is introduced.

Jorgensen, C.C.

1985-09-20

415

Infant autonomic functioning and neonatal abstinence syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNeonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) expression is widely variable among affected infants and the reasons for this variability are largely unknown; mechanisms that predispose infants to NAS expression are not understood. It has been postulated that the regulatory problems of prenatally drug exposed infants are manifested in dysfunctional vagal regulation of autonomic processes. The current study examines whether cardiac vagal tone,

Lauren M. Jansson; Janet A. DiPietro; Andrea Elko; Martha Velez

2010-01-01

416

Autonomous Mobile Robot Global Self-Localization  

E-print Network

requires a priori knowledge of a sensor data a mobile robot as an optical character recognition pointAutonomous Mobile Robot Global Self-Localization Using Kohonen and Region-Feature Neural Networks Jason A. Jane ´ t* Ricardo Gutierrez Troy A. Chase Mark W. White John C. Sutton, III Center for Robotics

Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

417

Scene Understanding through Autonomous Interactive Perception  

E-print Network

Scene Understanding through Autonomous Interactive Perception Niklas Bergstr¨om, Carl Henrik Ek, M°arten Bj¨orkman, and Danica Kragic Computer Vision and Active Perception Laboratory Royal Institute scenarios, based on visual appear- ance and depth information. Using a robotic manipulator that interacts

Kragic, Danica

418

AUTONOMOUS REGULATION OF FREE CA2+ CONCENTRATIONS  

E-print Network

, modelling Abbreviations: ER, endoplasmic reticulum; NE, nuclear envelope; INM, inner nuclear membrane; NPC with the endoplasmic reticulum [16]. Recent experimental evidence, in both animals and plants, show that nuclearAUTONOMOUS REGULATION OF FREE CA2+ CONCENTRATIONS IN ISOLATED PLANT CELL NUCLEI: A MATHEMATICAL

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

419

Online Identification and Stochastic Control for Autonomous  

E-print Network

Online Identification and Stochastic Control for Autonomous Internal Combustion Engines Andreas A Advanced internal combustion engine technologies have afforded an increase in the number of controllable and investment in advanced internal combustion en- gine technologies. These technologies, such as fuel injection

Papalambros, Panos

420

Autonomous Help in Distributed Work Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work tries to contribute from a multi-agent systems perspective to the studies aimed at describing and designing environments for cooperative work. In particular, it is aimed at specifying cognitive principles for a basic kind of behavior among autonomous members of organizations: helping behavior. Once introduced the main assumptions of our model of a cognitive and social agent, a basic

Maria Miceli; Amedeo Cesta; Paola Rizzo

1994-01-01

421

Self-configuration in Autonomic Electronic Institutions  

E-print Network

of self-* systems is represented by the vision of autonomic computing [11], which constitutes of regulating open agent societies. EIs define the rules of the game in agent societies by fixing what agents complexity of advanced information systems in the recent years, characterized by being distributed, open

López-Sánchez, Maite

422

Towards an autonomic distributed computing environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing hardware performance of desktop computers accounts for a low-cost computing potential that is waiting to be efficiently used. However, the complexity of installation and maintenance of a large number of distributed heterogeneous computers is limiting the use of such systems on a large scale. Systems which are autonomic, capable of managing themselves are required. The architecture of QADPZ (Quite

Z. Constantinescu

2003-01-01

423

Fully autonomous mobile mini-robot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, many new designs of micro robots have been developed. Miniaturization is a challenge and most mechanisms designed up to now are not autonomous, i.e. they don't have their intelligence and/or power supply on board. A new fully autonomous miniature mobile robot has been designed in our lab in a final year project. It has been programmed to follow a black line printed on the ground. An autonomous mechatronic system consists at least of a sensor, an actuator, a microprocessor to provide intelligence and a power supply. In our case, the robot's intelligence is based on a PIC16C71 microcontroller that controls its movement. To follow a black line, an infrared emitter and two receivers are placed at the front of the robot. As actuators, two watch motors are used. The gears of the watch's second hand are directly used as wheels to move the system. Two small batteries supply the energy to the motors and the microprocessor as well. The technical details of the mini mobile robot are as follows: dimensions: 20 mm * 8 mm * 15 mm; velocity: 40 mm/s; power consumption: 6 mW. This low power consumption allows the system to move autonomous for about 8 - 10 hours.

Buechi, Roland; Rohrer, Daniel; Schmid, Christian; Siegwart, Roland Y.

1995-12-01

424

Autonomous teams and new product development  

Microsoft Academic Search

How should a company organize a project team to develop new products? This study examined the relative effectiveness of four types of team structures by comparing the performance of 559 development projects in terms of development cost, new product development speed, and product commercial success. The results indicate that in general, autonomous team structure is superior to other team structures,

Peerasit Patanakul; Jiyao Chen; Gary S. Lynn

2008-01-01

425

Intrinsic Motivation Systems for Autonomous Mental Development  

E-print Network

Intrinsic Motivation Systems for Autonomous Mental Development Pierre-Yves Oudeyer, Fr with such an intrinsic motivation system? This is the question we study in this paper, presenting a number of computational systems that try to capture this drive towards novel or curious situations. After discussing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

426

Non-autonomous second order Hamiltonian systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the existence of periodic solutions for a second order non-autonomous dynamical system containing variable kinetic energy terms. Our assumptions balance the interaction between the kinetic energy and the potential energy with neither one dominating the other. We study sublinear problems and the existence of non-constant solutions.

