Science.gov

Sample records for autonomous observing strategies

  1. Autonomous observing strategies for the ocean carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, James K.; Davis, Russ E.

    2000-07-26

    Understanding the exchanges of carbon between the atmosphere and ocean and the fate of carbon delivered to the deep sea is fundamental to the evaluation of ocean carbon sequestration options. An additional key requirement is that sequestration must be verifiable and that environmental effects be monitored and minimized. These needs can be addressed by carbon system observations made from low-cost autonomous ocean-profiling floats and gliders. We have developed a prototype ocean carbon system profiler based on the Sounding Oceanographic Lagrangian Observer (SOLO; Davis et al., 1999). The SOLO/ carbon profiler will measure the two biomass components of the carbon system and their relationship to physical variables, such as upper ocean stratification and mixing. The autonomous observations within the upper 1500 m will be made on daily time scales for periods of months to seasons and will be carried out in biologically dynamic locations in the world's oceans that are difficult to access with ships (due to weather) or observe using remote sensing satellites (due to cloud cover). Such an observational capability not only will serve an important role in carbon sequestration research but will provide key observations of the global ocean's natural carbon cycle.

  2. Actions, Observations, and Decision-Making: Biologically Inspired Strategies for Autonomous Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Young, Larry A.; Lau, Benton

    2003-01-01

    This paper details the development and demonstration of an autonomous aerial vehicle embodying search and find mission planning and execution srrategies inspired by foraging behaviors found in biology. It begins by describing key characteristics required by an aeria! explorer to support science and planetary exploration goals, and illustrates these through a hypothetical mission profile. It next outlines a conceptual bio- inspired search and find autonomy architecture that implements observations, decisions, and actions through an "ecology" of producer, consumer, and decomposer agents. Moving from concepts to development activities, it then presents the results of mission representative UAV aerial surveys at a Mars analog site. It next describes hardware and software enhancements made to a commercial small fixed-wing UAV system, which inc!nde a ncw dpvelopnent architecture that also provides hardware in the loop simulation capability. After presenting the results of simulated and actual flights of bioinspired flight algorithms, it concludes with a discussion of future development to include an expansion of system capabilities and field science support.

  3. A Diversified Investment Strategy Using Autonomous Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Rui Pedro; Belo, Orlando

    In a previously published article, we presented an architecture for implementing agents with the ability to trade autonomously in the Forex market. At the core of this architecture is an ensemble of classification and regression models that is used to predict the direction of the price of a currency pair. In this paper, we will describe a diversified investment strategy consisting of five agents which were implemented using that architecture. By simulating trades with 18 months of out-of-sample data, we will demonstrate that data mining models can produce profitable predictions, and that the trading risk can be diminished through investment diversification.

  4. Path planning strategies for autonomous ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, Kevin Kent

    Several key issues involved with the planning and executing of optimally generated paths for autonomous vehicles are addressed. Two new path planning algorithms are developed, and examined, which effectively minimize replanning as unmapped hazards are encountered. The individual algorithms are compared via extensive simulation. The search strategy results are implemented and tested using the University of Colorado's autonomous vehicle test-bed, RoboCar, and results show the advantages of solving the single-destination all-paths problem for autonomous vehicle path planning. Both path planners implement a graph search methodology incorporating dynamic programming that solves the single-destination shortest-paths problem. Algorithm 1, termed DP for dynamic programming, searches a state space where each state represents a potential vehicle location in a breadth-first fashion expanding from the goal to all potential start locations in the state space. Algorithm 2, termed DP*, couples the heuristic search power of the well-known A* search procedure (Nilsson-80) with the dynamic programming principle applied to graph searching to efficiently make use of overlapping subproblems. DP* is the primary research contribution of the work contained within this thesis. The advantage of solving the single-destination shortest-paths problem is that the entire terrain map is solved in terms of reaching a specified goal. Therefore, if the robot is diverted from the pre-planned path, an alternative path is already computed. The search algorithms are extended to include a probabilistic approach using empirical loss functions to incorporate terrain map uncertainties into the path considering terrain planning process. The results show the importance of considering terrain uncertainty. If the map representation ignores uncertainty by marking any area with less than perfect confidence as unpassable or assigns it the worst case rating, then the paths are longer than intuitively necessary. A

  5. Evolutionary strategy for achieving autonomous navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    1999-01-01

    An approach is presented for the evolutionary development of supervised autonomous navigation capabilities for small 'backpackable' ground robots, in the context of a DARPA- sponsored program to provide robotic support to small units of dismounted warfighters. This development approach relies on the implementation of a baseline visual serving navigation capability, including tools to support operator oversight and override, which is then enhanced with semantically referenced commands and a mission scripting structure. As current and future machine perception techniques are able to automatically designate visual serving goal points, this approach should provide a natural evolutionary pathway to higher levels of autonomous operation and reduced requirements for operator intervention.

  6. A design strategy for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forster, Pete

    1989-01-01

    Some solutions to crucial issues regarding the competent performance of an autonomously operating robot are identified; namely, that of handling multiple and variable data sources containing overlapping information and maintaining coherent operation while responding adequately to changes in the environment. Support for the ideas developed for the construction of such behavior are extracted from speculations in the study of cognitive psychology, an understanding of the behavior of controlled mechanisms, and the development of behavior-based robots in a few robot research laboratories. The validity of these ideas is supported by some simple simulation experiments in the field of mobile robot navigation and guidance.

  7. Autonomous UAV persistent surveillance using bio-inspired strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Isaacs, Jason; Venkateswaran, Sriram; Pham, Tien

    2012-06-01

    A team consisting of Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara, the Army Research Laboratory, the Engineer Research and Development Center, and IBM UK is developing technologies in support of automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous battlefield sensor networks to enhance situational awareness for dismounts and command echelons. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from a sparse network of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous collection routes that are data-driven. Bioinspired techniques for autonomous search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data from heterogeneous sensor networks. The bio-inspired algorithm is based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. Field tests of a bio-inspired system that routed UAVs were conducted in June 2011 at Camp Roberts, CA. The field test results showed that such a system can autonomously detect and locate the source of terrestrial events with very high accuracy and visually verify the event. In June 2011, field tests of the system were completed and include the use of multiple autonomously controlled UAVs, detection and disambiguation of multiple acoustic events occurring in short time frames, optimal sensor placement based on local phenomenology and the use of the International Technology Alliance (ITA) Sensor Network Fabric. The system demonstrated TRL 6 performance in the field at Camp Roberts.

  8. The Autonomous Revolution: Transforming Ocean Observation with Mobile Platforms (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, C. C.

    2010-12-01

    The development and use of high endurance autonomous vehicles is changing the nature of ocean observation. The ocean's description historically is based on ship observations, but automatic means have contributed increasingly over the last half century. First fixed, then orbiting, and now fully mobile platforms contribute to a growing data stream. Autonomous vehicles, once restricted to observing over the course of a day, now have endurances of months or years. These high endurance vehicles tend to be less encumbered by traditional constraints associated with access to the sea. Recent advances portend full-depth coverage of the deep ocean in autonomous vehicle missions lasting a year or more with basin-wide range. Deepglider

  9. SSPARR: Development of an efficient autonomous sampling strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayes, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    The Seafloor Sounding in Polar and Remote Regions (SSPARR) effort was launched in 2004 with funding from the US National Science Foundation (Anderson et al. 2005.) Experiments with a prototype were encouraging (Greenspan et al., 2012, Chayes et al. 2012) and we are proceeding toward building and testing units for deployment during the 2014 season season in ice covered parts of the Arctic ocean. The simplest operational mode for a SSPARR buoy will be to wake and sample on a fixed time interval. A slightly more complex mode will check the distance traveled since the pervious sounding and potentially return to sleep-mode if it has not traveled far enough to make a significant new measurement. We are developing a mode that will use a sampling strategy based on querying an on-board copy of the best available digital terrain model (DTM) e.g. IBCAO in the Arctic, to help decide if it is appropriate to turn on the echo sounder and make a new measurement. We anticipate that a robust strategy of this type will allow a buoy to operate substantially longer on a fixed battery size. Anderson, R., D. Chayes, et al. (2005). "Seafloor Soundings in Polar and Remote Regions - A new instrument for unattended bathymetric observations," Eos Trans. AGU 86(18): Abstract C43A-10. Greenspan, D., D. Porter, et al. (2012). "IBuoy: Expendable Echo Sounder Buoy with Satellite Telemetry." EOS Fall Meeting Supplement C13E-0660. Chayes, D. N., S. A. Goemmer, et al. (2012). "SSPARR-3: A cost-effective autonomous drifting echosounder." EOS Fall Meeting supplement C13E-0659.

  10. Autonomous Coordination of Science Observations Using Multiple Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara A.; Chien, Steve A.; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel M.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Schoolcraft, Joshua B.; Oyake, Amalaye; Vaughs, Ashton G.; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Granville, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This software provides capabilities for autonomous cross-cueing and coordinated observations between multiple orbital and landed assets. Previous work has been done in re-tasking a single Earth orbiter or a Mars rover in response to that craft detecting a science event. This work enables multiple spacecraft to communicate (over a network designed for deep-space communications) and autonomously coordinate the characterization of such a science event. This work investigates a new paradigm of space science campaigns where opportunistic science observations are autonomously coordinated among multiple spacecraft. In this paradigm, opportunistic science detections can be cued by multiple assets where a second asset is requested to take additional observations characterizing the identified surface feature or event. To support this new paradigm, an autonomous science system for multiple spacecraft assets was integrated with the Interplanetary Network DTN (Delay Tolerant Network) to provide communication between spacecraft assets. This technology enables new mission concepts that are not feasible with current technology. The ability to rapidly coordinate activities across spacecraft without requiring ground in the loop enables rapid reaction to dynamic events across platforms, such as a survey instrument followed by a targeted high resolution instrument, as well as regular simultaneous observations.

  11. Navigation strategies for multiple autonomous mobile robots moving in formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of deriving navigation strategies for a fleet of autonomous mobile robots moving in formation is considered. Here, each robot is represented by a particle with a spherical effective spatial domain and a specified cone of visibility. The global motion of each robot in the world space is described by the equations of motion of the robot's center of mass. First, methods for formation generation are discussed. Then, simple navigation strategies for robots moving in formation are derived. A sufficient condition for the stability of a desired formation pattern for a fleet of robots each equipped with the navigation strategy based on nearest neighbor tracking is developed. The dynamic behavior of robot fleets consisting of three or more robots moving in formation in a plane is studied by means of computer simulation.

  12. Autonomous Flight Rules Concept: User Implementation Costs and Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, William B.; Hilb, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The costs to implement Autonomous Flight Rules (AFR) were examined for estimates in acquisition, installation, training and operations. The user categories were airlines, fractional operators, general aviation and unmanned aircraft systems. Transition strategies to minimize costs while maximizing operational benefits were also analyzed. The primary cost category was found to be the avionics acquisition. Cost ranges for AFR equipment were given to reflect the uncertainty of the certification level for the equipment and the extent of existing compatible avionics in the aircraft to be modified.

  13. Autonomic nervous system correlates in movement observation and motor imagery

    PubMed Central

    Collet, C.; Di Rienzo, F.; El Hoyek, N.; Guillot, A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature offering a better understanding of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) correlates in motor imagery (MI) and movement observation. These are two high brain functions involving sensori-motor coupling, mediated by memory systems. How observing or mentally rehearsing a movement affect ANS activity has not been extensively investigated. The links between cognitive functions and ANS responses are not so obvious. We will first describe the organization of the ANS whose main purposes are controlling vital functions by maintaining the homeostasis of the organism and providing adaptive responses when changes occur either in the external or internal milieu. We will then review how scientific knowledge evolved, thus integrating recent findings related to ANS functioning, and show how these are linked to mental functions. In turn, we will describe how movement observation or MI may elicit physiological responses at the peripheral level of the autonomic effectors, thus eliciting autonomic correlates to cognitive activity. Key features of this paper are to draw a step-by step progression from the understanding of ANS physiology to its relationships with high mental processes such as movement observation or MI. We will further provide evidence that mental processes are co-programmed both at the somatic and autonomic levels of the central nervous system (CNS). We will thus detail how peripheral physiological responses may be analyzed to provide objective evidence that MI is actually performed. The main perspective is thus to consider that, during movement observation and MI, ANS activity is an objective witness of mental processes. PMID:23908623

  14. The Interaction of Motivation, Self-Regulatory Strategies, and Autonomous Learning Behavior in Different Learner Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kormos, Judit; Csizér, Kata

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous learning and effective self-regulatory strategies are increasingly important in foreign language learning; without these, students might not be able to exploit learning opportunities outside language classrooms. This study investigated the influence of motivational factors and self-regulatory strategies on autonomous learning behavior.…

  15. Design of an Autonomous Polarized Raman Lidar for Arctic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillwell, R. A.; Neely, R. R., III; O'Neill, M.; Thayer, J. P.; Hayman, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    A dearth of high-spatial and temporal resolution measurements of atmospheric state variables in the Arctic directly inhibits scientific understanding of radiative and precipitation impacts on the changing surface environment. More reliable and frequent measurements are needed to better understand Arctic weather processes and constrain model predictions. To partially address the lack of Artic observations, a new autonomous Raman lidar system, which will measure through the troposphere water vapor mixing ratio, temperature, extinction, and cloud phase profiles, is under development for deployment to Summit Camp, Greenland (72° 36'N, 38° 25'W, 3250m). This high-altitude Arctic field site has co-located ancillary equipment such as a Doppler millimeter cloud radar, microwave radiometers, depolarization lidars, ceiliometer, an infrared interferometer and twice-daily radiosondes which are part of the Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric State and Precipitation at Summit (ICECAPS) project and the Arctic Observing Network (AON). The current suite of instruments allows for a near comprehensive picture of the atmospheric state above Summit but increased spatial and temporal resolution of water vapor and temperature are needed to reveal detailed microphysical information. In this presentation, a system description will be provided with an emphasis on the features necessary for autonomous, full diurnal operation, and how the new system will help fill the observation gap within the already existing sensor suite.

  16. Nature Inspired Target Reacquisition Strategies for Autonomous Vehicles in a Search Role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Alec; Vincent, Jonathan

    Previous research by the authors has investigated the application of nature inspired search strategies and particle swarm optimisation to the guidance of autonomous vehicles in search roles. Findings suggest that nature inspired search strategies are beneficial under a wide range of search conditions. However, that research did not consider the potential for reacquisition of lost targets, which is especially of interest where the targets are travelling faster than the searching agents or in environments that allow for some means of visual or other sensory occlusion. This work investigates whether behaviours observed in nature can be applied to scenarios where target detection is lost. Through employing a variety of reacquisition strategies against a range of target movement types it is demonstrated that the overall effectiveness of the system can be improved in a variety of scenarios by incorporating nature inspired reacquisition strategies.

  17. Autonomous observations of the ocean biological carbon pump

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, James K.B.

    2009-03-01

    Prediction of the substantial biologically mediated carbon flows in a rapidly changing and acidifying ocean requires model simulations informed by observations of key carbon cycle processes on the appropriate space and time scales. From 2000 to 2004, the National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP) supported the development of the first low-cost fully-autonomous ocean profiling Carbon Explorers that demonstrated that year-round real-time observations of particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration and sedimentation could be achieved in the world's ocean. NOPP also initiated the development of a sensor for particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) suitable for operational deployment across all oceanographic platforms. As a result, PIC profile characterization that once required shipboard sample collection and shipboard or shore based laboratory analysis, is now possible to full ocean depth in real time using a 0.2W sensor operating at 24 Hz. NOPP developments further spawned US DOE support to develop the Carbon Flux Explorer, a free-vehicle capable of following hourly variations of particulate inorganic and organic carbon sedimentation from near surface to kilometer depths for seasons to years and capable of relaying contemporaneous observations via satellite. We have demonstrated the feasibility of real time - low cost carbon observations which are of fundamental value to carbon prediction and when further developed, will lead to a fully enhanced global carbon observatory capable of real time assessment of the ocean carbon sink, a needed constraint for assessment of carbon management policies on a global scale.

  18. Sewage outfall plume dispersion observations with an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    PubMed

    Ramos, P; Cunha, S R; Neves, M V; Pereira, F L; Quintaneiro, I

    2005-01-01

    This work represents one of the first successful applications of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) for interdisciplinary coastal research. A monitoring mission to study the shape and estimate the initial dilution of the S. Jacinto sewage outfall plume using an AUV was performed on July 2002. An efficient sampling strategy enabling greater improvements in spatial and temporal range of detection demonstrated that the sewage effluent plume can be clearly traced using naturally occurring tracers in the wastewater. The outfall plume was found at the surface highly influenced by the weak stratification and low currents. Dilution varying with distance downstream was estimated from the plume rise over the outfall diffuser until a nearly constant value of 130:1, 60 m from the diffuser, indicating the near field end. Our results demonstrate that AUVs can provide high-quality measurements of physical properties of effluent plumes in a very effective manner and valuable considerations about the initial mixing processes under real oceanic conditions can be further investigated. PMID:16477997

  19. Maintaining Situation Awareness with Autonomous Airborne Observation Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Michael; Fitzgerald, Will

    2005-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) offer tremendous potential as intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) platforms for early detection of security threats and for acquisition and maintenance of situation awareness in crisis conditions. However, using their capabilities effectively requires addressing a range of practical and theoretical problems. The paper will describe progress by the "Autonomous Rotorcraft Project," a collaborative effort between NASA and the U.S. Army to develop a practical, flexible capability for UAV-based ISR. Important facets of the project include optimization methods for allocating scarce aircraft resources to observe numerous, distinct sites of interest; intelligent flight automation software than integrates high-level plan generation capabilities with executive control, failure response and flight control functions; a system architecture supporting reconfiguration of onboard sensors to address different kinds of threats; and an advanced prototype vehicle designed to allow large-scale production at low cost. The paper will also address human interaction issues including an empirical method for determining how to allocate roles and responsibilities between flight automation and human operations.

  20. Cooperative Autonomous Observation of Volcanic Environments with sUAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravela, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Cooperative Autonomous Observing System Project (CAOS) at the MIT Earth Signals and Systems Group has developed methodology and systems for dynamically mapping coherent fluids such as plumes using small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS). In the CAOS approach, two classes of sUAS, one remote the other in-situ, implement a dynamic data-driven mapping system by closing the loop between Modeling, Estimation, Sampling, Planning and Control (MESPAC). The continually gathered measurements are assimilated to produce maps/analyses which also guide the sUAS network to adaptively resample the environment. Rather than scan the volume in fixed Eulerian or Lagrangian flight plans, the adaptive nature of the sampling process enables objectives for efficiency and resilience to be incorporated. Modeling includes realtime prediction using two types of reduced models, one based on nowcasting remote observations of plume tracer using scale-cascaded alignment, and another based on dynamically-deformable EOF/POD developed for coherent structures. Ensemble-based Information-theoretic machine learning approaches are used for the highly non-linear/non-Gaussian state/parameter estimation, and for planning. Control of the sUAS is based on model reference control coupled with hierarchical PID. MESPAC is implemented in part on a SkyCandy platform, and implements an airborne mesh that provides instantaneous situational awareness and redundant communication to an operating fleet. SkyCandy is deployed on Itzamna Aero's I9X/W UAS with low-cost sensors, and is currently being used to study the Popocatepetl volcano. Results suggest that operational communities can deploy low-cost sUAS to systematically monitor whilst optimizing for efficiency/maximizing resilience. The CAOS methodology is applicable to many other environments where coherent structures are present in the background. More information can be found at caos.mit.edu.

  1. Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch at the Goddard Space Flight Center implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm, the onboard flight design and the validation results of this unique system. Results from fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon, its ground-based predecessor used in operations, and the original standalone algorithm. Maneuvers discussed encompass reactionary, routine formation maintenance, and inclination control. Orbital data is also examined to verify that all formation flying requirements were met.

  2. Results Of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin

    2002-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called Enhanced Formation Flying. To enable this technology, a team at the Goddard Space Flight Center implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm, the onboard flight design and the validation results of this unique system. Results from fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(trademark), its ground-based predecessor used in operations, and the original standalone algorithm. Maneuvers discussed encompass reactionary, routine formation maintenance, and inclination control. Orbital data is also examined to verify that all formation flying requirements were met.

  3. Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Hawkins, Albin; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control center at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm and the onboard flight design and presents the validation results of this unique system. Results from functionality assessment through fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(tm), its ground-based predecessor, and a standalone algorithm.

  4. Preliminary Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin

    2001-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission is completing a primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control center at the Goddard Space Flight Center has implemented an autonomous universal three-axis formation flying algorithm in executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm and the onboard design and presents the preliminary validation results of this unique system. Results from functionality assessment and autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(tm), its ground-based predecessor, and a stand-alone algorithm.

  5. An autonomous observation and control system based on EPICS and RTS2 for Antarctic telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian; Tang, Peng-yi; Jia, Ming-hao; Chen, Jie; Dong, Shu-cheng; Jiang, Fengxin; Wu, Wen-qing; Liu, Jia-jing; Zhang, Hong-fei

    2016-01-01

    For unattended telescopes in Antarctic, the remote operation, autonomous observation and control are essential. An EPICS-(Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) and RTS2-(Remote Telescope System, 2nd Version) based autonomous observation and control system with remoted operation is introduced in this paper. EPICS is a set of open source software tools, libraries and applications developed collaboratively and used worldwide to create distributed soft real-time control systems for scientific instruments while RTS2 is an open source environment for control of a fully autonomous observatory. Using the advantage of EPICS and RTS2, respectively, a combined integrated software framework for autonomous observation and control is established that use RTS2 to fulfil the function of astronomical observation and use EPICS to fulfil the device control of telescope. A command and status interface for EPICS and RTS2 is designed to make the EPICS IOC (Input/Output Controller) components integrate to RTS2 directly. For the specification and requirement of control system of telescope in Antarctic, core components named Executor and Auto-focus for autonomous observation is designed and implemented with remote operation user interface based on browser-server mode. The whole system including the telescope is tested in Lijiang Observatory in Yunnan Province for practical observation to complete the autonomous observation and control, including telescope control, camera control, dome control, weather information acquisition with the local and remote operation.

  6. Autonomous space systems control incorporating automated maneuvers strategies in the presence of parameters uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Mazinan, A H; Shakhesi, S

    2016-05-01

    The research attempts to deal with the autonomous space systems incorporating new automated maneuvers strategies in the presence of parameters uncertainties. The main subject behind the investigation is to realize the high-resolution small amplitude orbital maneuvers via the first control strategy. And subsequently to realize the large amplitude orbital maneuvers via the second control strategy, as well. There is a trajectory optimization to provide the three-axis referenced commends for the aforementioned overactuated autonomous space system to be able to transfer from the initial orbit to its final ones, in finite burn, as long as the uncertainties of key parameters of the system such as the thrust vector, the center of the gravity, the moments of the inertia and so on are taken into real consideration. The strategies performances are finally considered through a series of experiments and a number of benchmarks to be tangibly verified. PMID:26895709

  7. Autonomous Learning and Metacognitive Strategies Essentials in ESP Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajideh, Parviz

    2009-01-01

    The reform in teaching and curriculum involves not only in the teaching content, but more so in teachers' methodology, the students' learning strategies and the changed relationship between students and teachers in the classroom setting. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that what is needed for ESP is a different orientation to English study…

  8. Testing Mars Exploration Rover-inspired operational strategies for semi-autonomous rovers on the moon II: The GeoHeuristic operational Strategies Test in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Hynek, B.; Schmidt, M. E.; Schrader, C.; Rodriguez, A.

    2014-06-01

    We used MER-derived semi-autonomous rover science operations strategies to determine best practices suitable for remote semi-autonomous lunar rover geology. Two field teams studied two glacial moraines as analogs for potential ice-bearing lunar regolith. At each site a Rover Team commanded a human rover to execute observations based on common MER sequences; the resulting data were used to identify and characterize targets of interest. A Tiger Team followed the Rover Team using traditional terrestrial field methods, and the results of the two teams were compared. Narrowly defined goals that can be addressed using cm-scale or coarser resolution may be met sufficiently by the operational strategies adapted from MER survey mode. When reconnaissance is the primary goal, the strategies tested are necessary but not sufficient. Further, there may be a set of optimal observations for such narrowly defined, hypothesis-driven science goals, such that collecting further data would result in diminishing returns. We confirm results of previous tests that indicated systematic observations might improve efficiency during strategic planning, and improve science output during data analysis. This strategy does not markedly improve the rate at which a science team can ingest data to feed back into tactical decision-making. Other methods should be tested to separate the strategic and tactical processes, and to build in time for data analysis.

  9. Cooperative Autonomous Observation of Coherent Atmospheric Structures using Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravela, S.

    2014-12-01

    Mapping the structure of localized atmospheric phenomena, from sea breeze and shallow cumuli to thunderstorms and hurricanes, is of scientific interest. Low-cost small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) open the possibility for autonomous "instruments" to map important small-scale phenomena (kilometers, hours) and serve as a testbed for for much larger scales. Localized phenomena viewed as coherent structures interacting with their large-scale environment are difficult to map. As simple simulations show, naive Eulerian or Lagrangian strategies can fail in mapping localized phenomena. Model-based techniques are needed. Meteorological targeting, where supplementary UAS measurements additionally constrain numerical models is promising, but may require many primary measurements to be successful. We propose a new, data-driven, field-operable, cooperative autonomous observing system (CAOS) framework. A remote observer (on a UAS) tracks tracers to identify an apparent motion model over short timescales. Motion-based predictions seed MCMC flight plans for other UAS to gather in-situ data, which is fused with the remote measurements to produce maps. The tracking and mapping cycles repeat, and maps can be assimilated into numerical models for longer term forecasting. CAOS has been applied to study small scale emissions. At Popocatepetl, in collaboration with CENAPRED and IPN, it is being applied map the plume using remote IR/UV UAS and in-situ SO2 sensing, with additional plans for water vapor, the electric field and ash. The combination of sUAS with autonomy appears to be highly promising methodology for environmental mapping. For more information, please visit http://caos.mit.edu

  10. Innovative hazard detection and avoidance strategy for autonomous safe planetary landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiuqiang; Li, Shuang; Tao, Ting

    2016-09-01

    Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) is one of the key technologies for future safe planetary landing missions. In this paper, we address the latest progress on planetary autonomous hazard detection and avoidance technologies. First, the innovative autonomous relay hazard detection and avoidance strategy adopted in Chang'e-3 lunar soft landing mission and its flight results are reported in detail. Second, two new conceptual candidate schemes of hazard detection and avoidance are presented based on the Chang'e-3 AHDA system and the latest developing technologies for the future planetary missions, and some preliminary testing results are also given. Finally, the related supporting technologies for the two candidate schemes above are analyzed.

  11. Biologically Inspired Behavioral Strategies for Autonomous Aerial Explorers on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plice, Laura; Pisanich, Greg; Lau, Benton; Young, Larry A.

    2002-01-01

    The natural world is a rich source of problem- solving approaches. This paper discusses the feasibility and technical challenges underlying mimicking, or analogously adapting, biological behavioral strategies to mission/flight planning for aerial vehicles engaged in planetary exploration. Two candidate concepts based on natural resource utilization and searching behaviors are adapted io technological applications. Prototypes and test missions addressing the difficulties of implementation and their solutions are also described.

  12. Autonomous Investigations of Marginal Ice Zone Processes- Changing Feedbacks and Observational Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Craig; Doble, Martin; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Stanton, Tim; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Thomson, Jim; Wilkinson, Jeremy

    2015-04-01

    The observed reduction of Arctic summertime sea ice extent and expansion of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) have profound impacts on the balance of processes controlling sea ice evolution, including the introduction of several positive feedback mechanisms that may act to accelerate melting. Examples of such feedbacks include increased upper ocean warming though absorption of solar radiation, elevated internal wave energy and mixing that may entrain heat stored in subsurface watermasses (e.g. the relatively warm Pacific Summer (PSW) and Atlantic (AW) waters) and elevated surface wave energy that acts to deform and fracture sea ice, all of which grow in importance with increasing open water extent. Investigations of MIZ dynamics must resolve the short spatial and temporal scales associated with the processes that govern the exchange of momentum, heat and freshwater near the atmosphere-ice-ocean interface while also achieving the spatial scope and temporal persistence required to characterize how the balance of processes shifts as a function of evolving open water fraction and open water fetch to the south. The recent Office of Naval Research (ONR) Marginal Ice Zone program employed an integrated system of autonomous platforms to provide high-resolution measurements that extend from open water, through the MIZ and deep into ice-covered regions while providing persistence to quantify evolution over an entire summertime melt season. This presentation will provide an overview of the strategy developed by the ONR MIZ team and present early results from the 2014 field program.

  13. Autonomous Investigations of Marginal Ice Zone Processes- Changing Feedbacks and Observational Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.

    2014-12-01

    The observed reduction of Arctic summertime sea ice extent and expansion of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) has profound impacts on the balance of processes controlling sea ice evolution, including the introduction of several positive feedback mechanisms that may act to accelerate melting. Examples of such feedbacks include increased upper ocean warming though absorption of solar radiation, elevated internal wave energy and mixing that may entrain heat stored in subsurface watermasses (e.g. the relatively warm Pacific Summer (PSW) and Atlantic (AW) waters) and elevated surface wave energy that acts to deform and fracture sea ice, all of which grow in importance with increasing open water extent. Investigations of MIZ dynamics must resolve the short spatial and temporal scales associated with the processes that govern the exchange of momentum, heat and freshwater near the atmosphere-ice-ocean interface while also achieving the spatial scope and temporal persistence required to characterize how the balance of processes shifts as a function of evolving open water fraction and open water fetch to the south. The recent Office of Naval Research (ONR) Marginal Ice Zone program provides an example of how autonomous platforms can be applied to provide high-resolution measurements that extend from open water, through the MIZ and deep into ice-covered regions while providing persistence to quantify evolution over an entire summertime melt season. This talk will provide an overview of the strategy developed by the ONR MIZ team and highlight early results from the 2014 field program.

  14. An Autonomous, Low Cost Platform for Seafloor Geodetic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericksen, T.; Foster, J. H.; Bingham, B. S.; Oshiro, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific GPS Facility and the Field Robotics Laboratory at the University of Hawaii have developed an approach to significantly reduce the costs of accurately measuring short-term vertical motions of the seafloor and maintaining a continuous long-term record of seafloor pressure. Traditional ship-based methods of acquiring these measurements are often prohibitively expensive. Our goal has been to reduce the primary barrier preventing us from acquiring the observations we need to understand geodetic processes, and the hazards they present, at subduction zones, submarine volcanoes, and subsea landslides. To this end, we have designed a payload package for the University of Hawaii Wave Glider which incorporates an acoustic telemetry package, a dual frequency geodetic-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, meteorological sensors, processing computer, and cellular communications. The Wave Glider is able to interrogate high accuracy pressure sensors on the seafloor to maintain a near-continuous stream of ocean bottom pressure and temperature data. The Wave Glider also functions as an integral part of the seafloor geodetic observing system, recording accurate sea surface elevations and barometric pressure; direct measurements of two of the primary sources of seafloor pressure change. The seafloor geodetic monument seats a sensor capable of recording pressure, temperature, and sound velocity for a deployment duration of over 5 years with an acoustic modem for communications, and an integral acoustic release for recovery and replacement of batteries. The design of the geodetic monument allows for precise repositioning of the sensor to extend the pressure record beyond a single 5+ year deployment, and includes the capability to install a mobile pressure recorder for calibration of the linear drift of the continuous pressure sensor. We will present the results of our field tests and an assessment of our ability to determine cm-scale vertical seafloor motions by

  15. An Autonomous, Low Cost Platform for Seafloor Geodetic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericksen, T.; Foster, J. H.; Bingham, B. S.; Oshiro, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Pacific GPS Facility and the Field Robotics Laboratory at the University of Hawaii have developed an approach to significantly reduce costs below ship based methods of accurately measuring short-term vertical motions of the seafloor and maintaining a continuous long-term record of seafloor pressure. Our goal has been to reduce the primary barrier preventing us from acquiring the observations we need to understand geodetic processes, and the hazards they present, at subduction zones, submarine volcanoes, and subsea landslides. To this end, we have designed a payload package for one of the University of Hawaii Wave Gliders which incorporates an acoustic telemetry package, a dual frequency geodetic-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, meteorological sensors, processing computer, and cellular communications. The Wave Glider will interrogate high accuracy pressure sensors on the seafloor to maintain a near-continuous stream of pressure and temperature data. The seafloor geodetic monument seats a sensor capable of recording pressure, temperature, and sound velocity for a deployment duration of over 5 years with an acoustic modem for communications, and an integral acoustic release for recovery and replacement of batteries. The design of the geodetic monument allows for precise repositioning of the sensor to extend the pressure record beyond a single 5+ year deployment, and includes the capability to install a mobile pressure recorder for calibration of the linear drift of the continuous pressure sensor. We will present the design of the Wave Glider payload and seafloor geodetic monument, as well as a discussion of nearshore and offshore field tests and operational procedures. An assessment of our ability to determine cm-scale vertical seafloor motions will be made by integrating the seafloor pressure measurements recovered during field testing with independent measurements of sea surface pressure and sea surface height made by the sea surface payload.

  16. A Multirobot Path-Planning Strategy for Autonomous Wilderness Search and Rescue.

    PubMed

    Macwan, Ashish; Vilela, Julio; Nejat, Goldie; Benhabib, Beno

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a novel strategy for the on-line planning of optimal motion-paths for a team of autonomous ground robots engaged in wilderness search and rescue (WiSAR). The proposed strategy, which forms part of an overall multirobot coordination (MRC) methodology, addresses the dynamic nature of WiSAR by: 1) planning initial, time-optimal, and piecewise polynomial paths for all robots; 2) implementing and regularly evaluating the optimality of the paths through a set of checks that gauge feasibility of path-completion within the available time; and 3) replanning paths, on-line, whenever deemed necessary. The fundamental principle of maintaining the optimal deployment of the robots throughout the search guides the MRC methodology. The proposed path-planning strategy is illustrated through a simulated realistic WiSAR example, and compared to an alternative, nonprobabilistic approach. PMID:25376050

  17. Strategy application, observability, and the choice combinator.

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, Victor Lono

    2004-03-01

    In many strategic systems, the choice combinator provides a powerful mechanism for controlling the application of rules and strategies to terms. The ability of the choice combinator to exercise control over rewriting is based on the premise that the success and failure of strategy application can be observed. In this paper we present a higher-order strategic framework with the ability to dynamically construct strategies containing the choice combinator. To this framework, a combinator called hide is introduced that prevents the successful application of a strategy from being observed by the choice combinator. We then explore the impact of this new combinator on a real-world problem involving a restricted implementation of the Java Virtual Machine.

  18. Open University and Distance Education Coordination: Strategies Used to Consolidate Distance Education at the National Autonomous University of Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berruecos, Citlalli

    2004-01-01

    This case study describes three main strategies used from March 2002 to November 2003 at the Open University and Distance Education Coordination (CUAED) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) to consolidate distance education at the University. The author explains how, in just 18 months, these three main strategies enabled the UNAM…

  19. Landing strategies in honeybees, and possible applications to autonomous airborne vehicles.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, M V; Zhang, S; Chahl, J S

    2001-04-01

    Insects, being perhaps more reliant on image motion cues than mammals or higher vertebrates, are proving to be an excellent organism in which to investigate how information on optic flow is exploited to guide locomotion and navigation. This paper describes one example, illustrating how bees perform grazing landings on a flat surface. A smooth landing is achieved by a surprisingly simple and elegant strategy: image velocity is held constant as the surface is approached, thus automatically ensuring that flight speed is close to zero at touchdown. No explicit knowledge of flight speed or height above the ground is necessary. The feasibility of this landing strategy is tested by implementation in a robotic gantry, and its applicability to autonomous airborne vehicles is discussed. PMID:11341587

  20. VLBI2010: Networks and Observing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill; Corey, Brian; Himwich, Ed; Ma, Chopo; Malkin, Zinovy; Niell, Arthur; Shaffer, David; Vandenberg, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The Observing Strategies Sub-group of IVS's Working Group 3 has been tasked with producing a vision for the following aspects of geodetic VLBI: antenna-network structure and observing strategies; source strength/structure/distribution; frequency bands, RFI; and field system and scheduling. These are high level considerations that have far reaching impact since they significantly influence performance potential and also constrain requirements for a number of other \\VG3 sub-groups. The paper will present the status of the sub-group's work on these topics.

  1. The Questioning Strategies Observation System (QSOS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Kevin R.; Davis, O. L., Jr.

    The Questioning Strategies Observation System (QSOS) is designed to record verbal behaviors occurring in the classroom which are associated with the teacher's use of questions. Twenty-four categories are used in three main sections: initiation of the question, response to the question, and reaction to the response. Under initiation, the categories…

  2. NASA's Autonomous Formation Flying Technology Demonstration, Earth Observing-1(EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Bristow, John; Hawkins, Albin; Dell, Greg

    2002-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission, the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft, recently completed its principal goal of demonstrating advanced formation control technology. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of an onboard system that was developed originally as a ground mission planning and operations tool. We discuss the Goddard Space Flight Center s formation flying algorithm, the onboard flight design and its implementation, the interface and functionality of the onboard system, and the implementation of a Kalman filter based GPS data smoother. A number of safeguards that allow the incremental phasing in of autonomy and alleviate the potential for mission-impacting anomalies from the on- board autonomous system are discussed. A comparison of the maneuvers planned onboard using the EO-1 autonomous control system to those from the operational ground-based maneuver planning system is presented to quantify our success. The maneuvers discussed encompass reactionary and routine formation maintenance. Definitive orbital data is presented that verifies all formation flying requirements.

  3. An integrated design and fabrication strategy for entirely soft, autonomous robots.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Michael; Truby, Ryan L; Fitzgerald, Daniel J; Mosadegh, Bobak; Whitesides, George M; Lewis, Jennifer A; Wood, Robert J

    2016-08-25

    Soft robots possess many attributes that are difficult, if not impossible, to achieve with conventional robots composed of rigid materials. Yet, despite recent advances, soft robots must still be tethered to hard robotic control systems and power sources. New strategies for creating completely soft robots, including soft analogues of these crucial components, are needed to realize their full potential. Here we report the untethered operation of a robot composed solely of soft materials. The robot is controlled with microfluidic logic that autonomously regulates fluid flow and, hence, catalytic decomposition of an on-board monopropellant fuel supply. Gas generated from the fuel decomposition inflates fluidic networks downstream of the reaction sites, resulting in actuation. The body and microfluidic logic of the robot are fabricated using moulding and soft lithography, respectively, and the pneumatic actuator networks, on-board fuel reservoirs and catalytic reaction chambers needed for movement are patterned within the body via a multi-material, embedded 3D printing technique. The fluidic and elastomeric architectures required for function span several orders of magnitude from the microscale to the macroscale. Our integrated design and rapid fabrication approach enables the programmable assembly of multiple materials within this architecture, laying the foundation for completely soft, autonomous robots. PMID:27558065

  4. Earth Observations: Experiences from Various Communication Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilja Bye, Bente

    2015-04-01

    With Earth observations and the Group of Earth Observations as the common thread, a variety of communication strategies have been applied showcasing the use of Earth observations in geosciences such as climate change, natural hazards, hydrology and more. Based on the experiences from these communication strategies, using communication channels ranging from popular articles in established media, video production, event-based material and social media, lessons have been learned both with respect to the need of capacity, skills, networks, and resources. In general it is not difficult to mobilize geoscientists willing to spend some time on outreach activities. Time for preparing and training is however scarce among scientists. In addition, resources to cover the various aspects of professional science outreach is far from abundant. Among the challenges is the connection between the scientific networks and media channels. Social media competence and capacity are also issues that needs to be addressed more explicitly and efficiently. An overview of the experiences from several types of outreach activities will be given along with some input on possible steps towards improved communication strategies. Steady development of science communication strategies continuously integrating trainging of scientists in use of new outreach tools such as web technology and social innovations for more efficient use of limited resources will remain an issue for the scientific community.

  5. Earth observation Water Cycle Multi-Mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Z.; Dorigo, W.; Fernández-Prieto, D.; van Helvoirt, M.; Hungershoefer, K.; de Jeu, R.; Parinussa, R.; Timmermans, J.; Roebeling, R.; Schröder, M.; Schulz, J.; van der Tol, C.; Stammes, P.; Wagner, W.; Wang, L.; Wang, P.; Wolters, E.

    2010-10-01

    Observing and monitoring the different components of the global water cycle and their dynamics are essential steps to understand the climate of the Earth, forecast the weather, predict natural disasters like floods and droughts, and improve water resources management. Earth observation technology is a unique tool to provide a global understanding of many of the essential variables governing the water cycle and monitor their evolution over time from global to basin scales. In the coming years an increasing number of Earth observation missions will provide an unprecedented capacity to quantify several of these variables on a routine basis. In this context, the European Space Agency (ESA), in collaboration with the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP), launched the Water Cycle Multi-Mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) project in 2009. The project aims at developing and validating a novel set of geo-information products relevant to the water cycle covering the following thematic areas: evapotranspiration, soil moisture, cloud characterization and water vapour. The generation of these products is based on a number of innovative techniques and methods aiming at exploiting the synergies of different types of Earth observation data available today to the science community. This paper provides an overview of the major findings of the project with the ultimate goal of demonstrating the potential of innovative multi-mission based strategies to improve current observations by maximizing the synergistic use of the different types of information provided by the currently available observation systems.

  6. Autonomous, high-resolution observations of particle flux in the oligotrophic ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estapa, M. L.; Buesseler, K.; Boss, E.; Gerbi, G.

    2013-08-01

    Observational gaps limit our understanding of particle flux attenuation through the upper mesopelagic because available measurements (sediment traps and radiochemical tracers) have limited temporal resolution, are labor-intensive, and require ship support. Here, we conceptually evaluate an autonomous, optical proxy-based method for high-resolution observations of particle flux. We present four continuous records of particle flux collected with autonomous profiling floats in the western Sargasso Sea and the subtropical North Pacific, as well as one shorter record of depth-resolved particle flux near the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) and Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) sites. These observations illustrate strong variability in particle flux over very short (~1-day) timescales, but at longer timescales they reflect patterns of variability previously recorded during sediment trap time series. While particle flux attenuation at BATS/OFP agreed with the canonical power-law model when observations were averaged over a month, flux attenuation was highly variable on timescales of 1-3 days. Particle fluxes at different depths were decoupled from one another and from particle concentrations and chlorophyll fluorescence in the immediately overlying surface water, consistent with horizontal advection of settling particles. We finally present an approach for calibrating this optical proxy in units of carbon flux, discuss in detail the related, inherent physical and optical assumptions, and look forward toward the requirements for the quantitative application of this method in highly time-resolved studies of particle export and flux attenuation.

  7. Autonomous, high-resolution observations of particle flux in the oligotrophic ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estapa, M. L.; Buesseler, K.; Boss, E.; Gerbi, G.

    2013-01-01

    Observational gaps limit our understanding of particle flux attenuation through the upper mesopelagic because available measurements (sediment traps and radiochemical tracers) have limited temporal resolution, are labor-intensive, and require ship support. Here, we conceptually evaluate an autonomous, optical proxy-based method for high-resolution observations of particle flux. We present four continuous records of particle flux collected with autonomous, profiling floats in the western Sargasso Sea and the subtropical North Pacific, as well as one shorter record of depth-resolved particle flux near the Bermuda Atlantic Timeseries Study (BATS) and Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) sites. These observations illustrate strong variability in particle flux over very short (~1 day) timescales, but at longer timescales they reflect patterns of variability previously recorded during sediment trap timeseries. While particle flux attenuation at BATS/OFP agreed with the canonical power-law model when observations were averaged over a month, flux attenuation was highly variable on timescales of 1-3 days. Particle fluxes at different depths were decoupled from one another and from particle concentrations and chlorophyll fluorescence in the immediately-overlying surface water, consistent with horizontal advection of settling particles. We finally present an approach for calibrating this optical proxy in units of carbon flux, discuss in detail the related, inherent physical and optical assumptions, and look forward toward the requirements for the quantitative application of this method in highly time-resolved studies of particle export and flux attenuation.

  8. ACIS Thermal Control and Observing Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams-Wolk, Nancy; Plucinsky, P. P.; Alcroft, T. L.; Germain, G.

    2011-09-01

    Nearing its 13th observing cycle, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory continues to deliver excellent science to the High Energy community. The orbit of Chandra, and thermal conditions of the spacecraft and instruments have changed over time which has necessitated changes in observing strategies; particularly for the ACIS instrument. This poster focuses on expected changes to be implemented in Cycle 13 for observing with the ACIS instrument. We will focus on the thermal issues with ACIS, including warming of the PSMC, DEA, and Focal Plane. We discuss the causes of the warming of these components of ACIS based on past data, and how this warming can affect observations. Trending studies have strongly suggested changes to the future observing strategies for ACIS. We discuss these changes which include reducing the number of CCDs powered on for temperature sensitive observations, implementing an ACIS FP temperature model to predict temperatures, and the use of optional CCDs to reduce the number of CCDs during the planning of a particular week.

  9. ACIS Thermal Control and Observing Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams-Wolk, Nancy; Aldcroft, T.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Germain, G.

    2011-05-01

    Nearing its 13th observing cycle, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory continues to deliver excellent science to the High Energy community. The orbit of Chandra, and thermal conditions of the spacecraft and instruments have changed over time which has necessitated changes in observing strategies; particularly for the ACIS instrument. This poster focuses on expected changes to be implemented in Cycle 13 for observing with the ACIS instrument. We will focus on the thermal issues with ACIS, including warming of the PSMC, DEA, and Focal Plane. We discuss the causes of the warming of these components of ACIS based on past data, and how this warming can affect observations. Trending studies have strongly suggested changes to the future observing strategies for ACIS. We discuss these changes which include reducing the number of CCDs powered on for temperature sensitive observations, implementing an ACIS FP temperature model to predict temperatures based on spacecraft pitch and pointing, and the use of optional CCDs to reduce the number of CCDs during the planning of a particular week.

  10. CEOS Strategy for Carbon Observations from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickland, Diane; Gobron, Nadine; Moore, Berrien; Nakajima, Masakatsu; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Plummer, Stephen; Schmullius, Christiane; Dubayah, Ralph

    The carbon cycle is central to the Earth system, and changes in the atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are primary drivers of global climate change. In order to respond to climate change, there are many things we need to measure and understand about carbon and its cycling through the land, oceans and inland waters, and atmosphere. Measurements of CO2 and CH4 in the atmosphere are needed to quantify changes in emissions and greenhouse forcings. Measurements of carbon stocks on the land and in the oceans and inland waters are needed to quantify carbon storage (i.e., sequestration) and monitor climate mitigation and carbon management effects. Observations of key carbon cycling processes are needed to explain how changes are occurring and to identify the causes and consequences. A complete, integrated understanding of the changing carbon cycle and the effects of attempts to manage carbon in the environment requires an observational system that addresses all components of the carbon cycle and is optimized to integrate the information obtained. In April 2014 the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) released the CEOS Strategy for Carbon Observations from Space. This report responds to the needs expressed in the 2010 Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Carbon Strategy and the ambitions therein for the realization of an Integrated Global Carbon Observing System. In this report, CEOS identifies what can be achieved by better coordination of existing and future capabilities as well as those improvements that require additional resources and/or mandates beyond the present capacity of space agencies. It will be used primarily by CEOS and its member agencies to guide future actions and to provide the basis for systematic monitoring and reporting of progress towards satisfying science’s and society’s carbon information needs. This paper will provide an overview of the CEOS Strategy for Carbon Observations from Space, including the

  11. Stability analysis of autonomous space systems in the presence of large disturbances: A Lyapunov-based constrained control strategy.

    PubMed

    Mazinan, A H

    2016-03-01

    The research addresses a Lyapunov-based constrained control strategy to deal with the autonomous space system in the presence of large disturbances. The aforementioned autonomous space system under control is first represented through a dynamics model and subsequently the proposed control strategy is fully investigated with a focus on the three-axis detumbling and the corresponding pointing mode control approaches. The three-axis detumbling mode control approach is designed to deal with the unwanted angular rates of the system to be zero, while the saturations of the actuators are taken into consideration. Moreover, the three-axis pointing mode control approach is designed in the similar state to deal with the rotational angles of the system to be desirable. The contribution of the research is mathematically made to propose a control law in connection with a new candidate of Lyapunov function to deal with the rotational angles and the related angular rates of the present autonomous space system with respect to state-of-the-art. A series of experiments are carried out to consider the efficiency of the proposed control strategy, as long as a number of benchmarks are realized in the same condition to verify and guarantee the strategy performance in both modes of control approaches. PMID:26850751

  12. Observations of the frontal region of a buoyant river plume using an autonomous underwater vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowski, Peter; Terrill, Eric; Chen, Jialin

    2014-11-01

    To characterize the transitional region from the near-field to far-field of a river plume entering coastal waters, we conducted four surveys using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) to target the outflow of the New River Inlet, North Carolina, during maximum ebb tide. The utilization of a mobile sensor to synoptically observe current velocity data in tandem with natural river plume tracers (e.g., colored dissolved organic matter, salinity) was essential in understanding the mechanisms driving the observed circulation and mixing patterns within these waters. We find that this region is regularly impacted by two primary processes: (1) the interaction of an old dredged channel plume with the main discharge and (2) the recirculation of the discharge plume by an eddy that persistently forms between the old channel and main discharge location. Wind-driven processes in the nearshore can enhance the interaction of these two plumes resulting in unstable regions where mixing of the merged plume with the receiving waters is accelerated. We also conduct comparisons between AUV velocity observations from two surveys and their corresponding velocity outputs from a parallelized quasi-3-D model. We conclude that the ability to observe the estuarine outflow transitional region at near-synoptic temporal scales and resolutions discussed in this paper is key in providing the mechanisms driving local circulation which is essential for proper parameterization of high-resolution numerical coastal models.

  13. Autonomous telemetry system by using mobile networks for a long-term seismic observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirahara, S.; Uchida, N.; Nakajima, J.

    2012-04-01

    When a large earthquake occurs, it is important to know the detailed distribution of aftershocks immediately after the main shock for the estimation of the fault plane. The large amount of seismic data is also required to determine the three-dimensional seismic velocity structure around the focal area. We have developed an autonomous telemetry system using mobile networks, which is specialized for aftershock observations. Because the newly developed system enables a quick installation and real-time data transmission by using mobile networks, we can construct a dense online seismic network even in mountain areas where conventional wired networks are not available. This system is equipped with solar panels that charge lead-acid battery, and enables a long-term seismic observation without maintenance. Furthermore, this system enables a continuous observation at low costs with flat-rate or prepaid Internet access. We have tried to expand coverage areas of mobile communication and back up Internet access by configuring plural mobile carriers. A micro server embedded with Linux consists of automatic control programs of the Internet connection and data transmission. A status monitoring and remote maintenance are available via the Internet. In case of a communication failure, an internal storage can back up data for two years. The power consumption of communication device ranges from 2.5 to 4.0 W. With a 50 Ah lead-acid battery, this system continues to record data for four days if the battery charging by solar panels is temporarily unavailable.

  14. Linking glacially modified waters to catchment-scale subglacial discharge using autonomous underwater vehicle observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Laura A.; Straneo, Fiamma; Das, Sarah B.; Plueddemann, Albert J.; Kukulya, Amy L.; Morlighem, Mathieu

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of near-ice (< 200 m) hydrography and near-terminus subglacial hydrology are lacking, due in large part to the difficulty in working at the margin of calving glaciers. Here we pair detailed hydrographic and bathymetric measurements collected with an autonomous underwater vehicle as close as 150 m from the ice-ocean interface of the Saqqarliup sermia-Sarqardleq Fjord system, West Greenland, with modeled and observed subglacial discharge locations and magnitudes. We find evidence of two main types of subsurface glacially modified water (GMW) with distinct properties and locations. The two GMW locations also align with modeled runoff discharged at separate locations along the grounded margin corresponding with two prominent subcatchments beneath Saqqarliup sermia. Thus, near-ice observations and subglacial discharge routing indicate that runoff from this glacier occurs primarily at two discrete locations and gives rise to two distinct glacially modified waters. Furthermore, we show that the location with the largest subglacial discharge is associated with the lighter, fresher glacially modified water mass. This is qualitatively consistent with results from an idealized plume model.

  15. Simultaneous observations of aerosols, clouds, and radiometric fluxes using light-weight autonomous UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G.; Ramanathan, V.; Corrigan, C.; Ramana, M.; Nguyen, H.

    2006-12-01

    The Maldives Air Campaign (MAC) demonstrated a novel application of stacked autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (AUAVs) for atmospheric science research; see abstract by Ramanathan et al. in this session. Simultaneous observations from three AUAVs of aerosols, clouds and radiometric fluxes provide insight into aerosol-cloud interactions and subsequent effects on cloud radiative properties. Ground-based measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) also quantify the cloud-nucleating ability of the boundary layer aerosols. During the experiment, long-range transport of aerosols from the Arabian Peninsula and India was observed and its impact of cloud physical and radiometric properties has been detected. To accomplish this campaign, aerosol, cloud, radiometric instruments, and an integrated data acquisition system have been miniaturized with a total payload weight and power less than 5 kg and 50 W, respectively. The AUAV payloads are mission-specific and outfitted to perform a defined set of measurements depending on the scientific goals. These measurements include aerosol concentration, aerosol size distribution, aerosol absorption, cloud drop concentration and size distribution, solar radiation fluxes (visible and broadband), atmospheric turbulence, temperature, pressure, and relative humidity. The data collected during the MAC campaign has been validated using standard calibration routines in conjunction with comparisons to ground- based instruments in both laboratory and in situ (in aircraft) settings. All instruments have been thoroughly tested and calibrated prior to deployment.

  16. Towards autonomic computing in machine vision applications: techniques and strategies for in-line 3D reconstruction in harsh industrial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molleda, Julio; Usamentiaga, Rubén; García, Daniel F.; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2011-03-01

    Nowadays machine vision applications require skilled users to configure, tune, and maintain. Because such users are scarce, the robustness and reliability of applications are usually significantly affected. Autonomic computing offers a set of principles such as self-monitoring, self-regulation, and self-repair which can be used to partially overcome those problems. Systems which include self-monitoring observe their internal states, and extract features about them. Systems with self-regulation are capable of regulating their internal parameters to provide the best quality of service depending on the operational conditions and environment. Finally, self-repairing systems are able to detect anomalous working behavior and to provide strategies to deal with such conditions. Machine vision applications are the perfect field to apply autonomic computing techniques. This type of application has strong constraints on reliability and robustness, especially when working in industrial environments, and must provide accurate results even under changing conditions such as luminance, or noise. In order to exploit the autonomic approach of a machine vision application, we believe the architecture of the system must be designed using a set of orthogonal modules. In this paper, we describe how autonomic computing techniques can be applied to machine vision systems, using as an example a real application: 3D reconstruction in harsh industrial environments based on laser range finding. The application is based on modules with different responsibilities at three layers: image acquisition and processing (low level), monitoring (middle level) and supervision (high level). High level modules supervise the execution of low-level modules. Based on the information gathered by mid-level modules, they regulate low-level modules in order to optimize the global quality of service, and tune the module parameters based on operational conditions and on the environment. Regulation actions involve

  17. Observations of the snow cover in the southern part of the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefedeva, Y. A.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of the snow cover, as a function of various natural factors, in sectors of the southern part of the Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic were examined. The thawing process is also discussed.

  18. Real-Time Observations of Optical Properties of Arctic Sea Ice with an Autonomous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Gerland, S.; Nicolaus, M.; Granskog, M. A.; Hudson, S. R.; Perovich, D. K.; Karlsen, T. I.; Fossan, K.

    2012-12-01

    The recent drastic changes in the Arctic sea ice cover have altered the interaction of solar radiation and sea ice. To improve our understanding of this interaction, a Spectral Radiation Buoy (SRB) for measuring sea ice optical properties was developed, based on a system used during the last International Polar Year at the drift of "Tara" across the Arctic Ocean. A first version of the SRB was deployed on drifting ice in the high Arctic in April 2012. It includes three Satlantic spectral radiometers (two in air, one under ice), covering the wavelength range from 347 nm to 804 nm with 3.3 nm spectral resolution, a bio-shutter to protect the under-ice radiometer, a data logger to handle and store collected data, and an Iridium satellite modem to transfer data in real-time. The under-ice radiometer is mounted on an adjustable under-ice arm, and the other instruments are mounted on a triangular frame frozen into the ice. The SRB measures simultaneously, autonomously and continuously the spectral fluxes of incident and reflected solar radiation, as well as under-ice irradiance, water temperature and water pressure every hour. So far, between mid April and early August 2012, the system has drifted about 600 km, from the starting position near the North Pole towards the Fram Strait. The data collected during this deployment, so far, already demonstrate that this system is suitable for autonomous and long-term observations over and under sea ice in harsh conditions. Along with the SRB, commercially available Ice Mass Balance buoys (IMB) were deployed on the same ice floe. In the vicinity of the site, manned baseline measurements of snow and sea ice physical properties have been carried out during the SRB deployment. The combined datasets allow description of the evolution of the ice floe during seasonal melt. With snow melt, the spectral surface albedo decreased and the transmittance through the snow and ice increased after mid-April, especially when melt ponds started to

  19. Subsurface observations of white shark Carcharodon carcharias predatory behaviour using an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    PubMed

    Skomal, G B; Hoyos-Padilla, E M; Kukulya, A; Stokey, R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) was used to test this technology as a viable tool for directly observing the behaviour of marine animals and to investigate the behaviour, habitat use and feeding ecology of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias near Guadalupe Island off the coast of Mexico. During the period 31 October to 7 November 2013, six AUV missions were conducted to track one male and three female C. carcharias, ranging in estimated total length (LT ) from 3·9 to 5·7 m, off the north-east coast of Guadalupe Island. In doing so, the AUV generated over 13 h of behavioural data for C. carcharias at depths down to 90 m. The sharks remained in the area for the duration of each mission and moved through broad depth and temperature ranges from the surface to 163·8 m depth (mean ± S.D. = 112·5 ± 40·3 m) and 7·9-27·1° C (mean ± S.D. = 12·7 ± 2·9° C), respectively. Video footage and AUV sensor data revealed that two of the C. carcharias being tracked and eight other C. carcharias in the area approached (n = 17), bumped (n = 4) and bit (n = 9) the AUV during these tracks. This study demonstrated that an AUV can be used to effectively track and observe the behaviour of a large pelagic animal, C. carcharias. In doing so, the first observations of subsurface predatory behaviour were generated for this species. At its current state of development, this technology clearly offers a new and innovative tool for tracking the fine-scale behaviour of marine animals. PMID:26709209

  20. Autonomous ocean observations beneath Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrieux, P.; Jenkins, A.; Jacobs, S.; Heywood, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Warm circumpolar deep water reaching 3.5ºC above the in situ freezing point pervasively fills a network of glacially carved troughs in the Amundsen sea, West Antarctica, and melts and thins neighbouring ice shelves, including Pine Island glacier Ice Shelf (PIIS). Hydrographic, current, and microstructure observations obtained in austral summer 2009 and 2014 by an autonomous underwater vehicle beneath the PIIS are used here to detail the complex ice-ocean interaction and resulting ocean circulation. The theoretical schematic of deeply incoming warm and saline water melting the grounding line and generating a buoyant plume upwelling along the ice draft is generally consistent with observations. The cavity beneath PIIS is clearly divided in two by a seabed ridge, constraining the oceanic circulation and water masses distribution. On the seaward side of the ridge, a thick warm deep water layer circulates cyclonically and is overlaid by a thin meltwater layer. Only intermediate depth waters are allowed to overflow from the ridge top into the inner cavity, where a much thinner warm water layer is now overlaid by a thicker meltwater layer. At the ice/ocean interface, melt induced freshening is forcing an upwelling which in turn injects cyclonic vorticity and participates in creating a vigorous cyclonic recirculation in the inner cavity. The top of the ridge, where warm waters overflow in the inner cavity, is a dynamical boundary characterized by northward along-ridge currents up to 0.2 m/s and enhanced shear, thermal gradient, and mixing. Observations at two points at the ice interface indicate that the ocean remains stratified within 2 meters of the ice.

