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Sample records for autonomy-based bioethics promote

  1. Principlism, medical individualism, and health promotion in resource-poor countries: can autonomy-based bioethics promote social justice and population health?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Through its adoption of the biomedical model of disease which promotes medical individualism and its reliance on the individual-based anthropology, mainstream bioethics has predominantly focused on respect for autonomy in the clinical setting and respect for person in the research site, emphasizing self-determination and freedom of choice. However, the emphasis on the individual has often led to moral vacuum, exaggeration of human agency, and a thin (liberal?) conception of justice. Applied to resource-poor countries and communities within developed countries, autonomy-based bioethics fails to address the root causes of diseases and public health crises with which individuals or communities are confronted. A sociological explanation of disease causation is needed to broaden principles of biomedical ethics and provides a renewed understanding of disease, freedom, medical practice, patient-physician relationship, risk and benefit of research and treatment, research priorities, and health policy. PMID:20082703

  2. Bioethics and religious bodies: refusal of blood transfusions in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rajtar, Małgorzata

    2013-12-01

    The refusal of medical treatment is a recurrent topic in bioethical debates and Jehovah's Witnesses often constitute an exemplary case in this regard. The refusal of a potentially life-saving blood transfusion is a controversial choice that challenges the basic medical principle of acting in patients' best interests and often leads physicians to adopt paternalistic attitudes toward patients who refuse transfusion. However, neither existing bioethical nor historical and social sciences scholarship sufficiently addresses experiences of rank-and-file Witnesses in their dealings with the health care system. This article draws on results of a nine-month (2010, 2011-2012) ethnographic research on the relationship between religious, legal, ethical, and emotional issues emerging from the refusal of blood transfusions by Jehovah's Witnesses in Germany (mainly in Berlin). It shows how bioethical challenges are solved in practice by some German physicians and what they perceive to be the main goal of biomedicine: promoting the health or broadly understood well-being of patients. I argue that two different understandings of the concept of autonomy are at work here: autonomy based on reason and autonomy based on choice. The first is privileged by German physicians in line with a Kantian philosophical tradition and constitutional law; the second, paradoxically, is utilized by Jehovah's Witnesses in their version of the Anglo-Saxon Millian approach. PMID:23538204

  3. "Hindu" bioethics?

    PubMed

    Sarma, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    The author offers a commentary on the question, "Are there Hindu bioethics?" After deconstructing the term "Hindu," the author shows that there are indeed no Hindu bioethics. He shows that from a classical and Brahminical perspective, medicine is an inappropriate and impure profession. PMID:18315760

  4. Bioethics' gender.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Hilde

    2006-01-01

    I argue that the field of bioethics is gendered feminine, but that the methods it uses to resist this gender identity pose real harm to actual women. Starting with an explanation of what I take 'gender' to be, I enumerate four drawbacks to being gendered feminine. I then argue that bioethics suffers from three of the same four drawbacks. I show how the field escapes the fourth disadvantage by adopting a masculine persona that inflicts damage on women, and conclude by urging bioethicists to reflect on their complicity in abusive power systems such as gender, race and class. PMID:16500829

  5. The bioethics discussion forum--an implementation of an Internet-based bioethics information analysis resource.

    PubMed Central

    Derse, A. R.; Krogull, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    Ethical analysis is crucial to decision making in biomedicine and health care, necessitating both rapid access to diffusely disseminated sources of information pertinent to bioethics and promotion of analysis in the field of bioethics through a resource for information analysis. We developed the Bioethics Discussion Forum, an Internet-based information analysis resource, in order to supplement the Bioethics Online Service with an interactive information medium to meet the demand for such an interactive resource. The Bioethics Discussion Forum has shown promise for information analysis, providing an arena for the review and discussion of complex bioethical information, establishing a connection nationally and internationally among individuals with high levels of expertise in bioethics, and providing a template for future interactive informatics services. PMID:8563245

  6. Teaching Bioethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Michael T.; Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Sunal, Dennis W.

    2004-01-01

    All citizens will make bioethics decisions as a result of today's biotechnology revolution. The decisions made require citizens to find possible acceptable solutions to dilemmas that have become public issues. In this activity, students practice making decisions in ethical dilemmas after evaluating the influences of their own ethical beliefs and…

  7. [Personalist bioethics and utilitarian bioethics].

    PubMed

    Ortiz Llueca, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows the insufficiency of a bioethics which would intend to derive its proposals from Utilitarianism, identifying some inadequacies in the ethics of John Stuart Mill, e.g., the difficulties of the utilitarian commitment with instrumentalism, the deficiency of an utilitarian moral psychology and the naiveté of the forensic dimension of the utilitarian submission. PMID:23745819

  8. [Bioethics destiny].

    PubMed

    Fagot-Largeault, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The paper is about the links between ethics and science, at a time (1974-2014) when the life sciences expanded rapidly. First (1974-1994), the development of a principlist ethics, set out by philosophers, sustained the research, and the scientists, expected to behave responsibly, felt like they could easily converge towards impeccable and consensual solutions to any problem arising from scientific innovations. Later on (1994-2014), however, while yielding ground to social sciences and ground work, bioethics took an empirical turn; then it became clear that behaving responsibly was compatible with a plurality of divergent normative convictions. Ethics crumbled. Local or national policies restored order, so-called bioethical laws short-circuited ethical reflection. And far from being respected as the wise men, apt to recommend the very best solutions to problems raised by new scientific advances, researchers happened to be deemed irresponsible, as some of them were suspected of lacking intellectual integrity. PMID:26234963

  9. Was bioethics founded on historical and conceptual mistakes about medical paternalism?

    PubMed

    McCullough, Laurence B

    2011-02-01

    Bioethics has a founding story in which medical paternalism, the interference with the autonomy of patients for their own clinical benefit, was an accepted ethical norm in the history of Western medical ethics and was widespread in clinical practice until bioethics changed the ethical norms and practice of medicine. In this paper I show that the founding story of bioethics misreads major texts in the history of Western medical ethics. I also show that a major source for empirical claims about the widespread practice of medical paternalism has been misread. I then show that that bioethics based on its founding story deprofessionalizes medical ethics. The result leaves the sick exposed to the predatory power of medical practitioners and healthcare organizations with only their autonomy-based rights to non-interference, expressed in contracts, to protect them. The sick are stripped of the protection afforded by a professional, fiduciary relationship of physicians to their patients. Bioethics based on its founding story reverts to the older model of a contractual relationship between the sick and medical practitioners not worthy of intellectual or moral trust (because such trust cannot be generated by what I call 'deprofessionalizing bioethics'). On closer examination, bioethics based on its founding story, ironically, eliminates paternalism as a moral category in bioethics, thus causing bioethics to collapse on itself because it denies one of the necessary conditions for medical paternalism. Bioethics based on its founding story should be abandoned. PMID:21175709

  10. Bioethical concerns are global, bioethics is Western

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Modern bioethics was born in the West and thus reflects, not surprisingly, the traditions of Western moral philosophy and political and social theory. When the work of bioethics was confined to the West, this background of socio-political theory and moral tradition posed few problems, but as bioethics has moved into other cultures - inside and outside of the Western world - it has become an agent of moral imperialism. We describe the moral imperialism of bioethics, discuss its dangers, and suggest that global bioethics will succeed only to the extent that it is local. PMID:19593391

  11. Visual bioethics.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Paul

    2008-12-01

    Although images are pervasive in public policy debates in bioethics, few who work in the field attend carefully to the way that images function rhetorically. If the use of images is discussed at all, it is usually to dismiss appeals to images as a form of manipulation. Yet it is possible to speak meaningfully of visual arguments. Examining the appeal to images of the embryo and fetus in debates about abortion and stem cell research, I suggest that bioethicists would be well served by attending much more carefully to how images function in public policy debates. PMID:19085479

  12. Authorship policies of bioethics journals.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Master, Zubin

    2011-07-01

    Inappropriate authorship is a common problem in biomedical research and may be becoming one in bioethics, due to the increase in multiple authorship. This paper investigates the authorship policies of bioethics journals to determine whether they provide adequate guidance for researchers who submit articles for publication, which can help deter inappropriate authorship. It was found that 63.3% of bioethics journals provide no guidance on authorship; 36.7% provide guidance on which contributions merit authorship, 23.3% provide guidance on which contributions do not merit authorship, 23.3% require authors to take responsibility for their contributions or for the article as a whole, 20% provide guidance on which contributions merit an acknowledgement but not authorship, 6.7% require authors to describe their contributions, and only 3.3% distinguish between authorship in empirical and conceptual research. To provide authors with effective guidance and promote integrity in bioethics research, bioethics journals should adopt authorship policies that address several important topics, such as the qualifications for authorship, describing authorship contributions, taking responsibility for the research and the difference between authorship in empirical and conceptual research. PMID:21266387

  13. Center for Practical Bioethics

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical students and the general public. LEARN MORE Bioethics Interviews and Lectures Helen Emmott INTERVIEW LISTEN Kaith ... Conversation with Rosemary and Myra Join live-streamed bioethics discussions with Myra Christopher and Rosemary Flanigan on ...

  14. Education for values and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rui; Duarte, Ivone; Santos, Cristina; Rego, Guilhermina

    2015-01-01

    "Education for Values and Bioethics" is a project which aims to help the student to build his/her personal ethics. It was addressed to ninth grade students (mean age 14) who frequented public education in all schools of the City of Porto, Portugal-EU in 2010-2013 (N-1164). This research and action project intended to promote the acquisition of knowledge in the following areas: interpersonal relationships, human rights, responsible sexuality, health, environment and sustainable development, preservation of public property, culture, financial education, social innovation and ethical education for work. The students were asked to answer to a knowledge questionnaire on bioethics. To assess the values it was used Leonard Gordon's Survey of Personal Values and Survey of Interpersonal Values. The results of this study show that the project contributes to an increase of knowledge in the area of bioethics. Also the students enrolled in the program showed a development with regards the acquisition of the basic values of pluralistic societies. It is also suggested that this general knowledge on bioethics could be especially helpful to students that want a career in health sciences. PMID:25694860

  15. [Twenty years of bioethics in Mexico: development and perspectives of the National Bioethics Commission].

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Chávez-Guerrero, Manuel Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Bioethics in Mexico has a history that reveals the vision and ethical commitment of iconic characters in the fields of health sciences and humanities, leading to the creation of the National Bioethics Commission responsible for promoting a bioethics culture in Mexico. Its development and consolidation from the higher perspective of humanism had the aim to preserve health, life and its environment, while at the same time the bases of ethics and professional practice from different perspectives have been the building blocks of medical practice. PMID:25393871

  16. Bioethics for clinicians: 21. Islamic bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Daar, Abdallah S.; Khitamy, A.

    2001-01-01

    ISLAMIC BIOETHICS DERIVES FROM A COMBINATION OF PRINCIPLES, duties and rights, and, to a certain extent, a call to virtue. In Islam, bioethical decision-making is carried out within a framework of values derived from revelation and tradition. It is intimately linked to the broad ethical teachings of the Qur'an and the tradition of the Prophet Muhammad, and thus to the interpretation of Islamic law. In this way, Islam has the flexibility to respond to new biomedical technologies. Islamic bioethics emphasizes prevention and teaches that the patient must be treated with respect and compassion and that the physical, mental and spiritual dimensions of the illness experience be taken into account. Because Islam shares many foundational values with Judaism and Christianity, the informed Canadian physician will find Islamic bioethics quite familiar. Canadian Muslims come from varied backgrounds and have varying degrees of religious observance. Physicians need to recognize this diversity and avoid a stereotypical approach to Muslim patients. PMID:11202669

  17. Bioethics in Russia.

    PubMed

    Tishchenko, P D

    2005-01-01

    Ten years of development in Russian bioethics presents significant progress. At the beginning of the 90s bioethics was practically unknown for Russian medical doctors, philosophers and the public. Since the year 2000 bioethics has become an obligatory course for all medical students. The Russian Orthodox Church published the same year "The Social Doctrine" that included a special part "The Church and Problems of Bioethics." Different bioethical problems are often discussed in the mass media. The development of Russian bioethics proves the basic understanding of ethics presented by John Dewey--ethics is a function of the moral life of the community. Norms are good or bad mostly as instruments that could be used in everyday life to solve real problems people meet. PMID:17048361

  18. [Bioethics in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gonzaléz, Miguel; Herreros, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Bioethics has grown exponentially in recent decades. Its most important schools include principlism, casuistry, virtue ethics and the ethics of care. These schools are not exclusive. Within bioethics, clinical ethics addresses the inherent clinical practice ethical problems, problems which are many and very varied. Bioethics training is essential for clinicians to address these bioethics' problems. But even the professionals are trained, there are problems that cannot be solved individually and require advisory groups in clinical ethics: clinical ethics committees. These committees are also responsible for education in bioethics in health institutions. Clinical bioethics is a practical discipline, oriented to address specific problems, so its development is necessary to improve the decision making in such complex problems, inevitable problems in healthcare. PMID:25680645

  19. Bioethics Science: Is it?

    PubMed Central

    Azariah, Jayapaul

    2009-01-01

    Both western and eastern civilizations have linked moral teaching with theology followed by philosophy. New-knowledge-seekers about natural world, were called ‘natural philosophers’. There was a paradigm shift during industrial revolution in western world which culminated in modern science. The word “scientist” was coined during the 19th century. The paper examines whether natural philosophers could be called ‘scientists’? A short history of philosophical paradigm shift is given. Although written moral and “ethical principles” were in vogue from the time of Hammurabi (1750–1795 BC), the phenomenon of bioethics is very recent. Bioethics is a bridge among different sciences and a bridge to the future. The question is: Is bioethics, by itself, science? The present paper is concerned with the quality of bioethics and about the nature of science during the next 30–50 years. Science is value-free but bioethics is value-loaded. Science does not proclaim any value whereas bioethics underlines the moral life and its value to survive. The paper examines two issues: Can science be bioethics-friendly? and (ii) Can bioethics be science-friendly? It appears that both science and bioethics are incompatible. We need to develop a new system of knowledge to include/infuse the bioethical-notion of values in (into) science. Such a move may necessitate the development of an alternate but new model. Bioethics is not a science-discipline. A new term to replace science is needed. Elevating bioethics as an academic science may create job openings in India. PMID:23908732

  20. Toward a postmodern bioethics.

    PubMed

    Gibson, David

    2015-04-01

    In this article, postmodernism is presented as posing a challenge to the role of philosophy within bioethics. It is argued that any attempt to develop a postmodern bioethics must respond to arguments concerning power, relational responsibility, and violence. Contemporary work on the topic of relational autonomy and naturalized bioethics is interpreted as engaging with the postmodern challenge. This article proposes that the role of philosophy in bioethics should be not to provide moral guidance but rather to adopt a critical approach to the possible consequences of privileging any position or understanding over others. PMID:25719353

  1. [Bioethics, science and conscience].

    PubMed

    Beaufils, François

    2015-12-01

    Both object of science and conscience, bioethics is concerned about the impact of biomedical research and its applications for the human person. Object of pluralistic and multidisciplinary thought and proposal, bioethics seeks to reconcile respect for fundamental values and progress in life sciences. PMID:26675102

  2. Toward critical bioethics.

    PubMed

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur

    2015-04-01

    This article deals with the question as to what makes bioethics a critical discipline. It considers different senses of criticism and evaluates their strengths and weaknesses. A primary method in bioethics as a philosophical discipline is critical thinking, which implies critical evaluation of concepts, positions, and arguments. It is argued that the type of analytical criticism that restricts its critical role to critical thinking of this type often suffers from other intellectual flaws. Three examples are taken to demonstrate this: premature criticism, uncritical self-understanding of theoretical assumptions, and narrow framing of bioethical issues. Such flaws can lead both to unfair treatment of authors and to uncritical discussion of topics. In this context, the article makes use of Häyry's analysis of different rationalities in bioethical approaches and argues for the need to recognize the importance of communicative rationality for critical bioethics. A radically different critical approach in bioethics, rooted in social theory, focuses on analyses of power relations neglected in mainstream critical thinking. It is argued that, although this kind of criticism provides an important alternative in bioethics, it suffers from other shortcomings that are rooted in a lack of normative dimensions. In order to complement these approaches and counter their shortcomings, there is a need for a bioethics enlightened by critical hermeneutics. Such hermeneutic bioethics is aware of its own assumptions, places the issues in a wide context, and reflects critically on the power relations that stand in the way of understanding them. Moreover, such an approach is dialogical, which provides both a critical exercise of speech and a normative dimension implied in the free exchange of reasons and arguments. This discussion is framed by Hedgecoe's argument that critical bioethics needs four elements: to be empirically rooted, theory challenging, reflexive, and politely skeptical

  3. Bioethics education and resources.

    PubMed

    Opel, Douglas J; Olson, Maren E

    2012-08-01

    Ethics education based upon everyday ethical dilemmas can help trainees place themselves within the situation and encourage them to reflect on their role and responsibility in reaching its resolution.• Three elements can help augment the bioethics teaching experience: (a) identifying the ethical dilemma, (b) employing methods of ethical analysis, and(c) having knowledge of additional bioethics resources.An increasing number of bioethics resources are available to clinicians, including clinical ethics consultation (CEC) and print and Web-based resources. PMID:22855929

  4. Bioethics for clinicians: 28. Protestant bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Pauls, Merril; Hutchinson, Roger C.

    2002-01-01

    “PROTESTANT” IS A TERM APPLIED TO MANY DIFFERENT Christian denominations, with a wide range of beliefs, who trace their common origin to the Reformation of the 16th century. Protestant ideas have profoundly influenced modern bioethics, and most Protestants would see mainstream bioethics as compatible with their personal beliefs. This makes it difficult to define a uniquely Protestant approach to bioethics. In this article we provide an overview of common Protestant beliefs and highlight concepts that have emerged from Protestant denominations that are particularly relevant to bioethics. These include the sovereignty of God, the value of autonomy and the idea of medicine as a calling as well as a profession. Most Canadian physicians will find that they share certain values and beliefs with the majority of their Protestant patients. Physicians should be particularly sensitive to their Protestant patients' beliefs when dealing with end-of-life issues, concerns about consent and refusal of care, and beginning-of-life issues such as abortion, genetic testing and the use of assisted reproductive technologies. Physicians should also recognize that members of certain Protestant groups and denominations may have unique wishes concerning treatment. Understanding how to elicit these wishes and respond appropriately will allow physicians to enhance patient care and minimize conflict. PMID:11868645

  5. Bioethics for clinicians: 28. Protestant bioethics.

    PubMed

    Pauls, Merril; Hutchinson, Roger C

    2002-02-01

    "Protestant" is a term applied to many different Christian denominations, with a wide range of beliefs, who trace their common origin to the Reformation of the 16th century. Protestant ideas have profoundly influenced modern bioethics, and most Protestants would see mainstream bioethics as compatible with their personal beliefs. This makes it difficult to define a uniquely Protestant approach to bioethics. In this article we provide an overview of common Protestant beliefs and highlight concepts that have emerged from Protestant denominations that are particularly relevant to bioethics. These include the sovereignty of God, the value of autonomy and the idea of medicine as a calling as well as a profession. Most Canadian physicians will find that they share certain values and beliefs with the majority of their Protestant patients. Physicians should be particularly sensitive to their Protestant patients' beliefs when dealing with end-of-life issues, concerns about consent and refusal of care, and beginning-of-life issues such as abortion, genetic testing and the use of assisted reproductive technologies. Physicians should also recognize that members of certain Protestant groups and denominations may have unique wishes concerning treatment. Understanding how to elicit these wishes and respond appropriately will allow physicians to enhance patient care and minimize conflict. PMID:11868645

  6. Elucidating Bioethics with Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Betty B.; Shannon, Thomas A.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the importance of developing bioethics programs for undergraduate students. Two aspects are considered: (1) current areas of concern and sources of bibliographic information; and (2) problems encountered in undergraduate projects. A list of references is provided. (HM)

  7. Postmodern Bioethics through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Explores a hermeneutical perspective of modern medicine. The author suggests that good medical decision making requires interpretation, and bioethics will be well served by incorporating this interpretive element. (LZ)

  8. From integrative bioethics to pseudoscience.

    PubMed

    Bracanović, Tomislav

    2012-12-01

    Integrative bioethics is a brand of bioethics conceived and propagated by a group of Croatian philosophers and other scholars. This article discusses and shows that the approach encounters several serious difficulties. In criticizing certain standard views on bioethics and in presenting their own, the advocates of integrative bioethics fall into various conceptual confusions and inconsistencies. Although presented as a project that promises to deal with moral dilemmas created by modern science and technology, integrative bioethics does not contain the slightest normativity or action-guiding capacity. Portrayed as a scientific and interdisciplinary enterprise, integrative bioethics displays a large number of pseudoscientific features that throw into doubt its overall credibility. PMID:22708689

  9. The Bioethics of Music, the Music of Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Lubet, Alex

    2015-12-01

    Bioethics is rarely referenced in the scholarship of performing arts medicine (PAM). This essay argues that bioethical concerns loom far larger in the care of PAM patients than might typically be understood. This essay presents Beauchamp and Childress's four principles of bioethics, with examples pertinent to PAM, drawn from the author's research and personal experience. PMID:26614981

  10. Bioethics for clinicians: 27. Catholic bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Markwell, Hazel J.; Brown, Barry F.

    2001-01-01

    THERE IS A LONG TRADITION OF BIOETHICAL REASONING within the Roman Catholic faith, a tradition expressed in scripture, the writings of the Doctors of the Church, papal encyclical documents and reflections by contemporary Catholic theologians. Catholic bioethics is concerned with a broad range of issues, including social justice and the right to health care, the duty to preserve life and the limits of that duty, the ethics of human reproduction and end-of-life decisions. Fundamental to Catholic bioethics is a belief in the sanctity of life and a metaphysical conception of the person as a composite of body and soul. Although there is considerable consensus among Catholic thinkers, differences in philosophical approach have given rise to some diversity of opinion with respect to specific issues. Given the influential history of Catholic reflection on ethical matters, the number of people in Canada who profess to be Catholic, and the continuing presence of Catholic health care institutions, it is helpful for clinicians to be familiar with the central tenets of this tradition while respecting the differing perspectives of patients who identify themselves as Catholic. PMID:11501460

  11. A bioethics for all seasons

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The last four decades have seen the emergence and flourishing of the field of bioethics and its incorporation into wide-ranging aspects of society, from the clinic or laboratory through to public policy and the media. Yet considerable debate still exists over what bioethics is and how it should be done. In this paper I consider the question of what makes good bioethics. Drawing on historical and contemporary examples, I suggest that bioethics encompasses multiple modes of responding to moral disagreement, and that an awareness of which mode is operational in a given context is essential to doing good bioethics. PMID:25516926

  12. [Gender discourses and bioethics].

    PubMed

    Aparisi Miralles, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some of the contributions of the gender discourse to the bioethical debate, specifically in the field of nursing. At the same time, it will explain the contribution of the different feminist theories to the recognition and respect of human dignity. Basically, it will describe the three fundamental models in the gender discourse: the egalitarian model, the difference model, and the model of reciprocity or complementarity. The starting point is that even though the first two models have made significant contributions in the field of bioethics, they have nonetheless brought with them some deficiencies and reductionisms inherent in their thinking. The complementarity model, on the contrary, when properly understood, allows for the combination of the principles of equality and difference between man and woman, which places it at a much more enriching standpoint within the bioethical debate. PMID:25329418

  13. Assisting countries in establishing national bioethics committees: UNESCO's Assisting Bioethics Committees project.

    PubMed

    ten Have, Henk; Dikenou, Christophe; Feinholz, Dafna

    2011-07-01

    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights adopted by UNESCO in 2005 advocates for the establishment of independent, multidisciplinary, and pluralist ethics committees at national, regional, local, or institutional levels. The purpose of these committees is (a) to evaluate the relevant ethical, legal, scientific, and social issues related to research involving human beings; (b) to provide advice on ethical problems in clinical settings; (c) to assess scientific and technological development, formulate recommendations, and contribute to the preparation of guidelines; and (d) to foster debate, education, and public awareness of and engagement in bioethics (Article 19). Already in the very first draft of the Declaration the need to promote and establish national bioethics committees was mentioned. Although the text was gradually elaborated, the same basic idea has been preserved throughout the process of drafting, negotiating, and adopting the text. PMID:21676325

  14. Beyond a western bioethics?

    PubMed

    Ryan, Maura A

    2004-03-01

    Like theology and ethics generally, bioethics has increasingly developed a global consciousness. Controversies over AIDS research and access to affordable AIDS treatment have generated new awareness about the importance of international collaboration as well as the difficulty of achieving moral consensus across economic, political, and cultural divides. Advances in scientific and medical knowledge through initiatives such as the Human Genome Project invite new questions about the nature of health care as a common good. This budding global consciousness serves as a starting point for examining contemporary challenges to the secular, principle-based Western bioethics that has dominated national and international debate for three decades. PMID:15515232

  15. Bioethics after the terror.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jonathan D

    2002-01-01

    Bioethics as a field has been fortunate that its values and concerns have mirrored the values and concerns of society. In light of the September 11th attacks, it is possible that we are witnessing the beginning of a transition in American culture, one fraught with implications for bioethics. The emphasis on autonomy and individual rights may come to be tempered by greater concern over the collective good. Increased emphasis on solidarity over autonomy could greatly alter public response to research abuses aimed at defense from bioterrorism, to privacy of genetic information, and to control of private medical resources to protect the public health. PMID:12085957

  16. Global bioethics: utopia or reality?

    PubMed

    Hellsten, Sirkku K

    2008-08-01

    This article discusses what 'global bioethics' means today and what features make bioethical research 'global'. The article provides a historical view of the development of the field of 'bioethics', from medical ethics to the wider study of bioethics in a global context. It critically examines the particular problems that 'global bioethics' research faces across cultural and political borders and suggests some solutions on how to move towards a more balanced and culturally less biased dialogue in the issues of bioethics. The main thesis is that we need to bring global and local aspects closer together when looking for international guidelines, by paying more attention to particular cultures and local economic and social circumstances in reaching a shared understanding of the main values and principles of bioethics, and in building 'biodemocracy'. PMID:19143084

  17. Taking bioethics personally.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Tod; Ahmad, Ayesha; Crow, Sheila; Davis, Dena S; Dresser, Rebecca; Harter, Thomas D; Jordan, Sara R; Kaposy, Chris; Lanoix, Monique; Lee, K Jane; Scully, Jackie Leach; Taylor, Katherine A; Watson, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This narrative symposium examines the relationship of bioethics practice to personal experiences of illness. A call for stories was developed by Tod Chambers, the symposium editor, and editorial staff and was sent to several commonly used bioethics listservs and posted on the Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics website. The call asked authors to relate a personal story of being ill or caring for a person who is ill, and to describe how this affected how they think about bioethical questions and the practice of medicine. Eighteen individuals were invited to submit full stories based on review of their proposals. Twelve stories are published in this symposium, and six supplemental stories are published online only through Project MUSE. Authors explore themes of vulnerability, suffering, communication, voluntariness, cultural barriers, and flaws in local healthcare systems through stories about their own illnesses or about caring for children, partners, parents and grandparents. Commentary articles by Arthur Frank, Bradley Lewis, and Carol Taylor follow the collection of personal narratives. PMID:24406989

  18. Should Bioethics Be Taught?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, George H.

    1980-01-01

    Examined is the issue concerning teaching bioethics. Differing points of view are discussed. The author concludes that moral and ethical reasoning should be incorporated into the public school curriculum, using morally laden issues that have grown out of advances in biological knowledge and biomedical technology. (CS)

  19. Bioethics for clinicians: 25. Teaching bioethics in the clinical setting.

    PubMed

    McKneally, M F; Singer, P A

    2001-04-17

    Bioethics is now taught in every Canadian medical school. Canada needs a cadre of teachers who can help clinicians learn bioethics. Our purpose is to encourage clinician teachers to accept this important responsibility and to provide practical advice about teaching bioethics to clinicians as an integral part of good clinical medicine. We use 5 questions to focus the discussion: Why should I teach? What should I teach? How should I teach? How should I evaluate? How should I learn? PMID:11338804

  20. Why dedicate yourself to bioethics? Seven reasons to get you started.

    PubMed

    Real de Asúa, D; Herreros, B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of clinical bioethics is to promote rational clinical decisions that take into account the clinical facts and the preferences and values of individuals involved in a situation that entails a moral problem. The objective of the present study is to list the reasons why we consider bioethics knowledge and skills to be essential in daily practice and to promote a proactive mindset in clinical bioethics research. The arguments set forth include the need to adapt to changes in the clinical relationship in recent decades, the importance of an ethical approach both for the physician and the patient, the role of bioethics in preventing professional burnout, the ability of ethics to promote a more equitable distribution of resources and the possibility of conducting clinical research in bioethics, a field that has scarcely been explored in Spain. PMID:26823202

  1. Tuskegee University Experience Challenges Conventional Wisdom: Is Integrative Bioethics Practice the New Ethics for the Public's Health?

    PubMed Central

    Sodeke, Stephen Olufemi

    2013-01-01

    The Tuskegee University National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care was established in 1999 in partial response to the Presidential Apology for the United States Public Health Service's Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male conducted in Macon County, Alabama, from 1932 to 1972. The Center's mission of promoting equity and justice in health and health care for African Americans and other underserved populations employs an integrative bioethics approach informed by moral vision. Etymological and historical analyses are used to delineate the meaning and evolution of bioethics and to provide a basis for Tuskegee's integrative bioethics niche. Unlike mainstream bioethics, integrative bioethics practice is holistic in orientation, and more robust for understanding the epistemic realities of minority life, health disparities, and population health. The conclusion is that integrative bioethics is relevant to the survival of all people, not just a privileged few; it could be the new ethics for the public's health. PMID:23124497

  2. [Terminology in clinical bioethics].

    PubMed

    Herreros, Benjamín; Moreno-Milán, Beatriz; Pacho-Jiménez, Eloy; Real de Asua, Diego; Roa-Castellanos, Ricardo Andrés; Valentia, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    In this article some of the most relevant terms in clinical bioethics are defined. The terms were chosen based on three criteria: impact on the most important problems in clinical bioethics, difficulty in understanding, and need to clarify their meaning. For a better understanding, the terms were grouped into 5 areas: general concepts (conflict of values, deliberation, conflict of interest, conscientious objection); justice (justice, distributive justice, models of justice, triage); clinical matters (information, competency, capability, informed consent, mature minor, coercion, secrecy, privacy, confidentiality, professional secrecy); end of life (prior instructions, limitation of therapeutic efforts, professional obstinacy, futility, palliative care, palliative sedation, principle of double effect, euthanasia, assisted suicide, persistent vegetative state, minimally conscious state, locked-in syndrome, brain death), and beginning of life (assisted reproduction, genetic counseling, preimplantation genetic diagnosis). PMID:26506495

  3. On nature and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Paul Silas

    2010-01-01

    The account of nature and humanity's relationship to nature are of central importance for bioethics. The Scientific Revolution was a critical development in the history of this question and many contemporary accounts of nature find their beginnings here. While the innovative approach to nature going out of the seventeenth century was reliant upon accounts of nature from the early modern period, the Middle Ages, late-antiquity and antiquity, it also parted ways with some of the understandings of nature from these epochs. Here I analyze this development and suggests that some of the insights from older understandings of nature may be helpful for bioethics today, even if there can be no simple return to them. PMID:21644431

  4. Gender, identity, and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    Transgender people and issues have come to the forefront of public consciousness over the last year. Caitlyn Jenner' very public transition, heightened media coverage of the murders of transgender women of color, and the panicked passage of North Carolina's "bathroom bill" (House Bill 2), mean that conversations about transgender health and well-being are no longer happening only within small communities. The idea that transgender issues are bioethical issues is not new, but I think that increased public awareness of transgender people and the ways that their health is affected by systems that bioethics already engages with offers an opportunity for scholarship that works to improve transgender health in meaningful ways. PMID:27417871

  5. The development and perspectives of Chinese bioethics.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongwen; Cong, Yali

    2008-12-01

    Bioethics began to emerge in the late 1980s in China, which was borrowed and introduced from western countries. But the Chinese bioethics has a different model from western bioethics in its philosophical basis and culture environment which have been influenced by Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. Academic researchers of bioethics, policy makers and the public have different opinions to the bioethical issues. Though sharing some similarities with those of western bioethics, the Chinese bioethics has certain different and urgent topics, such as health inequality in health care reform, physician-patient relationship, and different model of the informed consent. PMID:19492719

  6. Bioethics in Mediterranean culture: the Spanish experience.

    PubMed

    Busquets, Ester; Roman, Begoña; Terribas, Núria

    2012-11-01

    This article presents a view of bioethics in the Spanish context. We may identify several features common to Mediterranean countries because of their relatively similar social organisation. Each country has its own distinguishing features but we would point two aspects which are of particular interest: the Mediterranean view of autonomy and the importance of Catholicism in Mediterranean culture. The Spanish experience on bioethics field has been marked by these elements, trying to build a civic ethics alternative, with the law as an important support. So, Spanish bioethics has been developed in two parallel levels: in the academic and policy maker field (University and Parliament) and in clinical practice (hospitals and healthcare ethics committees), with different paces and methods. One of the most important changes in the paternalistic mentality has been promoted through the recognition by law of the patient's rights and also through the new generation of citizens, clearly aware on the exercise of autonomy. Now, the healthcare professionals have a new challenge: adapt their practice to this new paradigm. PMID:22033813

  7. [From virtue bioethics to bioethics personalistic: is integration possible?].

    PubMed

    Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2013-01-01

    In this article we analyze how the idea of virtue as an important element of human ethical action is slowly being lost. There are proposals both in ethics and in bioethics to rehabilitate virtue and to consider it as a very important element of human morality. In particular, in the health sector the rehabilitation of virtue, would imply greater focus on the ethical character of professionals and personal improvement rather than on training for the resolution of ethical cases. Such guidance would also improve the health professional-patient relationship with an increase not only in the technical quality but also in human dimension of health sciences. However, this orientation or tendency in bioethics suffers from a deficit in reasoning due to lack of a complete theory of human action that covers the good and also norms. The second part of the article looks at the relation between of virtue and personalistic bioethics. Virtue is considered as an important element of human action and is integrated with the good and norms. After analyzing and distinguishing between what is today considered personalistic bioethics and the contributions of personalism to bioethics, the paper concludes that the integration of virtue in personalistic bioethics is not only possible but desirable to overcome the ethical minimalism that has resulted from modern day principlism driven bioethics. PMID:23745818

  8. Transplants: bioethics and justice.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Claudio; Meirelles, Jos Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Bioethics, as a branch of philosophy that focuses on questions relative to health and human life, is closely tied to the idea of justice and equality. As such, in understanding the concept of equality in its original sense, that is, in associating it to the idea to treat "unequals" (those who are unequal or different, in terms of conditions or circumstances) unequally (differentially), in proportion to their inequalities (differences), we see that the so-called "one-and-only waiting list" for transplants established in law no. 9.434/97, ends up not addressing the concept of equality and justice, bearing upon bioethics, even when considering the objective criteria of precedence established in regulation no. 9.4347/98, Thus, the organizing of transplants on a one-and-only waiting list, with a few exceptions that are weakly applicable, without a case by case technical and grounded analysis, according to each particular necessity, ends up institutionalizing inequalities, condemning patients to happenstance and, consequently, departs from the ratio legis, which aims at seeking the greatest application of justice in regards to organ transplants. We conclude, therefore, that from an analysis of the legislation and of the principles of bioethics and justice, there is a need for the creation of a collegiate of medical experts, that, based on medical criteria and done in a well established manner, can analyze each case to be included on the waiting list, deferentially and according to the necessity; thus, precluding that people in special circumstances be treated equal to people in normal circumstances. PMID:14762486

  9. Bioethics in America: Who decides

    SciTech Connect

    Yesley, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the process by which bioethics decisions are made as well as the actual decisions that are reached. The process commonly is one of shared decision-making,'' that is, decisionmaking at several levels, beginning with the government and ending with the individual. After the government has defined a scope of permissible activity, the research or health care institution may further limit what activities are permitted. Finally, the individual patient, or, if the patient is incompetent, the patient's legal representative decides whether or not to participate in the activity. Because bioethics in general, and bioethics related to genetics in particular, evolves through this process of decisionmaking at several levels, this paper briefly traces the process, to see how it works in several areas of bioethics, in order to provide a perspective on the way in which ethical decisions related to genetics are or will be made.

  10. Bioethics in America: Who decides?

    SciTech Connect

    Yesley, M.S.

    1992-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the process by which bioethics decisions are made as well as the actual decisions that are reached. The process commonly is one of ``shared decision-making,`` that is, decisionmaking at several levels, beginning with the government and ending with the individual. After the government has defined a scope of permissible activity, the research or health care institution may further limit what activities are permitted. Finally, the individual patient, or, if the patient is incompetent, the patient`s legal representative decides whether or not to participate in the activity. Because bioethics in general, and bioethics related to genetics in particular, evolves through this process of decisionmaking at several levels, this paper briefly traces the process, to see how it works in several areas of bioethics, in order to provide a perspective on the way in which ethical decisions related to genetics are or will be made.

  11. In defense of irreligious bioethics.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2012-01-01

    Some commentators have criticized bioethics as failing to engage religion both as a matter of theory and practice. Bioethics should work toward understanding the influence of religion as it represents people's beliefs and practices, but bioethics should nevertheless observe limits in regard to religion as it does its normative work. Irreligious skepticism toward religious views about health, healthcare practices and institutions, and responses to biomedical innovations can yield important benefits to the field. Irreligious skepticism makes it possible to raise questions that otherwise go unasked and to protect against the overreach of religion. In this sense, bioethics needs a vigorous irreligious outlook every bit as much as it needs descriptive understandings of religion. PMID:23215918

  12. Epistocracy for online deliberative bioethics.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, Giuseppe; Mameli, Matteo; Boniolo, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    The suggestion that deliberative democratic approaches would suit the management of bioethical policymaking in democratic pluralistic societies has triggered what has been called the "deliberative turn" in health policy and bioethics. Most of the empirical work in this area has focused on the allocation of healthcare resources and priority setting at the local or national level. The variety of the more or less articulated theoretical efforts behind such initiatives is remarkable and has been accompanied, to date, by an overall lack of method specificity. We propose a set of methodological requirements for online deliberative procedures for bioethics. We provide a theoretical motivation for these requirements. In particular, we discuss and adapt an "epistocratic" proposal and argue that, regardless of its merits as a general political theory, a more refined version of its normative claims can generate a useful framework for the design of bioethical forums that combine maximal inclusiveness with informed and reasonable deliberation. PMID:26059953

  13. Enhancing the African bioethics initiative

    PubMed Central

    Ogundiran, Temidayo O

    2004-01-01

    Background Medical ethics has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, formal training in bioethics did not become established until a few decades ago. Bioethics has gained a strong foothold in health sciences in the developed world, especially in Europe and North America. The situation is quite different in many developing countries. In most African countries, bioethics – as established and practiced today in the west- is either non-existent or is rudimentary. Discussion Though bioethics has come of age in the developed and some developing countries, it is still largely "foreign" to most African countries. In some parts of Africa, some bioethics conferences have been held in the past decade to create research ethics awareness and ensure conformity to international guidelines for research with human participants. This idea has arisen in recognition of the genuine need to develop capacity for reviewing the ethics of research in Africa. It is also a condition required by external sponsors of collaborative research in Africa. The awareness and interest that these conferences have aroused need to be further strengthened and extended beyond research ethics to clinical practice. By and large, bioethics education in schools that train doctors and other health care providers is the hook that anchors both research ethics and clinical ethics. Summary This communication reviews the current situation of bioethics in Africa as it applies to research ethics workshops and proposes that in spite of the present efforts to integrate ethics into biomedical research in Africa, much still needs to be done to accomplish this. A more comprehensive approach to bioethics with an all-inclusive benefit is to incorporate formal ethics education into health training institutions in Africa. PMID:15488145

  14. The Ethics of Globalizing Bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Rennie, Stuart; Mupenda, Bavon

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, there have been efforts to globalize the field of bioethics, particularly in developing countries, where biomedical and other research is increasingly taking place. We describe and evaluate some key ethical criticisms directed towards these initiatives, and argue that while they may be marked by ethical, practical, and political tensions and pitfalls, they can nevertheless play an important role in stimulating critical bioethics culture in countries vulnerable to exploitation by foreign agencies and/or their own authorities. PMID:25632370

  15. [Civil bioethics in pluralistics societies].

    PubMed

    Cortina, A

    2000-01-01

    The author examines how Bioethics should be approached in a pluralist society. She argues that through the gradual discovery of shared ethical values and principles for judging which practices are humanizing and which or not, ever-more dense civil Bioethics helps bring out--in contrast to relativism and subjectivism--an ethical intersubjectiveness, the fundaments of which should be addressed by moral philosophy if it hopes to fulfill one of its main tasks. PMID:11147209

  16. Who is buying bioethics research?

    PubMed

    Sharp, Richard R; Scott, Angela L; Landy, David C; Kicklighter, Laura A

    2008-08-01

    Growing ties to private industry have prompted many to question the impartiality of academic bioethicists who receive financial support from for-profit corporations in exchange for ethics-related services and research. To the extent that corporate sponsors may view bioethics as little more than a way to strengthen public relations or avoid potential controversy, close ties to industry may pose serious threats to professional independence. New sources of support from private industry may also divert bioethicists from pursuing topics of greater social importance, such as the needs of medically underserved communities. To inform ongoing debates about the financing of bioethics and its transparency to those concerned about potential sources of bias, we examined funding disclosures appearing in original research reports in major bioethics journals. Reviewing research published over a 15-year period, we found little evidence that for-profit corporations are influencing bioethics research directly. Instead, we found evidence that a great number of organizations, both public and private, support bioethics research. These findings suggest that worries about the cooption of bioethics research by a few interested stakeholders are greatly overstated and undersupported by available data. PMID:18802867

  17. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  18. Sin and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Imrényi, Tibor

    2005-08-01

    The essay starts out with defining the biblical concept of sin in the Old and the New Testaments. The literal knowledge of divine truth is distinguished from its truthful and spiritual interpretation. A further distinction should be made between the Creator of life (God) and the medium or "intermediary creator" (man) of life. I argue for the "single wholeness" of the human race and for the unity of human responsibility in bioethics. In delineating the teaching of the Church on abortion and family planning, I show that the healing of all human diseases, from traditional interventions to genetic ones, is a Christian duty and is in accordance with Christ's mission on earth as long as one has not been directly or indirectly involved in "reproducing" or "designing" one's descendants or destroying or damaging human life even at its very beginnings. PMID:16266966

  19. Xenotransplantation: a bioethical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, M

    2006-01-01

    Allograft shortage is a formidable obstacle in organ transplantation. Xenotransplantation, the interspecies transplantation of cells, tissues, and organs, or ex vivo interspecies exchange between cells, tissues, and organs is a frequently suggested alternative to this allograft shortage. As xenotransplantation steadily improves into a viable allotransplantation alternative, several bioethical considerations coalesce. Such considerations include the Helsinki declaration's guarantee of patients' rights to privacy; political red tape that may select for undermined socioeconomic groups as the first recipients of xenografts; industry incentives in xenotransplantation investments; conflicts of interest when a clinician supervises a patient as a research subject; the psychosocial impact of transplantation on the xenograft recipient, and the rights of animals. This review illuminates these issues through a conglomeration of expert opinion and relevant experimental studies. PMID:16574873

  20. Bioethics: A Rationale and a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.; Rusch, John J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for and development of an undergraduate bioethics course. Based on experiences with the course, general suggestions are offered to instructors planning to add bioethics to existing curricula. (MA)

  1. [Bioethics in the Council of Europe].