Pipan, John; Schechter, Martin

2014-07-01

427

Generalized synchronization of chaos in autonomous systems  

E-print Network

We extend the concept of generalized synchronization of chaos, a phenomenon that occurs in driven dynamical systems, to the context of autonomous spatiotemporal systems. It means a situation where the chaotic state variables in an autonomous system can be synchronized to each other but not to a coupling function defined from them. The form of the coupling function is not crucial; it may not depend on all the state variables nor it needs to be active for all times for achieving generalized synchronization. The procedure is based on the analogy between a response map subject to an external drive acting with a probability p and an autonomous system of coupled maps where a global interaction between the maps takes place with this same probability. It is shown that, under some circumstances, the conditions for stability of generalized synchronized states are equivalent in both types of systems. Our results reveal the existence of similar minimal conditions for the emergence of generalized synchronization of chaos in driven and in autonomous spatiotemporal systems.

O. Alvarez-Llamoza; M. G. Cosenza

2008-06-10

428

Optimal control of switched autonomous linear systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the optimal control of switched piecewise linear autonomous systems, where the objective is that of minimizing a quadratic performance index over an infinite time horizon. We assume that the switching sequence and the corresponding jump matrix sequence is known, while the unknown switching times are the optimization parameters. The optimal control for this class of systems,

Alessandro Giua; Carla Seatzu; Cornelis Van Der Mee

2001-01-01

429

Underwater autonomous manipulation for intervention missions AUVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many underwater intervention tasks are today performed using manned submersibles or remotely operated vehicles in teleoperation mode. Autonomous underwater vehicles are mostly employed in survey applications. In fact, the low bandwidth and significant time delay inherent in acoustic subsea communications represent a considerable obstacle to remotely operate a manipulation system, making it impossible for remote controllers to react to problems

Giacomo Marani; Song K. Choi; Junku Yuh

2009-01-01

430

Autonomous indoor aerial gripping using a quadrotor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an implementation of autonomous indoor aerial gripping using a low-cost, custom-built quadrotor. Such research extends the typical functionality of micro air vehicles (MAV) from passive observation and sensing to dynamic interaction with the environment. To achieve this, three major challenges are overcome: precise positioning, sensing and manipulation of the object, and stabilization in the presence of disturbance

Vaibhav Ghadiok; Jeremy Goldin; Wei Ren

2011-01-01

431

TINYPHOON A Tiny Autonomous Mobile Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the system architecture of a tiny autonomous mobile robot, called Tinyphoon, is described. The robot is a two wheeled differentially driven (2WDD) robot, which fits with all its components into a cube with an edge length of only 75mm. An outstanding feature is its high-speed onboard vision system comprising a small digital CMOS camera and a very

G. Novak; S. Mahlknecht

2005-01-01

432

Onboard Locating System Of Autonomous Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new onboard locating system of an autonomous vehicle using signposts put along routes. The locating system estimates location and direction of the vehicle on the basis of the observa- tion of signposts and revolution counts of main wheels. The Kalman filter is employed to estimate the loca- tion and direction of the vehicle on real time

Satoshi MURATA; Takeshi HIROSE

1989-01-01

433

Autonomous surveillance in the visual spectral region  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomous surveillance system is one which is capable of detection, identification, and tracking of fast targets in real time. The equipment needed to carry out these operations includes a TV camera, digitizer and a digital computer. The design of the computer hardware and the development of the software are very difficult because several Mbits of data must be processed

B. E. Furby; B. D. Roney

1984-01-01

434

Autonomous Lighting Agents in Photon Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In computer graphics, global illumination algorithms such as photon mapping require to gather large volumes of data which\\u000a can be heavily redundant. We propose a new characterization of useful data and a new optimization method for the photon mapping\\u000a algorithm using structures borrowed from Artificial Intelligence such as autonomous agents.

Adrien Herubel; Venceslas Biri; S. Deverly

2009-01-01

435

New fungus eater experiments [autonomous agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there seems to be a high agreement among researchers that the concept of autonomous agents should also be applied in psychology, especially in emotion psychology, most work has not yet exceed the theoretical level. One reason is the lack of adequate tools for applying and exploring this concept. This paper describes, on the basis of an implemented software package,

T. Wehrle

1994-01-01

436

Complex Behavior Specification for Autonomous Systems  

E-print Network

) is the 2 #12; starting point, and the design of a system can be seen as the anal­ ysis problem. Of course focuses on one of the problems of design of an autonomous reactive system, namely, specification of its behavior with respect to (often unpredictable) changes occurring in the real world. Several ``behavior

Malec, Jacek

437

The Utility of Pollination for Autonomic Computing  

E-print Network

The Utility of Pollination for Autonomic Computing Holger Kasinger and Bernhard Bauer University. From the biology's point of view, pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants the pollination process between plants and insects im- plies inherently. To utilize pollination as a paradigm

Bauer, Bernhard

438

The spectrum of autoimmune autonomic neuropathies.  

PubMed

We analyzed the clinical characteristics of 18 patients (13 female, 5 male) who had autoimmune autonomic neuropathy (AAN) and ganglionic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) autoantibodies. Mean age was 61.4 years (standard deviation, 12.0 years). Ten patients had subacute symptom onset, six with an antecedent event. Eight patients had chronic AAN, characterized by insidious symptom onset, without antecedent event, and gradual progression. A majority of patients with high antibody values (>1.00 nmol/L) had a combination of sicca complex (marked dry eyes and dry mouth), abnormal pupillary light response, upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and neurogenic bladder. Chronic AAN segregated into two subgroups. One subgroup (N = 4) had low antibody titer (0.09 +/- 0.01 nmol/L) and a paucity of cholinergic symptoms. It was indistinguishable from pure autonomic failure. The other subgroup (N = 4) had high antibody titer (11.6 +/- 2.08 nmol/L), sicca complex, abnormal pupils, and neurogenic bladder; three had severe upper gastrointestinal dysfunction. Higher antibody titers correlated with greater autonomic dysfunction and more frequent cholinergic dysautonomia. These observations expand the clinical spectrum of AAN to include chronic cases, some being indistinguishable from pure autonomic failure, and support the concept that ganglionic AChR antibodies are important diagnostically and pathophysiologically in acquired dysautonomia. PMID:12783421