  1. Orbital Debris Detection and Tracking Strategies for the NASA/AFRL Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulrooney, M.; Hickson, P.; Stansbery, Eugene G.

    2010-01-01

    MCAT (Meter-Class Autonomous Telescope) is a 1.3m f/4 Ritchey-Chr tien on a double horseshoe equatorial mount that will be deployed in early 2011 to the western pacific island of Legan in the Kwajalein Atoll to perform orbital debris observations. MCAT will be capable of tracking earth orbital objects at all inclinations and at altitudes from 200 km to geosynchronous. MCAT s primary objective is the detection of new orbital debris in both low-inclination low-earth orbits (LEO) and at geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). MCAT was thus designed with a fast focal ratio and a large unvignetted image circle able to accommodate a detector sized to yield a large field of view. The selected primary detector is a close-cycle cooled 4Kx4K 15um pixel CCD camera that yields a 0.9 degree diagonal field. For orbital debris detection in widely spaced angular rate regimes, the camera must offer low read-noise performance over a wide range of framing rates. MCAT s 4-port camera operates from 100 kHz to 1.5 MHz per port at 2 e- and 10 e- read noise respectively. This enables low-noise multi-second exposures for GEO observations as well as rapid (several frames per second) exposures for LEO. GEO observations will be performed using a counter-sidereal time delay integration (TDI) technique which NASA has used successfully in the past. For MCAT the GEO survey, detection, and follow-up prediction algorithms will be automated. These algorithms will be detailed herein. For LEO observations two methods will be employed. The first, Orbit Survey Mode (OSM), will scan specific orbital inclination and altitude regimes, detect new orbital debris objects against trailed background stars, and adjust the telescope track to follow the detected object. The second, Stare and Chase Mode (SCM), will perform a stare, then detect and track objects that enter the field of view which satisfy specific rate and brightness criteria. As with GEO, the LEO operational modes will be fully automated and will be

  2. Self-emergence of Lexicon Consensus in a Population of Autonomous Agents by Means of Evolutionary Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravall, Darío; de Lope, Javier; Domínguez, Raúl

    In Multi-agent systems, the study of language and communication is an active field of research. In this paper we present the application of evolutionary strategies to the self-emergence of a common lexicon in a population of agents. By modeling the vocabulary or lexicon of each agent as an association matrix or look-up table that maps the meanings (i.e. the objects encountered by the agents or the states of the environment itself) into symbols or signals we check whether it is possible for the population to converge in an autonomous, decentralized way to a common lexicon, so that the communication efficiency of the entire population is optimal. We have conducted several experiments, from the simplest case of a 2×2 association matrix (i.e. two meanings and two symbols) to a 3×3 lexicon case and in both cases we have attained convergence to the optimal communication system by means of evolutionary strategies. To analyze the convergence of the population of agents we have defined the population's consensus when all the agents (i.e. the 100% of the population) share the same association matrix or lexicon. As a general conclusion we have shown that evolutionary strategies are powerful enough optimizers to guarantee the convergence to lexicon consensus in a population of autonomous agents.

  3. Mission concept for the remote sensing of the cryosphere using autonomous aerial observation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Roland W.; Hilliard, Larry

    2004-12-01

    Improving the understanding of the Cryosphere and its impact on global hydrology is an important element of NASA"s Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). A Cold Land Processes Working Group (CLPWG) was formed by the NASA Terrestrial Hydrology Program to identify important science objectives necessary to address ESE priorities. These measurement objectives included Snow Water Equivalent (SWE), snow wetness, and freeze/thaw status of underlying soil. The spatial resolution requirement identified by the CLPWG was 100 m to 5000 m. Microwave sensors are well suited to measure these and other properties of interests to the study of the terrestrial cryosphere. It is well known that the EM properties of snow and soil at microwave frequencies are a strong function of the phase of water, i.e. ice/water. Further, both active and passive microwave sensors have demonstrated sensitivity to important properties of snowpack including, depth, density, wetness, crystal size, ice crust layer structure, and surface roughness. These sensors are also sensitive to the underlying soil state (frozen or thawed). Multiple microwave measurements including both active and passive sensors will likely be required to invert the effects of various snowpack characteristics, vegetation, and underlying soil properties to provide the desired characterization of the surface and meet the science needs required by the ESE. A major technology driver with respect to fully meeting these measurement needs is the 100 to 5000 m spatial resolution requirement. Meeting the threshold requirement of 5000 m at microwave frequencies from Low Earth Orbit is a technology challenge. The emerging capabilities of unmanned aircraft and particularly the system perspective of the Autonomous Aerial Observation Systems (AAOS) may provide high-fidelity/high-resolution measurements on regional scales or larger that could greatly improve our measurement capability. This paper explores a vehicle/sensor concept that could augment

  4. A comprehensive data qa/qc strategy for data from autonomous point sensors: design, implementation and examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteeg, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    There is an exponential increase in the use of autonomous point sensors (sensors which collect and transmit data without any human intervention) across all of geosciences. Point sensors include both physical and chemical sensors. Such data is typically stored in relational databases, from which data is subsequently polled for a range of different purposes. One of the fundamental challenges for end users is to assess the confidence in specific measurements. Historically (when sensor owners, sensor installers, data managers and data users were associated with one research group or institution) there might have been an intuitive (if poorly quantifiable) feel for such confidence. However, in the current environment these roles are often filled by people who are geographically separated and in different organizations. In addition, while historically such data was subject to semi manual review, this is becoming less and less practical. Finally, there is more and more a desire to use data in near real time. Consequently, challenges exist on how to automate all aspects of data qa/qc and validation for autonomous sensors. Data validation can result either in a confidence range and/or a Boolean indicator (good/bad data). We have developed and implemented a comprehensive, multi level data validation strategy. This strategy progresses from analysis of the most recent data received from a sensor (typically one to hundreds of measurements) to an analysis of the recent data in the context of the historic data received from the sensor, to an analysis of data received by other sensors (which compares trends and patterns), to a simple model based analysis. The outcome of this analysis (which is performed as soon as new data arrives) results in a quality indicator which is made available to the user with the data. In this talk I will provide examples of this approach for a number of currently operating monitoring networks as well as a discussion on how to easily implement this

  5. A Behavior-Based Strategy for Single and Multi-Robot Autonomous Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda, Jesus S.; Chaimowicz, Luiz; Soto, Rogelio; Gordillo, José L.; Alanís-Reyes, Edén A.; Carrillo-Arce, Luis C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of autonomous exploration of unknown environments with single and multiple robots. This is a challenging task, with several potential applications. We propose a simple yet effective approach that combines a behavior-based navigation with an efficient data structure to store previously visited regions. This allows robots to safely navigate, disperse and efficiently explore the environment. A series of experiments performed using a realistic robotic simulator and a real testbed scenario demonstrate that our technique effectively distributes the robots over the environment and allows them to quickly accomplish their mission in large open spaces, narrow cluttered environments, dead-end corridors, as well as rooms with minimum exits.

  6. Strategies for Promoting Autonomous Reading Motivation: A Multiple Case Study Research in Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Naeghel, Jessie; Van Keer, Hilde; Vanderlinde, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    It is important to reveal strategies which foster students' reading motivation in order to break through the declining trend in reading motivation throughout children's educational careers. Consequently, the present study advances an underexposed field in reading motivation research by studying and identifying the strategies of teachers excellent…

  7. Simulation of autonomous observing with a ground-based telescope: the LSST experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Stephen; Cook, Kem; Miller, Michelle; Petry, Catherine; Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Saha, Abhijit; Allsman, Robyn; Axelrod, Timothy; Claver, Charles; Delgado, Francisco; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, R. Lynne; Krughoff, Simon; Pierfederici, Francesco; Pinto, Phillip

    2010-07-01

    A survey program with multiple science goals will be driven by multiple technical requirements. On a ground-based telescope, the variability of conditions introduces yet greater complexity. For a program that must be largely autonomous with minimal dwell time for efficiency it may be quite difficult to foresee the achievable performance. Furthermore, scheduling will likely involve self-referential constraints and appropriate optimization tools may not be available. The LSST project faces these issues, and has designed and implemented an approach to performance analysis in its Operations Simulator and associated post-processing packages. The Simulator has allowed the project to present detailed performance predictions with a strong basis from the engineering design and measured site conditions. At present, the Simulator is in regular use for engineering studies and science evaluation, and planning is underway for evolution to an operations scheduling tool. We will describe the LSST experience, emphasizing the objectives, the accomplishments and the lessons learned.

  8. Autonomous navigation accuracy using simulated horizon sensor and sun sensor observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, G. E.; Hendrickson, H. T.

    1980-01-01

    A relatively simple autonomous system which would use horizon crossing indicators, a sun sensor, a quartz oscillator, and a microprogrammed computer is discussed. The sensor combination is required only to effectively measure the angle between the centers of the Earth and the Sun. Simulations for a particular orbit indicate that 2 km r.m.s. orbit determination uncertainties may be expected from a system with 0.06 deg measurement uncertainty. A key finding is that knowledge of the satellite orbit plane orientation can be maintained to this level because of the annual motion of the Sun and the predictable effects of Earth oblateness. The basic system described can be updated periodically by transits of the Moon through the IR horizon crossing indicator fields of view.

  9. New technical observation strategies with e-control (new name: e-RemoteCtrl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neidhardt, A.; Ettl, M.; Rottmann, H.; Plötz, C.; Mühlbauer, M.; Hase, H.; Alef, W.; Sobarzo, S.; Herrera, C.; Beaudoin, C.; Himwich, E.

    2011-07-01

    New remote control technologies for VLBI observations offers the possibilities of remote observations. This means that an operator has not to be on location of the telescope all the time (remote observation). This also allows to control more than one telescope by one operator(shared observation). At Wettzell also completely unattended observations have been done especially for the weekend sessions for over 2 years now. The development goal is to simplify operational workflows in combination with general control structures. These new observation control strategies are not limited to VLBI. They can also be applied to other geodetic space techniques such as SLR which are necessary to realize the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). The demand for continuous and reliable observations requires to ease inconvenient night and weekend shifts. Remote controlled and autonomous observations will become more important in the future. The state-of-the-art software for control and monitoring is publicly available for testing and further developments. The most recent release integrates several new and comfortable features to support the daily work of an operator.

  10. Autonomic dysreflexia

    PubMed Central

    Milligan, James; Lee, Joseph; McMillan, Colleen; Klassen, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To raise family physicians’ awareness of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to provide some suggestions for intervention. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched from 1970 to July 2011 using the terms autonomic dysreflexia and spinal cord injury with family medicine or primary care. Other relevant guidelines and resources were reviewed and used. Main message Family physicians often lack confidence in treating patients with SCI, see them as complex and time-consuming, and feel undertrained to meet their needs. Family physicians provide a vital component of the health care of such patients, and understanding of the unique medical conditions related to SCI is important. Autonomic dysreflexia is an important, common, and potentially serious condition with which many family physicians are unfamiliar. This article will review the signs and symptoms of AD and offer some acute management options and preventive strategies for family physicians. Conclusion Family physicians should be aware of which patients with SCI are susceptible to AD and monitor those affected by it. Outlined is an approach to acute management. Family physicians play a pivotal role in prevention of AD through education (of the patient and other health care providers) and incorporation of strategies such as appropriate bladder, bowel, and skin care practices and warnings and management plans in the medical chart. PMID:22893332

  11. Approaching Complexity through Planful Play: Kindergarten Children's Strategies in Constructing an Autonomous Robot's Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, S. T.; Mioduser, D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how young children master, construct and understand intelligent rule-based robot behaviors, focusing on their strategies in gradually meeting the tasks' complexity. The wider aim is to provide a comprehensive map of the kinds of transitions and learning that take place in constructing simple emergent behaviors, particularly…

  12. First observations of teleseismic P-waves with autonomous underwater robots: towards future global network of mobile seismometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhovich, Alexei; Nolet, Guust; Hello, Yann; Simons, Frederik; Bonnieux, Sébastien

    2013-04-01

    We report here the first successful observations of underwater acoustic signals generated by teleseismic P-waves recorded by autonomous robots MERMAID (short for Mobile Earthquake Recording in Marine Areas by Independent Divers). During 2011-2012 we have conducted three test campaigns for a total duration of about 8 weeks in the Ligurian Sea which have allowed us to record nine teleseismic events (distance more than 60 degree) of magnitudes higher than 6 and one closer event (distance 23 degree) of magnitude 5.5. Our results indicate that no simple relation exists between the magnitude of the source event and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the corresponding acoustic signals. Other factors, such as fault orientation and meteorological conditions, play an important role in the detectability of the seismic events. We also show examples of the events recorded during these test runs and how their frequency characteristics allow them to be recognized automatically by an algorithm based on the wavelet transform. We shall also report on more recent results obtained during the first fully autonomous run (currently ongoing) of the final MERMAID design in the Mediterranean Sea.

  13. Autonomous and Autonomic Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter F.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    A watershed in systems engineering is represented by the advent of swarm-based systems that accomplish missions through cooperative action by a (large) group of autonomous individuals each having simple capabilities and no global knowledge of the group s objective. Such systems, with individuals capable of surviving in hostile environments, pose unprecedented challenges to system developers. Design and testing and verification at much higher levels will be required, together with the corresponding tools, to bring such systems to fruition. Concepts for possible future NASA space exploration missions include autonomous, autonomic swarms. Engineering swarm-based missions begins with understanding autonomy and autonomicity and how to design, test, and verify systems that have those properties and, simultaneously, the capability to accomplish prescribed mission goals. Formal methods-based technologies, both projected and in development, are described in terms of their potential utility to swarm-based system developers.

  14. The SETI Radio Observational Project - Strategy, instrumentation, and objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, R. E.; Gulkis, S.; Janssen, M. A.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Morris, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes strategies, tradeoffs, instrumentation, and overall objectives for the SETI Radio Observation Project. Novel approaches have been formulated in order to achieve coverage of the desirable frequency and spatial regimes (about 80% of the sky and in the frequency range of 1.4-25 GHz). A mixed strategy has been developed which uses the survey capability of small antennas and the sensitivity of modern maser amplifiers to achieve sensitivities comparable to those reached by previous observers, but with as much as 10,000 times the scope of both the frequency and spatial coverage possible to those experimenters.

  15. ACIS Focal Plane Temperature Control and Observational Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams-Wolk, Nancy; Plucinsky, P. P.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Germain, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory continues to deliver excellent science to the astronomical community as it enters its 13th observation cycle. The thermal conditions of the spacecraft components have changed over time necessitating changes in observing strategies; particularly for the ACIS Instrument. In this poster, we focus on the thermal conditions that affect the ACIS focal plane temperature, and the ACIS observational parameters that need to be carefully considered for the observer. We discuss the electronics affected, the specific conditions that can effect the science return and how Guest Observers can choose observational parameters to mitigate these issues.The Guest Observers must be aware of changes and considerations needed when preparing their observations to continue the high quality of science return from Chandra.

  16. Understanding Electrochemistry Concepts Using the Predict-Observe-Explain Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamustafaoglu, Sevilay; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The current study deals with freshman students who study at the Department of Science at the Faculty of Education. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of teaching electrochemistry concepts using Predict-Observe-Explain (POE) strategy. The study was quasi-experimental design using 20 students each in the experimental group (EG) and…

  17. The observer observed: frontal EEG asymmetry and autonomic responses differentiate between another person's direct and averted gaze when the face is seen live.

    PubMed

    Pönkänen, Laura M; Peltola, Mikko J; Hietanen, Jari K

    2011-11-01

    Recently, we showed that another person's gaze direction influenced the perceiver's frontal EEG asymmetry and autonomic arousal in response to freely viewed real faces, but not in response to face pictures. However, the lack of a task during the viewing may have resulted in less attention allocation to face pictures vs. live faces. In the present study, the participants performed two online tasks while viewing the faces presented live through an electronic shutter and as pictures on a computer screen. The results replicated those from our previous experiment showing that direct gaze elicited greater relative left-sided frontal EEG asymmetry and autonomic arousal than averted gaze but, again, only in the live condition. However, the results also showed that two live stimulus faces (male and female) elicited differential EEG asymmetry responses in our participants (all females), and the effects of gaze direction were observed only for the (live) female faces. The results suggest that the discriminative responses to live faces vs. pictures are likely to reflect the participants' enhanced mental-state attributions and self-awareness when looking at and being looked by live faces. Thus, the motivation- and affect-related psychophysiological responses to gaze direction are most discriminative in the presence of another person, regardless of whether the face/gaze is actively monitored or not. PMID:21893108

  18. All-sky survey mission observing scenario strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangelo, Sara C.; Katti, Raj M.; Unwin, Stephen C.; Bock, Jamie J.

    2015-06-01

    This paper develops an observing strategy for space missions performing all-sky surveys, where a single spacecraft maps the celestial sphere subject to realistic constraints. The strategy is flexible, accommodates targeted observations of specific areas of the sky, and achieves the desired trade-off between survey goals. This paper focuses on missions operating in low Earth orbit with interactive and dynamic thermal and stray-light constraints due to the Sun, Earth, and Moon. The approach is applicable to broader mission classes, such as those that operate in different orbits or that survey the Earth. First, the instrument and spacecraft configuration is optimized to enable visibility of the targeted observations throughout the year. Second, a constraint-based strategy is presented for scheduling the observations throughout the year subject to a simplified subset of the constraints. Third, a heuristic-based scheduling algorithm is developed to assign the all-sky observations over short planning horizons. The constraint-based approach guarantees solution feasibility. The approach is applied to the proposed SPHEREx mission, which includes coverage of the north and south celestial poles, galactic plane, and a uniform coverage all-sky survey that maps the entire celestial sphere twice per year. Visualizations demonstrate how the all-sky survey achieves its redundancy requirements over time.

  19. Pedagogical strategies used in clinical medical education: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical teaching is a complex learning situation influenced by the learning content, the setting and the participants' actions and interactions. Few empirical studies have been conducted in order to explore how clinical supervision is carried out in authentic situations. In this study we explore how clinical teaching is carried out in a clinical environment with medical students. Methods Following an ethnographic approach looking for meaning patterns, similarities and differences in how clinical teachers manage clinical teaching; non-participant observations and informal interviews were conducted during a four month period 2004-2005. The setting was at a teaching hospital in Sweden. The participants were clinical teachers and their 4th year medical students taking a course in surgery. The observations were guided by the aim of the study. Observational notes and notes from informal interviews were transcribed after each observation and all data material was analysed qualitatively. Results Seven pedagogical strategies were found to be applied, namely: 1) Questions and answers, 2) Lecturing, 3) Piloting, 4) Prompting, 5) Supplementing, 6) Demonstrating, and 7) Intervening. Conclusions This study contributes to previous research in describing a repertoire of pedagogical strategies used in clinical education. The findings showed that three superordinate qualitatively different ways of teaching could be identified that fit Ramsden's model. Each of these pedagogical strategies encompass different focus in teaching; either a focus on the teacher's knowledge and behaviour or the student's behaviour and understanding. We suggest that an increased awareness of the strategies in use will increase clinical teachers' teaching skills and the consequences they will have on the students' ability to learn. The pedagogical strategies need to be considered and scrutinized in further research in order to verify their impact on students' learning. PMID:20105340

  20. Toward the Development of an Integrated Global Observing Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Leslie Bermann

    1998-01-01

    In the current environment of stagnant or shrinking budgets for space research and exploration, nations can no longer afford to develop costly systems in a vacuum. Greater coordination of existing and planned systems, both among space agencies and between the space agencies and user communities, will enable the maximization of global investments in all areas of space-related research. In this manner, a group of space agencies has embarked on an initiative to link their activities in Earth observation with complementary observation programs. The goal of this initiative is to develop a comprehensive strategy for enhanced levels of support to scientific, operational and research communities. The space agencies, through the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), have embraced the concept of an Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS), primarily in fulfillment of their own set of objectives and to derive greater benefit from both operating and planned Earth observing systems. Through working together, CEOS agencies are in a position to plan their Earth observation projects with the minimum of unnecessary overlap and to devise joint strategies for addressing serious gaps in their observation capabilities. Ultimately, an IGOS should be the joint product of all groups involved in the collection and analysis of both space-based and in-situ data. CEOS is actively seeking IGOS -related partnerships with the Global Climate, Global Ocean and Global Terrestrial Observing Systems, their intergovernmental Sponsors, the International Group of Funding Agencies for Global Change Research, and other scientific and user organizations including the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme and the World Climate Research Programme.

  1. The Wave Glider°: A New Autonomous Surface Vehicle to Augment MBARI's Growing Fleet of Ocean Observing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tougher, B. B.

    2011-12-01

    Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) evolving fleet of ocean observing systems has made it possible to collect information and data about a wide variety of ocean parameters, enabling researchers to better understand marine ecosystems. In collaboration with Liquid Robotics Inc, the designer of the Wave Glider autonomous surface vehicle (ASV), MBARI is adding a new capability to its suite of ocean observing tools. This new technology will augment MBARI research programs that use satellites, ships, moorings, drifters, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to improve data collection of temporally and spatially variable oceanographic features. The Wave Glider ASV derives its propulsion from wave energy, while sensors and communications are powered through the use of two solar panels and batteries, enabling it to remain at sea indefinitely. Wave Gliders are remotely controlled via real-time Iridium burst communications, which also permit real-time data telemetry. MBARI has developed Ocean Acidification (OA) moorings to continuously monitor the chemical and physical changes occurring in the ocean as a result of increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). The moorings are spatially restricted by being anchored to the seafloor, so during the summer of 2011 the ocean acidification sensor suite designed for moorings was integrated into a Wave Glider ASV to increase both temporal and spatial ocean observation capabilities. The OA sensor package enables the measurement of parameters essential to better understanding the changing acidity of the ocean, specifically pCO2, pH, oxygen, salinity and temperature. The Wave Glider will also be equipped with a meteorological sensor suite that will measure air temperature, air pressure, and wind speed and direction. The OA sensor integration into a Wave Glider was part of MBARI's 2011 summer internship program. This project involved designing a new layout for the OA sensors

  2. Autonomous profiling float observations of the high-biomass plume downstream of the Kerguelen Plateau in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, M.; Della Penna, A.; Trull, T. W.

    2015-05-01

    Natural iron fertilisation from Southern Ocean islands results in high primary production and phytoplankton biomass accumulations readily visible in satellite ocean colour observations. These images reveal great spatial complexity with highly varying concentrations of chlorophyll, presumably reflecting both variations in iron supply and conditions favouring phytoplankton accumulation. To examine the second aspect, in particular the influences of variations in temperature and mixed layer depth, we deployed four autonomous profiling floats in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current near the Kerguelen Plateau in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. Each "bio-profiler" measured more than 250 profiles of temperature (T), salinity (S), dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence, and particulate backscattering (bbp) in the top 300 m of the water column, sampling up to 5 profiles per day along meandering trajectories extending up to 1000 km. Comparison of surface Chl a estimates (analogous to values from satellite images) with total water column inventories revealed largely linear relationships, suggesting that these images provide credible information on total and not just surface biomass spatial distributions. However, they also showed that physical mixed layer depths are often not a reliable guide to biomass distributions. Regions of very high Chl a accumulation (1.5-10 μg L-1) were associated predominantly with a narrow T-S class of surface waters. In contrast, waters with only moderate Chl a enrichments (0.5-1.5 μg L-1) displayed no clear correlation with specific water properties, including no dependence on mixed layer depth or the intensity of stratification. Geostrophic trajectory analysis suggests that both these observations can be explained if the main determinant of biomass in a given water parcel is the time since leaving the Kerguelen Plateau. One float became trapped in a cyclonic eddy, allowing temporal evaluation of the water column in early

  3. Autonomous Observing and Planet Discovery with the Automated Planet Finder (APF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, Jennifer; Hanson, Russell; Holden, Bradford; Butler, R. Paul; Vogt, Steven S.; Laughlin, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The Automated Planet Finder (APF) is a dedicated, ground-based precision radial velocity facility located at Lick Observatory, operated by University of California Observatories (UCO). The 2.4-m telescope and accompanying high-resolution echelle spectrograph were specifically designed for the purpose of detecting planets in the habitable zone of low-mass stars. The telescope is operated every night (weather permitting) to achieve meaningful signal-to-noise gains from high cadence observing and to avoid the aliasing problems inherent to planets whose periods are close to the lunar month.The APF has been taking science quality data for over a year and has contributed to two planet discovery papers with data at a 1 m/s level of precision. The detection of these planets, especially the Uranus mass planet around GL687, indicates that the APF telescope is well suited to the discovery of low-mass planets orbiting low-mass stars in the as-yet relatively un-surveyed region of the sky near the north celestial pole.To take full advantage of the consistent influx of data it is necessary to analyze each night's results before deciding the next evening's targets. We are in the process of developing a fully automated reduction pipeline that will take data from raw FITS files to final radial velocity values and integrate those values into a master database. The database is then run through the publicly available Systemic console, a publically available software package for the analysis and combined multiparameter fitting of Doppler radial velocity observations. Systemic will re-calculate the possibility of planetary signals in the data and use this value, along with other considerations such as the star's brightness and chromospheric activity level, to assign it a priority rating for future observations.When the telescope is again on sky it uses a suite of stellar and atmospheric calibrations derived from the part year's observations to calculate the expected exposure time for

  4. Sensor Web Dynamic Measurement Techniques and Adaptive Observing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talabac, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Sensor Web observing systems may have the potential to significantly improve our ability to monitor, understand, and predict the evolution of rapidly evolving, transient, or variable environmental features and events. This improvement will come about by integrating novel data collection techniques, new or improved instruments, emerging communications technologies and protocols, sensor mark-up languages, and interoperable planning and scheduling systems. In contrast to today's observing systems, "event-driven" sensor webs will synthesize real- or near-real time measurements and information from other platforms and then react by reconfiguring the platforms and instruments to invoke new measurement modes and adaptive observation strategies. Similarly, "model-driven" sensor webs will utilize environmental prediction models to initiate targeted sensor measurements or to use a new observing strategy. The sensor web concept contrasts with today's data collection techniques and observing system operations concepts where independent measurements are made by remote sensing and in situ platforms that do not share, and therefore cannot act upon, potentially useful complementary sensor measurement data and platform state information. This presentation describes NASA's view of event-driven and model-driven Sensor Webs and highlights several research and development activities at the Goddard Space Flight Center.

  5. Integrated Global Observation Strategy - Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, Ernest; Readings, C. J.; Kaye, J.; Mohnen, V.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The "Long Term Continuity of Stratospheric Ozone Measurements and Atmospheric Chemistry" project was one of six established by the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) in response to the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) initiative. IGOS links satellite and ground based systems for global environmental observations. The strategy of this project is to develop a consensus of user requirements including the scientific (SPARC, IGAC, WCRP) and the applications community (WMO, UNEP) and to develop a long-term international plan for ozone and atmospheric chemistry measurements. The major components of the observing system include operational and research (meeting certain criteria) satellite platforms planned by the space faring nations which are integrated with a well supported and sustained ground, aircraft, and balloon measurements program for directed observations as well satellite validation. Highly integrated and continuous measurements of ozone, validation, and reanalysis efforts are essential to meet the international scientific and applications goals. In order to understand ozone trends, climate change, and air quality, it is essential to conduct long term measurements of certain other atmospheric species. These species include key source, radical, and reservoir constituents.

  6. A thin layer of phytoplankton observed in the Philippine Sea with a synthetic moored array of autonomous gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Benjamin A.; Fratantoni, David M.

    2009-10-01

    A synthetic moored array composed of five buoyancy-propelled autonomous underwater gliders was used to characterize mesoscale variability and phytoplankton distribution in a 100 km × 100 km domain in the Philippine Sea east of Luzon Strait for 10 days in May 2004. The study area, located east of the Kuroshio near the subtropical front, is dominated by strong internal tides, by energetic westward-propagating mesoscale eddies with azimuthal velocities exceeding 50 cm/s, and by a deep (130 m) maximum in chlorophyll fluorescence. Each glider in the array was instructed to maintain geographic position while repeatedly profiling to 200-m depth. Good station-keeping performance enabled the resulting series of vertical profiles to be interpreted in the same manner as a physically moored chain of instruments. Although organized primarily as a demonstration of glider capabilities, this field exercise provides a unique data set for examining biological-physical interactions in the open ocean. Here we report on the evolution of a thin layer of phytoplankton observed near the deep chlorophyll maximum. Coincident observations of fine structure in temperature and salinity suggest that the thinning process of this layer was driven primarily by physical forcing, most probably vertical shear associated with energetic diurnal internal waves, as opposed to a biological mechanism, such as convergent swimming, grazing, or spatial variation in growth rate.

  7. The coastal theme of the integrated global observing strategy (IGOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digiacomo, P. M.; Talaue-McManus, L.; Igos Coastal Theme Team

    A proposal for a Coastal Theme of the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS; http://www.igospartners.org/) was approved at the 10th IGOS Partners Meeting in June 2003. The goal of the IGOS Coastal Theme is to develop a strategy for integrated global observations that will provide improved understanding of earth system variability and change in the coastal zone, with a particular emphasis on propagation of change and variability across the land-sea interface. Specific objectives of the IGOS Coastal Theme are to: 1) Specify user driven requirements for in situ and remote observations (e.g., variables to be measured, appropriate time-space scales of observations, platforms/sensors to be used) of the linked terrestrial-marine-atmospheric environments of the coastal zone and the associated requirements for data management and models; 2) Evaluate current and projected observation capabilities in terms of the extent to which they meet these requirements, identifying gaps, redundancies, and activities that need to be strengthened; 3) Establish a framework to integrate observations (in situ and remote), particularly across boundaries, as time-space scales of variability differ dramatically between the terrestrial side and the marine side of the coastal zone; 4) Incorporate the approved IGOS Coral Reef Sub-Theme. In this overall context the IGOS Coastal Theme will help identify gaps in satellite observations and reduce unnecesary duplication; strengthen the linkage between in situ and space-based observations for coastal research and management applications; assist in the design and implementation of Global Observing Systems with coastal components, particularly GOOS and GTOS; stimulate building of long-term coastal data sets by identifying continuity needs; and enable improved products and services by facilitating the integration of coastal data across the land-ocean margins. A Coastal Theme Report addressing the above issues is presently being developed and will be

  8. The Coastal Theme of the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digiacomo, P. M.; Talaue-McManus, L.

    A proposal for a Coastal Theme of the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS; http://www.igospartners.org/) was approved at the 10th IGOS Partners Meeting in June 2003. The goal of the IGOS Coastal Theme is to develop a strategy for integrated global observations that will provide improved understanding of earth system variability and change in the coastal zone, with a particular emphasis on propagation of change and variability across the land-sea interface. Specific objectives of the IGOS Coastal Theme are to: 1) Specify user driven requirements for in situ and remote observations (e.g., variables to be measured, appropriate time-space scales of observations, platforms/sensors to be used) of the linked terrestrial-marine-atmospheric environments of the coastal zone and the associated requirements for data management and models; 2) Evaluate current and projected observation capabilities in terms of the extent to which they meet these requirements, identifying gaps, redundancies, and activities that need to be strengthened; 3) Establish a framework to integrate observations (in situ and remote), particularly across boundaries, as time-space scales of variability differ dramatically between the terrestrial side and the marine side of the coastal zone; 4) Incorporate the approved IGOS Coral Reef Sub-Theme. In this overall context the IGOS Coastal Theme will help identify gaps in satellite observations and reduce unnecesary duplication; strengthen the linkage between in situ and space-based observations for coastal research and management applications; assist in the design and implementation of Global Observing Systems with coastal components, particularly GOOS and GTOS; stimulate building of long-term coastal data sets by identifying continuity needs; and enable improved products and services by facilitating the integration of coastal data across the land-ocean margins. A Coastal Theme Report addressing the above issues is presently being developed and will be

  9. An autonomous drifting buoy system for long term pCO2 observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Y.; Fujiki, T.; Wakita, M.; Azetsu-Scott, K.; Watanabe, S.

    2009-04-01

    Many studies have been carried out around the world to understand what happens to carbon dioxide (CO2) once it is emitted into the atmosphere, and how it relates to long-term climate change. However, the sea surface pCO2 observations on volunteer observation ships and research vessels concentrated in the North Atlantic and North Pacific. To assess the spatial and temporal variations of surface pCO2 in the global ocean, new automated pCO2 sensor which can be used in platform systems such as buoys or moorings is strongly desired. We have been developing the small drifting buoy system (diameter 250-340 mm, length 470 mm, weight 15 kg) for pCO2 measurement, with the support of the Japan EOS Promotion Program (JEPP), the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The objective is to provide simplified, automated measurements of pCO2 over all the world's oceans, an essential factor in understanding how the ocean responds to climate change. The measurement principle for the pCO2 sensor is based on spectrophotometry (e.g. Lefèvre et al., 1993; Degrandpre et al., 1995). The CO2 in the surrounding seawater equilibrates with the indicator solution across the gas permeable membranes. The equilibration process causes a change of pH in the indicator solution, which results in the change of optical absorbance. The pCO2 is calculated from the optical absorbance of the pH indicator solution equilibrated with CO2 in seawater through a gas permeable membrane. In our analytical system, we used an amorphous fluoropolymer tubing form of AF-2400 by DuPontTM for the gas permeable membrane due to its high gas permeability coefficients. The measurement system of the sensor consisted mainly of a LED light source, optical fibers, a CCD detector, and a downsized PC. The measured data were transmitted to the laboratory by satellite communication (Argos system). In the laboratory experiment, we obtained a high response time (less than 2 minutes) and a precision

  10. Simultaneous Measurements of direct, semi-direct and indirect aerosol forcing with Stacked Autonomous UAVs: A New Observing Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, V.; Roberts, G.; Ramana, M. V.; Corrigan, C.; Nguyen, H.

    2006-12-01

    We report here first time demonstration with three autonomously flying Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) of cloudy sky albedo, transmission atmospheric solar absorption, aerosol and cloud droplet concentrations and number densities. From these direct measurements we derive the direct, semi-direct and the first indirect aerosol forcing. The observing system consisted of 3 light weight UAVs, instrumented with miniaturized instruments (Roberts et al, 2006; Ramana et al, 2006; Corrigan et al 2006) for measuring aerosol concentrations and size distribution, cloud microphysical properties, black carbon concentration and broad band and narrow band solar fluxes. The airborne measurements were validated and augmented by the Atmospheric Brown Clouds Maldives Climate Observatory (ABC_MCO) in the island of Hanimaadhoo in the N. Indian Ocean (Corrigan et al, 2006; Ramana and Ramanathan 2006). The campaign was conducted during March and early April of 2006 when this region is subject to long range transport of pollution from S. Asia. In the stacked 3_UAV configuration, one flew in the boundary layer below clouds to characterize the aerosols feeding the clouds and the transmission of solar radiation by the absorbing aerosol layer and clouds above; the second inside the trade cumulus clouds to directly observe the fully nucleated cloud drop size and concentrations and total liquid water content; and the third above the cloud to determine the incoming solar and the reflected solar radiation. The 3-UAVs were programmed to sample the same region(or clouds) within seconds of each other, thus providing unique insights into how aerosols and boundary layer dynamics modulate the cloud microphysics and thus the albedo and solar absorption of cloudy skies in the planet. The period of observations also included a major dust-soot event which revealed a large increase in atmospheric solar absorption. We will present results on how 3- dimensional clouds with absorbing aerosols modulate

  11. NX-2G : autonomous BBOBS-NX for a highly mobile broadband seismic observation at the seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiobara, Hajime; Sugioka, Hiroko; Ito, Aki; Shinohara, Masanao

    2016-04-01

    We had developed the broadband ocean bottom seismometer (BBOBS) and its new generation system (BBOBS-NX), and, with them, several practical observations have been performed to create and establish a new category of the ocean floor broadband seismology, since 1999. Now, our BBOBS and BBOBS-NX data is proved to be at acceptable level for broadband seismic analyses. Especially, the BBOBS-NX is able to obtain the low noise horizontal data comparable to the land station in periods longer than 10 s, which is adequate for modern analyses of the mantle structure. Moreover, the BBOBS(T)-NX is under practical evaluation for the mobile tilt observation at the seafloor, which will enable dense geodetic monitoring. The BBOBS-NX system must be a powerful tool, although, the current system has intrinsic limitation in opportunity of observations due to the necessary use of the submersible vehicle for the deployment and recovery. If we can use this system with almost any kind of vessels, like as the BBOBS (self pop-up system), it should lead us a true breakthrough of seafloor observations in geodynamics. Hereafter, we call the new autonomous BBOBS-NX as NX-2G in short. There are two main problems to be cleared to realize the NX-2G system. The first one is a tilt of the sensor unit on landing, which is larger than the acceptable limit of the sensor (±8°) in 47 % after our 15 free-fall deployments of the BBOBS-NX. As we had no evidence at which moment the tilt occurred, so it was observed during the BBOBS-NX deployment in the last year by attaching a video camera and an acceleration logger those were originally developed for this purpose. The only one result shows that the tilt on landing seemed determined by the final posture of the BBOBS-NX system just before the penetration into the sediment. The second problem is a required force to extract the sensor unit from the sticky clay sediment, which was about 80 kgf in maximum with the current BBOBS-NX system from in-situ measurements

  12. Swift Multi-wavelength Observing Campaigns: Strategies and Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krimm, Hans A.

    2007-01-01

    The Swift gamma-ray burst explorer has been operating since December 2004 as both a gamma-ray burst (GRB) monitor and telescope and a multi-wavelength observatory, covering the energy range from V band and near UV to hard X rays above 150 keV. It is designed to rapidly repoint to observe newly discovered GRBs, and this maneuverability, combined with an easily changed observing program, allows Swift to also be an effective multiwavelength observatory for non-GRB targets, both as targets of opportunity and pre-planned multi-wavelength observing campaigns. Blazars are particularly attractive targets for coordinated campaigns with TeV experiments since many blazars are bright in both the hard X-ray and TeV energy ranges. Successful coordinated campaigns have included observations of 3C454.3 during its 2005 outburst. The latest Swift funding cycles allow for non- GRB related observations to be proposed. The Burst Alert Telescope on Swift also serves as a hard X-ray monitor with a public web page that includes light curves for over 400 X-ray sources and is used to alert the astronomical community about increased activity from both known and newly discovered sources. This presentation mill include Swift capabilities, strategies and policies for coordinated multi-wavelength observations as well as discussion of the potential outcomes of such campaigns.

  13. Vagus nerve stimulation: state of the art of stimulation and recording strategies to address autonomic function neuromodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiraud, David; Andreu, David; Bonnet, Stéphane; Carrault, Guy; Couderc, Pascal; Hagège, Albert; Henry, Christine; Hernandez, Alfredo; Karam, Nicole; Le Rolle, Virginie; Mabo, Philippe; Maciejasz, Paweł; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Marijon, Eloi; Maubert, Sandrine; Picq, Chloé; Rossel, Olivier; Bonnet, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Neural signals along the vagus nerve (VN) drive many somatic and autonomic functions. The clinical interest of VN stimulation (VNS) is thus potentially huge and has already been demonstrated in epilepsy. However, side effects are often elicited, in addition to the targeted neuromodulation. Approach. This review examines the state of the art of VNS applied to two emerging modulations of autonomic function: heart failure and obesity, especially morbid obesity. Main results. We report that VNS may benefit from improved stimulation delivery using very advanced technologies. However, most of the results from fundamental animal studies still need to be demonstrated in humans.

  14. Mathematical strategies for filtering complex systems: Regularly spaced sparse observations

    SciTech Connect

    Harlim, J. Majda, A.J.

    2008-05-01

    Real time filtering of noisy turbulent signals through sparse observations on a regularly spaced mesh is a notoriously difficult and important prototype filtering problem. Simpler off-line test criteria are proposed here as guidelines for filter performance for these stiff multi-scale filtering problems in the context of linear stochastic partial differential equations with turbulent solutions. Filtering turbulent solutions of the stochastically forced dissipative advection equation through sparse observations is developed as a stringent test bed for filter performance with sparse regular observations. The standard ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) has poor skill on the test bed and even suffers from filter divergence, surprisingly, at observable times with resonant mean forcing and a decaying energy spectrum in the partially observed signal. Systematic alternative filtering strategies are developed here including the Fourier Domain Kalman Filter (FDKF) and various reduced filters called Strongly Damped Approximate Filter (SDAF), Variance Strongly Damped Approximate Filter (VSDAF), and Reduced Fourier Domain Kalman Filter (RFDKF) which operate only on the primary Fourier modes associated with the sparse observation mesh while nevertheless, incorporating into the approximate filter various features of the interaction with the remaining modes. It is shown below that these much cheaper alternative filters have significant skill on the test bed of turbulent solutions which exceeds ETKF and in various regimes often exceeds FDKF, provided that the approximate filters are guided by the off-line test criteria. The skill of the various approximate filters depends on the energy spectrum of the turbulent signal and the observation time relative to the decorrelation time of the turbulence at a given spatial scale in a precise fashion elucidated here.

  15. A coastal current in winter: Autonomous underwater vehicle observations of the coastal current east of Cape Cod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbina, Andrey Y.; Gawarkiewicz, Glen G.

    2008-07-01

    Evolution of the coastal current structure on the shallow continental shelf east of Cape Cod was studied using autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) surveys and moored observations during the winters of 2005 and 2006. A coastally bounded plume of relatively fresh water, characteristic of a coastal current, persisted throughout both winters despite strong mixing. Nondimensional parameter analysis classified the plume as a bottom-trapped gravity current over a moderately steep slope, placing it in the context of other buoyant coastal currents. The range of water properties within the coastal current, its spatial extent and temporal variability were characterized on the basis of the data from repeat hydrographic sections. Along-shore freshwater transport was dominated by highly variable barotropic flow driven by local wind and basin-wide pressure gradients. It eventually contributed substantially to the average southward along-shore freshwater transport, estimated at 1.1 ± 0.3 × 103 m3 s-1 in February and 1.8 ± 0.4 × 103 m3 s-1 in the first half of March 2006. The contribution of baroclinic buoyancy-driven freshwater transport was typically an order of magnitude lower during both winters. Despite the relative weakness of the baroclinic freshwater transport, the coastal current potentially had a major impact on water mass modification during the winter. Continual presence of the low-salinity plume prevented the formation of cold dense water near the coast and its export offshore. The coastal current effectively isolated the inner-shelf zone, reducing its potential role in ventilation of the intermediate layers of the Wilkinson Basin of the Gulf of Maine.

  16. First results of the earth observation Water Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Z.; Fernández-Prieto, D.; Timmermans, J.; Chen, X.; Hungershoefer, K.; Roebeling, R.; Schröder, M.; Schulz, J.; Stammes, P.; Wang, P.; Wolters, E.

    2014-02-01

    Observing and monitoring the different components of the global water cycle and their dynamics are essential steps to understand the climate of the Earth, forecast the weather, predict natural disasters like floods and droughts, and improve water resources management. Earth observation technology is a unique tool to provide a global understanding of many of the essential variables governing the water cycle and monitor their evolution from global to basin scales. In the coming years, an increasing number of Earth observation missions will provide an unprecedented capacity to quantify several of these variables on a routine basis. However, this growing observational capacity is also increasing the need for dedicated research efforts aimed at exploring the potential offered by the synergies among different and complementary EO data records. In this context, the European Space Agency (ESA) launched the Water Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) in 2009 aiming at enhancing, developing and validating a novel set of multi-mission based methods and algorithms to retrieve a number of key variables relevant to the water cycle. In particular the project addressed four major scientific challenges associated to a number of key variables governing the water cycle: evapotranspiration, soil moisture, cloud properties related to surface solar irradiance and precipitation, and water vapour. This paper provides an overview of the scientific results and findings with the ultimate goal of demonstrating the potential of strategies based on utilizing multi-mission observations in maximizing the synergistic use of the different types of information provided by the currently available observation systems and establish the basis for further work.

  17. Autonomic neuropathies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    A limited autonomic neuropathy may underlie some unusual clinical syndromes, including the postural tachycardia syndrome, pseudo-obstruction syndrome, heat intolerance, and perhaps chronic fatigue syndrome. Antibodies to autonomic structures are common in diabetes, but their specificity is unknown. The presence of autonomic failure worsens prognosis in the diabetic state. Some autonomic neuropathies are treatable. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy may respond to liver transplantation. There are anecdotal reports of acute panautonomic neuropathy responding to intravenous gamma globulin. Orthostatic hypotension may respond to erythropoietin or midodrine.

  18. Consolidation Strategies in Ovarian Cancer: Observations for Future Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Sabbatini, Paul; Spriggs, David; Aghajanian, Carol; Hensley, Martee; Tew, William; Konner, Jason; Bell-McGuinn, Kathryn; Juretzka, Margrit; Iasonos, Alexia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To describe the characteristics of a series of study populations of ovarian cancer patients with identical elegibility criteria in second or subsequent clinical remission (cCR) and to propose endpoint benchmarks for future consolidation studies. Patients and Methods The patient populations consisted of those 1) untreated - U (observed until progression), n = 35; 2) receiving imatinib - G, n = 32; 3) receiving goserelin and bicalutamide - A, n = 32; and 4) receiving vaccine - V, n = 68; total = 167. The endpoint of the combined analysis was progression-free survival in second remission (PFS 2). Patient characteristics were compared by Chi-square test, and factors predicting PFS 2 evaluated in multivariate Cox model. Results Groups were comparable for age, stage, grade, and debulking. Multivariate model to predict PFS 2 duration included histology, stage, optimal debulking, PFS 1 duration and the type of intervention. As a benchmark for future studies, the median PFS 2 of the combined population of G, A, U (removing V which had the most impact in prolonging PFS 2, n=68) was 11.3 months (95% CI: 10.4 – 12.5 months). The percent of patients with PFS 2 > PFS 1 was 14/90 (16%). At 12 months, 43% remain progression free. Conclusion Preliminary benchmarks for efficacy endpoints are suggested for future consolidation trials of patients in cCR. However, the suggested strategies will require validation in randomized trials and larger data sets. PMID:19836827

  19. Volcano Observations Using an Unmanned Autonomous Helicopter : seismic and GPS observations near the active summit area of Sakurajima and Kirishima volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohminato, T.; Kaneko, T.; Koyama, T.; Watanabe, A.; Takeo, M.; Iguchi, M.; Honda, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Observations in the vicinity of summit area of active volcanoes are very important from various viewpoints such as understanding physical processes in the volcanic conduit. It is, however, highly difficult to install observation sensors near active vents because of the risk of sudden eruptions. We have been developing a safe volcano observation system based on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). As an UAV, we adopted an unmanned autonomous helicopter manufactured by Yamaha-Motor Co., Ltd. We have also developed earthquake observation modules and GPS receiver modules that are exclusively designed for UAV installation at summit areas of active volcanoes. These modules are light weight, compact size, and solar powered. For data transmission, a commercial cellular-phone network is used. Our first application of the sensor installation by the UAV is Sakurajima, one of the most active volcanos in Japan. In November 2009, 2010, and 2011, we installed up to four seismic sensors within 2km from the active summit crater. In the 2010 and 2011 operations, we succeeded in pulling up and collecting the sensor modules by using the UAV. In the 2011 experiment, we installed two GPS receivers near the summit area of Sakurajima volcano. We also applied the UAV installation to another active volcano, Shinmoedake in Kirishima volcano group. Since the sub-plinian eruption in February 2011, entering the area 3km from the summit of Shinmoe-dake has been prohibited. In May and November 2011, we installed seismic sensors and GPS receivers in the off-limit zone. Although the ground coupling of the seismic modules is not perfect due to the way they are installed, the signal-to-noise ratio of the seismic signals recorded by these modules is fairly good. Despite the low antenna height of 50 cm from the ground surface, the location errors in horizontal and vertical GPS components are 1cm and 3cm, respectively. For seismic signals associated with eruptions at Sakurajima from November 2010 to

  20. Intelligent Observation Strategies for Geosynchronous Remote Sensing for Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, K.; Cappelaere, P. G.; Frye, S. W.; LeMoigne, J.; Mandl, D.; Flatley, T.; Geist, A.

    2015-12-01

    Geosynchronous satellites offer a unique perspective for monitoring environmental factors important to understanding natural hazards and supporting the disasters management life cycle, namely forecast, detection, response, recovery and mitigation. In the NASA decadal survey for Earth science, the GEO-CAPE mission was proposed to address coastal and air pollution events in geosynchronous orbit, complementing similar initiatives in Asia by the South Koreans and by ESA in Europe, thereby covering the northern hemisphere. In addition to analyzing the challenges of identifying instrument capabilities to meet the science requirements, and the implications of hosting the instrument payloads on commercial geosynchronous satellites, the GEO-CAPE mission design team conducted a short study to explore strategies to optimize the science return for the coastal imaging instrument. The study focused on intelligent scheduling strategies that took into account cloud avoidance techniques as well as onboard processing methods to reduce the data storage and transmission loads. This paper expands the findings of that study to address the use of intelligent scheduling techniques and near-real time data product acquisition of both the coastal water and air pollution events. The topics include the use of onboard processing to refine and execute schedules, to detect cloud contamination in observations, and to reduce data handling operations. Analysis of state of the art flight computing capabilities will be presented, along with an assessment of cloud detection algorithms and their performance characteristics. Tools developed to illustrate operational concepts will be described, including their applicability to environmental monitoring domains with an eye to the future. In the geostationary configuration, the payload becomes a networked "thing" with enough connectivity to exchange data seamlessly with users. This allows the full field of view to be sensed at very high rate under the

  1. Intelligent Observation Strategies for Geosynchronous Remote Sensing for Natural Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Karen; Cappleare, Patrice; Frye, Stuart; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Mandl, Daniel; Flatley, Thomas; Geist, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Geosynchronous satellites offer a unique perspective for monitoring environmental factors important to understanding natural hazards and supporting the disasters management life cycle, namely forecast, detection, response, recovery and mitigation. In the NASA decadal survey for Earth science, the GEO-CAPE mission was proposed to address coastal and air pollution events in geosynchronous orbit, complementing similar initiatives in Asia by the South Koreans and by ESA in Europe, thereby covering the northern hemisphere. In addition to analyzing the challenges of identifying instrument capabilities to meet the science requirements, and the implications of hosting the instrument payloads on commercial geosynchronous satellites, the GEO-CAPE mission design team conducted a short study to explore strategies to optimize the science return for the coastal imaging instrument. The study focused on intelligent scheduling strategies that took into account cloud avoidance techniques as well as onboard processing methods to reduce the data storage and transmission loads. This paper expands the findings of that study to address the use of intelligent scheduling techniques and near-real time data product acquisition of both the coastal water and air pollution events. The topics include the use of onboard processing to refine and execute schedules, to detect cloud contamination in observations, and to reduce data handling operations. Analysis of state of the art flight computing capabilities will be presented, along with an assessment of cloud detection algorithms and their performance characteristics. Tools developed to illustrate operational concepts will be described, including their applicability to environmental monitoring domains with an eye to the future. In the geostationary configuration, the payload becomes a networked thing with enough connectivity to exchange data seamlessly with users. This allows the full field of view to be sensed at very high rate under the control

  2. Matching Strategies for Observational Data with Multilevel Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Given the different possibilities of matching in the context of multilevel data and the lack of research on corresponding matching strategies, the author investigates two main research questions. The first research question investigates the advantages and disadvantages of different matching strategies that can be pursued with multilevel data…

  3. Developing Autonomous Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Defines the concept of autonomous learning. Presents the Strategies Program for Effective Learning/Thinking (SPELT), including its underlying assumptions, instructional model, teacher training procedures, research findings, and anticipated future development. Research results include implications for learning-disabled and gifted students. (KS)

  4. Autonomic hyperreflexia

    MedlinePlus

    The most common cause of autonomic hyperreflexia is spinal cord injury. The nervous system of people with this condition ... Flushed (red) skin above the level of the spinal cord injury High blood pressure Slow pulse or fast pulse ...

  5. Autonomic hyperreflexia

    MedlinePlus

    ... The most common cause of autonomic hyperreflexia is spinal cord injury. The nervous system of people with this condition ... Flushed (red) skin above the level of the spinal cord injury High blood pressure Slow pulse or fast pulse ...

  6. Cooperative Communication Strategies: Observations in a Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Thurmon

    1983-01-01

    Examines two strategies which Blacks use to bring about cooperation in the Black community: (1) "indirection," which makes use of humorous messages, avoidance, and signifying to reduce conflicts, and (2) "neutralization," which involves the use of verbal justifications and excuses to stabilize situations in which disagreements may arise over…

  7. Observation strategies with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnery, Julie E.; Fermi mission Teams

    2015-01-01

    During the first few years of the Fermi mission, the default observation mode has been an all-sky survey, optimized to provide relatively uniform coverage of the entire sky every three hours. Over 95% of the mission has been performed in this observation mode. However, Fermi is capable of flexible survey mode patterns, and inertially pointed observations both of which allow increased coverage of selected parts of the sky. In this presentation, we will describe the types of observations that Fermi can make, the relative advantages and disadvantages of various observations, and provide guidelines to help Fermi users plan and evaluate non-standard observations.

  8. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Clarke, B F; Ewing, D J; Campbell, I W

    1979-10-01

    This review attempts to outline the present understanding of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The clinical features have been increasinly recognised but knowledge of the localization and morphology of the lesions and their pathogenesis remains fragmentary. A metabolic causation as postulated in somatic nerves accords best with clinical observations. Most bodily systems, particularly the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and urogenital, are involved with added disturbances of thermoregulatory function and pupillary reflexes. Possible effects on neuroendocrine and peptidergic secretion and respiratory control await definition. Current interest centres around the development of a new generation of tests of autonomic nerve function that are simple, non-invasive, reproducible and allow precision in diagnosis and accurate quantitation. Most are based on cardiovascular reflexes and abnormality in them is assumed to reflect autonomic damage elsewhere. Probably no single test suffices and a battery of tests reflecting both parasympathetic and sympathetic function is preferable. Little is known of the natural history. The prevalence may be greater than previously suspected and although symptoms are mild in the majority, a few develop florid features. The relation of control and duration of diabetes to the onset and progression of autonomic neuropathy is not clearly established. Once tests of autonomic function become abnormal they usually remain abnormal. Symptomatic autonomic neuropathy carries a greatly increased mortality rate possibly due to indirect mechanisms such as renal failure and direct mechanisms such as cardio-resiratory arrest. Improved treatment of some of the more disabling symptoms has been possible in recent years. PMID:387501

  9. Optimal strategies of radial velocity observations in planet search surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluev, Roman V.

    2008-09-01

    Applications of the theory of optimal design of experiments to radial velocity (RV) planet search surveys are considered. Different optimality criteria are discussed, basing on the Fisher, Shannon and Kullback-Leibler informations. Algorithms of optimal scheduling of RV observations for two important practical problems are considered. The first problem is finding the time for future observations to yield the maximum improvement of the precision of exoplanetary orbital parameters and masses. The second problem is finding the most favourable time for distinguishing alternative orbital fits (the scheduling of discriminating observations). These methods of optimal planning are demonstrated to be potentially efficient for multiplanet extrasolar systems, in particular for resonant ones. In these cases, the optimal dates of observations are often concentrated in quite narrow time segments.

  10. LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Implementation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson Jr., WI; Vogelmann, AM

    2015-09-01

    This document illustrates the design of the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) workflow to provide a routine, high-resolution modeling capability to augment the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s high-density observations. LASSO will create a powerful new capability for furthering ARM’s mission to advance understanding of cloud, radiation, aerosol, and land-surface processes. The combined observational and modeling elements will enable a new level of scientific inquiry by connecting processes and context to observations and providing needed statistics for details that cannot be measured. The result will be improved process understanding that facilitates concomitant improvements in climate model parameterizations. The initial LASSO implementation will be for ARM’s Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma and will focus on shallow convection, which is poorly simulated by climate models due in part to clouds’ typically small spatial scale compared to model grid spacing, and because the convection involves complicated interactions of microphysical and boundary layer processes.

  11. Strategies GeoCape Intelligent Observation Studies @ GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappelaere, Pat; Frye, Stu; Moe, Karen; Mandl, Dan; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Flatley, Tom; Geist, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides information a summary of the tradeoff studies conducted for GeoCape by the GSFC team in terms of how to optimize GeoCape observation efficiency. Tradeoffs include total ground scheduling with simple priorities, ground scheduling with cloud forecast, ground scheduling with sub-area forecast, onboard scheduling with onboard cloud detection and smart onboard scheduling and onboard image processing. The tradeoffs considered optimzing cost, downlink bandwidth and total number of images acquired.

  12. Autonomous Soaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Victor P.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the autonomous soaring flight of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). It reviews energy sources for UAVs, and two examples of UAV's that used alternative energy sources, and thermal currents for soaring. Examples of flight tests, plans, and results are given. Ultimately, the concept of a UAV harvesting energy from the atmosphere has been shown to be feasible with existing technology.

  13. Towards a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Water Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R. G.; Koike, T.; Cripe, D.; Ochiai, O.

    2012-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is developing a strategy to guide its water-related activities for the next decade. An international writing team is currently developing a draft strategy for use in discussions with the broader water community. It is anticipated that the strategy will be finalized and presented at the next GEO Summit of Ministers in November 2013. This presentation summarizes the direction, content and status of the GEOSS water strategy. During the past decade GEO water activities were guided by a report that served as the foundation for the Water theme in the Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership. Since that report was published a number of developments have taken place, making it necessary to update the strategy underlying GEO water-related efforts. Among other factors, this strategy is considering a renewed commitment to Sustainable Development and the green economy, the maturation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems concept, and the emergence of new satellite missions, new sensors and new mobile information systems. In addition to identifying the impact of these trends on water observation plans and systems, the new strategy will highlight the potential linkages of water with other sectors such as agriculture, health, biodiversity, energy and climate. This presentation will also summarize the objectives and key elements of the new strategy, and possible approaches for implementing the strategy.

  14. Autonomous software: Myth or magic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, A.; Naylor, T.; Saunders, E. S.