    PubMed

    Chatzixiros, Efstratios

    2015-12-01

    The Council is an intergovernmental institution that actively defends human rights in biomedicine through its experts' Committee on Bioethics. The field of biomedical science and technology is in constant development. Bioethics provisions must take account. PMID:26675103

  2. Improving the Science Curriculum with Bioethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundmark, Cathy

    2002-01-01

    Explains the importance of integrating bioethics into the science curriculum for student learning. Introduces a workshop designed for middle and high school science teachers teaching bioethics, its application to case studies, and how teachers can fit bioethics into their classroom. (YDS)

  3. Bioethics: a search for moral diversity.

    PubMed

    Renzong, Qiu

    2006-01-01

    The concept of global, Asian and Chinese bioethics are discussed in this paper and the difficulty in applying universal bioethics within different cultures and countries is addressed. The traditional beliefs and values in China are described with particular reference to medicine, and the implications for bioethics and research ethics within the country are considered. PMID:17037685

  4. WHAT CAN HISTORY DO FOR BIOETHICS?

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    This article details the relationship between history and bioethics. I argue that historians' reluctance to engage with bioethics rests on a misreading of the field as solely reducible to applied ethics, and overlooks previous enthusiasm for historical perspectives. I claim that seeing bioethics as its practitioners see it – as an interdisciplinary meeting ground – should encourage historians to collaborate in greater numbers. I conclude by outlining how bioethics might benefit from new histories of the field, and how historians can lend a fresh perspective to bioethical debates. PMID:22150828

  5. Accounting for culture in a globalized bioethics.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Patricia; Koenig, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    How might a global bioethics account for profound cultural difference in a world marked by porous borders? The authors endorse a critical, self-reflexive bioethics, suggesting that bioethics needs to change its fundamental orientation if it is going to remain relevant and intellectually vibrant throughout the twenty-first century. Bioethics must attend to issue of social justice and public health, while seriously considering the implications of social context for medical morality. Negotiating moral consensus across cultural boundaries will be difficult, but is is more likely to succeed if we critically engage with the cultural assumptions underlying bioethics itself. PMID:15301190

  6. Towards a bioethics of innovation.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, Wendy; Axler, Renata

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, it has become almost axiomatic that biomedical research and clinical practice should be 'innovative'-that is, that they should be always evolving and directed towards the production, translation and implementation of new technologies and practices. While this drive towards innovation in biomedicine might be beneficial, it also raises serious moral, legal, economic and sociopolitical questions that require further scrutiny. In this article, we argue that biomedical innovation needs to be accompanied by a dedicated 'bioethics of innovation' that attends systematically to the goals, process and outcomes of biomedical innovation as objects of critical inquiry. Using the example of personalised or precision medicine, we then suggest a preliminary framework for a bioethics of innovation, based on the research policy initiative of 'Responsible Innovation'. We invite and encourage critiques of this framework and hope that this will provoke a challenging and enriching new bioethical discourse. PMID:27015740

  7. The living dead: fiction, horror, and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Belling, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Popular fiction responds to, and may exacerbate, public anxieties in ways that more highbrow literary texts may not. Robin Cook's 1977 novel Coma exemplifies the ways in which medical thrillers participate in the public discourse about health care. Written shortly after the medical establishment promoted "irreversible coma," or brain death, as a new definition of dying, and at a time when the debate over the removal of Karen Ann Quinlan from life support was the subject of popular attention, Coma crystallized public fears over the uses of medical technology. While Cook hoped that Coma would encourage public participation in health-care decision-making, the book may have fueled public concerns about medicine in ways that he did not anticipate. The public engagement that accompanied the rise of bioethics and that led to increased transparency and patient autonomy in medical decision-making had its birth, in part, in the distrust and paranoia reflected in the medical thriller. Because fiction can shape public perceptions of health-care dilemmas and may affect decision-making on bioethical issues, bioethicists need to pay attention to popular fictional accounts of medicine. PMID:20639610

  8. [Secular bioethics and religious bioethics. Keys to a contemporary argument].

    PubMed

    Díaz de Terán Velasco, M Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of the contemporary plural debate, it is common to use the adjective secular as if it were the only manner to participate in the bioethical debate of Western multi-ethnic society. This situation gives rise to the question of whether there can be a religious contribution to the current bioethical debate. There are two possible answers. The first, an affirmative one, is centered on the fact that contemporary society is characterized by pluralistic and secular values on which is based the obligations of its members, defined by consensus through democratic procedures. In this context, religious contribution, as something from the private sphere, must be excluded. The alternative response to our central question may be negative, based on the assertion that human beings are identified as members of different value systems, many of them imbued with religious elements. From this point of view, the religious phenomenon would be one of the most important elements in the debate on cultural pluralism, because it guides, and serves as an inspiration of our conduct. This article aims to answer our central question by analyzing each of the two possible positions. The article is divided into two sections; the first analyses the significance of the term secular when it is employed in the sphere of bioethics and the second examines whether, within the scope of democratic societies, the current religious contribution to the bioethics debate has any legitimacy. The article ends with some conclusions. PMID:22548666

  9. Understanding collective agency in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Beier, Katharina; Jordan, Isabella; Wiesemann, Claudia; Schicktanz, Silke

    2016-09-01

    Bioethicists tend to focus on the individual as the relevant moral subject. Yet, in highly complex and socially differentiated healthcare systems a number of social groups, each committed to a common cause, are involved in medical decisions and sometimes even try to influence bioethical discourses according to their own agenda. We argue that the significance of these collective actors is unjustifiably neglected in bioethics. The growing influence of collective actors in the fields of biopolitics and bioethics leads us to pursue the question as to how collective moral claims can be characterized and justified. We pay particular attention to elaborating the circumstances under which collective actors can claim 'collective agency.' Specifically, we develop four normative-practical criteria for collective agency in order to determine the conditions that must be given to reasonably speak of 'collective autonomy'. For this purpose, we analyze patient organizations and families, which represent two quite different kinds of groups and can both be conceived as collective actors of high relevance for bioethical practice. Finally, we discuss some practical implications and explain why the existence of a shared practice of trust is of immediate normative relevance in this respect. PMID:26948497

  10. Creation, the eschaton, and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Moraczewski, A S

    1979-09-01

    The Christian's role in renewing the universe is to discover the true name of God's creation and to use technology as a serious enterprise of co-creation. Guided by a bioethics based on Gospel values, the Christian healer brings the eschaton closer to realization. PMID:468196

  11. Islamic bioethics: a general scheme.

    PubMed

    Shomali, Mohamamd Ali

    2008-01-01

    No doubt life in its all forms enjoys a very high status in Islam. Human life is one of the most sacred creatures of God. Therefore, it must be appreciated, respected and protected. In this regard, the paper refers to different parts. The first part studies the value of life in Islam. It helps to understand why life must be appreciated and respected. The second part sheds some light on the nature of the Islamic bioethics. Discussing the sources and authorities in the Islamic bioethics, in this part we will study the way of life protection which is regulated by the Islamic law and bioethics. Part three reflects on some important issues in bioethics from an Islamic perspective. Concerning the Islamic believes, physical health maintenance and disease treatment are two important aspects of the Islamic teachings. In respect to the beginning of human life; firstly, we will see that reproduction must occur in the context of a legitimate and stable family. Secondly, we will study family planning and abortion. With respect to the end of life, issues such as suicide and euthanasia will be studied. Finally organ transplantation will be discussed. PMID:23908711

  12. Bioethics in the Hunger Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kristin; Keller, Donna; Myers, Alyce

    2014-01-01

    In this guided inquiry, students investigate advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering by integrating popular fiction into their study of bioethics. What are the effects of artificially created hybrid creatures on characters in "The Hunger Games" and in our society? What are the effects on and basic rights of the organisms…

  13. [The biolaw and bioethics encyclopedia].

    PubMed

    del Barrio Seoane, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    On 4 April 2011, as part of the XVIII Conference in Law and the Human Genome, the official presentation took place of the first Spanish language Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics, in an event organised by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome held, on this occasion, in the new Auditorium of the University of the Basque Country. The Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics is a project which was conceived and driven forward by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome. It was an ambitious project which was supported by the Roche Institute Foundation. It was therefore a magnum opus which began more than three years ago and which has required the work of more than 200 professionals from various disciplines in Spain, Latin America and Portugal. The encyclopaedia tries to make up for the lack of a suitable publication in the Spanish language that could be used as a reference and be consulted by different experts who have to tackle controversies and doubts posed in the field of biolaw and bioethics as part of their everyday work. The work makes it possible to ascertain the situation in this field regarding the most controversial issues and emerging conflicts, find out which values, assets or rights are involved or confronted, what solutions have been proposed by bioethics and the social positions that have been established through legal regulations. All in all, the encyclopaedia was the culmination of an ambitious undertaking, a pioneering work in the Spanish speaking countries due to its characteristics and scope. It is essential to have such a resource in today's cultural environment. The presentation of the Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics given by Mr. Del Barrio Seoane as Director General of the Roche Institute Foundation during the Conference deservers a special mention. The project has been consolidated through the support of this institution. PMID:22977954

  14. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  15. [Education in bioethics, a way for professionalism].

    PubMed

    Urionabarrenetxea, K Martínez

    2011-01-01

    One of the elements that have historically defined professions making them different from mere occupations is the fact that their responsibilities have been defined more in moral than juridical terms. Because it is not the due respect to the law but the tendency to moral excellence the fundamental characteristic of professions. Professionalism is the base of medicine's contract with society and it obliges to put patients' interests above the doctors' ones, supplying competence and integrity standards, and providing expert help to society in health matters. Education in bioethics is an appropriate instrument to reach this goal, as it promotes an interdisciplinary analysis of the problems created by the medical and biological progress and its correspondent technologies, to find what is most human in its practical application. PMID:21256065

  16. [Interface between bioethics and international relations].

    PubMed

    Manchola-Castillo, Camilo; Garrafa, Volnei

    2016-08-01

    Recently, bioethics and international relations have gotten closer to one an other, probably as a result of the motivation of bioethics to intervene in global affairs. However, this relationship has only been on the practical level.This study's objective, through a literature review, is to highlight the huge potential that the epistemologies of both areas have to build a more fruitful dialogue. 18 articles relating both areas were retrieved from databases Scopus, Web of Science, Bireme and PubMed. The articles were then grouped in three categories of analysis: bioethics and global health; international organizations and bioethics; and international relations and bioethics. This study concludes that an epistemological approaching between these areas is desirable and proposes the establishment of two new areas of study: international relations in health and international relations from the South, drawing upon the conceptual basis developed by Latin-American bioethics. PMID:27599082

  17. [Bioethical language in the law and jurisprudence about bioethical problems].

    PubMed

    Corral García, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The impact is analyzed that on the Spanish Law relative to questions bioethics--as the Law on artificial reproduction, the Law of biomedical investigation, and the Law on sexual and reproductive health--can have the conception of human embryo enunciated by the Court of Justice of the European Union in his judgment of October 18, 2011, considering it to be any ovum fertilized with independence of the degree of reached development. PMID:24206251

  18. Global bioethics – myth or reality?

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Søren; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2006-01-01

    Background There has been debate on whether a global or unified field of bioethics exists. If bioethics is a unified global field, or at the very least a closely shared way of thinking, then we should expect bioethicists to behave the same way in their academic activities anywhere in the world. This paper investigates whether there is a 'global bioethics' in the sense of a unified academic community. Methods To address this question, we study the web-linking patterns of bioethics institutions, the citation patterns of bioethics papers and the buying patterns of bioethics books. Results All three analyses indicate that there are geographical and institutional differences in the academic behavior of bioethicists and bioethics institutions. Conclusion These exploratory studies support the position that there is no unified global field of bioethics. This is a problem if the only reason is parochialism. But these regional differences are probably of less concern if one notices that bioethics comes in many not always mutually understandable dialects. PMID:16965631

  19. The Philosophical Basis of Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Horn, Peter

    2015-09-01

    In this article, I consider in what sense bioethics is philosophical. Philosophy includes both analysis and synthesis. Analysis focuses on central concepts in a domain, for example, informed consent, death, medical futility, and health. It is argued that analysis should avoid oversimplification. The synthesis or synoptic dimension prompts people to explain how their views have logical assumptions and implications. In addition to the conceptual elements are the evaluative and empirical dimensions. Among its functions, philosophy can be a form of prophylaxis--helping people avoid some commonly accepted questionable theories. Generally, recent philosophy has steered away from algorithms and deductivist approaches to ethical justification. In bioethics, philosophy works in partnership with a range of other disciplines, including pediatrics and neurology. PMID:26358430

  20. Religion, bioethics and nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Marsha D

    2009-07-01

    This article calls nursing to engage in the study of religions and identifies six considerations that arise in religious studies and the ways in which religious faith is expressed. It argues that whole-person care cannot be realized, neither can there be a complete understanding of bioethics theory and decision making, without a rigorous understanding of religious-ethical systems. Because religious traditions differ in their cosmology, ontology, epistemology, aesthetic, and ethical methods, and because religious subtraditions interact with specific cultures, each religion and subtradition has something distinctive to offer to ethical discourse. A brief example is drawn from Native American religions, specifically their view of ;speech' and ;words'. Although the example is particular to an American context, it is intended to demonstrate a more general principle that an understanding of religion per se can yield new insights for bioethics. PMID:19528097

  1. Disciplining Bioethics: Towards a Standard of Methodological Rigor in Bioethics Research

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Daniel; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary bioethics research is often described as multi- or interdisciplinary. Disciplines are characterized, in part, by their methods. Thus, when bioethics research draws on a variety of methods, it crosses disciplinary boundaries. Yet each discipline has its own standard of rigor—so when multiple disciplinary perspectives are considered, what constitutes rigor? This question has received inadequate attention, as there is considerable disagreement regarding the disciplinary status of bioethics. This disagreement has presented five challenges to bioethics research. Addressing them requires consideration of the main types of cross-disciplinary research, and consideration of proposals aiming to ensure rigor in bioethics research. PMID:22686634

  2. Is there a Mediterranean bioethics?

    PubMed

    Mallia, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    Is there a special Mediterranean approach to Bioethics and if so what are the roots of this approach? And why not a Bosphorus, or a 'lake Michigan' bioethics? The answer to such a question depends on the focus one takes on defining 'Mediterranean'? On the one hand one can refer to the Mediterranean region which includes the surrounding coasts, having Europe on its northern coast line, northern Africa on its southern coast line (and these will include the north and South West coasts), and in the Eastern region countries which border with Middle-Eastern countries. This approach is the approach currently being taken by European Parliamentarians when they speak about the Mediterranean, namely including countries like France, Italy and Libya. On the other hand there is the look upon the Mediterranean as 'Southern Europe'; this is a more 'traditional' way on how westerners view the Mediterranean. This common approach is often recognized when, for example, we speak of 'Mediterranean diet', or, 'Mediterranean Temperament'. It would include Eastern countries like Greece and Cyprus. This article focuses on these two approaches to Mediterranean ethics after discussing issues pertaining to the region which are important to define in this context. It then analyses the need for having a Mediterranean approach to bioethical issues. PMID:23070886

  3. [Language and metalanguage in bioethics].

    PubMed

    Colombetti, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The language of Bioethics is situated in a context of singular terminological complexity. On the one hand, if we look at the epistemological status of this discipline, we can realize that the knowledge of their material object (which refers to the Bios and transformations that technology involves) requires the assistance of several sciences, whose contribution is indispensable for understanding the empirical data. At the same time, the question which constitutes its formal object is clearly philosophical, and therefore requires moving at the level of ethics. This paper attempts to deal with some problematic knots of the issue, gathered around two axes: the role of techno-scientific language in bioethics and its explanatory ability and the characteristics of philosophical language. As for the second point, it also discusses the tentative to find a neutral language (structuring the same Bioethics as a lingua franca); the recourse to indirect speech that shifts the focus from the truth of the arguments to the framework of models; the rhetorical use of the language. PMID:24206248

  4. The historical contingency of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Kevles, D J

    2000-01-01

    The principles of bioethics have been historically contingent, a product of social values, circumstances, and experience. During the early twentieth century, they rested on a doctor-knows-best autonomy that permitted physicians to perform research on human subjects with a minimum degree, if any, of informed consent. The eugenics movement of the period embraced an implicit bioethics by presuming to sterilize individuals for the sake of a larger social benefit, a practice and doctrine that helped lead to the Nazi medical experiments and death camps. After World War II, the promulgation of the Nuremberg Code failed to halt eugenic sterilization and risky human experimentation without informed consent either in civilian or military venues. However, beginning in the 1960s, these practices came under mounting critical scrutiny, partly because of the increasing attention given to individual rights. By now, it is widely understood that concern for individual rights rather than an appeal to some national good belongs at the heart of bioethics. PMID:11936137

  5. Exploring Bioethical Issues: An Instructional Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.; Hendrix, Jon R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses several instructional strategies to meet objectives of a college level bioethics course. Includes an example of how a specific topic (death) is explored. Also includes examples of Personal Value Inventory, Five-Sort Value Inventory, and Bioethical Value-Clarifying Decision-Making model used by students in analyzing specific ethical…

  6. Assessing Analysis and Reasoning in Bioethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Roger S.

    2008-01-01

    Developing critical thinking is a perceived weakness in current education. Analysis and reasoning are core skills in bioethics making bioethics a useful vehicle to address this weakness. Assessment is widely considered to be the most influential factor on learning (Brown and Glasner, 1999) and this piece describes how analysis and reasoning in…

  7. Bioethics in the Laboratory: Synthesis and Interactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Kevin J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the implementation of a bioethics laboratory exercise that incorporates a variety of instructional strategies. In the activity, General Biology students consider relevant and interesting topics of bioethical importance and prepare classroom presentations on the different viewpoints normally attendant to ethical topics. Includes an…

  8. Integrative Bioethics: A Conceptually Inconsistent Project.

    PubMed

    Ivanković, Viktor; Savić, Lovro

    2016-06-01

    This article provides a critical evaluation of the central components of Integrative Bioethics, a project aiming at a bioethical framework reconceptualization. Its proponents claim that this new system of thought has developed a better bioethical methodology than mainstream Western bioethics, a claim that we criticize here. We deal especially with the buzz words of Integrative Bioethics - pluriperspectivism, integrativity, orientational knowledge, as well as with its underlying theory of moral truth. The first part of the paper looks at what the claims of a superior methodology consist in. The second reveals pluriperspectivism and integrativity to be underdeveloped, hazy terms, but which seem to be underpinned by two theses - the incommensurability and the inclusiveness theses. These theses we critically scrutinize. We then consider strategies the project's proponents might apply to curb these theses in order to acquire minimal consistency for their framework. This part of the article also deals with the conception of moral truth that drives the theory, a position equally burdened with inconsistencies. In the last part of the article, we observe the concept of orientational knowledge, and develop two interpretations of its possible meaning. We claim that, following the first interpretation, Integrative Bioethics is completely descriptive, in which case it is informative and important, but hardly bioethics; if it is normative, following the second interpretation, it is bioethics as we already know it, but merely clad in rhetorical embellishments. We conclude that there is nothing new about this project, and that its inconsistencies are reason enough for its abandonment. PMID:26644388

  9. Paternal age bioethics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin R

    2015-09-01

    Modern genetic sequencing studies have confirmed that the sperm of older men contain a greater number of de novo germline mutations than the sperm of younger men. Although most of these mutations are neutral or of minimal phenotypic impact, a minority of them present a risk to the health of future children. If demographic trends towards later fatherhood continue, this will likely lead to a more children suffering from genetic disorders. A trend of later fatherhood will accelerate the accumulation of paternal-origin de novo mutations in the gene pool, gradually reducing human fitness in the long term. These risks suggest that paternal age is of ethical importance. Children affected by de novo mutations arising from delayed fatherhood can be said to be harmed, in the sense of 'impersonal' harm or 'non-comparative' harm. Various strategies are open at societal and individual levels towards reducing deleterious paternal age effects. Options include health education to promote earlier fatherhood, incentives for young sperm donors and state-supported universal sperm banking. The latter approach would likely be of the greatest benefit and could in principle be implemented immediately. More futuristically, human germline genetic modification offers the potential to repair heritable mutational damage. PMID:26037282

  10. Creating the ‘ethics industry': Mary Warnock, in vitro fertilization and the history of bioethics in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Recent decades have seen a shift in the management and discussion of biomedicine. Issues once considered by doctors and scientists are now handled by a diverse array of participants, including philosophers, lawyers, theologians and lay representatives. This new approach, known as ‘bioethics', has become the norm in regulatory committees and public debate. In this article, I argue that bioethics emerged as a valued enterprise in Britain during the 1980s because it fulfilled, and linked, the concerns of several groups. My analysis centres on the moral philosopher Mary Warnock, who chaired a government inquiry into human fertilization and embryology between 1982 and 1984, and became a strong advocate of bioethics. I detail how Warnock's promotion of bioethics tallied with the Conservative government's desire for increased surveillance of hitherto autonomous professions – while fulfilling her own belief that philosophers should engage in public affairs. And I also show that Warnock simultaneously promoted bioethics to doctors and scientists as an essential safeguard against declining political and public trust. This stance, I argue, framed bioethics as a vital intermediary between politics, the public, and biomedicine, and explains the growth and endurance of what the Guardian identified as an ethics industry. PMID:22563348

  11. Current bioethical issues in parasitology.

    PubMed

    Boury, D; Dei-Cas, E

    2008-09-01

    Parasitic diseases constitute the most common infections among the poorest billion people, entailing high mortality rates and leading to long-term infirmities and poverty. Although the setting-up of public health programs implies many ethical consequences, the range of specific questions in parasitology that can be attributed to bioethics remains, to a large extent, unexplored. From the present analysis, it emerged three main issues which characterize ethical stakes in parasitology: accounting the complexity of the field of intervention, putting the principle of justice into practice and managing the changing context of research. From the research angle, medical parasitology-mycology, as other biological disciplines, is undergoing tensions derived from biological reductionism. Thanks to its links with the history and philosophy of the sciences, bioethics can help to clarify them and to explain the growing hold that technologies have over scientific thinking. On the whole, researchers as well as clinicians are called on to assume a specific responsibility, proportional to their competence and their place in the making of scientific, health, economic and social decisions. PMID:18814728

  12. Bioethics, population studies, and geneticophobia.

    PubMed

    Salzano, Francisco M

    2015-07-01

    In any research of human populations, the classical principles of bioethics (respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, proportionality between risks and benefits, and justice) should be strictly followed. The question of individual and/or community rights should also be considered, as well as some neglected rights, such as the right to benefit from progress in science and technology and the right to know the nature of the group's biological and cultural history; however, in their urge to assure rights, social researchers, bioethics commissions, non-governmental organizations, and community leaders are, in many cases, crossing the limits of good sense. DNA is sometimes interpreted as synonymous to demoniac, and there is a frequent behaviour that I could only describe using a neologism: geneticophobia. There is an irrational attitude against genetic studies aiming to unravel the biological history of a given people and to classify any genome population study as "racist". This behaviour should be opposed; science and the scientific study of humankind are the only way we have to reach the socially adequate objective of the maximum of happiness to the largest number of persons. PMID:25575494

  13. [The epistemological statute of the bioethics].

    PubMed

    Roqué Sánchez, María Victoria; Corcó Juviñá, Josep

    2013-01-01

    The article exposes the theoretical debate brings over of the configuration epistemological of the Bioethics. There is realized a descriptive and critical analysis of the principal contributions. Sample like the Bioethics always has had difficulties to be defined; the limits and the internal characteristics of the definite thing have suffered important modifications in his short history. Another present, not less substantial problem, it owes to the different manners of understanding it and therefore to that there does not exist Bioethical univocal concept. Finally, there sign three essential features that sustain his conceptual base, and that to ours to deal, are still for resolving. PMID:24483319

  14. I want to hold your hand: abstinence curricula, bioethics, and the silencing of desire.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Abby

    2013-06-01

    The abstinence approach to sex education remains influential despite its demonstrated ineffectiveness. One bill forbids the "promotion" of "gateway sexual activity," while requiring outright condemnation of "non-abstinence," defined so loosely as to plausibly include handholding. Bioethics seldom (if ever) contributes to sex-ed debates, yet exploring the pivotal role of medical discourse reveals the need for bioethical intervention. Sex-ed debates revolve around a theory of human flourishing based on heteronormative temporality, a developmental teleology ensuring the transmission of various supposed social goods through heterosexual marriage (Halberstam, 2005). Heteronormative temporality also constitutes a moralized discourse in which the values of health and presumed certainties of medicine serve to justify conservative religious dictates that otherwise would appear controversial as the basis for public policy. Overall, this analysis explores how moralized medical discourses compound existing injustices, while suggesting bioethics' potential contributions to moral and political analysis of sex-ed policies. PMID:23468394

  15. Teaching Bioethics from an Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Rivers, Jr.; Brock, D. Heyward

    1982-01-01

    Outlines an interdisciplinary workshop in bioethics for secondary teachers taught by a team consisting of a scientist, a philosopher, and a literary critic. Discusses definitions, topics, reading selections, problems, and value. (DC)

  16. A "Bioethics" Approach to Teaching Health Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capron, Alexander Morgan

    1988-01-01

    The reasons for offering a course in bioethics to law students and some approaches to take in addressing controversial issues are examined. The use of hypothetical vs. real cases, emphasis on clinical problems, and overall course objectives are discussed. (MSE)

  17. How philosophy and theology have undermined bioethics.

    PubMed

    Capaldi, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This essay begins by distinguishing among the viewpoints of philosophy, theology, and religion; it then explores how each deals with "sin" in the bioethical context. The conclusions are that the philosophical and theological viewpoints are intellectually defective in that they cripple our ability to deal with normative issues, and are in the end unable to integrate Christian concepts like "sin" successfully into bioethics. Sin is predicated only of beings with free will, though only in Western Christianity must all sins be committed with knowledge and voluntarily. Without the notions of free will, sin, and a narrative of redemption, bioethics remains unable to provide itself with an adequate normative framework. Bioethics, and morality in general, remain a morass precisely because there has been a failure to translate Christian morality into fully secular and scientistic terms. PMID:17453839

  18. What do you think of philosophical bioethics?

    PubMed

    Häyry, Matti

    2015-04-01

    This article provides an overview of approaches to bioethics-practical and theoretical, philosophical and nonphilosophical. It is argued that those who yearn for pragmatism and real-life relevance would do well to concentrate on politics, legislation, social policy, and lobbying. Those, on the other hand, who seek knowledge about our moral thought might be interested in philosophical bioethics-in the explication of concepts, arguments, views, and normative statements. PMID:25719349

  19. [Reasons for an intercultural perspective of bioethics].

    PubMed

    Chávez Aguilar, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Bioethics must have an intercultural perspective. This is based on three facts: The principles and values around which reflection is made are related to world views and traditions, human beings are cultural beings, and current societies are considerably diverse. Based on this, bioethics will seek an adequate balance between ethical universalism and contextualism. This is a fundamental step for unconditional respect for human dignity and mutual recognition, dialogue, correlation and complementarity among diverse cultures. PMID:23338647

  20. Applying bioethical principles to human biomonitoring

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Myron

    2008-01-01

    Bioethical principles are widely used as a normative framework in areas of human research and medical care. In recent years there has been increasing formalization of their use in public health decisions. The "traditional bioethical principles" are applied in this discussion to the important issue human biomonitoring for environmental exposures. They are: (1) Autonomy – Also known as the "respect for humans" principle, people understand their own best interests; (2) Beneficence – "do good" for people; (3) Nonmaleficence – "do no harm"; (4) Justice – fair distribution of benefits and costs (including risks to health) across stakeholders. Some of the points made are: (1) There is not a single generic bioethical analysis applicable to the use of human biomonitoring data, each specific use requires a separate deliberation; (2) Using unidentified, population-based biomonitoring information for risk assessment or population surveillance raises fewer bioethical concerns than personally identified biomonitoring information such as employed in health screening; (3) Companies should proactively apply normative bioethical principles when considering the disposition of products and by-products in the environment and humans; (4) There is a need for more engagement by scholars on the bioethical issues raised by the use of biomarkers of exposure; (5) Though our scientific knowledge of biology will continue to increase, there will always be a role for methods or frameworks to resolve substantive disagreements in the meaning of this data that are matters of belief rather than knowledge. PMID:18541074

  1. Reconceptualizing Autonomy: A Relational Turn in Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Bruce

    2016-05-01

    History's judgment on the success of bioethics will not depend solely on the conceptual creativity and innovation in the field at the level of ethical and political theory, but this intellectual work is not insignificant. One important new development is what I shall refer to as the relational turn in bioethics. This development represents a renewed emphasis on the ideographic approach, which interprets the meaning of right and wrong in human actions as they are inscribed in social and cultural practices and in structures of lived meaning and interdependence; in an ideographic approach, the task of bioethics is to bring practice into theory, not the other way around. The relational turn in bioethics may profoundly affect the critical questions that the field asks and the ethical guidance it offers society, politics, and policy. The relational turn provides a way of correcting the excessive atomism of many individualistic perspectives that have been, and continue to be, influential in bioethics. Nonetheless, I would argue that most of the work reflecting the relational turn remains distinctively liberal in its respect for the ethical significance of the human individual. It moves away from individualism, but not from the value of individuality.In this review essay, I shall focus on how the relational turn has manifested itself in work on core concepts in bioethics, especially liberty and autonomy. Following a general review, I conclude with a brief consideration of two important recent books in this area: Jennifer Nedelsky's Law's Relations and Rachel Haliburton's Autonomy and the Situated Self. PMID:26847836

  2. Applying bioethical principles to human biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Myron

    2008-01-01

    Bioethical principles are widely used as a normative framework in areas of human research and medical care. In recent years there has been increasing formalization of their use in public health decisions. The "traditional bioethical principles" are applied in this discussion to the important issue human biomonitoring for environmental exposures. They are: (1) Autonomy--Also known as the "respect for humans" principle, people understand their own best interests; (2) Beneficence--"do good" for people; (3) Nonmaleficence--"do no harm"; (4) Justice--fair distribution of benefits and costs (including risks to health) across stakeholders.Some of the points made are: (1) There is not a single generic bioethical analysis applicable to the use of human biomonitoring data, each specific use requires a separate deliberation; (2) Using unidentified, population-based biomonitoring information for risk assessment or population surveillance raises fewer bioethical concerns than personally identified biomonitoring information such as employed in health screening; (3) Companies should proactively apply normative bioethical principles when considering the disposition of products and by-products in the environment and humans; (4) There is a need for more engagement by scholars on the bioethical issues raised by the use of biomarkers of exposure; (5) Though our scientific knowledge of biology will continue to increase, there will always be a role for methods or frameworks to resolve substantive disagreements in the meaning of this data that are matters of belief rather than knowledge. PMID:18541074

  3. Assessing empirical research in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Brody, B A

    1993-09-01

    Empirical research can aid ethical reflection in bioethics by identifying issues, by seeing how they are currently resolved, and by assessing the consequences of these current resolutions. This potential can be misused when the ethical issues in question are fundamentally non-consequentialist or when they are consequentialist but the empirical research fails to address the important consequences. An example of the former problem is some recent studies about bad consequences resulting from commercialized living kidney donor programs. These consequences could be avoided, but the crucial non-consequentialist ethical issues about exploitation and commercialization would still remain. Examples of the latter problem are provided by recent studies of the allocation of ICU beds and of physician deception, where important consequences were not adequately studied. PMID:8259528

  4. Burden of Proof in Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Koplin, Julian J; Selgelid, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    A common strategy in bioethics is to posit a prima facie case in favour of one policy, and to then claim that the burden of proof (that this policy should be rejected) falls on those with opposing views. If the burden of proof is not met, it is claimed, then the policy in question should be accepted. This article illustrates, and critically evaluates, examples of this strategy in debates about the sale of organs by living donors, human enhancement, and the precautionary principle. We highlight general problems with this style of argument, and particular problems with its use in specific cases. We conclude that the burden ultimately falls on decision-makers (i.e. policy-makers) to choose the policy supported by the best reasons. PMID:26481200

  5. Human dignity in the Nazi era: implications for contemporary bioethics

    PubMed Central

    O'Mathúna, Dónal P

    2006-01-01

    Background The justification for Nazi programs involving involuntary euthanasia, forced sterilisation, eugenics and human experimentation were strongly influenced by views about human dignity. The historical development of these views should be examined today because discussions of human worth and value are integral to medical ethics and bioethics. We should learn lessons from how human dignity came to be so distorted to avoid repetition of similar distortions. Discussion Social Darwinism was foremost amongst the philosophies impacting views of human dignity in the decades leading up to Nazi power in Germany. Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory was quickly applied to human beings and social structure. The term 'survival of the fittest' was coined and seen to be applicable to humans. Belief in the inherent dignity of all humans was rejected by social Darwinists. Influential authors of the day proclaimed that an individual's worth and value were to be determined functionally and materialistically. The popularity of such views ideologically prepared German doctors and nurses to accept Nazi social policies promoting survival of only the fittest humans. A historical survey reveals five general presuppositions that strongly impacted medical ethics in the Nazi era. These same five beliefs are being promoted in different ways in contemporary bioethical discourse. Ethical controversies surrounding human embryos revolve around determinations of their moral status. Economic pressures force individuals and societies to examine whether some people's lives are no longer worth living. Human dignity is again being seen as a relative trait found in certain humans, not something inherent. These views strongly impact what is taken to be acceptable within medical ethics. Summary Five beliefs central to social Darwinism will be examined in light of their influence on current discussions in medical ethics and bioethics. Acceptance of these during the Nazi era proved destructive to many

  6. Why Bioethics Needs a Disability Moral Psychology.

    PubMed

    Stramondo, Joseph A

    2016-05-01

    The deeply entrenched, sometimes heated conflict between the disability movement and the profession of bioethics is well known and well documented. Critiques of prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion are probably the most salient and most sophisticated of disability studies scholars' engagements with bioethics, but there are many other topics over which disability activists and scholars have encountered the field of bioethics in an adversarial way, including health care rationing, growth-attenuation interventions, assisted reproduction technology, and physician-assisted suicide. The tension between the analyses of the disabilities studies scholars and mainstream bioethics is not merely a conflict between two insular political groups, however; it is, rather, also an encounter between those who have experienced disability and those who have not. This paper explores that idea. I maintain that it is a mistake to think of this conflict as arising just from a difference in ideology or political commitments because it represents a much deeper difference-one rooted in variations in how human beings perceive and reason about moral problems. These are what I will refer to as variations of moral psychology. The lived experiences of disability produce variations in moral psychology that are at the heart of the moral conflict between the disability movement and mainstream bioethics. I will illustrate this point by exploring how the disability movement and mainstream bioethics come into conflict when perceiving and analyzing the moral problem of physician-assisted suicide via the lens of the principle of respect for autonomy. To reconcile its contemporary and historical conflict with the disability movement, the field of bioethics must engage with and fully consider the two groups' differences in moral perception and reasoning, not just the explicit moral and political arguments of the disability movement. PMID:27150415

  7. Surmounting elusive barriers: the case for bioethics mediation.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    This article describes, analyzes, and advocates for management of clinical healthcare conflict by a process commonly referred to as bioethics mediation. Section I provides a brief introduction to classical mediation outside the realm of clinical healthcare. Section II highlights certain distinguishing characteristics of bioethics mediation. Section III chronicles the history of bioethics mediation and references a number of seminal writings on the subject. Finally, Section IV analyzes barriers that have, thus far, limited the widespread implementation of bioethics mediation. PMID:23631331

  8. Bioethics Center: An Idea Whose Time Had Come

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The functioning of the Kennedy Institute, which aims at dealing with ethical and social questions raised by advances in biosciences and medicine, is described. Three major projects now underway are briefly discussed: a core reference library in bioethics, an Encyclopedia of Bioethics, and a bioethics information retrieval system. (DT)

  9. Two Agendas for Bioethics: Critique and Integration.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Jeremy R

    2015-07-01

    Many bioethicists view the primary task of bioethics as 'value clarification'. In this article, I argue that the field must embrace two more ambitious agendas that go beyond mere clarification. The first agenda, critique, involves unmasking, interrogating, and challenging the presuppositions that underlie bioethical discourse. These largely unarticulated premises establish the boundaries within which problems can be conceptualized and solutions can be imagined. The function of critique, then, is not merely to clarify these premises but to challenge them and the boundaries they define. The second agenda, integration, involves honoring and unifying what is right in competing values. Integration is the morally ideal response to value conflict, offering the potential for transcending win/lose outcomes. The function of integration, then, is to envision actions or policies that not only resolve conflicts, but that do so by jointly realizing many genuine values in deep and compelling ways. My argument proceeds in stages. After critically examining the role and dominant status of value clarification in bioethical discourse, I describe the nature and value of the two agendas, identify concrete examples of where each has been and could be successful, and explain why a critical integrative bioethics--one that appreciates the joint necessity and symbiotic potential of the two agendas--is crucial to the future of the field. The ultimate goal of all of this is to offer a more compelling vision for how bioethics might conduct itself within the larger intellectual and social world it seeks to understand and serve. PMID:25257233

  10. Interventional bioethics: epistemology for peripheral countries.

    PubMed

    Garrafa, Volnei; Porto, Dora

    2008-01-01

    Principlism, which originated in the United States based on four supposedly universal principles, brought international visibility to the field of bioethics over the final years of the twentieth century. Nevertheless, from 1990 onwards, criticism regarding the universal applicability of these principles emerged, especially concerning their limitations in dealing with collective macroproblems--social, sanitary and environmental--that are seen in poor developing countries every day. In this respect, the idea of Intervention Bioethics was presented at the University of Brasília, Brazil, in 1998, and was subsequently expanded to encompass other Latin American countries. From the outset, this epistemological proposal of third-world construction and perspective advocated politicisation of the international bioethics agenda, and this aim was achieved through the content of UNESCO's Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, which was adopted in 2005. Grounded in a utilitarian and consequentialistic approach, Intervention Bioethics gives priority, ahead of vulnerabilities relating to gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity and similar considerations, to the fields of social and sanitary justice in order to defend the poorest and most disempowered populations in the asymmetrical contemporary world. PMID:18664003

  11. The nature and value of bioethics expertise.

    PubMed

    Vogelstein, Eric

    2015-06-01

    In this article, I address the extent to which experts in bioethics can contribute to healthcare delivery by way of aid in clinical decision-making and policy-formation. I argue that experts in bioethics are moral experts, in that their substantive moral views are more likely to be correct than those of non-bioethicists, all else being equal, but that such expertise is of use in a relatively limited class of cases. In so doing, I respond to two recent arguments against the view that bioethicists are moral experts, one by Christopher Cowley and another by David Archard. I further argue that bioethics experts have significant additional contributions to make to healthcare delivery, and highlight a hitherto neglected aspect of that contribution: amelioration of moral misconception among clinicians. I describe in detail several aspects of moral misconception, and show how the bioethicist is in a prime position to resolve that sort of error. PMID:25256867

  12. Lessons from Queer Bioethics: A Response to Timothy F. Murphy.

    PubMed

    Richie, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    'Bioethics still has important work to do in helping to secure status equality for LGBT people' writes Timothy F. Murphy in a recent Bioethics editorial. The focus of his piece, however, is much narrower than human rights, medical care for LGBT people, or ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Rather, he is primarily concerned with sexuality and gender identity, and the medical intersections thereof (i.e. DSM diagnosis; access to SrS or ARTs). It is the objective of this response to provide an alternate account of bioethics from a Queer perspective. I will situate Queer bioethics within Queer studies, and offer three 'lessons' that bioethics can derive from this perspective. These are not definitive rules for Queer bioethics, since it is a field which fundamentally opposes categorizations, favoring pastiche over principles. These lessons are exploratory examples, which both complement and contradict LGBT bioethics. My latter two lessons - on environmental bioethics and disability - overlap with some of Murphy's concerns, as well as other conceptions of LGBT bioethics. However, the first lesson takes an antithetical stance to Murphy's primary focus by resisting all forms of heteroconformity and disavowing reproduction as consonant with Queer objectives and theory. The first lesson, which doubles as a primer in Queer theory, does heavy philosophical lifting for the remainder of the essay. This response to Timothy F. Murphy, whose work is certainly a legacy in bioethics, reveals the multiplicity of discourses in LGBT/Queer studies, many of which are advantageous - even essential - to other disciplines like bioethics. PMID:26833492

  13. Global challenges and globalization of bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Nezhmetdinova, Farida

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes problems and implications for man and nature connected with the formation of a new architecture of science, based on the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science (NBIC). It also describes evolution and genesis of bioethics, a scientific discipline and social practice with a special role of ethical management of potential risks of scientific research. The aim was to demonstrate the necessity of bioethical social control in the development of a global bioeconomy driven by NBIC technologies. PMID:23447421

  14. Parental responsibility and the Infant Bioethics Committee.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, A R

    1990-01-01

    The prognosis is not good for an infant whose entire intestine has been destroyed by necrotizing enterocolitis. An infant bioethics committee is asked to advise whether the parents should be offered the option of total parenteral intravenous nutrition, with its ultimately fatal complications, for their child. Committee members agree that the option of intravenous feeding should be offered, and that it is morally acceptable for the parents to refuse it. Fleischman reviews the issues that an infant bioethics committee must consider when it is asked to help decide what treatment options will be discussed with the family of a seriously ill neonate. PMID:2108103

  15. Global challenges and globalization of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Nezhmetdinova, Farida

    2013-02-01

    This article analyzes problems and implications for man and nature connected with the formation of a new architecture of science, based on the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science (NBIC). It also describes evolution and genesis of bioethics, a scientific discipline and social practice with a special role of ethical management of potential risks of scientific research. The aim was to demonstrate the necessity of bioethical social control in the development of a global bioeconomy driven by NBIC technologies. PMID:23447421

  16. Philosophical feminist bioethics: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Marway, Herjeet; Widdows, Heather

    2015-04-01

    The end of the last century was a particularly vibrant period for feminist bioethics. Almost two decades on, we reflect on the legacy of the feminist critique of bioethics and investigate the extent to which it has been successful and what requires more attention yet. We do this by examining the past, present, and future: we draw out three feminist concerns that emerged in this period-abstraction, individualism, and power-and consider three feminist responses-relationality, particularity, and justice-and we finish with some thoughts about the future. PMID:25719352

  17. Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Robyn S.