Klein, Caroline M; Vernino, Steven; Lennon, Vanda A; Sandroni, Paola; Fealey, Robert D; Benrud-Larson, Lisa; Sletten, David; Low, Phillip A

2003-06-01

439

Autonomous refresh of floating body cell (FBC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physics of autonomous refresh of FBC is presented. Current input to the floating body by impact ionization and output by charge pumping can balance to make FBC refresh by itself without sense amplifier operation. Thanks to this feature, multiple cells on a BL can be refreshed simultaneously, leading to a drastic reduction of BL charging current compared to the conventional

Takashi Ohsawa; Ryo Fukuda; Tomoki Higashi; Katsuyuki Fujita; Fumiyoshi Matsuoka; Tomoaki Shino; Hironobu Furuhashi; Yoshihiro Minami; Hiroomi Nakajima; Takeshi Hamamoto; Yohji Watanabe; Akihiro Nitayama; Tohru Furuyama

2008-01-01

440

The CASCADAS Framework for Autonomic Communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interesting approach to the design and development of the future Internet foresees a networked service eco-system capable of seamlessly offering services for human-to-human, human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interactions. This chapter builds in this direction by describing a distributed component-ware framework for autonomic and situation-aware communication developed within the CASCADAS project. The core of this framework is the Autonomic Communication Element (ACE), an innovative software abstraction capable of providing dynamically adaptable services that can be built, composed, and let evolve according to autonomic principles. Services are capable of adapting their logic to the dynamically changing context they operate in without human intervention. As a result, whenever the need arises, ACEs can be federated autonomously and produce new services on a situation-aware basis. Systems and, in particular, eco-systems can thus be conceived as collections of ACEs. The chapter introduces the concept of ACE and its different facets. It also presents the architecture of a prototype ACE-based platform and exemplifies the different concepts through a future Pervasive Behavioral Advertisement scenario.

Baresi, Luciano; Ferdinando, Antonio Di; Manzalini, Antonio; Zambonelli, Franco

441

Configuration of Autonomous Walkers for Extreme Terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robots that can competently, efficiently, and autonomously operate in extreme terrain do not exist. Although walking locomotion offers unique advantages, existing walking mech anisms are not suited to the comprehensive requirements of extreme terrain autonomy. This work synthesizes and ana lyzes candidate walker configurations, implements and tests a walker of unprecedented capability and design, and devel ops insights regarding walker

John E. Bares; William L. Whittaker

1993-01-01

442

Autonomous Virtual Actors Based on Virtual Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present current research developments in the Virtual Life of autonomous synthetic actors. After a brief description of the perception action principles with a few simple examples, we emphasize the concept of virtual sensors for virtual humans. In particular, we describe in details our experiences in implementing virtual vision, tactile and audition. We then describe perception-based locomotion,

Daniel Thalmann; Hansrudi Noser; Zhiyong Huang

1997-01-01

443

ODYSSEUS: An Autonomous Mobile Robot (extended abstract)  

E-print Network

ODYSSEUS: An Autonomous Mobile Robot (extended abstract) R. Simmons, S. Thrun, C. Athanassiou, J Pittsburgh, PA 15213 INTRODUCTION Odysseus 1 is a small wheeled robot equipped with an arm, sonar sensors emphasise in the software implementation of Odysseus' control is the ability to act and react in real

Thrun, Sebastian

444

Autonomous Rovers for Human Exploration of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Autonomous rovers are a critical element for the success of human exploration of Mars The robotic tasks required for human presence on Mars are beyond the ability of current rovers; these tasks include landing - site scouting and mining, as well as emplacement and maintenance of a habitat, fuel production facility, and power generator These tasks are required before

David E. Smith; Gregory A. Dorais; John Bresina; Keith Golden; Richard Washington

1998-01-01

445

Pupillary signs in diabetic autonomic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pupillary function was investigated in 36 insulin-dependent diabetics and 36 controls matched for age and sex. About half of the diabetics had evidence of peripheral somatic or autonomic neuropathy, or both. The diabetic patients had abnormally small pupil diameters in the dark and less fluctuation in pupil size (hippus) during continuous illumination than the controls. They also had reduced reflex

S E Smith; S A Smith; P M Brown; C Fox; P H Sönksen

1978-01-01

446

Autonomous Learning from a Social Cognitive Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current perspective of autonomous learning defines it as the agentive exhibition of resourcefulness, initiative, and persistence in self-directed learning. As a form of human agency, it has been argued in the literature that this perspective should be consistent with Bandura's (1986) Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The purpose of this article…

Ponton, Michael K.; Rhea, Nancy E.