    2008-03-01

    We discuss work by the eSTAR project which demonstrates a fully closed loop autonomous system for the follow up of possible micro-lensing anomalies. Not only are the initial micro-lensing detections followed up in real time, but ongoing events are prioritised and continually monitored, with the returned data being analysed automatically. If the ``smart software'' running the observing campaign detects a planet-like anomaly, further follow-up will be scheduled autonomously and other telescopes and telescope networks alerted to the possible planetary detection. We further discuss the implications of this, and how such projects can be used to build more general autonomous observing and control systems.

  15. LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) Observation Campaign: Strategies, Implementation, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Wooden, Diane H.; Ackermann, Robert F.; Acton, David D.; Backus, Peter R.; Bailey, Vanessa; Ball, Jesse G.; Barott, William C.; Blair, Samantha K.; Buie, Marc W.; Callahan, Shawn; Chanover, Nancy J.; Choi, Young-Jun; Conrad, Al; Coulson, Dolores M.; Crawford, Kirk B.; DeHart, Russell; de Pater, Imke; Disanti, Michael; Forster, James R.; Furusho, Reiko; Fuse, Tetsuharu; Geballe, Tom; Gibson, J. Duane; Goldstein, David; Gregory, Stephen A.; Gutierrez, David J.; Hamilton, Ryan T.; Hamura, Taiga; Harker, David E.; Harp, Gerry R.; Haruyama, Junichi; Hastie, Morag; Hayano, Yutaka; Hinz, Phillip; Hong, Peng K.; James, Steven P.; Kadono, Toshihiko; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kelley, Michael S.; Kim, Daryl L.; Kurosawa, Kosuke; Lee, Duk-Hang; Long, Michael; Lucey, Paul G.; Marach, Keith; Matulonis, Anthony C.; McDermid, Richard M.; McMillan, Russet; Miller, Charles; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Noda, Hirotomo; Okamura, Natsuko; Ong, Lawrence; Porter, Dallan; Puschell, Jeffery J.; Rayner, John T.; Rembold, J. Jedadiah; Roth, Katherine C.; Rudy, Richard J.; Russell, Ray W.; Ryan, Eileen V.; Ryan, William H.; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Sekine, Yasuhito; Skinner, Mark A.; Sôma, Mitsuru; Stephens, Andrew W.; Storrs, Alex; Suggs, Robert M.; Sugita, Seiji; Sung, Eon-Chang; Takatoh, Naruhisa; Tarter, Jill C.; Taylor, Scott M.; Terada, Hiroshi; Trujillo, Chadwick J.; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya; Vilas, Faith; Walls, Brian D.; Watanabe, Jun-ihi; Welch, William J.; Woodward, Charles E.; Yim, Hong-Suh; Young, Eliot F.

    2012-05-01

    NASA's LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) mission was designed to explore the nature of previously detected enhanced levels of hydrogen near the lunar poles. The LCROSS mission impacted the spent upper stage of the launch vehicle into a permanently shadowed region of the lunar surface to create an ejecta plume. The resultant impact crater and plume were then observed by the LCROSS Shepherding Spacecraft as well as a cadre of telescopes on the Earth and in space to determine the nature of the materials contained within the permanently shadowed region. The Shepherding Spacecraft then became a second impactor which was also observed by multiple assets. The LCROSS Observation Campaign was a key component of the LCROSS mission. The goal of the Observation Campaign was to realize the scientific benefits of extending the LCROSS observations to multiple ground and space-based assets. This paper describes the LCROSS Observation Campaign and provides an overview of the Campaign coordination and logistics as well as a summary of the observation techniques utilized at a multitude of observatories. Lessons learned from the LCROSS Observation Campaign are also discussed to assist with the planning of future unique observing events.

  16. Autonomous vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meyrowitz, A.L.; Blidberg, D.R.; Michelson, R.C. |

    1996-08-01

    There are various kinds of autonomous vehicles (AV`s) which can operate with varying levels of autonomy. This paper is concerned with underwater, ground, and aerial vehicles operating in a fully autonomous (nonteleoperated) mode. Further, this paper deals with AV`s as a special kind of device, rather than full-scale manned vehicles operating unmanned. The distinction is one in which the AV is likely to be designed for autonomous operation rather than being adapted for it as would be the case for manned vehicles. The authors provide a survey of the technological progress that has been made in AV`s, the current research issues and approaches that are continuing that progress, and the applications which motivate this work. It should be noted that issues of control are pervasive regardless of the kind of AV being considered, but that there are special considerations in the design and operation of AV`s depending on whether the focus is on vehicles underwater, on the ground, or in the air. The authors have separated the discussion into sections treating each of these categories.

  17. Concurrent Validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale for Elementary School--Observer Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Dudek, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study is an initial investigation of the concurrent validity of a new assessment, the Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS version 2.0) for Elementary School--Observer Form. The CSS assesses teachers' use of instructional and behavioral management strategies. In the present study, the CSS is compared to the Classroom Assessment Scoring…

  18. Special Strategies Observation System-Revised: A Useful Tool for Educational Research and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.; Cowley, Kimberly S.; Finch, Nicole L.; Chadwick, Kristine L.; Ermolov, Lisa D.; Riffle, M. Joy S.

    2004-01-01

    A review of the critical literature provides a brief history of systematic observation of classroom behaviors, long valued as an important data collection method in educational research. Milestones in systematic observation of classrooms are traced back to 1914 and the development and use of the Special Strategies Observation System (SSOS) through…

  19. Effects of Self-Presentational Strategy and Empathic Instructions on Observers' Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakey, Sherry L.; Arkin, Robert M.

    The influence of empathy on observers' attributions for an outcome achieved by an actor was examined as well as self-presentational strategies when observers either expected to assume the actor's role later (Role-Playing). On videotape, observer-subjects (N=160) watched an actor succeed or fail at an interpersonal influence task, after being given…

  20. Autonomic Dysregulation in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pintér, Alexandra; Cseh, Domonkos; Sárközi, Adrienn; Illigens, Ben M; Siepmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive central neurological disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination. In patients with MS, dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system may present with various clinical symptoms including sweating abnormalities, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic dysregulation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. These autonomic disturbances reduce the quality of life of affected patients and constitute a clinical challenge to the physician due to variability of clinical presentation and inconsistent data on diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and initiation of individualized interdisciplinary and multimodal strategies is beneficial in the management of autonomic dysfunction in MS. This review summarizes the current literature on the most prevalent aspects of autonomic dysfunction in MS and provides reference to underlying pathophysiological mechanisms as well as means of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26213927

  1. Autonomic Dysregulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pintér, Alexandra; Cseh, Domonkos; Sárközi, Adrienn; Illigens, Ben M.; Siepmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive central neurological disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination. In patients with MS, dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system may present with various clinical symptoms including sweating abnormalities, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic dysregulation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. These autonomic disturbances reduce the quality of life of affected patients and constitute a clinical challenge to the physician due to variability of clinical presentation and inconsistent data on diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and initiation of individualized interdisciplinary and multimodal strategies is beneficial in the management of autonomic dysfunction in MS. This review summarizes the current literature on the most prevalent aspects of autonomic dysfunction in MS and provides reference to underlying pathophysiological mechanisms as well as means of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26213927

  2. Autonomous control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    KSC has been developing the Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE), which is a tool for performing automated monitoring, diagnosis, and control of electromechanical devices. KATE employs artificial intelligence computing techniques to perform these functions. The KATE system consists of a generic shell and a knowledge base. The KATE shell is the portion of the system which performs the monitoring, diagnosis, and control functions. It is generic in the sense that it is application independent. This means that the monitoring activity, for instance, will be performed with the same algorithms regardless of the particular physical device being used. The knowledge base is the portion of the system which contains specific functional and behavorial information about the physical device KATE is working with. Work is nearing completion on a project at KSC to interface a Texas Instruments Explorer running a LISP version of KATE with a Generic Checkout System (GCS) test-bed to control a physical simulation of a shuttle tanking system (humorously called the Red Wagon because of its color and mobility). The Autonomous Control System (ACS) project supplements and extends the KATE/GCS project by adding three other major activities. The activities include: porting KATE from the Texas Instruments Explorer machine to an Intel 80386-based UNIX workstation in the LISP language; rewriting KATE as necessary to run on the same 80386 workstation but in the Ada language; and investigating software and techniques to translate ANSI Standard Common LISP to Mil Standard Ada. Primary goals of this task are as follows: (1) establish the advantages of using expert systems to provide intelligent autonomous software for Space Station Freedom applications; (2) determine the feasibility of using Ada as the run-time environment for model-based expert systems; (3) provide insight into the advantages and disadvantagesof using LISP or Ada in the run-time environment for expert systems; and (4

  3. INL Autonomous Navigation System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-30

    The INL Autonomous Navigation System provides instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The system permits high-speed autonomous navigation including obstacle avoidance, waypoing navigation and path planning in both indoor and outdoor environments.

  4. Observing Online Instruction: A Formative Practice toward Awareness and Readiness in Online Instructional Design Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widdall, Christine L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative research project used a multiple case study methodology, in connection with observational learning to explore to what degree prospective online secondary teachers achieved an awareness of instructional design strategies as they concurrently observed online instruction in two unique online courses: one with student-centered…

  5. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy Strategies Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Bryce D.; Weisz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Most everyday child and adolescent psychotherapy does not follow manuals that document the procedures. Consequently, usual clinical care has remained poorly understood and rarely studied. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Strategies scale (TPOCS-S) is an observational measure of youth psychotherapy procedures…

  6. Optimal strategies for observation of active galactic nuclei variability with Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giomi, Matteo; Gerard, Lucie; Maier, Gernot

    2016-07-01

    Variable emission is one of the defining characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGN). While providing precious information on the nature and physics of the sources, variability is often challenging to observe with time- and field-of-view-limited astronomical observatories such as Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). In this work, we address two questions relevant for the observation of sources characterized by AGN-like variability: what is the most time-efficient way to detect such sources, and what is the observational bias that can be introduced by the choice of the observing strategy when conducting blind surveys of the sky. Different observing strategies are evaluated using simulated light curves and realistic instrument response functions of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a future gamma-ray observatory. We show that strategies that makes use of very small observing windows, spread over large periods of time, allows for a faster detection of the source, and are less influenced by the variability properties of the sources, as compared to strategies that concentrate the observing time in a small number of large observing windows. Although derived using CTA as an example, our conclusions are conceptually valid for any IACTs facility, and in general, to all observatories with small field of view and limited duty cycle.

  7. Some strategies to address the challenges of collecting observational data in a busy clinical environment.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Debra; McDonald, Glenda; Luck, Lauretta; Waine, Melissa; Wilkes, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    Studies drawing on observational methods can provide vital data to enhance healthcare. However, collecting observational data in clinical settings is replete with challenges, particularly where multiple data-collecting observers are used. Observers collecting data require shared understanding and training to ensure data quality, and particularly, to confirm accurate and consistent identification, discrimination and recording of data. The aim of this paper is to describe strategies for preparing and supporting multiple researchers tasked with collecting observational data in a busy, and often unpredictable, hospital environment. We hope our insights might assist future researchers undertaking research in similar settings. PMID:27188039

  8. A stochastic optimal control strategy for partially observable nonlinear quasi-Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Z. G.; Zhu, W. Q.

    2008-02-01

    A stochastic optimal control strategy for partially observable nonlinear quasi-Hamiltonian systems is proposed. The optimal control force consists of two parts. The first part is determined by the conditions under which the stochastic optimal control problem of a partially observable nonlinear system is converted into that of a completely observable linear system. The second part is determined by solving the dynamical programming equation derived by applying the stochastic averaging method and stochastic dynamical programming principle to the completely observable linear control system. The response of the optimally controlled quasi-Hamiltonian system is predicted by solving the averaged Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation associated with the optimally controlled completely observable linear system and solving the Riccati equation for the estimate errors of system states. An example is given to illustrate the procedure and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  9. Autonomous Navigation Using Celestial Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Gramling, Cheryl; Leung, Dominic; Belur, Sheela; Long, Anne

    1999-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Enterprises envision frequent low-cost missions to explore the solar system, observe the universe, and study our planet. Satellite autonomy is a key technology required to reduce satellite operating costs. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center (GNCC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) currently sponsors several initiatives associated with the development of advanced spacecraft systems to provide autonomous navigation and control. Autonomous navigation has the potential both to increase spacecraft navigation system performance and to reduce total mission cost. By eliminating the need for routine ground-based orbit determination and special tracking services, autonomous navigation can streamline spacecraft ground systems. Autonomous navigation products can be included in the science telemetry and forwarded directly to the scientific investigators. In addition, autonomous navigation products are available onboard to enable other autonomous capabilities, such as attitude control, maneuver planning and orbit control, and communications signal acquisition. Autonomous navigation is required to support advanced mission concepts such as satellite formation flying. GNCC has successfully developed high-accuracy autonomous navigation systems for near-Earth spacecraft using NASA's space and ground communications systems and the Global Positioning System (GPS). Recently, GNCC has expanded its autonomous navigation initiative to include satellite orbits that are beyond the regime in which use of GPS is possible. Currently, GNCC is assessing the feasibility of using standard spacecraft attitude sensors and communication components to provide autonomous navigation for missions including: libration point, gravity assist, high-Earth, and interplanetary orbits. The concept being evaluated uses a combination of star, Sun, and Earth sensor measurements along with forward-link Doppler

  10. Modeling boolean decision rules applied to multiple-observer decision strategies.

    PubMed

    Maguire, W

    1996-01-01

    A model that derives multiple-observer decision strategy ROC curves for boolean decision rules applied to binary decisions of two or three observers is presented. It is assumed that covert decision variables consistent with ROC models of observer performance underlie decisions and that readers' decision criteria are in a fixed relationship. The specific parameters of individual ROC curves and the correlational structure that describes interobserver agreement have dramatic effects upon the relative benefits to be derived from different boolean strategies. A common strategy employed in clinical practice, in which the overall decision is positive if any observer makes a positive decision, is most effective when the readers are of similar ability, when they adopt similar decision criteria, when interreader agreement is greater for negative than for positive cases, and when the individual ROC slope is <1.0. Different multiple-observer decision strategies can be evaluated using the model equations. A bootstrap method for testing model-associated hypotheses is described. PMID:8717599

  11. General autonomic components of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Suter, Steve; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Naifeh, Karen

    1986-01-01

    This report refers to a body of investigations directed toward the examination of autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness. Heart rate, respiration rate, finger pulse volume, and basal skin resistance were measured on 127 men and women before, during, and after exposure to a nauseogenic rotating chair test. Significant changes in all autonomic responses were observed across the tests (p less than .05). Significant differences in autonomic responses among groups divided according to motion sickness susceptibility were also observed (p less than .05). Results suggest that the examination of autonomic responses as an objective indicator of motion sickness malaise is warranted and may contribute to the overall understanding of the syndrome.

  12. Implications for the Americas of a new Water Strategy for the Group on Earth Observations (GEO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R. G.; Koike, T.; Cripe, D.; Ochiai, O.

    2013-05-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) are working with the Integrated Global Water Cycle Observation (IGWCO) Community of Practice (CoP) to develop a new GEO Water Strategy. This strategy will guide the development of GEO water-related activities in the post-2015 period. In addition to addressing the needs for new sensors and better data for water cycle and water quality variables, the strategy deals with issues such as data exchange, integrated data products, early warning systems for hydrometeorological hazards and interoperability and interrogation of water information systems. Two areas receiving special attention include "user needs and user engagement", and "capacity building" at both individual and institutional levels. This talk outlines the scientific needs that are being addressed by the strategy both in terms of the technologies being developed and the support to research activities aimed at better water management practices. The perspectives of scientists and water managers are being obtained through regional consultations. This presentation is intended to introduce the strategy and its proposals regarding the management of data, data products and information systems at the global and international levels. Feedback is being solicited from scientists and water managers throughout the Americas regarding the applicability of these ideas to the region of Latin America.

  13. Using an autonomous passive acoustic observational system to monitor the environmental impact of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill on deep-diving marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorovskaia, N.; Ackleh, A.; Ma, B.; Tiemann, C.; Ioup, J. W.; Ioup, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) is a consortium of scientists from four universities and the U.S. Navy, which performs acoustic measurements and analysis in littoral waters. For the present work, six passive autonomous broadband acoustic sensors were deployed by LADC in the vicinity of the Deep Water Horizon oil spill site in the Northern Gulf of Mexico in fall 2010. The objective of the project is to assess long-term impact of the spill on the deep-diving residential population of marine mammals, particularly, sperm and beaked whales. Collected data were processed to detect, extract, and count acoustic signals produced by different types of marine mammals. As a next step, a statistical model which uses acoustic inputs was developed to estimate residential populations of different types of marine mammals at different distances from the spill site. The estimates were compared to population estimates from years prior to the spill, using pre-spill collected data in the area by LADC from 2001, 2002, and 2007. The results indicate different responses from sperm and beaked whales in the first months following the spill. A recently published article by our research group (Ackleh et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 2306-2314) provides a comparison of 2007 and 2010 estimates showing a decrease in acoustic activity and abundance of sperm whales at the 9-mile distant site, whereas acoustic activity and abundance at the 25-mile distant site has clearly increased. This may indicate that some sperm whales have relocated farther away from the spill subject to food source availability. The beaked whale population appears to return to 2007 numbers after the spill even at the closest 9-mile distant site. Several acoustically observed changes in the animals' habitat associated with the spill, such as anthropogenic noise level, prey presence, etc., can be connected with the observed population trends. Preliminary results for interpreting observed population trends will

  14. Research on space-based optical surveillance's observation strategy of geostationary-orbit's pitch point region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue-ying; An, Wei; Wu, Yu-hao; Li, Jun

    2015-03-01

    In order to surveillance the geostationary (GEO) objects, including man-made satellites and space debris, more efficiently, a space-based optical surveillance system was designed in this paper. A strategy to observe the pinch point region was selected because of the GEO objects' dynamics features. That strategy affects the surveillance satellites orbital type and sensor pointing strategy. In order to minimize total surveillance satellites and the revisit time for GEO objects, a equation was set. More than 700 GEO objects' TLE from NASA's website are used for simulation. Results indicate that the revisit time of the surveillance system designed in this paper is less than 24 hours, more than 95% GEO objects can be observed by the designed system.

  15. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  16. A global logrank test for adaptive treatment strategies based on observational studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiguo; Valenstein, Marcia; Pfeiffer, Paul; Ganoczy, Dara

    2014-02-28

    In studying adaptive treatment strategies, a natural question that is of paramount interest is whether there is any significant difference among all possible treatment strategies. When the outcome variable of interest is time-to-event, we propose an inverse probability weighted logrank test for testing the equivalence of a fixed set of pre-specified adaptive treatment strategies based on data from an observational study. The weights take into account both the possible selection bias in an observational study and the fact that the same subject may be consistent with more than one treatment strategy. The asymptotic distribution of the weighted logrank statistic under the null hypothesis is obtained. We show that, in an observational study where the treatment selection probabilities need to be estimated, the estimation of these probabilities does not have an effect on the asymptotic distribution of the weighted logrank statistic, as long as the estimation of the parameters in the models for these probabilities is n-consistent. Finite sample performance of the test is assessed via a simulation study. We also show in the simulation that the test can be pretty robust to misspecification of the models for the probabilities of treatment selection. The method is applied to analyze data on antidepressant adherence time from an observational database maintained at the Department of Veterans Affairs' Serious Mental Illness Treatment Research and Evaluation Center. PMID:24108518

  17. Development and Construct Validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Fabiano, Gregory; Dudek, Christopher M.; Hsu, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Research on progress monitoring has almost exclusively focused on student behavior and not on teacher practices. This article presents the development and validation of a new teacher observational assessment (Classroom Strategies Scale) of classroom instructional and behavioral management practices. The theoretical underpinnings and empirical…

  18. Analysis of Observing Strategy for Monopulse Tracking Radar in Stare Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Ma, Chaowei; Hao, Shifeng; Wang, Dongya

    2013-08-01

    Due to high relative orbital velocities, centimeter-sized debris can seriously damage or disable an operational spacecraft. These debris are mainly detected by monopulse tracking radar in stare mode. In this paper, the orbit determination method in this situation was derived, accordingly the proper strategy of observation was analyzed, Last, the suggestion for selecting azimuth and elevation angles of radar was provided.

  19. Learning the Rules: Observation and Imitation of a Sorting Strategy by 36-Month-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Rebecca A.; Jaswal, Vikram K.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were used to investigate the scope of imitation by testing whether 36-month-olds can learn to produce a categorization strategy through observation. After witnessing an adult sort a set of objects by a visible property (their color; Experiment 1) or a nonvisible property (the particular sounds produced when the objects were shaken;…

  20. The EO-1 Autonomous Science Agent Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Lee, Rachel; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Hengemihle, Jerry; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Ungar, Stephen; Brakke, Thomas; Boyer, Darrell; Van Gaasbeck, Jim; Greeley, Ronald; Doggett, Thomas; Baker, Victor; Dohm, James; Ip, Felipe

    2004-01-01

    An Autonomous Science Agent is currently flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and respond to science events occurring on the Earth. The package includes software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. Because of the deployment to a remote spacecraft, this Autonomous Science Agent has stringent constraints of autonomy, reliability, and limited computing resources. We describe these constraints and how they are reflected in our agent architecture.

  1. VIII. The observational strategy: What are the issues; What must be done?

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-03-01

    Throughout its development, the observational strategy of the Earth Observing System (EOS) and its precursor programs has been consistent with that of the Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) to detect and quantify climate change, document natural climate variability, understand variation and change, determine the causes and impacts of stratospheric ozone depletion, determine the impact of change on ecosystems and mitigate them. Space based observation can contribute significantly to each of these objectives, although its contribution will have to be carefully integrated with aircraft, in situ, international and other contributions and carefully transitioned to long-term operational observations to achieve its maximum potential impact. The interaction between space ad in situ can be in calibration, in interpretation, or in suggesting ways to make important new measurements from space. In atmospheric chemistry is largely involves calibration and global surveys. In ecosystems it involves calibration of EOS and improved sensors. In seasonal to interannual change it involves the testing and calibration of new sensors. In decadal to century change it requires the invention of new sensors. These roles are complementary and reinforcing. Taking full advantage of the synergisms and tradeoffs between space- and ground-based measurements is a potential vehicle for major savings in what is effectively a constant resource program. This paper presents a discussion of the principles guiding the space-based observational strategy, and the interplay between spaced-based and in situ measurements. The paper then discusses international issues, how they might be addressed, and integrated space-based observational strategy.

  2. Elements of a new Global Water Strategy for the Group on Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, Richard; Koike, Toshio; Ochiai, Osamu; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    In order to address the need to review the scope and direction of GEO activities related to water and to provide guidance for the post-2015 GEO planning, the Integrated Global Water Cycle Observations (IGWCO) Community of Practice and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) are working together to develop a strategy for GEO water activities over the next decade. This presentation will review the elements of the strategy which include topics as comprehensive as user needs and engagement, water cycle observational systems, assessment of water quality, data issues, interoperability and integration of water information systems and capacity building. Impediments in the flow of information and technological capabilities from the providers of new technologies, innovations and data products to the end users will be explored in terms of the nature of these impediments and how they can be overcome. To be successful in GEO's framework of volunteerism, the water strategy should build on activities that are on-going in related programmes at the international and national levels. In addition, implementation of the strategy will need to be supported through new initiatives and policies that promote greater integration. Suggestions for achieving these goals will be outlined at the end of the talk.

  3. Sampling strategies on Mars: Remote and not-so-remote observations from a surface rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, R. B.

    1988-01-01

    The mobility and speed of a semi-autonomous Mars rover are of necessity limited by the need to think and stay out of trouble. This consideration makes it essential that the rover's travels be carefully directed to likely targets of interest for sampling and in situ study. Short range remote sensing conducted from the rover, based on existing technology, can provide significant information about the chemistry and mineralogy of surrounding rocks and soils in support of sampling efforts. These observations are of course of direct scientific importance as well. Because of the small number of samples actually to be returned to Earth, it is also important that candidate samples be analyzed aboard the rover so that diversity can be maximized. It is essential to perform certain types of analyses, such as those involving volatiles, prior to the thermal and physical shocks of the return trip to Earth. In addition, whatever measurements can be made of nonreturned samples will be important to enlarge the context of the detailed analyses to be performed later on the few returned samples. Some considerations related to these objectives are discussed.

  4. Autonomous interplanetary constellation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Cornelius Channing, II

    According to NASA's integrated space technology roadmaps, space-based infrastructures are envisioned as necessary ingredients to a sustained effort in continuing space exploration. Whether it be for extra-terrestrial habitats, roving/cargo vehicles, or space tourism, autonomous space networks will provide a vital communications lifeline for both future robotic and human missions alike. Projecting that the Moon will be a bustling hub of activity within a few decades, a near-term opportunity for in-situ infrastructure development is within reach. This dissertation addresses the anticipated need for in-space infrastructure by investigating a general design methodology for autonomous interplanetary constellations; to illustrate the theory, this manuscript presents results from an application to the Earth-Moon neighborhood. The constellation design methodology is formulated as an optimization problem, involving a trajectory design step followed by a spacecraft placement sequence. Modeling the dynamics as a restricted 3-body problem, the investigated design space consists of families of periodic orbits which play host to the constellations, punctuated by arrangements of spacecraft autonomously guided by a navigation strategy called LiAISON (Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation). Instead of more traditional exhaustive search methods, a numerical continuation approach is implemented to map the admissible configuration space. In particular, Keller's pseudo-arclength technique is used to follow folding/bifurcating solution manifolds, which are otherwise inaccessible with other parameter continuation schemes. A succinct characterization of the underlying structure of the local, as well as global, extrema is thus achievable with little a priori intuition of the solution space. Furthermore, the proposed design methodology offers benefits in computation speed plus the ability to handle mildly stochastic systems. An application of the constellation design

  5. Autoimmune autonomic disorders.

    PubMed

    Mckeon, Andrew; Benarroch, Eduardo E

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune autonomic disorders occur because of an immune response directed against sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric ganglia, autonomic nerves, or central autonomic pathways. In general, peripheral autoimmune disorders manifest with either generalized or restricted autonomic failure, whereas central autoimmune disorders manifest primarily with autonomic hyperactivity. Some autonomic disorders are generalized, and others are limited in their anatomic extent, e.g., isolated gastrointestinal dysmotility. Historically, these disorders were poorly recognized, and thought to be neurodegenerative. Over the last 20 years a number of autoantibody biomarkers have been discovered that have enabled the identification of certain patients as having an autoimmune basis for either autonomic failure or hyperactivity. Peripheral autoimmune autonomic disorders include autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG), paraneoplastic autonomic neuropathy, and acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. AAG manifests with acute or subacute onset of generalized or selective autonomic failure. Antibody targeting the α3 subunit of the ganglionic-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α3gAChR) is detected in approximately 50% of cases of AAG. Some other disorders are characterized immunologically by paraneoplastic antibodies with a high positive predictive value for cancer, such as antineuronal nuclear antibody, type 1 (ANNA-1: anti-Hu); others still are seronegative. Recognition of an autoimmune basis for autonomic disorders is important, as their manifestations are disabling, may reflect an underlying neoplasm, and have the potential to improve with a combination of symptomatic and immune therapies. PMID:27112689

  6. Apoptosis and Self-Destruct: A Contribution to Autonomic Agents?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Autonomic Computing (AC), a self-managing systems initiative based on the biological metaphor of the autonomic nervous system, is increasingly gaining momentum as the way forward in designing reliable systems. Agent technologies have been identified as a key enabler for engineering autonomicity in systems, both in terms of retrofitting autonomicity into legacy systems and designing new systems. The AC initiative provides an opportunity to consider other biological systems and principles in seeking new design strategies. This paper reports on one such investigation; utilizing the apoptosis metaphor of biological systems to provide a dynamic health indicator signal between autonomic agents.

  7. Autonomous Soaring Flight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on autonomous soaring flight results for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)'s is shown. The topics include: 1) Background; 2) Thermal Soaring Flight Results; 3) Autonomous Dolphin Soaring; and 4) Future Plans.

  8. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  9. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating ... with breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as ...

  10. Autonomous spacecraft rendezvous and docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietz, J. C.; Almand, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    A storyboard display is presented which summarizes work done recently in design and simulation of autonomous video rendezvous and docking systems for spacecraft. This display includes: photographs of the simulation hardware, plots of chase vehicle trajectories from simulations, pictures of the docking aid including image processing interpretations, and drawings of the control system strategy. Viewgraph-style sheets on the display bulletin board summarize the simulation objectives, benefits, special considerations, approach, and results.

  11. A strategy for the observation of volcanism on Earth from space.

    PubMed

    Wadge, G

    2003-01-15

    Heat, strain, topography and atmospheric emissions associated with volcanism are well observed by satellites orbiting the Earth. Gravity and electromagnetic transients from volcanoes may also prove to be measurable from space. The nature of eruptions means that the best strategy for measuring their dynamic properties remotely from space is to employ two modes with different spatial and temporal samplings: eruption mode and background mode. Such observational programmes are best carried out at local or regional volcano observatories by coupling them with numerical models of volcanic processes. Eventually, such models could become multi-process, operational forecast models that assimilate the remote and other observables to constrain their uncertainties. The threat posed by very large magnitude explosive eruptions is global and best addressed by a spaceborne observational programme with a global remit. PMID:12626249

  12. New challenges for the maintenance strategies on large astronomical facilities at remote observing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silber, Armin

    2012-09-01

    The Change from a reacting to a proactive maintenance concept represents for large Observatories at remote operational sites a new challenge, considering the increasing numbers of complex subsystems. Conventional operational maintenance models will not cover all the requirements, will lead to more down time and the operational cost cannot be reduced. For the successful astronomical observation with large telescope facilities new strategies have to be applied. In this contribution we will demonstrate on the example of the 78 Cryogenic Sub-systems of ALMA how a proactive maintenance strategy help to increase the efficiency, to reduce the operational cost and the required staff resources. With respect to the growing number of complex subsystems on future telescope facilities the operational staff needs proper diagnostic and monitoring tools to allow a precise prediction respectively synchronization of the service activities. This leads away from a pure scheduling of preventive maintenance and enables a longer availability of the subsystems as tendencies and performance are monitored and controlled. Having this strategy considered during the developing phase of future large astronomical facilities allows the optimization of the required Infrastructure, a proper definition of the LRU1 strategy and to which level maintenance can be cost efficient on site.

  13. Scientific Implications of the Modified Observing Strategy of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnery, Julie E.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration; Fermi-GBM Team

    2014-01-01

    Near the end of 2013 the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission plans to change to a modified observing strategy designed to favor the Galactic center while maintaining full sky-survey capabilities. This change would have important implications for the science of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT). In particular, this change will 1) substantially increase the Fermi-LAT sensitivity to young pulsars in the inner Galaxy, 2) provide simultaneous observations of the Galactic center with a suite of other instruments that have extended observing campaigns of the expected disruption of the G2 gas cloud complex (see https://wiki.mpe.mpg.de/gascloud/ProposalList) , 3) double the rate of improvement of statistical power for of searches for spectral lines from the Galactic center. In this contribution we discuss these topics. We also investigate ways in which the modified observing strategy can induce systematic biases, and discuss how those biases can be studied and mitigated with studies of control samples of LAT data.

  14. Observational Strategies of Cosmic Microwave Background Temperature and Polarization Interferometry Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-Gyung; Ng, Kin-Wang; Park, Changbom; Liu, Guo-Chin; Umetsu, Keiichi

    2003-05-01

    We have simulated the interferometric observation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization fluctuations. We have constructed data pipelines from the time-ordered raw visibility samples to the CMB power spectra that utilize the methods of data compression, maximum likelihood analysis, and optimal subspace filtering. They are customized for three observational strategies: the single pointing, the mosaicking, and the drift-scanning. For each strategy, derived are the optimal strategy parameters that yield band power estimates with minimum uncertainty. The results are general and can be applied to any close-packed array on a single platform such as the CBI and the forthcoming AMiBA experiments. We have also studied the effect of rotation of the array platform on the band power correlation by simulating the CBI single-pointing observation. It is found that the band power anticorrelations can be reduced by rotating the platform and thus densely sampling the visibility plane. This enables us to increase the resolution of the power spectrum in the l-space down to the limit of the sampling theorem (Δl=226~π/θ), which is narrower by a factor of about sqrt(2) than the resolution limit (Δl~300) used in the recent CBI single-pointing observation. The validity of this idea is demonstrated for a two-element interferometer that samples visibilities uniformly in the uv-annulus. From the fact that the visibilities are the Fourier modes of the CMB field convolved with the beam, a fast unbiased estimator (FUE) of the CMB power spectra is developed and tested. It is shown that the FUE gives results very close to those from the quadratic estimator method without requiring large computer resources even though uncertainties in the results increase.

  15. The Gars Programme And The Integrated Global Observing Strategy For Geohazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, S.; Paganini, M.; Missotten, R.; Palazzo, F.

    UNESCO and the IUGS have funded the Geological Applications of Remote Sensing Programme (GARS) since 1984. Its aim is to assess the value and utility of remotely sensed data for geoscience, whilst at the same time building capacity in developing countries. It has run projects in Africa on geological mapping, in Latin America on landslide hazards and in Asia on volcanic hazards. It is a main sponsor of the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) for Geohazards. The societal impact of geological and related geophysical hazards is enormous. Every year volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides and subsidence claim thousands of lives, injure thousands more, devastate homes and destroy livelihoods. Damaged infrastructure and insurance premiums increase these costs. As population increases, more people live in hazardous areas and the impact grows. The World Summit on Sustainable Development recognised that systematic, joint international observations under initiatives like the Integrated Global Observing Strategy form the basis for an integrated approach to hazard mitigation and preparedness. In this context, the IGOS Partners developed this geohazards theme. Its goal is to integrate disparate, multidisciplinary, applied research into global, operational systems by filling gaps in organisation, observation and knowledge. It has four strategic objectives; building global capacity to mitigate geohazards; improving mapping, monitoring and forecasting, based on satellite and ground-based observations; increasing preparedness, using integrated geohazards information products and improved geohazards models; and promoting global take-up of local best practice in geohazards management. Gaps remain between what is known and the knowledge required to answer citizen's questions, what is observed and what must be observed to provide the necessary information for hazard mitigation and current data integration and the integration needed to make useful geohazard information products. An

  16. An update on THORPEX-related research in data assimilation and observing strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabier, F.; Gauthier, P.; Cardinali, C.; Langland, R.; Tsyrulnikov, M.; Lorenc, A.; Steinle, P.; Gelaro, R.; Koizumi, K.

    2008-02-01

    The international programme "THORPEX: a World Weather Research Programme" provides a framework in which to tackle the challenge of improving the forecast skill of high-impact weather through international collaboration between academic institutions, operational forecast centres, and users of forecast products. The objectives of the THORPEX Data Assimilation and Observation Strategy Working Group (DAOS-WG) are two-fold. The primary goal is to assess the impact of observations and various targeting methods to provide guidance for observation campaigns and for the configuration of the Global Observing System. The secondary goal is to setup an optimal framework for data assimilation, including aspects such as targeted observations, satellite data, background error covariances and quality control. The Atlantic THORPEX Regional campaign, ATReC, in 2003, has been very successful technically and has provided valuable datasets to test targeting issues. Various data impact experiments have been performed, showing a small but very slightly positive impact of targeted observations. Projects of the DAOS-WG include working on the AMMA field experiment, in the context of IPY and to prepare the future THORPEX-PARC field campaign in the Pacific by comparing sensitivity of the forecasts to observations between several groups.

  17. Genetic autonomic disorders.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Felicia B

    2013-03-01

    Genetic disorders affecting the autonomic nervous system can result in abnormal development of the nervous system or they can be caused by neurotransmitter imbalance, an ion-channel disturbance or by storage of deleterious material. The symptoms indicating autonomic dysfunction, however, will depend upon whether the genetic lesion has disrupted peripheral or central autonomic centers or both. Because the autonomic nervous system is pervasive and affects every organ system in the body, autonomic dysfunction will result in impaired homeostasis and symptoms will vary. The possibility of genetic confirmation by molecular testing for specific diagnosis is increasing but treatments tend to remain only supportive and directed toward particular symptoms. PMID:23465768

  18. The autonomic laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system can now be studied quantitatively, noninvasively, and reproducibly in a clinical autonomic laboratory. The approach at the Mayo Clinic is to study the postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers of peripheral nerve (using the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test [QSART]), the parasympathetic nerves to the heart (cardiovagal tests), and the regulation of blood pressure by the baroreflexes (adrenergic tests). Patient preparation is extremely important, since the state of the patient influences the results of autonomic function tests. The autonomic technologist in this evolving field needs to have a solid core of knowledge of autonomic physiology and autonomic function tests, followed by training in the performance of these tests in a standardized fashion. The range and utilization of tests of autonomic function will likely continue to evolve.

  19. Pure Autonomic Failure.

    PubMed

    Thaisetthawatkul, Pariwat

    2016-08-01

    Pure autonomic failure (PAF) is a rare sporadic neurodegenerative autonomic disorder characterized by slowly progressive pan autonomic failure without other features of neurologic dysfunctions. The main clinical symptoms result from neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and urinary and gastrointestinal autonomic dysfunctions. Autonomic failure in PAF is caused by neuronal degeneration of pre- and postganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons in the thoracic spinal cord and paravertebral autonomic ganglia. The presence of Lewy bodies and α-synuclein deposits in these neural structures suggests that PAF is one of Lewy body synucleinopathies, examples of which include multiple system atrophy, Parkinson disease, and Lewy body disease. There is currently no specific treatment to stop progression in PAF. Management of autonomic symptoms is the mainstay of treatment and includes management of orthostatic hypotension and supine hypertension. The prognosis for survival of PAF is better than for the other synucleinopathies. PMID:27338613

  20. Supporting Greenhouse Gas Management Strategies with Observations and Analysis - Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. H.; Tarasova, O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change challenges facing society in the 21st century require an improved understanding of the global carbon-cycle and of the impacts and feedbacks of past, present, and future emissions of carbon-cycle gases. Global society faces a major challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to virtually zero, most notably those of CO2, while at the same time facing variable and potentially overwhelming Earth System feedbacks. How it goes about this will depend upon the nature of impending international agreements, national laws, regional strategies, and social and economic forces. The challenge to those making observations to support, inform, or verify these reduction efforts, or to address potential Earth System feedbacks, lies in harmonizing a diverse array of observations and observing systems. Doing so is not trivial. Providing coherent, regional-scale information from these observations also requires improved modelling and ensemble reanalysis, but in the end such information must be relevant and reasonably certain. The challenge to us is to ensure a globally coherent observing and analysis system to supply the information that society will need to succeed. Policy-makers, scientists, government agencies, and businesses will need the best information available for decision-making and any observing and analysis system ultimately must be able to provide a coherent story over decades.

  1. Mid-Cretaceous charred fossil flowers reveal direct observation of arthropod feeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Hartkopf-Fröder, Christoph; Rust, Jes; Wappler, Torsten; Friis, Else Marie; Viehofen, Agnes

    2012-04-23

    Although plant-arthropod relationships underpin the dramatic rise in diversity and ecological dominance of flowering plants and their associated arthropods, direct observations of such interactions in the fossil record are rare, as these ephemeral moments are difficult to preserve. Three-dimensionally preserved charred remains of Chloranthistemon flowers from the Late Albian to Early Cenomanian of Germany preserve scales of mosquitoes and an oribatid mite with mouthparts inserted into the pollen sac. Mosquitoes, which today are frequent nectar feeders, and the mite were feeding on pollen at the time wildfire consumed the flowers. These findings document directly arthropod feeding strategies and their role in decomposition. PMID:21900310

  2. Mid-Cretaceous charred fossil flowers reveal direct observation of arthropod feeding strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hartkopf-Fröder, Christoph; Rust, Jes; Wappler, Torsten; Friis, Else Marie; Viehofen, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    Although plant–arthropod relationships underpin the dramatic rise in diversity and ecological dominance of flowering plants and their associated arthropods, direct observations of such interactions in the fossil record are rare, as these ephemeral moments are difficult to preserve. Three-dimensionally preserved charred remains of Chloranthistemon flowers from the Late Albian to Early Cenomanian of Germany preserve scales of mosquitoes and an oribatid mite with mouthparts inserted into the pollen sac. Mosquitoes, which today are frequent nectar feeders, and the mite were feeding on pollen at the time wildfire consumed the flowers. These findings document directly arthropod feeding strategies and their role in decomposition. PMID:21900310

  3. Glial TDP-43 regulates axon wrapping, GluRIIA clustering and fly motility by autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Giulia; Appocher, Chiara; Scorzeto, Michele; Klima, Raffaella; Baralle, Francisco E.; Megighian, Aram; Feiguin, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the glial function of TDP-43 are becoming increasingly associated with the neurological symptoms observed in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), however, the physiological role of this protein in the glia or the mechanisms that may lead to neurodegeneration are unknown. To address these issues, we modulated the expression levels of TDP-43 in the Drosophila glia and found that the protein was required to regulate the subcellular wrapping of motoneuron axons, promote synaptic growth and the formation of glutamate receptor clusters at the neuromuscular junctions. Interestingly, we determined that the glutamate transporter EAAT1 mediated the regulatory functions of TDP-43 in the glia and demonstrated that genetic or pharmacological compensations of EAAT1 activity were sufficient to modulate glutamate receptor clustering and locomotive behaviors in flies. The data uncovers autonomous and non-autonomous functions of TDP-43 in the glia and suggests new experimentally based therapeutic strategies in ALS. PMID:26276811

  4. [Feeding strategies of mothers of malnourished and eutrophic children: a qualitative study through videotaped observations].

    PubMed

    Perosa, Gimol Benzaquen; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Silveira, Flávia Cristina Pereira

    2011-11-01

    The scope of this study was to identify and compare maternal feeding strategies and characteristics of the interaction between mothers of malnourished and eutrophic children. Eight pairs of mother/malnourished child and eight pairs of mother/eutrophic child (aged between 9 to 24 months) living in poor inner areas, were videotaped during meals, at home. Through analysis of the videos, the strategies were identified and episodes qualitatively analyzed, according to the peculiar characteristics of the interaction, especially maternal responsivity. There were no significant differences in strategies used by the mothers of both groups. The observations of the episodes have shown that feeding a child is a highly interactive process, dependent upon the abilities and characteristics of both partners. The success of feeding appears to be associated with contextual conditions, maternal responsivity and also to the appetite and flexibility of the child. It is suggested that, in projects geared to malnourished children, besides supplements and feeding orientation, special attention be given to maternal self esteem and in helping mothers to deal with children suffering from loss of appetite. PMID:22124826

  5. Exploring Mars via Autonomously Networked Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, E. J.; Burleigh, S. C.; Clare, L. P.; Torgerson, J. L.; Wagstaff, K. L.

    2012-06-01

    Enabling multiple assets to coordinate their activities autonomously via space networking techniques can significantly improve the way we explore Mars by enabling collaborative observations to improve science return and flexibility to reduce risk.

  6. Solution of nonlinear finite difference ocean models by optimization methods with sensitivity and observational strategy analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeter, Jens; Wunsch, Carl

    1986-01-01

    The paper studies with finite difference nonlinear circulation models the uncertainties in interesting flow properties, such as western boundary current transport, potential and kinetic energy, owing to the uncertainty in the driving surface boundary condition. The procedure is based upon nonlinear optimization methods. The same calculations permit quantitative study of the importance of new information as a function of type, region of measurement and accuracy, providing a method to study various observing strategies. Uncertainty in a model parameter, the bottom friction coefficient, is studied in conjunction with uncertain measurements. The model is free to adjust the bottom friction coefficient such that an objective function is minimized while fitting a set of data to within prescribed bounds. The relative importance of the accuracy of the knowledge about the friction coefficient with respect to various kinds of observations is then quantified, and the possible range of the friction coefficients is calculated.

  7. NASA's NI-SAR Observing Strategy and Data Availability for Agricultural Monitoring and Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, P.; Dubayah, R.; Kellndorfer, J. M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Chapman, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    The monitoring and characterization of global crop development by remote sensing is a complex task, in part, because of the time varying nature of the target and the diversity of crop types and agricultural practices that vary worldwide. While some of these difficulties are overcome with the availability of national and market-derived resources (e.g. publication of crop statistics by the USDA and FAO), monitoring by remote sensing has the ability of augmenting those resources to better identify changes over time, and to provide timely assessments for the current year's production. Of the remote sensing techniques that are used for agricultural applications, optical observations of NDVI from Landsat, AVHRR, MODIS and similar sensors have historically provided the majority of data that is used by the community. In addition, radiometer and radar sensors, are often used for estimating soil moisture and structural information for these agricultural regions. The combination of these remote sensing datasets and national resources constitutes the state of the art for crop monitoring and yield forecasts. To help improve these crop monitoring efforts in the future, the joint NASA-ISRO SAR mission known as NI-SAR is being planned for launch in 2020, and will have L- and S-band fully polarimetric radar systems, a fourteen day repeat period, and a swath width on the order of several hundred kilometers. To address the needs of the science and applications communities that NI-SAR will support, the systems observing strategy is currently being planned such that data rate and the system configuration will address the needs of the community. In this presentation, a description of the NI-SAR system will be given along with the currently planned observing strategy and derived products that will be relevant to the overall GEOGLAM initiative.

  8. The CEOS Global Observation Strategy for Disaster Risk Management: An Enterprise Architect's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, K.; Evans, J. D.; Frye, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS), on behalf of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), is defining an enterprise architecture (known as GA.4.D) for the use of satellite observations in international disaster management. This architecture defines the scope and structure of the disaster management enterprise (based on disaster types and phases); its processes (expressed via use cases / system functions); and its core values (in particular, free and open data sharing via standard interfaces). The architecture also details how a disaster management enterprise describes, obtains, and handles earth observations and data products for decision-support; and how it draws on distributed computational services for streamlined operational capability. We have begun to apply this architecture to a new CEOS initiative, the Global Observation Strategy for Disaster Risk Management (DRM). CEOS is defining this Strategy based on the outcomes of three pilot projects focused on seismic hazards, volcanoes, and floods. These pilots offer a unique opportunity to characterize and assess the impacts (benefits / costs) of the GA.4.D architecture in practice. In particular, the DRM Floods Pilot is applying satellite-based optical and radar data to flood mitigation, warning, and response, including monitoring and modeling at regional to global scales. It is focused on serving user needs and building local institutional / technical capacity in the Caribbean, Southern Africa, and Southeast Asia. In the context of these CEOS DRM Pilots, we are characterizing where and how the GA.4D architecture helps participants to: - Understand the scope and nature of hazard events quickly and accurately - Assure timely delivery of observations into analysis, modeling, and decision-making - Streamline user access to products - Lower barriers to entry for users or suppliers - Streamline or focus field operations in

  9. Observing Strategy for the SDSS-IV/MaNGA IFU Galaxy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, David R.; Yan, Renbin; Bershady, Matthew A.; Bundy, Kevin; Cherinka, Brian; Drory, Niv; MacDonald, Nicholas; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Wake, David A.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Blanton, Michael R.; Klaene, Mark A.; Moran, Sean M.; Sanchez, Sebastian F.; Zhang, Kai

    2015-07-01

    Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) is an integral-field spectroscopic survey that is one of three core programs in the fourth-generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV). MaNGA’s 17 pluggable optical fiber-bundle integral field units (IFUs) will observe a sample of 10,000 nearby galaxies distributed throughout the SDSS imaging footprint (focusing particularly on the North Galactic Cap). In each pointing these IFUs are deployed across a 3° field; they yield spectral coverage 3600-10300 Å at a typical resolution R ˜ 2000, and sample the sky with 2″ diameter fiber apertures with a total bundle fill factor of 56%. Observing over such a large field and range of wavelengths is particularly challenging for obtaining uniform and integral spatial coverage and resolution at all wavelengths and across each entire fiber array. Data quality is affected by the IFU construction technique, chromatic and field differential refraction, the adopted dithering strategy, and many other effects. We use numerical simulations to constrain the hardware design and observing strategy for the survey with the aim of ensuring consistent data quality that meets the survey science requirements while permitting maximum observational flexibility. We find that MaNGA science goals are best achieved with IFUs composed of a regular hexagonal grid of optical fibers with rms displacement of 5 μm or less from their nominal packing position; this goal is met by the MaNGA hardware, which achieves 3 μm rms fiber placement. We further show that MaNGA observations are best obtained in sets of three 15 minute exposures dithered along the vertices of a 1.44 arcsec equilateral triangle; these sets form the minimum observational unit, and are repeated as needed to achieve a combined signal-to-noise ratio of 5 Å-1 per fiber in the r-band continuum at a surface brightness of 23 AB arcsec-2. In order to ensure uniform coverage and delivered image quality, we require that the

  10. Pediatric autonomic disorders.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Chelimsky, Gisela G; Weese-Mayer, Debra E

    2006-07-01

    The scope of pediatric autonomic disorders is not well recognized. The goal of this review is to increase awareness of the expanding spectrum of pediatric autonomic disorders by providing an overview of the autonomic nervous system, including the roles of its various components and its pervasive influence, as well as its intimate relationship with sensory function. To illustrate further the breadth and complexities of autonomic dysfunction, some pediatric disorders are described, concentrating on those that present at birth or appear in early childhood. PMID:16818580

  11. Directly observed treatment, short-course strategy and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: are any modifications required?

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, I.; Rigouts, L.; Van Deun, A.; Portaels, F.

    2000-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) should be defined as tuberculosis with resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin because these drugs are the cornerstone of short-course chemotherapy, and combined isoniazid and rifampicin resistance requires prolonged treatment with second-line agents. Short-course chemotherapy is a key ingredient in the tuberculosis control strategy known as directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS). For populations in which multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is endemic, the outcome of the standard short-course chemotherapy regimen remains uncertain. Unacceptable failure rates have been reported and resistance to additional agents may be induced. As a consequence there have been calls for well-functioning DOTS programmes to provide additional services in areas with high rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. These "DOTS-plus for MDRTB programmes" may need to modify all five elements of the DOTS strategy: the treatment may need to be individualized rather than standardized; laboratory services may need to provide facilities for on-site culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing; reliable supplies of a wide range of expensive second-line agents would have to be supplied; operational studies would be required to determine the indications for and format of the expanded programmes; financial and technical support from international organizations and Western governments would be needed in addition to that obtained from local governments. PMID:10743297

  12. Predictive Validity of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form on Statewide Testing Scores: An Initial Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Dudek, Christopher M.; Hsu, Louis

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the validity of a teacher observation measure, the Classroom Strategies Scale-Observer Form (CSS), as a predictor of student performance on statewide tests of mathematics and English language arts. The CSS is a teacher practice observational measure that assesses evidence-based instructional and behavioral management…

  13. Multimessenger signals of long-term core-collapse supernova simulations: synergetic observation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Ko; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Tanaka, Masaomi; Hayama, Kazuhiro; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Kotake, Kei

    2016-09-01

    The next Galactic supernova is expected to bring great opportunities for the direct detection of gravitational waves (GW), full flavour neutrinos, and multiwavelength photons. To maximize the science return from such a rare event, it is essential to have established classes of possible situations and preparations for appropriate observations. To this end, we use a long-term numerical simulation of the core-collapse supernova (CCSN) of a 17 M⊙ red supergiant progenitor to self-consistently model the multimessenger signals expected in GW, neutrino, and electromagnetic messengers. This supernova model takes into account the formation and evolution of a protoneutron star, neutrino-matter interaction, and neutrino transport, all within a two-dimensional shock hydrodynamics simulation. With this, we separately discuss three situations: (i) a CCSN at the Galactic Center, (ii) an extremely nearby CCSN within hundreds of parsecs, and (iii) a CCSN in nearby galaxies within several Mpc. These distance regimes necessitate different strategies for synergistic observations. In a Galactic CCSN, neutrinos provide strategic timing and pointing information. We explore how these in turn deliver an improvement in the sensitivity of GW analyses and help to guarantee observations of early electromagnetic signals. To facilitate the detection of multimessenger signals of CCSNe in extremely nearby and extragalactic distances, we compile a list of nearby red supergiant candidates and a list of nearby galaxies with their expected CCSN rates. By exploring the sequential multimessenger signals of a nearby CCSN, we discuss preparations for maximizing successful studies of such an unprecedented stirring event.

  14. [A strategy for preventing health injuries due to observing the solar eclipse in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Juan-López, M; Peña-Corona, M P

    1993-01-01

    A total solar eclipse was watched by almost [corrected] 50 million people in the Mexican Republic on July 11, 1991. Cases of solar retinitis, which can even lead to permanent loss of visual function, have been reported in the international literature. The institutions of the National Health System employed a strategy for the prevention of risks and health damages caused by direct observation of the phenomenon, which implied the elaboration of a technical norm concerning the manufacturing of sun filters, the diffusion of preventive actions through the use of mass media, the detection and prompt care of cases and the establishment of an ophthalmologic care system and epidemiological surveillance system. The result was the detection of 21 moderate cases of solar retinitis, all of which recovered their full visual function after four months. The present article reports the implemented actions and the details of the cases. PMID:8235896

  15. Building up Autonomy through Reading Strategies (Formación en autonomía a través de estrategias de lectura)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izquierdo Castillo, Alexander; Jiménez Bonilla, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an action research project conducted with six ninth grade students in a rural public school in Colombia. The purpose of the study was to determine how the implementation of three reading strategies (skimming, scanning, and making predictions), when reading topics selected by learners, helps them to improve their reading…

  16. Simple autonomous Mars walker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.

    1989-01-01

    Under a contract with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Martin Marietta has developed several alternative rover concepts for unmanned exploration of the planet Mars. One of those concepts, the 'Walking Beam', is the subject of this paper. This concept was developed with the goal of achieving many of the capabilities of more sophisticated articulated-leg walkers with a much simpler, more robust, less computationally demanding and more power efficient design. It consists of two large-base tripods nested one within the other which alternately translate with respect to each other along a 5-meter beam to propel the vehicle. The semiautonomous navigation system relies on terrain geometry sensors and tacticle feedback from each foot to autonomously select a path which avoids hazards along a route designated from earth. Both mobility and navigation features of this concept are discussed including a top-level description of the vehicle's physical characteristics, deployment strategy, mobility elements, sensor suite, theory of operation, navigation and control processes, and estimated performance.

  17. A novel space-based observation strategy for GEO objects based on daily pointing adjustment of multi-sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yun-peng; Li, Ke-bo; Xu, Wei; Chen, Lei; Huang, Jian-yu

    2016-08-01

    Space-based visible (SBV) program has been proved to be with a large advantage to observe geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) objects. With the development of SBV observation started from 1996, many strategies have come out for the purpose of observing GEO objects more efficiently. However it is a big challenge to visit all the GEO objects in a relatively short time because of the distribution characteristics of GEO belt and limited field of view (FOV) of sensor. And it's also difficult to keep a high coverage of the GEO belt every day in a whole year. In this paper, a space-based observation strategy for GEO objects is designed based on the characteristics of the GEO belt. The mathematical formula of GEO belt is deduced and the evolvement of GEO objects is illustrated. There are basically two kinds of orientation strategies for most observation satellites, i.e., earth-oriented and inertia-directional. Influences of both strategies to their own observation regions are analyzed and compared with each other. A passive optical instrument with daily attitude-adjusting strategies is proposed to increase the daily coverage rate of GEO objects in a whole year. Furthermore, in order to observe more GEO objects in a relatively short time, the strategy of a satellite with multi-sensors is proposed. The installation parameters between different sensors are optimized, more than 98% of GEO satellites can be observed every day and almost all the GEO satellites can be observed every two days with 3 sensors (FOV: 6° × 6°) on the satellite under the strategy of daily pointing adjustment in a whole year.

  18. Autonomic Neuropathy in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Verrotti, Alberto; Prezioso, Giovanni; Scattoni, Raffaella; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent definition, different diagnostic method, different patient cohorts studied. The pathogenesis is still unclear and probably multifactorial. Once DAN becomes clinically evident, no form of therapy has been identified, which can effectively stop or reverse it. Prevention strategies are based on strict glycemic control with intensive insulin treatment, multifactorial intervention, and lifestyle modification including control of hypertension, dyslipidemia, stop smoking, weight loss, and adequate physical exercise. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of DAN, with some mention to childhood and adolescent population. PMID:25520703

  19. Autonomous Science on the EO-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S.; Sherwood, R.; Tran, D.; Castano, R.; Cichy, B.; Davies, A.; Rabideau, G.; Tang, N.; Burl, M.; Mandl, D.; Frye, S.; Hengemihle, J.; Agostino, J. D.; Bote, R.; Trout, B.; Shulman, S.; Ungar, S.; Gaasbeck, J. Van; Boyer, D.; Griffin, M.; Burke, H.; Greeley, R.; Doggett, T.; Williams, K.; Baker, V.

    2003-01-01

    In mid-2003, we will fly software to detect science events that will drive autonomous scene selectionon board the New Millennium Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This software will demonstrate the potential for future space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect science events and respond autonomously to capture short-lived science events and to downlink only the highest value science data.

  20. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunctions and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Provini, Federica; Guaraldi, Pietro; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Cortelli, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    Animal and human studies have shown that disorders of the autonomic nervous system may influence sleep physiology. Conversely, sleep disorders may be associated with autonomic dysfunctions. The current review describes the clinical presentation, supposed pathogenetic mechanisms and the diagnostic and prognostic implications of impaired cardiovascular autonomic control in sleep disorders. This dysfunction may result from a common pathogenetic mechanism affecting both autonomic cardiovascular control and sleep, as in fatal familial insomnia, or it may be mainly caused by the sleep disorder, as observed in obstructive sleep apnoea. For other sleep disorders, like primary insomnia, restless legs syndrome, narcolepsy type 1 and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, the causal link with the autonomic dysfunction and its possible impact on health remains unsettled. Given its clinical implications, most of the data available suggest that a systematic assessment of the association between sleep disorders and impaired autonomic control of the cardiovascular system is warranted. Understanding the mechanism of this association may also yield insights into the interaction between the autonomic nervous system and sleep. PMID:26146026

  1. Coronagraph Focal-Plane Phase Masks Based on Photonic Crystal Technology: Recent Progress and Observational Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, Naoshi; Nishikawa, Jun; Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Ise, Akitoshi; Oka, Kazuhiko; Baba, Naoshi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Tamura, Motohide; Traub, Wesley A.; Mawet, Dimitri; Moody, Dwight C.; Kern, Brian D.; Trauger, John T.; Serabyn, Eugene; Hamaguchi, Shoki; Oshiyama, Fumika

    2012-01-01

    Photonic crystal, an artificial periodic nanostructure of refractive indices, is one of the attractive technologies for coronagraph focal-plane masks aiming at direct imaging and characterization of terrestrial extrasolar planets. We manufactured the eight-octant phase mask (8OPM) and the vector vortex mask (VVM) very precisely using the photonic crystal technology. Fully achromatic phase-mask coronagraphs can be realized by applying appropriate polarization filters to the masks. We carried out laboratory experiments of the polarization-filtered 8OPM coronagraph using the High-Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT), a state-of-the-art coronagraph simulator at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). We report the experimental results of 10-8-level contrast across several wavelengths over 10% bandwidth around 800nm. In addition, we present future prospects and observational strategy for the photonic-crystal mask coronagraphs combined with differential imaging techniques to reach higher contrast. We proposed to apply a polarization-differential imaging (PDI) technique to the VVM coronagraph, in which we built a two-channel coronagraph using polarizing beam splitters to avoid a loss of intensity due to the polarization filters. We also proposed to apply an angular-differential imaging (ADI) technique to the 8OPM coronagraph. The 8OPM/ADI mode avoids an intensity loss due to a phase transition of the mask and provides a full field of view around central stars. We present results of preliminary laboratory demonstrations of the PDI and ADI observational modes with the phase-mask coronagraphs.