    2006-01-01

    Bioethics--the study of ethical issues in science and medicine--has grown to become a significant academic and service-oriented discipline with its own research centers, conferences, journals, and degree programs. As these issues have moved to the center of public debate, the law has assumed an increasingly important place in the discipline of…

  18. Community Bioethics: The Health Decisions Community Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallegos, Tom; Mrgudic, Kate

    1993-01-01

    Sees health care decision making posing variety of complex issues for individuals, families, and providers. Describes Health Decisions Community Council (HDCC), community-based bioethics committee established to offer noninstitutional forum for discussion of health care dilemmas. Notes that social work skills and values for autonomy and…

  19. Bioethics: New Responsibility for Human Service Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Rebecca

    The paper highlights the poignancy with which problems and issues surface as the fields of special education and bioethics (the combination of ethics and the life sciences) intersect, and touches upon professionals' responsibility for protection of the persons in their care. (Author/SBH)

  20. Teaching about Bioethics through Authoring of Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willmott, Christopher J. R.; Wellens, Jane

    2004-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the need to equip students to think through the ethical implications of developments in biology. We describe an exercise in which students work in teams to produce websites about current controversial issues within the subject. Participants report a significant improvement in their knowledge of bioethics and…

  1. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  2. Constitution and common law in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Santosuosso, A

    2001-10-01

    In recent years legal intervention in bioethical matters has increased notably following various paths: court decisions, parliamentary acts, codes of conduct and solemn declarations (i.e. European Bioethics Convention, 1997, or the UNESCO Genome Declaration, 1997). Body and liberty, as a question of fundamental legal rights, are constitutionalized along two paths. The former is vertical (a text created at central level is open to ratification and domestic implementation to finally become the rule in concrete cases). The latter is, above all, horizontal. It is characterized by the existence at world level of a number of centres and institutions, with the judiciary and judge-made law playing a major role. The most important new rights and freedoms in bioethics have been recognized in this ever-changing and troubled environment. The horizontal way has the great advantage of considering the differences as a resource and not as a limit. In the case law on bioethics a sort of jurisprudential model seems to be at work, that goes some way toward a judge-made law at a universal level. Cases such as Cruzan, Bland and Massimo held the fundamental concept of self-determination with surprising similarity. But we don't know if one of them has influenced the others, always supposing that the judges were aware of them. Today's first duty is to raise the consciousness of judges as to how common their problems are and how often their rulings are similar to each other's. PMID:12058772

  3. What feminism can do for bioethics.

    PubMed

    Purdy, L M

    2001-01-01

    Feminist criticism of health care and of bioethics has become increasingly rich and sophisticated in the last years of the twentieth century. Nonetheless, this body of work remains quite marginalized. I believe that there are (at least) two reasons for this. First, many people are still confused about feminism. Second, many people are unconvinced that significant sexism still exists and are therefore unreceptive to arguments that it should be remedied if there is no larger benefit. In this essay I argue for a thin, "core" conception of feminism that is easy to understand and difficult to reject. Core feminism would render debate within feminism more fruitful, clear the way for appropriate recognition of differences among women and their circumstances, provide intellectually compelling reasons for current non-feminists to adopt a feminist outlook, and facilitate mutually beneficial cooperation between feminism and other progressive social movements. This conception of feminism also makes it clear that feminism is part of a larger egalitarian moral and political agenda, and adopting it would help bioethics focus on the most urgent moral priorities. In addition, integrating core feminism into bioethics would open a gateway to the more speculative parts of feminist work where a wealth of creative thinking is occurring. Engaging with this feminist work would challenge and strengthen mainstream approaches: it should also motivate mainstream bioethicists to explore other currently marginalized parts of bioethics. PMID:11561992

  4. [Cooperation in health from the bioethical perspective].

    PubMed

    Santana, José Paranaguá de; Garrafa, Volnei

    2013-01-01

    This study considers the scenario of international relations in the transition to the twenty-first century as a backdrop for reflection on the bioethical perspective of international cooperation in health. It presents an exploratory analysis of the interdisciplinary scientific production in bioethics and public health in the international context, revealing that the focus and confluence of both issues has scant coverage in terms of diplomatic relations. It describes the methodology used to select publications cataloged in this interdisciplinary area from two bibliographic sources available on the web (93 articles in BVS/BIREME and 161 in PubMed), pointing to difficulties in locating this literature. The potential of the epistemological approach that flourished in Latin America under the guise of the Bioethics of Intervention in addressing the challenges that confront the international cooperation system, identified as the benchmark for analysis of South-South cooperation in health, is recommended. It concludes by proposing systematization and broadening of knowledge at the intersection of bioethics, public health and diplomacy, whose projection in the political and institutional field can contribute to reducing inequalities in health conditions among nations. PMID:23338503

  5. Family Secrets: The Bioethics of Genetic Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Dina G.; DuPre, Michael J.; Holt, Susan; Chen, Shaw-Ree; Wischnowski, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses "Family Secrets," a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum module that focuses on the bioethical implications of genetic testing. In high school biology classrooms throughout New York State, students are using "Family Secrets" to learn about DNA testing; Huntington's disease (HD); and the ethical, legal, and social…

  6. Accounting for context: future directions in bioethics theory and research.

    PubMed

    Douglas-Steele, D; Hundert, E M

    1996-06-01

    Many physicians have found that the traditional approach to bioethics fails to account for important aspects of their moral experience in practice. New approaches to bioethics theory are challenging the traditional application of universal moral principles based in liberal moral theory. At the same time, a shift in both the goals and methods of bioethics education has accompanied its "coming of age" in the medical school curriculum. Taken together, these changes challenge both bioethics educators and theorists to come closer to the details and nuances of real clinical encounters. The emerging trend emphasizes the importance of context in bioethics education and in the moral theory and research undergirding it. This article introduces one research approach examining the practical life contexts of medical students' ethical experiences and learning. It calls for increased attention to research and theory in bioethics that more adequately accounts for the ways different contexts produce significant changes in meaning and understanding in medical encounters. PMID:8767639

  7. 75 FR 16127 - Establishment of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... members, who will be drawn from fields of bioethics, science, medicine, technology, engineering, law... President's Council on Bioethics. The Council was established by Executive Order 13237, dated November...

  8. What has bioethics to offer the developing countries.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ren-Zong

    1993-04-01

    My paper consists of three parts. In the first part I try to explain the intellectual basis of bioethics in developing countries. In the second part I describe the bioethical dilemmas facing these countries. In the third part I shall discuss the changes that have to be made in bioethics if it is to take root in these countries, and thereby help them to improve the human existence. PMID:11651524

  9. Bioethics and professionalism in popular television medical dramas.

    PubMed

    Czarny, Matthew J; Faden, Ruth R; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2010-04-01

    Television medical dramas sometimes depict medical professionalism and bioethical issues, but their nature and extent are unclear. The authors systematically analysed the bioethical and professionalism content of one season each of Grey's Anatomy and House M.D., two of the most popular current television medical dramas. The results indicate that these programmes are rife with powerful portrayals of bioethical issues and egregious deviations from the norms of professionalism and contain exemplary depictions of professionalism to a much lesser degree. PMID:20338929

  10. The breadth of bioethics: core areas of bioethics education for hospital ethics committees.

    PubMed

    May, T

    2001-02-01

    The multidisciplinary nature of bioethics can result in narrow "sub-specialists" within the field, whose work reflects the issues and concerns most relevant to their "home discipline." This can result in work which is insensitive to the important ways in which particular areas of bioethics are interrelated, and which (while viable in the context of the sub-specialty) is not viable in a broader context. The narrow focus of many healthcare ethics committees on issues directly related to clinical patient care can exacerbate this problem. Increasingly, issues in the clinical care of patients cannot be separated from issues in research, organizational ethics, and public policy. I argue that these problems call for a need to identify "core" areas for bioethics education. This is especially true for education of hospital ethics committees, which increasingly face complex cases involving concerns that fall outside traditional patient care issues. I then consider nine areas examined in detail in A Companion to Bioethics edited by Helga Kuhse and Peter Singer, as potential candidates for "core" areas of bioethics education. At the same time, I evaluate the range of issues examined in each area of the book, in the context of the book's ability to provide an introduction to each area. PMID:11262643

  11. Bioethics, Religion, and Public Policy: Intersections, Interactions, and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Peter A

    2016-10-01

    Bioethics in America positions itself as a totalizing discipline, capable of providing guidance to any individual within the boundaries of a health or medical setting. Yet the religiously observant or those driven by spiritual values have not universally accepted decisions made by "secular" bioethics, and as a result, religious bioethical thinkers and adherents have developed frameworks and rich counter-narratives used to fend off encroachment by policies perceived as threatening. This article uses brain death in Jewish law, the case of Jahi McMath, and vaccination refusal to observe how the religious system of ethics is presently excluded from bioethics and its implications. PMID:26525211

  12. Impact of bioethics on patentability of inventions.

    PubMed

    Devaiah, Vishwas H

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of bioethics on patent claims. The increase in research activities involving human biological materials, and the rush to commercialise inventions derived from such biological materials, can at times result in unethical conduct of research. Questions arise as to whether patent law should concern itself with tainted research that has resulted in an invention or whether it should grant patent rights solely on the basis of the technical improvements resulting from such research. This paper highlights the significance of ethical practice in biomedical research, an issue that may influence the decision to grant patents on inventions. It explores the relation between morality, bioethics and patents from the perspective of the objectives of the patent system and current developments in the law on patents. The inclusion of the morality provision in patent law introduces a mechanism through which inventions derived from tainted research can be filtered at an early stage. PMID:20166289

  13. Bioethics and the national security state.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jonathan D

    2004-01-01

    In previous work, I have described the history and ethics of human experiments for national security purposes during he cold war and developed the bioethical issues that will be apparent in the "war on terror". This paper is an attempt to bring these two previous lines of work together under the rubric of the "national security state," a concept familiar to Cold War historians and political scientists. The founding of the national security state was associated with the first articulations of informed consent requirements by national security agencies. My analysis indicates that strengthened consent standards, though conventionally thought to be antithetical crisis, can be seen as an attempt by the postwar national security state to protect itself from critics of expanded governmental power. During the coming years the renewed mission of the national security state in the war on terror should impel students of bioethics to consider its implications for the field. PMID:15301184

  14. [Bioethics in genetic diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Takebe, H

    2000-06-01

    Human genetics, or medical genetics have been rarely taught in most of the medical schools in Japan, as there are only several medical schools with genetics departments among 80 medical schools in Japan. Bioethics has just been becoming an important issue in the medical community in Japan. People hate to be told of hereditary diseases, possibly due to the traditional concept of hereditary diseases as punishment for the evil acts of the ancestors. Recent rapid progress in genetic diagnosis and therapy, however, requires the medical community in Japan to consider the bioethical aspects related to human genetics. We need proper guidelines, and the efforts have been made by the government as well as by the Society for Familial Tumor to propose practical guidelines for human genetics. They may considerably be different from those in the Western countries. PMID:10879054

  15. [Personalist bioethics in the Romano Guardini's thought].

    PubMed

    Fayos Febrer, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The present article tries to offer some elements of Romano Guardini's thought as a basis for a personalist bioethics. This paper is structured in two main parts. First we will expose the known critic of the Modern Age by Romano Guardini since at this time are set the basis and the principles that later on will bring forth the big bioethics 'questions as human cloning, in vitro fertilization, embryo transference, euthanasia, etc. The power without a guiding ethic rule, the modern human conception and the roll of the Estate will be analyzed too in this first part. This analysis brings to light the error in which modernity has fallen. Secondly, in a more positive way, we will try to deduce other principles from the Romano Guardini's anthropology, commenting his essay "The right to human life in develop". PMID:24836039

  16. "Eugenics talk" and the language of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, S

    2008-06-01

    In bioethical discussions of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal screening, accusations of eugenics are commonplace, as are counter-claims that talk of eugenics is misleading and unhelpful. This paper asks whether "eugenics talk", in this context, is legitimate and useful or something to be avoided. It also looks at the extent to which this linguistic question can be answered without first answering relevant substantive moral questions. Its main conclusion is that the best and most non-partisan argument for avoiding eugenics talk is the Autonomy Argument. According to this, eugenics talk per se is not wrong, but there is something wrong with using its emotive power as a means of circumventing people's critical-rational faculties. The Autonomy Argument does not, however, tell against eugenics talk when such language is used to shock people into critical-rational thought. These conclusions do not depend on unique features of eugenics: similar considerations apply to emotive language throughout bioethics. PMID:18511622

  17. [Bioethics today: Heidegger’s questions].

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Gustavo

    2011-10-01

    Bioethics was born not only as an aftermath of medical technological advance but also from underlying philosophical conceptions about man, that determine scientific research. Analyzing occidental ethics, Heidegger showed that animalism was the only human dimension considered and thereby the domain of measurable objectiveness. He postulated that the essence of human existence as being-in-the-world is ethical and revealed through an original consciousness. Unlike moral conscience, original conscience calls to authenticity, to hear his constitutive nihilism as a "Being-referred-to-death". The founding ground of bioethics may be to listen to this primary being-guilty prior to the derived guilts, e.g. faults, deficiencies and shortcomings of specific daily actions. PMID:22286741

  18. Mapping Queer Bioethics: Space, Place, and Locality.

    PubMed

    Wahlert, Lance

    2016-01-01

    This article, which introduces the special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," begins by offering an overview of the analytical scope of the issue. Specifically, the first half of this essay raises critical questions central to the concept of a space-related queer bioethics, such as: How do we appreciate and understand the special needs of queer parties given the constraints of location, space, and geography? The second half of this article describes each feature article in the issue, as well as the subsequent special sections on the ethics of reading literal, health-related maps ("Cartographies") and scrutinizing the history of this journal as concerns LGBT health ("Mapping the Journal of Homosexuality"). PMID:26643032

  19. [Bioethics is dead. Long live medical ethics!].

    PubMed

    Barrio Maestre, José María

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show a paradigmatic crisis in academic bioethics. Since an important part of bioethicists began to relativize the ethical prohibition of killing an innocent human being, one way or another they began to ally with the death industry: the business of abortion, and then that of euthanasia. The thesis of this paper is that by crossing that Rubicon bioethics has been corrupted and has lost its connection to the ethical, political and legal discourse. One can only hope that it will revive from its ashes if it retakes the ″taboo″ of the sacredness of human life, something for which medical ethics could provide invaluable help, because it still keeps the notion that ″a doctor should not kill″, although in an excessively ″discreet″ and somehow ″ashamed″ way. However, conscientious doctors know more about ethics than most bioethicists. PMID:26030013

  20. [The bioethics of protection and the state's role: moral problems in unequal access to drinking water].

    PubMed

    Pontes, Carlos Antonio Alves; Schramm, Fermin Roland

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine unequal access to drinking water as a public health problem in terms of normative and analytical tools in the bioethics of protection. Therefore, we analyze both the moral implications of unequal treatment of primary needs, such as situations of vulnerability and threat to population groups, and the public sector's responsibility in supplying safe water. In addition, solutions are proposed for the protection of public health and the promotion of legitimate personal development projects. The bioethics of protection reaffirms the state's role in maintaining the drinking water supply and recommends avoiding a policy of privatization of this public good, meanwhile justifying public policies to correct situations of social injustice. PMID:15486675

  1. Bioethics in biomedicine in the context of a global higher education area

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The University is tasked with drawing together, transmitting and maintaining knowledge, while creating an area where the ethical "sense" required for working in the field of Biology and Biomedicine can be provided. Although scientific knowledge is present on an overwhelming scale in nature and, therefore, its discovery is unceasing, this does not mean that, as a human being, the researcher has no limitations. It is Bioethics that sets this limit. The successful spreading of knowledge, therefore, which is proclaimed with the creation of a Global Higher Education Area, should also pursue the establishment of the bioethical principles necessary for the credibility of science and its progress so that the society that it promotes and sustains becomes a reality. PMID:20540744

  2. Bioethics education on deliberation--a view of a novel: Blue Gold, by Clive Cussler.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Susana; Araújo, Joana; Carvalho, Ana Sofia

    2011-03-01

    Since the focus of Bioethics is the bridge between Humanities and the Life Sciences and bearing in mind that this bridge is often difficult to build, those who believe that this dialogue is important in our days should promote it through Education. By educating in Bioethics it is possible to improve the participation of the citizens in debates on the ethical issues raised by new technologies and scientific research. It is our conviction that literary texts are laboratories of ethical judgment, where the ethical questions concerning specific scientific/ technological issues are addressed in an imaginary world. Therefore our purpose is to present a framework for ethical deliberation through the use of literature. Fiction allows us to "practise" ethical decision making, by focusing on the particular cases of the characters of the story and by checking how the principles/theories working in the background apply to the narrated cases. PMID:21528799

  3. Bioethical blind spots: four flaws in the field of view of traditional bioethics.

    PubMed

    Fulford, K W

    1993-11-01

    In this paper it is argued that bioethics has tended to emphasise: 'high tech' areas of medicine at the expense of 'low tech' areas such as psychiatry; problems arising in treatment at the expense of those associated with diagnosis; questions of fact at the expense of questions of value; and applied ethics at the expense of philosophical theory. The common factor linking these four 'bioethical blind spots' is a failure to recognise the full extent to which medicine is an ethical as well as scientific discipline. Once this is acknowledged it leads to a full-field bioethics in which the different areas are mutually complementary. In particular, it paves the way for a fruitful two-way exchange between the more abstract aspects of philosophical theory and the contingencies of day-to-day clinical work. The arguments of the paper are illustrated with recent work on the abuse of psychiatry. PMID:10135594

  4. The Global Governance of Bioethics: Negotiating UNESCO's Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005).

    PubMed

    Langlois, Adèle

    2011-01-01

    UNESCO's Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005) was drawn up by an independent panel of experts (the International Bioethics Committee) and negotiated by member states. UNESCO aimed for a participatory and transparent drafting process, holding national and regional consultations and seeking the views of various interest groups, including religious and spiritual ones. Furthermore, reflecting UNESCO's broad interpretation of bioethics, the IBC included medics, scientists, lawyers and philosophers among its membership. Nevertheless, several potential stakeholders-academic scientists and ethicists, government policy-makers and NGO representatives-felt they had not been sufficiently consulted or even represented during the Declaration's development. Better communications and understanding within and between national, regional and international layers of governance would help to avoid a recurrence of this problem in future negotiations. PMID:22724045

  5. Gender context of personalism in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Amzat, Jimoh; Grandi, Giovanni

    2011-12-01

    Personalism is one of the philosophical perspectives which hold that the reality in person and the human person has the highest intrinsic value. This paper makes reference to Louis Janssens' eight criteria in adequate consideration of the human person but further argues that there is need to consider people as situated agents especially within gender relational perspectives. The paper identifies gender as an important social construction that shapes the consideration of the human persons within socio-spatial spheres. The main crux of the paper is that there is a gender context of personalism and this has profound implications for bioethical agendas. Gender is part of the human condition, especially when we philosophically or sociologically engage the notion of equity and equality within the social system, because social realities in the relational perspective are not impartial, impersonal and equal. Gender does not determine morality but it plays a role in morality and expectations from moral agents. Women have been categorised as a sociological group because their integrity, freedom/autonomy and dignity (which are basic concerns of bioethics) are capable of being threatened. A gender perspective provides important incentives for moral theory which searches for possible conceptual imbalances or blind spots in ethical reflections. The paper refers to Sen's faces of gender inequality and expands on the notion that natality inequality is one of the fundamental levels of gender inequality, which in turn is the primary starting agenda in bioethics. The paper avers that the recognition of the fundamental importance of gender to the organization of social reality and the development of personal identities have important practical implications for bioethics. PMID:22103637

  6. Bioethics in the medical curriculum in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ogundiran, T O; Omotade, O O

    2009-03-01

    Many new innovations and advances are introduced into life and the sciences at a pace faster than any single individual can keep up with but human beings adjust to these changes at a much slower pace. Development is at snail speed in many developing countries and supersonic in the developed world and yet these have to interrelate. The introduction of medical technology and advances into developing countries is sometimes done haphazardly and often without prior appropriate education and decision making process. This has the potential to create dilemmas among stakeholders and engender conflicts with culture, religion and societal norms. A good grounding in the study of bioethical principles and theories is relevant to addressing current and evolving issues with changing biotechnology and shifting landmarks in today's highly technical clinical medicine. The knowledge and utilization of these principles should limit the occurrence of many scandals in the form and magnitude already recorded in the history of biomedical research and practice. While the debate as to whether ethics can be taught will continue, bioethics education provides the requisite knowledge and skill that are applicable at the bedside and in biomedical research. Some evidence has shown that formal teaching of ethics impacts positively on physicians and medical students' attitudes in the care of patients. In this paper we propose that bioethics as a distinct course should be incorporated into medical curriculum in Africa. The integration of bioethics as a required subject in the medical curriculum would have a positive impact on all aspects of health care and research. Real or assumed obstacles are not justifiable reasons for further delay in implementing this initiative PMID:19722434

  7. Bioethics commission to review gene patenting

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenburg, L.

    1995-12-01

    In October, in an unexpected development, U.S. President Bill Clinton created a national ethics advisory board, the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC, Washington, DC), to study both research ethics and the management and use of genetic information. Of particular interest to biotechnology companies and researchers is the fact that the commission`s brief encompasses issues about human gene patenting, a subject not contained in earlier proposals for the commission.

  8. Hard times, hard choices: founding bioethics today.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Diego

    1995-07-01

    The discussions of these past twenty years have significantly improved our knowledge about the foundation of bioethics and the meaning of the four bioethical principles with concern to at least three different points: that they are organised hierarchically, and therefore not "prima facie" of the same level; that they have exceptions, and consequently lack of absolute character; and that they are neither strictly deontological nor purely teleological. The only absolute principle of moral life can be the abstract and unconcrete respect of human beings. But when determining the material content of this respect, principles become contingent and relative. Therefore, moral reasoning must have necessarily no less than three moments, one absolute but merely formal, namely respect for all human beings, and the other two relative and material. The first material moment is comprised of the four bioethical principles, divided into two levels, one private, including the principles of autonomy and beneficence, and the other one public, including those of nonmaleficence and justice. The second material moment deals with specific cases, and requires analysis of their context, including their circumstances and consequences. Only when following these steps, and therefore balancing principlism and contextualism, can moral reasoning be correct and complete. PMID:11653036

  9. [Bioethical arguments in Joseph Ratzinger's thinking].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Carbonell López, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    In the dense theological thought of Joseph Ratzinger before his election as pope, we find fundamental contributions to contemporary bioethics. Starting from the assumption of the close relationship between faith and science he incorporates a necessary theological dimension in the bioethical dialogue that illuminates and clarifies the answers to the real questions raised in bioethical actions. On the one hand, there is the question of the origin of man that is understood as God's creation as opposed to a purely biological origin to which a modern pseudoscientific stance wants to confine it. On the other hand, there is the question about man's identity, which is understood as the image of God, from which stems the inviolable dignity and sacredness of human life, overcoming scientistic materialism. Finally, we find the question of how to treat the ″other″, even the embryo, as a result of its lofty dignity, analyzing the ethical and legal consequences that exude from their nature and are summarized in the duty to protect and respect the other which the law should protect against the abuse of those who are stronger. PMID:25329412

  10. Geneticization and bioethics: advancing debate and research.

    PubMed

    Arnason, Vilhjálmur; Hjörleifsson, Stefán

    2007-12-01

    In the present paper, we focus on the role that the concept of geneticization has played in the discussion about health care, bioethics and society. The concept is discussed and examples from the evolving discourse about geneticization are critically analyzed. The relationship between geneticization, medicalization and biomedicalization is described, emphasizing how debates about the latter concepts can inspire future research on geneticization. It is shown how recurrent themes from the media coverage of genetics portray typical traits of geneticization and thus contribute to the process. We look at examples of small-scale studies from the literature where geneticization of medical practice has been demonstrated. Methodological disputes about the relevance of empirical evidence for the geneticization thesis and the normative status of the concept are discussed. We consider arguments to the effect that ideas from mainstream bioethics have facilitated geneticization by emphasizing individualistic notions of autonomy and responsibility while ignoring the role of genetics in the wider social context. It is shown how a concept like geneticization, which can be used to draw the attention of philosophers, social scientists and others to challenges that tend to be neglected by mainstream bioethics, also has the potential to move people's attention away from other pertinent issues. This may happen if researchers become preoccupied with the transformative effects of genetics, and we argue that a wider reading of geneticization should inspire critical analysis of the sociocultural preconditions under which genetics is currently evolving. PMID:17705026

  11. Bioethics, sport and the genetically enhanced athlete.

    PubMed

    Miah, Andy

    2002-01-01

    This paper begins by acknowledging the interest taken by various international organisations in genetic enhancement and sport, including the US President's Council on Bioethics (July, 2002) and the World Anti-Doping Agency (March, 2002). It is noticed how sporting organisations have been particularly concerned to emphasize the 'threat' of genetics to sport, whereas other institutions have recognised the broader bioethical issues arising from this prospect, which do not readily reject the use of genetic technology in sport. Sports are identified as necessarily 'human' and 'moral' practices, the exploration of which can reveal greater insight into the intuitive fears about genetic modification. It is argued that anti-doping testing measures and sanctions unacceptably persecute the athlete. While there are substantial reasons to be concerned about the use of genetic modification in sport, the desire for policy ought not diminish the need for ethical research; nor ought such research embody the similar guise of traditional 'anti' doping strategies. Rather, the approach to genetics in sport must be informed more by broader social policies in bioethics and recognition of the greater goods arising from genetic technology. PMID:16285154

  12. Fostering Critical Thinking, Reasoning, and Argumentation Skills through Bioethics Education

    PubMed Central

    Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Griswold, Joan Carlton; Kovarik, Dina N.; Collins, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development and curricular materials on the ability of high school students to analyze a bioethical case study and develop a strong position. We focused on student ability to identify an ethical question, consider stakeholders and their values, incorporate relevant scientific facts and content, address ethical principles, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternate solutions. 431 students and 12 teachers participated in a research study using teacher cohorts for comparison purposes. The first cohort received professional development and used the curriculum with their students; the second did not receive professional development until after their participation in the study and did not use the curriculum. In order to assess the acquisition of higher-order justification skills, students were asked to analyze a case study and develop a well-reasoned written position. We evaluated statements using a scoring rubric and found highly significant differences (p<0.001) between students exposed to the curriculum strategies and those who were not. Students also showed highly significant gains (p<0.001) in self-reported interest in science content, ability to analyze socio-scientific issues, awareness of ethical issues, ability to listen to and discuss viewpoints different from their own, and understanding of the relationship between science and society. Our results demonstrate that incorporating ethical dilemmas into the classroom is one strategy for increasing student motivation and

  13. Exploring Preschoolers' Engagement and Perceived Physical Competence in an Autonomy-Based Object Control Skill Intervention: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Samuel; Robinson, Leah; Webster, E. Kipling; Barber, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe children's engagement during two (high and low) autonomy-based climates. Twenty-five preschool children participated in a nine-week object control skill intervention. Children completed the object control subscale of the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd Edition and the perceived physical competence…

  14. The Psychobiology of Aggression and Violence: Bioethical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Jose Luis

    2010-01-01

    Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and…

  15. Disconnections between Teacher Expectations and Student Confidence in Bioethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Price, Laura; Peterson, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how student practice of scientific argumentation using socioscientific bioethics issues affects both teacher expectations of students' general performance and student confidence in their own work. When teachers use bioethical issues in the classroom students can gain not only biology content knowledge but also important…

  16. Personal identity and bioethics: the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, David

    2010-08-01

    In this introduction to the special issue of Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics on the topic of personal identity and bioethics, I provide a background for the topic and then discuss the contributions in the special issue by Eric Olson, Marya Schechtman, Tim Campbell and Jeff McMahan, James Delaney and David Hershenov, and David DeGrazia. PMID:20582730

  17. Islamic bioethics: between sacred law, lived experiences, and state authority.

    PubMed

    Padela, Aasim I

    2013-04-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the field of "Islamic" bioethics within public and professional circles, and both healthcare practitioners and academic scholars deploy their respective expertise in attempts to cohere a discipline of inquiry that addresses the needs of contemporary bioethics stakeholders while using resources from within the Islamic ethico-legal tradition. This manuscript serves as an introduction to the present thematic issue dedicated to Islamic bioethics. Using the collection of papers as a guide the paper outlines several critical questions that a comprehensive and cohesive Islamic bioethical theory must address: (i) What are the relationships between Islamic law (Sharī'ah), moral theology (uṣūl al-Fiqh), and Islamic bioethics? (ii) What is the relationship between an Islamic bioethics and the lived experiences of Muslims? and (iii) What is the relationship between Islamic bioethics and the state? This manuscript, and the papers in this special collection, provides insight into how Islamic bioethicists and Muslim communities are addressing some of these questions, and aims to spur further dialogue around these overaching questions as Islamic bioethics coalesces into a true field of scholarly and practical inquiry. PMID:23588855

  18. 76 FR 48864 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ...-mail: Hillary.Viers@bioethics.gov . Additional information may be obtained at http://www.bioethics.gov... also be webcast at http://www.bioethics.gov . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated November... information about access to the webcast, will be available at http://www.bioethics.gov . The...

  19. 77 FR 76042 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ...: Hillary.Viers@bioethics.gov . Additional information may be obtained at www.bioethics.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY... available. The meeting will also be webcast at www.bioethics.gov . Under authority of Executive Order 13521... information about access to the webcast, will be available at www.bioethics.gov . The Commission...

  20. 76 FR 21369 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ...: Hillary.Viers@bioethics.gov . Additional information may be obtained at http://www.bioethics.gov... available. The meeting will also be webcast at http://www.bioethics.gov . Under authority of Executive Order....bioethics.gov . The Commission welcomes input from anyone wishing to provide public comment on any...

  1. 76 FR 7569 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ...-mail: Hillary.Viers@bioethics.gov . Additional information may be obtained at http://www.bioethics.gov.... The meeting will also be webcast at http://www.bioethics.gov . Under authority of Executive Order....bioethics.gov . The Commission welcomes input from anyone wishing to provide public comment on any...

  2. 77 FR 41789 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ...@bioethics.gov . Additional information may be obtained at www.bioethics.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... at www.bioethics.gov . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated November 24, 2009, the... access to the webcast, will be available at www.bioethics.gov . The Commission welcomes input from...

  3. Philosophy as news: bioethics, journalism and public policy.

    PubMed

    Goodman, K W

    1999-04-01

    News media accounts of issues in bioethics gain significance to the extent that the media influence public policy and inform personal decision making. The increasingly frequent appearance of bioethics in the news thus imposes responsibilities on journalists and their sources. These responsibilities are identified and discussed, as is (i) the concept of "news-worthiness" as applied to bioethics, (ii) the variable quality of bioethics reportage and (iii) journalists' reliance on ethicists to pass judgment. Because of the potential social and other benefits of high quality reporting on ethical issues, it is argued that journalists and their bioethics sources should explore and accommodate more productive relationships. An optimal journalism-ethics relationship will be one characterized by "para-ethics," in which journalistic constraints are noted but also in which issues and arguments are presented without oversimplification and credible disagreement is given appropriate attention. PMID:10344425

  4. The community bioethics committee: a unique pathway out of bioethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R G; Gallegos, T G

    1992-01-01

    We believe that most bioethics committees as well as individual ethics consultants have major shortcomings in that they are unlikely to be open to serving the widest number of citizens who may need their services when facing bioethical dilemmas. The HDCC serves as a community resource, is open to all citizens, is free standing, and provides a wide variety of perspectives which can assist patients, their families, and healthcare providers to explore a range of values and options. The HDCC serves as a model for communities that seek to establish a bioethics resource. Further, the HDCC model permits the further exploration of ways in which important healthcare issues can be faced. AHD believes, in keeping with its mission, that the creation of the HDCC can increase the public's awareness of and involvement in healthcare issues. As B. Jennings reminds us, The mission of community health decisions projects is to stimulate a well-informed conversation where many voices are heard and all reasonable perspectives given due consideration. They not only inform, but also enable responsible civic participation and thoughtful health care decisionmaking. The HDCC model can serve to bring discussions on bioethical dilemmas out of secrecy into safer, yet more open, community fora. PMID:10123221

  5. Development of "Bioethical Values Inventory" for Pupils in Secondary Education within the Scope of Bioethical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskin-Samanci, Nilay; Özer-Keskin, Melike; Arslan, Orhan

    2014-01-01

    This study has led to the development of the "Bioethical Values Inventory" that can be used to reveal secondary school students' ethical values in decisions that they make during ethical debates regarding the application of biological sciences. An original inventory development model was used, consisting of four steps and involving…

  6. The Pedagogical Challenges of Teaching High School Bioethics: Insights from the Exploring Bioethics Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Mildred Z; Vannier, David; Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Miller, Jacqueline S; Paget, Katherine F

    2016-01-01

    A belief that high school students have the cognitive ability to analyze and assess moral choices and should be encouraged to do so but have rarely been helped to do so was the motivation for developing Exploring Bioethics, a six-module curriculum and teacher guide for grades nine through twelve on ethical issues in the life sciences. A multidisciplinary team of bioethicists, science educators, curriculum designers, scientists, and high school biology teachers worked together on the curriculum under a contract between the National Institutes of Health and Education Development Center, a nonprofit research and development organization with a long history of innovation in science education. At the NIH, the Department of Bioethics within the Clinical Center and the Office of Science Education within the Office of the Director guided the project.Our overarching goal for Exploring Bioethics was to introduce students to bioethics as a field of inquiry and to enable them to develop ethical reasoning skills so they could move beyond "gut reactions" to more nuanced positions. PMID:26786036

  7. Global Bioethics and Culture in a Pluralistic World: How does Culture influence Bioethics in Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Chukwuneke, FN; Umeora, OUJ; Maduabuchi, JU; Egbunike, N

    2014-01-01

    Bioethics principles and practice can be influenced by different cultural background. This is because the four globally accepted bioethics principles are often based on basic ethical codes such as autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice. Beneficence/nonmaleficence requires us to maximize possible benefits, while minimizing possible harms and consequently secure the well-being of others by refraining from harming them. Autonomy gives individuals the right to self-actualization and decision-making, while justice is concerned with the fair selection and distribution of the burdens and benefits of research among participants. Applications of these principles in cultural settings vary more often from one cultural perspective to the other because of the different understanding and practices of “what is good.” The proponents of global ethics may argue that these principles should be universally generalizable and acceptable, but this is not possible because of the existing cultural diversities. In the African set-up, despite the existence of major common cultural practices, there are other norms and practices, which differ from one society to the other within the communities. Therefore, the word “global” bioethics may not be applicable generally in practice except if it can account for the structural dynamics and cultural differences within the complex societies in which we live in. However, the extent to which cultural diversity should be permitted to influence bioethical judgments in Africa, which at present is burdened with many diseases, should be of concern to researchers, ethicist and medical experts taking into considerations the constantly transforming global society. This topic examines the cultural influence on principles and practice of bioethics in Africa. PMID:25328772

  8. [Clinical bioethics for primary health care].

    PubMed

    González-de Paz, L

    2013-01-01

    The clinical decision making process with ethical implications in the area of primary healthcare differs from other healthcare areas. From the ethical perspective it is important to include these issues in the decision making model. This dissertation explains the need for a process of bioethical deliberation for Primary Healthcare, as well as proposing a method for doing so. The decision process method, adapted to this healthcare area, is flexible and requires a more participative Healthcare System. This proposal involves professionals and the patient population equally, is intended to facilitate the acquisition of responsibility for personal and community health. PMID:23608158

  9. [Bioethical principles concerning human genetic data].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Coke, Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    UNESCO'S Universal declaration on the human genome and human rights (1997) has been accepted by the international scientific community. To apply these laws, it is necessary to get more specific rules about data regulation, human genetic samples and its derived information in biomedic research. Indeed, genetic material recollection, processing, use and storing, has potential risks over human rights' protection and exercise. The author, member of UNESCO'S intergovernmental Bioethics Committee which approved the final draft in June 2003, has taken part in the writing of the final text of an international declaration about human genetic data, whose abbreviate text is described and commented in this communication. PMID:15032097

  10. Bioethics: past, present, and an open future.

    PubMed

    Loewy, Erich H

    2002-01-01

    The development of bioethics, spurred by the Nazi era and initiated in recent times largely in the United States, appears to be taking hold across at least the Western world. To date it lacks the necessary trappings of a true profession: that is, it lacks self-definition, criteria, and a method of assuring that those who call themselves bioethicists not only have appropriate training but function appropriately. Partly this is because the very term "appropriate" has not been defined! These are tasks that the new guard, with perhaps the advice and help of those of us from the old guard, will have to address. The development of bioethics has been mainly focused on those who had good access to healthcare. Those with a lack of access have been given short shrift. Basic healthcare provided to all within a given society has been the case in virtually all industrialized countries except for the United States since at least World War II, and even longer in most cultures. Here in the United States, our main bioethics societies, and bioethicists as individuals, have tended to concentrate on individualistic ethics and its problems (euthanasia, abortion, termination of care, IVF, etc.) and have, to a large measure, practiced "rich man's ethics." The lack of access to healthcare as well as many other faults have been labeled "system errors" and are in general considered to be beyond the responsibility of the bioethical profession. They tend to be shrugged off. We have been inclined to "join the establishment" and in so doing have often forgotten our own mission. We have spent a good deal of time discussing the ownership of a dead man's sperm and have made relatively little contribution to an equitable distribution of healthcare. In many respects, we have sold out. In my view, this is an evasion of social responsibility--social responsibility being one of the hallmarks of an honest profession. Until we come to terms with our mission--a mission that cannot merely be self

  11. [Bioethical procedure: judicial experience, working of committees].