2006-01-01

447

Autonomous Language Learning: The Teachers' Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a large-scale study on learner autonomy in language learning carried out with students and English teachers at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Examines the teachers' views of their roles and responsibilities, their assessment of their students'decision-making abilities and the autonomous language learning activities that they have…

Chan, Victoria

2003-01-01

448

Autonomous Language Learning: The teachers' perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a large-scale study on learner autonomy in language learning carried out with students and English teachers at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University in Hong Kong. It focuses on the teachers' views of their roles and responsibilities, their assessment of their students' decision-making abilities and the autonomous language learning activities that they have encouraged their students to

Victoria Chan

2003-01-01

449

Autonomous photovoltaic-diesel power system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for designing an autonomous photovoltaic power system in conjunction with a diesel-fueled electric generator and a battery has been developed. Any photovoltaic array energy not utilized immediately by the load is stored in the battery bank. The diesel generator set is operated periodically at 14-day intervals to ensure its availability and occasionally as needed during winter to supplement

T. M. Calloway

1985-01-01

450

Interactive image tools for autonomous spelling robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research proposes a simple but reliable command card encoding system, image recognition, and interpretation techniques for reading the command cards and a letter cube image recognition system for a two-armed autonomous spelling and cube-stacking robot. The command cards are used for issuing commands to the robot so that people can ask the robot to execute specific actions. By using

Chyi-Yeu Lin; Po-Chia Jo; Chia-Lun Hsueh; Chang-Kuo Tseng

2012-01-01

451

Autonomous Helicopter Formation using Model Predictive Control  

E-print Network

) capability). With recent advances in technology, such as aerial refuelling and night vision, helicopters haveAutonomous Helicopter Formation using Model Predictive Control Hoam Chung and S. Shankar Sastry for teams of helicopters. However, the potential for accidents is greatly increased when helicopter teams

Sastry, S. Shankar

452

Robotany : autonomous vehicles that care for houseplants  

E-print Network

Robotany is a system of autonomous robots that act on behalf of houseplants that rest on top of their chassis. Their duty is to do what plants would if they had the gift of mobility - namely to seek out sunlight or water ...

Cinnamon, Sara Elizabeth, 1979-

2004-01-01

453

Multimodal interaction with an autonomous forklift  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a multimodal framework for interacting with an autonomous robotic forklift. A key element enabling effective interaction is a wireless, handheld tablet with which a human supervisor can command the forklift using speech and sketch. Most current sketch interfaces treat the canvas as a blank slate. In contrast, our interface uses live and synthesized camera images from the forklift

Andrew Correa; Matthew R. Walter; Luke Fletcher; Jim Glass; Seth Teller; Randall Davis

2010-01-01

454

An Algorithm for Autonomous Formation Obstacle Avoidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The level of human interaction with Unmanned Aerial Systems varies greatly from remotely piloted aircraft to fully autonomous systems. In the latter end of the spectrum, the challenge lies in designing effective algorithms to dictate the behavior of the autonomous agents. A swarm of autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles requires collision avoidance and formation flight algorithms to negotiate environmental challenges it may encounter during the execution of its mission, which may include obstacles and chokepoints. In this work, a simple algorithm is developed to allow a formation of autonomous vehicles to perform point to point navigation while avoiding obstacles and navigating through chokepoints. Emphasis is placed on maintaining formation structures. Rather than breaking formation and individually navigating around the obstacle or through the chokepoint, vehicles are required to assemble into appropriately sized/shaped sub-formations, bifurcate around the obstacle or negotiate the chokepoint, and reassemble into the original formation at the far side of the obstruction. The algorithm receives vehicle and environmental properties as inputs and outputs trajectories for each vehicle from start to the desired ending location. Simulation results show that the algorithm safely routes all vehicles past the obstruction while adhering to the aforementioned requirements. The formation adapts and successfully negotiates the obstacles and chokepoints in its path while maintaining proper vehicle separation.

Cruz, Yunior I.

455

Robotic and Human-Tended Collaborative Drilling Automation for Subsurface Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future in-situ lunar/martian resource utilization and characterization, as well as the scientific search for life on Mars, will require access to the subsurface and hence drilling. Drilling on Earth is hard - an art form more than an engineering discipline. Human operators listen and feel drill string vibrations coming from kilometers underground. Abundant mass and energy make it possible for terrestrial drilling to employ brute-force approaches to failure recovery and system performance issues. Space drilling will require intelligent and autonomous systems for robotic exploration and to support human exploration. Eventual in-situ resource utilization will require deep drilling with probable human-tended operation of large-bore drills, but initial lunar subsurface exploration and near-term ISRU will be accomplished with lightweight, rover-deployable or standalone drills capable of penetrating a few tens of meters in depth. These lightweight exploration drills have a direct counterpart in terrestrial prospecting and ore-body location, and will be designed to operate either human-tended or automated. NASA and industry now are acquiring experience in developing and building low-mass automated planetary prototype drills to design and build a pre-flight lunar prototype targeted for 2011-12 flight opportunities. A successful system will include development of drilling hardware, and automated control software to operate it safely and effectively. This includes control of the drilling hardware, state estimation of both the hardware and the lithography being drilled and state of the hole, and potentially planning and scheduling software suitable for uncertain situations such as drilling. Given that Humans on the Moon or Mars are unlikely to be able to spend protracted EVA periods at a drill site, both human-tended and robotic access to planetary subsurfaces will require some degree of standalone, autonomous drilling capability. Human-robotic coordination will be important, either between a robotic drill and humans on Earth, or a human-tended drill and its visiting crew. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) is a current project that studies and simulates the remote science operations between an automated drill in Spain and a distant, distributed human science team. The Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project, by contrast: is developing and testing standalone automation at a lunar/martian impact crater analog site in Arctic Canada. The drill hardware in both projects is a hardened, evolved version of the Advanced Deep Drill (ADD) developed by Honeybee Robotics for the Mars Subsurface Program. The current ADD is capable of 20m, and the DAME project is developing diagnostic and executive software for hands-off surface operations of the evolved version of this drill. The current drill automation architecture being developed by NASA and tested in 2004-06 at analog sites in the Arctic and Spain will add downhole diagnosis of different strata, bit wear detection, and dynamic replanning capabilities when unexpected failures or drilling conditions are discovered in conjunction with simulated mission operations and remote science planning. The most important determinant of future 1unar and martian drilling automation and staffing requirements will be the actual performance of automated prototype drilling hardware systems in field trials in simulated mission operations. It is difficult to accurately predict the level of automation and human interaction that will be needed for a lunar-deployed drill without first having extensive experience with the robotic control of prototype drill systems under realistic analog field conditions. Drill-specific failure modes and software design flaws will become most apparent at this stage. DAME will develop and test drill automation software and hardware under stressful operating conditions during several planned field campaigns. Initial results from summer 2004 tests show seven identifi distinct failure modes of the drill: cuttings-removal issues with low-power drilling into permaf