  2. Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John

    2015-04-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  3. Observational Strategy of ACROSS towards the Time-evolving Natures in the Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumazawa, M.; Fujii, N.; Kasahara, J.

    2005-12-01

    ACROSS (Accurately Controlled, Routinely Operated Signal System) is aiming at the detection of very small changes in physical states in the lithosphere, particularly for the focal region of the anticipated huge earthquakes as demanded socially. Our technical challenge is to device an ideal methodology to enable us to acquire the ideal observation data towards the real understanding of the EarthOs interiors even under the inherent noise and physical limitations. We need light to illuminate the dark EarthOs interiors, eyes to observe them and a brain to interpret the result: The light should be designed well to be really coherent, the eyes with high fidelity should be accurately synchronized to the light transmission and the brain should be smart enough to evolve by itself. In order for the whole system to be robust against noise, we have to devise all that can be done. In addition, a significant demand is imposed onto us; non-destructiveness against our environment. The recent progress of technology makes it possible what was impossible several years, so that we try to find out the ideal way to go. We have spent about 10 years for developmental works, which started a moment before the disastrous Kobe earthquake of 1995. Now we believe that the background theory has been known in addition to some of the basic technology elements, whereas the user-friendly hardware and other auxiliary tools including practical theory and software have not been acquired yet. The examples of the field observation have started to accumulate for demonstration as reported by companion papers. The data acquired by ACROSS in seismology is not seismogram but tensor transfer function (Green function) in frequency domain. The data carry substantially new information with high quality and rigorous estimate of reliability. The availability of ACROSS would change the strategy for underground study in the coming years. We would like to call for your attention and discussion to the next way to go

  4. The Use of Classroom Walk-Through Observations as a Strategy to Improve Teaching and Learning: An Administrative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the possible use of structured classroom walk-through observations as a strategy to improve teaching and learning. A wide variety of programs and initiatives have recently been implemented across the country to improve student achievement. One such initiative is classroom walk-through observations.…

  5. ESA's STSE WACMOS Project: Towards a Water Cycle Multimission Observation Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Prieto, Diego; Su, Bob

    2010-05-01

    synergic manner; • Develop robust methodologies to integrate and assimilate space observations and in situ measurements into advance coupled models being able to describe biophysical processes and interactions between ocean, land and atmosphere describing the water cycle and hydrological processes; In this context, the European Space Agency (ESA) in collaboration with the Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) launched the project Water Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) early in 2009. The project, funded under the ESA's Support To Science Element, address the first of the above objectives. In particular, the project objective is twofold: • On the one hand, developing and validating a Product Portfolio of novel geo-information products responding to the GEWEX scientific priorities and exploiting the synergic capabilities between ESA EO data and other non-ESA missions. • Exploring and assessing different methodologies to exploit in a synergic manner different observations towards the development of long-term consistent datasets of key (essential) variables describing the water cycle. In this context, WACMOS is focused on four components of the above cycle that are also thematic priorities identified in close collaboration with the GEWEX scientific community: Evapotranspiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour. The product portfolio comprises: 1) AATSR-MERIS based evapotranspiration modelling approach; 2) Merged passive and active microwave first multi-decade soil moisture data set; 3) Novel MSG SEVIRI-SCIAMACHY cloud products and 4) Synergic SEVIRI-IASI and SEVIRI-MERIS water vapour products. In this paper, the methodologies and preliminary results of WACMOS are introduced. In the next phase of the project, consolidated methods, data products and validation results will be generated, so that a global water cycle product of evapotranpiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour with quantified

  6. Preparing for the WFIRST Microlensing Survey: Simulations, Requirements, Survey Strategies, and Precursor Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudi, Bernard

    -fidelity estimates of the science yield of bound planets, free floating planets, and potentially habitable planets. Goal 3: We will perform trade studies to determine the effect of different mission architectures on the yield, and optimization studies to determine the effect of different survey strategies on the yield within a given mission architecture. These studies will include considerations of the field location, number of fields and cadences, and filter properties and filter cadence choices. Goal 4: We will determine the precision with which the parameters of the detected planetary systems can be determined using all available constraints, and in particular provide the survey strategies and instrument requirements to enable the measurement host star masses and distances. Goal 5: We will determine the hardware, software, and calibration requirements needed to achieve our primary science goals. Goal 6: We will identify and carry out (where possible) precursor observations needed to inform our survey strategy and data reduction methodologies, verify our science output, and maximize the WFIRST scientific return. Goal 7: Where applicable, we will begin development of data reduction and analysis tools, and work with members of the WFIRST Science Centers to ensure that these tools are applicable to microlensing. We will issue data challenges, both to verify our methodologies, but also to draw people to the microlensing field.

  7. Observing microscopic structures of a relativistic object using a time-stretch strategy.

    PubMed

    Roussel, E; Evain, C; Le Parquier, M; Szwaj, C; Bielawski, S; Manceron, L; Brubach, J-B; Tordeux, M-A; Ricaud, J-P; Cassinari, L; Labat, M; Couprie, M-E; Roy, P

    2015-01-01

    Emission of light by a single electron moving on a curved trajectory (synchrotron radiation) is one of the most well-known fundamental radiation phenomena. However experimental situations are more complex as they involve many electrons, each being exposed to the radiation of its neighbors. This interaction has dramatic consequences, one of the most spectacular being the spontaneous formation of spatial structures inside electrons bunches. This fundamental effect is actively studied as it represents one of the most fundamental limitations in electron accelerators, and at the same time a source of intense terahertz radiation (Coherent Synchrotron Radiation, or CSR). Here we demonstrate the possibility to directly observe the electron bunch microstructures with subpicosecond resolution, in a storage ring accelerator. The principle is to monitor the terahertz pulses emitted by the structures, using a strategy from photonics, time-stretch, consisting in slowing-down the phenomena before recording. This opens the way to unpreceeded possibilities for analyzing and mastering new generation high power coherent synchrotron sources. PMID:26020859

  8. Observing microscopic structures of a relativistic object using a time-stretch strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussel, E.; Evain, C.; Le Parquier, M.; Szwaj, C.; Bielawski, S.; Manceron, L.; Brubach, J.-B.; Tordeux, M.-A.; Ricaud, J.-P.; Cassinari, L.; Labat, M.; Couprie, M.-E.; Roy, P.

    2015-05-01

    Emission of light by a single electron moving on a curved trajectory (synchrotron radiation) is one of the most well-known fundamental radiation phenomena. However experimental situations are more complex as they involve many electrons, each being exposed to the radiation of its neighbors. This interaction has dramatic consequences, one of the most spectacular being the spontaneous formation of spatial structures inside electrons bunches. This fundamental effect is actively studied as it represents one of the most fundamental limitations in electron accelerators, and at the same time a source of intense terahertz radiation (Coherent Synchrotron Radiation, or CSR). Here we demonstrate the possibility to directly observe the electron bunch microstructures with subpicosecond resolution, in a storage ring accelerator. The principle is to monitor the terahertz pulses emitted by the structures, using a strategy from photonics, time-stretch, consisting in slowing-down the phenomena before recording. This opens the way to unpreceeded possibilities for analyzing and mastering new generation high power coherent synchrotron sources.

  9. Observing microscopic structures of a relativistic object using a time-stretch strategy

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, E.; Evain, C.; Le Parquier, M.; Szwaj, C.; Bielawski, S.; Manceron, L.; Brubach, J.-B.; Tordeux, M.-A.; Ricaud, J.-P.; Cassinari, L.; Labat, M.; Couprie, M.-E; Roy, P.

    2015-01-01

    Emission of light by a single electron moving on a curved trajectory (synchrotron radiation) is one of the most well-known fundamental radiation phenomena. However experimental situations are more complex as they involve many electrons, each being exposed to the radiation of its neighbors. This interaction has dramatic consequences, one of the most spectacular being the spontaneous formation of spatial structures inside electrons bunches. This fundamental effect is actively studied as it represents one of the most fundamental limitations in electron accelerators, and at the same time a source of intense terahertz radiation (Coherent Synchrotron Radiation, or CSR). Here we demonstrate the possibility to directly observe the electron bunch microstructures with subpicosecond resolution, in a storage ring accelerator. The principle is to monitor the terahertz pulses emitted by the structures, using a strategy from photonics, time-stretch, consisting in slowing-down the phenomena before recording. This opens the way to unpreceeded possibilities for analyzing and mastering new generation high power coherent synchrotron sources. PMID:26020859

  10. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. PMID:25744760

  11. Autonomous Multi-sensor Coordination: The Science Goal Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Jung, John; Geiger, Jenny; Grosvenor, Sandy

    2004-01-01

    Next-generation science and exploration systems will employ new observation strategies that will use multiple sensors in a dynamic environment to provide high quality monitoring, self-consistent analyses and informed decision making. The Science Goal Monitor (SGM) is a prototype software tool being developed to explore the nature of automation necessary to enable dynamic observing of earth phenomenon. The tools being developed in SGM improve our ability to autonomously monitor multiple independent sensors and coordinate reactions to better observe the dynamic phenomena. The SGM system enables users to specify events of interest and how to react when an event is detected. The system monitors streams of data to identify occurrences of the key events previously specified by the scientist/user. When an event occurs, the system autonomously coordinates the execution of the users desired reactions between different sensors. The information can be used to rapidly respond to a variety of fast temporal events. Investigators will no longer have to rely on after-the-fact data analysis to determine what happened. Our paper describes a series of prototype demonstrations that we have developed using SGM and NASA's Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite and Earth Observing Systems Aqua/Terra spacecrafts MODIS instrument. Our demonstrations show the promise of coordinating data from different sources, analyzing the data for a relevant event, autonomously updating and rapidly obtaining a follow-on relevant image. SGM is being used to investigate forest fires, floods and volcanic eruptions. We are now identifying new earth science scenarios that will have more complex SGM reasoning. By developing and testing a prototype in an operational environment, we are also establishing and gathering metrics to gauge the success of automating science campaigns.

  12. Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Man, G.; Patel, K.

    1998-01-01

    It is our aim by launching a series of workshops on the topic of highly autonomous systems to reach out to the larger community interested in technology development for remotely deployed systems, particularly those for exploration.

  13. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

  14. An expansion of glider observation strategies to systematically transmit and analyze preferred waypoints of underwater gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedstad, Lucy F.; Barron, Charlie N.; Bourg, Rachel N.; Brooking, Michael W.; Bryant, Danielle A.; Carr, Robert J.; Heaney, Kevin D.; Holmberg, Edward A.; Mask, Andrea C.; Mensi, Bryan L.

    2015-05-01

    The Glider Observation STrategies (GOST) system provides real-time assistance to ocean glider pilots by suggesting preferred ocean glider waypoints based on ocean forecasts and their uncertainties. Restrictions on waterspace, preferred operational areas, and other glider trajectories are also taken into account. Using existing operational regional Navy Coastal Ocean Model (RNCOM) output, demonstrations of glider waypoint calculation are ongoing in Navy operational areas. After the ocean forecast models and GOST components run at the Navy DoD Supercomputing Resource Center (Navy DSRC), GOST-suggested glider paths are transferred to the Glider Operations Center (GOC). The glider pilots at the GOC import this information into their Unmanned Systems Interface (USI), developed at the University of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratory (APL-UW) to evaluate the suggested glider paths, make adjustments, and update waypoints for the gliders. The waypoints being sent are visualized and analyzed using graphic capabilities to convey guidance uncertainty developed under a grant to the University of New Orleans (UNO) and added under the Environmental Measurements Path Planner (EMPath) system within GOST. USI forwards automatic messages from the gliders with recent glider location, speed, and depth to GOST for the next cycle. Over the course of these demonstrations, capabilities were added or modified including use of initial glider bearing, preferred path, refinement of glider turn frequency, correction of glider speed, and introduction of glider rendezvous locations. Automation has been added with help from the modeling group at the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO). GOST supports NAVOCEANO's ongoing efforts to direct and recover gliders, to safely navigate in changing ocean conditions, and to provide feedback to improve ocean model prediction.

  15. A Collaborative Knowledge Plane for Autonomic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbaye, Maïssa; Krief, Francine

    Autonomic networking aims to give network components self-managing capabilities. Several autonomic architectures have been proposed. Each of these architectures includes sort of a knowledge plane which is very important to mimic an autonomic behavior. Knowledge plane has a central role for self-functions by providing suitable knowledge to equipment and needs to learn new strategies for more accuracy.However, defining knowledge plane's architecture is still a challenge for researchers. Specially, defining the way cognitive supports interact each other in knowledge plane and implementing them. Decision making process depends on these interactions between reasoning and learning parts of knowledge plane. In this paper we propose a knowledge plane's architecture based on machine learning (inductive logic programming) paradigm and situated view to deal with distributed environment. This architecture is focused on two self-functions that include all other self-functions: self-adaptation and self-organization. Study cases are given and implemented.

  16. Evaluation of different processing strategies of Continuous GPS (CGPS) observations for landslide monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferhat, Gilbert; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Ulrich, Patrice

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate several processing strategies of satellite navigation systems observations for the near-real time characterization of landslide displacement from continuous dual-frequency and mono-frequency GPS receivers. By tracking the electromagnetic waves that the satellites are sending continuously, the navigation system can provide the antenna position (longitude, latitude, and height, or X, Y, Z coordinates). The use of the phase measurements allows determining the relative positions of points located as far as several hundred kilometres apart with an accuracy of 2-5 mm in horizontal and 5-10 mm in vertical. This accuracy allows the fast detection of small displacements and, thus the survey of the temporal evolution of crustal deformation and natural hazards (volcanoes, tectonic faults, ice glaciers, landslides). Since a few years, several CGPS (Continuous Global Positioning System) receivers have been installed on active landslides in France (e.g. La Clapière rockslide, Avignonet and Villerville rotational slides, Super-Sauze and La Valette mudslides). These landslides show very different displacement rates (ranging from a few centimetres to several meters per year) and different kinematic regimes (e.g. continuous displacement of nearly constant rate or succession of periods of acceleration/deceleration). All landslides are part of the French 'Observatory of Landslides' (OMIV), a collaborative structure aiming at collecting the same type of kinematic, hydrologic and seismic observations on landslides and at disseminating the data to the scientific community. For the monitoring of landslides where the required degree of accuracy in position is about a few mm, GPS has been mainly used for repeated measurements, as a complement to conventional geodetic methods. Permanent monitoring is still not usually performed operationally on landslides mostly because of the cost of the receivers compared to conventional deformation monitoring

  17. Toward an Autonomous Telescope Network: the TBT Scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racero, E.; Ibarra, A.; Ocaña, F.; de Lis, S. B.; Ponz, J. D.; Castillo, M.; Sánchez-Portal, M.

    2015-09-01

    Within the ESA SSA program, it is foreseen to deploy several robotic telescopes to provide surveillance and tracking services for hazardous objects. The TBT project will procure a validation platform for an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario, consisting of two telescopes located in Spain and Australia, to collect representative test data for precursor SSA services. In this context, the planning and scheduling of the night consists of two software modules, the TBT Scheduler, that will allow the manual and autonomous planning of the night, and the control of the real-time response of the system, done by the RTS2 internal scheduler. The TBT Scheduler allocates tasks for both telescopes without human intervention. Every night it takes all the inputs needed and prepares the schedule following some predefined rules. The main purpose of the scheduler is the distribution of the time for follow-up of recently discovered targets and surveys. The TBT Scheduler considers the overall performance of the system, and combine follow-up with a priori survey strategies for both kind of objects. The strategy is defined according to the expected combined performance for both systems the upcoming night (weather, sky brightness, object accessibility and priority). Therefore, TBT Scheduler defines the global approach for the network and relies on the RTS2 internal scheduler for the final detailed distribution of tasks at each sensor.

  18. Thinking Ahead: Autonomic Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R. )

    2002-08-31

    The time has come for the commercial buildings industries to reconsider the very nature of the systems installed in facilities today and to establish a vision for future buildings that differs from anything in the history of human shelter. Drivers for this examination include reductions in building operation staffs; uncertain costs and reliability of electric power; growing interest in energy-efficient and resource-conserving?green? and?high-performance? commercial buildings; and a dramatic increase in security concerns since the tragic events of September 11. This paper introduces a new paradigm? autonomic buildings? which parallels the concept of autonomic computing, introduced by IBM as a fundamental change in the way computer networks work. Modeled after the human nervous system,?autonomic systems? themselves take responsibility for a large portion of their own operation and even maintenance. For commercial buildings, autonomic systems could provide environments that afford occupants greater opportunity to focus on the things we do in buildings rather than on operation of the building itself, while achieving higher performance levels, increased security, and better use of energy and other natural resources. The author uses the human body and computer networking to introduce and illustrate this new paradigm for high-performance commercial buildings. He provides a vision for the future of commercial buildings based on autonomicity, identifies current research that could contribute to this future, and highlights research and technological gaps. The paper concludes with a set of issues and needs that are key to converting this idealized future into reality.

  19. Pure autonomic failure.

    PubMed

    Garland, Emily M; Hooper, William B; Robertson, David

    2013-01-01

    A 1925 report by Bradbury and Eggleston first described patients with extreme orthostatic hypotension and a low, steady heart rate. Evidence accumulated over the next two decades that patients with orthostatic hypotension include those with pure autonomic failure (PAF), characterized by isolated peripheral autonomic dysfunction and decreased norepinephrine synthesis; multiple system atrophy (MSA) with symptoms of a central Parkinson-like syndrome and normal resting plasma norepinephrine; and Parkinson's disease (PD), with lesions in postganglionic noradrenergic neurons and signs of autonomic dysfunction. All three disorders are classified as α-synucleinopathies. Insoluble deposits of α-synuclein are found in glia in MSA, whereas they take the form of neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions called Lewy bodies in PAF and PD. The exact relationship between α-synuclein deposits and the pathology remains undetermined. PAF occurs sporadically, and progresses slowly with a relatively good prognosis. However, it has been proposed that some cases of PAF may develop a central neurodegenerative disorder. Differentiation between PAF, MSA, and PD with autonomic failure can be facilitated by a number of biochemical and functional tests and by imaging studies. Cardiac sympathetic innervation is generally intact in MSA but decreased or absent in Parkinson's disease with autonomic failure and PAF. Treatment of PAF is directed at relieving symptoms with nonpharmacological interventions and with medications producing volume expansion and vasoconstriction. Future studies should focus on determining the factors that lead to central rather than solely peripheral neurodegeneration. PMID:24095130

  20. Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System after Hemispheric Cerebrovascular Disorders: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qudah, Zaid A.; Yacoub, Hussam A.; Souayah, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic and cardiac dysfunction may occur after vascular brain injury without any evidence of primary heart disease. During acute stroke, autonomic dysfunction, for example, elevated arterial blood pressure, arrhythmia, and ischemic cardiac damage, has been reported, which may hinder the prognosis. Autonomic dysfunction after a stroke may involve the cardiovascular, respiratory, sudomotor, and sexual systems, but the exact mechanism is not fully understood. In this review paper, we will discuss the anatomy and physiology of the autonomic nervous system and discuss the mechanism(s) suggested to cause autonomic dysfunction after stroke. We will further elaborate on the different cerebral regions involved in autonomic dysfunction complications of stroke. Autonomic nervous system modulation is emerging as a new therapeutic target for stroke management. Understanding the pathogenesis and molecular mechanism(s) of parasympathetic and sympathetic dysfunction after stroke will facilitate the implementation of preventive and therapeutic strategies to antagonize the clinical manifestation of autonomic dysfunction and improve the outcome of stroke. PMID:26576215

  1. Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System after Hemispheric Cerebrovascular Disorders: An Update.

    PubMed

    Al-Qudah, Zaid A; Yacoub, Hussam A; Souayah, Nizar

    2015-10-01

    Autonomic and cardiac dysfunction may occur after vascular brain injury without any evidence of primary heart disease. During acute stroke, autonomic dysfunction, for example, elevated arterial blood pressure, arrhythmia, and ischemic cardiac damage, has been reported, which may hinder the prognosis. Autonomic dysfunction after a stroke may involve the cardiovascular, respiratory, sudomotor, and sexual systems, but the exact mechanism is not fully understood. In this review paper, we will discuss the anatomy and physiology of the autonomic nervous system and discuss the mechanism(s) suggested to cause autonomic dysfunction after stroke. We will further elaborate on the different cerebral regions involved in autonomic dysfunction complications of stroke. Autonomic nervous system modulation is emerging as a new therapeutic target for stroke management. Understanding the pathogenesis and molecular mechanism(s) of parasympathetic and sympathetic dysfunction after stroke will facilitate the implementation of preventive and therapeutic strategies to antagonize the clinical manifestation of autonomic dysfunction and improve the outcome of stroke. PMID:26576215

  2. Architecture of autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

  3. Architecture of autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1986-01-01

    Automation of Space Station functions and activities, particularly those involving robotic capabilities with interactive or supervisory human control, is a complex, multi-disciplinary systems design problem. A wide variety of applications using autonomous control can be found in the literature, but none of them seem to address the problem in general. All of them are designed with a specific application in mind. In this report, an abstract model is described which unifies the key concepts underlying the design of automated systems such as those studied by the aerospace contractors. The model has been kept as general as possible. The attempt is to capture all the key components of autonomous systems. With a little effort, it should be possible to map the functions of any specific autonomous system application to the model presented here.

  4. Exercise and autonomic function.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, R L; Bloomfield, D M; Rosenwinkel, E T

    2000-03-01

    The complex interplay between the dichotomous subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system establishes and maintains a delicately tuned homeostasis in spite of an ever-changing environment. Aerobic exercise training can increase activity of the parasympathetic nervous system and decrease sympathetic activity. Conversely, it is well-documented that cardiac disease is often characterized by attenuated parasympathetic activity and heightened sympathetic tone. A correlation between autonomic disequilibrium and disease has led to the hypothesis that exercise training, as a therapy that restores the autonomic nervous system towards normal function, may be associated with, and possibly responsible for, outcome improvements in various populations. This is merely one of the many benefits that is conferred by chronic exercise training and reviewed in this issue. PMID:10758814

  5. Drug Control: Observations on Elements of the Federal Drug Control Strategy. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.

    Although the United States government invests vast sums of money in the war on drugs, the availability of drugs and the number of persons using illegal drugs are still serious problems. Information that Congress can use in improving drug control strategies is provided here. Some of the report's highlights include current research on promising…

  6. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    DOEpatents

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne

    2015-03-10

    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  7. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Niamh

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy often goes unrecognized. We present a case of a 22-year-old man with multiple manifestations of this disease, including weakness, dizziness, fatigue, tachycardia, abnormal QTc, and orthostasis, which occurred 2 years after his type 1 diabetes diagnosis. He exhibited parasympathetic denervation with resting tachycardia and exercise intolerance but also had evidence of orthostatic hypotension, which suggests sympathetic denervation. He did not have complete cardiovascular autonomic reflex testing, which would have been helpful, but improved with aggressive diabetes treatment and the increase of beta-blockade. It is important to identify these patients to understand their signs and symptoms and consider appropriate therapies. PMID:27034552

  8. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Niamh; Silverman, Barry

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy often goes unrecognized. We present a case of a 22-year-old man with multiple manifestations of this disease, including weakness, dizziness, fatigue, tachycardia, abnormal QTc, and orthostasis, which occurred 2 years after his type 1 diabetes diagnosis. He exhibited parasympathetic denervation with resting tachycardia and exercise intolerance but also had evidence of orthostatic hypotension, which suggests sympathetic denervation. He did not have complete cardiovascular autonomic reflex testing, which would have been helpful, but improved with aggressive diabetes treatment and the increase of beta-blockade. It is important to identify these patients to understand their signs and symptoms and consider appropriate therapies. PMID:27034552

  9. The Autonomous Helicopter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, John F.

    1984-06-01

    This paper describes an autonomous airborne vehicle being developed at the Georgia Tech Engineering Experiment Station. The Autonomous Helicopter System (AHS) is a multi-mission system consisting of three distinct sections: vision, planning and control. Vision provides the local and global scene analysis which is symbolically represented and passed to planning as the initial route planning constraints. Planning generates a task dependent path for the vehicle to traverse which assures maximum mission system success as well as safety. Control validates the path and either executes the given route or feeds back to previous sections in order to resolve conflicts.

  10. The autonomic nervous system and renal physiology

    PubMed Central

    D’Elia, John A; Weinrauch, Larry A

    2013-01-01

    Research in resistant hypertension has again focused on autonomic nervous system denervation – 50 years after it had been stopped due to postural hypotension and availability of newer drugs. These (ganglionic blockers) drugs have all been similarly stopped, due to postural hypotension and yet newer antihypertensive agents. Recent demonstration of the feasibility of limited regional transcatheter sympathetic denervation has excited clinicians due to potential therapeutic implications. Standard use of ambulatory blood pressure recording equipment may alter our understanding of the diagnosis, potential treatment strategies, and health care outcomes – when faced with patients whose office blood pressure remains in the hypertensive range – while under treatment with three antihypertensive drugs at the highest tolerable doses, plus a diuretic. We review herein clinical relationships between autonomic function, resistant hypertension, current treatment strategies, and reflect upon the possibility of changes in our approach to resistant hypertension. PMID:24039445

  11. Selecting and purifying autonomous human variable heavy (VH) domains.

    PubMed

    Tonikian, Raffi; Sidhu, Sachdev S

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies are invaluable macromolecules effectively utilized as detection reagents and therapeutics. Traditionally, researchers have relied upon the entire immunoglobulin molecule, however advances in protein engineering have ushered the use of antibody fragments as equally important biological tools such that at present, the downstream application generally dictates the antibody format employed. We provide herein robust and proven protocols for the isolation of autonomous human antibody variable heavy domains (VH). The strategy utilizes combinatorial phage-displayed libraries targeting human VH domain positions previously shown to promote autonomous behavior, and selection against a specified antigen. Subsequently, autonomous VH domains are characterized and chosen using standard biophysical methods. PMID:22886261

  12. Control problems in Autonomous Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, S. P.; Schwartzkopf, S. H.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    Autonomous Life Support Systems (ALSS) are envisioned for long range permanence in space. ALSS would require little or no input of matter for extended periods of time. The design of such a system involves an understanding of both ecological principles and control theory of nonlinear, ill-defined systems. A distinction is drawn between ecosystem survival strategies and the aims of control theory. Experimental work is under way to help combine the two approaches.

  13. Learning for autonomous navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Autonomous off-road navigation of robotic ground vehicles has important applications on Earth and in space exploration. Progress in this domain has been retarded by the limited lookahead range of 3-D sensors and by the difficulty of preprogramming systems to understand the traversability of the wide variety of terrain they can encounter.

  14. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  15. Integrating Observations and Knowledges for Earthquake Precursors Studies. Preliminary results and strategy of PRE-EARTHQUAKES FP7 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutoli, V.; Inan, S.; Jakowski, N.; Pulinets, S. A.; Romanov, A.; Filizzola, C.; Shagimuratov, I.; Pergola, N.; Genzano, N.; Alparslan, E.; Wilken, V.; Tsybulia, K.; Romanov, A.; Paciello, R.; Zakharenkova, I.; Lisi, M.; Borrries, C.; Trusov, S.; Coviello, I.; PRE-EARTHQUAKES Team

    2011-12-01

    From the combined use of different observations/parameters, from the refinement of data analysis methods and the development of suitable physical models, we are expecting major progresses in the research on earthquake's preparatory phases. More than from the use of a single parameter approach, reduced false alarm rates and improved reliability and precision (in the space-time domain) of predictions, are expected from a multi-parameter observational, multi-disciplinary, research, strategy. Less than one year after its start, PRE-EARTHQUAKES FP7 Project already demonstrated its capability to commit together independent expertise and different observation capabilities in order: a) to substantially improve our knowledge of preparatory phases of earthquakes and their possible precursors; b) to promote a worldwide Earthquake Observation System (EQuOS) as a dedicated component of GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems); c) to develop and offer to the international scientific community an integration platform where independent observations and new data analysis methodologies devoted to the research on/of earthquake precursors can be collected and cross-validated. In this paper results achieved so far, in particular on the earthquakes selected as test cases occurred in recent years in Italy (M6.3 Abruzzo April 2009), Sakhalin (M6,2, Nevelsk, August 2007) and Turkey (M6,1, Elazig March 2010) will be presented emphasizing the significant added values guaranteed by a multi-parameter, multi-disciplinary strategy.

  16. Software Architecture for Autonomous Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Jimmy S.

    1997-01-01

    The thesis objective is to design an autonomous spacecraft architecture to perform both deliberative and reactive behaviors. The Autonomous Small Planet In-Situ Reaction to Events (ASPIRE) project uses the architecture to integrate several autonomous technologies for a comet orbiter mission.

  17. Lessons Learned from Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Boyer, Darrell; Hayden, Sandra; Sweet, Adam; Christa, Scott

    2005-01-01

    An Autonomous Science Agent has been flying onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft since 2003. This software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and responds to science events occurring on the Earth such as volcanoes, flooding, and snow melt. The package includes AI-based software systems that perform science data analysis, deliberative planning, and run-time robust execution. This software is in routine use to fly the EO-l mission. In this paper we briefly review the agent architecture and discuss lessons learned from this multi-year flight effort pertinent to deployment of software agents to critical applications.

  18. Planning and Execution for an Autonomous Aerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, Daniel M.; Estlin, Tara A.; Schaffer, Steven R.; Chouinard, Caroline M.

    2010-01-01

    The Aerial Onboard Autonomous Science Investigation System (AerOASIS) system provides autonomous planning and execution capabilities for aerial vehicles (see figure). The system is capable of generating high-quality operations plans that integrate observation requests from ground planning teams, as well as opportunistic science events detected onboard the vehicle while respecting mission and resource constraints. AerOASIS allows an airborne planetary exploration vehicle to summarize and prioritize the most scientifically relevant data; identify and select high-value science sites for additional investigation; and dynamically plan, schedule, and monitor the various science activities being performed, even during extended communications blackout periods with Earth.

  19. Observation of Pupils and Teachers in Mainstream and Special Education Settings: Alternative Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Richard A., Ed.; Wood, Frank H., Ed.

    Presented are 12 papers which focus on four systematized methods of classroom observation. Stressed is the importance of formal, systematic observation as a tool for viewing and recording pupil behaviors and insuring that the individual child's needs are met in both the mainstream and special education settings. R. Brandt offers an historical…

  20. Observational Learning by Individuals with Autism: A Review of Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plavnick, Joshua B.; Hume, Kara A.

    2014-01-01

    Observational learning is the process used to explain the acquisition of novel behaviors or performance of previously acquired behaviors under novel conditions after observing the behavior of another person and the consequences that follow the behavior. Many learners with autism do not attend to environmental stimuli at a level sufficient to learn…

  1. Field observations and management strategy for hot spring wastewater in Wulai area, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, J Y; Chen, C F; Lei, F R; Hsieh, C D

    2010-01-01

    Hot springs are important centers for recreation and tourism. However, the pollution that may potentially be caused by hot spring wastewater has rarely been discussed. More than half of Taiwan's hot springs are located in areas where the water quality of water bodies is to be protected, and untreated wastewater could pollute the receiving water bodies. In this study, we investigate hot spring wastewater in the Wulai area, one of Taiwan's famous hot spring resorts. Used water from five hot spring hotels was sampled and ten sampling events were carried out to evaluate the changes in the quality of used water in different seasons, at different periods of the week, and from different types of hotels. The concentrations of different pollutants in hot spring wastewater were found to exhibit wide variations, as follows: COD, 10-250 mg/L; SS, N.D.-93 mg/L; NH(3)-N, 0.01-1.93 mg/L; TP, 0.01-0.45 mg/L; and E. coli, 10-27,500 CFU/100 mL. The quality of hot spring wastewater depends on the operation of public pools, because this affects the frequency of supplementary fresh water and the outflow volume. Two management strategies, namely, onsite treatment systems and individually packaged treatment equipment, are considered, and a multi-objective optimization model is used to determine the optimal strategy. PMID:20418628

  2. A Proposed Strategy for the U.S. to Develop and Maintain a Mainstream Capability Suite ("Warehouse") for Automated/Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking in Low Earth Orbit and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S.; Stillwater, Ryan A.; Babula, Maria; Moreau, Michael C.; Riedel, J. Ed; Mrozinski, Richard B.; Bradley, Arthur; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    The ability of space assets to rendezvous and dock/capture/berth is a fundamental enabler for numerous classes of NASA fs missions, and is therefore an essential capability for the future of NASA. Mission classes include: ISS crew rotation, crewed exploration beyond low-Earth-orbit (LEO), on-orbit assembly, ISS cargo supply, crewed satellite servicing, robotic satellite servicing / debris mitigation, robotic sample return, and robotic small body (e.g. near-Earth object, NEO) proximity operations. For a variety of reasons to be described, NASA programs requiring Automated/Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking/Capture/Berthing (AR&D) capabilities are currently spending an order-of-magnitude more than necessary and taking twice as long as necessary to achieve their AR&D capability, "reinventing the wheel" for each program, and have fallen behind all of our foreign counterparts in AR&D technology (especially autonomy) in the process. To ensure future missions' reliability and crew safety (when applicable), to achieve the noted cost and schedule savings by eliminate costs of continually "reinventing the wheel ", the NASA AR&D Community of Practice (CoP) recommends NASA develop an AR&D Warehouse, detailed herein, which does not exist today. The term "warehouse" is used herein to refer to a toolbox or capability suite that has pre-integrated selectable supply-chain hardware and reusable software components that are considered ready-to-fly, low-risk, reliable, versatile, scalable, cost-effective, architecture and destination independent, that can be confidently utilized operationally on human spaceflight and robotic vehicles over a variety of mission classes and design reference missions, especially beyond LEO. The CoP also believes that it is imperative that NASA coordinate and integrate all current and proposed technology development activities into a cohesive cross-Agency strategy to produce and utilize this AR&D warehouse. An initial estimate indicates that if NASA

  3. Clarifying observed relationships between protective behavioral strategies and alcohol outcomes: The importance of response options.

    PubMed

    Braitman, Abby L; Henson, James M; Carey, Kate B

    2015-06-01

    Protective behavioral strategies (PBS), or harm-reduction behaviors that can potentially reduce alcohol consumption or associated problems, have been assessed in varied ways throughout the literature. Existing scales vary in focus (i.e., broad vs. narrow), and importantly, in response options (i.e., absolute frequency vs. contingent frequency). Absolute frequency conflates PBS use with number of drinking occasions, resulting in inconsistencies in the relationship between PBS use and alcohol outcomes, whereas contingent frequency is less precise, which could reduce power. The current study proposes the use of absolute frequencies to maximize precision, with an adjustment for number of drinking days to extricate PBS use from drinking occasions, resulting in a contingent score. Study 1 examined the associations between PBS subscales using the Strategy Questionnaire (Sugarman & Carey, 2007) and alcohol outcomes, finding that in raw score form the association between PBS and typical alcohol outcomes varied greatly from significantly positive to significantly negative, but adjusted score relationships were all consistent with harm reduction perspectives. In addition, curvilinear relationships with typical alcohol use were eliminated using the score adjustment, resulting in linear associations. Study 2 confirmed the findings from Study 1 with a more precise timeframe, additional alcohol assessments, and heavier college drinkers. The relationships between alcohol outcomes and PBS in raw score form were again varied, but became consistently negative using the score adjustment. Researchers examining PBS and related constructs should consider modifying current scales to include a precise frequency response scale that is adjusted to account for number of drinking occasions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25180560

  4. Impact of ventilation strategies during chest compression. An experimental study with clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Cordioli, Ricardo L; Lyazidi, Aissam; Rey, Nathalie; Granier, Jean-Max; Savary, Dominique; Brochard, Laurent; Richard, Jean-Christophe M

    2016-01-15

    The optimal ventilation strategy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is unknown. Chest compression (CC) generates circulation, while during decompression, thoracic recoil generates negative pressure and venous return. Continuous flow insufflation of oxygen (CFI) allows noninterrupted CC and generates positive airway pressure (Paw). The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of positive Paw compared with the current recommended ventilation strategy on intrathoracic pressure (P(IT)) variations, ventilation, and lung volume. In a mechanical model, allowing compression of the thorax below an equilibrium volume mimicking functional residual capacity (FRC), CC alone or with manual bag ventilation were compared with two levels of Paw with CFI. Lung volume change below FRC at the end of decompression and P(IT), as well as estimated alveolar ventilation, were measured during the bench study. Recordings were obtained in five cardiac arrest patients to confirm the bench findings. Lung volume was continuously below FRC, and as a consequence P(IT) remained negative during decompression in all situations, including with positive Paw. Compared with manual bag or CC alone, CFI with positive Paw limited the fall in lung volume and resulted in larger positive and negative P(IT) variations. Positive Paw with CFI significantly augmented ventilation induced by CC. Recordings in patients confirmed a major loss of lung volume below FRC during CPR, even with positive Paw. Compared with manual bag ventilation, positive Paw associated with CFI limits the loss in lung volume, enhances CC-induced positive P(IT), maintains negative P(IT) during decompression, and generates more alveolar ventilation. PMID:26586906

  5. Science objectives and observing strategy for the OMEGA imaging spectrometer on Mars-Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erard, S.; Bibring, J.-P.; Drossart, P.; Forget, F.; Schmitt, B.; OMEGA Team

    2003-04-01

    The science objectives of OMEGA, which were first defined at the time of instruments selection for Mars-Express, were recently updated to integrate new results from MGS and Odyssey concerning three main fields: Martian surface and atmosphere, and polar processes. Thematic categories of observations are derived from the scientific objectives whenever spectral observations from OMEGA are expected to provide insights to Mars present situation and evolution. Targets within these categories are selected on the basis of their expected usefulness, which is related to their intrinsic properties and to the instrument capabilities. The whole surface will be mapped at low resolution (~5 km/pixel) in the course of the nominal mission, and possibly routinely at very coarse resolution to monitor time-varying processes from apocenter. However, only 5% of the surface can be observed at high resolution (up to 350 m/pixel) owing to constraints on telemetry rate. HR targets are therefore selected on the basis of telemetry constraints, orbital parameters, observing opportunities (visibility under given conditions), and spacecraft functionalities (e.g., depointing capacity), then prioritized within each category according to the probability to perform significant observations with OMEGA (in many situations, according to the estimated dust coverage). Target selection is performed interactively between OMEGA co-Is, in close contact with teams from other MEx experiments (mostly HRSC, PFS and Spicam) and other missions (e.g., MER and MRO). Most HR surface targets are selected on the basis of deep examination of Viking, THEMIS, and MOC HR images. Other surface targets include areas presenting unusual spectral properties in previous observations, or suspected to exhibit signatures of hydrothermal activity. Proposed landing sites and suggested source areas for the SNC meteorites are also included. Atmospheric/polar objectives more often translate as particular observing modes, sometimes at HR

  6. Autonomic dysfunction in early breast cancer: Incidence, clinical importance, and underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lakoski, Susan G; Jones, Lee W; Krone, Ronald J; Stein, Phyllis K; Scott, Jessica M

    2015-08-01

    Autonomic dysfunction represents a loss of normal autonomic control of the cardiovascular system associated with both sympathetic nervous system overdrive and reduced efficacy of the parasympathetic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction is a strong predictor of future coronary heart disease, vascular disease, and sudden cardiac death. In the current review, we will discuss the clinical importance of autonomic dysfunction as a cardiovascular risk marker among breast cancer patients. We will review the effects of antineoplastic therapy on autonomic function, as well as discuss secondary exposures, such as psychological stress, sleep disturbances, weight gain/metabolic derangements, and loss of cardiorespiratory fitness, which may negatively impact autonomic function in breast cancer patients. Lastly, we review potential strategies to improve autonomic function in this population. The perspective can help guide new therapeutic interventions to promote longevity and cardiovascular health among breast cancer survivors. PMID:26299219

  7. Autonomic Dysfunction in Early Breast Cancer: Incidence, Clinical Importance, and Underlying Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Lakoski, Susan G.; Jones, Lee W.; Krone, Ronald J.; Stein, Phyllis K.; Scott, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction represents a loss of normal autonomic control of the cardiovascular system associated with both sympathetic nervous system overdrive and reduced efficacy of the parasympathetic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction is a strong predictor of future coronary heart disease, vascular disease and sudden cardiac death. In the current review, we will discuss the clinical importance of autonomic dysfunction as a cardiovascular risk marker among breast cancer patients. We will review the effects of antineoplastic therapy on autonomic function, as well as discuss secondary exposures, such as psychological stress, sleep disturbances, weight gain/metabolic derangements, and loss of cardiorespiratory fitness which may negatively impact autonomic function in breast cancer patients. Lastly, we review potential strategies to improve autonomic function in this population. The perspective can help guide new therapeutic interventions to promote longevity and cardiovascular health among breast cancer survivors. PMID:26299219

  8. Latest Sea-Operations in the Macaronesian region with Unmanned Autonomous Marine Gliding Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, Carlos; Lorenzo, Alvaro; Viera, Josue; Morales, Tania; Vega, Daura; Rueda, Maria Jose; Llinas, Octavio

    2013-04-01

    Current advances on key marine technology fields provide nowadays a broad range of autonomous unmanned platforms addressed for an efficient and cost-effective ocean observation, with a suitable level of success in terms of endurance, reliability and useful gathered information. In this context, a multidisciplinary family of unmanned autonomous vehicles addressed to monitor both coastal and open-ocean areas plays a relevant role. During the last month, some of the newest unmanned gliding vehicle technologies have been tested within the context of the Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands (PLOCAN) in varied operational scenarios aiming different technical and scientific purposes, all of them joined in direct partnership with the company provider and other R&D institutions in some cases. Among others, representative examples in this way are the missions under the name Challenger One, Vulcano and SB02 through surface and underwater gliding vehicles, performed mostly in the surrounding subtropical waters of the ESTOC site observatory in the Canary Islands archipelago. The main gathered operational and scientific results from these missions are presented in this work as a sign of new ocean observing technologies within the framework of the Macaronesian Marine and Maritime Observation Strategy (R3M) and linked with the current European rules programs and projects in this field. Keywords: autonomous vehicle, gliders, R3M, ocean observatory, monitoring, marine robotics, ESTOC,

  9. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, Jerry L.; Petrik, Edward J.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Truong, Long Van; Quinn, Todd; Krawczonek, Walter M.

    1990-01-01

    The Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) system was designed to monitor and diagnose fault conditions that occur within the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (SSF/EPS) Testbed. APEX is designed to interface with SSF/EPS testbed power management controllers to provide enhanced autonomous operation and control capability. The APEX architecture consists of three components: (1) a rule-based expert system, (2) a testbed data acquisition interface, and (3) a power scheduler interface. Fault detection, fault isolation, justification of probable causes, recommended actions, and incipient fault analysis are the main functions of the expert system component. The data acquisition component requests and receives pertinent parametric values from the EPS testbed and asserts the values into a knowledge base. Power load profile information is obtained from a remote scheduler through the power scheduler interface component. The current APEX design and development work is discussed. Operation and use of APEX by way of the user interface screens is also covered.

  10. Mobile Autonomous Humanoid Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Tyree, K. S.; Goza, S. M.; Huber, E. L.

    2004-01-01

    A mobile autonomous humanoid robot is assisting human co-workers at the Johnson Space Center with tool handling tasks. This robot combines the upper body of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Robonaut system with a Segway(TradeMark) Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid perfect for aiding human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereo vision to locate human team mates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form human assistant behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  11. The Asian Dust and Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (AD-NET): Strategy and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Matsui, Ichiro; Shimizu, Atsushi; Higurashi, Akiko; Jin, Yoshitaka

    2016-06-01

    We have operated a ground-based lidar network AD-Net using dual wavelength (532, 1064nm) depolarization Mie lidar continuously and observed movement of Asian dust and air pollution aerosols in East Asia since 2001. This lidar network observation contributed to understanding of the occurrence and transport mechanisms of Asian dust, validation of chemical transport models, data assimilation and epidemiologic studies. To better understand the optical and microphysical properties, externally and internally mixing states, and the movements of Asian dust and airpollution aerosols, we go forward with introducing a multi-wavelength Raman lidar to the AD-Net and developing a multi-wavelength technique of HSRL in order to evaluate optical concentrations of more aerosol components. We will use this evolving AD-Net for validation of Earth-CARE satellite observation and data assimilation to evaluate emissions of air pollution and dust aerosols in East Asia. We go forward with deploying an in-situ instrument polarization optical particle counter (POPC), which can measure size distributions and non-sphericity of aerosols, to several main AD-Net sites and conducting simultaneous observation of POPC and lidar to clarify internally mixed state of Asian dust and air pollution aerosols transported from the Asian continent to Japan.

  12. Strategies for Enhancing the Impact of Post-Observation Feedback for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myung, Jeannie; Martinez, Krissia

    2013-01-01

    Across the country, districts are committing to observing, assessing, and giving feedback to teachers multiple times a year. Currently, school systems are dedicating an enormous amount of effort to accumulating data on teachers, but the field still has a lot to learn about how best to use data to support the improvement of teaching. This brief,…

  13. Strategy and results of East Asian GRB FOllow-up Network (EAFON) follow-up observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urata, Y.; Eafon Team

    We have established Japan-Taiwan-China collaboration on GRBs study in the East-Asian region since 2004 This serves as valuable additions to the world-wide optical and infrared follow-up network because the East-Asia region is otherwise blank for the network We have been carrying out imaging and spectroscopic follow-up observations by Lulin Taiwan Kiso Japan WIDGET Japan and Xinglong China Using Xinglong and Kiso we can locate candidates and obtain early time spectra of afterglows While WIDGET provides early time observations before the burst the high-time resolution for multi-band light curves will be obtained by Lulin With the data from these sites we will obtain detailed information of light curve and redshift of GRBs which are important to understand the mechanism of afterglows Utilizing East Asian GRB Follow-up Observation Network EAFON we have observed 56 GRB optical afterglows and detected 15 early optical afterglow behavior including two short GRBs in multi-bands Based on these observations we have obtained 3 major results 1 first long term monitoring of short GRB afterglow from sim 0 1 days after the burst 2 two components in early optical afterglow 3 catch about 30 high redshift GRB candidates In this meeting we will present mainly report early a common feature of long GRB early afterglow We have found a common feature in long GRB early afterglow light curves These early light curves show re-brightening and or plateau phase around 0 1 days 2 4hours after bursts Combined with other prompt

  14. Observing the Interstellar Neutral He Gas Flow with a Variable IBEX Pointing Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, T.; Moebius, E.; Bzowski, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Heirtzler, D.; Kubiak, M. A.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N.; Wurz, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Interstellar Neutral (ISN) gas flow can be observed at Earth's orbit due to the motion of the solar system relative to the surrounding interstellar gas. Since He is minimally influenced by ionization and charge exchange, the ISN He flow provides a sample of the pristine interstellar environment. The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has observed the ISN gas flow over the past 7 years from a highly elliptical orbit around the Earth. IBEX is a Sun-pointing spinning spacecraft with energetic neutral atom (ENA) detectors observing perpendicular to the spacecraft spin axis. Due to the Earth's orbital motion around the Sun, it is necessary for IBEX to perform spin axis pointing maneuvers every few days to maintain a sunward pointed spin axis. The IBEX operations team has successfully pointed the spin axis in a variety of latitude orientations during the mission, including in the ecliptic during the 2012 and 2013 seasons, about 5 degrees below the ecliptic during the 2014 season, and recently about 5 degrees above the ecliptic during the 2015 season, as well as optimizing observations with the spin axis pointed along the Earth-Sun line. These observations include a growing number of measurements near the perihelion of the interstellar atom trajectories, which allow for an improved determination of the ISN He bulk flow longitude at Earth orbit. Combining these bulk flow measurements with an analytical model (Lee et al. 2012 ApJS, 198, 10) based upon orbital mechanics improves the knowledge of the narrow ISN parameter tube, obtained with IBEX, which couples the interstellar inflow longitude, latitude, speed, and temperature.

  15. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling and dynamic replanning.

  16. Autonomous power expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.; Quinn, Todd M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Autonomous Power System (APS) program is to develop and apply intelligent problem solving and control technologies to the Space Station Freedom Electrical Power Systems (SSF/EPS). The objectives of the program are to establish artificial intelligence/expert system technology paths, to create knowledge based tools with advanced human-operator interfaces, and to integrate and interface knowledge-based and conventional control schemes. This program is being developed at the NASA-Lewis. The APS Brassboard represents a subset of a 20 KHz Space Station Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) testbed. A distributed control scheme is used to manage multiple levels of computers and switchgear. The brassboard is comprised of a set of intelligent switchgear used to effectively switch power from the sources to the loads. The Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) portion of the APS program integrates a knowledge based fault diagnostic system, a power resource scheduler, and an interface to the APS Brassboard. The system includes knowledge bases for system diagnostics, fault detection and isolation, and recommended actions. The scheduler autonomously assigns start times to the attached loads based on temporal and power constraints. The scheduler is able to work in a near real time environment for both scheduling an dynamic replanning.

  17. Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias.

    PubMed

    Eller, M; Goadsby, P J

    2016-01-01

    The trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are a group of primary headache disorders characterised by lateralized symptoms: prominent headache and ipsilateral cranial autonomic features, such as conjunctival injection, lacrimation and rhinorrhea. The TACs are: cluster headache (CH), paroxysmal hemicrania (PH), short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT)/short-lasting neuralgiform headache attacks with cranial autonomic features (SUNA) and hemicrania continua (HC). Their diagnostic criteria are outlined in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, third edition-beta (ICHD-IIIb). These conditions are distinguished by their attack duration and frequency, as well as response to treatment. HC is continuous and by definition responsive to indomethacin. The main differential when considering this headache is chronic migraine. Other TACs are remarkable for their short duration and must be distinguished from other short-lasting painful conditions, such as trigeminal neuralgia and primary stabbing headache. Cluster headache is characterised by exquisitely painful attacks that occur in discrete episodes lasting 15-180 min a few times a day. In comparison, PH occurs more frequently and is of shorter duration, and like HC is responsive to indomethacin. SUNCT/SUNA is the shortest duration and highest frequency TAC; attacks can occur over a hundred times every day. PMID:24888770

  18. Observations of asexual reproductive strategies in Antarctic hexactinellid sponges from ROV video records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixidó, Núria; Gili, Josep-Maria; Uriz, María-J.; Gutt, Julian; Arntz, Wolf E.

    2006-04-01

    Hexactinellid sponges are one of the structuring taxa of benthic communities on the Weddell Sea shelf (Antarctica). However, little is known about their reproduction patterns (larval development, release, settlement, and recruitment), particularly in relation to sexual and asexual processes in sponge populations. Video stations obtained during several expeditions covering a wide depth range and different areas recorded a high frequency of asexual reproductive strategies (ARS) (bipartition and budding) among hexactinellids. Analysis of seabed video strips between 108 and 256 m depth, representing an area of 1400 m 2, showed that about 28% of these sponges exhibited ARS. The Rossella nuda type dominated most of the video stations and exhibited the highest proportion of budding (35%). This proportion increased with the size class. Size class >20 cm exhibited in all the stations a mean value of 8.3±0.7 (SE) for primary and of 2.5±0.2 (SE) for secondary propagules per sponge, respectively. Results from a shallow station (Stn 059, 117 m depth) showed the highest relative abundance of R. nuda type and budding (>20 cm ˜72%, 10-20 cm ˜60%, 5-10 cm ˜12%, and <5 cm ˜3%). A potential influence of iceberg scouring disturbance on the occurrence of budding and number of propagules also was investigated. We conclude that asexual reproduction in hexactinellid sponges may be more frequent than has been thought before and it may greatly influence the genetic structure of populations.

  19. Impact of Different Data Assimilation Strategies for SMOS Observations on Flood Forecasting Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauwels, V. R. N.; Verhoest, N.; Lievens, H.; Martens, B.; van Den Berg, M. J.; Al-Bitar, A.; Merlin, O.; Kumar Tomer, S.; Cabot, F.; Kerr, Y. H.; Pan, M.; Wood, E. F.; Drusch, M.; Hendricks Franssen, H. J.; Vereecken, H.; De Lannoy, G. J. M.; Dumedah, G.; Walker, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    During the last decade, significant efforts have been directed towards establishing and improving flood forecasting systems for large river basins. Examples include the European Flood Alert System, and the Bureau of Meteorology Flood Warning Systems in Australia. A number of attempts have also been made to increase the accuracy of the forecasted flood volumes from these systems. One attractive way in which this can be achieved is to use remotely sensed surface soil moisture contents to constrain the hydrologic model predictions. Satellite missions such as SMOS can provide very useful information on the wetness conditions of these basins, which in many cases is an important initial condition for discharge generation. Assimilation of these satellite data is thus a logical way to proceed. We will present results from two different assimilation strategies for the Murray-Darling basin in Australia using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. Firstly, the SMOS soil moisture data are assimilated into the hydrologic model at their original spatial resolution. As the spatial resolution of the remote sensing data (25 km) is coarser than the spatial resolution of the model (10 km), a multiscale data assimilation algorithm needs to be implemented. Secondly, the SMOS data are downscaled to the model resolution, prior to their assimilation. In this presentation, the impact of the assimilation of both products on the accuracy of the forecasted flood volumes is assessed.

  20. A strategy for merging objective estimates of global daily precipitation from gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Suping; Wu, Tongwen; Luo, Yong; Deng, Xueliang; Shi, Xueli; Wang, Zaizhi; Liu, Xiangwen; Huang, Jianbin

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a strategy for merging daily precipitation information from gauge observations, satellite estimates (SEs), and numerical predictions at the global scale. The strategy is designed to remove systemic bias and random error from each individual daily precipitation source to produce a better gridded global daily precipitation product through three steps. First, a cumulative distribution function matching procedure is performed to remove systemic bias over gauge-located land areas. Then, the overall biases in SEs and model predictions (MPs) over ocean areas are corrected using a rescaled strategy based on monthly precipitation. Third, an optimal interpolation (OI)-based merging scheme (referred as the HL-OI scheme) is used to combine unbiased gauge observations, SEs, and MPs to reduce random error from each source and to produce a gauge—satellite-model merged daily precipitation analysis, called BMEP-d (Beijing Climate Center Merged Estimation of Precipitation with daily resolution), with complete global coverage. The BMEP-d data from a four-year period (2011-14) demonstrate the ability of the merging strategy to provide global daily precipitation of substantially improved quality. Benefiting from the advantages of the HL-OI scheme for quantitative error estimates, the better source data can obtain more weights during the merging processes. The BMEP-d data exhibit higher consistency with satellite and gauge source data at middle and low latitudes, and with model source data at high latitudes. Overall, independent validations against GPCP-1DD (GPCP one-degree daily) show that the consistencies between BMEP-d and GPCP-1DD are higher than those of each source dataset in terms of spatial pattern, temporal variability, probability distribution, and statistical precipitation events.

  1. The Conductor of the Autonomic Orchestra

    PubMed Central

    Vinik, Aaron I.

    2012-01-01

    Bad bedfellows – autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, and diabetes! Are they related? How? Evidence suggests the activation of inflammatory cytokines like IL-6 and TNFα in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and that the inflammatory change correlates with abnormalities in sympathovagal balance. Dysfunction of the autonomic system predicts cardiovascular risk and sudden death in patients with type 2 diabetes. It occurs in prediabetes, providing opportunities for early intervention. The importance of recognizing autonomic dysfunction as a predictor of morbidity and mortality with intensification of treatment suggests that all patients with type 2 diabetes at onset, and those with type 1 diabetes after 5 years should be screened for autonomic imbalance. These tests can be performed at the bedside with real time output of information – within the scope of the practicing physician – facilitates diagnosis and allows the application of sound strategies for management. The window of opportunity for aggressive control of all the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular events or sudden death with intensification of therapy is with short duration diabetes, the absence of cardiovascular disease, and a history of severe hypoglycemic events. To this list we can now add autonomic dysfunction and neuropathy, which have become the most powerful predictors of risk for mortality. It seems prudent that practitioners should be encouraged to become familiar with this information and apply risk stratification in clinical practice. After all, how difficult is it to ask patients “do you have numb feet?” and to determine their heart rate variability – it could be lifesaving. Ultimately methods to reset the hypothalamus and the inflammatory cascade are needed if we are to impact the care of patients with this compendium of conditions. PMID:22737143

  2. The conductor of the autonomic orchestra.

    PubMed

    Vinik, Aaron I

    2012-01-01

    Bad bedfellows - autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, and diabetes! Are they related? How? Evidence suggests the activation of inflammatory cytokines like IL-6 and TNFα in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and that the inflammatory change correlates with abnormalities in sympathovagal balance. Dysfunction of the autonomic system predicts cardiovascular risk and sudden death in patients with type 2 diabetes. It occurs in prediabetes, providing opportunities for early intervention. The importance of recognizing autonomic dysfunction as a predictor of morbidity and mortality with intensification of treatment suggests that all patients with type 2 diabetes at onset, and those with type 1 diabetes after 5 years should be screened for autonomic imbalance. These tests can be performed at the bedside with real time output of information - within the scope of the practicing physician - facilitates diagnosis and allows the application of sound strategies for management. The window of opportunity for aggressive control of all the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular events or sudden death with intensification of therapy is with short duration diabetes, the absence of cardiovascular disease, and a history of severe hypoglycemic events. To this list we can now add autonomic dysfunction and neuropathy, which have become the most powerful predictors of risk for mortality. It seems prudent that practitioners should be encouraged to become familiar with this information and apply risk stratification in clinical practice. After all, how difficult is it to ask patients "do you have numb feet?" and to determine their heart rate variability - it could be lifesaving. Ultimately methods to reset the hypothalamus and the inflammatory cascade are needed if we are to impact the care of patients with this compendium of conditions. PMID:22737143

  3. Strategies for Observing Self-excitation in the Madison Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, N. Z.; Kaplan, E. J.; Kendrick, R. D.; Nornberg, M. D.; Rahbarnia, K.; Rasmus, A. M.; Forest, C. B.; Spence, E. J.