    PubMed

    Michaud, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Is it possible to speak of procedure in bioethics? The answer ought to be negative if one had to express an opinion on procedure in ethics. What could be more contradictory than a notion of philosophical colour asserted and a group of rules guaranteeing the effective realisation of an objective? That is where the prefix "bio" helps to avoid the difficulty. By using it, it is no longer a question exclusively of ethics, but of ethics applied to life sciences. From this angle it is not unjustified to accept some procedure. We shall see that in France there has been no reluctance to do this. PMID:17902322

  12. In search of bioethics: a personal postscript.

    PubMed

    Mainetti, J A

    1996-12-01

    De nobis ipsis silemus: About ourselves-we keep silent. If we violate this prudent rule by the least modest of literary exercises-the autobiography-we must be able to say that we do so to bear witness. From my intellectual vocation of physician and philosopher, I have received the Chinese blessing of "living in interesting times." I received two degrees in 1962 and spent thirty years developing a previously unimaginable encounter between medicine and humanism. That which follows tells the story of the development of bioethics in Ibero-America from the perspective of a testifying witness. PMID:9061600

  13. Judging the Past: How History Should Inform Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Barron H; Caplan, Arthur L

    2016-04-19

    Bioethics has become a common course of study in medical schools, other health professional schools, and graduate and undergraduate programs. An analysis of past ethical scandals, as well as the bioethics apparatus that emerged in response to them, is often central to the discussion of bioethical questions. This historical perspective on bioethics is invaluable and demonstrates how, for example, the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study was inherently racist and how other experiments exploited mentally disabled and other disadvantaged persons. However, such instruction can resemble so-called Whig history, in which a supposedly more enlightened mindset is seen as having replaced the "bad old days" of physicians behaving immorally. Bioethical discourse-both in the classroom and in practice-should be accompanied by efforts to historicize but not minimize past ethical transgressions. That is, bioethics needs to emphasize why and how such events occurred rather than merely condemning them with an air of moral superiority. Such instruction can reveal the complicated historical circumstances that led physician-researchers (some of whom were actually quite progressive in their thinking) to embark on projects that seem so unethical in hindsight. Such an approach is not meant to exonerate past transgressions but rather to explain them. In this manner, students and practitioners of bioethics can better appreciate how modern health professionals may be susceptible to the same types of pressures, misguided thinking, and conflicts of interest that sometimes led their predecessors astray. PMID:27089070

  14. Democracy: the forgotten challenge for bioethics in the developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Ghaiath MA

    2009-01-01

    Background Bioethics as a field related to the health system and health service delivery has grown in the second half of the 20th century, mainly in North America. This is attributed, the author argues, to mainly three kinds of development that took place in the developed countries at a pace different than the developing countries. They are namely: development of the health system; moral development; and political development. Discussion This article discusses the factors that impede the development of the field of bioethics from an academic activity to a living field that is known and practiced by the people in the developing countries. They are quite many; however, the emphasis here is on role of the political structure in the developing countries and how it negatively affects the development of bioethics. It presents an argument that if bioethics is to grow within the system of health service, it should be accompanied by a parallel changes in the political mindsets in these countries. Summary For bioethics to flourish in developing countries, it needs an atmosphere of freedom where people can practice free moral reasoning and have full potential to take their life decisions by themselves. Moreover, bioethics could be a tool for political change through the empowerment of people, especially the vulnerable. To achieve that, the article is proposing a practical framework for facilitating the development of the field of bioethics in the developing countries. PMID:19463174

  15. Theoretical resources for a globalised bioethics.

    PubMed

    Verkerk, Marian A; Lindemann, Hilde

    2011-02-01

    In an age of global capitalism, pandemics, far-flung biobanks, multinational drug trials and telemedicine it is impossible for bioethicists to ignore the global dimensions of their field. However, if they are to do good work on the issues that globalisation requires of them, they need theoretical resources that are up to the task. This paper identifies four distinct understandings of 'globalised' in the bioethics literature: (1) a focus on global issues; (2) an attempt to develop a universal ethical theory that can transcend cultural differences; (3) an awareness of how bioethics itself has expanded, with new centres and journals emerging in nearly every corner of the globe; (4) a concern to avoid cultural imperialism in encounters with other societies. Each of these approaches to globalisation has some merit, as will be shown. The difficulty with them is that the standard theoretical tools on which they rely are not designed for cross-cultural ethical reflection. As a result, they leave important considerations hidden. A set of theoretical resources is proposed to deal with the moral puzzles of globalisation. Abandoning idealised moral theory, a normative framework is developed that is sensitive enough to account for differences without losing the broader context in which ethical issues arise. An empirically nourished, self-reflexive, socially inquisitive, politically critical and inclusive ethics allows bioethicists the flexibility they need to pick up on the morally relevant particulars of this situation here without losing sight of the broader cultural contexts in which it all takes place. PMID:21109698

  16. The features of a "Mediterranean" Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Leone, Salvino

    2012-11-01

    Even if somebody considers inappropriate any geographic adjective for Bioethics, nevertheless we think that there are some specific features of "Mediterranean" Bioethics that could distinguish it from a "Northern-European and Northern-American" one. First of all we must consider that medical ethics was born and grew in Mediterranean area. First by the thought of great Greek philosophers as Aristotle (that analyse what ethics is), then by Hippocrates, the "father" of medical ethics. The ethical pattern of Aristotle was based on "virtues" and their practice. In this perspective we can already note a strong difference with actual North-European or American principialist ethics. But a second consideration concerns the role that great Mediterranean religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) had in the construction of the ethical thought especially on the matter of life and its respect. So, in our pluralistic and multicultural society is absolutely necessary to rescue an approach that considers both "lungs" of ethical thought (Mediterranean and Northern one) and highlights the role that Mediterranean Ethics still has in this way. PMID:22441971

  17. The bioethical principles and Confucius' moral philosophy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, D F-C

    2005-03-01

    This paper examines whether the modern bioethical principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice proposed by Beauchamp and Childress are existent in, compatible with, or acceptable to the leading Chinese moral philosophy-the ethics of Confucius. The author concludes that the moral values which the four prima facie principles uphold are expressly identifiable in Confucius' teachings. However, Confucius' emphasis on the filial piety, family values, the "love of gradation", altruism of people, and the "role specified relation oriented ethics" will inevitably influence the "specification" and application of these bioethical principles and hence tend to grant "beneficence" a favourable position that diminishes the respect for individual rights and autonomy. In contrast, the centrality of respect for autonomy and its stance of "first among equals" are more and more stressed in Western liberal viewpoints. Nevertheless, if the Confucian "doctrine of Mean" (chung-yung) and a balanced "two dimensional personhood" approach are properly employed, this will require both theorists and clinicians, who are facing medical ethical dilemmas, of searching to attain due mean out of competing moral principles thus preventing "giving beneficence a priority" or "asserting autonomy must triumph". PMID:15738437

  18. Islam, Assisted Reproduction, and the Bioethical Aftermath.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Tremayne, Soraya

    2016-04-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), including in vitro fertilization to overcome infertility, are now widely available across the Middle East. Islamic fatwas emerging from the Sunni Islamic countries have permitted many ARTs, while prohibiting others. However, recent religious rulings emanating from Shia Muslim-dominant Iran have created unique avenues for infertile Muslim couples to obtain donor gametes through third-party reproductive assistance. The opening of Iran to gamete donation has had major impacts in Shia-dominant Lebanon and has led to so-called reproductive tourism of Sunni Muslim couples who are searching for donor gametes across national and international borders. This paper explores the "bioethical aftermath" of donor technologies in the Muslim Middle East. Other unexpected outcomes include new forms of sex selection and fetal "reduction." In general, assisted reproduction in the Muslim world has been a key site for understanding how emerging biomedical technologies are generating new Islamic bioethical discourses and local moral responses, as ARTs are used in novel and unexpected ways. PMID:26602421

  19. Democratizing the hospital: deliberative-democratic bioethics.

    PubMed

    Dzur, Albert W

    2002-04-01

    The increased presence of moral consultants, or bioethicists, within hospitals and clinics in the last two decades has begun to raise questions about their sources of authority and norms of practice. Under pressure from critics in the social sciences, a number of bioethicists have recently raised the ideal of democratic deliberation to defend and reconstruct their place in the medical field. This article sheds light on these developments by placing bioethics in a historical context that shows an early tension between bioethicists as whistle-blowers and bioethicists as incremental reformers of medical practice. This article also develops a conceptual framework for analysis that indicates how such tensions have grown more complicated for contemporary bioethicists because they occupy a fluid and structurally ambiguous role in which there are multiple sources of normative expectations and little guidance for meeting these expectations. The liminality of the role and the overload of expectations have made bioethics vulnerable to methodological criticisms from social scientists. This article concludes that such methodological criticisms cannot address the more systemic problems of liminality and overload. The ideal of democratic deliberation, though imperfect, does address these systemic problems because it shows bioethicists how to gain guidance and share responsibility for moral consultation. PMID:12043894

  20. Bioethics, raw and cooked: extraordinary conflict and everyday practice.

    PubMed

    Bosk, Charles L

    2010-01-01

    This article explains the emergence, growth, and institutional anchoring of bioethics in both policy and clinical arenas. Under the heading of principlism, bioethics developed a public language for resolving disputes that allowed it to transform disputes involving sacred matters into profane work routines. At the same time, having principlism as a common language for solving practical disputes allowed "ethics work" in health care to be separated from moral theorizing as a practical activity. Two issues--the right to die and the protection of research subjects--serve to illustrate the process through which bioethics established a large institutional footprint in health care. PMID:20943578

  1. The role of law in the development of American bioethics.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, Mark A

    2009-12-01

    In the United States, interest in bioethics increased significantly during the 1970s, as new technologies and changing social mores combined to focus attention on contentious issues in medical research and treatment. New legal developments, both statutory and case based, also began to address reproductive freedom, informed consent to research and treatment, organ transplantation, end of life issues, and other matters. Since the 1970s, the law has relied on ethical principles such as autonomy and respect for persons; bioethics has relied on the law to implement and institutionalize bioethical concerns into the nation's social fabric. PMID:20648937

  2. Bioethics and the Right to Health: Advancing a Complementary Agenda.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Jennifer L; Forman, Lisa; Nixon, Stephanie A

    2015-01-01

    This special section in Health and Human Rights Journal explores the relationship between bioethics and the right to health. Although bioethics scholars may argue for a right to health, particularly in the domains of universal health coverage and global health governance, and human rights scholars may advance ethical norms in their work, there has been little scholarly attention to the intersections, synergies, and contrasts between these two areas of study. At first glance, this is surprising given that bioethics and human rights share conceptual and normative terrain in articulating guidance for action on health-related issues and international policy and practice is explicitly interrelating human rights and ethics. PMID:26204574

  3. African Bioethics vs. Healthcare Ethics in Africa: A Critique of Godfrey Tangwa.

    PubMed

    Fayemi, Ademola K

    2016-08-01

    It is nearly two decades now since the publication of Godfrey Tangwa's article, 'Bioethics: African Perspective', without a critical review. His article is important because sequel to its publication in Bioethics, the idea of 'African bioethics' started gaining some attention in the international bioethics literature. This paper breaks this relative silence by critically examining Tangwa's claim on the existence of African bioethics. Employing conceptual and critical methods, this paper argues that Tangwa's account of African bioethics has some conceptual, methodic and substantive difficulties, which altogether do not justify the idea of African bioethics, at least for now. Contra Tangwa, this article establishes that while African bioethics remains a future possibility, it is more cogent that current efforts in the name of 'African bioethics' be primarily re-intensified towards 'Healthcare ethics in Africa'. PMID:25912979

  4. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  5. Research in bioethics: a bridge between science and philosophy.

    PubMed

    Gindro, S

    1997-01-01

    The author makes an inquiry into the diverse attitudes that the culture of Western man has assumed towards the concepts of truth and morality. Analysing five different attitudes in the consideration of relationships between "good" and "truth", he concludes that a concrete definition of truth and morality can only be sought after but never reached. Similarly, a concrete definition for bioethics can only be attempted, more questions than answers arise. Bioethics needs to define its principles to achieve its foundation. Yet bioethics, being a bridge between science and philosophy, has not succeeded in finding unequivocal principles, but it has only succeeded in posing questions. Bioethics is thus a despairing but also unavoidable venture. PMID:9616954

  6. American Academy of Pediatrics Guidelines for Infant Bioethics Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College and University, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Examples are given of points hospitals must consider when adopting and implementing infant bioethics committees, including committee functions (educational, policy development, and consultative), structure, membership, jurisdiction, recordkeeping, and legal issues. (MSE)

  7. [Bioethics in the new Argentinian Civil and Commercial Code].

    PubMed

    Bergel, Salvador Darío

    2015-01-01

    Argentine has a new Civil and Commercial Code that will enter into force in August. This Code contains a series of rules relating to bioethics that have served to illustrate a brief comment on its contents. PMID:26665351

  8. The word "bioethics": the struggle over its earliest meanings.

    PubMed

    Reich, Warren Thomas

    1995-03-01

    An article by Warren Reich in the December 1994 issue of this journal concludes that the word "bioethics" and the field of study it names experienced a "bilocated birth" in 1970/1971 under Van Rensselaer Potter, at the University of Wisconsin, and André Hellegers, at Georgetown University. Further historical inquiry confirms (1) that there were, from the start, some major differences -- even clashes -- between the Potter and the Hellegers/Georgetown understandings of bioethics; and (2) that the Hellegers/Georgetown approach came to be the more widely accepted meaning of the term, while Potter's idea of bioethics remained largely marginalized. However, this inquiry also results in a third, unanticipated, conclusion: that Hellegers (in contrast to the dominant model offered by the Georgetown scholars) actually proposed a global approach to bioethics, bringing his vision much closer to Potter's evolving view than previously has been acknowledged. PMID:11645296

  9. [The other inequities in health care: A challenge for bioethics].

    PubMed

    Bórquez Polloni, B

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to what one may think health and equity are not issues that have always gone hand in hand following the formal recognition of the former by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). It was not until the Alma Ata Declaration in 1978 when the close ties between both began to be seriously considered, and in 2000 this led to several international organizations formalizing their concern for the factors that determine whether a health system is fair or not. Since then, the term «equity in health» has taken on a special meaning when weighing up the strength or weaknesses of certain health systems. However, over the years, equity in health has gradually been identified almost exclusively with a financial issue that focuses on distributing health resources. As a result, one often forgets to provide the necessary care for those in other unfair situations, which, as regards access to and providing health care, leads to unfair situations that are not directly related to financial reasons and do not require investments, but consensus and the honest determination to make changes. This leads the Bioethics of the 21st century to face two challenges: to warn of these inequities and to promote initiatives that are able to make effective changes. PMID:24582533

  10. [Is it possible a bioethics based on the experimental evidence?].

    PubMed

    Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2013-01-01

    For years there are different types of criticism about principialist bioethics. One alternative that has been proposed is to introduce empirical evidence within the bioethical discourse to make it less formal, less theoretical and closer to reality. In this paper we analyze first in synthetic form diverse alternative proposals to make an empirical bioethics. Some of them are strongly naturalistic while others aim to provide empirical data only for correct or improve bioethical work. Most of them are not shown in favor of maintaining a complete separation between facts and values, between what is and what ought to be. With different nuances these proposals of moderate naturalism make ethical judgments depend normative social opinion resulting into a certain social naturalism. Against these proposals we think to make a bioethics in that relates the empirical facts with ethical duties, we must rediscover empirical reality of human action. Only from it and, in particular, from the activity of discernment that makes practical reason, when judged on the object of his action, it is possible to integrate the mere descriptive facts with ethical judgments of character prescriptive. In conclusion we think that it is not possible to perform bioethics a mode of empirical science, as this would be contrary to natural reason, leading to a sort of scientific reductionism. At the same time we believe that empirical data are important in the development of bioethics and to enhance and improve the innate ability of human reason to discern good. From this discernment could develop a bioethics from the perspective of ethical agents themselves, avoiding the extremes of an excessive normative rationalism, accepting empirical data and not falling into a simple pragmatism. PMID:24206254

  11. Disconnections Between Teacher Expectations and Student Confidence in Bioethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Price, Laura; Peterson, Jeremy

    2008-09-01

    This study examines how student practice of scientific argumentation using socioscientific bioethics issues affects both teacher expectations of students’ general performance and student confidence in their own work. When teachers use bioethical issues in the classroom students can gain not only biology content knowledge but also important decision-making skills. Learning bioethics through scientific argumentation gives students opportunities to express their ideas, formulate educated opinions and value others’ viewpoints. Research has shown that science teachers’ expectations of student success and knowledge directly influence student achievement and confidence levels. Our study analyzes pre-course and post-course surveys completed by students enrolled in a university level bioethics course ( n = 111) and by faculty in the College of Biology and Agriculture faculty ( n = 34) based on their perceptions of student confidence. Additionally, student data were collected from classroom observations and interviews. Data analysis showed a disconnect between faculty and students perceptions of confidence for both knowledge and the use of science argumentation. Student reports of their confidence levels regarding various bioethical issues were higher than faculty reports. A further disconnect showed up between students’ preferred learning styles and the general faculty’s common teaching methods; students learned more by practicing scientific argumentation than listening to traditional lectures. Students who completed a bioethics course that included practice in scientific argumentation, significantly increased their confidence levels. This study suggests that professors’ expectations and teaching styles influence student confidence levels in both knowledge and scientific argumentation.

  12. Opportunities in Reform: Bioethics and Mental Health Ethics.

    PubMed

    Williams, Arthur Robin

    2016-05-01

    Last year marks the first year of implementation for both the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act in the United States. As a result, healthcare reform is moving in the direction of integrating care for physical and mental illness, nudging clinicians to consider medical and psychiatric comorbidity as the expectation rather than the exception. Understanding the intersections of physical and mental illness with autonomy and self-determination in a system realigning its values so fundamentally therefore becomes a top priority for clinicians. Yet Bioethics has missed opportunities to help guide clinicians through one of medicine's most ethically rich and challenging fields. Bioethics' distancing from mental illness is perhaps best explained by two overarching themes: 1) An intrinsic opposition between approaches to personhood rooted in Bioethics' early efforts to protect the competent individual from abuses in the research setting; and 2) Structural forces, such as deinstitutionalization, the Patient Rights Movement, and managed care. These two themes help explain Bioethics' relationship to mental health ethics and may also guide opportunities for rapprochement. The potential role for Bioethics may have the greatest implications for international human rights if bioethicists can re-energize an understanding of autonomy as not only free from abusive intrusions but also with rights to treatment and other fundamental necessities for restoring freedom of choice and self-determination. Bioethics thus has a great opportunity amid healthcare reform to strengthen the important role of the virtuous and humanistic care provider. PMID:26424211

  13. Anticipatory Governance: Bioethical Expertise for Human/Animal Chimeras.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

    2012-09-01

    The governance demands generated by the use of human/animal chimeras in scientific research offer both a challenge and an opportunity for the development of new forms of anticipatory governance through the novel application of bioethical expertise. Anticipatory governance can be seen to have three stages of development whereby bioethical experts move from a reactive to a proactive stance at the edge of what is scientifically possible. In the process, the ethicists move upstream in their engagement with the science of human-to-animal chimeras. To what extent is the anticipatory coestablishment of the principles and operational rules of governance at this early stage in the development of the human-to-animal research field likely to result in a framework for bioethical decision making that is in support of science? The process of anticipatory governance is characterised by the entwining of the scientific and the philosophical so that judgements against science are also found to be philosophically unfounded, and conversely, those activities that are permissible are deemed so on both scientific and ethical grounds. Through what is presented as an organic process, the emerging bioethical framework for human-to-animal chimera research becomes a legitimating framework within which 'good' science can safely progress. Science gives bioethical expertise access to new governance territory; bioethical expertise gives science access to political acceptability. PMID:23576848

  14. Bioethical committees and data protection issues in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Ligocka, Danuta

    2008-01-01

    In Poland there are only Regional Bioethical Committees. Unlike most EU countries Poland has no coordinating centre on bioethics for human research. However, the Ministry of Health and Welfare has established a Bioethics Appeals Committee. The functioning of the Bioethical Committees in Poland is regulated in detail by the Regulation of the Ministry of Health and Welfare of 1999. All regulations comply with important guidelines such as: the Helsinki Declaration, The Rules of Good Clinical Practice, EU Directives and legal regulations binding in Poland, mainly the Act of the Medical Doctor Profession and the Dentist Profession, as well as the Act of Pharmaceutical Law. In the framework of the Human Biomonitoring Programme, the application for bioethical evaluation will be submitted to the Bioethical Committee at the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lodz. The data protection legislation in Poland according to the Act of the Protection of Personal Data of 29th of August 1997 with latest amendments fulfils EU regulations. The Act also contains detailed provisions regarding the duties of the Inspector General for Data Protection. The paper presents data on the activities of the Bureau of the Inspector General for Personal Data Protection in 2005, 2006 and 2007. PMID:18541070

  15. Anticipatory Governance: Bioethical Expertise for Human/Animal Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The governance demands generated by the use of human/animal chimeras in scientific research offer both a challenge and an opportunity for the development of new forms of anticipatory governance through the novel application of bioethical expertise. Anticipatory governance can be seen to have three stages of development whereby bioethical experts move from a reactive to a proactive stance at the edge of what is scientifically possible. In the process, the ethicists move upstream in their engagement with the science of human-to-animal chimeras. To what extent is the anticipatory coestablishment of the principles and operational rules of governance at this early stage in the development of the human-to-animal research field likely to result in a framework for bioethical decision making that is in support of science? The process of anticipatory governance is characterised by the entwining of the scientific and the philosophical so that judgements against science are also found to be philosophically unfounded, and conversely, those activities that are permissible are deemed so on both scientific and ethical grounds. Through what is presented as an organic process, the emerging bioethical framework for human-to-animal chimera research becomes a legitimating framework within which ‘good’ science can safely progress. Science gives bioethical expertise access to new governance territory; bioethical expertise gives science access to political acceptability. PMID:23576848

  16. The hierarchy of values in Jewish bioethics.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, Chaya

    2011-07-01

    This article describes how ethical issues in health are approached and resolved within the framework of Jewish bioethics. Its main purpose is to explore the range of sources and methodologies used to determine the appropriate hierarchy of values for various ethical scenarios. Its major thrust is to illustrate how a divinely based but humanly negotiated ethical code stands firm upon 'red flag' principles, while at the same time, allowing for 'shades of gray' flexibility informed by given contexts. It provides significant insights and practical tools that can be instrumental in decision making for nurses and other health providers of all faiths. The following ethical domains are addressed: respect for patient autonomy, truth-telling and allocation of resources. PMID:21788289

  17. Theory and Practice of Pediatric Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2016-01-01

    This article examines two typical bioethics frameworks: the "Four Principles" by Beauchamp and Childress, and the "Four Boxes" by Jonsen, Siegler, and Winslade. I show how they are inadequate to address the ethical issues raised by pediatrics, in part because they do not pay adequate attention to families. I then consider an alternate framework proposed by Buchanan and Brock that focuses on four questions that must be addressed for the patient who lacks decisional capacity. This model also does not give adequate respect for the family, particularly the intimate family. I then describe my own framework, which provides answers to Buchanan and Brock's four questions in a way that is consistent with the intimate family and its need for protection from state intervention. PMID:27157344

  18. [The ambiguity of the bioethics' principles].

    PubMed

    Pardo Caballos, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The principles of the bioethics, coined in United States at the end of the seventies and diffused in our social environment one decade later, enclose inside a semantic ambiguity that here it is analyzed in their master lines; this ambiguity oscillates between a relativistic meaning and another agreed with the classic concept of Nature; this ambiguity has been transmitted to who, being part of the field of the Hippocratic medical ethics, have adopted its terminology, and these are the immense majority of the medical class. This phenomenon is easily leading towards the abandonment of the medical ethics based on the natural law (the Hippocratic-Christian tradition), to make it finish in a more or less clear relativism. to avoid this problem, some solutions in the field of the medical ethical terminology are proposed. PMID:20405972

  19. Revisiting the beginning of bioethics: the contribution of Fritz Jahr (1927).

    PubMed

    Goldim, José Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Van Rensselaer Potter is usually credited with coining the term bioethics and with founding this field. However, the rediscovery of the article "Bioethics: A Panorama of the Human Being's Ethical Relations with Animals and Plants," published in 1927 by Fritz Jahr in the German magazine Kosmos, necessitates a revision of this history of the foundation of bioethics. While Potter made significant contributions to this field, the importance of Jahr to the founding of bioethics should be recognized. PMID:19684372

  20. 77 FR 2298 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ...., Suite C-100, Washington, DC 20005. Telephone: (202) 233-3960. Email: Hillary.Viers@bioethics.gov . Additional information may be obtained at http://www.bioethics.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to... also be webcast at http://www.bioethics.gov . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated...

  1. 77 FR 61608 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ...., Suite C-100, Washington, DC 20005. Telephone: 202-233-3960. Email: Hillary.Viers@bioethics.gov . Additional information may be obtained at www.bioethics.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the....bioethics.gov . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated November 24, 2009, the President...

  2. 78 FR 20647 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ..., Suite C-100, Washington, DC 20005. Telephone: 202-233-3960. Email: Hillary.Viers@bioethics.gov . Additional information may be obtained at www.bioethics.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the... thirteenth meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (the...

  3. 77 FR 26012 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... 20005. Telephone: (202) 233-3960. Email: Hillary.Viers@bioethics.gov . Additional information may be obtained at www.bioethics.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act....bioethics.gov . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated November 24, 2009, the President...

  4. A Compulsory Bioethics Module for a Large Final Year Undergraduate Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    The article describes a compulsory bioethics module delivered to [approximately] 120 biology students in their final year. The main intended learning outcome is that students should be able to analyse and reason about bioethical issues. Interactive lectures explain and illustrate bioethics. Underlying principles and example issues are used to…

  5. 76 FR 66720 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ..., DC 20005. Telephone: (202) 233-3960. Email: Hillary.Viers@bioethics.gov . Additional information may be obtained at http://www.bioethics.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory....bioethics.gov . Under authority of Executive Order 13521, dated November 24, 2009, the President...

  6. An Annotated Bibliography of Teaching Bioethics in the Public Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Bruce D.

    This study was conducted to identify bioethical topics of possible interest for a high school science curriculum, focusing on advantages and disadvantages of bioethical education and emphasizing the procedure to incorporate bioethics instruction into the secondary school science curriculum. Researched material is presented as an annotated…

  7. The intersection between bioethics and human rights in the light of the universal declaration on bioethics and human rights.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Aline Albuquerque S

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to explore the increasing interconnection between bioethics and human rights that can be observed in recent international norms relating to biomedicine. To this end, the analysis has been focused on the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR) adopted by UNESCO in 2005. Investigating the meanings of the intersection perceived in the UDBHR has led to the understanding of how bioethics and human rights are in accordance, under the normative perspective. Hence, in normative terms, the intersection between bioethics and human rights is clearly undisputable. However, there is no way to affirm that it is consolidated, as UDBHR's adoption is recent and its consolidation, together with its precepts, depends on state and non-state agents. The efficacy of a norm and its content depends on social, cultural and economic conditions, that is, it depends on a series of factors that influence the normative system. In the case of the UDBHR, its effective application and assimilation of its principles are directly linked to the use that bioethical institutions make of them and to how the community of bioethicists will project them in their thoughts and theory production. If, on the one hand UDBHR symbolizes the intersection confirmation--which is of extreme importance for its consolidation--on the other hand its range and consequent stabilization are submitted to the actions from governments, social institutions and bioethicists. Hence, there is still a lot to do in terms of introducing the human rights precepts into bioethics. The aim of this paper is to contribute to this goal. Thus based on the meanings of the intersection between bioethics and human rights identified in the UDBHR, this article presents five ways to understand the connection between these two fields. PMID:22977955

  8. Chauncey Leake and the development of bioethics in America.

    PubMed

    Brody, Howard

    2014-03-01

    Chauncey D. Leake (1896-1978) occupies a unique place in the history of American bioethics. A pharmacologist, he was largely an autodidact in both history and philosophy, and believed that ethics should ideally be taught to medical students by those with philosophical training. After pioneering work on medical ethics during the 1920s, he helped to lay the groundwork for important centers for bioethics and medical humanities at two institutions where he worked, the University of California-San Francisco and the University of Texas Medical Branch-Galveston. Understanding Leake's role in American bioethics requires navigating a number of paradoxes--why he was described respectfully in his time but largely forgotten today; how in the 1920s he could write forward-looking pieces that anticipated many of the themes taken up by bioethics a half-century later, yet played largely a reactionary role when the new bioethics actually arrived; and why he advocated turning to philosophy and philosophers for a proper understanding of ethics, yet appeared often to misunderstand philosophical ethics. PMID:24783325

  9. Toward a Child Rights Theory in Pediatric Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Goldhagen, Jeffrey; Mercer, Raul; Webb, Elspeth; Nathawad, Rita; Shenoda, Sherry; Lansdown, Gerison

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a child rights theory in pediatric bioethics, applying the principles, standards, and norms of child rights, health equity, and social justice to medical and ethical decision-making. We argue that a child rights theory in pediatric bioethics will help pediatricians and pediatric bioethicists analyze and address the complex interplay of biomedical and social determinants of child health. These core principles, standards and norms, grounded in the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), provide the foundational elements for the theory and a means for better understanding the complex determinants of children's health and well-being. Rights-based approaches to medical and ethical decision-making provide strategies for applying and translating these elements into the practice of pediatrics and pediatric bioethics by establishing a coherent, consistent, and contextual theory that is relevant to contemporary practice. The proposed child rights theory extends evolving perspectives on the relationship between human rights and bioethics to both child rights and pediatric bioethics. PMID:27157347

  10. Bioethics, power and injustice: for an ethics of intervention.

    PubMed

    Garrafa, Volnei; Porto, Dora

    2003-01-01

    Bioethics of the so-called "peripheral countries" should be preferably concerned with the persistent situations, that is, with those problems that are still happening, but should not happen anymore in the 21st century. The resulting conflicts cannot be exclusively analyzed based on the ethical theories (or bioethical) arriving from "central countries". The authors alert for the increasing depoliticization of moral conflicts and for the lack of capacity of human indignation. The indiscriminate utilization of bioethics justification as a neutral methodological tool softens and even cancels out the gravity of different problems, even those that might result in the most profound social distortion. The current study sets as a theoretical reference the finitude of natural resources (which are all of them...) and corporality, pleasures and pain. From these premises and the introduction of the concept that equity means "to treat unevenly the unequal", the authors introduced a proposal of a hard bioethics or intervention bioethics, in support of the interest and the historical rights of the population economically and socially excluded from the international development practice. PMID:15035251

  11. Confronting moral pluralism in posttraditional Western societies: bioethics critically reassessed.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, H Tristram

    2011-06-01

    In the face of the moral pluralism that results from the death of God and the abandonment of a God's eye perspective in secular philosophy, bioethics arose in a context that renders it essentially incapable of giving answers to substantive moral questions, such as concerning the permissibility of abortion, human embryonic stem cell research, euthanasia, etc. Indeed, it is only when bioethics understands its own limitations and those of secular moral philosophy in general can it better appreciate those tasks that it can actually usefully perform in both the clinical and academic setting. It is the task of this paper to understand and reevaluate bioethics by understanding these limits. Academic bioethicists can analyze ideas, concepts, and claims necessary to understanding the moral questions raised in health care, assessing the arguments related to these issues, and provide an understanding of the different moral perspectives on bioethical issues. In the clinical setting, bioethicists can provide legal advice, serve as experts on IRBs, mediating disputes, facilitating decision-making and risk management, and clarifying normative issues. However, understanding this is only possible when one understands the history, genesis, and foundations of bioethics and its inability to provide a resolution to postmodern moral pluralism. PMID:21724971

  12. Bioethics and anti-bioethics in light of Nazi medicine: what must we remember?

    PubMed

    Wikler, D; Barondess, J

    1993-03-01

    Only recently have historians explored in depth the role of the medical profession in Nazi Germany. Several recent works reveal that physicians joined the Nazi party in disproportionate numbers and lent both their efforts and their authority to Nazi eugenic and racist programs. While the crimes of the physician Mengele and a few others are well known, recent research points to a much broader involvement by the profession, even in its everyday clinical work. Analogous activities existed in the German legal and industrial communities; disruption of the medical ethic thus sprang from the broader social contexts of Nazi Germany. The new United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, now opening on the Mall in Washington, D.C., will have an opportunity to educate the public about both the great crimes at Auschwitz and other camps, and the gradual but thorough degradation of ethics in the German medical profession. From this presentation, contemporary bioethics can ponder the proper use of the Nazi analogy in bioethical debate. PMID:10171397

  13. Bioethics: a new frontier of biological science.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Singh, S; Singh, M P

    2012-01-01

    New researches in the field of biological sciences are creating new problems which were hitherto not faced. New techniques in biotechnology have paved way for transplantation for kidney, heart and liver successfully. In vitro fertilization, surrogate mothership, researches in totipotent stem cells which are capable of cloning are creating moral dilemma for the scientists. These techniques have immense capacity for the wellness of human beings. But there is every possibility of their misuse. Should researches in biotechnology be allowed unconditionally or there be some guiding principles? If the technique of cloning is perfected what will be the fate of the society which is based on conjugal love and trust? Should abortion and euthanasia be allowed? These questions need a clear answer. Here comes the role of bioethics to deal with such queries. In our view no such laws can be framed which can guide scientists in each and every case. Each case is specific and requires particular attention. There should be some norms for individual decision taker which are given in spiritual book of Hindu 'ShrimadBhagavataGeeta'With the help of this technique of decision making specific cases can be dealt with. PMID:23273199

  14. Bioethics and corruption: a personal struggle.

    PubMed

    Blasszauer, Bela

    2013-01-01

    The author attempts to give a general picture of corruption, especially in the area of healthcare. Corruption ranges from fraud, through deceit, bribery and dehumanisation, to immeasurable moral decay. As a bioethicist who has challenged corruption in various ways, the author approaches this worldwide plague mainly on the basis of his personal experience. He does not offer a recipe for successfully combating corruption, but tries to provide some ways and means to fight immorality without self-defeat. Bioethics is not a discipline whose task is to investigate, expose, or punish corrupt people. A number of agencies exist for this "noble" job. Nevertheless, an ethics teacher should not be completely indifferent to obvious and harmful immoral behaviour, regardless of his/her personal compulsions. It is not the "patient rights" that threaten the prestige of the medical profession; it is rather the bad apples that infiltrate the moral mission of this esteemed work. It seems that the hardest challenges in the struggle against corruption are bad laws-laws that provide loopholes and immunity to immoral dealings. In a stable, strong democracy, morally unfounded laws can, and will be changed. Where real democracy exists, they would not even have come into effect. PMID:23912730

  15. Teaching bioethics in the new millennium: holding theories accountable to actual practices and real people.

    PubMed

    Tong, Rosemarie

    2002-08-01

    Teaching bioethics in the new millennium requires its practitioners to confront a wide area of methodological alternatives. This essay chronicles the author's journey from the principlism of Beauchamp and Childress, through narrative and postmodern bioethics, to a complex feminist critique of postmodern bioethics that emphasizes functional human capabilities and the creation of structures that can facilitate free discussion of those capabilities and how best to realize them. Teaching bioethics concerns not only the acknowledgement of differences but also reminding ourselves of our samenesses. Sustained Habermasian democratic conversations might help us to escape the narrow confines of a postmodern bioethics of moral strangers for a richer world of moral friends. PMID:12221502

  16. The "nation's conscience:" assessing bioethics commissions as public forums.

    PubMed

    Dzur, Albert W; Levin, Daniel

    2004-12-01

    As the fifth national bioethics commission has concluded its work and a sixth is currently underway, it is time to step back and consider appropriate measures of success. This paper argues that standard measures of commissions' influence fail to fully assess their role as public forums. From the perspective of democratic theory, a critical dimension of this role is public engagement: the ability of a commission to address the concerns of the general public, to learn how average citizens resolve moral issues in healthcare, and to monitor public opinion on the topics addressed in the commission. Such a public forum role is supported by the critical literature within bioethics, which has deemed some commissions successful, supported more generally by the history of bioethics as a reform discourse that has brought socially important values into the medical domain, and supported more generally still by the example of the great social issues commissions of the 1960s. PMID:15812983

  17. Use and abuse of bioethics: integrity and professional standing.

    PubMed

    Loewy, Erich H; Loewy, Roberta Springer

    2005-03-01

    This paper sets out to examine the integrity and professional standing of "Bioethics." It argues that professions have certain responsibilities that start with setting criteria for and credentialing those that have met the criteria and goes on to ultimately have social responsibilities to the community. As it now stands we claim that Bioethics--while it certainly has achieved some progress in the way medicine has developed--has failed to become a profession and has to a large extent failed in its social responsibility. We feel that Bioethics has to define itself, set criteria for membership in the profession, police itself and--above all--meet its social responsibility to become a profession meriting that name. PMID:15889683

  18. Contribution of Ayurveda in foundation of basic tenets of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Tawalare, Kiran A; Nanote, Kalpana D; Gawai, Vijay U; Gotmare, Ashish Y

    2014-01-01

    Ethics deal with the set of principles of right conduct. The four basic principles of bioethics - autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice are known as "principlism". Though these four principles are influenced by the western world; in the medical field they are adapted as universal ethics. Originally, Ayurveda, the Indian medical system, has strongly advocated ethical code of conduct for physicians, but does not get its due recognition till this date. Proposed article aims to compare universally accepted basic tenets of bioethics and ancient Ayurvedic ethics. For this purpose classical texts of Ayurveda and literature regarding principlism was collected and analyzed thoroughly. It was found that the essence of ethics is very well-defined and described in the fundamental texts of Ayurveda in the form of Sadvritta, Chatushpada, Yogya, Vaidyavritti and Aachara Rasayana. Hence, Ayurveda should be considered as a trailblazer in establishing the basic tenets of bioethics. PMID:26195897

  19. In defence of academic freedom: bioethics journals under siege.

    PubMed

    Schüklenk, Udo

    2013-05-01

    This article analyses, from a bioethics journal editor's perspective, the threats to academic freedom and freedom of expression that academic bioethicists and academic bioethics journals are subjected to by political activists applying pressure from outside of the academy. I defend bioethicists' academic freedom to reach and defend conclusions many find offensive and 'wrong'. However, I also support the view that academics arguing controversial matters such as, for instance, the moral legitimacy of infanticide should take clear responsibility for the views they defend and should not try to hide behind analytical philosophers' rationales such as wanting to test an argument for the sake of testing an argument. This article proposes that bioethics journals establish higher-quality requirements and more stringent mechanisms of peer review than usual for iconoclastic articles. PMID:23637435

  20. Contribution of Ayurveda in foundation of basic tenets of bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Tawalare, Kiran A.; Nanote, Kalpana D.; Gawai, Vijay U.; Gotmare, Ashish Y.

    2014-01-01

    Ethics deal with the set of principles of right conduct. The four basic principles of bioethics - autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice are known as “principlism". Though these four principles are influenced by the western world; in the medical field they are adapted as universal ethics. Originally, Ayurveda, the Indian medical system, has strongly advocated ethical code of conduct for physicians, but does not get its due recognition till this date. Proposed article aims to compare universally accepted basic tenets of bioethics and ancient Ayurvedic ethics. For this purpose classical texts of Ayurveda and literature regarding principlism was collected and analyzed thoroughly. It was found that the essence of ethics is very well-defined and described in the fundamental texts of Ayurveda in the form of Sadvritta, Chatushpada, Yogya, Vaidyavritti and Aachara Rasayana. Hence, Ayurveda should be considered as a trailblazer in establishing the basic tenets of bioethics. PMID:26195897

  1. Translational research-the need of a new bioethics approach.

    PubMed

    Hostiuc, Sorin; Moldoveanu, Alin; Dascălu, Maria-Iuliana; Unnthorsson, Runar; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Marcus, Ioan

    2016-01-01

    Translational research tries to apply findings from basic science to enhance human health and well-being. Many phases of the translational research may include non-medical tasks (information technology, engineering, nanotechnology, biochemistry, animal research, economy, sociology, psychology, politics, and so on). Using common bioethics principles to these areas might sometimes be not feasible, or even impossible. However, the whole process must respect some fundamental, moral principles. The purpose of this paper is to argument the need for a different approach to the morality in translational bioethics, and to suggest some directions that might be followed when constructing such a bioethics. We will show that a new approach is needed and present a few ethical issues that are specific to the translational research. PMID:26767499

  2. Respect for cultural diversity in bioethics is an ethical imperative

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The field of bioethics continues to struggle with the problem of cultural diversity: can universal principles guide ethical decision making, regardless of the culture in which those decisions take place? Or should bioethical principles be derived from the moral traditions of local cultures? Ten Have and Gordijn (2011) and Bracanovic (2011) defend the universalist position, arguing that respect for cultural diversity in matters ethical will lead to a dangerous cultural relativity where vulnerable patients and research subjects will be harmed. We challenge the premises of moral universalism, showing how this approach imports and imposes moral notions of Western society and leads to harm in non-western cultures. PMID:22955969

  3. The bioethics of stem cell research and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Insoo

    2010-01-01

    Discussion of the bioethics of human stem cell research has transitioned from controversies over the source of human embryonic stem cells to concerns about the ethical use of stem cells in basic and clinical research. Key areas in this evolving ethical discourse include the derivation and use of other human embryonic stem cell–like stem cells that have the capacity to differentiate into all types of human tissue and the use of all types of stem cells in clinical research. Each of these issues is discussed as I summarize the past, present, and future bioethical issues in stem cell research. PMID:20051638

  4. Pragmatic bioethics and the big fat moral community.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Griffin

    2003-01-01

    By articulating a Peircean strain of bioethical inquiry, Elizabeth Cooke admirably attempts to avert the anti-realism, subjectivism and focus on consensus that afflict much so-called "pragmatic" bioethics. Yet, like many of her Deweyan colleagues, she falls prey to the egalitarian conviction that inquiry should be undertaken by huge numbers of like-minded individuals, proceeding in accordance with an authoritative canon of rules of discourse. In this essay, I argue that Cooke's egalitarianism is inconsistent with her apparent commitment to Peirce, and that an alternative, libertarian account of inquiry is better and truer to Peirce. PMID:14972766

  5. Bioethics and Moral Agency: On Autonomy and Moral Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Skalko, John; Cherry, Mark J

    2016-10-01

    Two clusters of essays in this issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy provide a critical gaze through which to explore central moral, phenomenological, ontological, and political concerns regarding human moral agency and personal responsibility. The first cluster challenges common assumptions in bioethics regarding the voluntariness of human actions. The second set turns the debate towards morally responsible choice within the requirements of distributive justice. The force of their collective analysis leaves us with a well-founded basis critically to approach any account of bioethics or health policy that is insufficiently attentive to the central challenges of human freedom and responsible free choice. PMID:27473410

  6. Evaluating non-disclosure of errors and healthcare organization: a case of bioethics consultation.

    PubMed

    Colucci, Massimiliano; Aprile, Anna; Pegoraro, Renzo

    2015-11-01

    Sometimes medical errors should not be disclosed. We report a case of semen samples exchange, during a homologous artificial insemination procedure, where a bioethics consultation was required. The bioethics consultation addressed ethical and legal elements in play, supporting non-disclosure to some of the subjects involved. Through a proper methodology, gathering factual and juridical elements, a consultant can show when a moral dilemma between values and rights-privacy versus fatherhood, in our case-is unsubstantial, in a given context, because of the groundlessness of the value or the right itself. However, being the error elicited by organizational factors, a broader ethical pronouncement was needed. Under such circumstances, ethical evaluation should engage in a sort of 'ethical-based root-cause analysis', linking ethical principles to quality aims and showing the opportunity to integrate ethical methodology in healthcare management. From this perspective, errors may become an incentive to promote high-quality organizations, attending to the central value of person even through the organizational process. PMID:26276448

  7. The Global Governance of Bioethics: Negotiating UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005)

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Adèle

    2012-01-01

    UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005) was drawn up by an independent panel of experts (the International Bioethics Committee) and negotiated by member states. UNESCO aimed for a participatory and transparent drafting process, holding national and regional consultations and seeking the views of various interest groups, including religious and spiritual ones. Furthermore, reflecting UNESCO’s broad interpretation of bioethics, the IBC included medics, scientists, lawyers and philosophers among its membership. Nevertheless, several potential stakeholders—academic scientists and ethicists, government policy-makers and NGO representatives—felt they had not been sufficiently consulted or even represented during the Declaration’s development. Better communications and understanding within and between national, regional and international layers of governance would help to avoid a recurrence of this problem in future negotiations. PMID:22724045

  8. Publishing bioethics and bioethics--reflections on academic publishing by a journal editor.

    PubMed

    Schüklenk, Udo

    2011-02-01

    This article by one of the Editors of Bioethics, published in the 25th anniversary issue of the journal, describes some of the revolutionary changes academic publishing has undergone during the last decades. Many humanities journals went from typically small print-runs, counting by the hundreds, to on-line availability in thousands of university libraries worldwide. Article up-take by our subscribers can be measured efficiently. The implications of this and other changes to academic publishing are discussed. Important ethical challenges need to be addressed in areas such as the enforcement of plagiarism-related policies, the so-called 'impact factor' and its impact on academic integrity, and the question of whether on-line only publishing can currently guarantee the integrity of academic publishing histories. PMID:21175707

  9. A Bioethics Course for Biology and Science Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, John; la Velle, Linda Baggott

    2003-01-01

    Points out the importance of awareness among biologists and biology teachers of the ethical and social implications of their work. Describes the bioethics module established at the University of Exeter mainly targeting students majoring in biology and science education. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/YDS)

  10. Functional Measurement in the Field of Empirical Bioethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullet, Etienne; Sorum, Paul C.; Teysseire, Nathalie; Nann, Stephanie; Martinez, Guadalupe Elizabeth Morales; Ahmed, Ramadan; Kamble, Shanmukh; Olivari, Cecilia; Sastre, Maria Teresa Munoz

    2012-01-01

    We present, in a synthetic way, some of the main findings from five studies that were conducted in the field of empirical bioethics, using the Functional Measurement framework. These studies were about (a) the rationing of rare treatments, (b) adolescents' abortions, (c) end-of-life decision-making regarding damaged neonates, (d) end-of-life…

  11. Teaching Research Integrity and Bioethics to Science Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turrens, Julio F.