Glass, Brian; Cannon, Howard; Stoker, Carol; Davis, Kiel

2005-01-01

456

Exercise and the autonomic nervous system.  

PubMed

The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular response to acute (dynamic) exercise in animals and humans. During exercise, oxygen uptake is a function of the triple-product of heart rate and stroke volume (i.e., cardiac output) and arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference (the Fick principle). The degree to which each of the variables can increase determines maximal oxygen uptake (V?O2max). Both "central command" and "the exercise pressor reflex" are important in determining the cardiovascular response and the resetting of the arterial baroreflex during exercise to precisely match systemic oxygen delivery with metabolic demand. In general, patients with autonomic disorders have low levels of V?O2max, indicating reduced physical fitness and exercise capacity. Moreover, the vast majority of the patients have blunted or abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise, especially during maximal exercise. There is now convincing evidence that some of the protective and therapeutic effects of chronic exercise training are related to the impact on the autonomic nervous system. Additionally, training induced improvement in vascular function, blood volume expansion, cardiac remodeling, insulin resistance and renal-adrenal function may also contribute to the protection and treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic and autonomic disorders. Exercise training also improves mental health, helps to prevent depression, and promotes or maintains positive self-esteem. Moderate-intensity exercise at least 30 minutes per day and at least 5 days per week is recommended for the vast majority of people. Supervised exercise training is preferable to maximize function capacity, and may be particularly important for patients with autonomic disorders. PMID:24095123

Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D

2013-01-01

457

RADIOIODINE GEOCHEMISTRY IN THE SRS SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT  

SciTech Connect

Iodine-129 is one of the key risk drivers for several Savannah River Site (SRS) performance assessments (PA), including that for the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility in E-Area. In an effort to reduce the uncertainty associated with the conceptual model and the input values used in PA, several studies have recently been conducted dealing with radioiodine geochemistry at the SRS. The objective of this report was to review these recent studies and evaluate their implications on SRS PA calculations. For the first time, these studies measured iodine speciation in SRS groundwater and provided technical justification for assuming the presence of more strongly sorbing species (iodate and organo-iodine), and measured greater iodine sediment sorption when experiments included these newly identified species; specifically they measured greater sorption coefficients (K{sub d} values: the concentration ratio of iodine on the solid phase divided by the concentration in the aqueous phase). Based on these recent studies, new best estimates were proposed for future PA calculations. The new K{sub d} values are greater than previous recommended values. These proposed K{sub d} values reflect a better understanding of iodine geochemistry in the SRS subsurface environment, which permits reducing the associated conservatism included in the original estimates to account for uncertainty. Among the key contributing discoveries supporting the contention that the K{sub d} values should be increased are that: 1) not only iodide (I{sup -}), but also the more strongly sorbing iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}) species exists in SRS groundwater (average total iodine = 15% iodide, 42% iodate, and 43% organoiodine), 2) when iodine was added as iodate, the measured K{sub d} values were 2 to 6 times greater than when the iodine was added as iodide, and perhaps most importantly, 3) higher desorption (10 to 20 mL/g) than (ad)sorption (all previous studies) K{sub d} values were measured. The implications of this latter point is that the iodine desorption process would be appreciably slower than the (ad)sorption process, and as such would control the rate (and the PA K{sub d} value) that iodine sorbed to and therefore migrated through the subsurface sediment. High desorption K{sub d} values would result in the “effective K{sub d}” for a reactive transport model being closer to the desorption K{sub d} value (the rate limiting value) than the (ad)sorption K{sub d} value. In summary, our understanding of {sup 129}I geochemistry has greatly improved, reducing the uncertainty associated with the PA’s conceptual model, thereby permitting us to reduce the conservatism presently incorporated in PA input values to describe {sup 129}I fate and transport in the SRS subsurface environment.

Kaplan, D.; Emerson, H.; Powell, B.; Roberts, K.; Zhang, S.; Xu, C.; Schwer, K.; Li, H.; Ho, Y.; Denham, M.; Yeager, C.; Santschi, P.

2013-05-16

458

Apoptosis and Self-Destruct: A Contribution to Autonomic Agents?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomic Computing (AC), a self-managing systems initiative based on the biological metaphor of the autonomic nervous system, is increasingly gaining momentum as the way forward in designing reliable systems. Agent technologies have been identified as a key enabler for engineering autonomicity in systems, both in terms of retrofitting autonomicity into legacy systems and designing new systems. The AC initiative provides an opportunity to consider other biological systems and principles in seeking new design strategies. This paper reports on one such investigation; utilizing the apoptosis metaphor of biological systems to provide a dynamic health indicator signal between autonomic agents.

Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

2004-01-01

459

Mars Subsurface Exploration Using Schumann Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a planetary environment, an electrically conductive ionosphere and ground create a spherical electromagnetic cavity. In this cavity, extremely low frequency (ELF, 3-3000 Hz) electromagnetic waves are weakly attenuated and can propagate around the globe producing global resonance. The extremely low frequency waves are generated by electrical discharges in planetary atmospheres. We have developed an analytical method that enables taking into account not only the electrical properties of the Martian ionosphere but also the Martian ground. This method allowed us to obtain the Schumann resonance frequencies and Q factors and analyze how they depend on the Martian environmental properties. We compared the results from our analytical model with previously published results from numerical modeling. In this work, we show that the Martian ground has a significant influence on the Schumann resonance parameters. Therefore, Schumann resonance can be used us a tool to study, not only the properties of the Martian atmosphere, but also the properties of the subsurface layers. It can be particularly useful in groundwater exploration. In order to study the influence of water on the Schumann resonance parameters on Mars, we assumed two cases of the Martian ground containing aquifers. In both cases, we considered the upper part of the Martian crust composed of porous basaltic rocks containing ice. Beneath this layer, we implemented water-bearing basalts. We assumed that ice and water contains some NaCl impurities or solutions. In the first case, we considered the low concentration of salts in ice and low-salinity water. In the second case, we assumed some high-impurity ice and brines. In order to compare the results of the above-mentioned cases with a situation in which the subsurface of Mars does not contain any water, we introduced the model of the Martian crust composed only of dry basaltic rocks. There are clear differences in the Schumann resonance parameters for the different cases of the Martian ground. The Schumann resonance frequencies are higher by about 15% in the cases with aquifers compared to the pure basaltic ground. The amplitudes of Schumann resonance are also higher by about 40%. For all the analyzed cases, we have calculated and presented the spectra of the Schumann resonance. Our new method used to obtain the Schumann resonance parameters on Mars can be applied also to other objects in the Solar System. Acknowledgements. This work has been supported by the National Science Centre grants: 2012/04/M/ST10/00565 and 2013/09/N/ST9/02200

Kozakiewicz, Joanna; Kulak, Andrzej; Mlynarczyk, Janusz

2014-05-01

460

Enhanced bioremediation of subsurface contamination: Enzyme recruitment and redesign  

SciTech Connect

Subsurface systems containing radionuclide, heavy metal, and organic wastes must be carefully attended to avoid further impacts to the environment or exposures to human populations. It is appropriate, therefore, to invest in basic research to develop the requisite tools and methods for addressing complex cleanup problems. The rational modification of subsurface microoganisms by enzyme recruitment and enzyme design, in concert with engineered systems for delivery of microorganisms and nutrients to the contaminated zone, are potentially useful tools in the spectrum of approaches that will be required for successful remediation of deep subsurface contamination.

Brockman, F.J.; Ornstein, R.L.

1991-12-01

461

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy methods for spectroscopic imaging of subsurface interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method for spatially-resolved, spectroscopic investigation of subsurface interface structure has been developed. The method, Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM), is based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) techniques. BEEM combines STM vacuum tunneling with unique ballistic electron spectroscopy capabilities. BEEM enables, for the first time, direct imaging of subsurface interface electronic properties with nanometer spatial resolution. STM topographic images of surface structure and BEEM images of subsurface properties are obtained simultaneously. BEEM capabilities are demonstrated by investigation of important metal-semiconductor interfaces.

Bell, L. D.; Kaiser, W. J.

1988-01-01

462

Evidence for a subsurface ocean on Europa.  

PubMed

Ground-based spectroscopy of Jupiter's moon Europa, combined with gravity data, suggests that the satellite has an icy crust roughly 150 km thick and a rocky interior. In addition, images obtained by the Voyager spacecraft revealed that Europa's surface is crossed by numerous intersecting ridges and dark bands (called lineae) and is sparsely cratered, indicating that the terrain is probably significantly younger than that of Ganymede and Callisto. It has been suggested that Europa's thin outer ice shell might be separated from the moon's silicate interior by a liquid water layer, delayed or prevented from freezing by tidal heating; in this model, the lineae could be explained by repetitive tidal deformation of the outer ice shell. However, observational confirmation of a subsurface ocean was largely frustrated by the low resolution (>2 km per pixel) of the Voyager images. Here we present high-resolution (54 m per pixel) Galileo spacecraft images of Europa, in which we find evidence for mobile 'icebergs'. The detailed morphology of the terrain strongly supports the presence of liquid water at shallow depths below the surface, either today or at some time in the past. Moreover, lower-resolution observations of much larger regions suggest that the phenomena reported here are widespread. PMID:9450749

Carr, M H; Belton, M J; Chapman, C R; Davies, M E; Geissler, P; Greenberg, R; McEwen, A S; Tufts, B R; Greeley, R; Sullivan, R; Head, J W; Pappalardo, R T; Klaasen, K P; Johnson, T V; Kaufman, J; Senske, D; Moore, J; Neukum, G; Schubert, G; Burns, J A; Thomas, P; Veverka, J

1998-01-22

463

Studies of the subsurface effects of earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

As part of the National Terminal Waste Storage Program, the Savannah River Laboratory is conducting a series of studies on the subsurface effects of earthquakes. This report summarizes three subcontracted studies. (1) Earthquake damage to underground facilities: the purpose of this study was to document damage and nondamage caused by earthquakes to tunnels and shallow underground openings; to mines and other deep openings; and to wells, shafts, and other vertical facilities. (2) Earthquake related displacement fields near underground facilities: the study included an analysis of block motion, an analysis of the dependence of displacement on the orientation and distance of joints from the earthquake source, and displacement related to distance and depth near a causative fault as a result of various shapes, depths, and senses of movement on the causative fault. (3) Numerical simulation of earthquake effects on tunnels for generic nuclear waste repositories: the objective of this study was to use numerical modeling to determine under what conditions seismic waves might cause instability of an underground opening or create fracturing that would increase the permeability of the rock mass.