    2010-11-01

    In the Madison Dynamo Experiment(MDE) two counter-rotating impellers drive a turbulent flow of liquid sodium in a one meter-diameter sphere. One of the goals of the experiment is to observe the spontaneous generation of magnetic field. Initial runs of the MDE saw intermittent bursts of a transverse dipole field similar to the induced field predicted by laminar kinematics, but no sustained self-excited field was observed. This poster will present recent results from the MDE after an equatorial baffle was installed to stabilize the position of the shear layer between the two counterrotating hemispheres and to help in the reduction of of large-scale turbulence and the motors were run up to maximum power. Required motor power indicates that the baffle has decreased the amount of turbulence in the flow. When run up to full power still no self-excited dynamo was observed, but there was significant amplification of the transverse dipole field with extended decay rates indicating we may be approaching the dynamo threshold. Future modifications to the experiment will also be presented exploring a subcritical dynamo transition by supplying a sufficiently strong magnetic field and the addition of poloidal baffles to optimize the helicity of the mean flow. This work is supported by the NSF/DOE partnership in plasma physics.

  4. Autonomous rough terrain navigation - Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David P.

    1991-01-01

    Because of light-time delays, a planetary rover located on Mars or beyond will probably need to be able to navigate autonomously, in order to do significant exploration. Recent work at JPL has explored several different autonomous navigation strategies. This work includes highly deliberative methods that require large amounts of computation and internal storage but yield very planful behavior to more reactive systems that require less resources but whose behavior is more difficult to model. This paper briefly presents these methods, the results from experiments both in simulation and in the field, and some conclusions on the value of different approaches, and their possible impact on the structure of the robot and the mission architecture.

  5. Autonomous assistance navigation for robotic wheelchairs in confined spaces.

    PubMed

    Cheein, Fernando Auat; Carelli, Ricardo; De la Cruz, Celso; Muller, Sandra; Bastos Filho, Teodiano F

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a visual interface for the assistance of a robotic wheelchair's navigation is presented. The visual interface is developed for the navigation in confined spaces such as narrows corridors or corridor-ends. The interface performs two navigation modus: non-autonomous and autonomous. The non-autonomous driving of the robotic wheelchair is made by means of a hand-joystick. The joystick directs the motion of the vehicle within the environment. The autonomous driving is performed when the user of the wheelchair has to turn (90, 90 or 180 degrees) within the environment. The turning strategy is performed by a maneuverability algorithm compatible with the kinematics of the wheelchair and by the SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) algorithm. The SLAM algorithm provides the interface with the information concerning the environment disposition and the pose -position and orientation-of the wheelchair within the environment. Experimental and statistical results of the interface are also shown in this work. PMID:21095654

  6. Strategies for Observing Self-excitation in the Madison Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, N. Z.; Forest, C. B.; Kaplan, E. J.; Kendrick, R. D.; Rasmus, A. M.

    2009-11-01

    In the Madison Dynamo Experiment two counter-rotating impellers drive a turbulent flow of liquid sodium in a one meter-diameter sphere. One of the goals of the experiment is to observe the spontaneous generation of magnetic field. Initial runs of the Madison Dynamo Experiment saw intermittent bursts of a transverse dipole field similar to the induced field predicted by laminar kinematics, but no sustained self-excited field was observed. Recent numerical simulations have shown that turbulent fluctuations strongly increase the critical magnetic Reynolds number required for self-excitation, beyond the design parameters of the experiment. Three different techniques for accessing dynamos are currently being implemented on the experiment. First, the addition of an equatorial and poloidal baffles to the experiment will help in the reduction of large-scale turbulence and optimization of the helicity of the mean flow. Second, freely rotating segments of a symmetric airfoil will be added to the internal probe tubes to reduce vibration that prevented operation at full speed. Third, the externally applied field will be strengthened to explore a sub-critical dynamo transition that has recently been discovered using numerical simulations.

  7. Strategies to design and place towers for long-term ecological observations at continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, H.; Loescher, H. W.; Ayres, E.; Clement, R.

    2010-12-01

    There are numerous tower-based measurements applied in ecological science worldwide. National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is designing a tower-based method at 60 sites continental wide to measure abiotic drivers of ecological change, carbon and energy fluxes, and to specifically provide ecological connectively to measurements of organism ecology and connectively to remote sensed data products. Several issues come to bear when designing an infrastructure that has to accommodate different suites of measurements that have various requirements, i.e., micrometeorological, scalar flux measurements, atmospheric chemistry and boundary layer properties, and have to be objectively placed across the entire range of climate and ecosystem structures found in North America. Here, we present a comprehensive strategy that combines wind roses, footprint models, ecosystem structure, vegetation and soil maps, as well as ‘eyes on’ site visits to design and place a tower. This methodology is being used to examine the 60 preliminary tower designs in the largest ecological observatory in the world today to optimize the long-term representative measurements over the ecosystems of interests. We found that some preliminary site designs do not meet our tower science requirements due to an inadequate fetch for prevailing wind directions, extent of ecosystems boundaries, or concerns of edge effects. In these cases, the tower location shall be either micro-sited at the current locale, or moved and relocated to a different site altogether. After site specific characterization, we also found that some designed tower heights could not access the well mixed surface layer above canopy and had to be extended in design. Because wind comes from all direction at some sites, presents a particular challenge to orient a square tower. In all cases, we optimized the tower orientation to acquire the most amounts of valid data. To avoid the effects of flow distortion on measurements, the boom

  8. Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, R.

    This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

  9. Strategies for Human Tumor Virus Discoveries: From Microscopic Observation to Digital Transcriptome Subtraction

    PubMed Central

    Mirvish, Ezra D.; Shuda, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Over 20% of human cancers worldwide are associated with infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Various methods have been used to identify human tumor viruses, including electron microscopic observations of viral particles, immunologic screening, cDNA library screening, nucleic acid hybridization, consensus PCR, viral DNA array chip, and representational difference analysis. With the Human Genome Project, a large amount of genetic information from humans and other organisms has accumulated over the last decade. Utilizing the available genetic databases, Feng et al. (2007) developed digital transcriptome subtraction (DTS), an in silico method to sequentially subtract human sequences from tissue or cellular transcriptome, and discovered Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) from Merkel cell carcinoma. Here, we review the background and methods underlying the human tumor virus discoveries and explain how DTS was developed and used for the discovery of MCV. PMID:27242703

  10. Space-based Doppler lidar sampling strategies: Algorithm development and simulated observation experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmitt, G. D.; Wood, S. A.; Morris, M.

    1990-01-01

    Lidar Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) Simulation Models (LSM) were developed to evaluate the potential impact of global wind observations on the basic understanding of the Earth's atmosphere and on the predictive skills of current forecast models (GCM and regional scale). Fully integrated top to bottom LAWS Simulation Models for global and regional scale simulations were developed. The algorithm development incorporated the effects of aerosols, water vapor, clouds, terrain, and atmospheric turbulence into the models. Other additions include a new satellite orbiter, signal processor, line of sight uncertainty model, new Multi-Paired Algorithm and wind error analysis code. An atmospheric wind field library containing control fields, meteorological fields, phenomena fields, and new European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) data was also added. The LSM was used to address some key LAWS issues and trades such as accuracy and interpretation of LAWS information, data density, signal strength, cloud obscuration, and temporal data resolution.

  11. Observational strategies for varying constants with ESPRESSO and ELT-HIRES .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrosa, P. O. J.; Leite, A. C. O.; Martins, C. J. A. P.

    The observational evidence for the acceleration of the universe demonstrates that canonical theories of cosmology and particle physics are incomplete, if not incorrect. Several few-sigma hints of new physics, discussed in this workshop, are arguably smoke without a smoking gun. Forthcoming high-resolution ultra-stable spectrographs will play a crucial role in this quest for new physics, by enabling a new generation of precision consistency tests. Here we focus on astrophysical tests of the stability of nature's fundamental couplings, discussing the improvements that can be expected with ESPRESSO and ELT-HIRES and their impact on fundamental cosmology. We find that the current E-ELT configuration has the potential to constrain dark energy more strongly than standard surveys with thousands of low-redshift (z<2) supernovas.

  12. Nest guarding from observation blinds: strategy for improving Puerto Rican parrot nest success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of 17 yr of nestguarding from observation blinds for increasing reproductive success of the endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) is described. As personnel and time allowed, active nests were guarded part-time during the nest site exploration and selection s stage of the breeding cycle, and part-time to full-time when a nest contained eggs or chicks. Biologists identified nine categories of threat to the success of parrot nests. Since 1973, a minimum of 20 nests, which otherwise would have failed, successfully produced fledglings as a direct result of nest guarding and intervention. Nest success averaged 66% with nest guarding compared to an estimated 38% without guarding. Nest guarding from blinds can help maintain a wild population of a critically endangered species while other management techniques are being developed to stimulate population growth.

  13. Strategies for Human Tumor Virus Discoveries: From Microscopic Observation to Digital Transcriptome Subtraction.

    PubMed

    Mirvish, Ezra D; Shuda, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Over 20% of human cancers worldwide are associated with infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Various methods have been used to identify human tumor viruses, including electron microscopic observations of viral particles, immunologic screening, cDNA library screening, nucleic acid hybridization, consensus PCR, viral DNA array chip, and representational difference analysis. With the Human Genome Project, a large amount of genetic information from humans and other organisms has accumulated over the last decade. Utilizing the available genetic databases, Feng et al. (2007) developed digital transcriptome subtraction (DTS), an in silico method to sequentially subtract human sequences from tissue or cellular transcriptome, and discovered Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) from Merkel cell carcinoma. Here, we review the background and methods underlying the human tumor virus discoveries and explain how DTS was developed and used for the discovery of MCV. PMID:27242703

  14. The development of teleological versus mentalizing observational learning strategies in infancy.

    PubMed

    Gergely, György

    2003-01-01

    The author introduces the concept of mentalization as a central interpretative mechanism of social reality testing. It is argued that developmentally the emergence of this mentalizing capacity to interpret other people's actions in terms of their causal intentional mind states (such as beliefs, desires, intentions, and emotions) is preceded by an earlier, nonmentalistic, teleological action interpretational system that represents others' actions in terms of their concrete and visible outcomes. Then the early psychosocial determinants of the developmental unfolding of our mentalizing capacity are considered from the points of view of attachment theory and developmental psychopathology. It is argued that, in severely dysfunctional (neglecting, abusive, and/or dissociative) caregiving environments, the development of mentalization becomes inhibited and results in a predominantly teleological, nonmentalistic interpretation of intimate attachment relationships that is a core feature of certain developmental psychopathologies such as borderline personality disorder. The normal developmental shift from a teleological to a mentalistic mode of action interpretation is illustrated in terms of recently discovered qualitative changes in imitative and observational learning styles during infancy. It is hypothesized that these changes are related to the infant's developing capacity to interpret the communicative-referential behavioral cues that frame the caregiver's infant-directed actions as signaling a cooperative and benevolent mentalistic attitude toward the baby. In closing, it is proposed that the hypothesized role of severely dysfunctional attachment environments in inhibiting the establishment of mentalization skills could be directly tested in early development in the domain of observational learning. It is predicted that differential patterns of "teleological emulation" versus "mentalistic imitative learning" will be found in infants raised in severely dysfunctional

  15. Field geologic observation and sample collection strategies for planetary surface exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS geologist crewmembers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, José M.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W.

    2013-10-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic fieldwork, the Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crewmembers who participated in the 2010 field test. We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies related to duplication of samples and observations; logistical constraints on the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to "flexibly execute" their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  16. Strategies for the implementation of a European Volcano Observations Research Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Active volcanic areas in Europe constitute a direct threat to millions of people on both the continent and adjacent islands. Furthermore, eruptions of "European" volcanoes in overseas territories, such as in the West Indies, an in the Indian and Pacific oceans, can have a much broader impacts, outside Europe. Volcano Observatories (VO), which undertake volcano monitoring under governmental mandate and Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.) manage networks on European volcanoes consisting of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are either continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), including prototype deployment. VOs and VRIs also operate laboratories for sample analysis (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), near-real time analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing centres; all providing high-quality information on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. This large and high-quality deployment of monitoring systems, focused on a specific geophysical target (volcanoes), together with the wide volcanological phenomena of European volcanoes (which cover all the known volcano types) represent a unique opportunity to fundamentally improve the knowledge base of volcano behaviour. The existing arrangement of national infrastructures (i.e. VO and VRI) appears to be too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort planned in the framework of the EPOS-PP proposal is focused on the creation of services aimed at providing an improved and more efficient access to the volcanological facilities

  17. A new design strategy for observing lithium oxide growth-evolution interactions using geometric catalyst positioning

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ryu, Won -Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S.; Li, Jinyang; Tong, Xiao; Taylor, Andre D.

    2016-06-21

    Understanding the catalyzed formation and evolution of lithium-oxide products in Li-O2 batteries is central to the development of next-generation energy storage technology. Catalytic sites, while effective in lowering reaction barriers, often become deactivated when placed on the surface of an oxygen electrode due to passivation by solid products. Here we investigate a mechanism for alleviating catalyst deactivation by dispersing Pd catalytic sites away from the oxygen electrode surface in a well-structured anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) porous membrane interlayer. We observe the cross-sectional product growth and evolution in Li-O2 cells by characterizing products that grow from the electrode surface. Morphological andmore » structural details of the products in both catalyzed and uncatalyzed cells are investigated independently from the influence of the oxygen electrode. We find that the geometric decoration of catalysts far from the conductive electrode surface significantly improves the reaction reversibility by chemically facilitating the oxidation reaction through local coordination with PdO surfaces. Lastly, the influence of the catalyst position on product composition is further verified by ex situ Xray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy in addition to morphological studies.« less

  18. A New Design Strategy for Observing Lithium Oxide Growth-Evolution Interactions Using Geometric Catalyst Positioning.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Won-Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S; Li, Jinyang; Tong, Xiao; Taylor, André D

    2016-08-10

    Understanding the catalyzed formation and evolution of lithium-oxide products in Li-O2 batteries is central to the development of next-generation energy storage technology. Catalytic sites, while effective in lowering reaction barriers, often become deactivated when placed on the surface of an oxygen electrode due to passivation by solid products. Here we investigate a mechanism for alleviating catalyst deactivation by dispersing Pd catalytic sites away from the oxygen electrode surface in a well-structured anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) porous membrane interlayer. We observe the cross-sectional product growth and evolution in Li-O2 cells by characterizing products that grow from the electrode surface. Morphological and structural details of the products in both catalyzed and uncatalyzed cells are investigated independently from the influence of the oxygen electrode. We find that the geometric decoration of catalysts far from the conductive electrode surface significantly improves the reaction reversibility by chemically facilitating the oxidation reaction through local coordination with PdO surfaces. The influence of the catalyst position on product composition is further verified by ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy in addition to morphological studies. PMID:27326464

  19. Innovative observing strategy and orbit determination for Low Earth Orbit space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, A.; Farnocchia, D.; Dimare, L.; Rossi, A.; Bernardi, F.

    2012-03-01

    We present the results of a large scale simulation, reproducing the behavior of a data center for the build-up and maintenance of a complete catalog of space debris in the upper part of the Low Earth Orbits (LEOs) region. The purpose is to determine the performances of a network of advanced optical sensors, through the use of the newest correlation and orbit determination algorithms. This network is foreseen for implementation in a Space Situational Awareness system, such as the future European one. The conclusion is that it is possible to use a network of optical sensors to build up a catalog containing more than 98% of the objects with perigee height between 1100 and 2000 km, which would be observable by a reference radar system selected as comparison. It is also possible to maintain such a catalog within the accuracy requirements motivated by collision avoidance, and to detect catastrophic fragmentation events. The obtained results depend upon specific assumptions on the sensor and on the software technologies.

  20. Autonomous Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siders, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    The continued assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) is the cornerstone within NASA's overall Strategic P an. As indicated in NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), the International Space Station requires Shuttle to fly through at least the middle of the next decade to complete assembly of the Station, provide crew transport, and to provide heavy lift up and down mass capability. The ISTP reflects a tight coupling among the Station, Shuttle, and OSP programs to support our Nation's space goal . While the Shuttle is a critical component of this ISTP, there is a new emphasis for the need to achieve greater efficiency and safety in transporting crews to and from the Space Station. This need is being addressed through the Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program. However, the OSP is being designed to "complement" the Shuttle as the primary means for crew transfer, and will not replace all the Shuttle's capabilities. The unique heavy lift capabilities of the Space Shuttle is essential for both ISS, as well as other potential missions extending beyond low Earth orbit. One concept under discussion to better fulfill this role of a heavy lift carrier, is the transformation of the Shuttle to an "un-piloted" autonomous system. This concept would eliminate the loss of crew risk, while providing a substantial increase in payload to orbit capability. Using the guidelines reflected in the NASA ISTP, the autonomous Shuttle a simplified concept of operations can be described as; "a re-supply of cargo to the ISS through the use of an un-piloted Shuttle vehicle from launch through landing". Although this is the primary mission profile, the other major consideration in developing an autonomous Shuttle is maintaining a crew transportation capability to ISS as an assured human access to space capability.

  1. Collaborating with Autonomous Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Cross, Charles D.; Fan, Henry; Hempley, Lucas E.; Motter, Mark A.; Neilan, James H.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc D.; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated increase of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) entering into the National Airspace System, it is highly likely that vehicle operators will be teaming with fleets of small autonomous vehicles. The small vehicles may consist of sUAS, which are 55 pounds or less that typically will y at altitudes 400 feet and below, and small ground vehicles typically operating in buildings or defined small campuses. Typically, the vehicle operators are not concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead they are concerned with the overall mission. In order for this vision of high-level mission operators working with fleets of vehicles to come to fruition, many human factors related challenges must be investigated and solved. First, the interface between the human operator and the autonomous agent must be at a level that the operator needs and the agents can understand. This paper details the natural language human factors e orts that NASA Langley's Autonomy Incubator is focusing on. In particular these e orts focus on allowing the operator to interact with the system using speech and gestures rather than a mouse and keyboard. With this ability of the system to understand both speech and gestures, operators not familiar with the vehicle dynamics will be able to easily plan, initiate, and change missions using a language familiar to them rather than having to learn and converse in the vehicle's language. This will foster better teaming between the operator and the autonomous agent which will help lower workload, increase situation awareness, and improve performance of the system as a whole.

  2. Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara A.; Chien, Steve A.; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel M.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Schoolcraft, Josua B.; Oyake, Amalaye; Vaughs, Ashton G.; Torgerson, Jordan L.

    2011-01-01

    The Palomar Adaptive Optics System actively corrects for changing aberrations in light due to atmospheric turbulence. However, the underlying internal static error is unknown and uncorrected by this process. The dedicated wavefront sensor device necessarily lies along a different path than the science camera, and, therefore, doesn't measure the true errors along the path leading to the final detected imagery. This is a standard problem in adaptive optics (AO) called "non-common path error." The Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration (APRC) software suite performs automated sensing and correction iterations to calibrate the Palomar AO system to levels that were previously unreachable.

  3. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  4. Toward autonomous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogel, L. J.; Calabrese, P. G.; Walsh, M. J.; Owens, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Ways in which autonomous behavior of spacecraft can be extended to treat situations wherein a closed loop control by a human may not be appropriate or even possible are explored. Predictive models that minimize mean least squared error and arbitrary cost functions are discussed. A methodology for extracting cyclic components for an arbitrary environment with respect to usual and arbitrary criteria is developed. An approach to prediction and control based on evolutionary programming is outlined. A computer program capable of predicting time series is presented. A design of a control system for a robotic dense with partially unknown physical properties is presented.

  5. Field Geologic Observation and Sample Collection Strategies for Planetary Surface Exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS Geologist Crewmembers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic field- work, the Desert RATS(Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crew members who participated in the 2010 field test.We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies relatedtoduplicationofsamplesandobservations;logisticalconstraintson the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to flexibly execute their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  6. Variation in the functioning of autonomous self-pollination, pollinator services and floral traits in three Centaurium species

    PubMed Central

    Brys, Rein; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Reproductive assurance through autonomous selfing is thought to be one of the main advantages of self-fertilization in plants. Floral mechanisms that ensure autonomous seed set are therefore more likely to occur in species that grow in habitats where pollination is scarce and/or unpredictable. Methods Emasculation and pollen supplementation experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the capacity for, and timing of autonomous selfing in three closely related Centaurium species (Centaurium erythraea, C. littorale and C. pulchellum). In addition, observations of flower visitors were combined with emasculation and pollen addition experiments in natural populations to investigate the degree of pollinator limitation and pollination failure and to assess the extent to which autonomous selfing conferred reproductive assurance. Results All three species were capable of autonomous selfing, although this capacity differed significantly between species (index of autonomous selfing 0·55 ± 0·06, 0·68 ± 0·09 and 0·92 ± 0·03 for C. erythraea, C. littorale and C. pulchellum, respectively). The efficiency and timing of autogamous selfing was primarily associated with differences in the degree of herkogamy and dichogamy. The number of floral visitors showed significant interspecific differences, with 1·6 ± 0·6, 5·4 ± 0·6 and 14·5 ± 2·1 floral visitors within a 2 × 2 m2 plot per 20-min observation period, for C. pulchellum, C. littorale and C. erythraea, respectively. Concomitantly, pollinator failure was highest in C. pulchellum and lowest in C. erythraea. Nonetheless, all three study species showed very low levels of pollen limitation (index of pollen limitation 0·14 ± 0·03, 0·11 ± 0·03 and 0·09 ± 0·02 for C. erythraea, C. littorale and C. pulchellum, respectively), indicating that autonomous selfing may guarantee reproductive assurance. Conclusions These findings show that limited availability of pollinators

  7. Autonomous Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

  8. Learning for Autonomous Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelova, Anelia; Howard, Andrew; Matthies, Larry; Tang, Benyang; Turmon, Michael; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Robotic ground vehicles for outdoor applications have achieved some remarkable successes, notably in autonomous highway following (Dickmanns, 1987), planetary exploration (1), and off-road navigation on Earth (1). Nevertheless, major challenges remain to enable reliable, high-speed, autonomous navigation in a wide variety of complex, off-road terrain. 3-D perception of terrain geometry with imaging range sensors is the mainstay of off-road driving systems. However, the stopping distance at high speed exceeds the effective lookahead distance of existing range sensors. Prospects for extending the range of 3-D sensors is strongly limited by sensor physics, eye safety of lasers, and related issues. Range sensor limitations also allow vehicles to enter large cul-de-sacs even at low speed, leading to long detours. Moreover, sensing only terrain geometry fails to reveal mechanical properties of terrain that are critical to assessing its traversability, such as potential for slippage, sinkage, and the degree of compliance of potential obstacles. Rovers in the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission have got stuck in sand dunes and experienced significant downhill slippage in the vicinity of large rock hazards. Earth-based off-road robots today have very limited ability to discriminate traversable vegetation from non-traversable vegetation or rough ground. It is impossible today to preprogram a system with knowledge of these properties for all types of terrain and weather conditions that might be encountered.

  9. Autonomic Responses to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.; Miller, N. E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe how changes in autonomic nervous system responses may be used as an index of individual differences in adaptational capacity to space flight. During two separate Spacelab missions, six crewmembers wore an ambulatory monitoring system which enabled continuous recording of their physiological responses for up to twelve hours a day for 3 to 5 mission days. The responses recorded were electrocardiography, respiration wave form, skin conductance level, hand temperature, blood flow to the hands and triaxial accelerations of the head and upper body. Three of these subjects had been given training, before the mission, in voluntary control of these autonomic responses as a means of facilitating adaptation to space. Three of these subjects served as Controls, i.e., did not receive this training but took anti-motion sickness medication. Nearly 300 hours of flight data are summarized. These data were examined using time-series analyses, spectral analyses of heart rate variability, and analyses of variance. Information was obtained on responses to space motion sickness, inflight medications, circadian rhythm, workload and fatigue. Preliminary assessment was made on the effectiveness of self-regulation training as a means of facilitating adaptation, with recommendations for future flights.

  10. Autonomous mobile communication relays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Everett, Hobart R.; Manouk, Narek; Verma, Ambrish

    2002-07-01

    Maintaining a solid radio communication link between a mobile robot entering a building and an external base station is a well-recognized problem. Modern digital radios, while affording high bandwidth and Internet-protocol-based automatic routing capabilities, tend to operate on line-of-sight links. The communication link degrades quickly as a robot penetrates deeper into the interior of a building. This project investigates the use of mobile autonomous communication relay nodes to extend the effective range of a mobile robot exploring a complex interior environment. Each relay node is a small mobile slave robot equipped with sonar, ladar, and 802.11b radio repeater. For demonstration purposes, four Pioneer 2-DX robots are used as autonomous mobile relays, with SSC-San Diego's ROBART III acting as the lead robot. The relay robots follow the lead robot into a building and are automatically deployed at various locations to maintain a networked communication link back to the remote operator. With their on-board external sensors, they also act as rearguards to secure areas already explored by the lead robot. As the lead robot advances and RF shortcuts are detected, relay nodes that become unnecessary will be reclaimed and reused, all transparent to the operator. This project takes advantage of recent research results from several DARPA-funded tasks at various institutions in the areas of robotic simulation, ad hoc wireless networking, route planning, and navigation. This paper describes the progress of the first six months of the project.

  11. Nemesis Autonomous Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barltrop, Kevin J.; Lee, Cin-Young; Horvath, Gregory A,; Clement, Bradley J.

    2012-01-01

    A generalized framework has been developed for systems validation that can be applied to both traditional and autonomous systems. The framework consists of an automated test case generation and execution system called Nemesis that rapidly and thoroughly identifies flaws or vulnerabilities within a system. By applying genetic optimization and goal-seeking algorithms on the test equipment side, a "war game" is conducted between a system and its complementary nemesis. The end result of the war games is a collection of scenarios that reveals any undesirable behaviors of the system under test. The software provides a reusable framework to evolve test scenarios using genetic algorithms using an operation model of the system under test. It can automatically generate and execute test cases that reveal flaws in behaviorally complex systems. Genetic algorithms focus the exploration of tests on the set of test cases that most effectively reveals the flaws and vulnerabilities of the system under test. It leverages advances in state- and model-based engineering, which are essential in defining the behavior of autonomous systems. It also uses goal networks to describe test scenarios.

  12. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

  13. Automatic learning by an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    de Saussure, G.; Spelt, P.F.; Killough, S.M.; Pin, F.G.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes recent research in automatic learning by the autonomous mobile robot HERMIES-IIB at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR). By acting on the environment and observing the consequences during a set of training examples, the robot learns a sequence of successful manipulations on a simulated control panel. The robot learns to classify panel configurations in order to deal with new configurations that are not part of the original training set. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Asteroid Exploration with Autonomic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Rouff, Christopher; Hinchey, Mike

    2004-01-01

    NASA is studying advanced technologies for a future robotic exploration mission to the asteroid belt. The prospective ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) mission comprises autonomous agents including worker agents (small spacecra3) designed to cooperate in asteroid exploration under the overall authoriq of at least one ruler agent (a larger spacecraft) whose goal is to cause science data to be returned to Earth. The ANTS team (ruler plus workers and messenger agents), but not necessarily any individual on the team, will exhibit behaviors that qualify it as an autonomic system, where an autonomic system is defined as a system that self-reconfigures, self-optimizes, self-heals, and self-protects. Autonomic system concepts lead naturally to realistic, scalable architectures rich in capabilities and behaviors. In-depth consideration of a major mission like ANTS in terms of autonomic systems brings new insights into alternative definitions of autonomic behavior. This paper gives an overview of the ANTS mission and discusses the autonomic properties of the mission.

  15. Expanded Perspectives on Autonomous Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxford, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…

  16. Motor/autonomic stress responses in a competitive piano performance.

    PubMed

    Yoshie, Michiko; Kudo, Kazutoshi; Ohtsuki, Tatsuyuki

    2009-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of psychological stress on performance quality, autonomic responses, and upper extremity muscle activity in skilled pianists through comparisons between stressful (competition) and nonstressful (rehearsal) conditions. We observed increased levels of subjective anxiety, autonomic arousal, and electromyographic activity in the competition condition, which could contribute to the impairment of performance quality. The results provide important practical implications for enhancing performance quality as well as preventing playing-related musculoskeletal disorders in musicians. PMID:19673810

  17. Role of Training and Detraining on Inflammatory and Metabolic Profile in Infarcted Rats: Influences of Cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Aline Alves; Santamarina, Aline Boveto; Oyama, Lila Missae; Caperuto, Érico Chagas; de Souza, Cláudio Teodoro; Barboza, Catarina de Andrade; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Figueroa, Diego; Mostarda, Cristiano; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Lira, Fábio Santos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training (ET, 50–70% of VO2 max, 5 days/week) and detraining (DT) on inflammatory and metabolic profile after myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (C, n = 8), sedentary infarcted (SI, n = 9), trained infarcted (TI, n = 10; 3 months of ET), and detrained infarcted (DI, n = 11; 2 months of ET + 1 month of DT). After ET and DT protocols, ventricular function and inflammation, cardiovascular autonomic modulation (spectral analysis), and adipose tissue inflammation and lipolytic pathway were evaluated. ET after MI improved cardiac and vascular autonomic modulation, and these benefits were correlated with reduced inflammatory cytokines on the heart and adipose tissue. These positive changes were sustained even after 1 month of detraining. No expressive changes were observed in oxidative stress and lipolytic pathway in experimental groups. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that the autonomic improvement promoted by ET, and maintained even after the detraining period, was associated with reduced inflammatory profile in the left ventricle and adipose tissue of rats subjected to MI. These data encourage enhancing cardiovascular autonomic function as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory process triggered by MI. PMID:25045207

  18. Autonomic Function following Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, Sudheera S.; Pathirana, Kithsiri D.

    2012-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction after chronic low level exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides has been consistently reported in the literature, but not following a single acute overdose. In order to study autonomic function after an acute OP overdose, sixty-six overdose patients were compared to 70 matched controls. Assessment of autonomic function was done by heart rate response to standing, deep breathing (HR-DB) and Valsalva manoeuvre; blood pressure (BP) response to standing and sustained hand grip; amplitude and latency of sympathetic skin response (SSR); pupil size and post-void urine volume. The patients were assessed one and six weeks after the exposure. The number of patients who showed abnormal autonomic function compared to standard cut-off values did not show statistically significantly difference from that of controls by Chi-Square test. When compared to the controls at one week the only significant differences consistent with autonomic dysfunction were change of diastolic BP 3 min after standing, HR-DB, SSR-Amplitude, SSR-Latency, post-void urine volume and size of the pupil. At 6 weeks significant recovery of autonomic function was observed and only HR-DB was decreased to a minor degree, −5 beats/min [95%CI 2–8]. This study provides good evidence for the lack of long term autonomic dysfunction following acute exposure to OP pesticides. PMID:22655091

  19. Some observations on overwintering sites of adult Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and strategies followed under natural and seminatural conditions.

    PubMed

    Thareja, V; Singh, Rangoli; Singha Naorem, Anjana

    2016-01-01

    Field population of adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say, landed in December, congregated and overwintered in indoor artificial sites in Delhi. Repeated sampling strategy by individually collecting the adults was adopted to study their overwintering strategies for 4 years (December to April). They remained vagile and readily repopulated the resting sites after the removal of samples. A large percentage of females was fertile, unfed and nulliparous indicating that reproduction ceased in them. Adult survival was significantly prolonged to a maximum of 3 months under natural conditions. Gonotrophic cycle also got prolonged. Close to quitting, they became gravid and left in April without oviposition. No adults were observed on the sites for the rest of the year. Oviposition was induced in the blood-engorged females when provided with food, water and outdoor conditions. Oviposition might have been induced directly by water and food provided them energy under seminatural conditions. Eggs were laid singly or in the form of rafts, and the number in both the cases was low. Singly laid eggs did not hatch, and in rafts, hatching was ~80 %. Winter conditions seemed to strongly impact fertility, blood feeding, fecundity, oviposition behaviour, egg hatchability and longevity. Use of the overwintering sites as biological tool, as a part of environmental control in IPM, is suggested for organising antivector measures during winter. There is a need of exploring and creating more sites of this kind. PMID:26472714

  20. Passive and Self-Powered Autonomous Sensors for Remote Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Sardini, Emilio; Serpelloni, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Autonomous sensors play a very important role in the environmental, structural, and medical fields. The use of this kind of systems can be expanded for several applications, for example in implantable devices inside the human body where it is impossible to use wires. Furthermore, they enable measurements in harsh or hermetic environments, such as under extreme heat, cold, humidity or corrosive conditions. The use of batteries as a power supply for these devices represents one solution, but the size, and sometimes the cost and unwanted maintenance burdens of replacement are important drawbacks. In this paper passive and self-powered autonomous sensors for harsh or hermetical environments without batteries are discussed. Their general architectures are presented. Sensing strategies, communication techniques and power management are analyzed. Then, general building blocks of an autonomous sensor are presented and the design guidelines that such a system must follow are given. Furthermore, this paper reports different proposed applications of autonomous sensors applied in harsh or hermetic environments: two examples of passive autonomous sensors that use telemetric communication are proposed, the first one for humidity measurements and the second for high temperatures. Other examples of self-powered autonomous sensors that use a power harvesting system from electromagnetic fields are proposed for temperature measurements and for airflow speeds. PMID:22399949

  1. [Autonomic features in Parkinson disease].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshimasa; Tamura, Naotoshi

    2012-04-01

    Nonmotor symptoms such as autonomic and neuropsychiatric dysfunctions, are commonly seen in Parkinson disease (PD). Recent studies have shown that PD is accompanied by cardiac sympathetic denervation and constipation even in the early stage. Neuropathological studies confirmed changes in the cardiac sympathetic nerves and the gastrointestinal tract. These findings suggest that PD neuropathology may occur first in the peripheral autonomic pathways and extend to the central autonomic pathways, in agreement with the "Braak theory". This article will reviews the symptoms and pathophysiology of gastrointestinal dysfunction, urinary disturbance, sexual dysfunction, sweating dysfunction, pupillary autonomic dysfunction, and orthostatic and postprandial hypotension in PD patients, and discuss to organ selectiveness in autonomic dysfunction in PD. PMID:22481512

  2. Symmetries and solutions of the non-autonomous von Bertalanffy equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Maureen P.; Anderssen, Robert S.

    2015-05-01

    For growth in a closed environment, which is indicative of the situation in laboratory experiments, autonomous ODE models do not necessarily capture the dynamics under investigation. The importance and impact of a closed environment arise when the question under examination relates, for example, to the number of the surviving microbes, such as in a study of the spoilage and contamination of food, the gene silencing activity of fungi or the production of a chemical compound by bacteria or fungi. Autonomous ODE models are inappropriate as they assume that only the current size of the population controls the growth-decay dynamics. This is reflected in the fact that, asymptotically, their solutions can only grow or decay monotonically or asymptote. Non-autonomous ODE models are not so constrained. A natural strategy for the choice of non-autonomous ODEs is to take appropriate autonomous ones and change them to be non-autonomous through the introduction of relevant non-autonomous terms. This is the approach in this paper with the focus being the von Bertalanffy equation. Since this equation has independent importance in relation to practical applications in growth modelling, it is natural to explore the deeper relationships between the introduced non-autonomous terms through a symmetry analysis, which is the purpose and goal of the current paper. Infinitesimals are derived which allow particular forms of the non-autonomous von Bertalanffy equation to be transformed into autonomous forms for which some new analytic solutions have been found.

  3. Potential Interactions between the Autonomic Nervous System and Higher Level Functions in Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Andrea; Bozzali, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) maintains the internal homeostasis by continuously interacting with other brain structures. Its failure is commonly observed in many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, including neurodegenerative and vascular brain diseases, spinal cord injury, and peripheral neuropathies. Despite the different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, ANS failure associates with various forms of higher level dysfunctions, and may also negatively impact on patients’ clinical outcome. In this review, we will discuss potential relationships between ANS and higher level dysfunctions in a selection of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, we will focus on the effect of a documented fall in blood pressure fulfilling the criteria for orthostatic hypotension and/or autonomic-reflex impairment on cognitive performances. Some evidence supports the hypothesis that cardiovascular autonomic failure may play a negative prognostic role in most neurological disorders. Despite a clear causal relationship between ANS involvement and higher level dysfunctions that is still controversial, this might have implications for neuro-rehabilitation strategies aimed at improving patients’ clinical outcome. PMID:26388831

  4. A Strategy for Short-Term Earthquake Forecasting Based on Combined Ground and Space-Based Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafatos, M.; Papadopoulos, G. A.; Karastathis, V. K.; Minadakis, G.; Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S. A.; Tramutoli, V.; Tsinganos, K.

    2014-12-01

    No standard methodologies regarding the short-term (hours, days, few weeks) forecasting of earthquakes have been widely adopted so far. However, promising approaches from ground-based (e.g. foreshocks) and space-based (e.g. thermal anomalies) observations have been described. We propose to apply a multidisciplinary strategy by performing real-time experiments towards the identification of space-time windows having increased probability beyond chance for the occurrence of strong earthquakes (M>5.5). This is a new collaborative study which will continue the best practices achieved from other projects such as the EU-FP7 PRE-EARTHQUAKE and the ongoing ISSI project LAICa. The test region covers the entire Greece which is of the highest seismicity all over western Eurasia, while closer attention will be given to the Corinth Rift (Central Greece) which is an asymmetric half-graben of high seismicity opening rapidly with geodetic extension rates up to about 15mmyr-1. Ground-based observations will mainly include seismicity, magnetometers and radon measurements while space observations will include the ones that may provide thermal anomalies, GPS and TEC. The strategy will include the development of a system operating in real-time basis with strong tools and protocols for the collection, archiving and evaluation of the different types of data. The software part of the system may incorporate three basic interfaces implemented via open source technology: (1) The up-streaming software interface for the collection and archiving of data; (2) The backend real-time software interface incorporating all the available models; (3) The frontend WEBGIS software interface that will allow for data representation and mapping. The establishment of some certain rules for issuing non-public seismic alerts is needed. Therefore, in this paper we will also discuss the significance of the proposed work for the issues of earthquake forecasting/prediction statements and what critical new

  5. Autonomous docking ground demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamkin, Steve L.; Le, Thomas Quan; Othon, L. T.; Prather, Joseph L.; Eick, Richard E.; Baxter, Jim M.; Boyd, M. G.; Clark, Fred D.; Spehar, Peter T.; Teters, Rebecca T.

    1991-01-01

    The Autonomous Docking Ground Demonstration is an evaluation of the laser sensor system to support the docking phase (12 ft to contact) when operated in conjunction with the guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) software. The docking mechanism being used was developed for the Apollo/Soyuz Test Program. This demonstration will be conducted using the 6-DOF Dynamic Test System (DTS). The DTS simulates the Space Station Freedom as the stationary or target vehicle and the Orbiter as the active or chase vehicle. For this demonstration, the laser sensor will be mounted on the target vehicle and the retroflectors will be on the chase vehicle. This arrangement was chosen to prevent potential damage to the laser. The laser sensor system, GN&C, and 6-DOF DTS will be operated closed-loop. Initial conditions to simulate vehicle misalignments, translational and rotational, will be introduced within the constraints of the systems involved.

  6. Autonomous Flying Controls Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    The Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis,Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights.

  7. Strategies to observe JWST First Light objects at z=10--20 based on recent results from the HUDF XDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windhorst, Rogier A.; Cohen, S. H.; Jansen, R. A.; Driver, S. P.; Robotham, A.; Alpaslan, M.; Lange, R.; Hopkins, A. M.; Cluver, M.; Konstantopoulos, I.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.; Barone-Nugent, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on the best observing strategies to see an optimum number of First Light objects at 10-20 with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), based on recent results from the Hubble Wide Field Camera 3 UltraDeep Field. First, we summarize the best available data to redshifts z<8 on how the Schechter UV Luminosity Function (LF) evolves in its faint-end slope [alpha(z)], its characteristic luminosity [M*(z)] and corresponding space density [phi*(z)], and use hierarchical models to explore how alpha(z) and phi*(z) may evolve for z>8. We use the strongly declining number of z=9-11 candidates in the HUDF-XDF compared to the large number of z=7-8 objects, to constrain the plausible range in evolution of M*(z) for z> 9. While hierarchical models suggest that alpha(z>8) converges to ~-2 and phi*(z>8) to ~< 10^-3/Mpc^3, the one plausible =10-12 candidate seen in the HUDF-XDF suggests that M*(z) may drop to fainter than M=--17.5 mag at z>10 in WMAP9/Planck cosmology. If so, this may have a significant impact on the optimal observing strategies of z>10 objects with JWST. If M*(z) and/or phi*(z) continue to decline significantly for z>9, only deep 200+-hr JWST surveys that reach to AB>31 mag will see a significant number of z>10 objects. Shallow or medium deep JWST surveys that reach to AB<30 mag will not see very many unlensed z>10 objects, since they will generally sample brighter than M* at z>10. Hence, in order to sample the brighter-end of the LF at z>10, and to average over the expected significant cosmic variance at z>10, JWST will either need to observe a larger number (>5) of deep JWST fields, and/or it will need to do a much larger number (>10-20) of medium-deep surveys on gravitational lensing foreground targets. The 6 Hubble Frontier Fields that started in 2013 are excellent lensing targets for JWST. We present a subset of 2400 galaxy groups from the GAMA spectroscopic survey to z=0.4 that have M>10^15 M_o and are sufficiently compact to also be excellent

  8. Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bornstein, Benjamin J.; Castano, Rebecca; Estlin, Tara A.; Gaines, Daniel M.; Anderson, Robert C.; Thompson, David R.; DeGranville, Charles K.; Chien, Steve A.; Tang, Benyang; Burl, Michael C.; Judd, Michele A.

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science System (AEGIS) provides automated targeting for remote sensing instruments on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission, which at the time of this reporting has had two rovers exploring the surface of Mars (see figure). Currently, targets for rover remote-sensing instruments must be selected manually based on imagery already on the ground with the operations team. AEGIS enables the rover flight software to analyze imagery onboard in order to autonomously select and sequence targeted remote-sensing observations in an opportunistic fashion. In particular, this technology will be used to automatically acquire sub-framed, high-resolution, targeted images taken with the MER panoramic cameras. This software provides: 1) Automatic detection of terrain features in rover camera images, 2) Feature extraction for detected terrain targets, 3) Prioritization of terrain targets based on a scientist target feature set, and 4) Automated re-targeting of rover remote-sensing instruments at the highest priority target.

  9. Do cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous effects drive the structure of tumor ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Tissot, Tazzio; Ujvari, Beata; Solary, Eric; Lassus, Patrice; Roche, Benjamin; Thomas, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    By definition, a driver mutation confers a growth advantage to the cancer cell in which it occurs, while a passenger mutation does not: the former is usually considered as the engine of cancer progression, while the latter is not. Actually, the effects of a given mutation depend on the genetic background of the cell in which it appears, thus can differ in the subclones that form a tumor. In addition to cell-autonomous effects generated by the mutations, non-cell-autonomous effects shape the phenotype of a cancer cell. Here, we review the evidence that a network of biological interactions between subclones drives cancer cell adaptation and amplifies intra-tumor heterogeneity. Integrating the role of mutations in tumor ecosystems generates innovative strategies targeting the tumor ecosystem's weaknesses to improve cancer treatment. PMID:26845682

  10. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  11. Measuring Treatment Differentiation for Implementation Research: The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy Revised Strategies Scale

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Bryce D.; Smith, Meghan M.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Weisz, John R.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    Observational measures to assess implementation integrity (the extent to which components of an evidence-based treatment are delivered as intended) are needed. We evaluated the reliability of the scores and the validity of the score interpretations for the Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy – Revised Strategies scale (TPOCS-RS; McLeod, 2010) and assessed the potential of the TPOCS-RS to assess treatment differentiation, a component of implementation integrity. The TPOCS-RS includes five theory-based subscales (Cognitive, Behavioral, Psychodynamic, Client-Centered, Family). Using the TPOCS-RS, coders independently rated 954 sessions conducted with 89 children (M age = 10.56, SD = 2.00; aged 7–15 years; 65.20% Caucasian) diagnosed with a primary anxiety disorder who received different treatments (manual-based vs. non-manualized) across settings (research vs. practice). Coders produced reliable ratings at the item level (M ICC = .76, SD = .18). Analyses support the construct validity of the Cognitive and Behavioral subscale scores and, to a lesser extent, the Psychodynamic, Family, and Client-Centered subscale scores. Correlations among the TPOCS-RS subscale scores and between the TPOCS-RS subscale scores and observational ratings of the alliance and client involvement were moderate suggesting independence of the subscale scores. Moreover, the TPOCS-RS showed promise for assessing implementation integrity as the TPOCS-RS subscale scores, as hypothesized, discriminated between manual-guided treatment delivered across research and practice settings and non-manualized usual care. The findings support the potential of the TPOCS-RS Cognitive and Behavioral subscales to assess treatment differentiation in implementation research. Results for the remaining subscales are promising, although further research is needed. PMID:25346995

  12. Optimal soaring by a small autonomous glider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyle, Jason A.

    Extending the flight time of an autonomous unmanned air vehicle by soaring is considered. A suboptimal controller is developed and successful static soaring is demonstrated with a 6 degree of freedom glider model. Altitude gain rates of between ¼ and ½ m/s are achieved with this simple implementation. A hybrid optimal trajectory generation algorithm is developed and used to find optimal closed cycles in typical wind conditions using a point mass model. The algorithm is shown to be robust to a poor initial guess, with computational performance comparable to a common direct shooting algorithm. A receding horizon optimal controller strategy is investigated for the problem of autonomous soaring. An efficient Riccatti recursion algorithm is used to determine the next step in the Newton Iteration of the Non-Linear optimization problem. A real time strategy for optimal soaring is developed and shown to perform very well for a point mass model, resulting in repeatable trajectories with significant altitude gain. Sensitivity to errors including wind model errors is investigated. The real time algorithm was found to be insensitive to reasonable errors.

  13. Autonomous power system brassboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merolla, Anthony

    1992-10-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the

  14. Autonomous power system brassboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merolla, Anthony

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) brassboard is a 20 kHz power distribution system which has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The brassboard exists to provide a realistic hardware platform capable of testing artificially intelligent (AI) software. The brassboard's power circuit topology is based upon a Power Distribution Control Unit (PDCU), which is a subset of an advanced development 20 kHz electrical power system (EPS) testbed, originally designed for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The APS program is designed to demonstrate the application of intelligent software as a fault detection, isolation, and recovery methodology for space power systems. This report discusses both the hardware and software elements used to construct the present configuration of the brassboard. The brassboard power components are described. These include the solid-state switches (herein referred to as switchgear), transformers, sources, and loads. Closely linked to this power portion of the brassboard is the first level of embedded control. Hardware used to implement this control and its associated software is discussed. An Ada software program, developed by Lewis Research Center's Space Station Freedom Directorate for their 20 kHz testbed, is used to control the brassboard's switchgear, as well as monitor key brassboard parameters through sensors located within these switches. The Ada code is downloaded from a PC/AT, and is resident within the 8086 microprocessor-based embedded controllers. The PC/AT is also used for smart terminal emulation, capable of controlling the switchgear as well as displaying data from them. Intelligent control is provided through use of a T1 Explorer and the Autonomous Power Expert (APEX) LISP software. Real-time load scheduling is implemented through use of a 'C' program-based scheduling engine. The methods of communication between these computers and the brassboard are explored. In order to evaluate the features of both the

  15. Autonomic closure for turbulence simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ryan N.; Hamlington, Peter E.; Dahm, Werner J. A.

    2016-03-01

    A new approach to turbulence closure is presented that eliminates the need to specify a predefined turbulence model and instead provides for fully adaptive, self-optimizing, autonomic closures. The closure is autonomic in the sense that the simulation itself determines the optimal local, instantaneous relation between any unclosed term and resolved quantities through the solution of a nonlinear, nonparametric system identification problem. This nonparametric approach allows the autonomic closure to freely adapt to varying nonlinear, nonlocal, nonequilibrium, and other turbulence characteristics in the flow. Even a simple implementation of the autonomic closure for large eddy simulations provides remarkably more accurate results in a priori tests than do dynamic versions of traditional prescribed closures.

  16. Autonomic closure for turbulence simulations.

    PubMed

    King, Ryan N; Hamlington, Peter E; Dahm, Werner J A

    2016-03-01

    A new approach to turbulence closure is presented that eliminates the need to specify a predefined turbulence model and instead provides for fully adaptive, self-optimizing, autonomic closures. The closure is autonomic in the sense that the simulation itself determines the optimal local, instantaneous relation between any unclosed term and resolved quantities through the solution of a nonlinear, nonparametric system identification problem. This nonparametric approach allows the autonomic closure to freely adapt to varying nonlinear, nonlocal, nonequilibrium, and other turbulence characteristics in the flow. Even a simple implementation of the autonomic closure for large eddy simulations provides remarkably more accurate results in a priori tests than do dynamic versions of traditional prescribed closures. PMID:27078285

  17. Autonomic disorders predicting Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    It is now well recognized that there is a premotor phase of Parkinson disease with hyposmia and REM sleep behavior disorder caused by degeneration of specific CNS neurons. Most patients with PD describe autonomic symptoms at the time of diagnosis suggesting that these features may have potential sensitivity as clinical biomarkers of the premotor phase. The recognition that damage to peripheral autonomic neurons is present in the early stages of Parkinson disease has led to a search for specific abnormalities in autonomic function that could serve as predictive biomarkers. There is evidence that constipation, urinary and sexual dysfunction and more recently decreased cardiac chronotropic response during exercise, are part of the premotor parkinsonian phenotype. The sensitivity and specificity of these features has yet to be accurately assessed. We briefly review the evidence for autonomic dysfunction as biomarkers of premotor PD. PMID:24262198

  18. ISS Update: Autonomous Mission Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Jeff Mauldin, Simulation Supervisor for Autonomous Mission Operations at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson a...

  19. Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Video Gallery

    Future NASA space crafts will be able to safely land on the Moon, Marsand even an asteroid, in potentially hazardous terrain areas, allautonomously. And NASA’s Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidan...

  20. Compact Autonomous Hemispheric Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Walch, Marc J.; Staehle, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Solar System Exploration camera implementations to date have involved either single cameras with wide field-of-view (FOV) and consequently coarser spatial resolution, cameras on a movable mast, or single cameras necessitating rotation of the host vehicle to afford visibility outside a relatively narrow FOV. These cameras require detailed commanding from the ground or separate onboard computers to operate properly, and are incapable of making decisions based on image content that control pointing and downlink strategy. For color, a filter wheel having selectable positions was often added, which added moving parts, size, mass, power, and reduced reliability. A system was developed based on a general-purpose miniature visible-light camera using advanced CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) imager technology. The baseline camera has a 92 FOV and six cameras are arranged in an angled-up carousel fashion, with FOV overlaps such that the system has a 360 FOV (azimuth). A seventh camera, also with a FOV of 92 , is installed normal to the plane of the other 6 cameras giving the system a > 90 FOV in elevation and completing the hemispheric vision system. A central unit houses the common electronics box (CEB) controlling the system (power conversion, data processing, memory, and control software). Stereo is achieved by adding a second system on a baseline, and color is achieved by stacking two more systems (for a total of three, each system equipped with its own filter.) Two connectors on the bottom of the CEB provide a connection to a carrier (rover, spacecraft, balloon, etc.) for telemetry, commands, and power. This system has no moving parts. The system's onboard software (SW) supports autonomous operations such as pattern recognition and tracking.

  1. Mapping planetary caves with an autonomous, heterogeneous robot team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Ammar; Jones, Heather; Kannan, Balajee; Wong, Uland; Pimentel, Tiago; Tang, Sarah; Daftry, Shreyansh; Huber, Steven; Whittaker, William L.

    Caves on other planetary bodies offer sheltered habitat for future human explorers and numerous clues to a planet's past for scientists. While recent orbital imagery provides exciting new details about cave entrances on the Moon and Mars, the interiors of these caves are still unknown and not observable from orbit. Multi-robot teams offer unique solutions for exploration and modeling subsurface voids during precursor missions. Robot teams that are diverse in terms of size, mobility, sensing, and capability can provide great advantages, but this diversity, coupled with inherently distinct low-level behavior architectures, makes coordination a challenge. This paper presents a framework that consists of an autonomous frontier and capability-based task generator, a distributed market-based strategy for coordinating and allocating tasks to the different team members, and a communication paradigm for seamless interaction between the different robots in the system. Robots have different sensors, (in the representative robot team used for testing: 2D mapping sensors, 3D modeling sensors, or no exteroceptive sensors), and varying levels of mobility. Tasks are generated to explore, model, and take science samples. Based on an individual robot's capability and associated cost for executing a generated task, a robot is autonomously selected for task execution. The robots create coarse online maps and store collected data for high resolution offline modeling. The coordination approach has been field tested at a mock cave site with highly-unstructured natural terrain, as well as an outdoor patio area. Initial results are promising for applicability of the proposed multi-robot framework to exploration and modeling of planetary caves.

  2. Physics Simulation Software for Autonomous Propellant Loading and Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regalado Reyes, Bjorn Constant

    2015-01-01

    1. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing a mobile launching system with autonomous propellant loading capabilities for liquid-fueled rockets. An autonomous system will be responsible for monitoring and controlling the storage, loading and transferring of cryogenic propellants. The Physics Simulation Software will reproduce the sensor data seen during the delivery of cryogenic fluids including valve positions, pressures, temperatures and flow rates. The simulator will provide insight into the functionality of the propellant systems and demonstrate the effects of potential faults. This will provide verification of the communications protocols and the autonomous system control. 2. The High Pressure Gas Facility (HPGF) stores and distributes hydrogen, nitrogen, helium and high pressure air. The hydrogen and nitrogen are stored in cryogenic liquid state. The cryogenic fluids pose several hazards to operators and the storage and transfer equipment. Constant monitoring of pressures, temperatures and flow rates are required in order to maintain the safety of personnel and equipment during the handling and storage of these commodities. The Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring software will be responsible for constantly observing and recording sensor data, identifying and predicting faults and relaying hazard and operational information to the operators.

  3. Autonomous landing guidance program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, John A.

    1996-05-01

    The Autonomous Landing Guidance program is partly funded by the US Government under the Technology Reinvestment Project. The program consortium consists of avionics and other equipment vendors, airlines and the USAF. A Sextant Avionique HUD is used to present flight symbology in cursive form as well as millimeter wave radar imagery from Lear Astronics equipment and FLIR Systems dual-channel, forward-looking, infrared imagery. All sensor imagery is presented in raster form. A future aim is to fuse all imagery data into a single presentation. Sensor testing has been accomplished in a Cessna 402 operated by the Maryland Advanced Development Laboratory. Development testing is under way in a Northwest Airlines simulator equipped with HUD and image simulation. Testing is also being carried out using United Airlines Boeing 727 and USAF C-135C (Boeing 707) test aircraft. The paper addresses the technology utilized in sensory and display systems as well as modifications made to accommodate the elements in the aircraft. Additions to the system test aircraft include global positioning systems, inertial navigation systems and extensive data collection equipment. Operational philosophy and benefits for both civil and military users are apparent. Approach procedures have been developed allowing use of Category 1 ground installations in Category 3 conditions.

  4. Autonomous underwater barcode recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Karl R.

    2003-11-01

    Wide area symbol recognition is a task that plagues many autonomous vehicles. A process is needed first to recognize if the symbol is present, and if so where it is. Once the symbol's position is detected it must be analyzed and recognized. In this scenario we have a submersible attempting to locate man made objects on the bottom of a large water basin. These man made objects have bar codes on them that need to be read and the position of the code needs to be recorded relative to where it is in the entire pond. A two step process has been developed to allow the position recognition within a frame to be dealt with on a separate DSP associated with one of three total cameras. The object recognition is then dealt with on a high speed computer aboard the vehicle to read the proper code. The reading is done using a statistics based approach that assumes a noisy, but contrasting background. This approach has proven to be effective in environments in which the background has very little ordered noise, such as the bottom of lakes and ponds, but requires very high clarity in order to capture a suitable image.

  5. Autonomous mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, J.; Spirkovska, L.; McCann, R.; Wang, Lui; Pohlkamp, K.; Morin, L.

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an empirical investigation of the impact of time delay on today's mission operations, and of the effect of processes and mission support tools designed to mitigate time-delay related impacts. Mission operation scenarios were designed for NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH), an analog spacecraft habitat, covering a range of activities including nominal objectives, DSH system failures, and crew medical emergencies. The scenarios were simulated at time delay values representative of Lunar (1.2-5 sec), Near Earth Object (NEO) (50 sec) and Mars (300 sec) missions. Each combination of operational scenario and time delay was tested in a Baseline configuration, designed to reflect present-day operations of the International Space Station, and a Mitigation configuration in which a variety of software tools, information displays, and crew-ground communications protocols were employed to assist both crews and Flight Control Team (FCT) members with the long-delay conditions. Preliminary findings indicate: 1) Workload of both crewmembers and FCT members generally increased along with increasing time delay. 2) Advanced procedure execution viewers, caution and warning tools, and communications protocols such as text messaging decreased the workload of both flight controllers and crew, and decreased the difficulty of coordinating activities. 3) Whereas crew workload ratings increased between 50 sec and 300 sec of time delay in the Baseline configuration, workload ratings decreased (or remained flat) in the Mitigation configuration.

  6. Is paramecium swimming autonomic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Toplosky, Norman; Hansen, Joshua

    2010-11-01

    We seek to explore if the swimming of paramecium has an underlying autonomic mechanism. Such robotic elements may be useful in capturing the disturbance field in an environment in real time. Experimental evidence is emerging that motion control neurons of other animals may be present in paramecium as well. The limit cycle determined using analog simulation of the coupled nonlinear oscillators of olivo-cerebellar dynamics (ieee joe 33, 563-578, 2008) agrees with the tracks of the cilium of a biological paramecium. A 4-motor apparatus has been built that reproduces the kinematics of the cilium motion. The motion of the biological cilium has been analyzed and compared with the results of the finite element modeling of forces on a cilium. The modeling equates applied torque at the base of the cilium with drag, the cilium stiffness being phase dependent. A low friction pendulum apparatus with a multiplicity of electromagnetic actuators is being built for verifying the maps of the attractor basin computed using the olivo-cerebellar dynamics for different initial conditions. Sponsored by ONR 33.

  7. Autonomous Aerobraking at Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, Jill L.; Tolson, Robert; Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer; Dec, John

    2002-01-01

    Aerobraking has become a proven approach for orbital missions at Mars. A launch of a 1000 kg class spacecraft on a Delta class booster saves 90% of the post-MOI fuel otherwise required to circularize the orbit. In 1997, Mars Global Surveyor demonstrated the feasibility and Mars 2001 Odyssey completed a nearly trouble free aerobraking phase in January 2002. In 2006, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will also utilize aerobraking. From the flight operations standpoint, however, aerobraking is labor intensive and high risk due to the large density variability in the Mars thermosphere. The maximum rate of aerobraking is typically limited by the maximum allowable temperature of the solar array which is the primary drag surface. Prior missions have used a surrogate variable, usually maximum free stream heat flux, as a basis for performing periapsis altitude corridor control maneuvers. This paper provides an adaptive sequential method for operationally relating measured temperatures to heat flux profile characteristics and performing maneuvers based directly on measured temperatures and atmospheric properties derived from the heat flux profiles. Simulations of autonomous aerobraking are performed using Odyssey mission data.