    2005-01-01

    Undergraduate students in the Department of Biomedical Sciences at the University of South Alabama, Mobile, are required to take a course entitled "Issues in Biomedical Sciences," designed to increase students' awareness about bioethical questions and issues concerning research integrity. This paper describes the main features of this course and…

  12. Towards a feminist global bioethics: addressing women's health concerns worldwide.

    PubMed

    Tong, R

    2001-01-01

    In this paper I argue that a global bioethics is possible. Specifically, I present the view that there are within feminist approaches to bioethics some conceptual and methodological tools necessary to forge a bioethics that embraces the health-related concerns of both developing and developed nations equally. To support my argument I discuss some of the challenges that have historically confronted feminists. If feminists accept the idea that women are entirely the same, then feminists present as fact the fiction of the essential "Woman." Not only does "Woman" not exist, -she" obscures important racial, ethnic, cultural, and class differences among women. However, if feminists stress women's differences too much, feminists lose the power to speak coherently and cogently about gender justice, women's rights, and sexual equality in general. Analyzing the ways in which the idea of difference as well as the idea of sameness have led feminists astray, I ask whether it is possible to avoid the Scylla of absolutism (imperialism, colonialism, hegemony) on the one hand and the Charybdis of relativism (postmodernism, fragmentation, Balkanization) on the other. Finally, after reflecting upon the work of Uma Narayan, Susan Muller Okin, and Martha Nussbaum, I conclude that there is a way out of this ethical bind. By focusing on women's, children's, and men's common human needs, it is possible to lay the foundation for a just and caring global bioethics. PMID:11561998

  13. Why bioethics cannot figure out what to do with race.

    PubMed

    Burton, Olivette R

    2007-02-01

    Race and religion are integral parts of bioethics. Harm and oppression, with the aim of social and political control, have been wrought in the name of religion against Blacks and people of color as embodied in the Ten Commandments, the Inquisition, and in the history of the Holy Crusades. Missionaries came armed with Judeo/Christian beliefs went to nations of people of color who had their own belief systems and forced change and caused untold harms because the indigenous belief systems were incompatible with their own. The indigenous people were denounced as ungodly, pagan, uncivilized, and savage. Hence, laws were enacted because of their perceived need to structure a sense of morality and to create and build a culture for these indigenous people of color. To date bioethics continues to be informed by a Western worldview that is Judeo/Christian in belief and orientation. However, missing from bioethical discourse in America is the historical influence of the Black Church as a cultural repository, which continues to influence the culture of Africans and Blacks. Cultural aspects of peoples of color are still largely ignored today. In attempting to deal with issues of race while steering clear of the religious and cultural impact of the Black Church, bioethics finds itself in the middle of a distressing situation: it simply cannot figure out what to do with race. PMID:17366183

  14. [CIRCUMCISION AND EXCISION: TOWARDS A NON-LAW OF BIOETHICS?].

    PubMed

    Delage, Pierre-Jérôme

    2015-07-01

    This article defines the practices of circumcision and excision, and studies their foundations. Then, it considers some of the conflicts (of rights, laws and cultures) inherent to these practices. Finally, it suggests that the solution to these conflicts may not lie in the law, but in a non-law of bioethics. PMID:27356346

  15. [Bioethical analysis of the Brazilian Dentistry Code of Ethics].

    PubMed

    Pyrrho, Monique; do Prado, Mauro Machado; Cordón, Jorge; Garrafa, Volnei

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian Dentistry Code of Ethics (DCE), Resolution CFO-71 from May 2006, is an instrument created to guide dentists' behavior in relation to the ethical aspects of professional practice. The purpose of the study is to analyze the above mentioned code comparing the deontological and bioethical focuses. In order to do so, an interpretative analysis of the code and of twelve selected texts was made. Six of the texts were about bioethics and six on deontology, and the analysis was made through the methodological classification of the context units, textual paragraphs and items from the code in the following categories: the referentials of bioethical principlism--autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice -, technical aspects and moral virtues related to the profession. Together the four principles represented 22.9%, 39.8% and 54.2% of the content of the DCE, of the deontological texts and of the bioethical texts respectively. In the DCE, 42% of the items referred to virtues, 40.2% were associated to technical aspects and just 22.9% referred to principles. The virtues related to the professionals and the technical aspects together amounted to 70.1% of the code. Instead of focusing on the patient as the subject of the process of oral health care, the DCE focuses on the professional, and it is predominantly turned to legalistic and corporate aspects. PMID:19851604

  16. Dilemmas in Bioethics. [Student's Guide.] Preparing for Tomorrow's World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iozzi, Louis A.; And Others

    The purpose of this module is to introduce students (grades 10-11) to critical bioethical issues by considering moral dilemmas and knowledge of biomedical advances. The module is organized into 12 topic areas, each containing a dilemma story, introductory reading material, sample student responses, and questions. Dilemmas are essentially brief…

  17. Appropriate methodologies for empirical bioethics: it's all relative.

    PubMed

    Ives, Jonathan; Draper, Heather

    2009-05-01

    In this article we distinguish between philosophical bioethics (PB), descriptive policy orientated bioethics (DPOB) and normative policy oriented bioethics (NPOB). We argue that finding an appropriate methodology for combining empirical data and moral theory depends on what the aims of the research endeavour are, and that, for the most part, this combination is only required for NPOB. After briefly discussing the debate around the is/ought problem, and suggesting that both sides of this debate are misunderstanding one another (i.e. one side treats it as a conceptual problem, whilst the other treats it as an empirical claim), we outline and defend a methodological approach to NPOB based on work we have carried out on a project exploring the normative foundations of paternal rights and responsibilities. We suggest that given the prominent role already played by moral intuition in moral theory, one appropriate way to integrate empirical data and philosophical bioethics is to utilize empirically gathered lay intuition as the foundation for ethical reasoning in NPOB. The method we propose involves a modification of a long-established tradition on non-intervention in qualitative data gathering, combined with a form of reflective equilibrium where the demands of theory and data are given equal weight and a pragmatic compromise reached. PMID:19338525

  18. All in the family: law, medicine and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Parker, Malcolm

    2008-02-01

    In this first Bioethical Issues column the author outlines some of the distinctions and congruities between ethics and law, and between bioethics and medical law. The evidence for connections is obvious and wide-ranging, appearing within health and medical education, the academic literature, statute and case law, professional guidelines and the activities of professional associations, the history of legal practice and philosophical inquiry, and the emergence of human rights theory and applications. The interpenetration of morals and law is examined first by briefly tracing the development of natural law and legal positivism. These links are then developed through a number of examples which are the subjects of both bioethical and legal interest: decision-making capacity, what constitutes good medical practice in the advance care planning context, sex selection, embryo experimentation and posthumous conception. These topics illustrate some of the explicit and some of the less obvious ways in which moral considerations and medical law interact, and suggest that biolaw can involve inconsistencies and even obfuscation which, while difficult to avoid in plural societies, are appropriate areas for examination. In the final section the author argues that bioethics and medical law share some important logical features, including a prescriptivist, principled structure, which is subject to the related requirements of specification and universalisability. Again, medico-legal illustrations are used to support this proposal, which also constitutes a suitable topic for critique. Future columns will provide the opportunity for those who care about the issues of bioethics and medical law to share their thoughts and those of their colleagues. PMID:18365517

  19. Ethics of Surrogacy: A Comparative Study of Western Secular and Islamic Bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Sharmin; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Bin Shamsuddin, Ab Rani; Mohd Nor, Hanapi Bin; Al-Mahmood, Abu Kholdun

    2012-01-01

    The comparative approach regarding the ethics of surrogacy from the Western secular and Islamic bioethical view reveals both commensurable and incommensurable relationship. Both are eager to achieve the welfare of the mother, child and society as a whole but the approaches are not always the same. Islamic bioethics is straightforward in prohibiting surrogacy by highlighting the lineage problem and also other social chaos and anarchy. Western secular bioethics is relative and mostly follows a utilitarian approach. PMID:23864994

  20. Ethics of surrogacy: a comparative study of Western secular and islamic bioethics.

    PubMed

    Islam, Sharmin; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Bin Shamsuddin, Ab Rani; Mohd Nor, Hanapi Bin; Al-Mahmood, Abu Kholdun

    2012-01-01

    The comparative approach regarding the ethics of surrogacy from the Western secular and Islamic bioethical view reveals both commensurable and incommensurable relationship. Both are eager to achieve the welfare of the mother, child and society as a whole but the approaches are not always the same. Islamic bioethics is straightforward in prohibiting surrogacy by highlighting the lineage problem and also other social chaos and anarchy. Western secular bioethics is relative and mostly follows a utilitarian approach. PMID:23864994

  1. The Time Is Now: Bioethics and LGBT Issues.

    PubMed

    Powell, Tia; Foglia, Mary Beth

    2014-09-01

    Our goal in producing this special issue is to encourage our colleagues to incorporate topics related to LGBT populations into bioethics curricula and scholarship. Bioethics has only rarely examined the ways in which law and medicine have defined, regulated, and often oppressed sexual minorities. This is an error on the part of bioethics. Medicine and law have served in the past as society's enforcement arm toward sexual minorities, in ways that robbed many people of their dignity. We feel that bioethics has an obligation to discuss that history and to help us as a society take responsibility for it. We can address only a small number of topics in this special issue of the Hastings Center Report, and we selected topics we believe will stimulate discourse. Andrew Solomon offers an elegant overview of the challenges that bioethics faces in articulating a solid basis for LGBT rights. Timothy F. Murphy asks whether bioethics still faces issues related to lesbian, gay, and bisexual people, given the deletion of homosexuality as a disease and the progress toward same-sex marriage. Jamie Lindemann Nelson's essay addresses the search for identity for transgender persons and the role of science in that search. Two articles, those by Brendan S. Abel and by Jack Drescher and Jack Pula, take up the complex issue of medical treatment for children who reject their assigned birth gender. Celia B. Fisher and Brian Mustanski address the special challenges of engaging LGBT youth in research, balancing the need for better information about this vulnerable group against the existing restrictions on research involving children. Tia Powell and Edward Stein consider the merits of legal bans on psychotherapies intended to change sexual orientation, particularly in the light of current research on orientation. Mary Beth Foglia and Karen I. Fredricksen-Goldsen highlight health disparities and resilience among LGBT older adults and then discuss the role of nonconscious bias in perpetuating

  2. Lessons learned from undergraduate students in designing a science-based course in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Loike, John D; Rush, Brittany S; Schweber, Adam; Fischbach, Ruth L

    2013-01-01

    Columbia University offers two innovative undergraduate science-based bioethics courses for student majoring in biosciences and pre-health studies. The goals of these courses are to introduce future scientists and healthcare professionals to the ethical questions they will confront in their professional lives, thus enabling them to strategically address these bioethical dilemmas. These courses incorporate innovative pedagogical methods, case studies, and class discussions to stimulate the students to think creatively about bioethical issues emerging from new biotechnologies. At the end of each course, each student is required to submit a one-page strategy detailing how he or she would resolve a bioethical dilemma. Based on our experience in teaching these courses and on a qualitative analysis of the students' reflections, we offer recommendations for creating an undergraduate science-based course in bioethics. General recommendations include: 1) integrating the science of emerging biotechnologies, their ethical ramifications, and contemporary bioethical theories into interactive class sessions; 2) structuring discussion-based classes to stimulate students to consider the impact of their moral intuitions when grappling with bioethical issues; and 3) using specific actual and futuristic case studies to highlight bioethical issues and to help develop creative problem-solving skills. Such a course sparks students' interests in both science and ethics and helps them analyze bioethical challenges arising from emerging biotechnologies. PMID:24297296

  3. Respect for cultural diversity in bioethics is an ethical imperative.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond

    2013-11-01

    The field of bioethics continues to struggle with the problem of cultural diversity: can universal principles guide ethical decision making, regardless of the culture in which those decisions take place? Or should bioethical principles be derived from the moral traditions of local cultures? Ten Have and Gordijn (Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14:1-3, 2011) and Bracanovic (Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14:229-236, 2011) defend the universalist position, arguing that respect for cultural diversity in matters ethical will lead to a dangerous cultural relativity where vulnerable patients and research subjects will be harmed. We challenge the premises of moral universalism, showing how this approach imports and imposes moral notions of Western society and leads to harm in non-western cultures. PMID:22955969

  4. Teaching bioethics as a new paradigm for health professionals.

    PubMed

    Tealdi, Juan Carlos

    1993-04-01

    In The Clouds by Aristophanes, Strepsiades brings his son before Socrates so that he could learn Philosophy for he has heard that this science teaches how to overcome the most difficult causes with reasons. And Strepsiades wants his son to learn the art of failing to pay debts. Regarding medical education in our time, Edmund Pellegrino has noted that the educational philosophy of medical schools determines what a "good" physician is. Thus, teaching bioethics to future health professionals makes us face old problems now: What teaching method to choose among all the possible various ones? What should teaching aim at? Which will be our educational philosophy? Therefore I shall introduce here the epistemological basis of our Bioethics teaching program in Argentina and its implementing strategies in the undergraduate curriculum and the post-graduate level. PMID:11651531

  5. [Nursing care in terminality: compliance with principles of bioethics ].

    PubMed

    Felix, Zirleide Carlos; Batista, Patricia Serpa De Souza; Da Costa, Solange Fátima Geraldo; Lopes, Maria Emília Limeira; De Oliveira, Regina Célia; Abrão, Fátima Maria Da Silva

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the principles of bioethics reported by nurses when caring forterminally ill patients. Exploratory research with qualitative approach, developed with fifteen nurses from an intensive care unit of a university hospital, in northeastern Brazil. Data collection was conducted between March and July 2013, through a form. Data were analyzed using the technique of content analysis, emerging the following thematic category: respect to the principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice to take care of the terminally ill patients. The participating nurses valued these principles when caring for terminally ill patients, which reflect the ethical commitment of these professionals in the practice of nursing care. It is noteworthy that bioethical principles should guide the nursing care of human beings throughout their life cycle. PMID:25508626

  6. [Nursing care in terminality: compliance with principles of bioethics ].

    PubMed

    Felix, Zirleide Carlos; Batista, Patricia Serpa de Souza; da Costa, Solange Fátima Geraldo; Lopes, Maria Emília Limeira; de Oliveira, Regina Célia; Abrão, Fátima Maria da Silva

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the principles of bioethics reported by nurses when caring for terminally ill patients. Exploratory research with qualitative approach, developed with fifteen nurses from an intensive care unit of a university hospital, in northeastern Brazil. Data collection was conducted between March and July 2013, through a form. Data were analyzed using the technique of content analysis, emerging the following thematic category: respect to the principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice to take care of the terminally ill patients. The participating nurses valued these principles when caring for terminally ill patients, which reflect the ethical commitment of these professionals in the practice of nursing care. It is noteworthy that bioethical principles should guide the nursing care of human beings throughout their life cycle. PMID:25474847

  7. Uncovering Metaethical Assumptions in Bioethical Discourse across Cultures.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Laura Specker

    2016-03-01

    Much of bioethical discourse now takes place across cultures. This does not mean that cross-cultural understanding has increased. Many cross-cultural bioethical discussions are marked by entrenched disagreement about whether and why local practices are justified. In this paper, I argue that a major reason for these entrenched disagreements is that problematic metaethical commitments are hidden in these cross-cultural discourses. Using the issue of informed consent in East Asia as an example of one such discourse, I analyze two representative positions in the discussion and identify their metaethical commitments. I suggest that the metaethical assumptions of these positions result from their shared method of ethical justification: moral principlism. I then show why moral principlism is problematic in cross-cultural analyses and propose a more useful method for pursuing ethical justification across cultures. PMID:27157111

  8. Topics in Bioethics: A Development of Student Perspectives†

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Exposing students to current biotechnological and medical issues is eye-opening for many students in a way that is not always achieved through lecture-based learning. Lecture or investigative teaching styles provide a tremendous knowledge base for the students, but sometimes these teaching styles do not allow the student to fully develop, especially personal attitudes to issues in bioethics. Through online videos, Hollywood movies, guided readings and classroom discussions, students in this course are informed of some bioethical topics, encouraged to learn about other topics, and use this gained knowledge to develop personal positions regarding the value and/or risk of the issues. This course has been well-received by previous students as a favorite in terms of both topics covered and style. PMID:25574290

  9. The psychobiology of aggression and violence: bioethical implications.

    PubMed

    Díaz, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    Bioethics is concerned with the moral aspects of biology and medicine. The bioethical relevance of aggression and violence is clear, as very different moral and legal responsibilities may apply depending on whether aggression and violence are forms of behaviour that are innate or acquired, deliberate or automatic or not, or understandable and justifiable based on causes. Biological research and natural science theories are a basic ingredient for reflections, arguments and decisions on such matters. This study presents the problem of the causes of aggressive behaviour, the evolutionary understanding and definition of aggressive behaviour, the biological basis for this behaviour and the link between emotions and aggression. A growing body of evidence suggests that innate factors of behaviour (be they genetic or neurobiological) do not by themselves define behaviour and nor do acquired factors such as learning, cultural norms or worldviews. Both types of factor interact from the outset to shape a development process that mutually interacts to define beliefs or behaviour. PMID:21898943

  10. Pragmatism, metaphysics, and bioethics: beyond a theory of moral deliberation.

    PubMed

    Pamental, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    Pragmatism has been understood by bioethicists as yet another rival in the "methods wars," as yet another theory of moral deliberation. This has led to criticism of pragmatic bioethics as both theoretically and practically inadequate. Pragmatists' responses to these objections have focused mainly on misunderstandings of pragmatism's epistemology. These responses are insufficient. Pragmatism's commitment to radical empiricism gives it theoretical resources unappreciated by critics and defenders alike. Radical empiricism, unlike its more traditional ancestors, undercuts the gaps between theory and practice, and subjective and objective accounts of experience, and in so doing provides the metaphysical and epistemological basis for a thoroughgoing empirical naturalism in ethics. Pragmatism's strength as an approach to moral problems thus emerges as a result of a much wider array of resources than contemporary interpreters have acknowledged, which makes it a richer, deeper framework for understanding moral deliberation in general and bioethical decision making in particular. PMID:23878348

  11. Questioning Engelhardt's assumptions in Bioethics and Secular Humanism.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi Nasab Emran, Shahram

    2016-06-01

    In Bioethics and Secular Humanism: The Search for a Common Morality, Tristram Engelhardt examines various possibilities of finding common ground for moral discourse among people from different traditions and concludes their futility. In this paper I will argue that many of the assumptions on which Engelhardt bases his conclusion about the impossibility of a content-full secular bioethics are problematic. By starting with the notion of moral strangers, there is no possibility, by definition, for a content-full moral discourse among moral strangers. It means that there is circularity in starting the inquiry with a definition of moral strangers, which implies that they do not share enough moral background or commitment to an authority to allow for reaching a moral agreement, and concluding that content-full morality is impossible among moral strangers. I argue that assuming traditions as solid and immutable structures that insulate people across their boundaries is problematic. Another questionable assumption in Engelhardt's work is the idea that religious and philosophical traditions provide content-full moralities. As the cardinal assumption in Engelhardt's review of the various alternatives for a content-full moral discourse among moral strangers, I analyze his foundationalist account of moral reasoning and knowledge and indicate the possibility of other ways of moral knowledge, besides the foundationalist one. Then, I examine Engelhardt's view concerning the futility of attempts at justifying a content-full secular bioethics, and indicate how the assumptions have shaped Engelhardt's critique of the alternatives for the possibility of content-full secular bioethics. PMID:26715286

  12. How will the economic downturn affect academic bioethics?

    PubMed

    Epstein, Miran

    2010-06-01

    An educated guess about the future of academic bioethics can only be made on the basis of the historical conditions of its success. According to its official history, which attributes its success primarily to the service it has done for the patient, it should be safe at least as long as the patient still needs its service. Like many other academic disciplines, it might suffer under the present economic downturn. However, in the plausible assumption that its social role has not been exhausted yet, it should recover as soon as the economy does. But if, as this paper tries to argue, the success of academic bioethics should be attributed first and foremost to the service it has done for the neoliberal agenda, then its future would have to depend on the fate of the latter. The exact implications of the downturn for the neoliberal agenda are obviously impossible to predict. Among the various options, however, the one of going back to 'normal' seems to be the least likely. The other options suggest that the future of academic bioethics, as we have known it, is bleak. PMID:20500760

  13. [SIBIL: an information tool for the information retrieval on bioethics].

    PubMed

    Dracos, Adriana

    2004-01-01

    The article describes the main features of the website SIBIL (Sistema Informativo per la Bioetica In Linea) implemented within the framework of a research project of the ISS for collecting, indexing and disseminating Italian literature on bioethics since 1995 through an integrated electronic system. The site, addressed to a wide range of people interested at different degrees and levels in bioethics, offers a comprehensive overview of the activities, such as courses and meetings, on the major ethical issues at stake in Italy, as well as a survey of the most important activities both at national and international level. The main feature of SIBIL is a database of a large collection of documents retrieved through sources or exploitation of the most important international electronic databases. A thesaurus of 1,600 terms, available in Italian and English, was created in order to organize documents with standardized criteria currently adopted in the Italian scientific environment. Future trends of the website are also discussed for sharing experiences with other countries and laying the basis for a European portal on bioethics. PMID:15637402

  14. The Confucian bioethics of surrogate decision making: its communitarian roots.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruiping

    2011-10-01

    The family is the exemplar community of Chinese society. This essay explores how Chinese communitarian norms, expressed in thick commitments to the authority and autonomy of the family, are central to contemporary Chinese bioethics. In particular, it focuses on the issue of surrogate decision making to illustrate the Confucian family-grounded communitarian bioethics. The essay first describes the way in which the family, in Chinese bioethics, functions as a whole to provide consent for significant medical and surgical interventions when a patient has lost decision-making capacity. It is argued that the practice of not having an established order for surrogate decision makers (e.g., spouse, children, and then parents), as it is done in the United States, reflects the acknowledgment that the family as a social reality cannot be reduced to a stereotype of the appropriate order of default decision makers. This description of the family as being in authority to make surrogate decisions for an incompetent family member is enriched by an elaboration of the differences among the concepts of patient autonomy, family autonomy, and moral autonomy. The Chinese model, as well as the Confucian communitarian life of families, engages a family autonomy that is supported by a Confucian understanding of moral autonomy, rather than individual autonomy. Finally, the issue of possible conflicts between patient and family interests in relation to a patient's past wishes in the Chinese model is addressed in light of the role of the physician. PMID:21858670

  15. OPPORTUNITIES IN REFORM: BIOETHICS AND MENTAL HEALTH ETHICS

    PubMed Central

    WILLIAMS, ARTHUR ROBINSON

    2015-01-01

    This year marks the first year of implementation for both the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act in the United States. Resultantly healthcare reform is moving in the direction of integrating care for physical and mental illness, nudging clinicians to consider medical and psychiatric comorbidity as the expectation rather than the exception. Understanding the intersections of physical and mental illness with autonomy and self-determination in a system realigning its values so fundamentally therefore becomes a top priority for clinicians. Yet Bioethics has missed opportunities to help guide clinicians through one of medicine’s most ethically rich and challenging fields. Bioethics’ distancing from mental illness is perhaps best explained by two overarching themes: 1) an intrinsic opposition between approaches to personhood rooted in Bioethics’ early efforts to protect the competent individual from abuses in the research setting; and 2) structural forces, such as deinstitutionalization, the Patient Rights Movement, and managed care. These two themes help explain Bioethics’ relationship to mental health ethics and may also guide opportunities for rapprochement. The potential role for Bioethics may have the greatest implications for international human rights if bioethicists can re-energize an understanding of autonomy as not only free from abusive intrusions but also with rights to treatment and other fundamental necessities for restoring freedom of choice and self-determination. Bioethics thus has a great opportunity amid healthcare reform to strengthen the important role of the virtuous and humanistic care provider. PMID:26424211

  16. Embracing complexity: theory, cases and the future of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James

    2014-01-01

    This paper reflects on the relationship between theory and practice in bioethics, by using various concepts drawn from debates on innovation in healthcare research--in particular debates around how best to connect up blue skies 'basic' research with practical innovations that can improve human lives. It argues that it is a mistake to assume that the most difficult and important questions in bioethics are the most abstract ones, and also a mistake to assume that getting clear about abstract cases will automatically be of much help in getting clear about more complex cases. It replaces this implicitly linear model with a more complex one that draws on the idea of translational research in healthcare. On the translational model, there is a continuum of cases from the most simple and abstract (thought experiments) to the most concrete and complex (real world cases). Insights need to travel in both directions along this continuum--from the more abstract to the more concrete and from the more concrete to the more abstract. The paper maps out some difficulties in moving from simpler to more complex cases, and in doing so makes recommendations about the future of bioethics. PMID:25434061

  17. Critical care: why there is no global bioethics.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, H T

    1998-12-01

    The high technology and the costs involved in critical care disclose the implausibility of applying the American standard version of bioethics in the developing world. The American standard version of bioethics was framed during the rapid secularization of the American culture, the emergence of a new image for the medical profession, the development of high technology medicine, an ever greater demand in resources, and a shift of focus from families and communities to individuals. This all brought with it a particular ideology of health care which promised Americans (1) the best of care, (2) equal care, and (3) physician/patient choice, without (4) runaway costs. This essay argues that this moral project is impossible in practice. This impossibility is especially salient in developing countries. In addition to the fact that it is financially impossible to provide all in the developing world with the standard of care accepted by law, policy, and convention in developed countries, different moral perspectives with different orderings of values will seem more or less plausible in different cultures. Indeed, such an approach would be harmful. A concrete bioethics applicable across the world does not appear possible. PMID:10190846

  18. A Sensitive Period: Bioethics, Human Rights, and Child Development.

    PubMed

    Denburg, Avram

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores complementarities between bioethics and human rights in the ethical analysis of early childhood development (ECD) policies. It is argued that conceptual synergies arising from the integration of these fields are considerable, if underexplored, and best illumined through application to specific domains of health policy. ECD represents an especially germane case study: it is characterized by rapidly evolving science whose normative implications are complex, emergent, and understudied, yet whose societal impacts are wide-ranging. The paper first charts the disciplinary evolution of bioethics, demonstrating its gradual social turn: from the individual to collective, from the medical to the societal. It then reviews points of theoretical confluence between bioethics and human rights, to assess the value and feasibility of their joint application to health policy analysis. Finally, it maps these complementarities onto issues provoked by the epigenetics of ECD, in the hopes that both the policy domain and the analysis of theoretical synergies are enriched. It finds that the distinctly relational and emergent nature of ECD science and policy demands novel forms of normative inquiry. Only an ethical approach supple enough to adapt to emergent questions, examine issues from varied theoretical perspectives, and assimilate insights across traditional disciplinary bounds will prove sufficient to the task. PMID:26204580

  19. Global Convergence on the Bioethics of Surgical Implants

    PubMed Central

    Monlezun, Dominique J.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing globalization of mankind with pluralistic belief systems necessitates physicians by virtue of their profession to partner with bioethics for soundly applying emerging knowledge and technologies for the best use of the patient. A subfield within medicine in which this need is acutely felt is that of surgical implants. Within this subfield such recent promising ethics and medicine partnerships include the International Tissue Engineering Research Association and UNESCO Chair in Bioethics and Human Rights' International Code of Ethics. In this paper, we provide an overview of the emerging human rights framework from bioethics and international law, discussion of key framework principles, their application to the current surgical challenge of implantation of surgical mesh for prolapse, and conclusions and recommendations. Such discussions are meant to facilitate true quality improvement in patient care by ensuring the exciting technologies and medical practices emerging new daily are accompanied by an equal commitment of physicians to ethically provide their services for the chief end of the patient's good. PMID:25973426

  20. Wagging the watchdog: law and the emergence of bioethical norms.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael L

    2002-01-01

    Bioethics offers an ideal vantage point to study how law and ethics affect the emergence of norms. Moral philosophy traditionally places itself in the role of prime mover, the normative force behind social, cultural and legislative change. But some bioethical norms, particularly those associated with emerging right-to-die norms in the mid 1960's and through the late 1980's, did not originate in this way. Instead, legal reasoning and judicial decision-making brought about rapid change in bioethical norms almost excluding moral philosophy in the process. Judicial decision-making has prompted legislation, molded public opinion, guided medical practice and shaped moral thinking. The reasons for this are not difficult to understand. Legal reasoning, usually in the form of risk management, replaces moral reasoning because it is cognitively more comfortable, rational and parsimonious. This process creates undue pressure on the judiciary to undertake tasks for which it may not be well trained, while at the same time offers a challenge to ethicists to advocate interdisciplinary, deliberative and public forums to attenuate the undue influence of the law. PMID:15795997

  1. Inter-ethics: towards an interactive and interdependent bioethics.

    PubMed

    Abma, Tineke A; Baur, Vivianne E; Molewijk, Bert; Widdershoven, Guy A M

    2010-06-01

    Since its origin bioethics has been a specialized, academic discipline, focussing on moral issues, using a vast set of globalized principles and rational techniques to evaluate and guide healthcare practices. With the emergence of a plural society, the loss of faith in experts and authorities and the decline of overarching grand narratives and shared moralities, a new approach to bioethics is needed. This approach implies a shift from an external critique of practices towards embedded ethics and interactive practice improvement, and from a legal defence of rights towards fostering interdependent practices of responsibility. This article describes these transitions within bioethics in relation to the broader societal and cultural dynamics within Western societies, and traces the implications for the methodologies and changing roles of the bioethicist. The bioethicist we foresee is not just a clever expert but also a relationally sensitive person who engages stakeholders in reciprocal dialogues about their practice of responsibility and helps to integrate various sorts of knowledge (embodied, experiential, visual, and cognitive-scientific). In order to illustrate this new approach, we present a case study. It concerns a project focusing on an innovation in elderly care, based on the participation of various stakeholders, especially older people themselves. PMID:20500761

  2. A Pharmaceutical Bioethics Consultation Service: Six-Year Descriptive Characteristics and Results of a Feedback Survey

    PubMed Central

    Van Campen, Luann E.; Allen, Albert J.; Watson, Susan B.; Therasse, Donald G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bioethics consultations are conducted in varied settings, including hospitals, universities, and other research institutions, but there is sparse information about bioethics consultations conducted in corporate settings such as pharmaceutical companies. The purpose of this article is to describe a bioethics consultation service at a pharmaceutical company, to report characteristics of consultations completed by the service over a 6-year period, and to share results of a consultation feedback survey. Methods: Data on the descriptive characteristics of bioethics consultations were collected from 2008 to 2013 and analyzed in Excel 2007. Categorical data were analyzed via the pivot table function, and time-based variables were analyzed via formulas. The feedback survey was administered to consultation requesters from 2009 to 2012 and also analyzed in Excel 2007. Results: Over the 6-year period, 189 bioethics consultations were conducted. The number of consultations increased from five per year in 2008 to approximately one per week in 2013. During this time, the format of the consultation service was changed from a committee-only approach to a tiered approach (tailored to the needs of the case). The five most frequent topics were informed consent, early termination of a clinical trial, benefits and risks, human biological samples, and patient rights. The feedback survey results suggest the consultation service is well regarded overall and viewed as approachable, helpful, and responsive. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical bioethics consultation is a unique category of bioethics consultation that primarily focuses on pharmaceutical research and development but also touches on aspects of clinical ethics, business ethics, and organizational ethics. Results indicate there is a demand for a tiered bioethics consultation service within this pharmaceutical company and that advice was valued. This company's experience indicates that a bioethics consultation service raises

  3. Bioethics and animal research. A personal perspective and a note on the contribution of Fritz Jahr1

    PubMed Central

    LOLAS, FERNANDO

    2010-01-01

    Reviewing fundamental aspects of bioethics and outlining the work of the Bioethics Program of the Pan American Health Organization, this paper draws attention to the work of a forgotten pioneer- Fritz Jahr- who coined the term bioethics in 1927 and anticipated many of the arguments and discussions now current in biological research involving animals- PMID:18769769

  4. Why bioethics? On the anamnesis of meaning in medicine.

    PubMed

    Dell'Oro, Roberto

    2013-06-01

    The history of bioethics rests upon the assumption that, given the growing complexity of medicine, the function of ethics is, first of all, normative: ethics is supposed to help in the solution of concrete problems, and to do so systematically, by relying upon a defined set of principles and rules. The scientific character of such an approach to bioethics complements the very understanding of modern medicine as itself increasingly scientific and technical, that is, as oriented toward the production of effects. Although careful scientific attention to the patho-physiology of disease has unquestionably yielded marvelous advances in modern medicine, its positivist reduction has also created a mind-set that brackets questions of meaning, themselves highly significant to human well-being and to the ethical aspects ofmedicine. The paper claims that, rather than sharing in the "suspension of meaning" pursued by medicine for the sake of scientific objectivity, the main task of bioethics consists in a retrieval, or "anamnesis", of the very questions medicine seems to suspend: the significance of illness and disease, of birth, suffering and death, and of the service to the ethos of generosity that sustains the healing professions. Also, the paper offers a cultural "etiology" of "the suspension of meaning" in bioethics. In addition to a critical integration of positivistic attitudes in medicine and the reduction of moral discourse to the normative, one must mention the basic presumption of a cultural situation that, in the name of post-modernity, raises serious doubts against the possibility of engaging in questions of meaning across moral boundaries. As an alternative, the paper calls for a moral reflection that begins neither with the application of normative principles, nor with an attitude of resignation towards the pursuit of the good; rather with a free and open confrontation with clinical experience that attends to the moral meaning of concrete situations, recognizing

  5. [Bioethics and rationality. Personalism at the service of expanding the horizon of reason at the foundation of bioethics].

    PubMed

    Guerra López, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Personalism not only provides a valuable contribution to those interested in bioethics by allowing contrasts with other schools and currents of thought, but its ethical and anthropological features can serve to widen the horizon of reason. Bioethics today needs to expand the horizon of rationality in which it is animated through: 1) An ontologically ground personalism thanks to which the personal being emerges with all its evidence as being in the most proper sense of being. 2) The overcoming of subjectivism-objectivism antinomy through the claim that human subjectivity is an objective fact. 3) The recognition of the personalistic norm of action as a fundamental precept of natural law. When bioethics is built with openness to the objective datum of subjectivity it becomes easy to appreciate the human person as a real aim that should not be used as mere means. 4) The discovery of the normative basis of the moral life, because determining the ultimate end of human action is not the same as obtaining an ultimate justification of the norms of human action. When this distinction is deeply assimilated, it can show that the precepts of natural law must be respected regardless the acceptance of God's existence. PMID:23745817

  6. Raising the Next Generation: Bioethical Education for a Post-Genomic Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall-Walker, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Precollegiate education has paid little attention to the bioethical underpinning of recent innovations. Without a deliberate commitment to bioethical education, confusion and divisiveness regarding genetic testing are likely to challenge harmony in families and further polarize the already fragmented society. This article presents the following…

  7. Thinking out Loud about Teaching Bioethics: A Contribution from the Edge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, Mary M.

    2005-01-01

    Teaching bioethics might be likened to a rollercoaster ride of twists, turns, and dips that invite teachers and students to experience something of their own edges of fear and comfort. Here the author provides readers with a glimpse into her distinctive approach to teaching bioethics that encourages students to move beyond boundaries of personal…

  8. Bioethics Cases and Issues: Enrichment for Social Science, Humanities, and Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyer, Ruth Levy; Dillon, Mary Lou; Anderson, Linda; Szobota, Lola

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of bioethics and bioethical dilemmas in different subject areas at the high school level by focusing on the case of Baby K. Includes the story of Baby K, classroom activities for U.S. history, 10th and 11th grade ethics, and anatomy and physiology. (CMK)

  9. Hospital Bioethics: A Beginning Knowledge Base for the Neonatal Social Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Ed

    1992-01-01

    Notes that life-saving advances in medicine have created difficult ethical and legal dilemmas for health care professionals. Presents beginning knowledge base for bioethical practice, especially in hospital neonatal units. Outlines key elements of bioethical decision making and examines potential social work role from clinical and organizational…

  10. Emergency Contraception and RU-486 (Mifepristone): Do Bioethical Discussions Improve Learning and Retention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodensteiner, Karin J.

    2012-01-01

    To systematically investigate whether the inclusion of a bioethical discussion improves the learning and retention of biological content, students in two sections of an introductory zoology class were taught the biology behind emergency contraception and RU-486. Students in one section of the course participated in a bioethical discussion, whereas…

  11. The four-principle formulation of common morality is at the core of bioethics mediation method.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi Nasab Emran, Shahram

    2015-08-01

    Bioethics mediation is increasingly used as a method in clinical ethics cases. My goal in this paper is to examine the implicit theoretical assumptions of the bioethics mediation method developed by Dubler and Liebman. According to them, the distinguishing feature of bioethics mediation is that the method is useful in most cases of clinical ethics in which conflict is the main issue, which implies that there is either no real ethical issue or if there were, they are not the key to finding a resolution. I question the tacit assumption of non-normativity of the mediation method in bioethics by examining the various senses in which bioethics mediation might be non-normative or neutral. The major normative assumption of the mediation method is the existence of common morality. In addition, the four-principle formulation of the theory articulated by Beauchamp and Childress implicitly provides the normative content for the method. Full acknowledgement of the theoretical and normative assumptions of bioethics mediation helps clinical ethicists better understand the nature of their job. In addition, the need for a robust philosophical background even in what appears to be a purely practical method of mediation cannot be overemphasized. Acknowledgement of the normative nature of bioethics mediation method necessitates a more critical attitude of the bioethics mediators towards the norms they usually take for granted uncritically as valid. PMID:25424703

  12. [BIOETHICS FACED WITH SOCIOCULTURAL DIVERSITY, THE IMPACT OF THE MEANING GIVEN TO AN UNFINISHED CONCEPT].

    PubMed

    Marin, Ana; Bouffard, Chantal

    2015-10-01

    At a time in which the ethical awareness towards socio-cultural diversity is a necessity, it seems of paramount importance to explore what is meant by bioethics. Without being exhaustive, this paper suggests to scrutinize the key defnitions of bioethics, considering their evolution over time as well as their convergence with anthropology. Starting with its global and its restricted definitions, this article examines certain differences or definitional imprecisions in the light of the concepts used by bioethicists and anthropologists in their conception of bioethics. While this exercise shows the pertinence of the conceptual tools proposed by anthropology to facilitate the cultural diversity's integration into bioethics, it ultimately challenges an anthropological approach that has been unable to mainstream this knowledge into the definition of bioethics. PMID:26911078

  13. Maqasid al-shariah as a complementary framework to conventional bioethics.

    PubMed

    Saifuddeen, Shaikh Mohd; Rahman, Noor Naemah Abdul; Isa, Noor Munirah; Baharuddin, Azizan

    2014-06-01

    With the rapid advancements made in biotechnology, bioethical discourse has become increasingly important. Bioethics is a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary field that goes beyond the realm of natural sciences, and has involved fields in the domain of the social sciences. One of the important areas in bioethical discourse is religion. In a country like Malaysia, where Muslims make up the majority of the population, Islam plays a crucial role in providing the essential guidelines on the permissibility and acceptability of biotechnological applications in various fields such as medicine, agriculture, and food processing. This article looks at the framework of a complementary model of bioethics derived from the perspective of Islam. The framework is based on 'maqasid al-shariah' (purposes or objectives of Islamic law) which aims to protect and preserve mankind's faith, life, intellect, progeny, and property. It is proposed that 'maqasid al-shariah' be used as a pragmatic checklist that can be utilized in tackling bioethical issues and dilemmas. PMID:23836155

  14. Reviewing Literature in Bioethics Research: Increasing Rigour in Non-Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2015-09-01

    The recent interest in systematic review methods in bioethics has highlighted the need for greater transparency in all literature review processes undertaken in bioethics projects. In this article, I articulate features of a good bioethics literature review that does not aim to be systematic, but rather to capture and analyse the key ideas relevant to a research question. I call this a critical interpretive literature review. I begin by sketching and comparing three different types of literature review conducted in bioethics scholarship. Then, drawing on Dixon-Wood's concept of critical interpretive synthesis, I put forward six features of a good critical interpretive literature review in bioethics: answering a research question, capturing the key ideas relevant to the research question, analysing the literature as a whole, generating theory, not excluding papers based on rigid quality assessment criteria, and reporting the search strategy. PMID:25655982

  15. A theory of international bioethics: multiculturalism, postmodernism, and the bankruptcy of fundamentalism.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert

    1998-09-01

    The first of two articles analyzing the justifiability of international bioethical codes and of cross-cultural moral judgments reviews "moral fundamentalism," the theory that cross-cultural moral judgments and international bioethical codes are justified by certain "basic" or "fundamental" moral priniciples that are universally accepted in all cultures and eras. Initially propounded by the judges at the 1947 Nuremberg Tribunal, moral fundamentalism has become the received justification of international bioethics, and of cross-temporal and cross-cultural moral judgments. Yet today we are said to live in a multicultural and postmodern world. This article assesses the challenges that multiculturalism and postmodernism pose to fundamentalism and concludes that these challenges render the position philosophically untenable, thereby undermining the received conception of the foundations of international bioethics. The second article, which follows, offers an alternative model -- a model of negotiated moral order -- as a viable justification for international bioethics and for transcultural and transtemporal moral judgments. PMID:11656932

  16. The value of dignity in and for bioethics: rethinking the terms of the debate.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Clair

    2016-06-01

    The discussion of the nature and value of dignity in and for bioethics concerns not only the importance of the concept but also the aims of bioethics itself. Here, I challenge the claim that the concept of dignity is useless by challenging the implicit conception of usefulness involved. I argue that the conception of usefulness that both opponents and proponents of dignity in bioethics adopt is rooted in a narrow understanding of the role of normative theory in practical ethical thinking. I then offer an alternate understanding of the nature and value of dignity. I begin by recognizing that claims that one's dignity has been violated point to an important difference between "respect for autonomy" and "respect for persons." I then suggest three different conceptions of how dignity can be normatively guiding for bioethics, and conclude that, ultimately, understanding dignity as the cornerstone of a reflective perspective that frames moral reflection and deliberation is valuable for doing bioethics well. PMID:27301253

  17. Medical and Nursing Students’ Television Viewing Habits: Potential Implications for Bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Czarny, Matthew J.; Faden, Ruth R.; Nolan, Marie T.; Bodensiek, Edwin; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Television medical dramas frequently depict the practice of medicine and bioethical issues in a strikingly realistic but sometimes inaccurate fashion. Because these shows depict medicine so vividly and are so relevant to the career interests of medical and nursing students, they may affect these students’ beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions regarding the practice of medicine and bioethical issues. We conducted a web-based survey of medical and nursing students to determine the medical drama viewing habits and impressions of bioethical issues depicted in them. More than 80% of medical and nursing students watch television medical dramas. Students with more clinical experience tended to have impressions that were more negative than those of students without clinical experience. Furthermore, viewing of television medical dramas is a social event and many students discuss the bioethical issues they observe with friends and family. Television medical dramas may stimulate students to think about and discuss bioethical issues. PMID:19085461

  18. Bioethics for clinicians: 26. Assisted reproductive technologies

    PubMed Central

    Shanner, Laura; Nisker, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES (ARTs) can be very helpful for certain patients, but ethical concerns have been raised about the inherent nature of specific techniques and the contexts in which many techniques are used. Physicians play important roles in supporting those who wish to become parents and in educating patients about impediments to fertilization and ways to promote conception. We discuss various ethical issues surrounding ARTs, including family relationships, informed choice, gender issues, embryo status and the commercialization of reproduction, as well as legal and policy issues. We examine the empirical evidence of the effectiveness of ARTs and suggest ways to approach ARTs in practice. PMID:11402801

  19. Safeguarding being: a bioethical principle for genetic nursing care.

    PubMed

    Giarelli, Ellen

    2003-05-01

    This philosophical inquiry examines the nature of the technology of genetic predisposition testing and its relation to patients as whole persons. The bioethical principles of non-maleficence, beneficence, autonomy and justice are judged insufficient to resolve issues associated with use. A new principle of 'sustained being', drawn from philosophical propositions of Pellegrino, is suggested. The new principle is suited to an evolving practice and is compatible with consequentialist, deontological and relational ethics theories. The notion of 'taking care' is related to nursing in genetic health care to form a standard of conduct and a moral imperative to 'safeguard being'. PMID:12762460

  20. Is there such a thing as Latin bioethics?

    PubMed

    Carlioz, Antoine; Wolyniak, Joseph G; Le Coz, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    This paper reflects on the presumption that there are distinct ethical differences between the supposedly 'Anglo-Saxon liberal' and 'Latin (Southern European) paternalist' ethical traditions. The predominance of the bioethical paradigm (principalism) is measured by a comparative analysis of regional moral opinion reflected in nation-state health laws. By looking at the way the ethico-legal concept figures into various national ordinances, we attempt to ascertain the extent and nature of variation (if any) between localities by exploring the understanding and application of principalism's keystone: patient autonomy. PMID:21927970

  1. Teaching Research Integrity and Bioethics to Science Undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Undergraduate students in the Department of Biomedical Sciences at the University of South Alabama, Mobile, are required to take a course entitled “Issues in Biomedical Sciences,” designed to increase students' awareness about bioethical questions and issues concerning research integrity. This paper describes the main features of this course and summarizes the results of a survey designed to evaluate the students' perceptions about the course. A summary of this study was presented at the 2002 Conference on Research Integrity in Potomac, MD, sponsored by the Office of Research Integrity of the National Institutes of Health. PMID:16341260

  2. Bioethics for human geneticists: models for reasoning and methods for teaching.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, L. S.