Marine, I W

1980-01-01

464

Evidence for a subsurface ocean on Europa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-based spectroscopy of Jupiter's moon Europa, combined with gravity data, suggests that the satellite has an icy crust roughly 150 km thick and a rocky interior. In addition, images obtained by the Voyager spacecraft revealed that Europa's surface is crossed by numerous intersecting ridges and dark bands (called lineae) and is sparsely cratered, indicating that the terrain is probably significantly younger than that of Ganymede and Callisto. It has been suggested that Europa's thin outer ice shell might be separated from the moon's silicate interior by a liquid water layer, delayed or prevented from freezing by tidal heating; in this model, the lineae could be explained by repetitive tidal deformation of the outer ice shell. However, observational confirmation of a subsurface ocean was largely frustrated by the low resolution (>2 km per pixel) of the Voyager images. Here we present high-resolution (54 m per pixel) Galileo spacecraft images of Europa, in which we find evidence for mobile 'icebergs'. The detailed morphology of the terrain strongly supports the presence of liquid water at shallow depths below the surface, either today or at some time in the past. Moreover, lower- resolution observations of much larger regions suggest that the phenomena reported here are widespread.

Carr, M. H.; Belton, M. J. S.; Chapman, C. R.; Davies, M. E.; Geissler, P.; Greenberg, R.; McEwen, A. S.; Tufts, B. R.; Greeley, R.; Sullivan, R.; Head, J. W.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Klaasen, K. P.; Johnson, T. V.; Kaufman, J.; Senske, D.; Moore, J.; Neukum, G.; Schubert, G.; Burns, J. A.; Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.

1998-01-01

465

Starvation-survival of subsurface bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The ability of four subsurface isolates to survive starvation was examined and the results were compared to survival curves obtained for Escherichia coli B and Serratia marcescens. To examine the starvation-survival phenomenon further, several experimental parameters including nutritional history, initial cell density, growth phase, temperature of growth and starvation, and aeration. Nutritional history, initial cell density, and growth phases of the cells had some effect on the ability of these bacteria to survive whereas temperature and limited aeration had no effect under the conditions tested. No conditions were found where E. coli B or Serratia marcescens died rapidly or where less than 10% of the original cell number of viable cells remained. Because the apparent survival of these bacteria may be due to cryptic growth, cross-feeding experiments with {sup 14}C-labeled cells and unlabeled cells were carried out with E. coli B and Pseudomonas Lula V. Leaked extracellular {sup 14}C-compounds were not used for growth or maintenance energy, and were not taken up by either bacterium. Cryptic growth did not occur; the cells were truly starving under the experimental conditions used.

Magill, N.G.

1988-01-01

466

Subsurface stormflow is important in semiarid karst shrublands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe hillslope-scale, rainfall-simulation experiments on karst shrublands dominated by Ashe juniper. These simulations, designed to mimic flood-producing rainfall events, were carried out at two sites separated by 206 km within the Edwards Plateau of Central Texas. Five hillslope plots were instrumented-two shrub-covered (canopy) plots and three intercanopy plots measuring 12-14 m in length. We repeated the experiments on the canopy plots after removing the shrubs. For the canopy plots, both before and after shrub removal, 50% or more of the water applied exited the plots as subsurface stormflow and no overland flow occurred. For the intercanopy plots, subsurface stormflow amounted to less than 10% of the water applied and overland flow was between 10 and 50%. These experiments demonstrate the importance of subsurface stormflow in semiarid karst shrublands during flood events, and more generally highlight the fact that subsurface stormflow is important in some semiarid landscapes.

Wilcox, Bradford P.; Taucer, Phillip I.; Munster, Clyde L.; Owens, M. Keith; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Sorenson, Joshua R.; Bazan, Roberto

2008-05-01

467

SUBSURFACE VOLATIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (SVVS) - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the findings associated with a Demonstration Test of Environmental Improvement Technologies? (EIT) Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS) process. The technology was evaluated under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) ...

468

Subsurface conductive isolation of refraction correlative magnetic signals (SCIRCMS)  

E-print Network

Isolation of terrestrially-observed magnetic signals by restoring their diffusive loss due to subsurface electrical conductivity sufficiently correlates these signals with those derived from the Alfven ionospheric electron movement of refraction...

Erck, Eric Stephenson

2004-11-15

469

Overview of the Martian Subsurface Structures as Seen by SHARAD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present first promising results of SHARAD (SHAllow RADar), the subsurface sounding radar provided by the Italian Space Agency as a Facility Instrument to NASA's 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

Seu, R.; Phillips, R.; Picardi, G.; Biccari, D.; Federico, C.; Marinangeli, L.; Orosei, R.; Pettinelli, E.; Frigeri, A.; Masdea, A.; Giacomoni, E.; Cutigni, M.; Provenziani, M.; Fois, F.; Mecozzi, R.; Flamini, E.

2007-03-01

470

Microbial Life in the Deep Subsurface: Deep, Hot and Radioactive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies, motivated in part by the search for extraterrestrial life, continue to expand the recognized limits of Earth's biosphere. This work explored evidence for life a high-temperature, radioactive environment in the deep subsurface.

DeStefano, Andrea L.; Ford, Jill C.; Winsor, Seana K.; Allen, Carlton C.; Miller, Judith; McNamara, Karen M.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

2000-01-01

471

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE TECHNOLOGY OF SUBSURFACE WASTEWATER INJECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

An introduction to the design, construction, operation, and abandonment of subsurface wastewater injection systems is presented. Local geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the injection and confining intervals are considered along with the physical, chemical, and biological...