  8. Autonomous production of propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Schallhorn, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    The autonomous production of propellants is addressed. Since 80 to 90 percent of a spacecraft's mass is typically propellants, it is advantageous to produce propellants in strategic locations en route to, and at, the desired mission destination. This reduces the weight of the spacecraft and the cost of each mission. Since one of the primary goals of the space program is safety, a totally automated propellant production system is desirable. This system would remove, from hostile, high-risk extraterrestrial environments, the constant human intervention currently required in the production of many propellants. This enables the exploration of space to be more than the search for and production of fuel. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, one specific case was chosen for this study. That case was a composite propellant processor (the principle is more important than the application), and the specific processor used saved SERC the considerable cost of acquiring a new liquid propellant processor that would also have required similar automation.

  9. Autonomous Mission Operations Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy David

    2014-01-01

    As light time delays increase, the number of such situations in which crew autonomy is the best way to conduct the mission is expected to increase. However, there are significant open questions regarding which functions to allocate to ground and crew as the time delays increase. In situations where the ideal solution is to allocate responsibility to the crew and the vehicle, a second question arises: should the activity be the responsibility of the crew or an automated vehicle function? More specifically, we must answer the following questions: What aspects of mission operation responsibilities (Plan, Train, Fly) should be allocated to ground based or vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control in the presence of significant light-time delay between the vehicle and the Earth?How should the allocated ground based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed across the flight control team and ground system automation? How should the allocated vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed between the flight crew and onboard system automation?When during the mission should responsibility shift from flight control team to crew or from crew to vehicle, and what should the process of shifting responsibility be as the mission progresses? NASA is developing a roadmap of capabilities for Autonomous Mission Operations for human spaceflight. This presentation will describe the current state of development of this roadmap, with specific attention to in-space inspection tasks that crews might perform with minimum assistance from the ground.

  10. What visual illusions tell us about underlying neural mechanisms and observer strategies for tackling the inverse problem of achromatic perception

    PubMed Central

    Blakeslee, Barbara; McCourt, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Research in lightness perception centers on understanding the prior assumptions and processing strategies the visual system uses to parse the retinal intensity distribution (the proximal stimulus) into the surface reflectance and illumination components of the scene (the distal stimulus—ground truth). It is agreed that the visual system must compare different regions of the visual image to solve this inverse problem; however, the nature of the comparisons and the mechanisms underlying them are topics of intense debate. Perceptual illusions are of value because they reveal important information about these visual processing mechanisms. We propose a framework for lightness research that resolves confusions and paradoxes in the literature, and provides insight into the mechanisms the visual system employs to tackle the inverse problem. The main idea is that much of the debate and confusion in the literature stems from the fact that lightness, defined as apparent reflectance, is underspecified and refers to three different types of judgments that are not comparable. Under stimulus conditions containing a visible illumination component, such as a shadow boundary, observers can distinguish and match three independent dimensions of achromatic experience: apparent intensity (brightness), apparent local intensity ratio (brightness-contrast), and apparent reflectance (lightness). In the absence of a visible illumination boundary, however, achromatic vision reduces to two dimensions and, depending on stimulus conditions and observer instructions, judgments of lightness are identical to judgments of brightness or brightness-contrast. Furthermore, because lightness judgments are based on different information under different conditions, they can differ greatly in their degree of difficulty and in their accuracy. This may, in part, explain the large variability in lightness constancy across studies. PMID:25954181

  11. Autonomous power system: Integrated scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA Lewis Research Center is designed to demonstrate the abilities of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control and scheduling techniques to space power distribution hardware. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for fault diagnosis, isolation, and recovery (FDIR), the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to determine system configuration, and power hardware (Brassboard) to simulate a space-based power system. Faults can be introduced into the Brassboard and in turn, be diagnosed and corrected by APEX and AIPS. The Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler controls the execution of loads attached to the Brassboard. Each load must be executed in a manner that efficiently utilizes available power and satisfies all load, resource, and temporal constraints. In the case of a fault situation on the Brassboard, AIPS dynamically modifies the existing schedule in order to resume efficient operation conditions. A database is kept of the power demand, temporal modifiers, priority of each load, and the power level of each source. AIPS uses a set of heuristic rules to assign start times and resources to each load based on load and resource constraints. A simple improvement engine based upon these heuristics is also available to improve the schedule efficiency. This paper describes the operation of the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler as a single entity, as well as its integration with APEX and the Brassboard. Future plans are discussed for the growth of the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler.

  12. Autonomic dysfunction in acute ischemic stroke: an underexplored therapeutic area?

    PubMed

    De Raedt, Sylvie; De Vos, Aurelie; De Keyser, Jacques

    2015-01-15

    Impaired autonomic function, characterized by a predominance of sympathetic activity, is common in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This review describes methods to measure autonomic dysfunction in stroke patients. It summarizes a potential relationship between ischemic stroke-associated autonomic dysfunction and factors that have been associated with worse outcome, including cardiac complications, blood pressure variability changes, hyperglycemia, immune depression, sleep disordered breathing, thrombotic effects, and malignant edema. Involvement of the insular cortex has been suspected to play an important role in causing sympathovagal imbalance, but its exact role and that of other brain regions remain unclear. Although sympathetic overactivity in patients with ischemic stroke appears to be a negative prognostic factor, it remains to be seen whether therapeutic strategies that reduce sympathetic activity or increase parasympathetic activity might improve outcome. PMID:25541326

  13. Flocking algorithm for autonomous flying robots.

    PubMed

    Virágh, Csaba; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Tarcai, Norbert; Szörényi, Tamás; Somorjai, Gergő; Nepusz, Tamás; Vicsek, Tamás

    2014-06-01

    Animal swarms displaying a variety of typical flocking patterns would not exist without the underlying safe, optimal and stable dynamics of the individuals. The emergence of these universal patterns can be efficiently reconstructed with agent-based models. If we want to reproduce these patterns with artificial systems, such as autonomous aerial robots, agent-based models can also be used in their control algorithms. However, finding the proper algorithms and thus understanding the essential characteristics of the emergent collective behaviour requires thorough and realistic modeling of the robot and also the environment. In this paper, we first present an abstract mathematical model of an autonomous flying robot. The model takes into account several realistic features, such as time delay and locality of communication, inaccuracy of the on-board sensors and inertial effects. We present two decentralized control algorithms. One is based on a simple self-propelled flocking model of animal collective motion, the other is a collective target tracking algorithm. Both algorithms contain a viscous friction-like term, which aligns the velocities of neighbouring agents parallel to each other. We show that this term can be essential for reducing the inherent instabilities of such a noisy and delayed realistic system. We discuss simulation results on the stability of the control algorithms, and perform real experiments to show the applicability of the algorithms on a group of autonomous quadcopters. In our case, bio-inspiration works in two ways. On the one hand, the whole idea of trying to build and control a swarm of robots comes from the observation that birds tend to flock to optimize their behaviour as a group. On the other hand, by using a realistic simulation framework and studying the group behaviour of autonomous robots we can learn about the major factors influencing the flight of bird flocks. PMID:24852272

  14. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  15. Understanding and improving mitigation strategies for reducing catchment scale nutrient loads using high resolution observations and uncertainty analysis approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, A.; Lloyd, C.; Freer, J. E.; Johnes, P.; Stirling, M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the biggest challenges in catchment water quality management is tackling the problem of reducing water pollution from agriculture whilst ensuring food security nationally. Improvements to catchment management plans are needed if we are to enhance biodiversity and maintain good ecological status in freshwater ecosystems, while producing enough food to support a growing global population. In order to plan for a more sustainable and secure future, research needs to quantify the uncertainties and understand the complexities in the source-mobilisation-delivery-impact continuum of pollution and nutrients at all scales. In the UK the Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) project has been set up to improve water quality specifically from diffuse pollution from agriculture by enhanced high resolution monitoring and targeted mitigation experiments. The DTC project aims to detect shifts in the baseline trend of the most ecologically-significant pollutants resulting from targeted on-farm measures at field to farm scales and assessing their effects on ecosystem function. The DTC programme involves three catchments across the UK that are indicative of three different typologies and land uses. This paper will focus on the Hampshire Avon DTC, where a total of 12 parameters are monitored by bank-side stations at two sampling sites, including flow, turbidity, phosphate and nitrate concentrations at 30 min resolution. This monitoring is supported by daily resolution sampling at 5 other sites and storm sampling at all locations. Part of the DTC project aims to understand how observations of water quality within river systems at different temporal resolutions and types of monitoring strategies enable us to understand and detect changes over and above the natural variability. Baseline monitoring is currently underway and early results show that high-resolution data is essential at this sub-catchment scale to understand important process dynamics. This is critical if we are to design

  16. On the design of neuro-controllers for individual and social learning behaviour in autonomous robots: an evolutionary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, Giovanni; Tuci, Elio

    2008-06-01

    In biology/psychology, the capability of natural organisms to learn from the observation/interaction with conspecifics is referred to as social learning. Roboticists have recently developed an interest in social learning, since it might represent an effective strategy to enhance the adaptivity of a team of autonomous robots. In this study, we show that a methodological approach based on artifcial neural networks shaped by evolutionary computation techniques can be successfully employed to synthesise the individual and social learning mechanisms for robots required to learn a desired action (i.e. phototaxis or antiphototaxis).

  17. New Interview and Observation Measures of the Broader Autism Phenotype: Description of Strategy and Reliability Findings for the Interview Measures

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Jeremy R; De Jonge, Maretha V; Wallace, Simon; Pickles, Andrew; Rutter, Michael L; Le Couteur, Ann S; van Engeland, Herman; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; McConachie, Helen; Roge, Bernadette; Mantoulan, Carine; Pedersen, Lennart; Isager, Torben; Poustka, Fritz; Bolte, Sven; Bolton, Patrick; Weisblatt, Emma; Green, Jonathan; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Baird, Gillian; Bailey, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Clinical genetic studies confirm the broader autism phenotype (BAP) in some relatives of individuals with autism, but there are few standardized assessment measures. We developed three BAP measures (informant interview, self-report interview, and impression of interviewee observational scale) and describe the development strategy and findings from the interviews. International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium data were collected from families containing at least two individuals with autism. Comparison of the informant and self-report interviews was restricted to samples in which the interviews were undertaken by different researchers from that site (251 UK informants, 119 from the Netherlands). Researchers produced vignettes that were rated blind by others. Retest reliability was assessed in 45 participants. Agreement between live scoring and vignette ratings was very high. Retest stability for the interviews was high. Factor analysis indicated a first factor comprising social-communication items and rigidity (but not other repetitive domain items), and a second factor comprised mainly of reading and spelling impairments. Whole scale Cronbach's alphas were high for both interviews. The correlation between interviews for factor 1 was moderate (adult items 0.50; childhood items 0.43); Kappa values for between-interview agreement on individual items were mainly low. The correlations between individual items and total score were moderate. The inclusion of several factor 2 items lowered the overall Cronbach's alpha for the total set. Both interview measures showed good reliability and substantial stability over time, but the findings were better for factor 1 than factor 2. We recommend factor 1 scores be used for characterising the BAP. Autism Res 2015, 8: 522–533. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25959701

  18. New Interview and Observation Measures of the Broader Autism Phenotype: Description of Strategy and Reliability Findings for the Interview Measures.

    PubMed

    Parr, Jeremy R; De Jonge, Maretha V; Wallace, Simon; Pickles, Andrew; Rutter, Michael L; Le Couteur, Ann S; van Engeland, Herman; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; McConachie, Helen; Roge, Bernadette; Mantoulan, Carine; Pedersen, Lennart; Isager, Torben; Poustka, Fritz; Bolte, Sven; Bolton, Patrick; Weisblatt, Emma; Green, Jonathan; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Baird, Gillian; Bailey, Anthony J

    2015-10-01

    Clinical genetic studies confirm the broader autism phenotype (BAP) in some relatives of individuals with autism, but there are few standardized assessment measures. We developed three BAP measures (informant interview, self-report interview, and impression of interviewee observational scale) and describe the development strategy and findings from the interviews. International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium data were collected from families containing at least two individuals with autism. Comparison of the informant and self-report interviews was restricted to samples in which the interviews were undertaken by different researchers from that site (251 UK informants, 119 from the Netherlands). Researchers produced vignettes that were rated blind by others. Retest reliability was assessed in 45 participants. Agreement between live scoring and vignette ratings was very high. Retest stability for the interviews was high. Factor analysis indicated a first factor comprising social-communication items and rigidity (but not other repetitive domain items), and a second factor comprised mainly of reading and spelling impairments. Whole scale Cronbach's alphas were high for both interviews. The correlation between interviews for factor 1 was moderate (adult items 0.50; childhood items 0.43); Kappa values for between-interview agreement on individual items were mainly low. The correlations between individual items and total score were moderate. The inclusion of several factor 2 items lowered the overall Cronbach's alpha for the total set. Both interview measures showed good reliability and substantial stability over time, but the findings were better for factor 1 than factor 2. We recommend factor 1 scores be used for characterising the BAP. PMID:25959701

  19. Towards an Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) with Reflex Autonomicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Hinchey, Mike; Sterritt, Roy

    2005-01-01

    Cluster computing, whereby a large number of simple processors or nodes are combined together to apparently function as a single powerful computer, has emerged as a research area in its own right. The approach offers a relatively inexpensive means of providing a fault-tolerant environment and achieving significant computational capabilities for high-performance computing applications. However, the task of manually managing and configuring a cluster quickly becomes daunting as the cluster grows in size. Autonomic computing, with its vision to provide self-management, can potentially solve many of the problems inherent in cluster management. We describe the development of a prototype Autonomic Cluster Management System (ACMS) that exploits autonomic properties in automating cluster management and its evolution to include reflex reactions via pulse monitoring.

  20. Turning a remotely controllable observatory into a fully autonomous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindell, Scott; Johnson, Chris; Gabor, Paul; Zareba, Grzegorz; Kubánek, Petr; Prouza, Michael

    2014-08-01

    We describe a complex process needed to turn an existing, old, operational observatory - The Steward Observatory's 61" Kuiper Telescope - into a fully autonomous system, which observers without an observer. For this purpose, we employed RTS2,1 an open sourced, Linux based observatory control system, together with other open sourced programs and tools (GNU compilers, Python language for scripting, JQuery UI for Web user interface). This presentation provides a guide with time estimates needed for a newcomers to the field to handle such challenging tasks, as fully autonomous observatory operations.

  1. Sensing, Control, and System Integration for Autonomous Vehicles: A Series of Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özgüner, Ümit; Redmill, Keith

    One of the important examples of mechatronic systems can be found in autonomous ground vehicles. Autonomous ground vehicles provide a series of challenges in sensing, control and system integration. In this paper we consider off-road autonomous vehicles, automated highway systems and urban autonomous driving and indicate the unifying aspects. We specifically consider our own experience during the last twelve years in various demonstrations and challenges in attempting to identify unifying themes. Such unifying themes can be observed in basic hierarchies, hybrid system control approaches and sensor fusion techniques.

  2. Lead toxicity promotes autonomic dysfunction with increased chemoreceptor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Geraldes, Vera; Carvalho, Mafalda; Goncalves-Rosa, Nataniel; Tavares, Cristiano; Laranjo, Sérgio; Rocha, Isabel

    2016-05-01

    Mortality and morbidity by toxic metals is an important issue of occupational health. Lead is an ubiquitous heavy metal in our environment despite having no physiological role in biological systems. Being an homeostatic controller is expected that the autonomic nervous system would show a degree of impairment in lead toxicity. In fact, sympathoexcitation associated to high blood pressure and tachypnea has been described together with baroreflex dysfunction. However, the mechanisms underlying the autonomic dysfunction and the interplay between baro- and chemoreflex are not yet fully clarified. The angiotensinogenic PVN-NTS axis (paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus - nucleus tractus solitarius axis) is a particularly important neuronal pathway that could be responsible for the autonomic dysfunction and the cardiorespiratory impairment in lead toxicity. Within the current work, we addressed in vivo, baro- and chemoreceptor reflex behaviour, before and after central angiotensin inhibition, in order to better understand the cardiorespiratory autonomic mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of long-term lead exposure. For that, arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, sympathetic and parasympathetic activity and baro- and chemoreceptor reflex profiles of anaesthetized young adult rats exposed to lead, from foetal period to adulthood, were evaluated. Results showed increased chemosensitivity together with baroreceptor reflex impairment, sympathetic over-excitation, hypertension and tachypnea. Chemosensitivity and sympathetic overexcitation were reversed towards normality values by NTS treatment with A-779, an angiotensin (1-7) antagonist. No parasympathetic changes were observed before and after A-799 treatment. In conclusion, angiotensin (1-7) at NTS level is involved in the autonomic dysfunction observed in lead toxicity. The increased sensitivity of chemoreceptor reflex expresses the clear impairment of autonomic outflow to the cardiovascular and

  3. Autonomic control of the eye.

    PubMed

    McDougal, David H; Gamlin, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system influences numerous ocular functions. It does this by way of parasympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia, and by way of sympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the superior cervical ganglion. Ciliary ganglion neurons project to the ciliary body and the sphincter pupillae muscle of the iris to control ocular accommodation and pupil constriction, respectively. Superior cervical ganglion neurons project to the dilator pupillae muscle of the iris to control pupil dilation. Ocular blood flow is controlled both via direct autonomic influences on the vasculature of the optic nerve, choroid, ciliary body, and iris, as well as via indirect influences on retinal blood flow. In mammals, this vasculature is innervated by vasodilatory fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion, and by vasoconstrictive fibers from the superior cervical ganglion. Intraocular pressure is regulated primarily through the balance of aqueous humor formation and outflow. Autonomic regulation of ciliary body blood vessels and the ciliary epithelium is an important determinant of aqueous humor formation; autonomic regulation of the trabecular meshwork and episcleral blood vessels is an important determinant of aqueous humor outflow. These tissues are all innervated by fibers from the pterygopalatine and superior cervical ganglia. In addition to these classical autonomic pathways, trigeminal sensory fibers exert local, intrinsic influences on many of these regions of the eye, as well as on some neurons within the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia. PMID:25589275

  4. Autonomic control of the eye

    PubMed Central

    McDougal, David H.; Gamlin, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system influences numerous ocular functions. It does this by way of parasympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia, and by way of sympathetic innervation from postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the superior cervical ganglion. Ciliary ganglion neurons project to the ciliary body and the sphincter pupillae muscle of the iris to control ocular accommodation and pupil constriction, respectively. Superior cervical ganglion neurons project to the dilator pupillae muscle of the iris to control pupil dilation. Ocular blood flow is controlled both via direct autonomic influences on the vasculature of the optic nerve, choroid, ciliary body, and iris, as well as via indirect influences on retinal blood flow. In mammals, this vasculature is innervated by vasodilatory fibers from the pterygopalatine ganglion, and by vasoconstrictive fibers from the superior cervical ganglion. Intraocular pressure is regulated primarily through the balance of aqueous humor formation and outflow. Autonomic regulation of ciliary body blood vessels and the ciliary epithelium is an important determinant of aqueous humor formation; autonomic regulation of the trabecular meshwork and episcleral blood vessels is an important determinant of aqueous humor outflow. These tissues are all innervated by fibers from the pterygopalatine and superior cervical ganglia. In addition to these classical autonomic pathways, trigeminal sensory fibers exert local, intrinsic influences on many of these regions of the eye, as well as on some neurons within the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia. PMID:25589275

  5. [The relationship between autonomous motivation and academic adjustment in junior high school students].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takuma; Sakurai, Shigeo

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between autonomous motivation and academic adjustment based on the perspective of self-determination theory. It also examined motivational profiles to reveal individual differences and the characteristic of these profiles for groups with varying levels of autonomous and controlled regulation (autonomous, controlled, high motivation, and low motivation). Data were collected from 442 junior high school students for academic motivation, academic performance, academic competence, meta-cognitive strategy, academic anxiety, apathy, and stress experience. Correlation analyses generally supported the basic hypothesis of self-determination theory that a more autonomous regulation style was strongly related to academic adjustment. The results also showed that persons with a high autonomous regulation and a low controlled regulation style were the most adaptive. PMID:24205739

  6. Autonomous mobile robots: Vehicles with cognitive control

    SciTech Connect

    Meystel, A.

    1987-01-01

    This book explores a new rapidly developing area of robotics. It describes the state-of-the-art intelligence control, applied machine intelligence, and research and initial stages of manufacturing of autonomous mobile robots. A complete account of the theoretical and experimental results obtained during the last two decades together with some generalizations on Autonomous Mobile Systems are included in this book. Contents: Introduction; Requirements and Specifications; State-of-the-art in Autonomous Mobile Robots Area; Structure of Intelligent Mobile Autonomous System; Planner, Navigator; Pilot; Cartographer; Actuation Control; Computer Simulation of Autonomous Operation; Testing the Autonomous Mobile Robot; Conclusions; Bibliography.

  7. Vestibular influences on autonomic cardiovascular control in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaggioni, I.; Costa, F.; Kaufmann, H.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that anatomical connections exist between vestibular and autonomic nuclei. Animal studies have shown functional interactions between the vestibular and autonomic systems. The nature of these interactions, however, is complex and has not been fully defined. Vestibular stimulation has been consistently found to reduce blood pressure in animals. Given the potential interaction between vestibular and autonomic pathways this finding could be explained by a reduction in sympathetic activity. However, rather than sympathetic inhibition, vestibular stimulation has consistently been shown to increase sympathetic outflow in cardiac and splanchnic vascular beds in most experimental models. Several clinical observations suggest that a link between vestibular and autonomic systems may also exist in humans. However, direct evidence for vestibular/autonomic interactions in humans is sparse. Motion sickness has been found to induce forearm vasodilation and reduce baroreflex gain, and head down neck flexion induces transient forearm and calf vasoconstriction. On the other hand, studies using optokinetic stimulation have found either very small, variable, or inconsistent changes in heart rate and blood pressure, despite substantial symptoms of motion sickness. Furthermore, caloric stimulation severe enough to produce nystagmus, dizziness, and nausea had no effect on sympathetic nerve activity measured directly with microneurography. No effect was observed on heart rate, blood pressure, or plasma norepinephrine. Several factors may explain the apparent discordance of these results, but more research is needed before we can define the potential importance of vestibular input to cardiovascular regulation and orthostatic tolerance in humans.

  8. Vestibular influences on autonomic cardiovascular control in humans.

    PubMed

    Biaggioni, I; Costa, F; Kaufmann, H

    1998-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that anatomical connections exist between vestibular and autonomic nuclei. Animal studies have shown functional interactions between the vestibular and autonomic systems. The nature of these interactions, however, is complex and has not been fully defined. Vestibular stimulation has been consistently found to reduce blood pressure in animals. Given the potential interaction between vestibular and autonomic pathways this finding could be explained by a reduction in sympathetic activity. However, rather than sympathetic inhibition, vestibular stimulation has consistently been shown to increase sympathetic outflow in cardiac and splanchnic vascular beds in most experimental models. Several clinical observations suggest that a link between vestibular and autonomic systems may also exist in humans. However, direct evidence for vestibular/autonomic interactions in humans is sparse. Motion sickness has been found to induce forearm vasodilation and reduce baroreflex gain, and head down neck flexion induces transient forearm and calf vasoconstriction. On the other hand, studies using optokinetic stimulation have found either very small, variable, or inconsistent changes in heart rate and blood pressure, despite substantial symptoms of motion sickness. Furthermore, caloric stimulation severe enough to produce nystagmus, dizziness, and nausea had no effect on sympathetic nerve activity measured directly with microneurography. No effect was observed on heart rate, blood pressure, or plasma norepinephrine. Several factors may explain the apparent discordance of these results, but more research is needed before we can define the potential importance of vestibular input to cardiovascular regulation and orthostatic tolerance in humans. PMID:9416587

  9. Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pien, Homer

    1992-01-01

    During GFY 91, Draper Laboratory was awarded a task by NASA-JSC under contract number NAS9-18426 to study and evaluate the potential for achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using an on-board autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) system. This report describes the results of that study. The AHDA task had four objectives: to demonstrate, via a closed-loop simulation, the ability to autonomously select safe landing sites and the ability to maneuver to the selected site; to identify key issues in the development of AHDA systems; to produce strawman designs for AHDA sensors and algorithms; and to perform initial trade studies leading to better understanding of the effect of sensor/terrain/viewing parameters on AHDA algorithm performance. This report summarizes the progress made during the first year, with primary emphasis on describing the tools developed for simulating a closed-loop AHDA landing. Some cursory performance evaluation results are also presented.

  10. Exploratory Research on the Effect of Autonomous Learners to Team Learning within Healthcare Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Patricia R.; Chalofsky, Neal

    2005-01-01

    How does individual learning impact team learning? Through an exploratory case study, data was collected from questionnaires, documentation review, observations, and interviews. Three themes emerged describing how an autonomous learner affected team learning. The results indicated that the autonomous learner influenced team learning through…

  11. Contingency Software in Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of contingency software for autonomous systems. Autonomous vehicles currently have a limited capacity to diagnose and mitigate failures. There is a need to be able to handle a broader range of contingencies. The goals of the project are: 1. Speed up diagnosis and mitigation of anomalous situations.2.Automatically handle contingencies, not just failures.3.Enable projects to select a degree of autonomy consistent with their needs and to incrementally introduce more autonomy.4.Augment on-board fault protection with verified contingency scripts

  12. Miniature Autonomous Robotic Vehicle (MARV)

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Spletzer, B.L.; Weber, T.M.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has recently developed a 16 cm{sup 3} (1 in{sup 3}) autonomous robotic vehicle which is capable of tracking a single conducting wire carrying a 96 kHz signal. This vehicle was developed to assess the limiting factors in using commercial technology to build miniature autonomous vehicles. Particular attention was paid to the design of the control system to search out the wire, track it, and recover if the wire was lost. This paper describes the test vehicle and the control analysis. Presented in the paper are the vehicle model, control laws, a stability analysis, simulation studies and experimental results.

  13. Progress towards autonomous, intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1987-01-01

    An aggressive program has been initiated to develop, integrate, and implement autonomous systems technologies starting with today's expert systems and evolving to autonomous, intelligent systems by the end of the 1990s. This program includes core technology developments and demonstration projects for technology evaluation and validation. This paper discusses key operational frameworks in the content of systems autonomy applications and then identifies major technological challenges, primarily in artificial intelligence areas. Program content and progress made towards critical technologies and demonstrations that have been initiated to achieve the required future capabilities in the year 2000 era are discussed.

  14. Intelligent, autonomous systems in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, H.; Heer, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station is expected to be equipped with intelligent, autonomous capabilities; to achieve and incorporate these capabilities, the required technologies need to be identitifed, developed and validated within realistic application scenarios. The critical technologies for the development of intelligent, autonomous systems are discussed in the context of a generalized functional architecture. The present state of this technology implies that it be introduced and applied in an evolutionary process which must start during the Space Station design phase. An approach is proposed to accomplish design information acquisition and management for knowledge-base development.

  15. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  16. Discerning non-autonomous dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemson, Philip T.; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2014-09-01

    Structure and function go hand in hand. However, while a complex structure can be relatively safely broken down into the minutest parts, and technology is now delving into nanoscales, the function of complex systems requires a completely different approach. Here the complexity clearly arises from nonlinear interactions, which prevents us from obtaining a realistic description of a system by dissecting it into its structural component parts. At best, the result of such investigations does not substantially add to our understanding or at worst it can even be misleading. Not surprisingly, the dynamics of complex systems, facilitated by increasing computational efficiency, is now readily tackled in the case of measured time series. Moreover, time series can now be collected in practically every branch of science and in any structural scale-from protein dynamics in a living cell to data collected in astrophysics or even via social networks. In searching for deterministic patterns in such data we are limited by the fact that no complex system in the real world is autonomous. Hence, as an alternative to the stochastic approach that is predominantly applied to data from inherently non-autonomous complex systems, theory and methods specifically tailored to non-autonomous systems are needed. Indeed, in the last decade we have faced a huge advance in mathematical methods, including the introduction of pullback attractors, as well as time series methods that cope with the most important characteristic of non-autonomous systems-their time-dependent behaviour. Here we review current methods for the analysis of non-autonomous dynamics including those for extracting properties of interactions and the direction of couplings. We illustrate each method by applying it to three sets of systems typical for chaotic, stochastic and non-autonomous behaviour. For the chaotic class we select the Lorenz system, for the stochastic the noise-forced Duffing system and for the non-autonomous the

  17. Reactive navigational controller for autonomous mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Scott

    1993-12-01

    Autonomous mobile robots must respond to external challenges and threats in real time. One way to satisfy this requirement is to use a fast low level intelligence to react to local environment changes. A fast reactive controller has been implemented which performs the task of real time local navigation by integrating primitive elements of perception, planning, and control. Competing achievement and constraint behaviors are used to allow abstract qualitative specification of navigation goals. An interface is provided to allow a higher level deliberative intelligence with a more global perspective to set local goals for the reactive controller. The reactive controller's simplistic strategies may not always succeed, so a means to monitor and redirect the reactive controller is provided.

  18. Autonomic Nervous Dysfunction in Hamsters Infected with West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Siddharthan, Venkatraman; Hall, Jeffery O.; Morrey, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical studies and case reports clearly document that West Nile virus (WNV) can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) complications. Other functions controlled by the autonomic nervous system may also be directly affected by WNV, such as bladder and cardiac functions. To investigate how WNV can cause autonomic dysfunctions, we focused on the cardiac and GI dysfunctions of rodents infected with WNV. Infected hamsters had distension of the stomach and intestines at day 9 after viral challenge. GI motility was detected by a dye retention assay; phenol red dye was retained more in the stomachs of infected hamsters as compared to sham-infected hamsters. The amplitudes of electromygraphs (EMGs) of intestinal muscles were significantly reduced. Myenteric neurons that innervate the intestines, in addition to neurons in the brain stem, were identified to be infected with WNV. These data suggest that infected neurons controlling autonomic function were the cause of GI dysfunction in WNV-infected hamsters. Using radiotelemetry to record electrocardiograms and to measure heart rate variability (HRV), a well-accepted readout for autonomic function, we determined that HRV and autonomic function were suppressed in WNV-infected hamsters. Cardiac histopathology was observed at day 9 only in the right atrium, which was coincident with WNV staining. A subset of WNV infected cells was identified among cells with hyperplarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 4 (HCN4) as a marker for cells in the sinoatrial (SA) and atrioventricular (AV) nodes. The unique contribution of this study is the discovery that WNV infection of hamsters can lead to autonomic dysfunction as determined by reduced HRV and reduced EMG amplitudes of the GI tract. These data may model autonomic dysfunction of the human West Nile neurological disease. PMID:21573009

  19. A Robust Compositional Architecture for Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brat, Guillaume; Deney, Ewen; Farrell, Kimberley; Giannakopoulos, Dimitra; Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy; Bobby, Mark; Carpenter, Todd; Estlin, Tara

    2006-01-01

    Space exploration applications can benefit greatly from autonomous systems. Great distances, limited communications and high costs make direct operations impossible while mandating operations reliability and efficiency beyond what traditional commanding can provide. Autonomous systems can improve reliability and enhance spacecraft capability significantly. However, there is reluctance to utilizing autonomous systems. In part this is due to general hesitation about new technologies, but a more tangible concern is that of reliability of predictability of autonomous software. In this paper, we describe ongoing work aimed at increasing robustness and predictability of autonomous software, with the ultimate goal of building trust in such systems. The work combines state-of-the-art technologies and capabilities in autonomous systems with advanced validation and synthesis techniques. The focus of this paper is on the autonomous system architecture that has been defined, and on how it enables the application of validation techniques for resulting autonomous systems.

  20. Autonomic Modulation by Electrical Stimulation of the Parasympathetic Nervous System: An Emerging Intervention for Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    He, Bo; Lu, Zhibing; He, Wenbo; Huang, Bing; Jiang, Hong

    2016-06-01

    The cardiac autonomic nervous system has been known to play an important role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Autonomic modulation by electrical stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, which increases the parasympathetic activity and suppresses the sympathetic activity, is emerging as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we review the recent literature on autonomic modulation by electrical stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, including vagus nerve stimulation, transcutaneous auricular vagal stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, and ganglionated plexi stimulation, in the treatment of heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:26914959

  1. Cardiac autonomic modulation in non-frail, pre-frail and frail elderly women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Pedro Lourenço; Dias, Daniel Penteado Martins; Silva, Luiz Eduardo Virgilio; Virtuoso-Junior, Jair Sindra; Marocolo, Moacir

    2015-10-01

    Frailty has been defined as a geriatric syndrome that results in high vulnerability to health adverse outcomes. This increased vulnerability state results from dysregulation of multiple physiological systems and its complex interactions. Thus, assessment of physiological systems integrity and of its dynamic interactions seems to be useful in the context of frailty management. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis provides information about autonomic nervous system (ANS) function, which is responsible to control several physiologic functions. This study investigated the cardiac autonomic modulation by HRV analysis in community-dwelling elderly women classified as non-frail, pre-frail and frail. Twenty-three elderly women were assigned to the following groups: non-frail (n = 8), pre-frail (n = 8) and frail (n = 7). HRV assessment was performed through linear and non-linear analysis of cardiac interval variability. It was observed a higher sympathetic and lower parasympathetic modulation in frail when compared with non-frail and pre-frail groups (p < 0.05) as indicated by frequency domain indices. Additionally, frail group had a decreased 2LV % pattern (that reflects parasympathetic modulation) in the symbolic analysis in comparison with non-frail group. These findings suggest that frail elderly women present an autonomic imbalance characterized by a shift towards sympathetic predominance. Thus, monitoring ANS function in the context of frailty management may be an important strategy to prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome and its consequences. PMID:25673231

  2. The Functioning of Autonomous Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, V. Pala Prasada; Rao, Digumarti Bhaskara

    2012-01-01

    The college gets separated from the university, though not completely, when it is an autonomous college, which is practice in India. Academic package will become flexible and the decision-making is internalized, changes and updating could be easily carried out, depending on the need as reflected from the feedback taken from alumni, user sectors,…

  3. Computing architecture for autonomous microgrids

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-09-29

    A computing architecture that facilitates autonomously controlling operations of a microgrid is described herein. A microgrid network includes numerous computing devices that execute intelligent agents, each of which is assigned to a particular entity (load, source, storage device, or switch) in the microgrid. The intelligent agents can execute in accordance with predefined protocols to collectively perform computations that facilitate uninterrupted control of the .

  4. AARD - Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewers, Dick

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the Autonomous Airborne Refueling Demonstration program, and NASA Dryden's work in the program. The primary goal of the program is to make one fully automatic probe-to-drogue engagement using the AARD system. There are pictures of the aircraft approaching to the docking.

  5. An Autonomous Spacecraft Agent Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pell, Barney; Bernard, Douglas E.; Chien, Steve A.; Gat, Erann; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, P. Pandurang; Wagner, Michael D.; Williams, Brian C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the New Millennium Remote Agent (NMRA) architecture for autonomous spacecraft control systems. This architecture integrates traditional real-time monitoring and control with constraint-based planning and scheduling, robust multi-threaded execution, and model-based diagnosis and reconfiguration.

  6. Exploring the Testing Process: Three Test Takers' Observed and Reported Strategy Use over Time and Testing Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doe, Christine; Fox, Janna

    2011-01-01

    The process of taking a high-stakes test stretches well beyond the day of the test itself; indeed, months may be spent preparing for such a test. Strategy research has proved to be a fruitful means of investigating the test-taking process, but it has typically relied on only one research approach at one contact point. This study explores three…

  7. A Case Based Analysis Preparation Strategy for Use in a Classroom Management for Inclusive Settings Course: Preliminary Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niles, William J.; Cohen, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Case based instruction (CBI) is a pedagogical option in teacher preparation growing in application but short on practical means to implement the method. This paper presents an analysis strategy and questions developed to help teacher trainees focus on classroom management issues embedded in a set of "real" cases. An analysis of teacher candidate…

  8. Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) Operations on EO-1 in 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, A. G.; Baker, V.; Castano, R.; Chien, S.; Cichy, B.; Doggett, T.; Dohm, J. M.; Greeley, R.; Lee, R.; Sherwood, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) has been selected for flight demonstration by NASAs New Millennium Program (NMP) as part of the Space Technology 6 (ST6) mission. NASA has identified the development of an autonomously operating spacecraft as a necessity for an expanded program of missions exploring the Solar System. The versatile ASE spacecraft command and control software, image formation software, and science processing software will be uploaded to the Earth Observer 1 (EO-1) spacecraft in early 2004 to detect surface modification related to volcanism, ice formation and retreat, and flooding.

  9. A science-based executive for autonomous planetary vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, S.

    2001-01-01

    If requests for scientific observations, rather than specific plans, are uplinked to an autonomous execution system on the vehicle, it would be able to adjust its execution based upon actual performance. Such a science-based executive control system had been developed and demonstrated for the Rocky7 research rover.

  10. Continuous Microfluidic Self-Assembly of Hybrid Janus-Like Vesicular Motors: Autonomous Propulsion and Controlled Release.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Yijing; He, Jie; Hourwitz, Matthew J; Yang, Yunlong; Fourkas, John T; Han, Xiaojun; Nie, Zhihong

    2015-08-01

    A microfluidic strategy is developed for the continuous fabrication of hybrid Janus vesicular motors that uniquely combine the capability of autonomous propulsion and externally controlled delivery of encapsulated payload. PMID:25925707

  11. Autonomic Computing: Freedom or a Threat?

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Frincke, Deb

    2007-12-01

    No longer is the question whether autonomic computing will gain general acceptance but when. Experts expect autonomic computing to be widely used within 10 years. When it does become mainstream, how will autonomics change system administration and corporations, and will the change be for better or worse? The answer depends on how well we anticipate the limitations of what autonomic systems are suited to do, whether we can collectively address the vulnerabilities of autonomic approaches as we draw upon the advantages, and whether administrators, companies, partners, and users are prepared for the transition. This article presents some design considerations to address the first two issues and some suggested survival techniques for the third.

  12. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    The Simulation Software, KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), is used to demonstrate the automatic identification of faults in a system. The ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operation) project uses KATE to monitor and find faults in the loading of the cryogenics int o a vehicle fuel tank. The KATE software interfaces with the IHM (Integrated Health Management) systems bus to communicate with other systems that are part of ACLO. One system that KATE uses the IHM bus to communicate with is AIS (Advanced Inspection System). KATE will send messages to AIS when there is a detected anomaly. These messages include visual inspection of specific valves, pressure gauges and control messages to have AIS open or close manual valves. My goals include implementing the connection to the IHM bus within KATE and for the AIS project. I will also be working on implementing changes to KATE's Ul and implementing the physics objects in KATE that will model portions of the cryogenics loading operation.

  13. Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations Simulation Software: Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehner, Walter S., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Working on the ACLO (Autonomous Cryogenics Loading Operations) project I have had the opportunity to add functionality to the physics simulation software known as KATE (Knowledgebase Autonomous Test Engineer), create a new application allowing WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) creation of KATE schematic files and begin a preliminary design and implementation of a new subsystem that will provide vision services on the IHM (Integrated Health Management) bus. The functionality I added to KATE over the past few months includes a dynamic visual representation of the fluid height in a pipe based on number of gallons of fluid in the pipe and implementing the IHM bus connection within KATE. I also fixed a broken feature in the system called the Browser Display, implemented many bug fixes and made changes to the GUI (Graphical User Interface).

  14. The Study and Applications of Satellite and Satellite Constellation Autonomous Orbit Determination Using Star Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Q. B.

    2012-07-01

    Autonomous satellite orbit determination is a key technique in autonomous satellite navigation. Many kinds of technologies have been proposed to realize the autonomous satellite navigation, such as the star sensor, the Earth magnetometer, the occultation time survey, and the phase measurement of X-ray pulsar signals. This dissertation studies a method of autonomous satellite orbit determination using star sensor. Moreover, the method is extended to the autonomous navigation of satellite constellation and the space-based surveillance. In chapters 1 and 2, some usual time and reference systems are introduced. Then the principles of several typical autonomous navigation methods, and their merits and shortcomings are analyzed. In chapter 3, the autonomous satellite orbit determination using star sensor and infrared Earth sensor (IRES) is specifically studied, which is based on the status movement simulation, the stellar background observation from star sensor, and the Earth center direction survey from IRES. By simulating the low Earth orbit satellites and pseudo Geostationary Earth orbit (PGEO) satellites, the precision of position and speed with autonomous orbit determination using star sensor is obtained. Besides, the autonomous orbit determination using star sensor with double detectors is studied. According to the observation equation's characters, an optimized type of star sensor and IRES initial assembly model is proposed. In the study of the PGEO autonomous orbit determination, an efficient sampling frequency of measurements is promoted. The simulation results confirm that the autonomous satellite orbit determination using star sensor is feasible for satellites with all kinds of altitudes. In chapter 4, the method of autonomous satellite orbit determination using star sensor is extended to the autonomous navigation of mini-satellite constellation. Combining with the high-accuracy inter satellite links data, the precision of the determined orbit and

  15. Maximizing Mission Science Return Through use of Spacecraft Autonomy: Active Volcanism and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, S.; Davies, A. G.; Sherwood, R.; ASE Science Team

    2005-08-01

    Deep-space missions have been unable to react to dynamic events as encounter observation sequences are planned well in advance. In the case of planet, asteroid and comet fly-bys, the limited resources available are allocated to individual instruments long beforehand. However, for monitoring or mapping mission phases, alternative strategies and technologies are now available. Now, onboard data processing allows greater spacecraft and instrument flexibility, affording the ability to react rapidly to dynamic events, and increasing the science content of returned data. Such new technology has already been successfully demonstrated in the form of the New Millennium Program Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE). In 2004 ASE successfully demonstrated advanced autonomous science data acquisition, processing, and product downlink prioritization, as well as autonomous fault detection and spacecraft command and control. ASE is software onboard the EO-1 spacecraft, in Earth-orbit. ASE controlled the Hyperion instrument, a hyperspectral imager with 220 wavelengths from 0.4 to 2.5 μm and 30 m/pixel spatial resolution. ASE demonstrated that spacecraft autonomy will be advantageous to future missions by making the best use of limited downlink, e.g., by increasing science content per byte of returned data, and by avoiding the return of null (no-change/no feature) datasets. and by overcoming communication delays through decision-making onboard enabling fast reaction to dynamic events. We envision this flight-proven science-driven spacecraft command-and-control technology being used on a wide range of missions to search for and monitor dynamic events, such as active, high-temperature volcanism on Earth and Io, and cryovolcanism on Triton and possibly other icy satellites. Acknowledgements: Part of this work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. We thank the EO-1 Flight Management Team and Chris Stevens and Art

  16. Morphologic Changes in Autonomic Nerves in Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Heung Yong; Baek, Hong Sun; Park, Tae Sun

    2015-12-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, and it increases morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Because the autonomic nervous system, for example, parasympathetic axons, has a diffuse and wide distribution, we do not know the morphological changes that occur in autonomic neural control and their exact mechanisms in diabetic patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). Although the prevalence of sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy is similar in T1DM versus T2DM patients, sympathetic nerve function correlates with parasympathetic neuropathy only in T1DM patients. The explanation for these discrepancies might be that parasympathetic nerve function was more severely affected among T2DM patients. As parasympathetic nerve damage seems to be more advanced than sympathetic nerve damage, it might be that parasympathetic neuropathy precedes sympathetic neuropathy in T2DM, which was Ewing's concept. This could be explained by the intrinsic morphologic difference. Therefore, the morphological changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of involved organs in T1DM and T2DM patients who have DAN should be evaluated. In this review, evaluation methods for morphological changes in the epidermal nerves of skin, and the intrinsic nerves of the stomach will be discussed. PMID:26706915

  17. Intrinsic adaptation in autonomous recurrent neural networks.

    PubMed

    Marković, Dimitrije; Gros, Claudius

    2012-02-01

    A massively recurrent neural network responds on one side to input stimuli and is autonomously active, on the other side, in the absence of sensory inputs. Stimuli and information processing depend crucially on the quality of the autonomous-state dynamics of the ongoing neural activity. This default neural activity may be dynamically structured in time and space, showing regular, synchronized, bursting, or chaotic activity patterns. We study the influence of nonsynaptic plasticity on the default dynamical state of recurrent neural networks. The nonsynaptic adaption considered acts on intrinsic neural parameters, such as the threshold and the gain, and is driven by the optimization of the information entropy. We observe, in the presence of the intrinsic adaptation processes, three distinct and globally attracting dynamical regimes: a regular synchronized, an overall chaotic, and an intermittent bursting regime. The intermittent bursting regime is characterized by intervals of regular flows, which are quite insensitive to external stimuli, interceded by chaotic bursts that respond sensitively to input signals. We discuss these findings in the context of self-organized information processing and critical brain dynamics. PMID:22091667

  18. Quantifying Emergent Behavior of Autonomous Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martius, Georg; Olbrich, Eckehard

    2015-10-01

    Quantifying behaviors of robots which were generated autonomously from task-independent objective functions is an important prerequisite for objective comparisons of algorithms and movements of animals. The temporal sequence of such a behavior can be considered as a time series and hence complexity measures developed for time series are natural candidates for its quantification. The predictive information and the excess entropy are such complexity measures. They measure the amount of information the past contains about the future and thus quantify the nonrandom structure in the temporal sequence. However, when using these measures for systems with continuous states one has to deal with the fact that their values will depend on the resolution with which the systems states are observed. For deterministic systems both measures will diverge with increasing resolution. We therefore propose a new decomposition of the excess entropy in resolution dependent and resolution independent parts and discuss how they depend on the dimensionality of the dynamics, correlations and the noise level. For the practical estimation we propose to use estimates based on the correlation integral instead of the direct estimation of the mutual information using the algorithm by Kraskov et al. (2004) which is based on next neighbor statistics because the latter allows less control of the scale dependencies. Using our algorithm we are able to show how autonomous learning generates behavior of increasing complexity with increasing learning duration.

  19. Autonomic function in manganese alloy workers

    SciTech Connect

    Barrington, W.W.; Angle, C.R.; Willcockson, N.K.; Padula, M.A.; Korn, T.

    1998-07-01

    The observation of orthostatic hypotension in an index case of manganese toxicity lead to this prospective attempt to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function and cognitive and emotional neurotoxicity in eight manganese alloy welders and machinists. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample consisting of an index case of manganese dementia, his four co-workers in a frog shop for gouging, welding, and grinding repair of high manganese railway track and a convenience sample of three mild steel welders with lesser manganese exposure also referred because of cognitive or autonomic symptoms. Frog shop air manganese samples 9.6--10 years before and 1.2--3.4 years after the diagnosis of the index case exceeded 1.0 mg/m{sup 3} in 29% and 0.2 mg/m{sup 3} in 62%. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiographic (Holter) monitoring was used to determine the temporal variability of the heartrate (RR{prime} interval) and the rates of change at low frequency and high frequency. MMPI and MCMI personality assessment and short-term memory, figure copy, controlled oral word association, and symbol digit tests were used.

  20. An Autonomously Reciprocating Transmembrane Nanoactuator.

    PubMed

    Watson, Matthew A; Cockroft, Scott L

    2016-01-22

    Biological molecular machines operate far from equilibrium by coupling chemical potential to repeated cycles of dissipative nanomechanical motion. This principle has been exploited in supramolecular systems that exhibit true machine behavior in solution and on surfaces. However, designed membrane-spanning assemblies developed to date have been limited to simple switches or stochastic shuttles, and true machine behavior has remained elusive. Herein, we present a transmembrane nanoactuator that turns over chemical fuel to drive autonomous reciprocating (back-and-forth) nanomechanical motion. Ratcheted reciprocating motion of a DNA/PEG copolymer threaded through a single α-hemolysin pore was induced by a combination of DNA strand displacement processes and enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Ion-current recordings revealed saw-tooth patterns, indicating that the assemblies operated in autonomous, asymmetric cycles of conformational change at rates of up to one cycle per minute. PMID:26661295

  1. Autonomous spacecraft maintenance study group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, M. H.; Low, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    A plan to incorporate autonomous spacecraft maintenance (ASM) capabilities into Air Force spacecraft by 1989 is outlined. It includes the successful operation of the spacecraft without ground operator intervention for extended periods of time. Mechanisms, along with a fault tolerant data processing system (including a nonvolatile backup memory) and an autonomous navigation capability, are needed to replace the routine servicing that is presently performed by the ground system. The state of the art fault handling capabilities of various spacecraft and computers are described, and a set conceptual design requirements needed to achieve ASM is established. Implementations for near term technology development needed for an ASM proof of concept demonstration by 1985, and a research agenda addressing long range academic research for an advanced ASM system for 1990s are established.

  2. Treatment of gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Törnblom, Hans

    2016-03-01

    The symptoms caused by gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus is important to highlight since it affects a large proportion of people with diabetes, regardless of whether this is type 1 or type 2. Gastroparesis and general signs of bowel dysfunction, such as constipation, diarrhoea and abdominal pain are most often encountered and involve both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options. This mini-review summarises a presentation given at the 'Diagnosis and treatment of autonomic diabetic neuropathy in the gut' symposium at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by another mini-review on a topic from this symposium (by Azpiroz and Malagelada, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-015-3831-1 ) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Péter Kempler (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-015-3826-y ). PMID:26634570

  3. Experiments on autonomous Boolean networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosin, David P.; Rontani, Damien; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Schöll, Eckehard

    2013-06-01

    We realize autonomous Boolean networks by using logic gates in their autonomous mode of operation on a field-programmable gate array. This allows us to implement time-continuous systems with complex dynamical behaviors that can be conveniently interconnected into large-scale networks with flexible topologies that consist of time-delay links and a large number of nodes. We demonstrate how we realize networks with periodic, chaotic, and excitable dynamics and study their properties. Field-programmable gate arrays define a new experimental paradigm that holds great potential to test a large body of theoretical results on the dynamics of complex networks, which has been beyond reach of traditional experimental approaches.

  4. Deploying the NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) on Ascension Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, S.; Pace, L. F.; Hickson, P.; Glesne, T.; Cowardin, H. M.; Frith, J. M.; Buckalew, B.; Maeda, R.; Douglas, D.; Nishimoto, D.

    NASA has successfully constructed the 1.3m Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) facility on Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean. MCAT is an optical telescope designed specifically to collect ground-based data for the statistical characterization of orbital debris ranging from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) through Middle Earth Orbits (MEO) and beyond to Geo Transfer and Geosynchronous Orbits (GTO/GEO). The location of Ascension Island has two distinct advantages. First, the near-equatorial location fills a significant longitudinal gap in the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) network of telescopes, and second, it allows access to objects in Low Inclination Low-Earth Orbits (LILO). The MCAT facility will be controlled by a sophisticated software suite that operates the dome and telescope, assesses sky and weather conditions, conducts all necessary calibrations, defines an observing strategy (as dictated by weather, sky conditions, and the observing plan for the night), and carries out the observations. It then reduces the collected data via four primary observing modes ranging from tracking previously cataloged objects to conducting general surveys for detecting uncorrelated debris. Nightly observing plans, as well as the resulting text file of reduced data, will be transferred to and from Ascension, respectively, via a satellite connection. Post-processing occurs at NASA Johnson Space Center. Construction began in September, 2014 with dome and telescope installation occurring in April through early June, 2015. First light was achieved in June, 2015. Acceptance testing, full commissioning, and calibration of this soon-to-be fully autonomous system commenced in summer 2015. The initial characterization of the system from these tests is presented herein.

  5. Deploying the NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) on Ascension Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lederer, S. M.; Pace, L.; Hickson, P.; Cowardin, H. M.; Frith, J.; Buckalew, B.; Glesne, T.; Maeda, R.; Douglas, D.; Nishimoto, D.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has successfully constructed the 1.3m Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) facility on Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean. MCAT is an optical telescope designed specifically to collect ground-based data for the statistical characterization of orbital debris ranging from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) through Middle Earth Orbits (MEO) and beyond to Geo Transfer and Geosynchronous Orbits (GTO/GEO). The location of Ascension Island has two distinct advantages. First, the near-equatorial location fills a significant longitudinal gap in the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) network of telescopes, and second, it allows access to objects in Low Inclination Low-Earth Orbits (LILO). The MCAT facility will be controlled by a sophisticated software suite that operates the dome and telescope, assesses sky and weather conditions, conducts all necessary calibrations, defines an observing strategy (as dictated by weather, sky conditions and the observing plan for the night), and carries out the observations. It then reduces the collected data via four primary observing modes ranging from tracking previously cataloged objects to conducting general surveys for detecting uncorrelated debris. Nightly observing plans, as well as the resulting text file of reduced data, will be transferred to and from Ascension, respectively, via a satellite connection. Post-processing occurs at NASA Johnson Space Center. Construction began in September, 2014 with dome and telescope installation occurring in April through early June, 2015. First light was achieved in June, 2015. Acceptance testing, full commissioning, and calibration of this soon-to-be fully autonomous system commenced in summer 2015. The initial characterization of the system from these tests is presented herein.

  6. Noninvasive subject-specific monitoring of autonomic-cardiac regulation.

    PubMed

    Ataee, Pedram; Hahn, Jin-Oh; Dumont, Guy A; Boyce, W Thomas

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of a model-based approach to noninvasive and subject-specific monitoring of autonomic-cardiac regulation. The proposed approach is built upon individualizing a physiologically-based model by applying a parameter estimation method to routine clinical observations, thereby assuring physical transparency, computational efficiency, and clinical adaptability. To develop an efficient parameter estimation procedure, a parametric sensitivity analysis was performed on the autonomic-cardiac regulation model to identify high-sensitivity model parameters whose changes exert significant impacts on the system outputs. Then, a parameter estimation problem formulated as a nonlinear optimization was solved to estimate high-sensitivity model parameters associated with autonomic-cardiac regulation, whereas the remaining parameters were fixed at their nominal values. The proposed approach can potentially monitor temporal changes in autonomic-cardiac regulation by identifying time-varying changes in the autonomic-cardiac model parameters, including sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activities on the heart (modulating heart rate), and sympathetic nerve activity on the arterial tree (modulating total peripheral resistance). The proof-of-concept for the proposed approach was tested using a number of experimental data from the MIMIC database and the orthostatic hypotension tests. Our finding shows that the proposed approach is able to provide low-variance estimates of the autonomic-cardiac model parameters, which are consistent with their anticipated behaviors inferred from the physiologic knowledge. An extensive comparison study must be conducted in the future to establish the clinical validity of the proposed approach. PMID:24658244

  7. Autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using “PNEUMOCARD”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baevsky, R. M.; Funtova, I. I.; Diedrich, A.; Chernikova, A. G.; Drescher, J.; Baranov, V. M.; Tank, J.

    2009-10-01

    Investigations of blood pressure, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) during long term space flights on board the "ISS" have shown characteristic changes of autonomic cardiovascular control. Therefore, alterations of the autonomic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for in- and post-flight disturbances. The device "Pneumocard" was developed to further investigate autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory function aboard the ISS. The hard-software diagnostic complex "Pneumocard" was used during in-flight experiment aboard ISS for autonomic function testing. ECG, photoplethysmography, respiration, transthoracic bioimpedance and seismocardiography were assessed in one male cosmonaut (flight lengths six month). Recordings were made prior to the flight, late during flight, and post-flight during spontaneous respiration and controlled respiration at different rates. HR remained stable during flight. The values were comparable to supine measurements on earth. Respiratory frequency and blood pressure decreased during flight. Post flight HR and BP values increased compared to in-flight data exceeding pre-flight values. Cardiac time intervals did not change dramatically during flight. Pulse wave transit time decreased during flight. The maximum of the first time derivative of the impedance cardiogram, which is highly correlated with stroke volume was not reduced in-flight. Our results demonstrate that autonomic function testing aboard the ISS using "Pneumocard" is feasible and generates data of good quality. Despite the decrease in BP, pulse wave transit time was found reduced in space as shown earlier. However, cardiac output did not decrease profoundly in the investigated cosmonaut. Autonomic testing during space flight detects individual changes in cardiovascular control and may add important information to standard medical control. The recent plans to support a flight to Mars, makes these kinds of observations all the more relevant

  8. Strategy for Improving Measurement Uncertainty and Data Quality Information for Observations at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Research Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comstock, J. M.; Sisterson, D.; Kehoe, K.

    2015-12-01

    Quantified uncertainty estimates on measured quantities are required for providing prior information for cloud property retrieval algorithms and constraining model parameterizations and simulations. Methodologies for determining uncertainty can be complex and can include instrument accuracy and precision estimates, and random and systematic errors. Measurement uncertainty is also impacted by environmental and field factors that can be introduced when operating instruments outside the laboratory setting, which impacts both uncertainty and data quality. The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program operates over 100 unique instruments at fixed, mobile, and aerial facilities in diverse climatic regimes around the world. The ARM program is in the process of standardizing how it currently reports measurement uncertainty and developing a new strategy for improving the determination of measurement uncertainty and communicating both the uncertainty and data quality information to users. We will present ARMs plan to standardize the method of reporting measurement uncertainty, as well as share ARMs overall strategies to standardize uncertainty assessment across instrument classes, improving calibration approaches, and providing more consistent data quality assessments to specifically address measurement bias corrections. Our goal is to provide an open forum for discussing the necessary and sufficient elements needed to meet the requirements for retrieval algorithm and model simulation development activities.

  9. Autonomic Computing: Panacea or Poppycock?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Autonomic Computing arose out of a need for a means to cope with rapidly growing complexity of integrating, managing, and operating computer-based systems as well as a need to reduce the total cost of ownership of today's systems. Autonomic Computing (AC) as a discipline was proposed by IBM in 2001, with the vision to develop self-managing systems. As the name implies, the influence for the new paradigm is the human body's autonomic system, which regulates vital bodily functions such as the control of heart rate, the body's temperature and blood flow-all without conscious effort. The vision is to create selfivare through self-* properties. The initial set of properties, in terms of objectives, were self-configuring, self-healing, self-optimizing and self-protecting, along with attributes of self-awareness, self-monitoring and self-adjusting. This self-* list has grown: self-anticipating, self-critical, self-defining, self-destructing, self-diagnosis, self-governing, self-organized, self-reflecting, and self-simulation, for instance.

  10. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  11. Integrated System for Autonomous Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Robert; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Castano, Rebecca; Rabideau, Gregg; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Shulman, Seth; Doggett, Thomas; Ip, Felipe; Greeley, Ron; Baker, Victor; Dohn, James; Boyer, Darrell

    2006-01-01

    The New Millennium Program Space Technology 6 Project Autonomous Sciencecraft software implements an integrated system for autonomous planning and execution of scientific, engineering, and spacecraft-coordination actions. A prior version of this software was reported in "The TechSat 21 Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment" (NPO-30784), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 3 (March 2004), page 33. This software is now in continuous use aboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) spacecraft mission and is being adapted for use in the Mars Odyssey and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. This software enables EO-1 to detect and respond to such events of scientific interest as volcanic activity, flooding, and freezing and thawing of water. It uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect changes, including events of scientific interest. Detection of such events triggers acquisition of follow-up imagery. The mission-planning component of the software develops a response plan that accounts for visibility of targets and operational constraints. The plan is then executed under control by a task-execution component of the software that is capable of responding to anomalies.