    1994-01-01

    The ethical issues raised by the Human Genome Project (HGP) and by human genetics in general are not entirely novel. In fact, the ethical issues surrounding genetic research and the provision of genetic services fit into the evolution of bioethics, a field of inquiry which has its roots in concerns of the 1970s, concerns about the dignity and self-determination of individuals and about the development of medical technologies. Although bioethics has been largely occupied with patient-centered concerns, attention is currently shifting toward socially oriented issues, such as the justice of the existing health-care system. Genetic counseling has already incorporated many of the lessons of early bioethics and, as a profession, adheres to a consultand-centered ethic which reflects the values incorporated into the doctrine of informed consent, which is a cornerstone of bioethics. The mandate of the Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications Program of the HGP--to anticipate ethical problems arising from advances in genetics and to educate the public about genetics--reflects not only the nonpaternalistic approach of early bioethics but also bioethics' increasing attention to the ethical import of systemic and institutional factors, as well as an anticipatory and preventive approach to dealing with ethical concerns. Because bioethics has so much to contribute to current consideration of ethical issues in human genetics, it is important to provide training in ethics to those working in the field. Guidelines for using a case-oriented approach are suggested. PMID:8279464

  3. A method of reflexive balancing in a pragmatic, interdisciplinary and reflexive bioethics.

    PubMed

    Ives, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    In recent years there has been a wealth of literature arguing the need for empirical and interdisciplinary approaches to bioethics, based on the premise that an empirically informed ethical analysis is more grounded, contextually sensitive and therefore more relevant to clinical practice than an 'abstract' philosophical analysis. Bioethics has (arguably) always been an interdisciplinary field, and the rise of 'empirical' (bio)ethics need not be seen as an attempt to give a new name to the longstanding practice of interdisciplinary collaboration, but can perhaps best be understood as a substantive attempt to engage with the nature of that interdisciplinarity and to articulate the relationship between the many different disciplines (some of them empirical) that contribute to the field. It can also be described as an endeavour to explain how different disciplinary approaches can be integrated to effectively answer normative questions in bioethics, and fundamental to that endeavour is the need to think about how a robust methodology can be articulated that successfully marries apparently divergent epistemological and metaethical perspectives with method. This paper proposes 'Reflexive Bioethics' (RB) as a methodology for interdisciplinary and empirical bioethics, which utilizes a method of 'Reflexive Balancing' (RBL). RBL has been developed in response to criticisms of various forms of reflective equilibrium, and is built upon a pragmatic characterization of Bioethics and a 'quasi-moral foundationalism', which allows RBL to avoid some of the difficulties associated with RE and yet retain the flexible egalitarianism that makes it intuitively appealing to many. PMID:23444909

  4. Introduction: European bioethics on a rocky road.

    PubMed

    Sass, H M

    2001-06-01

    There are quite a number of rocky roads on which the 'old continent' has embarked. There is, first, a harmonization of cultures and attitudes in the creation of a common European market of values and valuables, a harmonization undertaken in order to survive in an increasingly competitive global market. Second, there is a reactivation of specific European traditions in discourse, peaceable hermeneutics, solidarity, subsidiarity, tolerance in both conflict reduction and solution, and respect for self-determination and self-responsibility. Third, there is an integration of theory and practice, of visions and reality, of national identity or pride and common European rights, and of obligations and cultural heritages. Last but not least, there is a question about the definition of 'European' in a world which, at least in part, has been developed by successful European missionary work in the distribution of Age-of-Reason principles such as personal autonomy and social and ideational tolerance, the promotion of science-based technologies, and the creation of global markets for goods and services. PMID:11445878

  5. Wide reflective equilibrium as a method of justification in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Carson Strong has recently argued that wide reflective equilibrium (WRE) is an unacceptable method of justification in bioethics. In its place, Strong recommends a methodology in which certain foundational moral judgments play a central role in the justification of moral beliefs, and coherence plays a limited justificatory role in that the rest of our judgments are made to cohere with these foundational judgments. In this paper, I argue that Strong's chief criticisms of WRE are unsuccessful and that his proposed alternative is in fact just another version of WRE. In the course of doing so, I specify which theses are central to WRE and which are not, and thus, provide a response to an additional objection, advanced by Peter Singer, that WRE is vacuous. I conclude by arguing that there may be better prospects for advancing the debate regarding methodology in bioethics if we focus on restricted epistemic and methodological theses rather than broad approaches, such as WRE, that come in many different varieties. PMID:22752538

  6. “Eugenics talk” and the language of bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, S

    2008-01-01

    In bioethical discussions of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal screening, accusations of eugenics are commonplace, as are counter-claims that talk of eugenics is misleading and unhelpful. This paper asks whether “eugenics talk”, in this context, is legitimate and useful or something to be avoided. It also looks at the extent to which this linguistic question can be answered without first answering relevant substantive moral questions. Its main conclusion is that the best and most non-partisan argument for avoiding eugenics talk is the Autonomy Argument. According to this, eugenics talk per se is not wrong, but there is something wrong with using its emotive power as a means of circumventing people’s critical–rational faculties. The Autonomy Argument does not, however, tell against eugenics talk when such language is used to shock people into critical–rational thought. These conclusions do not depend on unique features of eugenics: similar considerations apply to emotive language throughout bioethics. PMID:18511622

  7. Understanding autonomy relationally: toward a reconfiguration of bioethical principles.

    PubMed

    Donchin, A

    2001-08-01

    Principle-based formulations of bioethical theory have recently come under increasing scrutiny, particularly insofar as they give prominence to personal autonomy. This essay critiques the dominant conceptualization of autonomy and urges an alternative formulation freed from the individualistic assumptions that pervade the prevailing framework. Drawing on feminist perspectives, I discuss the need for a vision of patient autonomy that joins relational experiences to individuality and acknowledges the influence of patterns of power and authority on the exercise of patient agency. Deficiencies in the current models of science and social relations guiding medical practice are analyzed, particularly (1) the tendency to disregard the patient's self-knowledge and (2) failure to recognize limitations on the generalizability of medical knowledge. Models of social relations such as mothering and friendship are explored to advance a conception of autonomy better suited to the practical activities of medicine. In conclusion, I consider how acknowledgement of the specificity and complexity of social relations can contribute to reconfiguration of other principles comprising the standard framework of bioethics, particularly beneficence, justice, and equality. PMID:11484130

  8. Aging and transplantation - a topic for biomedicine or bioethics?

    PubMed

    Hubbard, William J; Dashti, Nassrin

    2011-04-01

    The aged patient stands at the nexus of significant biomedical and bioethical issues in transplantation. This in itself can be seen as a microcosm of an imminent global tempest, stemming from expanding numbers and longer lives of the aged population. As a candidate for receiving organ and tissue transplants, the geriatric patient is challenging because they present unique physiology for medical management. As organ and tissue donors, the aged are perceived of as providing "marginal" organs, which drives the fear that the graft will fail before the recipient. Such difficulties lead inexorably to several unique bioethical considerations for transplantation with this population. The thorny conundrums for society hinge on fairness versus discrimination based on age, played out under the enormous and probably intractable problem of severe donor organ shortages. Fortunately, recent findings offer some rather unexpected new and favorable prospects. Notably, aged donors can provide organs with good, lifesaving function, even though there are nonetheless age-related compromises present. On the other side of the coin, there is less doubt that recipients can have their lives extended with high quality through transplantation. Here they benefit from some (counterintuitively) positive attributes for aging, such as reduced immune function, making immunosuppression less rigorous. Finally, the pressure of organ and tissue shortages plus the lifting of bans on embryonic stem cell research have portents for an explosive alternative to transplantation of adult organs. Stem cells also lend credibility to prospects for realizing regenerative medicine, assuming ethical and religious concerns can be satisfied. PMID:22396872

  9. Examining the suitability of the principle of subsidiarity for bioethics.

    PubMed

    Kotalik, Jaro

    2010-12-01

    The political and social principle of subsidiarity can be useful as a general principle of bioethics. The principle states that only those decisions and tasks that cannot be effectively decided upon or performed by a supported or subsidized lower level authority ought to be relegated to a more central or higher authority. The concept of subsidiarity has been embedded tacitly in Western political thought for two millennia, but it has been articulated expressly only in the twentieth century. The principle has unique strengths: it is the only principle that addresses the issue of locus of decision making; it is strongly linked to human dignity, democracy, and solidarity; and it can assist in reaching agreements on the common good. There are also potential drawbacks that need to be taken into account when developing rules and guidelines for the principle's application in bioethics. The principle is particularly helpful in public health ethics, but it is also of use in the ethics of personal care and human research ethics. PMID:21338030

  10. [Bioethics, deontology, and law in neonatal intensive care].

    PubMed

    Zamboni, G

    2002-01-01

    Neonatal intensive care has greatly improved the survival chances but, at the same time, it has also given rise to serious ethical problems. Different contexts influence both physicians attitude and end-of-life practices in neonatology. The clinicians can not ever follow the principles of bioethics, as they are sometimes in conflict. Also, the strategies or guidelines proposed as approaches to neonatal decision-making are difficult to practise. Probably a neonatologist makes his decision even on the basis of his interior conviction and it is well known that in Italy the debate on bioethics is the subject of confrontation between Roman Catholic and secular viewpoint, expressing two positions: the so-called sanctity and the quality of life. However, a clinician has also an obligation to follow the Code of Professional Medical Ethics which cautions against therapeutic aggressiveness; but this document has not legal status. In addition, Italian law is strongly protective of infant life and any discrimination on the basis of malformation or poor prognosis violates constitutional law; moreover, the resuscitation of a preterm infant is mandatory even when the birth is the result of induced late abortion. The author concludes emphasizing the importance, in decision making, of accepting difference as opposed to the logic of the absoluteness of normality, because many handicaps may be accepted and a society expresses its moral richness also by the solidarity reserved to its weakest sons. PMID:12494534

  11. Gender, ageing, and injustice: social and political contexts of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Dodds, S

    2005-05-01

    There has been considerable work in bioethics addressing injustice and gender oppression in the provision of healthcare services, in the interaction between client and healthcare professional, and in allocation of healthcare services within a particular hospital or health service. There remain several sites of continued injustice that can only be addressed adequately from a broader analytical perspective, one that attends to the social and political contexts framing healthcare policy and practice. Feminist bioethicists have a strong track record in providing this kind of analysis. Using current Australian aged care and welfare policy this paper demonstrates some of the ways in which issues of gender, age, and social inequity shape bioethical debate, policy, and practice in the areas of aged care and welfare provision. The author develops an argument that demonstrates the gender injustice underlying health care and welfare policy. This argument recognises the inevitability of human dependency relations, and questions the adequacy of current political theories to address the requirements for full and equal citizenship. The author shows that an adequate analysis of the ethics of aged healthcare depends on sufficient consideration of the social and political context within which healthcare policy is framed and an adequate understanding of human dependency. PMID:15863691

  12. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Hiemke K.; Rothgangel, Martin; Grube, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After 1 week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments 1 week (r = 0.350) and 12 weeks (r = 0.316) later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments 1 week later (correlations between r = 0.194 and 0.394). Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics. PMID:26441702

  13. [Information retrieval on ethical problems by online consultation of bioethics bibliographic data bases].

    PubMed

    Pizzarelli, S

    1998-01-01

    In an age when the ever-expanding limits of sciences are requiring an adjustment of moral principles and values, the Bioethics file is an essential tool for those who are in need of updated guidelines on bioethical issues. This database--produced by the Kennedy Institute of Ethics (KIE) in collaboration with the National Library of Medicine (NLM)--is distributed online by different hosts and is also available in print version and on CD-ROM. Structure and contents of the online version of the Bioethics file searchable through MEDLARS are described in details. PMID:9810756

  14. Respect for Human Vulnerability: The Emergence of a New Principle in Bioethics.

    PubMed

    ten Have, Henk

    2015-09-01

    Vulnerability has become a popular though controversial topic in bioethics, notably since 2000. As a result, a common body of knowledge has emerged (1) distinguishing between different types of vulnerability, (2) criticizing the categorization of populations as vulnerable, and (3) questioning the practical implications. It is argued that two perspectives on vulnerability, i.e., the philosophical and political, pose challenges to contemporary bioethics discourse: they re-examine the significance of human agency, the primacy of the individual person, and the negativity of vulnerability. As a phenomenon of globalization, vulnerability can only be properly addressed in a global bioethics that takes the social dimension of human existence seriously. PMID:26160601

  15. Eye on religion: considering the influence of Buddhist and Shinto thought on contemporary Japanese bioethics.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Toshinari; Slingsby, Brian Taylor

    2007-01-01

    Religious traditions can play a significant role in the shaping of bioethical thought. In Japan, traditional Buddhist and Shinto thought continue to influence contemporary bioethical perspectives. To better define this relationship, this paper examines the correlation between Japanese bioethical perspectives and Buddhist and Shinto thought. An in-depth discussion explores how Buddhist and Shinto scholars have used fundamental concepts with each religious tradition to agree and disagree with the disclosure of an incurable disease to a patient, brain death, and brain-dead organ transplantation. PMID:17269549

  16. The rebirth of bioethics: extending the original formulations of Van Rensselaer Potter.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Peter J

    2003-01-01

    Van Rensselaer Potter's original concept of bioethics as a global integration of biology and values was designed to guide human survival. His attention to the creation of human knowledge and the incorporation of ecological concepts and values into medicine and health remain important, yet largely neglected, contributions deserving of further elaboration. Bioethicists should heed his warning about unsustainable progress, particularly in health care systems, and work toward changing their behaviors. Incorporating life-affirming spiritual values and extending Potter's global bioethics to a deeper bioethics seem essential. PMID:14744319

  17. The moral organization of the professions: Bioethics in the United States and France

    PubMed Central

    De Vries, Raymond; Dingwall, Robert; Orfali, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Bioethics is a relatively new endeavor, emerging as a discourse distinct from considerations of moral responsibility occurring within the professions of medicine and science. We use the ‘de-centered comparative method’ to examine how the emergence and development of bioethics varies across different social and cultural settings. In particular, we look at bioethical work in the United States and France, exploring these different manifestations of the movement toward external oversight of those working in medicine and the life sciences. The study of these varied processes of occupational development allows us to address two important issues. One is the way in which pathways of professionalisation are shaped by contingent cultural and historical factors. The other is the degree to which the increasing prominence of the bioethical occupation is the result of the professional desires of bioethicists and/or a concern for the public good. PMID:19756169

  18. The Quality of Life for the World's Population: A Unit on Bioethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Arthur; Constan, Phyllis

    1976-01-01

    A bioethics unit aimed at taking biology out of the laboratory and classroom and into the world. An experience in which students not only begin to understand reasons for making decisions, but also understand how values change. (Author/EB)

  19. Unity in diversity: can there ever be a true European consensus in bioethics?

    PubMed

    Fieldsend, David

    2011-01-01

    This article, taken from a presentation to the 2011 European Association of Centres of Medical Ethics (EACME) annual conference, draws on both national legislation in European states and the Conventions of the Council of Europe as well as EU instruments such the Opinions of the European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies (EGE) and the Charter of Fundamental Rights to examine the current state of national and regional diversity in approaches to key bioethics issues and examines its evolution with reference to debates surrounding the development of key pieces of EU legislation and Council of Europe policy with bioethical implications. The relationship between the EU's genesis as a primarily economic and commercial governance entity--with its accompanying emphasis on the harmonization of technical standards--and its approach to diversity in national bioethical perspectives is also examined. Conclusions are drawn as to the relative success and desirability of the European consensus process in bioethics. PMID:23589992

  20. Bioethics education for practicing nurses in Taiwan: Confucian-Western clash.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan-Ping; Chen, Ching-Huey; Chao, Co-Shi Chantal; Lai, Wei-Shu

    2010-07-01

    To understand the gaps between current bioethics education and the requirements of practicing nurses, a semistructured questionnaire was used to invite the directors of nursing departments at all 82 teaching hospitals in Taiwan to participate in this survey. The response rate was 64.6%. Through content analysis we obtained information about previous bioethical training, required themes and content, recommended teaching strategies, and difficulties with education and its application. The results suggest that Taiwanese nursing personnel need to be instilled with both self-cultivation of morality and mental cultivation to acquire nursing virtues and the right attitudes toward bioethical issues. Good communication skills to prevent damage to the harmonious relationships between patients, their families and medical team members, policies that support the provision of systematic formal knowledge of ethics, small group training, and clarification of values were also shown to be important in bioethics education. PMID:20610584

  1. The history of bioethics: implications for current debates in health research.

    PubMed

    McWhirter, R E

    2012-01-01

    The assumption that developments in technologies and societies create new ethical issues for health and medical research is intuitively appealing. However, a closer inspection of the history of bioethics reveals a surprising consistency in the core issues that have formed the basis of bioethical debates over time. If the issues involved in bioethical debates remain essentially constant, are new discussions and new guidelines and principles--produced in the wake of research scandals or inspired by the introduction of new technologies--redundant? This article examines some of the implications of the history of bioethics for understanding current ethical debates and for the formation of a culture of ethical conduct in health research. PMID:23179027

  2. Libertarian bioethics and religion: the case of H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr.

    PubMed

    Merry, Michael S

    2004-09-01

    This paper is a critique of certain moral perspectives that are found in the second edition of Engelhardt's Foundation of Bioethics. These views are spelled out in explicit detail in his second edition, and follow on the heels of a profound religious conversion. Engelhardt is an eminent bioethicist with strong religious convictions that overlay much of his writing. The author wishes to question some of the conclusions that Engelhardt reaches as they touch upon moral frameworks, pluralism, and a 'secular' bioethics. PMID:15462023

  3. Power, Professional Naiveté and Environmental Icebergs: Navigating the Bioethics Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Valadares, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Doing bioethics in the public arena of healthcare, government, business or academia takes courage and stamina. The effort involved must be greater than just supporting clients through disciplined arguments and an ongoing process of clarification. Beyond the argument, for ethicists to be of value, they must understand the importance of navigating power structures within the bioethics ecosystem and to recognize their own professional naiveté. PMID:27346823

  4. The historical development of health care law and bioethics in England and Wales: a symbiotic relationship?

    PubMed

    Owusu-Dapaa, Ernest

    2014-04-01

    The paper explores the backward and forward linkage between HCL and bioethics. Indeed, the relationship between the two is so close that it can be considered one of symbiosis. This is particularly the case when an account is taken of how HCL and bioethics positively benefitted from each other in diverse ways during their development into their present status as discrete disciplines. In the first place, the aftermath of the Second World War, such as the Nuremberg trial and unprecedented medical experiment scandals in the 1960s/70s fuelled the increasing participation of lay scholars in exploring and critiquing medical ethics which culminated in the emergence ofbioethics.2 This in turn facilitated the evolution of HCL as a discipline, since academic lawyers involved in early bioethical discourse developed interest in exploring the interface between law and bioethics at the same time that society was waking up to the ethical implications of medical advances. As HCL emerged as a discrete discipline, it consolidated the status of bioethics as a field of inquiry by projecting the relevance of the latter in adjudication of novel cases with significant slippery moral undertones. Thus, the chicken and egg paradox finds a perfect reflection in the emergence of health care law and bioethics in England and Wales. PMID:24946511

  5. Personal experience narratives by students: a teaching-learning tool in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Radhika H; Shukla, Radha; Gor, Alpa P; Ganguly, Barna

    2016-01-01

    The principles of bioethics have been identified as important requirements for training basic medical doctors. Till now, various modalities have been used for teaching bioethics, such as lectures, followed by a small case-based discussion, case vignettes or debates among students. For effective teaching-learning of bioethics, it is necessary to integrate theory and practice rather than merely teach theoretical constructs without helping the students translate those constructs into practice. Classroom teaching can focus on the theoretical knowledge of professional relationships, patient-doctor relationships, issues at the beginning and end of life, reproductive technologies, etc. However, a better learning environment can be created through an experiencebased approach to complement lectures and facilitate successful teaching. Engaging students in reflective dialogue with their peers would allow them to refine their ideas with respect to learning ethics. It can help in the development both of the cognitive and affective domains of the teaching of bioethics. Real-life narratives by the interns, when used as case or situation analysis models for a particular ethical issue, can enhance other students' insight and give them a moral boost. Doing this can change the classroom atmosphere, enhance motivation, improve the students' aptitude and improve their attitude towards learning bioethics. Involving the students in this manner can prove to be a sustainable way of achieving the goal of deep reflective learning of bioethics and can serve as a new technique for maintaining the interest of students as well as teachers. PMID:27474694

  6. The evolving idea of social responsibility in bioethics: a welcome trend.

    PubMed

    Ahola-Launonen, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    This article discusses the notion of social responsibility for personal health and well-being in bioethics. Although social responsibility is an intrinsic aspect of bioethics, and its role is increasingly recognized in certain areas, it can still be claimed that bioethics in general is committed to an individualistic theoretical framework that disregards the social context in which decisions, health, and well-being are situated. The philosophical premises of this framework regard individuals as rational decisionmakers who can be held accountable for their health conditions and who should be the primary objects of intervention in attempts to reduce lifestyle-associated chronic diseases. There are, however, social determinants of health that challenge this conclusion. Because their impact can be controlled, to a certain extent, by social and public policy decisions, their existence shows the inadequacy of the purely individualistic approach. I suggest, accordingly, that bioethics would benefit, both academically and societally, from a more social perspective. Bioethical studies that acknowledge, from the start, the social determinants of health would be more amenable to constructive multi- and interdisciplinarity, and a more balanced account of responsibility would further the contribution of sound bioethical work to sensible public policies. PMID:25719356

  7. Self and other in global bioethics: critical hermeneutics and the example of different death concepts.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, Kristin

    2009-06-01

    Our approach to global bioethics will depend, among other things, on how we answer the questions whether global bioethics is possible and whether it, if it is possible, is desirable. Our approach to global bioethics will also vary depending on whether we believe that the required bioethical deliberation should take as its principal point of departure that which we have in common or that which we have in common and that on which we differ. The aim of this article is to elaborate a theoretical underpinning for a bioethics that acknowledges the diversity of traditions and experiences without leading to relativism. The theoretical underpinning will be elaborated through an exploration of the concepts of sameness, otherness, self and other, and through a discussion of the conditions for understanding and critical reflection. Furthermore, the article discusses whether the principle of respect for the other as both the same and different can function as the normative core of this global bioethics. The article also discusses the New Jersey Death Definition Law and the Japanese Transplantation Law. These laws are helpful in order to highlight possible implications of the principle of respect for the other as both the same and different. Both of these laws open the door to more than one concept of death within one and the same legal system. Both of them relate preference for a particular concept of death to religious and/or cultural beliefs. PMID:19225904

  8. Analysis and critical review of the development of bioethics in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Vishneuskaya, Yuliya A

    2012-11-01

    The main trends of the bioethics development in Belarus have been analyzed on the basis of the materials collected by the Ethics Documentation Center (ISEU, Minsk, Belarus). A critical review of the most important publications in the field since 2000 suggests that development of bioethics in Belarus has occurred in two parallel directions distantly connected to each other: a theoretical direction and a practical one. Despite there are objective and subjective reasons for introducing bioethics in Belarus as an institutionally-organized system based on liberal values such as individual rights and freedom, a range of essential problems could be identified. Non-equivalent regulation of ethical issues in health care and other fields of biomedical research has been emphasized, as well as the problem of unclear hierarchical relationships among institutions dealing with various aspects of bioethics in the country and low ethical and educational level of the social and professional groups involved in further expansion of bioethical knowledge. The contextual aspects of the development of bioethics in the country such as the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster, the prevalence of the authoritarian social morality and traditionally paternalistic nature of the relations between physicians and their patients are discussed. PMID:22644503

  9. Bioethical conflicts of gene therapy: a brief critical review.

    PubMed

    Freire, José Ednésio da Cruz; Medeiros, Suelen Carneiro de; Lopes Neto, Antônio Viana; Monteiro Júnior, José Edvar; Sousa, Antônio Juscelino Sudário; Rocha, Antônio José; Menezes, Léa Maria Bezerra de

    2014-01-01

    Methods and techniques employed in gene therapy are reviewed in parallel with pertinent ethical conflicts. Clinical interventions based on gene therapy techniques preferentially use vectors for the transportation of therapeutic genes, however little is known about the potential risks and damages to the patient. Thus, attending carefully to the clinical complications arising as well as to security is essential. Despite the scientific and technological advances, there are still many uncertainties about the side effects of gene therapy. Moreover, there is a need, above all, to understand the principles of bioethics as both science and ethics, in accordance with its socioecological responsibility, in order to prioritize the health and welfare of man and nature, using properly natural resources and technology. Therefore, it is hard to determine objective results and to which extent the insertion of genes can affect the organism, as well as the ethical implication. PMID:25650850

  10. Balancing cultural pluralism and universal bioethical standards: a multiple strategy.

    PubMed

    Macioce, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    If we want to take firm the importance of universal principles in Bioethics, but at the same time we want to take seriously the importance of cultural diversity and pluralism, it is necessary to adopt a multifaceted approach. In the article I argue that a possible way out is a sort of hermeneutic approach, in order to reduce the ambivalence that stems from the dual recognition of cultural diversity and universal value of human rights. Through this approach conflicting principles and traditions can be harmonized within a common framework, at least to some extent. Such an approach, in my perspective, can be implemented as a strategy of interpretation, which can hold together different conceptions and common principles. PMID:26860625

  11. The Hastings Center and the early years of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    The Hastings Center was founded in 1969 to study ethical problems in medicine and biology. The Center arose from a confluence of three social currents: the increased public scrutiny of medicine and its practices, the concern about the moral problems being generated by technological developments, and the desire of one of its founders (Callahan) to make use of his philosophical training in a more applied way. The early years of the Center were devoted to raising money, developing an early agenda of issues, and identifying a cadre of people around the country interested in the issues. Various stresses and strains in the Center and the field are identified, and some final reflections are offered on the nature and value of the contributions made by bioethics as an academic field. PMID:22198414

  12. Western and Islamic bioethics: How close is the gap?

    PubMed Central

    Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan; Albar, Mohammed Ali

    2013-01-01

    The relation between Islam and medicine has been described as intimate. Muslims are expected to be moderate and balanced in all matters, including health. Islamic law is based on a complete system of morality that can provide a moral context in medicine from a legal perspective. Islamic teaching is also very flexible and adaptable to many new and novel situations. Islamic Ethics also upholds “the four principles” of biomedical ethics proposed by Beauchamp and Childress. Several authors claim that the roots of these principles are clearly identifiable in Islamic teachings. However, there are some differences in the applications of these principles. This article shed light on the roots of the four principles in Islamic teachings and elaborates on the differences between Islamic and contemporary western bioethics. PMID:23984261

  13. Religious Perspectives on Human Suffering: Implications for Medicine and Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Scott J; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C; Zoloth, Laurie; Tollefsen, Christopher; Tsomo, Karma Lekshe; Jensen, Michael P; Sachedina, Abdulaziz; Sarma, Deepak

    2016-02-01

    The prevention and relief of suffering has long been a core medical concern. But while this is a laudable goal, some question whether medicine can, or should, aim for a world without pain, sadness, anxiety, despair or uncertainty. To explore these issues, we invited experts from six of the world's major faith traditions to address the following question. Is there value in suffering? And is something lost in the prevention and/or relief of suffering? While each of the perspectives provided maintains that suffering should be alleviated and that medicine's proper role is to prevent and relieve suffering by ethical means, it is also apparent that questions regarding the meaning and value of suffering are beyond the realm of medicine. These perspectives suggest that medicine and bioethics have much to gain from respectful consideration of religious discourse surrounding suffering. PMID:25680422

  14. Beyond Bioethics: Reckoning With the Public Health Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Johns, David Merritt

    2012-01-01

    In the wake of scandal over troubling research abuses, the 1970s witnessed the birth of a new system of ethical oversight. The bioethics framework, with its emphasis on autonomy, assumed a commanding role in debates regarding how to weigh the needs of society against the rights of individuals. Yet the history of resistance to oversight underscores that some domains of science hewed to a different paradigm of accountability—one that elevated the common good over individual rights. Federal officials have now proposed to dramatically limit the reach of ethical oversight. The Institute of Medicine has called for a rollback of the federal privacy rule. The changing emphasis makes it imperative to grapple with the history of the public interest paradigm. PMID:22698051

  15. Ethics in psychosocial and biomedical research - A training experience at the Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics (CIEB) of the University of Chile().

    PubMed

    Lolas, Fernando; Rodriguez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience in training Latin American professionals and scientists in the ethics of biomedical and psychosocial research at the Interdisciplinary Center for Studies in Bioethics (CIEB) of the University of Chile, aided by a grant from Fogarty International Center (FIC) - National Institutes of Health from 2002 to 2011. In these 10 years of experience, 50 trainees have completed a 12-month training combining on-line and in-person teaching and learning activities, with further support for maintaining contact via webmail and personal meetings. The network formed by faculty and former trainees has published extensively on issues relevant in the continent and has been instrumental in promoting new master level courses at different universities, drafting regulations and norms, and promoting the use of bioethical discourse in health care and research. Evaluation meetings have shown that while most trainees did benefit from the experience and contributed highly to developments at their home institutions and countries, some degree of structuring of demand for qualified personnel is needed in order to better utilize the human resources created by the program. Publications and other deliverables of trainees and faculty are presented. PMID:22754084

  16. Ethics in psychosocial and biomedical research – A training experience at the Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics (CIEB) of the University of Chile1

    PubMed Central

    Lolas, Fernando; Rodriguez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience in training Latin American professionals and scientists in the ethics of biomedical and psychosocial research at the Interdisciplinary Center for Studies in Bioethics (CIEB) of the University of Chile, aided by a grant from Fogarty International Center (FIC) – National Institutes of Health from 2002 to 2011. In these 10 years of experience, 50 trainees have completed a 12-month training combining on-line and in-person teaching and learning activities, with further support for maintaining contact via webmail and personal meetings. The network formed by faculty and former trainees has published extensively on issues relevant in the continent and has been instrumental in promoting new master level courses at different universities, drafting regulations and norms, and promoting the use of bioethical discourse in health care and research. Evaluation meetings have shown that while most trainees did benefit from the experience and contributed highly to developments at their home institutions and countries, some degree of structuring of demand for qualified personnel is needed in order to better utilize the human resources created by the program. Publications and other deliverables of trainees and faculty are presented. PMID:22754084

  17. What would John Dewey do? The promises and perils of pragmatic bioethics.

    PubMed

    Tollefsen, C

    2000-02-01

    Recent work done at the intersection of classical American pragmatism and bioethics promises much: a clarified self-understanding for bioethics, a modus vivendi for progress, and liberation from misguided and misguiding theories and principles. The revival of pragmatism outside bioethics in the past twenty years, however, has been of a distinctly anti-realist orientation. Richard Rorty, for example, has urged that there is no objective truth or good for philosophy to be concerned with. I ask whether the work in Pragmatic Bioethics follows this perilous Rortyan trend. It will move towards anti-realism if its account of the good abandons any notion of truth or objectivity, and if, in its discussion of specific problems, it divides these problems into public and the private, urging consensus as the goal of the one, and an unconstrained notion of happiness as the goal of the other. In a final section, I suggest that bioethics done in the spirit of Royce's Philosophy of Loyalty might have much to offer to those dissatisfied with anti-realism. PMID:10732877

  18. Intervention bioethics: a proposal for peripheral countries in a context of power and injustice.

    PubMed

    Garrafa, Volnei; Porto, Dora

    2003-10-01

    The bioethics of the so-called 'peripheral countries' must preferably be concerned with persistent situations, that is, with those problems that are still happening, but should not happen anymore in the 21st century. Resulting conflicts cannot be exclusively analysed based on ethical (or bioethical) theories derived from 'central countries.' The authors warn of the growing lack of political analysis of moral conflicts and of human indignation. The indiscriminate utilisation of the bioethics justification as a neutral methodological tool softens and even cancels out the seriousness of several problems, even those that might result in the most profound social distortions. The current study takes as a theoretical reference the fact that natural resources (which affect us all) are relevant. Based on these premises, and on the concept that equity means 'treating unevenly the unequal', a proposal of a hard bioethics (or intervention bioethics) is introduced, in defence of the historical insights and rights of economically and socially excluded populations that are separated from the international developmental process. PMID:14870763

  19. Negotiating international bioethics: a response to Tom Beauchamp and Ruth Macklin.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert

    1998-12-01

    Can the bioethical theories that have served American bioethics so well, serve international bioethics as well? In two papers in the previous issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, I contend that the form of principlist fundamentalism endorsed by American bioethicists like Tom Beauchamp and Ruth Macklin will not play on an international stage. Deploying techniques of postmodern scholarship, I argue that principlist fundamentalism justifies neither the condemnation of the Nazi doctors at Nuremberg, nor, as the Report of the Advisory Committee on the Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) demonstrates, condemnation of Cold War radiation researchers. Principlist fundamentalism thus appears to be philosophy bankrupt. In this issue of the Journal, Beauchamp and Macklin reject this claim, arguing that I have misread the ACHRE report and misunderstood Nazism. They also argue that the form of post-postmodern negotiated human rights theory that I proffer is adequate only insofar as it is itself really fundamentalist; insofar as I take postmodernism seriously, however, I mire international bioethics in relativism. In this response, I reaffirm my anti-fundamentalism, provide further evidence in support of my reading of the ACHRE report, and defend my post-postmodern version of rights theory. I also develop criteria for a minimally adequate theoretical framework for international bioethics. PMID:11657321

  20. The Invisibility of Disability: Using Dance to Shake from Bioethics the Idea of 'Broken Bodies'.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Shawn H E

    2015-09-01

    Complex social and ethical problems are often most effectively solved by engaging them at the messy and uncomfortable intersections of disciplines and practices, a notion that grounds the InVisible Difference project, which seeks to extend thinking and alter practice around the making, status, ownership, and value of work by contemporary dance choreographers by examining choreographic work through the lenses of law, bioethics, dance scholarship, and the practice of dance by differently-abled dancers. This article offers a critical thesis on how bioethics has come to occupy a marginal and marginalizing role in questions about the differently-abled body. In doing so, it has rendered the disabled community largely invisible to and in bioethics. It then defends the claim that bioethics - as a social undertaking pursued collaboratively by individuals from different disciplines - must take much better notice of the body and the embodied individual if it is to better achieve its ends, which include constructing a moral and just society. Finally, this article considers how the arts, and specifically dance (and here dance by differently-abled dancers), provides us with rich evidence about the body and our ability to respond positively to normally 'othered' bodies. It concludes that greater attention to empirical evidence like that being generated in InVisible Difference will help to expand the reach and significance of bioethics, and thereby its relevance to (and consciousness of) important questions about the status of bodies and bodily differences, which must be considered as central to its ambitions. PMID:25476013

  1. Promises and perils of public deliberation: contrasting two national bioethics commissions on embryonic stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Cynthia B

    2005-09-01

    National bioethics commissions have struggled to develop ethically warranted methods for conducting their deliberations. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission in its report on stem cell research adopted an approach to public deliberation indebted to Rawls in that it sought common ground consistent with shared values and beliefs at the foundation of a well-ordered democracy. In contrast, although the research cloning and stem cell reports of the President's Council on Bioethics reveal that it broached two different methods of public deliberation--balancing goods and following an overarching moral principle--it adopted neither. Thereupon its primer mover, Leon Kass, influenced particularly by the approach of Leo Strauss, sought to develop a method of public deliberation guided by tradition and practical wisdom. When this failed, the Council fell back on a method that took account of shared fundamental values of a free democracy--a method remarkable akin to that employed by the National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Respect for diverse reasonable conceptions of the good in a democratic polity requires national bioethics commissions to seek and incorporate that which is valuable in opposing positions. PMID:16250108

  2. Law, bioethics and practice in France: forging a new legislative pact.

    PubMed

    Berthiau, Denis

    2013-02-01

    In France, bioethics norms have emerged in close interaction with medical practices. The first bioethics laws were adopted in 1994, with provisions for updates in 2004 and most recently, in 2011. As in other countries, bioethics laws indirectly refer to certain fundamental values. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, I shall briefly describe the construction of the French bioethics laws and the values they are meant to protect. Secondly, I will show that the practice of clinical ethics, as reported in a few studies on ART, living organ donation and PGD, challenge the role attributed to doctors as "gatekeepers" of those fundamental values. Thirdly, I will suggest that the quality of medical practices would improve if the law focused on strengthening the tacit pact between doctors and patients, rather than putting doctors in charge of enforcing societal values. Doctors, for their part, would limit their role to what they can do best: provide sufficient patient support and safe care. Against those who argue that we should dispense with bioethics laws altogether, I hold that the laws are useful in order to limit the development of abusive practices. However, a new legislative approach should be adopted which would a positive presumption in favor of patients' requests. PMID:22484728

  3. Pragmatism, bioethics and the grand American social experiment.

    PubMed

    Trotter, G

    2001-01-01

    There is tension in bioethics between two strains of pragmatism. The most prominent strain, following John Dewey, proposes a content-rich ethos of controlled, collective moral inquiry. A second strain, descending from Charles Peirce and Josiah Royce, favors an open-ended approach where diverging moral communities evolve without extensive inter-communal oversight. This essay defends the second strain. The Deweyan approach, I argue, exhibits a problematic quasi-foundationalist character insofar as it canonizes a dubious constellation of "liberal" political values and seeks to establish these values by interposing a consensus of moral experts where genuine inter-communal dialogue, and compromise, would be more fruitful. I hold that the alternative approach of Peirce and Royce is preferable, and truer to the fundamental commitments of classical American pragmatism. Recognizing the epistemic fallibility of various content-rich moral-political formulations, Peirce and Royce hope to cultivate and sustain moral inquiry by allowing each moral community (1) to generate and test its own moral system (as long as it does so peaceably) and (2) to freely make or refuse to make collaborative arrangements with other moral communities. This approach is illustrated in a brief discussion of the Oregon Medical Experiment. PMID:12862001

  4. Scientists, bioethics and democracy: the Italian case and its meanings

    PubMed Central

    Corbellini, Gilberto

    2007-01-01

    In June 2005, Italy held a referendum on repealing the law on medically assisted fertilization (Law 40/2004), which limits access to artificial reproduction to infertile couples, and prohibits the donation of gametes, the cryopreservation of embryos, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PDG), and research on human embryos. The referendum was invalidated, and the law remained unchanged. The Italian political e bioethical debate on assisted reproduction was manipulated by the Catholic Church, which distorted scientific data and issues at stake with the help of Catholic politicians and bioethicists. What happened in Italy shows that some perverse socio‐cultural e political mechanisms are spreading the absurd and anti‐historical view that scientific and technological advancements are threatening democracy and personal freedom. Scientists should not only contrast the political attempts at limiting freedom of scientific research, but also tell politicians, humanists and citizens that the invention of Western science with its view of scientific community as an “open society”, contributed and still contributes, through scientific education, to the construction and maintaining of the moral and political values underlying Western democracies. PMID:17526686

  5. Rethinking the Bioethics of Pregnancy: Time for a New Perspective?

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Ashish; Gates, Elena

    2016-08-01

    Within the realm of bioethics, the construction of pregnancy classically has focused on principle-based ethics, essentially separating maternal and fetal interests. Respect for maternal autonomy becomes distinct from an obligation of fetal beneficence, placing practitioners in complicated ethical situations when the goals of pregnant women may be at odds with the best health interests of the fetus as defined by both professional groups and society in general. As a result, clinical care is framed by an ethical "maternal-fetal conflict," with important downstream legal and policy consequences for the well-being of pregnant women. Developments in the social sciences highlight the value of attending to the biosocial realm that a pregnant woman inhabits rather than relating to her and to her fetus as discrete entities. By understanding the needs, concerns, and context within which a woman lives, clinicians can practice an ethics of accompaniment. With a focus on an ethics of accompaniment, assumptions about the maternal moral responsibility to fetal health made by practitioners and society in general can directly affect not only clinical care, but also the way policy surrounding reproductive health is constructed and implemented. PMID:27400011

  6. Bioethics and the Framing of Climate Change's Health Risks.

    PubMed

    Valles, Sean A

    2015-06-01

    Cheryl Cox MacPherson recently argued, in an article for this journal, that 'Climate Change is a Bioethics Problem'. This article elaborates on that position, particularly highlighting bioethicists' potential ability to help reframe the current climate change discourse to give more attention to its health risks. This reframing process is especially important because of the looming problem of climate change skepticism. Recent empirical evidence from science framing experiments indicates that the public reacts especially positively to climate change messages framed in public health terms, and bioethicists are particularly well positioned to contribute their expertise to the process of carefully developing and communicating such messages. Additionally, as climate framing research and practice continue, it will be important for bioethicists to contribute to the creation of that project's nascent ethical standards. The discourse surrounding antibiotic resistance is posited as an example that can lend insight into how communicating a public health-framed message, including the participation of bioethicists, can help to override public skepticism about the findings of politically contentious scientific fields. PMID:25186465