472

EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MODELING FOR HYDROCARBON SPILLS INTO THE SUBSURFACE  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydrocarbons which enter the subsurface through spills or leaks may create serious, long-lived ground-water contamination problems. onventional finite difference and finite element models of multiphase, multicomponent flow often have extreme requirements for both computer time an...

473

UNDERSTANDING THE FATE OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN THE SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

To achieve effective remediation of subsurface petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, definite scientific and technical knowledge of their fate after they are spilled onto the ground surface or leaked from underground storage tanks is essential. his paper provides extensive details...

474

Understanding Phobos Shallow Subsurface Geophysical Properties from MARSIS Radar Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a synthesis of all the Phobos flyby's radar sounding observations from the MARSIS instrument onboard the Mars express orbiter and their relevance to constrain the ambiguities on Phobos subsurface structural and compositional elements.

Heggy, E.; Herique, A.; Cicchetti, A.; Gim, Y.

2014-07-01

475

Subsurface Characterization To Support Evaluation Of Radionuclide Transport And Attenuation  

EPA Science Inventory

Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attenuation) within the subsurface. In gene...

476

A hydrogen-based subsurface microbial community dominated by methanogens  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The search for extraterrestrial life may be facilitated if ecosystems can be found on Earth that exist under conditions analogous to those present on other planets or moons. It has been proposed, on the basis of geochemical and thermodynamic considerations, that geologically derived hydrogen might support subsurface microbial communities on Mars and Europa in which methanogens form the base of the ecosystem1-5. Here we describe a unique subsurface microbial community in which hydrogen-consuming, methane-producing Archaea far outnumber the Bacteria. More than 90% of the 16s ribosomal DNA sequences recovered from hydrothermal waters circulating through deeply buried igneous rocks in Idaho are related to hydrogen-using methanogenic microorganisms. Geochemical characterization indicates that geothermal hydrogen, not organic carbon, is the primary energy source for this methanogen-dominated microbial community. These results demonstrate that hydrogen-based methanogenic communities do occur in Earth's subsurface, providing an analogue for possible subsurface microbial ecosystems on other planets.

Chapelle, F.H.; O'Neill, K.; Bradley, P.M.; Methe, B.A.; Ciufo, S.A.; Knobel, L.L.; Lovley, D.R.

2002-01-01

477

Autonomous Self-Control is Less Depleting  

PubMed Central

Autonomously motivated self-control may be less depleting than extrinsically motivated self-control. Participants were asked to not eat cookies and their motivation orientation for resisting that temptation was assessed. Their self-control performance was assessed immediately before and after fighting the temptation. As compared to their baseline performance, participants who avoided eating the cookies for more autonomous performed better at the second measure relative to participants who did not eat for more extrinsic reasons. Mood, arousal, and demographic factors were not related to self-control performance and feelings of autonomy. Overall, it appears that feeling compelled to exert self-control may deplete more strength than having more freedom when exerting self-control. The results may increase our understanding of how self-control strength and feelings of autonomy interact. PMID:18704202

Muraven, Mark

2008-01-01

478

Auditory stimulation and cardiac autonomic regulation  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: “auditory stimulation”, “autonomic nervous system”, “music” and “heart rate variability”. The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation between noise intensity and vagal-sympathetic balance. Additionally, it was reported that music therapy improved heart rate variability in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients. It was hypothesized that dopamine release in the striatal system induced by pleasurable songs is involved in cardiac autonomic regulation. Musical auditory stimulation influences heart rate variability through a neural mechanism that is not well understood. Further studies are necessary to develop new therapies to treat cardiovascular disorders. PMID:22948465

Valenti, Vitor E.; Guida, Heraldo L.; Frizzo, Ana C. F.; Cardoso, Ana C. V.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M.; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

2012-01-01

479

Autonomous Flight Safety System Road Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On February 3, 2005, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) conducted the first Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) test on a moving vehicle -- a van driven around the KSC industrial area. A subset of the Phase III design was used consisting of a single computer, GPS receiver, and UPS antenna. The description and results of this road test are described in this report.AFSS is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility project that is in its third phase of development. AFSS is an independent subsystem intended for use with Expendable Launch Vehicles that uses tracking data from redundant onboard sensors to autonomously make flight termination decisions using software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors. The goals of this project are to increase capabilities by allowing launches from locations that do not have or cannot afford extensive ground-based range safety assets, to decrease range costs, and to decrease reaction time for special situations.

Simpson, James C.; Zoemer, Roger D.; Forney, Chris S.

2005-01-01

480

Isolated sympathetic failure with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy.  

PubMed

A 16-year-old boy had a gradual onset of post-exercise myalgia with progressive fatigue and dizziness. He had bradycardia (37 beats/minute) with low supine and normal standing norepinephrine levels (56 and 311 pg/mL, respectively). He had absent sympathetically mediated vasoconstrictor responses during Valsalva maneuver testing. Circulating ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibodies were identified. Response was gradual to treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin combined with aggressive symptomatic interventions (permanent pacemaker implantation and treatment with pyridostigmine, midodrine, and modafinil). After the intravenous immunoglobulin treatment, his autoantibody levels decreased and the autonomic abnormalities resolved. After a reconditioning exercise program and eventually undetectable antibody titers, he achieved complete recovery. The patient continued to do well after his pacemaker was removed and his medications were discontinued. Thus, severe isolated sympathetic nervous system failure can occur in adolescents with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy, and multifaceted treatment can be effective. PMID:20837310

Fischer, Philip R; Sandroni, Paola; Pittock, Sean J; Porter, Co-burn J; Lehwald, Lenora M; Raj, Satish R

2010-10-01