  12. Multisensorial Vision For Autonomous Vehicle Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusto, Daniele D.; Regazzoni, Carlo S.; Vernazza, Gianni L.

    1989-03-01

    A multisensorial vision system for autonomous vehicle driving is presented, that operates in outdoor natural environments. The system, currently under development in our laboratories, will be able to integrate data provided by different sensors in order to achieve a more reliable description of a scene and to meet safety requirements. We chose to perform a high-level symbolic fusion of the data to better accomplish the recognition task. A knowledge-based approach is followed, which provides a more accurate solution; in particular, it will be possible to integrate both physical data, furnished by each channel, and different fusion strategies, by using an appropriate control structure. The high complexity of data integration is reduced by acquiring, filtering, segmenting and extracting features from each sensor channel. Production rules, divided into groups according to specific goals, drive the fusion process, linking to a symbolic frame all the segmented regions characterized by similar properties. As a first application, road and obstacle detection is performed. A particular fusion strategy is tested that integrates results separately obtained by applying the recognition module to each different sensor according to the related model description. Preliminary results are very promising and confirm the validity of the proposed approach.

  13. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Magnetic Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigerwalt, R.; Johnson, R. M.; Trembanis, A. C.; Schmidt, V. E.; Tait, G.

    2012-12-01

    An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Magnetic Mapping (MM) System has been developed and tested for military munitions detection as well as pipeline locating, wreck searches, and geologic surveys in underwater environments. The system is comprised of a high sensitivity Geometrics G-880AUV cesium vapor magnetometer integrated with a Teledyne-Gavia AUV and associated Doppler enabled inertial navigation further utilizing traditional acoustic bathymetric and side scan imaging. All onboard sensors and associated electronics are managed through customized crew members to autonomously operate through the vehicles primary control module. Total field magnetic measurements are recorded with asynchronous time-stamped data logs which include position, altitude, heading, pitch, roll, and electrical current usage. Pre-planned mission information can be uploaded to the system operators to define data collection metrics including speed, height above seafloor, and lane or transect spacing specifically designed to meet data quality objectives for the survey. As a result of the AUVs modular design, autonomous navigation and rapid deployment capabilities, the AUV MM System provides cost savings over current surface vessel surveys by reducing the mobilization/demobilization effort, thus requiring less manpower for operation and reducing or eliminating the need for a surface support vessel altogether. When the system completes its mission, data can be remotely downloaded via W-LAN and exported for use in advanced signal processing platforms. Magnetic compensation software has been concurrently developed to accept electrical current measurements directly from the AUV to address distortions from permanent and induced magnetization effects on the magnetometer. Maneuver and electrical current compensation terms can be extracted from the magnetic survey missions to perform automated post-process corrections. Considerable suppression of system noise has been observed over traditional

  14. From pattern to process: The strategy of the Earth Observing System: Volume 2: EOS Science Steering Committee report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) represents a new approach to the study of the Earth. It consists of remotely sensed and correlative in situ observations designed to address important, interrelated global-scale processes. There is an urgent need to study the Earth as a complete, integrated system in order to understand and predict changes caused by human activities and natural processes. The EOS approach is based on an information system concept and designed to provide a long-term study of the Earth using a variety of measurement methods from both operational and research satellite payloads and continuing ground-based Earth science studies. The EOS concept builds on the foundation of the earlier, single-discipline space missions designed for relatively short observation periods. Continued progress in our understanding of the Earth as a system will come from EOS observations spanning several decades using a variety of contemporaneous measurements.

  15. Autonomic dysfunction in essential hypertension: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Carthy, Elliott R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Greater sympathetic drive has been established in the early stages of essential hypertension, suggesting that neurohormonal dysregulation may be key to its aetiology and progression. The aims of this review are to discuss evidence of the role of autonomic dysfunction in essential hypertension and proposed mechanisms, and also some applications of this knowledge to current management strategies of essential hypertension. Methods A computer search was performed using the PUBMED database for peer reviewed original articles comparing autonomic function tested via heart rate variability (HRV), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) or plasma noradrenaline levels in normotensive (mean blood pressure (BP) of ≤140/90 mmHg or ≤135/85 mmHg if measured via home BP measurements) and hypertensive groups (mean resting BP of ≥140/90 mmHg (or ≥135/85 mmHg if measured via home BP measurements). Subjects were excluded with secondary causes of hypertension or autonomic dysfunction. Results A total of 17 studies were included for discussion. The main findings of this study include that of reduced baroreflex sensitivity, believed to be secondary to increased arterial stiffness, is hypothesised to be implicated in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. Also, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors were not as effective on markers of autonomic control of blood pressure when compared with alternative anti-hypertensive drugs. Conclusions Consistent research is needed to establish the effectiveness of pharmacotherapies at each of stage of hypertension, and on markers of autonomic dysfunction. Consistent study designs will enable more accurate accumulation of data across multiple studies, and appropriate application of such data into clinical practice. PMID:25568776

  16. Strategies to Make Ramadan Fasting Safer in Type 2 Diabetics: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials and Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Lee, Jun Yang; Tan, Christina San San; Wong, Chee Piau

    2016-01-01

    Ramadan is the holy month for Muslims whereby they fast from predawn to after sunset and is observed by all healthy Muslim adults as well as a large population of type 2 diabetic Muslims.To determine the comparative effectiveness of various strategies that have been used for type 2 diabetic Muslim who fast during Ramadan.A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies (RCT) as well as observational studies for patients with type 2 diabetes who fasted during Ramadan was conducted. Eight databases were searched from January 1980 through October 2015 for relevant studies. Two reviewers independently screened and assessed study for eligibility, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted relevant data. A network meta-analysis for each outcome was fitted separately, combining direct and indirect evidence for each comparison.Twenty-nine studies, 16 RCTs and 13 observational studies each met the inclusion criteria. The most common strategy used was drug changes during the Ramadan period, which found that the use of DPP-4 (Dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitor -4) inhibitors were associated with a reduction in incidence of experiencing hypoglycemia during Ramadan in both RCTs (pooled relative risk: 0.56; 95% confidence interval: 0.44-0.72) as well as in observational studies (pooled relative risk: 0.27; 0.09-0.75). Ramadan-focused education was shown to be beneficial in reducing hypoglycemia in observational studies but not RCTs (0.25 versus 1.00). Network meta-analyses suggest that incretin mimetics can reduce the risk of hypoglycemia by nearly 1.5 times.The newer antidiabetic agents appear to lower the risk of hypoglycemia and improved glycemic control when compared with sulfonylureas. Ramadan-focused education shows to be a promising strategy but more rigorous examination from RCTs are required. PMID:26765440

  17. Integrating Terrain Maps Into a Reactive Navigation Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Ayanna; Werger, Barry; Seraji, Homayoun

    2006-01-01

    An improved method of processing information for autonomous navigation of a robotic vehicle across rough terrain involves the integration of terrain maps into a reactive navigation strategy. Somewhat more precisely, the method involves the incorporation, into navigation logic, of data equivalent to regional traversability maps. The terrain characteristic is mapped using a fuzzy-logic representation of the difficulty of traversing the terrain. The method is robust in that it integrates a global path-planning strategy with sensor-based regional and local navigation strategies to ensure a high probability of success in reaching a destination and avoiding obstacles along the way. The sensor-based strategies use cameras aboard the vehicle to observe the regional terrain, defined as the area of the terrain that covers the immediate vicinity near the vehicle to a specified distance a few meters away.

  18. Experiments in teleoperator and autonomous control of space robotic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1990-01-01

    A research program and strategy are described which include fundamental teleoperation issues and autonomous-control issues of sensing and navigation for satellite robots. The program consists of developing interfaces for visual operation and studying the consequences of interface designs as well as developing navigation and control technologies based on visual interaction. A space-robot-vehicle simulator is under development for use in virtual-environment teleoperation experiments and neutral-buoyancy investigations. These technologies can be utilized in a study of visual interfaces to address tradeoffs between head-tracking and manual remote cameras, panel-mounted and helmet-mounted displays, and stereoscopic and monoscopic display systems. The present program can provide significant data for the development of control experiments for autonomously controlled satellite robots.

  19. Integrated polarization-dependent sensor for autonomous navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ze; Zhang, Ran; Wang, Zhiwen; Guan, Le; Li, Bin; Chu, Jinkui

    2015-01-01

    Based on the navigation strategy of insects utilizing the polarized skylight, an integrated polarization-dependent sensor for autonomous navigation is presented. The navigation sensor has the features of compact structure, high precision, strong robustness, and a simple manufacture technique. The sensor is composed by integrating a complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor with a multiorientation nanowire grid polarizer. By nanoimprint lithography, the multiorientation nanowire polarizer is fabricated in one step and the alignment error is eliminated. The statistical theory is added to the interval-division algorithm to calculate the polarization angle of the incident light. The laboratory and outdoor tests for the navigation sensor are implemented and the errors of the measured angle are ±0.02 deg and ±1.3 deg, respectively. The results show that the proposed sensor has potential for application in autonomous navigation.

  20. The Neuropharmacology of Cluster Headache and other Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Alfredo; Antonaci, Fabio; Ramusino, Matteo Cotta; Nappi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are a group of primary headaches including cluster headache (CH), paroxysmal hemicrania (PH) and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT). Another form, hemicrania continua (HC), is also included this group due to its clinical and pathophysiological similarities. CH is the most common of these syndromes, the others being infrequent in the general population. The pathophysiology of the TACs has been partly elucidated by a number of recent neuroimaging studies, which implicate brain regions associated with nociception (pain matrix). In addition, the hypothalamic activation observed in the course of TAC attacks and the observed efficacy of hypothalamic neurostimulation in CH patients suggest that the hypothalamus is another key structure. Hypothalamic activation may indeed be involved in attack initiation, but it may also lead to a condition of central facilitation underlying the recurrence of pain episodes. The TACs share many pathophysiological features, but are characterised by differences in attack duration and frequency, and to some extent treatment response. Although alternative strategies for the TACs, especially CH, are now emerging (such as neurostimulation techniques), this review focuses on the available pharmacological treatments complying with the most recent guidelines. We discuss the clinical efficacy and tolerability of the currently used drugs. Due to the low frequency of most TACs, few randomised controlled trials have been conducted. The therapies of choice in CH continue to be the triptans and oxygen for acute treatment, and verapamil and lithium for prevention, but promising results have recently been obtained with novel modes of administration of the triptans and other agents, and several other treatments are currently under study. Indomethacin is extremely effective in PH and HC, while antiepileptic drugs (especially lamotrigine) appear to be

  1. Pilot In Command: A Feasibility Assessment of Autonomous Flight Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Ballin, Mark G.; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2004-01-01

    Several years of NASA research have produced the air traffic management operational concept of Autonomous Flight Management with high potential for operational feasibility, significant system and user benefits, and safety. Among the chief potential benefits are demand-adaptive or scalable capacity, user flexibility and autonomy that may finally enable truly successful business strategies, and compatibility with current-day operations such that the implementation rate can be driven from within the user community. A concept summary of Autonomous Flight Management is provided, including a description of how these operations would integrate in shared airspace with existing ground-controlled flight operations. The mechanisms enabling the primary benefits are discussed, and key findings of a feasibility assessment of airborne autonomous operations are summarized. Concept characteristics that impact safety are presented, and the potential for initially implementing Autonomous Flight Management is discussed.

  2. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrading, J. Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  3. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: KSC Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrading, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    The KSC Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20+ years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in. the system, As part.of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display ofthe entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledgebase, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  4. Respiration and Autonomic Regulation and Orexin

    PubMed Central

    Nattie, Eugene; Li, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    Orexin, a small neuropeptide released from neurons in the hypothalamus with widespread projections throughout the central nervous system, has broad biological roles including the modulation of breathing and autonomic function. That orexin activity is fundamentally dependent on sleep-wake state and circadian cycle requires consideration of orexin function in physiological control systems in respect to these two state-related activity patterns. Both transgenic mouse studies and focal orexin receptor antagonism support a role for orexins in respiratory chemosensitivity to CO2 predominantly in wakefulness, with further observations limiting this role to the dark period. In addition, orexin neurons participate in the regulation of sympathetic activity, including effects on blood pressure and thermoregulation. Orexin is also essential in physiological responses to stress. Orexin-mediated processes may operate at two levels: 1) in sleep-wake and circadian states; and 2) in stress, e.g., the defense or “fight or flight” response and panic anxiety syndrome. PMID:22813968

  5. HIGH-EFFICIENCY AUTONOMOUS LASER ADAPTIVE OPTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Tendulkar, Shriharsh; Hogstrom, Kristina; Bui, Khanh; Dekany, Richard; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Law, Nicholas M.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Burse, Mahesh; Chordia, Pravin; Das, Hillol; Punnadi, Sujit

    2014-07-20

    As new large-scale astronomical surveys greatly increase the number of objects targeted and discoveries made, the requirement for efficient follow-up observations is crucial. Adaptive optics imaging, which compensates for the image-blurring effects of Earth's turbulent atmosphere, is essential for these surveys, but the scarcity, complexity and high demand of current systems limit their availability for following up large numbers of targets. To address this need, we have engineered and implemented Robo-AO, a fully autonomous laser adaptive optics and imaging system that routinely images over 200 objects per night with an acuity 10 times sharper at visible wavelengths than typically possible from the ground. By greatly improving the angular resolution, sensitivity, and efficiency of 1-3 m class telescopes, we have eliminated a major obstacle in the follow-up of the discoveries from current and future large astronomical surveys.

  6. Intergrated snow, soil and water-balance measurement strategy for multi-scale environmental observations in mountain areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The building of multiscale environmental observatory networks is a critical step in addressing the woefully inadequate observational infrastructure and understanding of mountain water balances. These networks will support science questions that need estimates of water reservoirs and fluxes at the po...

  7. Central circuits mediating patterned autonomic activity during active vs. passive emotional coping.

    PubMed

    Bandler, R; Keay, K A; Floyd, N; Price, J

    2000-09-01

    Animals, including humans, react with distinct emotional coping strategies to different sets of environmental demands. These strategies include the capacity to affect appropriate responses to "escapable" or "inescapable" stressors. Active emotional coping strategies--fight or flight--are particularly adaptive if the stress is escapable. On the other hand, passive emotional coping strategies-quiescence, immobility, decreased responsiveness to the environment-are useful when the stress is inescapable. Passive strategies contribute also to facilitating recovery and healing once the stressful event is over. Active vs. passive emotional coping strategies are characterised further by distinct patterns of autonomic change. Active strategies are associated with sympathoexcitation (hypertension, tachycardia), whereas passive strategies are associated with sympathoinhibitory patterns (hypotension, bradycardia). Distinct neural substrates mediating active vs. passive emotional coping have been identified within the longitudinal neuronal columns of the midbrain periaqueductal gray region (PAG). The PAG offers then a potentially useful point of entry for delineating neural circuits mediating the different forms of emotional coping and their associated patterns of autonomic activity. As one example, recent studies of the connections of orbital and medial prefrontal cortical (PFC) fields with specific PAG longitudinal neuronal columns are reviewed. Findings of discrete orbital and medial PFC projections to different PAG columns, and related PFC and PAG columnar connections with specific subregions of the hypothalamus, suggest that distinct but parallel circuits mediate the behavioural strategies and patterns of autonomic activity characteristic of emotional "engagement with" or "disengagement from" the external environment. PMID:11033213

  8. Autonomic modification of intestinal smooth muscle contractility.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Laura E A; Tansey, Etain A; Johnson, Chris D; Roe, Sean M; Quinn, Joe G

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe this spontaneous activity and its modification by agents associated with parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activity. A section of the rabbit small intestine is suspended in an organ bath, and the use of a pressure transducer and data-acquisition software allows the measurement of tension generated by the smooth muscle of intestinal walls. The application of the parasympathetic neurotransmitter ACh at varying concentrations allows students to observe an increase in intestinal smooth muscle tone with increasing concentrations of this muscarinic receptor agonist. Construction of a concentration-effect curve allows students to calculate an EC50 value for ACh and consider some basic concepts surrounding receptor occupancy and activation. Application of the hormone epinephrine to the precontracted intestine allows students to observe the inhibitory effects associated with sympathetic nerve activation. Introduction of the drug atropine to the preparation before a maximal concentration of ACh is applied allows students to observe the inhibitory effect of a competitive antagonist on the physiological response to a receptor agonist. The final experiment involves the observation of the depolarizing effect of K(+) on smooth muscle. Students are also invited to consider why the drugs atropine, codeine, loperamide, and botulinum toxin have medicinal uses in the management of gastrointestinal problems. PMID:26873897

  9. Tele/Autonomous Robot For Nuclear Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.; Tso, Kam S.

    1994-01-01

    Fail-safe tele/autonomous robotic system makes it unnecessary for human technicians to enter nuclear-fuel-reprocessing facilities and other high-radiation or otherwise hazardous industrial environments. Used to carry out experiments as exchanging equipment modules, turning bolts, cleaning surfaces, and grappling turning objects by use of mixture of autonomous actions and teleoperation with either single arm or two cooperating arms. System capable of fully autonomous operation, teleoperation or shared control.

  10. Sustainable and Autonomic Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Rouff, Christopher; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts to realize these survivable systems visions, with specific emphasis on developments in Autonomic Policies.

  11. Information for Successful Interaction with Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Johnson, Kathy A.

    2003-01-01

    Interaction in heterogeneous mission operations teams is not well matched to classical models of coordination with autonomous systems. We describe methods of loose coordination and information management in mission operations. We describe an information agent and information management tool suite for managing information from many sources, including autonomous agents. We present an integrated model of levels of complexity of agent and human behavior, which shows types of information processing and points of potential error in agent activities. We discuss the types of information needed for diagnosing problems and planning interactions with an autonomous system. We discuss types of coordination for which designs are needed for autonomous system functions.

  12. Autonomic dysfunction in primary sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Miglis, Mitchell G

    2016-03-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the coordination of many important physiologic functions during sleep. Many patients with untreated sleep disorders will describe symptoms of autonomic impairment, and a majority of patients with autonomic impairment have some form of sleep disorder. This article will explore possible explanations for this connection, as well as review the current literature on autonomic impairment in common primary sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnea, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, narcolepsy, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. PMID:27198946

  13. Autonomic Computing for Spacecraft Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhenping; Savkli, Cetin; Jones, Lori

    2007-01-01

    Autonomic computing for spacecraft ground systems increases the system reliability and reduces the cost of spacecraft operations and software maintenance. In this paper, we present an autonomic computing solution for spacecraft ground systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), which consists of an open standard for a message oriented architecture referred to as the GMSEC architecture (Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center), and an autonomic computing tool, the Criteria Action Table (CAT). This solution has been used in many upgraded ground systems for NASA 's missions, and provides a framework for developing solutions with higher autonomic maturity.

  14. Autonomous navigation - The ARMMS concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, L. J.; Jones, J. B.; Mease, K. D.; Kwok, J. H.; Goltz, G. L.; Kechichian, J. A.

    1984-08-01

    A conceptual design is outlined for the navigation subsystem of the Autonomous Redundancy and Maintenance Management Subsystem (ARMMS). The principal function of this navigation subsystem is to maintain the spacecraft over a specified equatorial longitude to within + or - 3 deg. In addition, the navigation subsystem must detect and correct internal faults. It comprises elements for a navigation executive and for orbit determination, trajectory, maneuver planning, and maneuver command. Each of these elements is described. The navigation subsystem is to be used in the DSCS III spacecraft.

  15. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  16. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George I.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto-Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner- TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  17. Knowledge acquisition for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge-based capabilities for autonomous aerospace systems, such as the NASA Space Station, must encompass conflict-resolution functions comparable to those of human operators, with all elements of the system working toward system goals in a concurrent, asynchronous-but-coordinated fashion. Knowledge extracted from a design database will support robotic systems by furnishing geometric, structural, and causal descriptions required for repair, disassembly, and assembly. The factual knowledge for these databases will be obtained from a master database through a technical management information system, and it will in many cases have to be augmented by domain-specific heuristic knowledge acquired from domain experts.

  18. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  19. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  20. Continuous and embedded learning in autonomous vehicles: adapting to sensor failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Alan C.; Grefenstette, John J.

    2000-07-01

    This project describes an approach to creating autonomous systems that can continue to learn throughout their lives, that is, to be adaptive to changes in the environment and in their own capabilities. Evolutionary learning methods have been found to be useful in several areas in the development of autonomous vehicles. In our research, evolutionary algorithms are used to explore the alternative robot behaviors within a simulation model as a way of reducing the overall knowledge engineering effort. The learned behaviors are then tested in the actual robot and the results compared. Initial research demonstrated the ability to learn reasonable complex robot behaviors such as herding, and navigation and collision avoidance using this offline learning approach. In this work, the vehicle is always exploring different strategies via an internal simulation model; the simulation in term, is changing over time to better match the world. This model, which we call Continuous and Embedded Learning (also referred to as Anytime Learning), is a general approach to continuous learning in a changing environment. The agent's learning module continuously tests new strategies against a simulation model of the task environment, and dynamically updates the knowledge base used by the agent on the basis of the results. The execution module controls the agent's interaction with the environment, and includes a monitor that can dynamically modify the simulation model based on its observations of the environment. When a simulation model is modified, the learning process continues on the modified model. The learning system is assume to operate indefinitely, and the execution system uses the results of learning as they become available. Early experimental studies demonstrate a robot that can learn to adapt to failures in its sonar sensors.

  1. Adaptive autonomous sampling toward the study of microbial carbon and energy fluxes in a dynamic estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herfort, L.; Seaton, C. M.; Wilkin, M.; Baptista, A. M.; Roman, B.; Preston, C. M.; Scholin, C. A.; Melançon, C.; Simon, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    An autonomous microbial sampling device was integrated with a long-term (endurance) environmental sensor system to investigate variation in microbial composition and activities related to complex estuarine dynamics. This integration was a part of ongoing efforts in the Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) to study estuarine carbon and nitrogen cycling using an observation and prediction system (SATURN, http://www.stccmop.org/saturn) as foundational infrastructure. The two endurance stations fitted with physical and biogeochemical sensors that were used in this study are located in the SATURN observation network. The microbial sampler is the Environmental Sample Processor (ESP), a commercially available electromechanical/fluidic system designed for automated collection, preservation and in situ analyses of marine water samples. The primary goal of the integration was to demonstrate that the ESP, developed for sampling of pelagic oceanic environments, could be successfully deployed for autonomous sample acquisition in the highly dynamic and turbid Columbia River estuary. The ability of the ESP to collect material at both pre-determined times and automatically in response to local conditions was tested. Pre-designated samples were acquired at specific times to capture variability in the tidal cycle. Autonomous, adaptive sampling was triggered when conditions associated with specific water masses were detected in real-time by the SATURN station's sensors and then communicated to the ESP via the station computer to initiate sample collection. Triggering criteria were based on our understanding of estuary dynamics, as provided by the analysis of extensive archives of high-resolution, long-term SATURN observations and simulations. In this manner, we used the ESP to selectively sample various microbial consortia in the estuary to facilitate the study of ephemeral microbial-driven processes. For example, during the summer of 2013 the adaptive sampling

  2. The Data Management and Communications (DMAC) Strategy for the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, S.

    2004-12-01

    Data management and communications within the marine environment present great challenges due in equal parts to the variety and complexity of the observations that are involved; the rapidly evolving information technology; and the complex history and relationships among community participants. At present there is no coherent Cyberinfrastructure that effectively integrates these data streams across organizations, disciplines and spatial and temporal scales. The resulting lack of integration of data denies US society important benefits, such as improved climate forecasts and more effective protection of coastal marine ecosystems. Therefore, Congress has directed the US marine science communities to come together to plan, design, and implement a sustained Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). Central to the vision of the IOOS is a Data Management and Communications (DMAC) Subsystem that joins Federal, regional, state, municipal, academic and commercial partners in a seamless data sharing framework. The design of the DMAC Subsystem is made particularly challenging by three competing factors: 1) The data types to be integrated are heterogeneous and have complex structure; 2) The holdings are physically distributed and widely ranging in size and complexity; and 3) IOOS is a loose federation of many organizations, large and small, lacking a management hierarchy. Designing the DMAC Subsystem goes beyond solving problems of software engineering; the most demanding aspects of the solution lie in community behavior. An overview of the plan for the DMAC Subsystem and an outline of the next steps forward will be described.

  3. How to Develop College Students' Autonomous English Learning Skills--Take Reading Course in Joint-Program in HCFT as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jihui

    2010-01-01

    The studies on autonomous learning based on the theories of constructivism and the advantages of technology propose valuable ideas for modern teaching theories and practices. In this paper, we put forward ways and methods in developing learner awareness, learning strategies and habits of autonomous learning in Henan College of Finance and Taxation…

  4. Multi-agent autonomous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  5. Autonomous Mine Detection Sensors (AMDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navish, Frank, III; May, Michael

    2006-05-01

    The Autonomous Mine Detection Sensors (AMDS) program is developing a prototype autonomous mine-detection sensor suite designed to be mounted on a small robotic platform that can find buried anti-personnel mines. Over the past two years, CyTerra Corp. and NIITEK, Inc. have developed complementary senor suites using a variety of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor configurations. The AMDS program is also working with industry and academia to develop automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms. This paper provides a brief overview of evaluations that have been performed at Army facilities. Probability of Detection (Pd) and Probability of False Alarm (Pfa) results are provided for signal-to-noise type detection algorithms and also for promising pattern classification and neural network algorithms that were developed by Duke University, the University of Missouri-Columbia, and the University of Florida. After an evaluation in October 2005, both contractors' sensors performed comparably (about 90% Pd and 40% Pfa) against low-metal anti-personnel mines at an Army test site seeded with typical clutter. In some cases, university-developed pattern classification and neural network algorithms have reduced the Pfa by a factor of two against these clutter sets.

  6. Autonomous Robotic Inspection in Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopapadakis, E.; Stentoumis, C.; Doulamis, N.; Doulamis, A.; Loupos, K.; Makantasis, K.; Kopsiaftis, G.; Amditis, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an automatic robotic inspector for tunnel assessment is presented. The proposed platform is able to autonomously navigate within the civil infrastructures, grab stereo images and process/analyse them, in order to identify defect types. At first, there is the crack detection via deep learning approaches. Then, a detailed 3D model of the cracked area is created, utilizing photogrammetric methods. Finally, a laser profiling of the tunnel's lining, for a narrow region close to detected crack is performed; allowing for the deduction of potential deformations. The robotic platform consists of an autonomous mobile vehicle; a crane arm, guided by the computer vision-based crack detector, carrying ultrasound sensors, the stereo cameras and the laser scanner. Visual inspection is based on convolutional neural networks, which support the creation of high-level discriminative features for complex non-linear pattern classification. Then, real-time 3D information is accurately calculated and the crack position and orientation is passed to the robotic platform. The entire system has been evaluated in railway and road tunnels, i.e. in Egnatia Highway and London underground infrastructure.

  7. Autonomous Dynamic Soaring Platform for Distributed Mobile Sensor Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    BOSLOUGH, MARK B. E.

    2002-06-01

    This project makes use of ''biomimetic behavioral engineering'' in which adaptive strategies used by animals in the real world are applied to the development of autonomous robots. The key elements of the biomimetic approach are to observe and understand a survival behavior exhibited in nature, to create a mathematical model and simulation capability for that behavior, to modify and optimize the behavior for a desired robotics application, and to implement it. The application described in this report is dynamic soaring, a behavior that certain sea birds use to extract flight energy from laminar wind velocity gradients in the shallow atmospheric boundary layer directly above the ocean surface. Theoretical calculations, computational proof-of-principle demonstrations, and the first instrumented experimental flight test data for dynamic soaring are presented to address the feasibility of developing dynamic soaring flight control algorithms to sustain the flight of unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs). Both hardware and software were developed for this application. Eight-foot custom foam sailplanes were built and flown in a steep shear gradient. A logging device was designed and constructed with custom software to record flight data during dynamic soaring maneuvers. A computational toolkit was developed to simulate dynamic soaring in special cases and with a full 6-degree of freedom flight dynamics model in a generalized time-dependent wind field. Several 3-dimensional visualization tools were built to replay the flight simulations. A realistic aerodynamics model of an eight-foot sailplane was developed using measured aerodynamic derivatives. Genetic programming methods were developed and linked to the simulations and visualization tools. These tools can now be generalized for other biomimetic behavior applications.

  8. Does the availability of positron emission tomography modify diagnostic strategies for solitary pulmonary nodules? An observational study in France

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies showed that at the individual level, positron emission tomography (PET) has some benefits for patients and physicians in terms of cancer management and staging. We aimed to describe the benefits of (PET) in the management of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) in a population level, in terms of the number of diagnostic and invasive tests performed, time to diagnosis and factors determining PET utilization. Methods In an observational study, we examined reports of computed tomography (CT) performed and mentioning "spherical lesion", "nodule" or synonymous terms. We found 11,515 reports in a before-PET period, 2002–2003, and 20,075 in an after-PET period, 2004–2005. Patients were followed through their physician, who was responsible for diagnostic management. Results We had complete data for 112 patients (73.7%) with new cases of SPN in the before-PET period and 250 (81.4%) in the after-PET period. Patients did not differ in mean age (64.9 vs. 64.8 years). The before-PET patients underwent a mean of 4 tests as compared with 3 tests for the after-PET patients (p = 0.08). Patients in the before-PET period had to wait 41.4 days, on average, before receiving a diagnosis as compared with 24.0 days, on average, for patients in the after-PET period who did not undergo PET (p < 0.001). In the after-PET period, 11% of patients underwent PET during the diagnostic process. A spiculated nodule was more likely to determine prescription for PET (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that patients in both periods underwent fewer tests when PET was prescribed by general practitioners (p < 0.001) and if the nodule was not spiculated (p < 0.001). The proportion of unnecessary invasive approaches prescribed (47% vs. 49%) did not differ between the groups. Conclusion In our study, 1 year after the availability of PET, the technology was not the first choice for diagnostic management of SPN. Even though we observed a tendency for reduced number of tests

  9. Strategies, insights, and the recent advances in volcanic monitoring and mapping with data from NASA's Earth Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Michael S.; Flynn, Luke P.

    2004-07-01

    In 1991, the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched a comprehensive program to study the Earth as one environmental system. Now called the Earth Science Enterprise (ESE), this coordinated monitoring effort was initially comprised of free-flying satellites and Space Shuttle missions, as well as airborne and ground-based studies. The satellite component of the ESE is known as the Earth Observing System (EOS), which has now entered a planned long-term global monitoring phase. The first EOS satellite, Terra, was launched in December of 1999 and offers integrated measurements of numerous solid earth and atmospheric processes, including volcanic activity. There are currently 10 NASA EOS-designated satellites carrying over thirty instruments, all of which are providing integrated measurements of the interactions between the Earth's global cycles. Included in this effort are science investigations that examine the solid earth cycle and the natural hazards that are an inevitable result of that cycle. For volcanologists, the new higher spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution EOS data have spawned a variety of new algorithms and methodologies to monitor changes in volcanic activity, map volcanic surfaces, and investigate volcanic processes. Thermal anomaly detection, plume chemistry and mass flux, lava composition and textural properties, interaction of ash with the natural and human environment, and mitigation of hazards are but a few of the topics being addressed with these data sets. In this paper, we summarize the current state of volcanic remote sensing in the new EOS era and introduce the more detailed papers that follow in this special issue. This work stems from a special session at the Fall 2001 American Geophysical Union (AGU) meeting that was convened to showcase the current research in volcanic systems and processes using the new EOS satellite data sets. That session was also intended to provide a forum for field, aircraft, and other

  10. Autonomous Optimization of Targeted Stimulation of Neuronal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sreedhar S.; Wülfing, Jan; Okujeni, Samora; Boedecker, Joschka; Riedmiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Driven by clinical needs and progress in neurotechnology, targeted interaction with neuronal networks is of increasing importance. Yet, the dynamics of interaction between intrinsic ongoing activity in neuronal networks and their response to stimulation is unknown. Nonetheless, electrical stimulation of the brain is increasingly explored as a therapeutic strategy and as a means to artificially inject information into neural circuits. Strategies using regular or event-triggered fixed stimuli discount the influence of ongoing neuronal activity on the stimulation outcome and are therefore not optimal to induce specific responses reliably. Yet, without suitable mechanistic models, it is hardly possible to optimize such interactions, in particular when desired response features are network-dependent and are initially unknown. In this proof-of-principle study, we present an experimental paradigm using reinforcement-learning (RL) to optimize stimulus settings autonomously and evaluate the learned control strategy using phenomenological models. We asked how to (1) capture the interaction of ongoing network activity, electrical stimulation and evoked responses in a quantifiable ‘state’ to formulate a well-posed control problem, (2) find the optimal state for stimulation, and (3) evaluate the quality of the solution found. Electrical stimulation of generic neuronal networks grown from rat cortical tissue in vitro evoked bursts of action potentials (responses). We show that the dynamic interplay of their magnitudes and the probability to be intercepted by spontaneous events defines a trade-off scenario with a network-specific unique optimal latency maximizing stimulus efficacy. An RL controller was set to find this optimum autonomously. Across networks, stimulation efficacy increased in 90% of the sessions after learning and learned latencies strongly agreed with those predicted from open-loop experiments. Our results show that autonomous techniques can exploit

  11. Autonomous Optimization of Targeted Stimulation of Neuronal Networks.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sreedhar S; Wülfing, Jan; Okujeni, Samora; Boedecker, Joschka; Riedmiller, Martin; Egert, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    Driven by clinical needs and progress in neurotechnology, targeted interaction with neuronal networks is of increasing importance. Yet, the dynamics of interaction between intrinsic ongoing activity in neuronal networks and their response to stimulation is unknown. Nonetheless, electrical stimulation of the brain is increasingly explored as a therapeutic strategy and as a means to artificially inject information into neural circuits. Strategies using regular or event-triggered fixed stimuli discount the influence of ongoing neuronal activity on the stimulation outcome and are therefore not optimal to induce specific responses reliably. Yet, without suitable mechanistic models, it is hardly possible to optimize such interactions, in particular when desired response features are network-dependent and are initially unknown. In this proof-of-principle study, we present an experimental paradigm using reinforcement-learning (RL) to optimize stimulus settings autonomously and evaluate the learned control strategy using phenomenological models. We asked how to (1) capture the interaction of ongoing network activity, electrical stimulation and evoked responses in a quantifiable 'state' to formulate a well-posed control problem, (2) find the optimal state for stimulation, and (3) evaluate the quality of the solution found. Electrical stimulation of generic neuronal networks grown from rat cortical tissue in vitro evoked bursts of action potentials (responses). We show that the dynamic interplay of their magnitudes and the probability to be intercepted by spontaneous events defines a trade-off scenario with a network-specific unique optimal latency maximizing stimulus efficacy. An RL controller was set to find this optimum autonomously. Across networks, stimulation efficacy increased in 90% of the sessions after learning and learned latencies strongly agreed with those predicted from open-loop experiments. Our results show that autonomous techniques can exploit quantitative

  12. Geometrically constrained observability. [control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brammer, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    This paper deals with observed processes in situations in which observations are available only when the state vector lies in certain regions. For linear autonomous observed processes, necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for half-space observation regions. These results are shown to contain a theorem dual to a controllability result proved by the author for a linear autonomous control system whose control restraint set does not contain the origin as an interior point. Observability results relating to continuous observation systems and sampled data systems are presented, and an example of observing the state of an electrical network is given.

  13. Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) Test Operations in 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S.; Davies, A. G.; Baker, V.; Castano, B.; Cichy, B.; Doggett, T.; Dohm, J. M.; Greeley, R.; Sherwood, R.; Williams, K.

    2003-01-01

    NASA has identified the development of an autonomously operating spacecraft as a necessity for an expanded program of missions exploring the Solar System. The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) has been selected for flight demonstration by NASA s New Millennium Program (NMP) as part of the Space Technology 6 (ST6) mission. ASE is scheduled to fly on the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Techsat-21 constellation in 2006. Tech- Sat-21 consists of three satellites flying in a variable-geometry formation in Earth orbit. Each satellite is equipped with X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar, yielding high spatial resolution images (approx. 3 m) of the Earth s surface. The constellation will fly at an altitude of 550 km, in a 35.4 inclination circular orbit, yielding exact repeat-track observations every 13 days. Prior to full deployment, elements of the versatile ASE spacecraft command and control software, image formation software and science processing software will be utilized and tested on two very different platforms in 2003: AirSAR and EO-1 (described below). Advantages of Autonomous Operations: ASE will demonstrate advanced autonomous science data acquisition, processing, and product downlink prioritization, as well as autonomous spacecraft command and control, and fault detection. The advantages of spacecraft autonomy are to future missions include: (a) making the best use of reduced downlink; (b) the overcoming of communication delays through decisionmaking in situ, enabling fast reaction to dynamic events; (c) an increase of science content per byte of returned data; and (d) an avoidance of return of null (no-change/no feature) datasets: if there is no change detectable between two scenes of the same target, there is no need to return the second dataset.

  14. Cardiac autonomic functions in children with familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Murat; Kır, Mustafa; Makay, Balahan; Keskinoğlu, Pembe; Bora, Elçin; Ünsal, Erbil; Ünal, Nurettin

    2016-05-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common inherited autoinflammatory disease in the world. The long-term effects of subclinical inflammation in FMF are not well recognized. Some studies have suggested that FMF is associated with cardiac autonomic dysfunction in adult FMF patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardiac autonomic functions in pediatric FMF patients by using several autonomic tests. Thirty-five patients with FMF and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Demographic data, disease-specific data, and orthostatic symptoms were recorded. In all participants, 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG), 24 h ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring, transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill exercise test, and head upright tilt-table (HUTT) test were performed. The heart rate recovery (HRR) indices of the two groups were similar. Also, chronotropic response was similar in both groups. The time-domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) were similar in both groups, except mean RR (p = 0.024). Frequencies of ventricular and supraventricular ectopic stimuli were similar in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in average QT and average corrected QT interval length, average QT interval dispersion, and average QT corrected dispersion. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the ratio of clinical dysautonomic reactions on HUTT. However, we observed a significantly higher rate of dysautonomic reactions on HUTT in patients with exertional leg pain than that in patients without (p = 0.013). When the fractal dimension of time curves were compared, FMF patients exhibited significantly lower diastolic blood pressure parameters than controls in response to HUTT. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in children with FMF is not prominent. Particularly, patients with exertional leg pain are more prone to have dysautonomic features

  15. Motion coordination of multiple autonomous vehicles in a spatiotemporal flowfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Cameron Kai

    The long-term goal of this research is to provide theoretically justified control strategies to operate autonomous vehicles in spatiotemporal flowfields. The specific objective of this dissertation is to use estimation and nonlinear control techniques to generate decentralized control algorithms that enable motion coordination for multiple autonomous vehicles while operating in a time-varying flowfield. A cooperating team of vehicles can benefit from sharing data and tasking responsibilities. Many existing control algorithms promote collaboration of autonomous vehicles. However, these algorithms often fail to account for the degradation of control performance caused by flowfields. This dissertation presents decentralized multivehicle coordination algorithms designed for operation in a spatially or temporally varying flowfield. Each vehicle is represented using a Newtonian particle traveling in a plane at constant speed relative to the flow and subject to a steering control. Initially, we assume the flowfield is known and describe algorithms that stabilize a circular formation in a time-varying spatially nonuniform flow of moderate intensity. These algorithms are extended by relaxing the assumption that the flow is known: the vehicles dynamically estimate the flow and use that estimate in the control. We propose a distributed estimation and control algorithm comprising a consensus filter to share information gleaned from noisy position measurements, and an information filter to reconstruct a spatially varying flowfield. The theoretical results are illustrated with numerical simulations of circular formation control and validated in outdoor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight tests.

  16. New Small Autonomous Schools District Policy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland Unified School District, CA.

    Inspired by the gains in student achievement realized by the small schools movement in New York City, the Oakland Unified School District (California) has proposed creating a network of 10 new, small autonomous (NSA) schools over the next 3 years. School size will range between 250 and 500 students, depending on grade level. "Autonomous" means…

  17. Autonomic Physiological Response Patterns Related to Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melis, Cor; van Boxtel, Anton

    2007-01-01

    We examined autonomic physiological responses induced by six different cognitive ability tasks, varying in complexity, that were selected on the basis of on Guilford's Structure of Intellect model. In a group of 52 participants, task performance was measured together with nine different autonomic response measures and respiration rate. Weighted…

  18. Planning Flight Paths of Autonomous Aerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Sharma, Shivanjli

    2009-01-01

    Algorithms for planning flight paths of autonomous aerobots (robotic blimps) to be deployed in scientific exploration of remote planets are undergoing development. These algorithms are also adaptable to terrestrial applications involving robotic submarines as well as aerobots and other autonomous aircraft used to acquire scientific data or to perform surveying or monitoring functions.

  19. Autonomous Control of Space Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; K. Zhao; S.R.P. Perillo; Xiaojia Xu; M.G. Na

    2007-11-30

    Autonomous and semi-autonomous control is a key element of space reactor design in order to meet the mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, and life expectancy. Interrestrial nuclear power plants, human operators are avilable to perform intelligent control functions that are necessary for both normal and abnormal operational conditions.

  20. A Practical Approach to Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients with Headache.

    PubMed

    Ailani, Jessica

    2016-05-01

    The presence of autonomic symptoms can make the diagnosis of headache challenging. While commonly seen with the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, autonomic dysfunction can also be present in patients with migraine, or with a variety of secondary headaches. The pathophysiology of cranial autonomic symptoms in headache is based between the trigeminal system and the hypothalamus. This article will review the pathophysiology and presence of autonomic dysfunction in headache and will provide techniques to help in headache diagnosis in patients with autonomic dysfunction. PMID:27021770

  1. Autonomic dysreflexia: a plastic surgery primer.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Catherine M; Gater, David R; Chung, Kevin C

    2003-09-01

    Plastic surgeons are integral to the management team for patients with spinal cord injuries, with responsibilities including pressure sore management and upper extremity reconstruction. Injury to the spinal cord profoundly disrupts the body's ability to maintain homeostasis. In particular, the autonomic system can become unregulated, resulting in a massive sympathetic discharge called autonomic dysreflexia. Autonomic dysreflexia occurs in the majority of patients with injuries above the sixth thoracic vertebra and causes sudden, severe hypertension. If left untreated, autonomic dysreflexia can result in stroke or death. Because this syndrome causes morbidity and mortality, it is crucial for plastic surgeons to be able to recognize and treat autonomic dysreflexia. This article reviews the etiology, symptoms, and treatment of this syndrome. PMID:12966249

  2. Krox-20 patterns the hindbrain through both cell-autonomous and non cell-autonomous mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Giudicelli, François; Taillebourg, Emmanuel; Charnay, Patrick; Gilardi-Hebenstreit, Pascale

    2001-01-01

    The Krox-20 gene encodes a zinc finger transcription factor, which has been shown previously, by targeted inactivation in the mouse, to be required for the development of rhombomeres (r) 3 and 5 in the segmented embryonic hindbrain. In the present work, Krox-20 was expressed ectopically in the developing chick hindbrain by use of electroporation. We demonstrate that Krox-20 expression is sufficient to confer odd-numbered rhombomere characteristics to r2, r4, and r6 cells, presumably in a cell-autonomous manner. Therefore, Krox-20, appears as the major determinant of odd-numbered identity within the hindbrain. In addition, we provide evidence for the existence of a non cell-autonomous autoactivation mechanism allowing recruitment of Krox-20-positive cells from even-numbered territories by neighboring Krox-20-expressing cells. On the basis of these observations, we propose that Krox-20 regulates multiple, intertwined steps in segmental patterning: Initial activation of Krox-20 in a few cells leads to the segregation, homogenization, and possibly expansion of territories to which Krox-20 in addition confers an odd-numbered identity. PMID:11238377

  3. Dysréflexie autonome

    PubMed Central

    Milligan, James; Lee, Joseph; McMillan, Colleen; Klassen, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Sensibiliser davantage les médecins de famille à la dysréflexie autonome (DA) chez les patients victimes d’une lésion médullaire (LM) et proposer certaines interventions. Sources de l’information On a fait une recension dans MEDLINE de 1970 à juillet 2011 à l’aide des expressions en anglais autonomic dysreflexia et spinal cord injury, ainsi que family medicine ou primary care. On a aussi passé en revue et utilisé d’autres ressources et guides de pratique pertinents. Message principal Il arrive souvent que les médecins de famille ne se sentent pas confiants de traiter des patients ayant une LM dont les problèmes sont complexes et exigent beaucoup de temps. Les médecins de famille ont l’impression de n’avoir pas la formation nécessaire pour répondre à leurs besoins. Pourtant, ils offrent une composante essentielle des soins à de tels patients et il est important qu’ils comprennent les problèmes médicaux particuliers aux LM. La dysréflexie autonome est un important et fréquent problème potentiellement sérieux que connaissent mal de nombreux médecins de famille. Cet article passe en revue les signes et les symptômes de la DA et présente certaines options de prise en charge aiguë, ainsi que des stratégies de prévention à l’intention des médecins de famille. Conclusion Les médecins de famille devraient savoir quels patients traumatisés médullaires sont susceptibles d’avoir une DA et surveiller ceux qui sont touchés par ce problème. Une explication est donnée dans cet article quant à l’approche à suivre pour la prise en charge aiguë. Les médecins de famille jouent un rôle essentiel dans la prévention de la DA, notamment par l’éducation (du patient et des autres professionnels de la santé) et la consignation dans le dossier médical de stratégies comme les soins appropriés de la vessie, de l’intestin et de la peau, d’avertissements et de plans de prise en charge.

  4. [Evaluation of autonomic dysfunction by novel methods].

    PubMed

    Ando, Yukio; Obayashi, Konen

    2004-07-01

    The autonomic nervous system innervates every organ in the body. Since autonomic disturbances affect patient survival, an understanding and recognition of these disturbances are important. We adopted several new methods to evaluate autonomic function accurately. 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy can assess the cardiac autonomic function even in the presence of cardiac arrhythmia. Laser-Doppler flowmetry, ultrasonographic study in the vessels and near-infrared spectrophotoscopy techniques serve as useful markers for screening the dysfunction of vasomotor neurons and blood circulation. Electrogastrography and the circadian rhythms of protein C secretion could be markers of the visceromotor nerves in the abdomen. Electrogastrography is a particularly useful tool for reflecting on functional changes in gastrointestinal motility. The evaluation of anemia could be a marker of autonomic dysfunction in the kidney and bone marrow in patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy, pandysautonomia, and multiple system atrophy. Normocytic and normochromic anemia correlated with the severity of autonomic dysfunction were shown in these patients. We also evaluated the dysfunction of the neuroendocrine system and sudomotor neuron using our new autonomic function tests. The glucose-tolerance test could become one of the most useful clinical tools for detecting autonomic dysfunction in the endocrine system. Microhydrography and thermography could be useful tools for diagnosing the lesion site of dyshidrosis. Moreover, it is clinically important to check the systemic circulation and autonomic function in patients treated with sildenafil citrate and organ transplantation to save their lives. Our new autonomic function tests, such as laser-Doppler flowmetry and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy, are crucial tools in supplying the best symptomatic treatment for such patients. PMID:15344558

  5. Analysis of a Simulated Optical GSO Survey Observation for the Effective Maintenance of the Catalogued Satellites and the Orbit Determination Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin; Jo, Jung Hyun; Yim, Hong-Suh; Choi, Young-Jun; Son, Ju-Young; Park, Sun-youp; Bae, Young-Ho; Roh, Dong-Goo; Cho, Sungki

    2015-09-01

    A strategy is needed for a regional survey of geosynchronous orbits (GSOs) to monitor known space objects and detect uncataloged space objects. On the basis of the Inter-Agency Debris Committee's recommendation regarding the protected region of geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO), target satellites with perigee and apogee of GEO ˜ 200 km and various inclinations are selected for analysis. The status of the GSO region was analyzed using the satellite distribution based on the orbital characteristics in publicly available two-line element data. Natural perturbation effects cause inactive satellites to drift to two stable longitudinal points. Active satellites usually maintain the designed positions as a result of regular or irregular maneuver operations against their natural drift. To analyze the detection rate of a single optical telescope, 152 out of 412 active satellites and 135 out of 288 inactive satellites in the GSO region were selected on the basis of their visibility at the observation site in Daejeon, Korea. By using various vertical view ranges and various numbers of observations of the GSO region, the detection efficiencies were analyzed for a single night, and the numbers of follow-up observations were determined. The orbital estimation accuracies were also checked using the arc length and number of observed data points to maintain the GSO satellite catalog.

  6. Autonomous Medical Care for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Polk, J. D.; Hines, John W.; Nall, Marsha M.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of Autonomous Medical Care (AMC) is to ensure a healthy, well-performing crew which is a primary need for exploration. The end result of this effort will be the requirements and design for medical systems for the CEV, lunar operations, and Martian operations as well as a ground-based crew health optimization plan. Without such systems, we increase the risk of medical events occurring during a mission and we risk being unable to deal with contingencies of illness and injury, potentially threatening mission success. AMC has two major components: 1) pre-flight crew health optimization and 2) in-flight medical care. The goal of pre-flight crew health optimization is to reduce the risk of illness occurring during a mission by primary prevention and prophylactic measures. In-flight autonomous medical care is the capability to provide medical care during a mission with little or no real-time support from Earth. Crew medical officers or other crew members provide routine medical care as well as medical care to ill or injured crew members using resources available in their location. Ground support becomes telemedical consultation on-board systems/people collect relevant data for ground support to review. The AMC system provides capabilities to incorporate new procedures and training and advice as required. The on-board resources in an autonomous system should be as intelligent and integrated as is feasible, but autonomous does not mean that no human will be involved. The medical field is changing rapidly, and so a challenge is to determine which items to pursue now, which to leverage other efforts (e.g. military), and which to wait for commercial forces to mature. Given that what is used for the CEV or the Moon will likely be updated before going to Mars, a critical piece of the system design will be an architecture that provides for easy incorporation of new technologies into the system. Another challenge is to determine the level of care to provide for each

  7. Machine intelligence for autonomous manipulation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1973-01-01

    Survey of the present technological development status of machine intelligence for autonomous manipulation in the U.S., Japan, USSR, and England. The extent of task-performance autonomy is examined that machine intelligence gives the manipulator by eliminating the need for a human operator to close continuously the control loop, or to rewrite control programs for each different task. Surveyed research projects show that the development of some advanced automation systems for manipulator control are within the state of the art. Yet, many more realistic breadboard systems and experimental work are needed before further progress can be made in the design of advanced automation systems for manipulator control suitable for new major practical applications. Specific research areas of promise are pointed out.

  8. Mechanical autonomous stochastic heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra-Garcia, Marc; Foehr, Andre; Moleron, Miguel; Lydon, Joseph; Chong, Christopher; Daraio, Chiara; . Team

    Stochastic heat engines extract work from the Brownian motion of a set of particles out of equilibrium. So far, experimental demonstrations of stochastic heat engines have required extreme operating conditions or nonautonomous external control systems. In this talk, we will present a simple, purely classical, autonomous stochastic heat engine that uses the well-known tension induced nonlinearity in a string. Our engine operates between two heat baths out of equilibrium, and transfers energy from the hot bath to a work reservoir. This energy transfer occurs even if the work reservoir is at a higher temperature than the hot reservoir. The talk will cover a theoretical investigation and experimental results on a macroscopic setup subject to external noise excitations. This system presents an opportunity for the study of non equilibrium thermodynamics and is an interesting candidate for innovative energy conversion devices.

  9. Testbed for an autonomous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok K.; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    In previous works we have defined a general architectural model for autonomous systems, which can easily be mapped to describe the functions of any automated system (SDAG-86-01), and we illustrated that model by applying it to the thermal management system of a space station (SDAG-87-01). In this note, we will further develop that application and design the detail of the implementation of such a model. First we present the environment of our application by describing the thermal management problem and an abstraction, which was called TESTBED, that includes a specific function for each module in the architecture, and the nature of the interfaces between each pair of blocks.

  10. APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, R G; Brown, S; Burris, L; Colston, B; Jones, L; Makarewicz, T; Mariella, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Milanovich, F; Masarabadi, S; Venkateswaran, K; Marshall, G; Olson, D; Wolcott, D

    2002-02-14

    An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts centers, mass transit systems, major sporting and entertainment events, and other high profile situations in which the public is at risk of becoming a target of bioterrorist attacks. Customizing off-the-shelf components and developing new components, a multidisciplinary team developed APDS, a stand-alone system for rapid, continuous monitoring of multiple airborne biological threat agents in the environment. The completely automated APDS samples the air, prepares fluid samples in-line, and performs two orthogonal tests: immunoassay and nucleic acid detection. When compared to competing technologies, APDS is unprecedented in terms of flexibility and system performance.

  11. Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordano, A. J.; Mcswain, G. G.; Fernandes, S. T.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) Bridging program is reviewed to demonstrate the program plan and GN&C systems for the Space Shuttle. The ascent CN&C system is described in terms of elements such as the general-purpose digital computers, sensors for the navigation subsystem, the guidance-system software, and the flight-control subsystem. Balloon-based and lidar wind soundings are used for operations assessment on the day of launch, and the guidance software is based on dedicated units for atmospheric powered flight, vacuum powered flight, and abort-specific situations. Optimization of the flight trajectories is discussed, and flight-control responses are illustrated for wavelengths of 500-6000 m. Alternate sensors are used for load relief, and adaptive GN&C systems based on alternate gain synthesis are used for systems failures.

  12. Next generation autonomous wheelchair control.

    PubMed

    Benson, John; Barrett, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Often times the physically challenged, limited to a wheelchair, also have difficulty with vision. In order to help, something must "see" for them. Therefore there must be some way for a wheelchair to know its environment, sense where it is, and where it must go. It also must be able to avoid any obstacles which are not normally part of the environment. An autonomous wheelchair will serve an important role by allowing users more freedom and independence. This design challenge is broken into four major steps: wheelchair control, environment recognition, route planning, and obstacle avoidance. The first step is to reverse engineer a wheelchair and rebuild the controls, which will be the main topic of discussion for this paper. Two big challenges with this step are high power motor control and joystick control. An H-bridge motor interface, controlled by a microprocessor, was designed for the motors. The joystick control is handled with the same microprocessor. PMID:15850119

  13. Digital autonomous terminal access communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novacki, S.

    1987-01-01

    A significant problem for the Bus Monitor Unit is to identify the source of a given transmission. This problem arises from the fact that the label which identifies the source of the transmission as it is put into the bus is intercepted by the Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communications (DATAC) terminal and removed from the transmission. Thus, a given subsystem will see only data associated with a label and never the identifying label itself. The Bus Monitor must identify the source of the transmission so as to be able to provide some type of error identification/location in the event that some problem with the data transmission occurs. Steps taken to alleviate this problem by modifications to the DATAC terminal are discussed.

  14. Wireless autonomous device data transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammel, Jr., David W. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Mi, Minhong (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of communicating information from a wireless autonomous device (WAD) to a base station. The WAD has a data element having a predetermined profile having a total number of sequenced possible data element combinations. The method includes receiving at the WAD an RF profile transmitted by the base station that includes a triggering portion having a number of pulses, wherein the number is at least equal to the total number of possible data element combinations. The method further includes keeping a count of received pulses and wirelessly transmitting a piece of data, preferably one bit, to the base station when the count reaches a value equal to the stored data element's particular number in the sequence. Finally, the method includes receiving the piece of data at the base station and using the receipt thereof to determine which of the possible data element combinations the stored data element is.

  15. Autonomous navigation using lunar beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatib, A. R.; Ellis, J.; French, J.; Null, G.; Yunck, T.; Wu, S.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of using lunar beacon signal transmission for on-board navigation for earth satellites and near-earth spacecraft is described. The system would require powerful transmitters on the earth-side of the moon's surface and black box receivers with antennae and microprocessors placed on board spacecraft for autonomous navigation. Spacecraft navigation requires three position and three velocity elements to establish location coordinates. Two beacons could be soft-landed on the lunar surface at the limits of allowable separation and each would transmit a wide-beam signal with cones reaching GEO heights and be strong enough to be received by small antennae in near-earth orbit. The black box processor would perform on-board computation with one-way Doppler/range data and dynamical models. Alternatively, GEO satellites such as the GPS or TDRSS spacecraft can be used with interferometric techniques to provide decimeter-level accuracy for aircraft navigation.

  16. An Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, James B.; Lanzi, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) being developed by NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center s Wallops Flight Facility and Kennedy Space Center has completed two successful developmental flights and is preparing for a third. AFSS has been demonstrated to be a viable architecture for implementation of a completely vehicle based system capable of protecting life and property in event of an errant vehicle by terminating the flight or initiating other actions. It is capable of replacing current human-in-the-loop systems or acting in parallel with them. AFSS is configured prior to flight in accordance with a specific rule set agreed upon by the range safety authority and the user to protect the public and assure mission success. This paper discusses the motivation for the project, describes the method of development, and presents an overview of the evolving architecture and the current status.

  17. Autonomous navigation system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, David J; Few, Douglas A

    2009-09-08

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for autonomously navigating a robot. The instructions repeat, on each iteration through an event timing loop, the acts of defining an event horizon based on the robot's current velocity, detecting a range to obstacles around the robot, testing for an event horizon intrusion by determining if any range to the obstacles is within the event horizon, and adjusting rotational and translational velocity of the robot accordingly. If the event horizon intrusion occurs, rotational velocity is modified by a proportion of the current rotational velocity reduced by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle and translational velocity is modified by a proportion of the range to the nearest obstacle. If no event horizon intrusion occurs, translational velocity is set as a ratio of a speed factor relative to a maximum speed.