  7. Towards clinical bioethics (or a return to clinical ethics?).

    PubMed

    Petrini, C

    2013-01-01

    Medical ethics has traditionally been oriented towards the clinical setting. Since the middle of the last century, however, various circumstances (associated mainly, though not exclusively, with rapid advances in technology and knowledge) have considerably broadened both the field of enquiry and the scope of this discipline. This is due partly to the overlap between medical ethics and bioethics, which in recent decades has acquired its own identity and concerns a multitude of ethical aspects in the biomedical field. Clinical ethics taps into the vast wealth of deontology, so that it has no need for additional criteria or principles, or for the definition of new values: rather, it recognizes the need to apply existing criteria, principles and values to contingent circumstances and contexts. A special role is reserved for ethics committees and, above all, for clinical ethics consultants, although in some countries the former are concerned mainly with authorisations for clinical trials. Clinical ethics consultants, however, may have a more incisive influence in clinical decisions: the special requisites and skills they need have been defined and discussed in various documents which are mentioned briefly in the present article. The presence of these consultants does not exonerate clinical physicians from their responsibilities or from liability for their decisions, in the formation of which they must refer constantly to codes of professional ethics. PMID:24424236

  8. Bioethical differences between drug addiction treatment professionals inside and outside the Russian Federation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of a sociological study of the views of 338 drug addiction treatment professionals. A comparison is drawn between the bioethical approaches of Russian and foreign experts from 18 countries. It is concluded that the bioethical priorities of Russian and foreign experts differ significantly. Differences involve attitudes toward confidentiality, informed consent, compulsory treatment, opioid agonist therapy, mandatory testing of students for psychoactive substances, the prevention of mental patients from having children, harm reduction programs (needle and syringe exchange), euthanasia, and abortion. It is proposed that the cardinal dissimilarity between models for providing drug treatment in the Russian Federation versus the majority of the countries of the world stems from differing bioethical attitudes among drug addiction treatment experts. PMID:21663615

  9. Aboriginal Health Care and Bioethics: A Reflection on the Teaching of the Seven Grandfathers.

    PubMed

    Kotalik, Jaro; Martin, Gerry

    2016-05-01

    Contemporary bioethics recognizes the importance of the culture in shaping ethical issues, yet in practice, a process for ethical analysis and decision making is rarely adjusted to the culture and ethnicity of involved parties. This is of a particular concern in a health care system that is caring for a growing Aboriginal population. We raise the possibility of constructing a bioethics grounded in traditional Aboriginal knowledge. As an example of an element of traditional knowledge that contains strong ethical guidance, we present the story of the Gifts of the Seven Grandfathers. We note a resemblance of this Ojibway teaching to virtue ethics in European traditions, but we suggest that there are also important differences in how these two traditions are currently presented. We hope that further engagement with a variety of indigenous moral teachings and traditions could improve health care involving Aboriginal patients and communities, and enrich the discipline of bioethics. PMID:27111368

  10. Infusing Bioethics into Biology and Microbiology Courses and Curricula: A Vertical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jagger, Kathleen S.; Furlong, Jack

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of biomedicine and biotechnology, there has been a corresponding growth in the need for better understanding of consequent ethical questions. Increasingly, biologists are being asked not only to offer technical clarifications but also to venture ethical opinions, for which most feel poorly equipped. This expectation puts pressure on biology instructors at the university level to provide biology majors the skills and experience to discuss with some confidence and competence bioethical issues which may arise in either the workplace or through public discourse in everyday contexts. Many fine curricular resources about bioethics are available for varied pedagogical purposes, but few target undergraduate biology or microbiology student audiences. When it occurs in the context of a course, bioethics instruction often is taught by non-biologists outside standard biology curricula. We propose that biologists should strive to “infuse” bioethical thinking into their courses and major curricula but not in such a way as merely to point at ethical problems, treating them at a surface level. We suggest what we call “vertical infusion”: taking one bioethical issue per course and integrating this issue within the context of a relevant biological topic, challenging students to push their thinking beyond their initial intuitions toward underlying scientific and ethical principles. While the vertical approach lacks widespread coverage of ethical issues throughout a single course, it has the advantage of taking the bioethical dimension seriously and in intimate relation to contemporary discoveries in biology and to the biological principles, processes, or procedures that occasioned the ethical quandaries in the first place. PMID:25574281

  11. IAB presidential address: bioethics in a globalized world: creating space for flourishing human relationships.

    PubMed

    Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2011-10-01

    Bioethics in a globalized world is meeting a number of challenges - fundamentalism in its different forms, and a focus on economic growth neglecting issues such as equity and sustainability, being prominent among them. How well are we as bioethicists equipped to make meaningful contributions in these times? The paper identifies a number of restraints and proceeds to probe potential resources such as the capability approach, care ethics, cosmopolitanism, and pragmatism. These elements serve to outline a perspective that focuses on the preconditions for flourishing human relationships as a way to address bioethical challenges in a globalized world. PMID:21929701

  12. Helen Flanders Dunbar, John Dewey, and clinical pragmatism: reflections on method in psychosomatic medicine and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Hart, Curtis W

    2002-01-01

    This article outlines the method utilized by physicians and major figures in the founding of Clinical Pastoral Education, Helen Flanders Dunbar, in her work of 1943, Psychosomatic Diagnosis, and relates it to the currently evolving approach in bioethics known as clinical pragmatism. It assesses Dewey's influence on both Dunbar in psychosomatic medicine and clinical pragmatism in bioethics, and illustrates the breadth of influence of the school of philosophical thought known as pragmatism with which Dewey's name and those of William James and Charles Sanders Pierce are most often identified. PMID:12385140

  13. Identifying Sources of Clinical Conflict: A Tool for Practice and Training in Bioethics Mediation.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Bioethics mediators manage a wide range of clinical conflict emanating from diverse sources. Parties to clinical conflict are often not fully aware of, nor willing to express, the true nature and scope of their conflict. As such, a significant task of the bioethics mediator is to help define that conflict. The ability to assess and apply the tools necessary for an effective mediation process can be facilitated by each mediator's creation of a personal compendium of sources that generate clinical conflict, to provide an orientation for the successful management of complex dilemmatic cases. PMID:26752386

  14. Is an account of identity necessary for bioethics? What post-genomic biomedicine can teach us.

    PubMed

    Boniolo, Giovanni

    2013-09-01

    Is a theory of identity necessary for bioethics? In this paper I investigate that question starting from an empirical explication of identity based on post-genomics, in particular on epigenetics. After analysing whether the classic problems a theory of identity has to cope with (fictional transplants; conjoined twins; and definition of death) also affect the proposed epigenetic account of identity, I deal with three topics (the assumption of moral responsibility; decision maintenance in the case of advance directives; and the attribution of value to human beings at given developmental stages) to offer an insight on the relationship between that account and bioethics. PMID:23751792

  15. The UNESCO Bioethics Declaration 'social responsibility' principle and cost-effectiveness price evaluations for essential medicines.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas Alured

    2005-07-01

    The United Nations Scientific, Education and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has commenced drafting a Universal Bioethics Declaration. Some in the relevant UNESCO drafting committee have previously desired to restrict its content to general principles concerning the application (but not necessarily the goals) of science and technology. As potentially a crucial agenda-setting statement of global bioethics, however, it is arguable important the Universal Bioethics Declaration transparently address major bioethical dilemmas in the field of public health, such as universal access to affordable, essential medicines. Article 13 (Social Responsibility) of the Preliminary Draft Universal Bioethics Declaration states: 'Any decision or practice shall ensure that progress in science and technology contributes, wherever possible, to the common good, including the achievement of goals such as: (i) access to quality health care and essential medicines, including for reproductive health and health of children.' Cost effectiveness pricing systems, such as that most notably used in Australia's Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), arguably represent one of the most scientifically effective mechanisms whereby public monies may be utilised to assist in the provision of medicines for the common good. They contain two essential elements: first, a process of scientific evaluation of objectively demonstrated therapeutic significance, and then, a fiscal lever (the government reimbursement price) attached to that evaluation. It is now well established that the US Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers Association (Pharma), through the assistance of the US Trade Representative (USTR), saw the Australia United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) as an opportunity to fulfill a legislative mandate to 'eliminate' the cost-effectiveness pricing system in Australia's PBS. One of the most remarkable features of the arguments raised against the PBS in this context was the fact that they made

  16. The phenomenology of suffering in medicine and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Svenaeus, Fredrik

    2014-12-01

    This article develops a phenomenology of suffering with an emphasis on matters relevant to medical practice and bioethics. An attempt is made to explain how suffering can involve many different things-bodily pains, inability to carry out everyday actions, and failure to realize core life values-and yet be a distinct phenomenon. Proceeding from and expanding upon analyses found in the works of Eric Cassell and Elaine Scarry, suffering is found to be a potentially alienating mood overcoming the person and engaging her in a struggle to remain at home in the face of loss of meaning and purpose in life. Suffering involves painful experiences at different levels that are connected through the suffering-mood but are nevertheless distinguishable by being primarily about (1) my embodiment, (2) my engagements in the world together with others, and (3) my core life values. Suffering is in essence a feeling (a mood), but as such, it has implications for and involves the person's entire life: how she acts in the world, communicates with others, and understands and looks upon her priorities and goals in life. Suffering-moods are typically intense and painful in nature, but they may also display a rather subconscious quality in presenting things in the world and my life as a whole in an alienating way. In such situations, we are not focused directly upon the suffering-mood-as in the cases of pain and other bodily ailments-but rather, upon the things that the mood presents to us: not only our bodies, but also other things in the world that prevent us from having a good life and being the persons we want to be. Such suffering may in many cases be transformed or at least mitigated by a person's identifying and changing her core life values and in such a manner reinterpreting her life story to become an easier and more rewarding one to live under the present circumstances. PMID:25398688

  17. Hazards of solid waste management: bioethical problems, principles, and priorities

    PubMed Central

    Maxey, Margaret N.

    1978-01-01

    The putative hazards of solid waste management cannot be evaluated without placing the problem within a cultural climate of crisis where some persons consider such by-products of “high, hard technology” to have raised unresolved moral and ethical issues. In order to assist scientific and technical efforts to protect public health and safety, a bioethical perspective requires us to examine three controversial aspects of policy-making about public safety. Failure to recognize the qualitative difference between two cognitive activities—risk-measurements (objective, scientific probabilities) and safety-judgments (subjective, shifting value priorities)—has had three unfortunate consequences. Sophisticated methods of risk analysis have been applied in a piecemeal, haphazard, ad hoc fashion within traditional institutions with the false expectation that incremental risk-reducing programs automatically ensure public health and safety. Ethical priorities require, first and foremost, a whole new field of data arranged for comparable risk-analyses. Critics of cost/risk/benefit quantifications attack the absurdity of “putting a price on human life” but have not been confronted with its threefold ethical justification. The widening discrepancy in risk-perceptions and loss of mutual confidence between scientific experts and ordinary citizens has placed a burden of social responsibility on members of the scientific and technical community to engage in more effective public education through the political process, notwithstanding advocates of a nonscientific adversary process. The urgency of effective public education has been demonstrated by the extent to which we have lost our historically balanced judgment about the alleged environmental hazards posed by advanced technology. PMID:738238

  18. [The religious convictions in the argumentation bioethics. Two different secularists perspectives: Sádaba and Habermas-Rawls].

    PubMed

    Burgos Velasco, Juan Manuel

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the position of two secularized theories on the role of religious beliefs in bioethical reasoning. The excluding laicism of Sádaba rejects the rationality of religious fact and extend a general suspicion about the bioethical reasoning of believer. Contrary, the open position of Habermas-Rawls considers reasonable religions as one of the typical comprehensive views of liberal State, encourage secularized citizens to value his contributions and urge to secular and, then, neutral, State not to impose to all citizens a secularized cosmo-vision. Only the second perspective put the bases for a fruitful and calm dialogue in the bioethical area. PMID:18402228

  19. A Survey of Bioethics Courses in U.S. Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Jon R.

    1977-01-01

    Data from questionnaires sent to every college and university in the United States ascertained that 26 percent of the 223 responding major institutions offered a bioethics course, most frequently presented by the biology department to medical students and taught most frequently by professors of ethics and philosophy background. Questionnaire and…

  20. The "Ethics Committee": A Practical Approach to Introducing Bioethics and Ethical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Mark; Kramer, Cas; Cashmore, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Bioethics is an increasingly important part of the biosciences curriculum at school and in higher education, but few science teachers have much experience of teaching the subject in an engaging or interactive manner. This article sets out a session that allows students to practise the skills of ethical thinking and ethical debate in a relevant…

  1. Indiana Health Science Teachers: Their Human Genetics/Bioethics Educational Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Jon R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Results from a human genetics/bioethics needs assessment questionnaire (N = 124 out of 300) mailed to Indiana health teachers are reported. Genetic topics and human genetic diseases/defects included in health science instruction are listed in two tables. Responses to 16 science/society statements (and statements themselves) are also reported. (SK)

  2. Lessons Learned from Undergraduate Students in Designing a Science-Based Course in Bioethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loike, John D.; Rush, Brittany S.; Schweber, Adam; Fischbach, Ruth L.

    2013-01-01

    Columbia University offers two innovative undergraduate science-based bioethics courses for student majoring in biosciences and pre-health studies. The goals of these courses are to introduce future scientists and healthcare professionals to the ethical questions they will confront in their professional lives, thus enabling them to strategically…

  3. 75 FR 34451 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Public Health and Science, The Presidential Commission for... meeting to discuss the implications of synthetic biology. DATES: The meeting will take place...

  4. Ethics in the Work Environment: Applied Bioethics in the Hospital for Delta's Nursing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plackowski, Linda C.

    In 1979, Delta College, in Michigan, established a bioethics requirement for all nursing students. This paper describes a project to teach one of the required ethics course to local hospitals to observe students while they work and discuss ethical dilemmas as they arose. Introductory sections discuss project rationale and procedures, indicating…

  5. High School Teaching of Bioethics in New Zealand, Australia, and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asada, Yukiko; Tsuzuki, Miho; Akiyama, Shiro; Macer, Nobuko Y.; Macer, Darryl R. J.

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes the results of an International Bioethics Education Survey conducted in Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. Compares knowledge and teaching of 15 selected topics with particular emphasis on the teaching of social, ethical, and environmental issues of in vitro fertilization, prenatal diagnosis, biotechnology, nuclear power, pesticides,…

  6. Inquiry in bioethics and the philosophy of medicine: organ donation, defining death, and fairness in distribution.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Victor

    2015-06-01

    This issue of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy brings together fresh essays addressing three main genres of questions: (1) questions about the nature of bioethical inquiry and the relevance of the humanities to medical practice; (2) questions regarding the ethics of organ donation; (3) questions bearing on the application of fairness to the distribution of medical resources. PMID:25990748

  7. Respect for cultural diversity and the empirical turn in bioethics: a plea for caution

    PubMed Central

    Mbugua, Karori

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, there have been numerous calls for a culturally sensitive bioethics. At the same time, bioethicists have become increasingly involved in empirical research, which is a sign of dissatisfaction with the analytic methods of traditional bioethics. In this article, I will argue that although these developments have broadened and enriched the field of bioethics, they can easily be construed to be an endorsement of ethical relativism, especially by those not well grounded in academic moral philosophy. I maintain that bioethicists must resist the temptation of moving too quickly from cultural relativism to ethical relativism and from empirical findings to normative conclusions. Indeed, anyone who reasons in this way is guilty of the naturalistic fallacy. I conclude by saying that properly conceptualized, empirical research and sensitivity to cultural diversity should give rise to objective rational discourse and criticism and not indiscriminate tolerance of every possible moral practice. Bioethics must remain a normative discipline that is characterized by rigorous argumentation. PMID:23908754

  8. Bioethics as a new human rights emphasis in European research policy.

    PubMed

    Elizalde, Jose

    1992-06-01

    Although issues of morals and ethics remain largely a national matter, the European Community (EC) and the Council of Europe have taken an increasing interest in identifying and harmonizing the often conflicting policies of the European countries on bioethical matters. This article examines the role these organizations are playing and identifies some of the initiatives that have been taken in specific areas. PMID:11645743

  9. A syllabus for Jewish medical ethics in the context of general bioethics.

    PubMed

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Shaham, Dorith

    2008-05-01

    Since the beginning of medical history, ethics has interested medical practitioners. The subject has become particularly important in recent years due to the huge advancements in medicine and medical technology and has elicited much public interest. While international ethical principles and guidelines have been established, classical Jewish tradition has always placed great emphasis on bioethics. Prof. Avraham Steinberg's monumental Encyclopedia of Jewish Medical Ethics presents the subject comprehensively and in depth. We propose a bioethics syllabus, to be integrated into the medical curriculum in three stages: i) preclinical - covering basic ethical concepts and principles, relevant history, and ethical codes; ii) clinical - covering bioethical topics relating to the human life cycle; iii) prior to students' final examinations and further specialization - covering bioethical topics relating to their personal interests. Steinberg's Encyclopedia is an ideal basis for the development of a professional course, including Jewish traditional aspects. Such a course would provide future physicians with a varied cultural and intercultural background, help shape their image, and improve the quality of medical care. PMID:18605372

  10. A cross-sectional study of applied bioethical reasoning in pharmacy students and preceptors

    PubMed Central

    Schlesselman, Lauren S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare ethical principles most often utilized by pharmacy students and preceptors to determine plan of action for an ethical dilemma and to determine if ethical principles utilized are the same for individuals in the postconventional range Method A two part survey was administered to a convenience sample of pharmacy students and preceptors. The first part was comprised of an original measure, the Pharmacy Ethical Dilemmas Survey (PEDS), that was developed to assess participants’ action choices on healthcare-related ethical dilemmas and which moral rule or ethical principle was most influential in their decision. The second part was comprised of the Defining Issues Test. Results Patient autonomy and non-maleficience were the primary bioethical principles applied by students but pharmacists applied non-maleficience, patient autonomy, and also pharmacist autonomy. For all scenarios, students were more likely to rely on the principle of beneficence, while preceptors were more likely to rely on the pharmacist’s right to autonomy. In the analysis of application of bioethical principles by higher and lower principled reasoning individuals, only in the assisted suicide scenario did the two groups agree on the primary principle applied with both groups relying predominantly on patient autonomy. Conclusion Students and preceptors utilize different bioethical principles to support how they would handle each ethical dilemma but P-scores do not play a role in determining which bioethical principles were used to justify their action choices. PMID:25035718

  11. Bioethics of protection: a proposal for the moral problems of developing countries?

    PubMed

    Schramm, Fermin Roland; Braz, Marlène

    2008-01-01

    Bioethics of protection is a tool which appeared in the scope of the applied ethics in Latin America, related initially to the existing moral conflicts in Public Health, approached from the dialogue with the consecrated tools of the bioethics, but enrolled in the context of the praxis of the Latin American actors, who, even though they have proper problems, share many of those of the globalized world, of the planet. To the traditional descriptive and normative functions of the applied ethics, the bioethics of protection proposes an additional function consisting in the "protection" with priority of individuals and harmed groups, in order to permit them to develop, if possible, their capabilities, necessary to their empowerment, i.e. necessary to a decent life in a conflagrated world, and, possibly, searching for rational and/or reasonable solutions. The bioethics of protection is not applied, therefore, to those affected that are able to live a decent life with their own means or those offered by effective institutions. This implies, beyond education and adequate health services, the recognition of the differences in the cultures, cosmovisions and habits as common patrimony of the Humanity. PMID:18664002

  12. Bioethical Considerations for Teachers of the Severe and Profoundly Retarded: A Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downie, Don; Snart, Fern

    1983-01-01

    The paper reviews bioethical positions regarding the "human-ness" of severely handicapped students, notes that the quality of life for many severely handicapped persons is directly threatened by the utilitarian position which questions the personhood of individuals with limited IQ, and asserts that the deontological postition is more aligned with…

  13. 78 FR 46335 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY... Human Services. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Presidential Commission for the Study of... will also discuss the BRAIN Initiative and ongoing work in neuroscience. DATES: The meeting will...

  14. 78 FR 71615 - Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Public Meeting of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues AGENCY..., Office of the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The... on December 18, 2013. At this meeting, the Commission will discuss the BRAIN Initiative and...

  15. Respect for cultural diversity and the empirical turn in bioethics: a plea for caution.

    PubMed

    Mbugua, Karori

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, there have been numerous calls for a culturally sensitive bioethics. At the same time, bioethicists have become increasingly involved in empirical research, which is a sign of dissatisfaction with the analytic methods of traditional bioethics. In this article, I will argue that although these developments have broadened and enriched the field of bioethics, they can easily be construed to be an endorsement of ethical relativism, especially by those not well grounded in academic moral philosophy. I maintain that bioethicists must resist the temptation of moving too quickly from cultural relativism to ethical relativism and from empirical findings to normative conclusions. Indeed, anyone who reasons in this way is guilty of the naturalistic fallacy. I conclude by saying that properly conceptualized, empirical research and sensitivity to cultural diversity should give rise to objective rational discourse and criticism and not indiscriminate tolerance of every possible moral practice. Bioethics must remain a normative discipline that is characterized by rigorous argumentation. PMID:23908754

  16. Development, implementation and critique of a bioethics framework for pharmaceutical sponsors of human biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Pharmaceutical human biomedical research is a multi-dimensional endeavor that requires collaboration among many parties, including those who sponsor, conduct, participate in, or stand to benefit from the research. Human subjects' protections have been promulgated to ensure that the benefits of such research are accomplished with respect for and minimal risk to individual research participants, and with an overall sense of fairness. Although these protections are foundational to clinical research, most ethics guidance primarily highlights the responsibilities of investigators and ethics review boards. Currently, there is no published resource that comprehensively addresses bioethical responsibilities of industry sponsors; including their responsibilities to parties who are not research participants, but are, nevertheless key stakeholders in the endeavor. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company instituted a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research. This paper describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique based on four years of experience. A companion article provides the actual document used by Eli Lilly and Company to guide ethical decisions regarding all phases of human clinical trials. While many of the concepts presented in this framework are not novel, compiling them in a manner that articulates the ethical responsibilities of a sponsor is novel. By utilizing this type of bioethics framework, we have been able to develop bioethics positions on various topics, provide research ethics consultations, and integrate bioethics into the daily operations of our human biomedical research. We hope that by sharing these companion papers we will stimulate discussion within and outside the biopharmaceutical industry for the benefit of the multiple parties involved in pharmaceutical human biomedical research. PMID:26325424

  17. Medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics education perspectives in South East Europe in graduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Mijaljica, Goran

    2014-03-01

    Ethics has an established place within the medical curriculum. However notable differences exist in the programme characteristics of different schools of medicine. This paper addresses the main differences in the curricula of medical schools in South East Europe regarding education in medical ethics and bioethics, with a special emphasis on research ethics, and proposes a model curriculum which incorporates significant topics in all three fields. Teaching curricula of Medical Schools in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro were acquired and a total of 14 were analyzed. Teaching hours for medical ethics and/or bioethics and year of study in which the course is taught were also analyzed. The average number of teaching hours in medical ethics and bioethics is 27.1 h per year. The highest national average number of teaching hours was in Croatia (47.5 h per year), and the lowest was in Serbia (14.8). In the countries of the European Union the mean number of hours given to ethics teaching throughout the complete curriculum was 44. In South East Europe, the maximum number of teaching hours is 60, while the minimum number is 10 teaching hours. Research ethics topics also show a considerable variance within the regional medical schools. Approaches to teaching research ethics vary, even within the same country. The proposed model for education in this area is based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Bioethics Core Curriculum. The model curriculum consists of topics in medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics, as a single course, over 30 teaching hours. PMID:23436144

  18. Science and society: different bioethical approaches towards animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Brom, Frans W A

    2002-01-01

    respect their integrity. By weighing these prima facie duties, the moral problem of animal experimentation exists in finding which duty actually has to be considered as the decisive duty. It will be argued that these three views, even though they will all justify animal experimentation to some extent, will do so in practice under different conditions. Many current conflicts regarding the use of animals for research may be better understood in light of the conflict between the three bioethical perspectives provided by these views. PMID:12098014

  19. Who Guards the Guardians? Ian Kennedy, Bioethics and the ‘Ideology of Accountability’ in British Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Summary This article charts the history of bioethics in Britain through the work of the academic lawyer Ian Kennedy. From the late 1970s, Kennedy claimed that external oversight, which he termed ‘bioethics’, was needed to make medicine accountable to patients and the public. I believe these arguments provide a window onto the historical factors that generated the demand for bioethics, and help us determine why it became influential in recent decades. I detail how Kennedy's argument resonated with the Conservative enthusiasm for audit and consumer choice in the 1980s. Contrary to traditional portrayals of bioethics as a critique of medicine, I also show that Kennedy promised it would benefit doctors by improving decision making and maintaining public confidence. This analysis reframes bioethics as an important constituent of the ‘audit society’: fulfilling the neo-liberal demand for oversight and the medical demand for legitimacy.

  20. Dire necessity and transformation: entry-points for modern science in Islamic bioethical assessment of porcine products in vaccines.

    PubMed

    Padela, Aasim I; Furber, Steven W; Kholwadia, Mohammad A; Moosa, Ebrahim

    2014-02-01

    The field of medicine provides an important window through which to examine the encounters between religion and science, and between modernity and tradition. While both religion and science consider health to be a 'good' that is to be preserved, and promoted, religious and science-based teachings may differ in their conception of what constitutes good health, and how that health is to be achieved. This paper analyzes the way the Islamic ethico-legal tradition assesses the permissibility of using vaccines that contain porcine-derived components by referencing opinions of several Islamic authorities. In the Islamic ethico-legal tradition controversy surrounds the use of proteins from an animal (pig) that is considered to be impure by Islamic law. As we discuss the Islamic ethico-legal constructs used to argue for or against the use of porcine-based vaccines we will call attention to areas where modern medical data may make the arguments more precise. By highlighting areas where science can buttress and clarify the ethico-legal arguments we hope to spur an enhanced applied Islamic bioethics discourse where religious scholars and medical experts use modern science in a way that remains faithful to the epistemology of Islamic ethics to clarify what Islam requires of Muslim patients and healthcare workers. PMID:23445524

  1. [Resuscitational aspects of evolution of history of death teaching and interpretation of concept of death as bioethical category].

    PubMed

    Akhaladze, V M

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the role of resuscitation science and practice in development of new trends in thanatology; and to determine the significance of integrated interdisciplinary approach to notion "death" as "biological, medical, and bioethical" categories. The author discusses nine distinct concepts of death and concludes that only complex scientific approach can enrich the knowledge about the notion of death. The list of different aspects of interdisciplinary bioethical definition of notion "death" was developed. PMID:17525505

  2. Review of Feminist Bioethics At the Center, On the Margins, edited by Jackie Leach Scully, Laurel E. Baldwin-Ragaven, Petya Fitzpatrick

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The anthology, Feminist Bioethics, edited by Jackie Leach Scully, Laurel E. Baldwin-Ragaven, and Petya Fitzpatrick, examines how feminist bioethics theoretically and methodologically challenges mainstream bioethics, and whether these approaches are useful for exploring difference in other contexts. It offers critical conceptual analyses of "autonomy", "universality", and "trust", and covers topics such as testing for hereditary cancer, prenatal selection for sexual orientation, midwifery, public health, disability, Indigenous research reform in Australia, and China's one child policy.

  3. From biopolitics to bioethics: church, state, medicine and assisted reproductive technology in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Orla; Allison, Jill

    2006-09-01

    This paper examines the emerging bioethical debate on assisted reproductive technology (ART) in Ireland, which is shaped by the long-standing contentious issue of abortion and the constitutional protection afforded to the 'unborn'. The focus of the paper is on the way in which the terms of this debate are shaped and constrained by the historical relations of power between church, state and medicine. Since the representation of Ireland as a post-Catholic, plural republic is becoming increasingly mainstream to cultural and political discourse, we pay particular attention to how the Catholic Church embraces bioethics as a meta frame or code for refocusing questions of values, beliefs and meanings to sustain the ideal of Ireland as a 'pro-life' and essentially Catholic nation. The Catholic Church is not simply asserting its voice of dissent in the context of public debate as one voice amongst a plurality of other voices, but to shape the emerging debate as a powerful, institutional actor. The opportunity to do so is afforded by the lack of public debate on bioethical issues and the exceedingly slow pace at which bioethics is moving towards an institutionalised framework in Ireland. These events can be explained by the legacy of the social power of the Catholic Church in Ireland and the direct and indirect influence it has long exercised over public policy vis-à-vis the state and its institutions, including medicine. There are two interconnected threads to the contextual analysis presented in our case study: first, the legacy of the social power wielded by the Catholic Church, and its slow and incremental demise reflected in the pace of secularisation in Ireland and the privatisation of morality; second, the emergence of a bioethical regulatory debate on ART, which is mired in the abortion controversy. Our analysis focuses on a number of key contradictions and tensions in the way in which the key institutions of church, state and medicine navigate their own positions

  4. The art of the chart note in clinical ethics consultation and bioethics mediation: conveying information that can be understood and evaluated.

    PubMed

    Dubler, Nancy Neveloff

    2013-01-01

    Unlike bioethics mediators who are employed by healthcare organizations as outside consultants, mediators who are embedded in an institution must be authorized to chronicle a clinical ethics consultation (CEC) or a mediation in a patient's medical chart. This is an important privilege, as the chart is a legal document. In this article I discuss this important part of a bioethics mediator's tool kit in my presentation of a case illustrating how bioethics mediation may proceed, and what this approach using both bioethics and mediation may add. PMID:23923814

  5. Using a Scoring Rubric to Assess the Writing of Bioethics Students.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Hugh A; Labrecque, Cory A; Schonfeld, Toby

    2016-04-01

    Educators in bioethics have struggled to find valid and reliable assessments that transcend the "reproduction of knowledge" to target more important skill sets. This manuscript reports on the process of developing and grading a minimal-competence comprehensive examination in a bioethics master's degree program. We describe educational theory and practice for the creation and deployment of scoring rubrics for high-stakes performance assessments that reduce scoring inconsistencies. The rubric development process can also benefit the program by building consensus among stakeholders regarding program goals and student outcomes. We describe the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome taxonomy as a mechanism for rubric design and provide an example of how we applied that taxonomy to define pass/fail cut scores. Details about domains of assessment and writing descriptors of performance are also presented. Despite the laborious work required to create a scoring rubric, we found the effort to be worthwhile for our program. PMID:26957455

  6. When psychiatry and bioethics disagree about patient decision making capacity (DMC)

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, P L; Bramstedt, K A

    2006-01-01

    The terms “competency” and “decision making capacity” (DMC) are often used interchangeably in the medical setting. Although competency is a legal determination made by judges, “competency” assessments are frequently requested of psychiatrists who are called to consult on hospitalised patients who refuse medical treatment. In these situations, the bioethicist is called to consult frequently as well, sometimes as a second opinion or “tie breaker”. The psychiatric determination of competence, while a clinical phenomenon, is based primarily in legalism and can be quite different from the bioethics approach. This discrepancy highlights the difficulties that arise when a patient is found to be “competent” by psychiatry but lacking in DMC by bioethics. Using a case, this dilemma is explored and guidance for reconciling the opinions of two distinct clinical specialties is offered. PMID:16446413

  7. The limited relevance of analytical ethics to the problems of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Holmes, R L

    1990-04-01

    Philosophical ethics comprises metaethics, normative ethics and applied ethics. These have characteristically received analytic treatment by twentieth-century Anglo-American philosophy. But there has been disagreement over their interrelationship to one another and the relationship of analytical ethics to substantive morality--the making of moral judgments. I contend that the expertise philosophers have in either theoretical or applied ethics does not equip them to make sounder moral judgments on the problems of bioethics than nonphilosophers. One cannot "apply" theories like Kantianism or consequentialism to get solutions to practical moral problems unless one knows which theory is correct, and that is a metaethical question over which there is no consensus. On the other hand, to presume to be able to reach solutions through neutral analysis of problems is unavoidably to beg controversial theoretical issues in the process. Thus, while analytical ethics can play an important clarificatory role in bioethics, it can neither provide, nor substitute for, moral wisdom. PMID:2351891

  8. Bioethics as a second-order discipline: who is not a bioethicist?

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Loretta M

    2006-12-01

    A dispute exists about whether bioethics should become a new discipline with its own methods, competency standards, duties, honored texts, and core curriculum. Unique expertise is a necessary condition for disciplines. Using the current literature, different views about the sort of expertise that might be unique to bioethicists are critically examined to determine if there is an expertise that might meet this requirement. Candidates include analyses of expertise based in "philosophical ethics," "casuistry," "atheoretical or situation ethics," "conventionalist relativism," "institutional guidance," "regulatory guidance and compliance," "political advocacy," "functionalism," and "principlism." None succeed in identifying a unique area of expertise for successful bioethicists that could serve as a basis for making it a new discipline. Rather expertise in bioethics is rooted in many professions, disciplines and fields and best understood as a second-order discipline. PMID:17162730

  9. [The human corpse in arts and bioethics: Michelangelo´s Pietà Rondanini].

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Gustavo

    2016-02-01

    According to bioethics, life is a fundamental but not an absolute good. Therefore the value of a person resides in being alive, no matter in which state such person is. The concept of brain death is legally and ethically accepted as the definition of death. In artworks, human beings are revealed as they are. Michelangelo's Pietà Rondanini captures and captures what a human corpse is, in its most intimate appearance. The artist boldly reveals its essence. PMID:27092679

  10. Evidence-based ethics? On evidence-based practice and the "empirical turn" from normative bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Maya J

    2005-01-01

    Background The increase in empirical methods of research in bioethics over the last two decades is typically perceived as a welcomed broadening of the discipline, with increased integration of social and life scientists into the field and ethics consultants into the clinical setting, however it also represents a loss of confidence in the typical normative and analytic methods of bioethics. Discussion The recent incipiency of "Evidence-Based Ethics" attests to this phenomenon and should be rejected as a solution to the current ambivalence toward the normative resolution of moral problems in a pluralistic society. While "evidence-based" is typically read in medicine and other life and social sciences as the empirically-adequate standard of reasonable practice and a means for increasing certainty, I propose that the evidence-based movement in fact gains consensus by displacing normative discourse with aggregate or statistically-derived empirical evidence as the "bottom line". Therefore, along with wavering on the fact/value distinction, evidence-based ethics threatens bioethics' normative mandate. The appeal of the evidence-based approach is that it offers a means of negotiating the demands of moral pluralism. Rather than appealing to explicit values that are likely not shared by all, "the evidence" is proposed to adjudicate between competing claims. Quantified measures are notably more "neutral" and democratic than liberal markers like "species normal functioning". Yet the positivist notion that claims stand or fall in light of the evidence is untenable; furthermore, the legacy of positivism entails the quieting of empirically non-verifiable (or at least non-falsifiable) considerations like moral claims and judgments. As a result, evidence-based ethics proposes to operate with the implicit normativity that accompanies the production and presentation of all biomedical and scientific facts unchecked. Summary The "empirical turn" in bioethics signals a need for

  11. "Editing" Genes: A Case Study About How Language Matters in Bioethics.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Meaghan; Perrault, Sarah; Halpern, Jodi; Ikemoto, Lisa; Yarborough, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Metaphors used to describe new technologies mediate public understanding of the innovations. Analyzing the linguistic, rhetorical, and affective aspects of these metaphors opens the range of issues available for bioethical scrutiny and increases public accountability. This article shows how such a multidisciplinary approach can be useful by looking at a set of texts about one issue, the use of a newly developed technique for genetic modification, CRISPRcas9. PMID:26632354

  12. A theory of international bioethics: the negotiable and the non-negotiable.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert

    1998-09-01

    The preceding article in this issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal presents the argument that "moral fundamentalism," the position that international bioethics rests on "basic" or "fundamental" moral prinicples that are universally accepted in all eras and cultures, collapses under a variety of multicultural and postmodern critiques. The present article looks to the contractarian tradition of Hobbes and Locke -- as reinterpreted by David Gauthier, Robert Nozick, and John Rawls -- for an alternative justification for international bioethics. Drawing on the central themes of this tradition, it is argued that international bioethics can be rationally reconstructed as a negotiated moral order that respects culturally and individually defined areas of nonnegotiability. Further, the theory of a negotiated moral order is consistent with traditional ideals about human rights, is flexible enough to absorb the genuine insights of multiculturalism and postmodernism, and yet is strong enough to justify transcultural and transtemporal moral judgments, including the condemnation of the Nazi doctors at Nuremberg. This theory also is consistent with the history of the ethics of human subjects experimentation and offers insights into current controversies such as the controversy over changing the consent rule for experiments in emergency medicine and the controversy over exempting certain clinical trials of inexpensive treatments for preventing the perinatal transmission of AIDS from the ethical standards of the sponsoring country. PMID:11656933

  13. BIOETHICS METHODS IN THE ETHICAL, LEGAL, AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT LITERATURE

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Rebecca; Morrissey, Clair

    2013-01-01

    While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in genomics. We undertook a qualitative content analysis of a sample of ELSI publications appearing between 2003-2008 with the aim of better understanding the methods, aims, and approaches to ethics that ELSI researchers employ. We found that the aims of ethics within ELSI are largely prescriptive and address multiple groups. We also found that the bioethics methods used in the ELSI literature are both diverse between publications and multiple within publications, but are usually not themselves discussed or employed as suggested by bioethics method proponents. Ethics in ELSI is also sometimes undistinguished from related inquiries (such as social, legal, or political investigations). PMID:23796275

  14. A bioethical j’accuse: analysis of the discussion around thiomersal in Chile.

    PubMed

    Kottow, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Chilean legislators have voted to ban vaccines preserved with thiomersal, an initiative that the Executive has vetoed. Most scientific evidence has dismissed the alleged toxicity of this substance, in accordance with the formal and publicly expressed opinion of local experts, and yet, medical authorities have issued contradictory statements. Some have argued that the principle of precaution suggests eliminating thiomersal preserved vaccines; others have declared that current vaccines should be maintained to protect the population. From the perspective of bioethics, this polemic is another example of the shortcoming of the deliberation process leading to controversial laws in lieu of including citizens in the discussion of regulations that harbor uncertainties, and respect for individual autonomy to accept or reject public immunization programs. The Chilean legal system has been unwilling to implement participatory democratic procedures like plebiscites or institutions such as the ombudsman. In 2006 a law was enacted that creates a National Commission of Bioethics, but successive governments have failed to create such a commission, which is an efficient social instrument to conduct deliberation on bioethical issues that require a balanced participation of the public, experts, and politicians. PMID:25197986

  15. Bioethics methods in the ethical, legal, and social implications of the human genome project literature.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rebecca L; Morrissey, Clair

    2014-11-01

    While bioethics as a field has concerned itself with methodological issues since the early years, there has been no systematic examination of how ethics is incorporated into research on the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. Yet ELSI research may bear a particular burden of investigating and substantiating its methods given public funding, an explicitly cross-disciplinary approach, and the perceived significance of adequate responsiveness to advances in genomics. We undertook a qualitative content analysis of a sample of ELSI publications appearing between 2003 and 2008 with the aim of better understanding the methods, aims, and approaches to ethics that ELSI researchers employ. We found that the aims of ethics within ELSI are largely prescriptive and address multiple groups. We also found that the bioethics methods used in the ELSI literature are both diverse between publications and multiple within publications, but are usually not themselves discussed or employed as suggested by bioethics method proponents. Ethics in ELSI is also sometimes undistinguished from related inquiries (such as social, legal, or political investigations). PMID:23796275

  16. Bioethics, biolaw, (bio)constitutional interpretation and biopatents under the light of Brazilian law.

    PubMed

    Myszczuk, Ana Paula; de Meirelles, Jussara Maria Leal

    2010-01-01

    The article briefly analyzes the concepts of the Bioethics, the Biolaw, the Bio-Constitution and the Biopatent. In order to do so, we will check some principles of the Bioethics, the newly added term the Biolaw, the concept of the Bio-Constitution or the Constitutional Biolaw, all used as means to solve conflicts of bio-juridical norms. Besides it formulates some questions about biopatents. It is here understood that the 1988 Brazilian Federal Constitution chose the human dignity principle as the core to be used in any Biomedicine related matter and this Law acts to bring some tools into a bio-constitutional interpretation. Among those tools are the fundamental rights and the protection of the environment. Some juridical limits to the private appropriation of the human genome, via patenting, are examined. The article considers the requirements imposed by the Law Act no 9279/96 (novelty, invention and industrial use), as well as some Brazilian constitutional dispositions concerning biopatents. In the conclusion, we argue that the Bioethics and the Biolaw principles are valuable instruments to support juridical decisions and to guide the establishment of possible limits on the use and/or development of the Biomedicine. Consequently when interpreting a concrete case, besides having a multidisciplinary analysis, we have refreshed classic juridical concepts. This is achieved by rethinking juridical fundamentals and opening up the space for the conceptualization of a Bio-Constitution interpretation. PMID:21510136

  17. Dilemmas in Bioethics. Teacher's Guide. Preparing for Tomorrow's World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iozzi, Louis A.

    "Preparing for Tomorrow's World" is an interdisciplinary, future-oriented program which incorporates information from the sciences and social sciences and addresses societal concerns which interface science/technology/society. The program promotes responsible citizenry with increased abilities in critical thinking, problem-solving, social/ethical…

  18. Why the way we consider the body matters – Reflections on four bioethical perspectives on the human body

    PubMed Central

    Schicktanz, Silke

    2007-01-01

    Background Within the context of applied bioethical reasoning, various conceptions of the human body are focused upon by the author in relation to normative notions of autonomy. Results The author begins by descriptively exploring some main positions in bioethics from which the "body" is conceptualized. Such positions conflict: the body is that which is constitutive of the individual's experience and perception, or it is conceived of materially or mechanistically; or as a constructed locus, always historically and culturally transformed. The author goes on to suggest a methodological approach that dialectically considers embodiment from four different perspectives: as bodily self-determination, as respect for the bodily unavailability of the other, as care for bodily individuality; and lastly, as acknowledgement of bodily-constituted communities. These four perspectives encompass autonomy in two of its main interpretations: as the capability of a person to act independent of external forces, and as the moral ideal of pursuing individual wishes by means of role distance, self-limitation and universalization. Various bioethical cases are utilized to show how the four perspectives on the body can complement one another. Conclusion The way we consider the body matters. The author's dialectical method allows a premise-critical identification and exploration of bioethical problems concerning the body. The method is potentially applicable to other bioethical problems. PMID:18053201

  19. A Comparative Analysis of the Legal and Bioethical Frameworks Governing the Secondary Use of Data for Research Purposes.