  18. An Autonomous Star Identification Algorithm Based on One-Dimensional Vector Pattern for Star Sensors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Liyan; Xu, Luping; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance the robustness and accelerate the recognition speed of star identification, an autonomous star identification algorithm for star sensors is proposed based on the one-dimensional vector pattern (one_DVP). In the proposed algorithm, the space geometry information of the observed stars is used to form the one-dimensional vector pattern of the observed star. The one-dimensional vector pattern of the same observed star remains unchanged when the stellar image rotates, so the problem of star identification is simplified as the comparison of the two feature vectors. The one-dimensional vector pattern is adopted to build the feature vector of the star pattern, which makes it possible to identify the observed stars robustly. The characteristics of the feature vector and the proposed search strategy for the matching pattern make it possible to achieve the recognition result as quickly as possible. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition accuracy and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the pyramid algorithm, the modified grid algorithm, and the LPT algorithm. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other three star identification algorithms. PMID:26198233

  19. An Autonomous Star Identification Algorithm Based on One-Dimensional Vector Pattern for Star Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Liyan; Xu, Luping; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance the robustness and accelerate the recognition speed of star identification, an autonomous star identification algorithm for star sensors is proposed based on the one-dimensional vector pattern (one_DVP). In the proposed algorithm, the space geometry information of the observed stars is used to form the one-dimensional vector pattern of the observed star. The one-dimensional vector pattern of the same observed star remains unchanged when the stellar image rotates, so the problem of star identification is simplified as the comparison of the two feature vectors. The one-dimensional vector pattern is adopted to build the feature vector of the star pattern, which makes it possible to identify the observed stars robustly. The characteristics of the feature vector and the proposed search strategy for the matching pattern make it possible to achieve the recognition result as quickly as possible. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition accuracy and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the pyramid algorithm, the modified grid algorithm, and the LPT algorithm. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other three star identification algorithms. PMID:26198233

  20. Feasibility of Turing-Style Tests for Autonomous Aerial Vehicle "Intelligence"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    A new approach is suggested to define and evaluate key metrics as to autonomous aerial vehicle performance. This approach entails the conceptual definition of a "Turing Test" for UAVs. Such a "UAV Turing test" would be conducted by means of mission simulations and/or tailored flight demonstrations of vehicles under the guidance of their autonomous system software. These autonomous vehicle mission simulations and flight demonstrations would also have to be benchmarked against missions "flown" with pilots/human-operators in the loop. In turn, scoring criteria for such testing could be based upon both quantitative mission success metrics (unique to each mission) and by turning to analog "handling quality" metrics similar to the well-known Cooper-Harper pilot ratings used for manned aircraft. Autonomous aerial vehicles would be considered to have successfully passed this "UAV Turing Test" if the aggregate mission success metrics and handling qualities for the autonomous aerial vehicle matched or exceeded the equivalent metrics for missions conducted with pilots/human-operators in the loop. Alternatively, an independent, knowledgeable observer could provide the "UAV Turing Test" ratings of whether a vehicle is autonomous or "piloted." This observer ideally would, in the more sophisticated mission simulations, also have the enhanced capability of being able to override the scripted mission scenario and instigate failure modes and change of flight profile/plans. If a majority of mission tasks are rated as "piloted" by the observer, when in reality the vehicle/simulation is fully- or semi- autonomously controlled, then the vehicle/simulation "passes" the "UAV Turing Test." In this regards, this second "UAV Turing Test" approach is more consistent with Turing s original "imitation game" proposal. The overall feasibility, and important considerations and limitations, of such an approach for judging/evaluating autonomous aerial vehicle "intelligence" will be discussed from a

  1. Intelligent agents: adaptation of autonomous bimodal microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Patrice; Terry, Theodore B.

    2014-03-01

    Autonomous bimodal microsystems exhibiting survivability behaviors and characteristics are able to adapt dynamically in any given environment. Equipped with a background blending exoskeleton it will have the capability to stealthily detect and observe a self-chosen viewing area while exercising some measurable form of selfpreservation by either flying or crawling away from a potential adversary. The robotic agent in this capacity activates a walk-fly algorithm, which uses a built in multi-sensor processing and navigation subsystem or algorithm for visual guidance and best walk-fly path trajectory to evade capture or annihilation. The research detailed in this paper describes the theoretical walk-fly algorithm, which broadens the scope of spatial and temporal learning, locomotion, and navigational performances based on optical flow signals necessary for flight dynamics and walking stabilities. By observing a fly's travel and avoidance behaviors; and, understanding the reverse bioengineering research efforts of others, we were able to conceptualize an algorithm, which works in conjunction with decisionmaking functions, sensory processing, and sensorimotor integration. Our findings suggest that this highly complex decentralized algorithm promotes inflight or terrain travel mobile stability which is highly suitable for nonaggressive micro platforms supporting search and rescue (SAR), and chemical and explosive detection (CED) purposes; a necessity in turbulent, non-violent structured or unstructured environments.

  2. The Autonomic Symptom Profile: a new instrument to assess autonomic symptoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, G. A.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Offord, K. P.; Atkinson, E. J.; O'Brien, P. C.; Low, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a new specific instrument called the Autonomic Symptom Profile to measure autonomic symptoms and test its validity. BACKGROUND: Measuring symptoms is important in the evaluation of quality of life outcomes. There is no validated, self-completed questionnaire on the symptoms of patients with autonomic disorders. METHODS: The questionnaire is 169 items concerning different aspects of autonomic symptoms. The Composite Autonomic Symptom Scale (COMPASS) with item-weighting was established; higher scores indicate more or worse symptoms. Autonomic function tests were performed to generate the Composite Autonomic Scoring Scale (CASS) and to quantify autonomic deficits. We compared the results of the COMPASS with the CASS derived from the Autonomic Reflex Screen to evaluate validity. RESULTS: The instrument was tested in 41 healthy controls (mean age 46.6 years), 33 patients with nonautonomic peripheral neuropathies (mean age 59.5 years), and 39 patients with autonomic failure (mean age 61.1 years). COMPASS scores correlated well with the CASS, demonstrating an acceptable level of content and criterion validity. The mean (+/-SD) overall COMPASS score was 9.8 (+/-9) in controls, 25.9 (+/-17.9) in the patients with nonautonomic peripheral neuropathies, and 52.3 (+/-24.2) in the autonomic failure group. Scores of symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and secretomotor dysfunction best predicted the CASS on multiple stepwise regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a questionnaire that measures autonomic symptoms and present evidence for its validity. The instrument shows promise in assessing autonomic symptoms in clinical trials and epidemiologic studies.

  3. Current challenges in autonomous vehicle development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, J.; Hong, W. S.; Mahoney, R. B., Jr.; Sparrow, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    The field of autonomous vehicles is a rapidly growing one, with significant interest from both government and industry sectors. Autonomous vehicles represent the intersection of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, combining decision-making with real-time control. Autonomous vehicles are desired for use in search and rescue, urban reconnaissance, mine detonation, supply convoys, and more. The general adage is to use robots for anything dull, dirty, dangerous or dumb. While a great deal of research has been done on autonomous systems, there are only a handful of fielded examples incorporating machine autonomy beyond the level of teleoperation, especially in outdoor/complex environments. In an attempt to assess and understand the current state of the art in autonomous vehicle development, a few areas where unsolved problems remain became clear. This paper outlines those areas and provides suggestions for the focus of science and technology research. The first step in evaluating the current state of autonomous vehicle development was to develop a definition of autonomy. A number of autonomy level classification systems were reviewed. The resulting working definitions and classification schemes used by the authors are summarized in the opening sections of the paper. The remainder of the report discusses current approaches and challenges in decision-making and real-time control for autonomous vehicles. Suggested research focus areas for near-, mid-, and long-term development are also presented.

  4. A Test-Bed Configuration: Toward an Autonomous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, F.; Castillo, M.; Uranga, E.; Ponz, J. D.; TBT Consortium

    2015-09-01

    In the context of the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program of ESA, it is foreseen to deploy several large robotic telescopes in remote locations to provide surveillance and tracking services for man-made as well as natural near-Earth objects (NEOs). The present project, termed Telescope Test Bed (TBT) is being developed under ESA's General Studies and Technology Programme, and shall implement a test-bed for the validation of an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario, consisting of two telescopes located in Spain and Australia, to collect representative test data for precursor NEO services. In order to fulfill all the security requirements for the TBT project, the use of a autonomous emergency system (AES) is foreseen to monitor the control system. The AES will monitor remotely the health of the observing system and the internal and external environment. It will incorporate both autonomous and interactive actuators to force the protection of the system (i.e., emergency dome close out).

  5. 1/f scaling in heart rate requires antagonistic autonomic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Hayano, Junichiro; Sakata, Seiichiro; Kwak, Shin; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2004-11-01

    We present systematic evidence for the origins of 1/f -type temporal scaling in human heart rate. The heart rate is regulated by the activity of two branches of the autonomic nervous system: the parasympathetic (PNS) and the sympathetic (SNS) nervous systems. We examine alterations in the scaling property when the balance between PNS and SNS activity is modified, and find that the relative PNS suppression by congestive heart failure results in a substantial increase in the Hurst exponent H towards random-walk scaling 1/f2 and a similar breakdown is observed with relative SNS suppression by primary autonomic failure. These results suggest that 1/f scaling in heart rate requires the intricate balance between the antagonistic activity of PNS and SNS.

  6. Somatostatin and counterregulatory hormone responses to hypoglycaemia in diabetics with and without autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Castaner, M; Webb, S; Levy, I; Rios, M; Casamitjana, R; Bergua, M; Figuerola, D; Rivera, F

    1985-04-01

    Blood glucose, somatostatin and counterregulatory hormone responses to an i.v. bolus of insulin were studied in insulin-dependent diabetics with different degrees of autonomic neuropathy, after 24 hours of optimised control with an artificial pancreas. There was no plasma catecholamine response in patients with a sympathetic autonomic neuropathy. A normal somatostatin response to hypoglycemia was absent in patients with autonomic neuropathy. Glucagon did not respond in diabetics, independently of the degree of neuropathy. In all diabetics, cortisol and GH were stimulated. Absence of warning symptoms was observed in patients with catecholamine deficiency. Despite different hormone behaviour, blood glucose fall and recovery were similar in all diabetic groups. It is concluded that the glucagon response to insulin hypoglycaemia is reduced in all type 1 longstanding diabetics, whereas catecholamine and somatostatin responses are only abolished in those with autonomic neuropathy. Patients with sympathetic neuropathy would be considered at increased risk severe hypoglycaemia. PMID:2861121

  7. The NASA/Army Autonomous Rotorcraft Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalley, M.; Freed, M.; Takahashi, M.; Christian, D.; Patterson-Hine, A.; Schulein, G.; Harris, R.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Ames Research Center Autonomous Rotorcraft Project (ARP) is presented. The project brings together several technologies to address NASA and US Army autonomous vehicle needs, including a reactive planner for mission planning and execution, control system design incorporating a detailed understanding of the platform dynamics, and health monitoring and diagnostics. A candidate reconnaissance and surveillance mission is described. The autonomous agent architecture and its application to the candidate mission are presented. Details of the vehicle hardware and software development are provided.

  8. Autonomous underwater pipeline monitoring navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Byrel; Mahmoudian, Nina; Meadows, Guy

    2014-06-01

    This paper details the development of an autonomous motion-control and navigation algorithm for an underwater autonomous vehicle, the Ocean Server IVER3, to track long linear features such as underwater pipelines. As part of this work, the Nonlinear and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (NAS Lab) developed an algorithm that utilizes inputs from the vehicles state of the art sensor package, which includes digital imaging, digital 3-D Sidescan Sonar, and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. The resulting algorithms should tolerate real-world waterway with episodic strong currents, low visibility, high sediment content, and a variety of small and large vessel traffic.

  9. Development of Autonomous Aerobraking - Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.

    2013-01-01

    Phase 1 of the Development of Autonomous Aerobraking (AA) Assessment investigated the technical capability of transferring the processes of aerobraking maneuver (ABM) decision-making (currently performed on the ground by an extensive workforce and communicated to the spacecraft via the deep space network) to an efficient flight software algorithm onboard the spacecraft. This document describes Phase 2 of this study, which was a 12-month effort to improve and rigorously test the AA Development Software developed in Phase 1. Aerobraking maneuver; Autonomous Aerobraking; Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software; Deep Space Network; NASA Engineering and Safety Center

  10. Development of Autonomous Aerobraking (Phase 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Powell, Richard W.; Prince, Jill L.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center received a request from Mr. Daniel Murri (NASA Technical Fellow for Flight Mechanics) to develop an autonomous aerobraking capability. An initial evaluation for all phases of this assessment was approved to proceed at the NESC Review Board meeting. The purpose of phase 1 of this study was to provide an assessment of the feasibility of autonomous aerobraking. During this phase, atmospheric, aerodynamic, and thermal models for a representative spacecraft were developed for both the onboard algorithm known as Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software, and a ground-based "truth" simulation developed for testing purposes. The results of the phase 1 assessment are included in this report.

  11. Autonomous Demand Response for Primary Frequency Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, Matt; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mattix, S.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2012-02-28

    The research documented within this report examines the use of autonomous demand response to provide primary frequency response in an interconnected power grid. The work builds on previous studies in several key areas: it uses a large realistic model (i.e., the interconnection of the western United States and Canada); it establishes a set of metrics that can be used to assess the effectiveness of autonomous demand response; and it independently adjusts various parameters associated with using autonomous demand response to assess effectiveness and to examine possible threats or vulnerabilities associated with the technology.

  12. Mission operations with autonomy: a preliminary report for Earth Observing-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Rob; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Shulman, Seth; Bote, Robert; Szwaczkowski, Joseph; Boyer, Darrell; Vab Gaasbeck, Jim

    2004-01-01

    We describe the current mission operations flow for the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft as well as the more autonomous operations to which we are transitioning as part of the Autonomous Sciencecrat Experiment (ASE).

  13. Multiagent collaboration for experimental calibration of an autonomous mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachon, Bertrand; Berge-Cherfaoui, Veronique

    1991-03-01

    This paper presents an action in mission SOCRATES whose aim is the development of a self-calibration method for an autonomous mobile robot. The robot has to determine the precise location of the coordinate system shared by its sensors. Knowledge of this system is a sine qua non condition for efficient multisensor fusion and autonomous navigation in an unknown environment. But, as perceptions and motions are not accurate, this knowledge can only be achieved by multisensor fusion. The application described highlights this kind of problem. Multisensor fusion is used here especially in its symbolic aspect. Useful knowledge includes both numerous data coming from various sensors and suitable ways to process these data. A blackboard architecture has been chosen to manage useful information. Knowledge sources are called agents and the implement physical sensors (perceptors or actuators) as well as logical sensors (high level data processors). The problem to solve is self- calibration which includes the determination of the coordinate system R of the robot and the transformations necessary to convert data from sensor reference to R. The origin of R has been chosen to be O, the rotation center of the robot. As its genuine location may vary due to robot or ground characteristics, an experimental determination of O is attempted. A strategy for measuring distances in approximate positions is proposed. This strategy must take into account the fact that motions of the robot as well as perceptions may be inaccurate. Results obtained during experiments and future extensions of the system are discussed.

  14. Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    1994-01-01

    A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

  15. Vagal Reactions during Cryoballoon-Based Pulmonary Vein Isolation: A Clue for Autonomic Nervous System Modulation?

    PubMed Central

    Peyrol, Michaël; Barraud, Jérémie; Koutbi, Linda; Maille, Baptiste; Trevisan, Lory; Martinez, Elisa; Lévy, Samuel; Paganelli, Franck; Franceschi, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    Although paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) is known to be initiated by rapid firing of pulmonary veins (PV) and non-PV triggers, the crucial role of cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the initiation and maintenance of AF has long been appreciated in both experimental and clinical studies. The cardiac intrinsic ANS is composed of ganglionated plexi (GPs), located close to the left atrium-pulmonary vein junctions and a vast network of interconnecting neurons. Ablation strategies aiming for complete PV isolation (PVI) remain the cornerstone of AF ablation procedures. However, several observational studies and few randomized studies have suggested that GP ablation, as an adjunctive strategy, might achieve better clinical outcomes in patients undergoing radiofrequency-based PVI for both paroxysmal and nonparoxysmal AF. In these patients, vagal reactions (VR) such as vagally mediated bradycardia or asystole are thought to reflect intrinsic cardiac ANS modulation and/or denervation. Vagal reactions occurring during cryoballoon- (CB-) based PVI have been previously reported; however, little is known on resulting ANS modulation and/or prevalence and significance of vagal reactions during PVI with the CB technique. We conducted a review of prevalence, putative mechanisms, and significance of VR during CB-based PVI. PMID:27243034

  16. Autonomic Closure for Large Eddy Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ryan; Hamlington, Peter; Dahm, Werner J. A.

    2015-11-01

    A new autonomic subgrid-scale closure has been developed for large eddy simulation (LES). The approach poses a supervised learning problem that captures nonlinear, nonlocal, and nonequilibrium turbulence effects without specifying a predefined turbulence model. By solving a regularized optimization problem on test filter scale quantities, the autonomic approach identifies a nonparametric function that represents the best local relation between subgrid stresses and resolved state variables. The optimized function is then applied at the grid scale to determine unknown LES subgrid stresses by invoking scale similarity in the inertial range. A priori tests of the autonomic approach on homogeneous isotropic turbulence show that the new approach is amenable to powerful optimization and machine learning methods and is successful for a wide range of filter scales in the inertial range. In these a priori tests, the autonomic closure substantially improves upon the dynamic Smagorinsky model in capturing the instantaneous, statistical, and energy transfer properties of the subgrid stress field.

  17. Cooperative Autonomic Management in Dynamic Distributed Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Zhao, Ming; Fortes, José A. B.

    The centralized management of large distributed systems is often impractical, particularly when the both the topology and status of the system change dynamically. This paper proposes an approach to application-centric self-management in large distributed systems consisting of a collection of autonomic components that join and leave the system dynamically. Cooperative autonomic components self-organize into a dynamically created overlay network. Through local information sharing with neighbors, each component gains access to global information as needed for optimizing performance of applications. The approach has been validated and evaluated by developing a decentralized autonomic system consisting of multiple autonomic application managers previously developed for the In-VIGO grid-computing system. Using analytical results from complex random network and measurements done in a prototype system, we demonstrate the robustness, self-organization and adaptability of our approach, both theoretically and experimentally.

  18. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    PubMed

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF AUTONOMOUS AIR MONITORING THROUGH ROBOTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project included modifying an existing teleoperated robot to include autonomous navigation, large object avoidance, and air monitoring and demonstrating that prototype robot system in indoor and outdoor environments. An existing teleoperated "Surveyor" robot developed by ARD...

  20. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    PubMed Central

    Coppejans, Hugo H. G.; Myburgh, Herman C.

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  1. Rover: Autonomous concepts for Mars exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiget, A.; Castets, B.; Chochon, H.; Hayard, M.; Lamarre, H.; Lamothe, A.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a mobile, autonomous vehicle that will be launched towards an unknown planet is considered. The rover significant constraints are: Ariane 5 compatibility, Earth/Mars transfer capability, 1000 km autonomous moving in Mars environment, on board localization, and maximum science capability. Two different types of subsystem were considered: classical subsystems (mechanical and mechanisms, thermal, telecommunications, power, onboard data processing) and robotics subsystem, (perception/navigation, autonomous displacement generation, autonomous localization). The needs of each subsystem were studied in terms of energy and data handling capability, in order to choose an on board architecture which best use the available capability, by means of specialized parts. A compromise must always be done between every subsystem in order to obtain the real need with respect to the goal, for example: between perception/navigation and the motion capability. A compromise must also be found between mechanical assembly and calibration need, which is a real problem.

  2. Autonomous Science Decisions for Mars Sample Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roush, T. L.; Gulick, V.; Morris, R.; Gazis, P.; Benedix, G.; Glymour, C.; Ramsey, J.; Pedersen, L.; Ruzon, M.; Buntine, W.; Oliver, J.

    1999-03-01

    Robotic explorers, e.g. rovers, need to make crucial science decisions autonomously that are distinct from control, health, and navigation issues. We have investigated potential tools that can be applied to imaging and near-infrared spectral data.

  3. Local autonomic failure affecting a limb.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R H; Robinson, B J

    1987-01-01

    Three patients are described who presented with autonomic failure affecting predominantly one limb. Physiological studies revealed that there was sweating loss in the limb which appeared to be due to a preganglionic autonomic lesion and not to a sweat gland abnormality. In all three patients there was also evidence of failure of vasomotor control. There was no evidence of more generalised autonomic failure or neurological deficit. In two patients the condition appeared to be static and, according to the patients' accounts was life long. In the third the sweating loss was present for three years prior to pain loss becoming evident from C2/3 to T1 on the same side as the sweating loss. These patients, together with two recent case reports, indicate that isolated local autonomic failure, probably from a discrete cord lesion, can be a cause of presenting symptoms related to sweating loss or to change in temperature in a limb. PMID:3612155

  4. Advancing Autonomous Operations Technologies for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruzen, Craig; Thompson, Jerry Todd

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of implementing advanced autonomous technologies supporting operations of future NASA missions. The ability for crewed, uncrewed and even ground support systems to be capable of mission support without external interaction or control has become essential as space exploration moves further out into the solar system. The push to develop and utilize autonomous technologies for NASA mission operations stems in part from the need to reduce operations cost while improving and increasing capability and safety. This paper will provide examples of autonomous technologies currently in use at NASA and will identify opportunities to advance existing autonomous technologies that will enhance mission success by reducing operations cost, ameliorating inefficiencies, and mitigating catastrophic anomalies.

  5. Control System Validation In The Autonomous Helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, John F.; Fugedy, John; Friedel, Thomas

    1989-03-01

    Autonomous systems require the ability to analyze their environment and develop responsive plans of action. Autonomous vehicle research has led to the development of several land, sea, and air vehicle prototypes. These systems integrate vision, diagnostics, planning, situation assessment, tactical reasoning, and intelligent control at a variety of levels to function in limited environments or computer simulation. Route planning in these systems has historically focused on pure numerical computations unable to adapt to the dynamic nature of the world. This paper describes a knowledge-based system for autonomous route planning that has been applied to airborne vehicles. Specific focus is the vehicle model knowledge source that validates routes based upon the physical capabilities of the helicopter system. An overview of the autonomous helicopter is present to establish system context with specific results in validated route planning presented.

  6. An introduction to autonomous control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antsaklis, Panos J.; Passino, Kevin M.; Wang, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    The functions, characteristics, and benefits of autonomous control are outlined. An autonomous control functional architecture for future space vehicles that incorporates the concepts and characteristics described is presented. The controller is hierarchical, with an execution level (the lowest level), coordination level (middle level), and management and organization level (highest level). The general characteristics of the overall architecture, including those of the three levels, are explained, and an example to illustrate their functions is given. Mathematical models for autonomous systems, including 'logical' discrete event system models, are discussed. An approach to the quantitative, systematic modeling, analysis, and design of autonomous controllers is also discussed. It is a hybrid approach since it uses conventional analysis techniques based on difference and differential equations and new techniques for the analysis of the systems described with a symbolic formalism such as finite automata. Some recent results from the areas of planning and expert systems, machine learning, artificial neural networks, and the area restructurable controls are briefly outlined.

  7. System Engineering of Autonomous Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Trevino, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system requires fully autonomous systems when travelling more than 5 light minutes from Earth. This autonomy is necessary to manage a large, complex spacecraft with limited crew members and skills available. The communication latency requires the vehicle to deal with events with only limited crew interaction in most cases. The engineering of these systems requires an extensive knowledge of the spacecraft systems, information theory, and autonomous algorithm characteristics. The characteristics of the spacecraft systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm characteristics to reliably monitor and control the system. This presents a large system engineering problem. Recent work on product-focused, elegant system engineering will be applied to this application, looking at the full autonomy stack, the matching of autonomous systems to spacecraft systems, and the integration of different types of algorithms. Each of these areas will be outlined and a general approach defined for system engineering to provide the optimal solution to the given application context.

  8. Autonomic and Coevolutionary Sensor Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonma, Pruet; Suzuki, Junichi

    (WSNs) applications are often required to balance the tradeoffs among conflicting operational objectives (e.g., latency and power consumption) and operate at an optimal tradeoff. This chapter proposes and evaluates a architecture, called BiSNET/e, which allows WSN applications to overcome this issue. BiSNET/e is designed to support three major types of WSN applications: , and hybrid applications. Each application is implemented as a decentralized group of, which is analogous to a bee colony (application) consisting of bees (agents). Agents collect sensor data or detect an event (a significant change in sensor reading) on individual nodes, and carry sensor data to base stations. They perform these data collection and event detection functionalities by sensing their surrounding network conditions and adaptively invoking behaviors such as pheromone emission, reproduction, migration, swarming and death. Each agent has its own behavior policy, as a set of genes, which defines how to invoke its behaviors. BiSNET/e allows agents to evolve their behavior policies (genes) across generations and autonomously adapt their performance to given objectives. Simulation results demonstrate that, in all three types of applications, agents evolve to find optimal tradeoffs among conflicting objectives and adapt to dynamic network conditions such as traffic fluctuations and node failures/additions. Simulation results also illustrate that, in hybrid applications, data collection agents and event detection agents coevolve to augment their adaptability and performance.

  9. Autonomic Findings in Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Kaufmann, Horacio; Martinez, Jose; Katz, Stuart D; Tully, Lisa; Reynolds, Harmony R

    2016-01-15

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) often occurs after emotional or physical stress. Norepinephrine levels are unusually high in the acute phase, suggesting a hyperadrenergic mechanism. Comparatively little is known about parasympathetic function in patients with TC. We sought to characterize autonomic function at rest and in response to physical and emotional stimuli in 10 women with a confirmed history of TC and 10 age-matched healthy women. Sympathetic and parasympathetic activity was assessed at rest and during baroreflex stimulation (Valsalva maneuver and tilt testing), cognitive stimulation (Stroop test), and emotional stimulation (event recall, patients). Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation were also performed. TC women (tested an average of 37 months after the event) had excessive pressor responses to cognitive stress (Stroop test: p <0.001 vs baseline and p = 0.03 vs controls) and emotional arousal (recall of TC event: p = 0.03 vs baseline). Pressor responses to hemodynamic stimuli were also amplified (Valsalva overshoot: p <0.05) and prolonged (duration: p <0.01) in the TC women compared with controls. Plasma catecholamine levels did not differ between TC women and controls. Indexes of parasympathetic (vagal) modulation of heart rate induced by respiration and cardiovagal baroreflex gain were significantly decreased in the TC women versus controls. In conclusion, even long after the initial episode, women with previous episode of TC have excessive sympathetic responsiveness and reduced parasympathetic modulation of heart rate. Impaired baroreflex control may therefore play a role in TC. PMID:26743349

  10. Is acting on delusions autonomous?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the question of autonomy in delusional disorders is investigated using a phenomenological approach. I refer to the distinction between freedom of intentional action, and freedom of the will, and develop phenomenological descriptions of lived autonomy, taking into account the distinction between a pre-reflective and a reflective type. Drawing on a case report, I deliver finely-grained phenomenological descriptions of lived autonomy and experienced self-determination when acting on delusions. This analysis seeks to demonstrate that a person with delusions can be described as responsible for her behaviour on a ‘framed’ level (level of freedom of intentional action), even though she is not autonomous on a higher (‘framing’) level (level of freedom of the will), if, and only if, the goods of agency for herself and others are respected. In these cases the person with delusions is very nearly comparable to people in love, who are also not free to choose their convictions, and who could also be rightly held responsible for the behaviour flowing from their convictions. PMID:24125114

  11. Semi-Autonomous Vehicle Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective this summer is "evaluating standards for wireless architecture for the internet of things". The Internet of Things is the network of physical objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors and network connectivity which enables these objects to collect and exchange data and make decisions based on said data. This was accomplished by creating a semi-autonomous vehicle that takes advantage of multiple sensors, cameras, and onboard computers and combined them with a mesh network which enabled communication across large distances with little to no interruption. The mesh network took advantage of what is known as DTN - Disruption Tolerant Networking which according to NASA is the new communications protocol that is "the first step towards interplanetary internet." The use of DTN comes from the fact that it will store information if an interruption in communications is detected and even forward that information via other relays within range so that the data is not lost. This translates well into the project because as the car moves further away from whatever is sending it commands (in this case a joystick), the information can still be forwarded to the car with little to no loss of information thanks to the mesh nodes around the driving area.

  12. Mechanical Autonomous Stochastic Heat Engine.

    PubMed

    Serra-Garcia, Marc; Foehr, André; Molerón, Miguel; Lydon, Joseph; Chong, Christopher; Daraio, Chiara

    2016-07-01

    Stochastic heat engines are devices that generate work from random thermal motion using a small number of highly fluctuating degrees of freedom. Proposals for such devices have existed for more than a century and include the Maxwell demon and the Feynman ratchet. Only recently have they been demonstrated experimentally, using, e.g., thermal cycles implemented in optical traps. However, recent experimental demonstrations of classical stochastic heat engines are nonautonomous, since they require an external control system that prescribes a heating and cooling cycle and consume more energy than they produce. We present a heat engine consisting of three coupled mechanical resonators (two ribbons and a cantilever) subject to a stochastic drive. The engine uses geometric nonlinearities in the resonating ribbons to autonomously convert a random excitation into a low-entropy, nonpassive oscillation of the cantilever. The engine presents the anomalous heat transport property of negative thermal conductivity, consisting in the ability to passively transfer energy from a cold reservoir to a hot reservoir. PMID:27419553

  13. Autonomic healing of polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sottos, N. R.; Geubelle, P. H.; Moore, J. S.; Kessler, M. R.; Sriram, S. R.; Brown, E. N.; Viswanathan, S.

    2001-02-01

    Structural polymers are susceptible to damage in the form of cracks, which form deep within the structure where detection is difficult and repair is almost impossible. Cracking leads to mechanical degradation of fibre-reinforced polymer composites; in microelectronic polymeric components it can also lead to electrical failure. Microcracking induced by thermal and mechanical fatigue is also a long-standing problem in polymer adhesives. Regardless of the application, once cracks have formed within polymeric materials, the integrity of the structure is significantly compromised. Experiments exploring the concept of self-repair have been previously reported, but the only successful crack-healing methods that have been reported so far require some form of manual intervention. Here we report a structural polymeric material with the ability to autonomically heal cracks. The material incorporates a microencapsulated healing agent that is released upon crack intrusion. Polymerization of the healing agent is then triggered by contact with an embedded catalyst, bonding the crack faces. Our fracture experiments yield as much as 75% recovery in toughness, and we expect that our approach will be applicable to other brittle materials systems (including ceramics and glasses).

  14. Autonomic dysregulation in headache patients.

    PubMed

    Gass, Jason J; Glaros, Alan G

    2013-12-01

    To analyze autonomic nervous system activity in headache subjects, measurements of heart rate variability (HRV), skin temperature, skin conductance, and respiration were compared to a matched control group. HRV data were recorded in time and frequency domains. Subjects also completed self-report questionnaires assessing psychological distress, fatigue, and sleep dysfunction. Twenty-one headache and nineteen control subjects participated. In the time domain, the number of consecutive R-to-R intervals that varied by more than 50 ms and the standard deviation of the normalized R-to-R intervals, both indices of parasympathetic nervous system activity, were significantly lower in the headache group than the control group. Groups did not differ statistically on HRV measures in the frequency domain. Self-report measures showed significantly increased somatization, hostility, anxiety, symptom distress, fatigue, and sleep problems in the headache group. The results suggest headache subjects have increased sympathetic nervous system activity and decreased parasympathetic activity compared to non-headache control subjects. Headaches subjects also showed greater emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep problems. The results indicate an association between headaches and cardiovascular functioning suggestive of sympathetic nervous system activation in this sample of mixed migraine and tension-type headache sufferers. PMID:23912525

  15. Shamanism, psychosis and autonomous imagination.

    PubMed

    Stephen, M; Suryani, L K

    2000-03-01

    This paper focuses on traditional healers (balian) in Bali, Indonesia, to raise new arguments concerning the nature of the initiatory sufferings reportedly experienced by shamans in many cultures. Our evidence suggests that a) contrary to our expectations, an initiatory madness or illness is experienced by a minority rather than the majority of balian, and b) whether or not a balian undergoes initiatory sufferings seems to be linked to gender and to the methods of healing employed - thus women healers who employ trance possession are those most likely to report an initiatory madness or illness. This leads to the central argument of the paper: c) the nature of the initiatory sufferings, where they do occur, can be clearly distinguished on several grounds from the onset of mental illness among Balinese, both emically in terms of cultural understandings, and ethically in terms of objective criteria. Finally we discuss the concept of "autonomous imagination," suggesting that the key to becoming a balian is not overcoming an initiatory madness but gaining control over this special mode of imagery thought. We further suggest that Western ideas concerning the self and self healing, the superficial resemblance of the initiatory sufferings to schizophrenia, and the dramatic nature of the initiatory sufferings when they occur, have combined to give a misleading prominence to the role of an initiatory madness in shamanism. PMID:10757208

  16. Software for Autonomous Spacecraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, John; Folta, Dave; Hawkins, Al; Dell, Greg

    2004-01-01

    The AutoCon computer programs facilitate and accelerate the planning and execution of orbital control maneuvers of spacecraft while analyzing and resolving mission constraints. AutoCon-F is executed aboard spacecraft, enabling the spacecraft to plan and execute maneuvers autonomously; AutoCon-G is designed for use on the ground. The AutoCon programs utilize advanced techniques of artificial intelligence, including those of fuzzy logic and natural-language scripting, to resolve multiple conflicting constraints and automatically plan maneuvers. These programs can be used to satisfy requirements for missions that involve orbits around the Earth, the Moon, or any planet, and are especially useful for missions in which there are requirements for frequent maneuvers and for resolution of complex conflicting constraints. During operations, the software targets new trajectories, places and sizes maneuvers, and controls spacecraft burns. AutoCon-G provides a userfriendly graphical interface, and can be used effectively by an analyst with minimal training. AutoCon-F reduces latency and supports multiple-spacecraft and formation-flying missions. The AutoCon architecture supports distributive processing, which can be critical for formation- control missions. AutoCon is completely object-oriented and can easily be enhanced by adding new objects and events. AutoCon-F was flight demonstrated onboard GSFC's EO-1 spacecraft flying in formation with Landsat-7.

  17. Mechanical Autonomous Stochastic Heat Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra-Garcia, Marc; Foehr, André; Molerón, Miguel; Lydon, Joseph; Chong, Christopher; Daraio, Chiara

    2016-07-01

    Stochastic heat engines are devices that generate work from random thermal motion using a small number of highly fluctuating degrees of freedom. Proposals for such devices have existed for more than a century and include the Maxwell demon and the Feynman ratchet. Only recently have they been demonstrated experimentally, using, e.g., thermal cycles implemented in optical traps. However, recent experimental demonstrations of classical stochastic heat engines are nonautonomous, since they require an external control system that prescribes a heating and cooling cycle and consume more energy than they produce. We present a heat engine consisting of three coupled mechanical resonators (two ribbons and a cantilever) subject to a stochastic drive. The engine uses geometric nonlinearities in the resonating ribbons to autonomously convert a random excitation into a low-entropy, nonpassive oscillation of the cantilever. The engine presents the anomalous heat transport property of negative thermal conductivity, consisting in the ability to passively transfer energy from a cold reservoir to a hot reservoir.

  18. Autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, Marc; Bomer, Thierry T.; Calesse, C.; Dudych, L.; L'Hoist, P.

    1995-01-01

    Autonomous intelligent cruise control (AICC) systems are not only controlling vehicles' speed but acting on the throttle and eventually on the brakes they could automatically maintain the relative speed and distance between two vehicles in the same lane. And more than just for comfort it appears that these new systems should improve the safety on highways. By applying a technique issued from the space research carried out by MATRA, a sensor based on a charge coupled device (CCD) was designed to acquire the reflected light on standard-mounted car reflectors of pulsed laser diodes emission. The CCD is working in a unique mode called flash during transfer (FDT) which allows identification of target patterns in severe optical environments. It provides high accuracy for distance and angular position of targets. The absence of moving mechanical parts ensures high reliability for this sensor. The large field of view and the high measurement rate give a global situation assessment and a short reaction time. Then, tracking and filtering algorithms have been developed in order to select the target, on which the equipped vehicle determines its safety distance and speed, taking into account its maneuvering and the behaviors of other vehicles.

  19. The Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.W.; Hassberger, J.A.; Smith, C.; Carelli, M.; Greenspan, E.; Peddicord, K.L.; Stroh, K.; Wade, D.C.; Hill, R.N.

    1999-05-27

    The Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor (STAR) system is a development architecture for implementing a small nuclear power system, specifically aimed at meeting the growing energy needs of much of the developing world. It simultaneously provides very high standards for safety, proliferation resistance, ease and economy of installation, operation, and ultimate disposition. The STAR system accomplishes these objectives through a combination of modular design, factory manufacture, long lifetime without refueling, autonomous control, and high reliability.

  20. Autonomic Communications for Space: The Next Frontier?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James L.; Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Michael G.

    2006-01-01

    Autonomic communications has been gaining ground as a vision for next generation communications. The success and flexibility of the Internet has lead to evaluations of utilizing IP for communications in space. The limitations of today's Internet ultimately also imply limitations for an IP deployment in space. Issues affecting the design of a future self-directing and self-managing data communications network for future space missions based on autonomic communications concepts are described and examined.

  1. Tele-robotic/autonomous control using controlshell

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, K.C.; Hurd, R.L.; Couture, S.

    1996-12-10

    A tele-robotic and autonomous controller architecture for waste handling and sorting has been developed which uses tele-robotics, autonomous grasping and image processing. As a starting point, prior work from LLNL and ORNL was restructured and ported to a special real-time development environment. Significant improvements in collision avoidance, force compliance, and shared control aspects were then developed. Several orders of magnitude improvement were made in some areas to meet the speed and robustness requirements of the application.

  2. The Autonomous Glycosylation of Large DNA Viruses.

    PubMed

    Piacente, Francesco; Gaglianone, Matteo; Laugieri, Maria Elena; Tonetti, Michela G

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylation of surface molecules is a key feature of several eukaryotic viruses, which use the host endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi apparatus to add carbohydrates to their nascent glycoproteins. In recent years, a newly discovered group of eukaryotic viruses, belonging to the Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA Virus (NCLDV) group, was shown to have several features that are typical of cellular organisms, including the presence of components of the glycosylation machinery. Starting from initial observations with the chlorovirus PBCV-1, enzymes for glycan biosynthesis have been later identified in other viruses; in particular in members of the Mimiviridae family. They include both the glycosyltransferases and other carbohydrate-modifying enzymes and the pathways for the biosynthesis of the rare monosaccharides that are found in the viral glycan structures. These findings, together with genome analysis of the newly-identified giant DNA viruses, indicate that the presence of glycogenes is widespread in several NCLDV families. The identification of autonomous viral glycosylation machinery leads to many questions about the origin of these pathways, the mechanisms of glycan production, and eventually their function in the viral replication cycle. The scope of this review is to highlight some of the recent results that have been obtained on the glycosylation systems of the large DNA viruses, with a special focus on the enzymes involved in nucleotide-sugar production. PMID:26690138

  3. Cell Autonomous Shape Changes in Germband Retraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Holley; Kim, Elliott; Gish, Robert; Hutson, M. Shane

    2012-02-01

    Germband retraction involves the cohesive movement and regulated cellular mechanics of two tissues on the surface of fruit fly embryos, the germband and the amnioserosa. The germband initially forms a `U' shape, curling from the ventral surface, around the posterior of the embryo, and onto the dorsal surface; the amnioserosa lies between the arms of this `U'. Retraction straightens the germband and leaves it only on the ventral side. During retraction, the germband becomes clearly segmented with deep furrows between segments, and its cells elongate towards the amnioserosa, along what becomes the dorsal-ventral axis. To determine the importance of these changes for the overall movement of the tissues, we observed embryos that did not complete germband retraction due to targeted laser ablation of half the amnioserosa. Without the chemical and mechanical influence of the amnioserosa, germband furrows still formed and germband cells still elongated; however, this elongation was misaligned compared to unablated embryos. Thus, furrow formation and cell elongation in the germband are autonomous, but insufficient to drive proper tissue motion. These results suggest that part of the necessary role of the amnioserosa is proper orientation of germband cell elongation.

  4. An autonomous vision-based mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Eric Thomas

    This dissertation describes estimation and control methods for use in the development of an autonomous mobile robot for structured environments. The navigation of the mobile robot is based on precise estimates of the position and orientation of the robot within its environment. The extended Kalman filter algorithm is used to combine information from the robot's drive wheels with periodic observations of small, wall-mounted, visual cues to produce the precise position and orientation estimates. The visual cues are reliably detected by at least one video camera mounted on the mobile robot. Typical position estimates are accurate to within one inch. A path tracking algorithm is also developed to follow desired reference paths which are taught by a human operator. Because of the time-independence of the tracking algorithm, the speed that the vehicle travels along the reference path is specified independent from the tracking algorithm. The estimation and control methods have been applied successfully to two experimental vehicle systems. Finally, an analysis of the linearized closed-loop control system is performed to study the behavior and the stability of the system as a function of various control parameters.

  5. Towards Autonomous Operation of Robonaut 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badger, Julia M.; Hart, Stephen W.; Yamokoski, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    The Robonaut 2 (R2) platform, as shown in Figure 1, was designed through a collaboration between NASA and General Motors to be a capable robotic assistant with the dexterity similar to a suited astronaut [1]. An R2 robot was sent to the International Space Station (ISS) in February 2011 and, in doing so, became the first humanoid robot in space. Its capabilities are presently being tested and expanded to increase its usefulness to the crew. Current work on R2 includes the addition of a mobility platform to allow the robot to complete tasks (such as cleaning, maintenance, or simple construction activities) both inside and outside of the ISS. To support these new activities, R2's software architecture is being developed to provide efficient ways of programming robust and autonomous behavior. In particular, a multi-tiered software architecture is proposed that combines principles of low-level feedback control with higher-level planners that accomplish behavioral goals at the task level given the run-time context, user constraints, the health of the system, and so on. The proposed architecture is shown in Figure 2. At the lowest-level, the resource level, there exists the various sensory and motor signals available to the system. The sensory signals for a robot such as R2 include multiple channels of force/torque data, joint or Cartesian positions calculated through the robot's proprioception, and signals derived from objects observable by its cameras.

  6. Autonomous optical navigation for interplanetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, Shyam; Riedel, Joseph E.; Synnott, Stephen P.

    1996-10-01

    The automation of interplanetary spacecraft is becoming increasingly desirable to meet various mission requirements. A prototype autonomous spacecraft which will flyby an asteroid and comet is slated for flight in mid-1998 as part of NASA's New Millennium Program. This spacecraft will navigate by using optical data taken by the onboard camera to determine its orbit, and use this information to predict its future trajectory and make necessary course corrections. The basic navigation data available from the camera are star-relative astrometric observations of solar system bodies which can be used to determine line-of-sight vectors to those objects. The directional sightings are obtained by determining the precise centers of the object and stars in the image. During interplanetary cruise, centerfinding is performed by using two pattern matching techniques inherited from the Galileo mission. Near-encounter images are processed with a separate algorithm employing image modeling and brightness centroiding. This paper describes the image processing algorithms, and the results of a ground-based test of the algorithms using real data.

  7. Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software: Phase 2 Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Maddock, Robert W.; Prince, Jill L.; Bowes, Angela; Powell, Richard W.; White, Joseph P.; Tolson, Robert; O'Shaughnessy, Daniel; Carrelli, David

    2013-01-01

    NASA has used aerobraking at Mars and Venus to reduce the fuel required to deliver a spacecraft into a desired orbit compared to an all-propulsive solution. Although aerobraking reduces the propellant, it does so at the expense of mission duration, large staff, and DSN coverage. These factors make aerobraking a significant cost element in the mission design. By moving on-board the current ground-based tasks of ephemeris determination, atmospheric density estimation, and maneuver sizing and execution, a flight project would realize significant cost savings. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) sponsored Phase 1 and 2 of the Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software (AADS) study, which demonstrated the initial feasibility of moving these current ground-based functions to the spacecraft. This paper highlights key state-of-the-art advancements made in the Phase 2 effort to verify that the AADS algorithms are accurate, robust and ready to be considered for application on future missions that utilize aerobraking. The advancements discussed herein include both model updates and simulation and benchmark testing. Rigorous testing using observed flight atmospheres, operational environments and statistical analysis characterized the AADS operability in a perturbed environment.

  8. The Emerging Infrastructure of Autonomous Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, R.; Allan, A.; Axelrod, T.; Cook, K.; White, R.; Williams, R.

    2007-10-01

    Advances in the understanding of cosmic processes demand that sky transient events be confronted with statistical techniques honed on static phenomena. Time domain data sets require vast surveys such as LSST {http://www.lsst.org/lsst_home.shtml} and Pan-STARRS {http://www.pan-starrs.ifa.hawaii.edu}. A new autonomous infrastructure must close the loop from the scheduling of survey observations, through data archiving and pipeline processing, to the publication of transient event alerts and automated follow-up, and to the easy analysis of resulting data. The IVOA VOEvent {http://voevent.org} working group leads efforts to characterize sky transient alerts published through VOEventNet {http://voeventnet.org}. The Heterogeneous Telescope Networks (HTN {http://www.telescope-networks.org}) consortium are observatories and robotic telescope projects seeking interoperability with a long-term goal of creating an e-market for telescope time. Two projects relying on VOEvent and HTN are eSTAR {http://www.estar.org.uk} and the Thinking Telescope {http://www.thinkingtelescopes.lanl.gov} Project.

  9. The Autonomous Glycosylation of Large DNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Piacente, Francesco; Gaglianone, Matteo; Laugieri, Maria Elena; Tonetti, Michela G.

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylation of surface molecules is a key feature of several eukaryotic viruses, which use the host endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi apparatus to add carbohydrates to their nascent glycoproteins. In recent years, a newly discovered group of eukaryotic viruses, belonging to the Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA Virus (NCLDV) group, was shown to have several features that are typical of cellular organisms, including the presence of components of the glycosylation machinery. Starting from initial observations with the chlorovirus PBCV-1, enzymes for glycan biosynthesis have been later identified in other viruses; in particular in members of the Mimiviridae family. They include both the glycosyltransferases and other carbohydrate-modifying enzymes and the pathways for the biosynthesis of the rare monosaccharides that are found in the viral glycan structures. These findings, together with genome analysis of the newly-identified giant DNA viruses, indicate that the presence of glycogenes is widespread in several NCLDV families. The identification of autonomous viral glycosylation machinery leads to many questions about the origin of these pathways, the mechanisms of glycan production, and eventually their function in the viral replication cycle. The scope of this review is to highlight some of the recent results that have been obtained on the glycosylation systems of the large DNA viruses, with a special focus on the enzymes involved in nucleotide-sugar production. PMID:26690138

  10. Autonomous Navigation of Small Uavs Based on Vehicle Dynamic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaghani, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to autonomous navigation for small UAVs, in which the vehicle dynamic model (VDM) serves as the main process model within the navigation filter. The proposed method significantly increases the accuracy and reliability of autonomous navigation, especially for small UAVs with low-cost IMUs on-board. This is achieved with no extra sensor added to the conventional INS/GNSS setup. This improvement is of special interest in case of GNSS outages, where inertial coasting drifts very quickly. In the proposed architecture, the solution to VDM equations provides the estimate of position, velocity, and attitude, which is updated within the navigation filter based on available observations, such as IMU data or GNSS measurements. The VDM is also fed with the control input to the UAV, which is available within the control/autopilot system. The filter is capable of estimating wind velocity and dynamic model parameters, in addition to navigation states and IMU sensor errors. Monte Carlo simulations reveal major improvements in navigation accuracy compared to conventional INS/GNSS navigation system during the autonomous phase, when satellite signals are not available due to physical obstruction or electromagnetic interference for example. In case of GNSS outages of a few minutes, position and attitude accuracy experiences improvements of orders of magnitude compared to inertial coasting. It means that during such scenario, the position-velocity-attitude (PVA) determination is sufficiently accurate to navigate the UAV to a home position without any signal that depends on vehicle environment.

  11. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Orbit Design and Autonomous Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Mendelsohn, Chad; Mailhe, Laurie

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission must meet the challenge of measuring worldwide precipitation every three hours. The GPM core spacecraft, part of a constellation, will be required to maintain a circular orbit in a high drag environment at a near-critical inclination. Analysis shows that a mean orbit altitude of 407 km is necessary to prevent ground track repeating. Combined with goals to minimize maneuver operation impacts to science data collection and to enable reasonable long-term orbit predictions, the GPM project has decided to fly the GSFC autonomous maneuver system, AutoCon(TM). This system is a follow-up version of the highly successful New Millennium Program technology flown onboard the Earth Observing-1 formation flying mission. This paper presents the driving science requirements and goals of the GPM mission and shows how they will be met. Selection of the mean semi-major axis, eccentricity, and the AV budget for several ballistic properties are presented. The architecture of the autonomous maneuvering system to meet the goals and requirements is presented along with simulations using GPM parameters. Additionally, the use of the GPM autonomous system to mitigate possible collision avoidance and to aid other spacecraft systems during navigation outages is explored.

  12. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  13. Autonomous control systems - Architecture and fundamental issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antsaklis, P. J.; Passino, K. M.; Wang, S. J.

    1988-01-01

    A hierarchical functional autonomous controller architecture is introduced. In particular, the architecture for the control of future space vehicles is described in detail; it is designed to ensure the autonomous operation of the control system and it allows interaction with the pilot and crew/ground station, and the systems on board the autonomous vehicle. The fundamental issues in autonomous control system modeling and analysis are discussed. It is proposed to utilize a hybrid approach to modeling and analysis of autonomous systems. This will incorporate conventional control methods based on differential equations and techniques for the analysis of systems described with a symbolic formalism. In this way, the theory of conventional control can be fully utilized. It is stressed that autonomy is the design requirement and intelligent control methods appear at present, to offer some of the necessary tools to achieve autonomy. A conventional approach may evolve and replace some or all of the `intelligent' functions. It is shown that in addition to conventional controllers, the autonomous control system incorporates planning, learning, and FDI (fault detection and identification).

  14. The role of the autonomic nervous system in Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hawksley, Jack; Cavanna, Andrea E.; Nagai, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, consisting of multiple involuntary movements (motor tics) and one or more vocal (phonic) tics. It affects up to one percent of children worldwide, of whom about one third continue to experience symptoms into adulthood. The central neural mechanisms of tic generation are not clearly understood, however recent neuroimaging investigations suggest impaired cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical activity during motor control. In the current manuscript, we will tackle the relatively under-investigated role of the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and its central influences, on tic activity. There is emerging evidence that both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity influences tic expression. Pharmacological treatments which act on sympathetic tone are often helpful: for example, Clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist) is often used as first choice medication for treating TS in children due to its good tolerability profile and potential usefulness for co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Clonidine suppresses sympathetic activity, reducing the triggering of motor tics. A general elevation of sympathetic tone is reported in patients with TS compared to healthy people, however this observation may reflect transient responses coupled to tic activity. Thus, the presence of autonomic impairments in patients with TS remains unclear. Effect of autonomic afferent input to cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit will be discussed schematically. We additionally review how TS is affected by modulation of central autonomic control through biofeedback and Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS). Biofeedback training can enable a patient to gain voluntary control over covert physiological responses by making these responses explicit. Electrodermal biofeedback training to elicit a reduction in sympathetic tone has a demonstrated association with reduced tic frequency. VNS, achieved through an implanted device

  15. The role of the autonomic nervous system in Tourette Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hawksley, Jack; Cavanna, Andrea E; Nagai, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, consisting of multiple involuntary movements (motor tics) and one or more vocal (phonic) tics. It affects up to one percent of children worldwide, of whom about one third continue to experience symptoms into adulthood. The central neural mechanisms of tic generation are not clearly understood, however recent neuroimaging investigations suggest impaired cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical activity during motor control. In the current manuscript, we will tackle the relatively under-investigated role of the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and its central influences, on tic activity. There is emerging evidence that both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity influences tic expression. Pharmacological treatments which act on sympathetic tone are often helpful: for example, Clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist) is often used as first choice medication for treating TS in children due to its good tolerability profile and potential usefulness for co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Clonidine suppresses sympathetic activity, reducing the triggering of motor tics. A general elevation of sympathetic tone is reported in patients with TS compared to healthy people, however this observation may reflect transient responses coupled to tic activity. Thus, the presence of autonomic impairments in patients with TS remains unclear. Effect of autonomic afferent input to cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit will be discussed schematically. We additionally review how TS is affected by modulation of central autonomic control through biofeedback and Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS). Biofeedback training can enable a patient to gain voluntary control over covert physiological responses by making these responses explicit. Electrodermal biofeedback training to elicit a reduction in sympathetic tone has a demonstrated association with reduced tic frequency. VNS, achieved through an implanted device

  16. N(N)-nicotinic blockade as an acute human model of autonomic failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Black, B. K.; Lance, R. H.; Squillante, M. D.; Costa, F.; Robertson, D.

    1998-01-01

    Pure autonomic failure has been conceptualized as deficient sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation. Several recent observations in chronic autonomic failure, however, cannot be explained simply by loss of autonomic innervation, at least according to our current understanding. To simulate acute autonomic failure, we blocked N(N)-nicotinic receptors with intravenous trimethaphan (6+/-0.4 mg/min) in 7 healthy subjects (4 men, 3 women, aged 32+/-3 years, 68+/-4 kg, 171+/-5 cm). N(N)-Nicotinic receptor blockade resulted in near-complete interruption of sympathetic and parasympathetic efferents as indicated by a battery of autonomic function tests. With trimethaphan, small postural changes from the horizontal were associated with significant blood pressure changes without compensatory changes in heart rate. Gastrointestinal motility, pupillary function, saliva production, and tearing were profoundly suppressed with trimethaphan. Plasma norepinephrine level decreased from 1.1+/-0.12 nmol/L (180+/-20 pg/mL) at baseline to 0.23+/-0.05 nmol/L (39+/-8 pg/mL) with trimethaphan (P<.001). There was a more than 16-fold increase in plasma vasopressin (P<.01) and no change in plasma renin activity. We conclude that blockade of N(N)-cholinergic receptors is useful to simulate the hemodynamic alterations of acute autonomic failure in humans. The loss of function with acute N(N)-cholinergic blockade is more complete than in most cases of chronic autonomic failure. This difference may be exploited to elucidate the contributions of acute denervation and chronic adaptation to the pathophysiology of autonomic failure. N(N)-Cholinergic blockade may also be applied to study human cardiovascular physiology and pharmacology in the absence of confounding baroreflexes.

  17. Autonomous Multi-Sensor Coordination: The Science Goal Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Grosvenor, Sandy; Jung, John; Hess, Melissa; Jones, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Many dramatic earth phenomena are dynamic and coupled. In order to fully understand them, we need to obtain timely coordinated multi-sensor observations from widely dispersed instruments. Such a dynamic observing system must include the ability to Schedule flexibly and react autonomously to sciencehser driven events; Understand higher-level goals of a sciencehser defined campaign; Coordinate various space-based and ground-based resources/sensors effectively and efficiently to achieve goals. In order to capture transient events, such a 'sensor web' system must have an automated reactive capability built into its scientific operations. To do this, we must overcome a number of challenges inherent in infusing autonomy. The Science Goal Monitor (SGM) is a prototype software tool being developed to explore the nature of automation necessary to enable dynamic observing. The tools being developed in SGM improve our ability to autonomously monitor multiple independent sensors and coordinate reactions to better observe dynamic phenomena. The SGM system enables users to specify what to look for and how to react in descriptive rather than technical terms. The system monitors streams of data to identify occurrences of the key events previously specified by the scientisther. When an event occurs, the system autonomously coordinates the execution of the users' desired reactions between different sensors. The information can be used to rapidly respond to a variety of fast temporal events. Investigators will no longer have to rely on after-the-fact data analysis to determine what happened. Our paper describes a series of prototype demonstrations that we have developed using SGM and NASA's Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite and Earth Observing Systems' Aqua/Terra spacecrafts' MODIS instrument. Our demonstrations show the promise of coordinating data from different sources, analyzing the data for a relevant event, autonomously updating and rapidly obtaining a follow-on relevant image

  18. Improved autonomous star identification algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Li-Yan; Xu, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Hua; Sun, Jing-Rong

    2015-06-01

    The log-polar transform (LPT) is introduced into the star identification because of its rotation invariance. An improved autonomous star identification algorithm is proposed in this paper to avoid the circular shift of the feature vector and to reduce the time consumed in the star identification algorithm using LPT. In the proposed algorithm, the star pattern of the same navigation star remains unchanged when the stellar image is rotated, which makes it able to reduce the star identification time. The logarithmic values of the plane distances between the navigation and its neighbor stars are adopted to structure the feature vector of the navigation star, which enhances the robustness of star identification. In addition, some efforts are made to make it able to find the identification result with fewer comparisons, instead of searching the whole feature database. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition rate and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the LPT algorithm and the modified grid algorithm. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61172138 and 61401340), the Open Research Fund of the Academy of Satellite Application, China (Grant No. 2014_CXJJ-DH_12), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. JB141303 and 201413B), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013JQ8040), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130203120004), and the Xi’an Science and Technology Plan, China (Grant. No CXY1350(4)).

  19. Supervised autonomous robotic soft tissue surgery.

    PubMed

    Shademan, Azad; Decker, Ryan S; Opfermann, Justin D; Leonard, Simon; Krieger, Axel; Kim, Peter C W

    2016-05-01

    The current paradigm of robot-assisted surgeries (RASs) depends entirely on an individual surgeon's manual capability. Autonomous robotic surgery-removing the surgeon's hands-promises enhanced efficacy, safety, and improved access to optimized surgical techniques. Surgeries involving soft tissue have not been performed autonomously because of technological limitations, including lack of vision systems that can distinguish and track the target tissues in dynamic surgical environments and lack of intelligent algorithms that can execute complex surgical tasks. We demonstrate in vivo supervised autonomous soft tissue surgery in an open surgical setting, enabled by a plenoptic three-dimensional and near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging system and an autonomous suturing algorithm. Inspired by the best human surgical practices, a computer program generates a plan to complete complex surgical tasks on deformable soft tissue, such as suturing and intestinal anastomosis. We compared metrics of anastomosis-including the consistency of suturing informed by the average suture spacing, the pressure at which the anastomosis leaked, the number of mistakes that required removing the needle from the tissue, completion time, and lumen reduction in intestinal anastomoses-between our supervised autonomous system, manual laparoscopic surgery, and clinically used RAS approaches. Despite dynamic scene changes and tissue movement during surgery, we demonstrate that the outcome of supervised autonomous procedures is superior to surgery performed by expert surgeons and RAS techniques in ex vivo porcine tissues and in living pigs. These results demonstrate the potential for autonomous robots to improve the efficacy, consistency, functional outcome, and accessibility of surgical techniques. PMID:27147588

  20. Future-oriented maintenance strategy based on automated processes is finding its way into large astronomical facilities at remote observing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silber, Armin; Gonzalez, Christian; Pino, Francisco; Escarate, Patricio; Gairing, Stefan

    2014-08-01

    With expanding sizes and increasing complexity of large astronomical observatories on remote observing sites, the call for an efficient and recourses saving maintenance concept becomes louder. The increasing number of subsystems on telescopes and instruments forces large observatories, like in industries, to rethink conventional maintenance strategies for reaching this demanding goal. The implementation of full-, or semi-automatic processes for standard service activities can help to keep the number of operating staff on an efficient level and to reduce significantly the consumption of valuable consumables or equipment. In this contribution we will demonstrate on the example of the 80 Cryogenic subsystems of the ALMA Front End instrument, how an implemented automatic service process increases the availability of spare parts and Line Replaceable Units. Furthermore how valuable staff recourses can be freed from continuous repetitive maintenance activities, to allow focusing more on system diagnostic tasks, troubleshooting and the interchanging of line replaceable units. The required service activities are decoupled from the day-to-day work, eliminating dependencies on workload peaks or logistic constrains. The automatic refurbishing processes running in parallel to the operational tasks with constant quality and without compromising the performance of the serviced system components. Consequentially that results in an efficiency increase, less down time and keeps the observing schedule on track. Automatic service processes in combination with proactive maintenance concepts are providing the necessary flexibility for the complex operational work structures of large observatories. The gained planning flexibility is allowing an optimization of operational procedures and sequences by considering the required cost efficiency.