    PubMed

    Tassé, Anne-Marie

    2016-06-01

    The secondary use of research and health data for purposes that differ from the original purpose of the collection is becoming a major trend in research, since it allows for the optimal use of already available resources, and reduces the costs of research activities. However, the consent provided at the time of the initial data collection might not have foreseen these new uses of the data. This is especially true for biobanks having collected data under a restricted or a disease-specific consent, and for data linkage, which allows researchers to combine research data with information from the medical record of participants. To protect the participants' privacy, confidentiality, and autonomy, the use of identifiable research and clinical data for secondary research purposes is governed by a rather complex legal and ethical framework. This article aims to: (1) provide a comprehensive analysis of the legal and bioethical framework governing the secondary use of data at the international level, and; (2) identify points of convergence and divergence with regard to the secondary use of data for research purposes, in five countries (Australia, Canada, France, United Kingdom, and United States). While the secondary use of already collected data carries benefits and drawbacks, the international and national legal framework provide guidance to promote a wider (although limited) secondary use of data, while protecting research participants' rights and interests. Despite some differences, the similarities between international and national regulations and norms reveal the emergence of a common set of criteria for the secondary use of data in international research. PMID:27192126

  20. The Bioethical Concept of Life for Life in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam: Abortion When the Mother's Life is in Danger.

    PubMed

    Khorfan, Rhami; Padela, Aasim I

    2010-11-01

    Modern secular bioethics has focused on developing a set of universal principles to guide clinical decision making. However, this ignores the important role of religion in resolving bioethical questions. It is imperative that health-care providers understand these belief systems in order to traverse value conflicts and provide the highest quality care to a diverse population. This paper focuses on the process of bioethical deliberation in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam. Abortion is normatively prohibited in each faith and through examining how each ethical code allows for abortion when the mother's life is in peril due to the fetus, we highlight the value of unborn life in each faith. Orthodox Judaism uses the concept of rodef, or pursuer, to permit abortion in this scenario, Catholicism uses the moral concept of "double effect," while Islamic law cites the maqāṣid, higher objectives of the law, to permit abortion in this scenario. PMID:23864760

  1. Patient Autonomy in Talmudic Context: The Patient's "I Must Eat" on Yom Kippur in the Light of Contemporary Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Berger, Zackary; Cahan, Rabbi Joshua

    2016-10-01

    In contemporary bioethics, the autonomy of the patient has assumed considerable importance. Progressing from a more limited notion of informed consent, shared decision making calls upon patients to voice the desires and preferences of their authentic self, engaging in choice among alternatives as a way to exercise deeply held values. One influential opinion in Jewish bioethics holds that Jewish law, in contradistinction to secular bioethics, limits the patient's exercise of autonomy only in those instances in which treatment choices are sensitive to preferences. Here, we analyze a discussion in the Mishna, a foundational text of rabbinic Judaism, regarding patient autonomy in the setting of religiously mandated fasting, and commentaries in the Babylonian and Palestinian Talmuds, finding both a more expansive notion of such autonomy and a potential metaphysical grounding for it in the importance of patient self-knowledge. PMID:27357582

  2. From subjects to relations: Bioethics and the articulation of postcolonial politics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jenna M

    2016-04-01

    Controversies about global clinical trials, particularly HIV trials, tend to be framed in terms of ethics. In this article, I explore debates about ethics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial, which was designed to test the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as a prevention for HIV infection. Bringing together studies of public participation in science with studies of bioethics, I show how activists around the Cambodian Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial circulated and provoked debates about standards of research ethics, as opposed to research methodology. This postcolonial bioethics was configured through the circulation of and debate about ethics guidelines, and historically and culturally specific relations of vulnerability and responsibility between foreigners and Cambodians and between Cambodian leaders and Cambodian subjects. I argue that this shift in the object of ethical concern, from the experimental human subject to the relation between subjects and researchers, illustrates how a postcolonial field of articulation reformulates classical bioethics. PMID:27263238

  3. [Bioethics and biomedical experiment evolution from Alkmaion to Pavlov. Dedicated to 160 years since I.P. Pavlov's birthday].

    PubMed

    Kopaladze, R A

    2009-01-01

    Ethic aspects of biomedical experiment evolution from Alkmaion to Pavlov, are analysed. The history of reflexes in the paradigm of mechanitsism and antropomorphism is reinterpreted. It is emphasized that animal life and their behaviour exceed the bounds of mechanitsizm. It is grounded the necessity of humane treating living organisms. The theory of conditioned reflexes and the method of physiological synthesis are considered in the context of bioethics. It is shown that Pavlov's methodological approaches are in correspondence with the modern principles of bioethics of scientific animal experiments. PMID:19764630

  4. Pragmatic principles--methodological pragmatism in the principle-based approach to bioethics.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Felzmann, Heike

    2003-01-01

    In this paper it will be argued that Beauchamp and Childress' principle-based approach to bioethics has strongly pragmatic features. Drawing on the writings of William James, I first develop an understanding of methodological pragmatism as a method of justification. On the basis of Beauchamp's and Childress' most recent proposals concerning moral justification in the fifth edition of their Principles of Biomedical Ethics (2001), I then discuss different aspects that the principle-based approach and methodological pragmatism have in common. PMID:14972762

  5. [Science fiction and the Brave New World: predictions fulfilled in our century and bioethical considerations].

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana Carolina Clemente Dos; Amorim Neto, Thomaz Pereira de; Goes, Andrea Carla de Souza

    2013-06-01

    The speed with which science generates results in modern society requires reflection on the limits of scientific progress. This is the foundation of Brave New World, a book published by Aldous Huxley in 1932 that portrays a future technological society along the lines of Fordism. This article establishes a relationship between our current technocratic society and that described by Huxley, discussing the viability of the technical and biological aspects of the manipulations narrated in the book in light of current knowledge. Some bioethical considerations with respect to the procedures 'invented' by the author - and which are already or could be developed in modern society - will also be addressed. PMID:23739805

  6. Get to the point! Philosophical bioethics and the struggle to remain relevant.

    PubMed

    Takala, Tuija

    2015-04-01

    This article argues that practicality is currently overemphasized in philosophical contributions to bioethics. The inclinations to aim at relevance, to ground normativity on common morality, and to involve many academic disciplines in ethical discussions is understandable, but they are all poorly founded. When answers to difficult questions are already known at the outset, these endeavors can help decisionmakers in gaining the acceptance of the general public. Wider theoretical analyses, in which philosophers could excel, however, tend to be lost in these practical enterprises. PMID:25719350

  7. [Bioethical reflections on ill-considered care due to an early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Buxó, M Jesús; Casado, María

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease raises important bioethical issues. In the interval between early disease detection and symptom onset, there is a time in which the patient's autonomy, privacy, and dignity may be undermined by certain healthcare measures or by family care and support. These measures may eventually turn patients into an object of care, preventing them from accepting the disease, developing an identity, and rearranging their living spaces. Every effort should be made to ensure that care does not become compassionate harassment or an invasive act, annulling the patient's autonomy, identity, and self-determination. PMID:24852089

  8. Patenting, morality and human embryonic stem cell science: bioethics and cultural politics in Europe.

    PubMed

    Salter, Brian

    2007-05-01

    As the recent experience of the European Patent Office graphically demonstrates, there is an inherent political tension between the individual ownership rights necessary for the operation of an international market in human embryonic stem cell science and the communal values of the many cultures in which such markets operate. This report examines the basis of the conflict between patenting and morality at national and international levels, the manifestation of those tensions in European patenting policy, and the contribution of bioethics to the attempt by European institutions to develop a governance response. PMID:17511566

  9. Stakeholder engagement analysis - a bioethics dilemma in patient-targeted intervention: patients with temporomandibular joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Barkhordarian, Andre; Demerjian, Gary; Jan, Allison; Sama, Nateli; Nguyen, Mia; Du, Angela; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Modern health care in the field of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing is grounded in fundamental philosophy and epistemology of translational science. Recently in the U.S major national initiatives have been implemented in the hope of closing the gaps that sometimes exist between the two fundamental components of translational science, the translational research and translational effectiveness. Subsequent to these initiatives, many improvements have been made; however, important bioethical issues and limitations do still exist that need to be addressed. One such issue is the stakeholder engagement and its assessment and validation. Federal, state and local organizations such as PCORI and AHRQ concur that the key to a better understanding of the relationship between translational research and translational effectiveness is the assessment of the extent to which stakeholders are actively engaged in the translational process of healthcare. The stakeholder engagement analysis identifies who the stakeholders are, maps their contribution and involvement, evaluates their priorities and opinions, and accesses their current knowledge base. This analysis however requires conceptualization and validation from the bioethics standpoint. Here, we examine the bioethical dilemma of stakeholder engagement analysis in the context of the person-environment fit (PE-fit) theoretical model. This model is an approach to quantifying stakeholder engagement analysis for the design of patient-targeted interventions. In our previous studies of Alzheimer patients, we have developed, validated and used a simple instrument based on the PE-fit model that can be adapted and utilized in a much less studied pathology as a clinical model that has a wide range of symptoms and manifestations, the temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the jaw joint endowed with sensory and motor innervations that project from within the central nervous system and its dysfunction can

  10. High hopes and automatic escalators: a critique of some new arguments in bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Holm, S; Takala, T

    2007-01-01

    Two protechnology arguments, the “hopeful principle” and the “automatic escalator”, often used in bioethics, are identified and critically analysed in this paper. It is shown that the hopeful principle is closely related to the problematic precautionary principle, and the automatic escalator argument has close affinities to the often criticised empirical slippery slope argument. The hopeful principle is shown to be really hopeless as an argument, and automatic escalator arguments often lead nowhere when critically analysed. These arguments should therefore only be used with great caution. PMID:17209100

  11. Enhancing who? Enhancing what? Ethics, bioethics, and transhumanism.

    PubMed

    Koch, Tom

    2010-12-01

    Transhumanists advance a "posthuman" condition in which technological and genetic enhancements will transform humankind. They are joined in this goal by bioethicists arguing for genetic selection as a means of "enhancing evolution," improving if not also the species then at least the potential lives of future individuals. The argument of both, this paper argues, is a new riff on the old eugenics tune. As ever, it is done in the name of science and its presumed knowledge base. As ever, the result is destructive rather than instructive, bad faith promoted as high ideal. The paper concludes with the argument that species advancement is possible but in a manner thoroughly distinct from that advanced by either of these groups. PMID:21041805

  12. Current status, challenges, policies, and bioethics of biobanks.

    PubMed

    Kang, Byunghak; Park, Jaesun; Cho, Sangyun; Lee, Meehee; Kim, Namhee; Min, Haesook; Lee, Sooyoun; Park, Ok; Han, Bokghee

    2013-12-01

    Many biobanks were established as biorepositories for biomedical research, and a number of biobanks were founded in the 1990s. The main aim of the biobank is to store and to maintain biomaterials for studying chronic disease, identifying risk factors of specific diseases, and applying personalized drug therapies. This report provides a review of biobanks, including Korean biobanks and an analysis of sample volumes, regulations, policies, and ethical issues of the biobank. Until now, the top 6 countries according to the number of large-scale biobanks are the United Kingdom, United States, Sweden, France, the Netherlands, and Italy, and there is one major National Biobank of Korea (NBK) and 17 regional biobanks in Korea. Many countries have regulations and guidelines for the biobanks, and the importance of good management of biobanks is increasing. Meanwhile, according to a first survey of 456 biobank managers in the United States, biobankers are concerned with the underuse of the samples in their repositories, which need to be advertised for researchers. Korea Biobank Network (KBN) project phase II (2013-2015) was also planned for the promotion to use biospecimens in the KBN. The KBN is continuously introducing for researchers to use biospecimens in the biobank. An accreditation process can also be introduced for biobanks to harmonize collections and encourage use of biospecimens in the biobanks. KBN is preparing an on-line application system for the distribution of biospecimens and a biobank accreditation program and is trying to harmonize the biobanks. PMID:24465232

  13. Current Status, Challenges, Policies, and Bioethics of Biobanks

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaesun; Cho, Sangyun; Lee, Meehee; Kim, Namhee; Min, Haesook; Lee, Sooyoun; Park, Ok; Han, Bokghee

    2013-01-01

    Many biobanks were established as biorepositories for biomedical research, and a number of biobanks were founded in the 1990s. The main aim of the biobank is to store and to maintain biomaterials for studying chronic disease, identifying risk factors of specific diseases, and applying personalized drug therapies. This report provides a review of biobanks, including Korean biobanks and an analysis of sample volumes, regulations, policies, and ethical issues of the biobank. Until now, the top 6 countries according to the number of large-scale biobanks are the United Kingdom, United States, Sweden, France, the Netherlands, and Italy, and there is one major National Biobank of Korea (NBK) and 17 regional biobanks in Korea. Many countries have regulations and guidelines for the biobanks, and the importance of good management of biobanks is increasing. Meanwhile, according to a first survey of 456 biobank managers in the United States, biobankers are concerned with the underuse of the samples in their repositories, which need to be advertised for researchers. Korea Biobank Network (KBN) project phase II (2013-2015) was also planned for the promotion to use biospecimens in the KBN. The KBN is continuously introducing for researchers to use biospecimens in the biobank. An accreditation process can also be introduced for biobanks to harmonize collections and encourage use of biospecimens in the biobanks. KBN is preparing an on-line application system for the distribution of biospecimens and a biobank accreditation program and is trying to harmonize the biobanks. PMID:24465232

  14. Bioethics in developing countries: ethics of scarcity and sacrifice.

    PubMed Central

    Olweny, C

    1994-01-01

    Contemporary issues such as euthanasia, surrogate motherhood, organ transplantation and gene therapy, which occupy the minds of ethicists in the industrialized countries are, for the moment, irrelevant in most developing countries. There, the ethics of scarcity, sacrifice, cross-cultural research, as well as the activities of multinational companies, are germane. In this article, only the ethics of scarcity and sacrifice will be discussed. Structural adjustment programmes, designed to solve the economic problems of the developing countries, muddied the waters. The dilemma confronting practitioners in developing countries is how to adhere to the basic principles of medical ethics in an atmosphere of hunger, poverty, war and ever-shrinking and often non-existent resources. Nowhere else in the world is the true meaning of scarcity portrayed as vividly as in the developing countries. Consequently, the doctor's clinical freedom may have to be sacrificed by the introduction of an essential drugs list and practice guidelines. The principle of greater good, while appealing, must be carefully interpreted and applied in the developing countries. Thus, while health promotion and disease prevention must be the primary focus, health planners should avoid pushing prevention at the expense of those currently sick. Health care reform in developing countries must not merely re-echo what is being done in the industrialized countries, but must respond to societal needs and be relevant to the community in question. PMID:7996563

  15. Medical tourism: between entrepreneurship opportunities and bioethics boundaries: narrative review article.

    PubMed

    Badulescu, Daniel; Badulescu, Alina

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, medical tourism reports impressive growth in terms of number of persons, income and number of countries involved in cross-border flows. So this study was undertaken to clarify entrepreneurship opportunities and bio-ethics boundaries in medical tourism. For tourism entrepreneurs, these outgoing flows related to medical procedures and tourism become an opportunity that cannot be ignored, so a wide range of tourist services related to health care are provided on a private, entrepreneurial basis. However, social and economic boundaries are omnipresent (impaired health services in receiving (incoming) countries, the crisis of the health care systems in emitting (outgoing) countries, over-consumption of medical and tourism services), and, not least, ethical considerations. Transforming medical care in a market tool, reducing human attributes to the status of commodity that can be bought, sold or negotiated, seriously challenges contemporary bioethics principles. It is a significant entering in the area (which is essentially un-ethic) of market transactions, where libertarianism and consumer-oriented attitudes dominates the spectrum of rational choice. So tourism comes to provide an organized and comfortable framework for all these choices, but many issues still re-main controversial and may worsen if national health systems and national and international regulations would not identify their problems and would continue to leave medical tourism to market mechanisms. Market will efficiently allocate the resources, but not always in an ethical manner. PMID:26005650

  16. Ethnicity, bioethics, and prenatal diagnosis: the amniocentesis decisions of Mexican-origin women and their partners.

    PubMed Central

    Browner, C H; Preloran, H M; Cox, S J

    1999-01-01

    Bioethical standards and counseling techniques that regulate prenatal diagnosis in the United States were developed at a time when the principal constituency for fetal testing was a self-selected group of White, well-informed, middle-class women. The routine use of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) testing, which has become widespread since the mid-1980s, introduced new constituencies to prenatal diagnosis. These new constituencies include ethnic minority women, who, with the exception of women from certain Asian groups, refuse amniocentesis at significantly higher rates than others. This study examines the considerations taken into account by a group of Mexican-origin women who had screened positive for AFP and were deciding whether to undergo amniocentesis. We reviewed 379 charts and interviewed 147 women and 120 partners to test a number of factors that might explain why some women accept amniocentesis and some refuse. A woman's attitudes toward doctors, medicine, and prenatal care and her assessment of the risk and uncertainty associated with the procedure were found to be most significant. Case summaries demonstrate the indeterminacy of the decision-making process. We concluded that established bioethical principles and counseling techniques need to be more sensitive to the way ethnic minority clients make their amniocentesis choices. PMID:10553385

  17. The role of bioethics in the international prescription drug market: economics and global justice.

    PubMed

    Newland, Shelby E

    2006-01-01

    In terms of health care access, bioethics has an important role to inform and shape policy issues and develop interdisciplinary ideas and interventions. The rising price of prescription drugs presents one of the most looming barriers to health care access in the world today. Including both theoretical and practical features of the pharmaceutical industry's behavior is necessary to find ethical solutions towards increasing access. Bioethics can evaluate global justice by weighing human rights theory and future innovation at the macro level, and by addressing market forces and responsibilities at the micro level. Inherent structural features of pharmaceuticals, such as its reliance on research and development, cause the industry to employ pricing strategies that seem counter-intuitive to conventional wisdom, but that result in producing a just allocation as defined by market forces. Parallel trade and drug exportation/reimportation threaten the saliency of the industry's differential pricing scheme; a case-study of a single "Euro-price" within the European Union illustrates how this will actually create harm to the most needy member states. This complex situation requires solutions weighing arguments from human rights theory with those from economic theory to arrive at the most globally just allocation of prescription drugs in the global marketplace, as well as to ensure future innovation and scientific progress. Bioethicists as well as economists need to partake urgently in this discourse for the betterment of the global injustices in the international prescription drug market. PMID:17146900

  18. Bioethical issues of preventing hereditary diseases with late onset in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia)

    PubMed Central

    Kononova, Sardana K.; Sidorova, Oksana G.; Fedorova, Sardana A.; Platonov, Fedor A.; Izhevskaya, Vera L.; Khusnutdinova, Elza K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prenatal diagnosis of congenital and hereditary diseases is a priority for the development of medical technologies in Russia. However, there are not many published research results on bioethical issues of prenatal DNA testing. Objective The main goal of the article is to describe some of the bioethical aspects of prenatal DNA diagnosis of hereditary diseases with late onset in genetic counselling practice in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) – a far north-eastern region of Russia. Methods The methods used in the research are genetic counselling, invasive chorionic villus biopsy procedures, molecular diagnosis, social and demographic characteristics of patients. Results In 10 years, 48 (76%) pregnant women from families tainted with hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 and 15 pregnant women from families with myotonic dystrophy have applied for medical and genetic counselling in order to undergo prenatal DNA testing. The average number of applications is 7–8 per year. There are differences in prenatal genetic counselling approaches. Conclusion It is necessary to develop differentiated ethical approaches depending on the mode of inheritance, age of manifestation, and clinical polymorphism of hereditary disease. PMID:25147769

  19. [Bioethical responsibilities of the health authority in health care and biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Salinas, Rodrigo A; Fuenzalida, Max C

    2015-01-01

    The reflection on bioethical contents of health policies and their effects on the demands for social justice has been a preferred concern of those who have driven the health reforms that were behind the creation of the National Health Service and, more recently, the regime of health guarantees. In the course of the years, the concern for the vindication of individual rights in the context of health care and research has joined to citizen demands for equitable access to health actions. For this purpose, in 2006 and 2012, specific laws addressing these matters were enacted and in the last year, regulations that make them operative emerged and are being implemented. The wording of the articles of both laws, in the effort to rescue individual rights, raises an imbalance in some respects, with regard to the social impact of their implementation. In certain subjects, its provisions run counter to existing codes of professional ethics in the country and in others; its implementation allows the privatization of the process of ethical review of pharmacological research, which was restricted to public health services. The absence of starting up of the National Bioethics Commission, pending since 2006, has prevented the creation of a pluralistic spaTce for deliberation on these issues and others as provided by law. PMID:25646718

  20. [Inequalities in the distribution of dental caries in Brazil: a bioethical approach].

    PubMed

    Costa, Simone de Melo; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de; Vasconcelos, Mara; Lima, Rita de Cássia Gabrielli Souza; Verdi, Marta; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e

    2013-02-01

    The scope of this paper was to analyze the problem of dental caries as a public health issue of epidemiological relevance. It is a case study based on documentary analysis of national epidemiological surveys on oral health in the years 1986, 2003 and 2010, with the Bioethics of Protection as an analytical support. The surveys revealed inequalities between population groups; and such inequalities were analyzed with respect to the reduction of the disease in the younger population, access to oral health care, and tooth loss, which is the worst outcome for tooth decay. The good results presented in the surveys have not reached the whole population; data have shown inequalities regarding family income and Brazilian region. It was also found that from 2003 government interventions in protective actions such as the adoption of criteria of equity in the allocation of health resources and inclusion of vulnerable population have contributed to a reduction in caries. Nevertheless, it is considered necessary update oral health care models by using Epidemiology as a structuring tool, and an interface with socially responsible protective bioethics, since regional differences continued to be marked in the analysis. PMID:23358771

  1. The road being paved to neuroethics: A path leading to bioethics or to neuroscience medical ethics?

    PubMed

    Faria, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama decreed the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, as part of his $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) initiative. In the wake of the work of this Commission, the purpose, goals, possible shortcomings, and even dangers are discussed, and the possible impact it may have upon neuroscience ethics (Neuroethics) both in clinical practice as well as scientific research. Concerns were expressed that government involvement in bioethics may have unforeseen and possibly dangerous repercussions to neuroscience in particular and to medicine in general. The author emphasizes that the lessons of history chronicle that wherever governments have sought to alter medical ethics and control medical care, the results have frequently been perverse and disastrous, as in the examples of the communist Soviet Union and National Socialist (Nazi) Germany. The Soviet psychiatrists' and the Nazi doctors' dark descent into ghastly experimentation and brutality was a product of convoluted ethics and physicians willingly cooperating with authoritarianism citing utilitarianism in the pursuit of the 'collective' or 'greater good.' Thus in the 20(th) century, as governments infringed on the medical profession, even the Liberal Democracies have not been immune to the corruption of ethics in science and medicine. PMID:25324975

  2. The Evolving Ethics of Dialysis in the United States: A Principlist Bioethics Approach.

    PubMed

    Butler, Catherine R; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Tonelli, Mark R; Lam, Daniel Y

    2016-04-01

    Throughout the history of dialysis, four bioethical principles - beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy and justice - have been weighted differently based upon changing forces of technologic innovation, resource limitation, and societal values. In the 1960s, a committee of lay people in Seattle attempted to fairly distribute a limited number of maintenance hemodialysis stations guided by considerations of justice. As technology advanced and dialysis was funded under an amendment to the Social Security Act in 1972, focus shifted to providing dialysis for all in need while balancing the burdens of treatment and quality of life, supported by the concepts of beneficence and nonmaleficence. At the end of the last century, the importance of patient preferences and personal values became paramount in medical decisions, reflecting a focus on the principle of autonomy. More recently, greater recognition that health care financial resources are limited makes fair allocation more pressing, again highlighting the importance of distributive justice. The varying application and prioritization of these four principles to both policy and clinical decisions in the United States over the last 50 years makes the history of hemodialysis an instructive platform for understanding principlist bioethics. As medical technology evolves in a landscape of changing personal and societal values, a comprehensive understanding of an ethical framework for evaluating appropriate use of medical interventions enables the clinician to systematically negotiate and optimize difficult ethical situations. PMID:26912540

  3. Are gay and lesbian people fading into the history of bioethics?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-09-01

    In many ways, we live in propitious times for gay and lesbian people. In 1996, the Supreme Court struck down Colorado law prohibiting any kind of protected status based on sexual orientation. In 2003, the Supreme Court held that states may not criminalize sexual conduct between consenting adults of the same sex in private, so long as no money changes hands. In 2010, the Congress repealed the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy that excluded openly gay men and lesbians from military service. In 2013, the Supreme Court struck down key elements of the Defense of Marriage Act that prohibited any federal recognition of same-sex marriage. Most states do not allow same-sex marriage, but more and more states are joining the fold. Likewise, most U.S. states do not forbid discrimination based on sexual orientation, but the number that does is increasing. Arguably, no other social minority has made as much legal progress in so short a time. Despite these advances, the story of gay and lesbian people and the law is not yet finished, and the meaning of homosexuality for bioethics is still being written too. Concerns about gay and lesbian people remain important to bioethics in key domains, especially in seeing to the conferral of optimal health care benefits and in sorting through the priorities and social effects of research. Progress in these domains still involves lifting certain burdens of medical and social misjudgments about same-sex attraction. PMID:25231791

  4. Networking Ethics: A Survey of Bioethics Networks Across the U.S.

    PubMed

    Fausett, Jennifer Kleiner; Gilmore-Szott, Eleanor; Hester, D Micah

    2016-06-01

    Ethics networks have emerged over the last few decades as a mechanism for individuals and institutions over various regions, cities and states to converge on healthcare-related ethical issues. However, little is known about the development and nature of such networks. In an effort to fill the gap in the knowledge about such networks, a survey was conducted that evaluated the organizational structure, missions and functions, as well as the outcomes/products of ethics networks across the country. Eighteen established bioethics networks were identified via consensus of three search processes and were approached for participation. The participants completed a survey developed for the purposes of this study and distributed via SurveyMonkey. Responses were obtained from 10 of the 18 identified and approached networks regarding topic areas of: Network Composition and Catchment Areas; Network Funding and Expenses; Personnel; Services; and Missions and Accomplishments. Bioethics networks are designed primarily to bring ethics education and support to professionals and hospitals. They do so over specifically defined areas-states, regions, or communities-and each is concerned about how to stay financially healthy. At the same time, the networks work off different organizational models, either as stand-alone organizations or as entities within existing organizational structures. PMID:26055879

  5. [Common law, civil law: thinking about the tools of the judge in bioethics].

    PubMed

    Baudouin, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    Civilian and common law judges differ substantially in their approach to the resolution of issues concerning bioethics and health sciences. Whereas the civilian judge will first take into account the legislative source, his common law counterpart will most probably first look at judicial precedents for guidance. In both systems, however, the legislative drafting technique differs substantially and has a direct impact on judicial interpretation of the law. Both systems also differ in the way that judicial decisions are drafted and rendered. In the common law tradition, judges draft their own opinion, leaving the possibility of dissent which, in turn, helps to better illustrate contentious issues and may have an influence on social awareness of difficult problems. Finally, in bioethics, legislation should be preferred if only for a question of social legitimacy, since decisions are then taken by elected representatives. However, this type of legislation should be subject to periodical review to better adapt its rules to the evolution of science and society. PMID:17902324

  6. Brain death: the challenges of translating medical science into Islamic bioethical discourse.

    PubMed

    Padela, Aasim I; Basser, Taha A

    2012-09-01

    Islamic ethico-legal assessments of brain death are varied and controversial. Some Islamic ethico-legal bodies have concluded that brain death is equivalent to cardiopulmonary death; others regard it as an intermediate state between life and death, and a few opine that it does not meet the standards for legal death according to Islamic law. Yet this translation of the concept of brain death into the Islamic ethico-legal domain has generated multiple ethical complexities that receive insufficient attention within the extant medical and fiqh literature. How do Islamic legists understand brain death as a clinical phenomenon? How does the Islamic ethico-legal system treat medical uncertainty? What Islamic ethico-legal principles should apply to bioethical questions about life and death? In this paper, we analyze the arguments for, and against, the acceptance of brain death within the context of the deliberation of a representative juridical council. In our discussion we focus on areas in which the legists' ethico-legal reasoning hinges upon clinical conceptions of the state of the individual when diagnosed as brain dead. As Islamic ethics continues to engage scientific and technological advancements in these areas, such exploration of internal workings is necessary if we wish to better understand how Islamic ethical principles can contribute to bioethical deliberation. PMID:23248843

  7. Feminist bioethics: toward developing a "feminist" answer to the surrogate motherhood question.

    PubMed

    Tong, Rosemarie

    1996-03-01

    Although a wide variety of feminist approaches to bioethics presently share a common feminist methodology (sometimes referred to as "raising the woman question"), they do not all share the same feminist politics, ontology, epistemology, and ethics. As a result of their philosophical differences, feminist bioethicists do not always agree on which biomedical principles, practices, and policies are best suited to serving women's interests. In other words, some feminist bioethicists insist that so-called "assisted reproduction" enhances women's procreative liberty, while others claim that it does nothing of the sort. Although such disagreement among feminist bioethicists reassures the general public that the feminist "program" for bioethics is not ideologically monolithic, it also confuses the public, especially women. In order to overcome this confusion, feminist bioethicists should work toward developing the kind of shared theoretical base that will foster frequent consensus on the biomedical principles, practices, and policies most likely to serve the interests of most women in the U.S. today. PMID:11645320

  8. GOOD GIFTS FOR THE COMMON GOOD: Blood and Bioethics in the Market of Genetic Research

    PubMed Central

    REDDY, DEEPA S.

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted with the Indian community in Houston, as part of a NIH–NHGRI-sponsored ethics study and sample collection initiative entitled “Indian and Hindu Perspectives on Genetic Variation Research.” At the heart of this research is one central exchange—blood samples donated for genetic research—that draws both the Indian community and a community of researchers into an encounter with bioethics. I consider the meanings that come to be associated with blood donation as it passes through various hands, agendas, and associated ethical filters on its way to the lab bench: how and why blood is solicited, how the giving and taking of blood is rationalized, how blood as material substance is alienated, processed, documented, and made available for the promised ends of basic science research. Examining corporeal substances and asking what sorts of gifts and problems these represent, I argue, sheds some light on two imbricated tensions expressed by a community of Indians, on the one hand, and of geneticists and basic science researchers, on the other hand: that gifts ought to be free (but are not), and that science ought to be pure (but is not). In this article, I explore how experiences of bioethics are variously shaped by the histories and habits of Indic giving, prior sample collection controversies, commitments to “good science” and the common “good of humanity,” and negotiations of the sites where research findings circulate. PMID:18458755

  9. Between Relativism and Imperialism: Navigating Moral Diversity in Cross-Cultural Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Beck, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The need for explicit theoretical reflection on cross-cultural bioethics continues to grow as the spread of communication technologies and increased human migration has made interactions between medical professionals and patients from different cultural backgrounds much more common. I claim that this need presents us with the following dilemma. On the one hand, we do not want to operate according to an imperialist ethical framework that denies and silences the legitimacy of cultural values other than our own. On the other hand, we do not want to backslide into a form of cultural relativism that is unable to critically appraise cultural practices that are harmful, unjust, or oppressive. I examine two prominent attempts - the principlism of Tom Beauchamp and James Childress and the Contractarianism of Robert Baker - to frame cross-cultural bioethics between these two extremes and argue that both approaches have significant flaws. The principlist approach fails to provide a non-question begging way to identify cross-cultural norms that does not already assume the universal legitimacy of moral principles dominant in North American society. Baker's contractarianism cannot grapple with the realities of political power imbalances that often characterize cross-cultural moral disputes. I suggest that a naturalized feminist framework, though not free of its own theoretical difficulties, provides the best alternative for approaching moral diversity respectfully and critically. PMID:24750579

  10. [BIOETHICS LAWS AND REALITY ON THE GROUND DURING EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES IN FRENCH GUINEA AND CAMEROON].

    PubMed

    Tortevoye, Patricia; Gessain, Antoine

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the difficulties encountered, during the twenty last years, to obey the laws of bioethics in force during epidemiological investigations, carried out in French Guiana and in Cameroon. These research tasks aim to better understanding the transmission of two viruses: the human T lymphotropic retrovirus type 1 and the human herpes virus 8. These investigations, carried out in highly endemic villages, for one or two of these viruses, also aim at searching susceptibility genetic factors for infection in children by these viruses. They are scientific researches carried out in populations on low level of education and strong socio-economic constraints. These studies performed in general population are without benefit for the people. They require a collection of the family data, to build genealogic pedigrees, and a blood sampling. Using concrete examples, collected during field-investigations, we illustrate the problems encountered to apply, practically, the laws of bioethics. We will introduce and discuss thus the legislative framework in force, the studied populations, the concepts of preliminary information and informed consent, the adaptation necessary to take into account the local social organization and the importance of the family hierarchy. Lastly, the question of returned results of this kind of investigation will be discussed like that of the possible compensatory measures. This inventory reveals the limits of the current regulation, which is often poorly adapted to research in epidemiology in this kind of population and the ethical choices that has thus to be decided by the investigator. PMID:26911084

  11. The road being paved to neuroethics: A path leading to bioethics or to neuroscience medical ethics?

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama decreed the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, as part of his $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) initiative. In the wake of the work of this Commission, the purpose, goals, possible shortcomings, and even dangers are discussed, and the possible impact it may have upon neuroscience ethics (Neuroethics) both in clinical practice as well as scientific research. Concerns were expressed that government involvement in bioethics may have unforeseen and possibly dangerous repercussions to neuroscience in particular and to medicine in general. The author emphasizes that the lessons of history chronicle that wherever governments have sought to alter medical ethics and control medical care, the results have frequently been perverse and disastrous, as in the examples of the communist Soviet Union and National Socialist (Nazi) Germany. The Soviet psychiatrists’ and the Nazi doctors’ dark descent into ghastly experimentation and brutality was a product of convoluted ethics and physicians willingly cooperating with authoritarianism citing utilitarianism in the pursuit of the ‘collective’ or ‘greater good.’ Thus in the 20th century, as governments infringed on the medical profession, even the Liberal Democracies have not been immune to the corruption of ethics in science and medicine. PMID:25324975

  12. Medical Tourism: Between Entrepreneurship Opportunities and Bioethics Boundaries: Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    BADULESCU, Daniel; BADULESCU, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nowadays, medical tourism reports impressive growth in terms of number of persons, income and number of countries involved in cross-border flows. So this study was undertaken to clarify entrepreneurship opportunities and bio-ethics boundaries in medical tourism. For tourism entrepreneurs, these outgoing flows related to medical procedures and tourism become an opportunity that cannot be ignored, so a wide range of tourist services related to health care are provided on a private, entrepreneurial basis. However, social and economic boundaries are omnipresent (impaired health services in receiving (incoming) countries, the crisis of the health care systems in emitting (outgoing) countries, over-consumption of medical and tourism services), and, not least, ethical considerations. Transforming medical care in a market tool, reducing human attributes to the status of commodity that can be bought, sold or negotiated, seriously challenges contemporary bioethics principles. It is a significant entering in the area (which is essentially un-ethic) of market transactions, where libertarianism and consumer-oriented attitudes dominates the spectrum of rational choice. So tourism comes to provide an organized and comfortable framework for all these choices, but many issues still re-main controversial and may worsen if national health systems and national and international regulations would not identify their problems and would continue to leave medical tourism to market mechanisms. Market will efficiently allocate the resources, but not always in an ethical manner. PMID:26005650

  13. The quest for universality: reflections on the Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Rawlinson, Mary C; Donchin, Anne

    2005-09-01

    This essay focuses on two underlying presumptions that impinge on the effort of UNESCO to engender universal agreement on a set of bioethical norms: the conception of universality that pervades much of the document, and its disregard of structural inequalities that significantly impact health. Drawing on other UN system documents and recent feminist bioethics scholarship, we argue that the formulation of universal principles should not rely solely on shared ethical values, as the draft document affirms, but also on differences in ethical values that obtain across cultures. UNESCO's earlier work on gender mainstreaming illustrates the necessity of thinking from multiple perspectives in generating universal norms. The declaration asserts the 'fundamental equality of all human beings in dignity and rights'(1) and insists that 'the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social condition'(2) yet it does not explicitly recognize disparities of power and wealth that deny equal dignity and rights to many. Without attention to structural (as opposed to merely accidental) inequities, UNESCO's invocation of rights is so abstract as to be incompatible with its avowed intention. PMID:16128857

  14. [Religion and health: the public intervention of Catholic religious agents trained in bioethics in the parliamentary debate on death with dignity in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Irrazábal, Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    This paper discusses from a sociological perspective one of Catholicism's fronts of public intervention in the development and enactment of health legislation. In particular we analyze the debate in parliamentary committees on the so-called "death with dignity" law (No. 26742), for which a group of bioethics experts was convened to counsel senators regarding the scope and limits of the law. The majority of the invited experts advocated a personalist bioethics perspective, which is a theological bioethics development of contemporary Catholicism. In the debate no representatives of other faiths were present, reinforcing the widely studied overlap between Catholicism and politics in Argentina. PMID:26418091

  15. Integrating Socio-Scientific Issues to Enhance the Bioethical Decision-Making Skills of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierez, Sally B.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific literacy has been focused on the construction of students' knowledge to use appropriate and meaningful concepts, critically think, and make balanced, well-informed decisions relevant to their lives. This study presents the effects of integrating socio-scientific issues to enhance the bioethical decision-making skills of biology…

  16. The human capacity to reflect and decide: bioethics and the reconfiguration of the research subject in the British biomedical sciences.

    PubMed

    Reubi, David

    2012-06-01

    This article examines how a fundamental element of the British bioethical assemblage - the literature on informed consent published between 1980 and 2000, a period when bioethics became a powerful force in the UK--has influenced contemporary understandings of the research subject. Drawing on Foucault, the article argues that this corpus of texts has created a sphere of possibilities in which research subjects can imagine themselves as human beings who reflect and decide whether they want to participate in medical experimentation. In particular, it shows how the narratives found in these texts portray relationships between researchers and their human subjects as 'paternalistic', and calls for their replacement by new, more ethical relationships characterized by both 'dialogue' and 'respect' and articulated around subjects who can 'think and take decisions'. It also discusses the different strategies- using patient information sheets, a list of possible questions and invitations to take time to reflect--which the bioethical literature has developed in order to realise these new, ethical relationships. As the article suggests, these narratives and strategies provide researchers and research subjects with models and examples of how to interact with each other that are very different from the ones that prevailed before the emergence of bioethics. PMID:23035387

  17. Viewpoint discrimination and contestation of ideas on its merits, leadership and organizational ethics: expanding the African bioethics agenda.

    PubMed

    Chima, Sylvester C; Mduluza, Takafira; Kipkemboi, Julius

    2013-01-01

    The 3rd Pan-African Ethics Human Rights and Medical Law (3rd EHRML) conference was held in Johannesburg on July 7, 2013, as part of the Africa Health Congress. The conference brought together bioethicists, researchers and scholars from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Kenya and Nigeria working in the field of bioethics as well as students and healthcare workers interested in learning about ethical issues confronting the African continent. The conference which ran with a theme of "Bioethical and legal perspectives in biomedical research and medical practice in Africa with a focus on: Informed consent, HIV-AIDS & Tuberculosis, leadership & organizational ethics, patients and healthcare workers rights," was designed to expand the dialogue on African bioethics beyond the traditional focus on research ethics and the ethical dilemmas surrounding the conduct of biomedical research in developing countries. This introductory article highlights some of areas of focus at the conference including issues of leadership, organizational ethics and patients and healthcare workers rights in Africa. We analyze the importance of free speech, public debate of issues, argumentation and the need to introduce the teaching and learning of ethics to students in Africa in accordance with UNESCO guidelines. This article also focuses on other challenges confronting Africa today from an ethical standpoint, including the issues of poor leadership and organizational ethics which are main contributors to the problems prevalent in African countries, such as poverty, poor education and healthcare delivery systems, terrorism, social inequities, infrastructural deficits and other forms of 'structural violence' confronting vulnerable African communities. We believe that each of the eight articles included in this supplement, which have been rigorously peer-reviewed are a good example of current research on bioethics in Africa, and explore some new directions towards broadening the African bioethics agenda as we

  18. Viewpoint discrimination and contestation of ideas on its merits, leadership and organizational ethics: expanding the African bioethics agenda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The 3rd Pan-African Ethics Human Rights and Medical Law (3rd EHRML) conference was held in Johannesburg on July 7, 2013, as part of the Africa Health Congress. The conference brought together bioethicists, researchers and scholars from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Kenya and Nigeria working in the field of bioethics as well as students and healthcare workers interested in learning about ethical issues confronting the African continent. The conference which ran with a theme of "Bioethical and legal perspectives in biomedical research and medical practice in Africa with a focus on: Informed consent, HIV-AIDS & Tuberculosis, leadership & organizational ethics, patients and healthcare workers rights," was designed to expand the dialogue on African bioethics beyond the traditional focus on research ethics and the ethical dilemmas surrounding the conduct of biomedical research in developing countries. This introductory article highlights some of areas of focus at the conference including issues of leadership, organizational ethics and patients and healthcare workers rights in Africa. We analyze the importance of free speech, public debate of issues, argumentation and the need to introduce the teaching and learning of ethics to students in Africa in accordance with UNESCO guidelines. This article also focuses on other challenges confronting Africa today from an ethical standpoint, including the issues of poor leadership and organizational ethics which are main contributors to the problems prevalent in African countries, such as poverty, poor education and healthcare delivery systems, terrorism, social inequities, infrastructural deficits and other forms of 'structural violence' confronting vulnerable African communities. We believe that each of the eight articles included in this supplement, which have been rigorously peer-reviewed are a good example of current research on bioethics in Africa, and explore some new directions towards broadening the African bioethics agenda as we

  19. Bioethics and why I hope to live beyond age 75 attaining wisdom!: A rebuttal to Dr. Ezekiel Emanuel's 75 age limit.

    PubMed

    Faria, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    American bioethicists have been providing persuasive arguments for rationing medical care via the theory of the necessary "rational allocation of finite health care resources." Anticipating the need for the drastic rationing of medical care in the U.S. with the implementation of ObamaCare and assisted by various sectors of organized medicine in league with the State, bioethicists have deduced that more ingenious approaches are necessary to convince Americans who have been accustomed to receiving the best medical care that third-party payers are willing to pay for. It is in this context that the individual-based, patient-oriented ethics of Hippocrates, including his fundamental dictum, "First Do No Harm," have to be supplanted by the utilitarian approach promoted by the bioethicists. And today's foremost proponent of the bioethics movement is Dr. Ezekiel Emanuel. This editorial proposes a rational rebuttal to Dr. Emanuel's proposal to limit life expectancy to age 75 as a rational paradigm to a better life. PMID:25789197

  20. Bioethics and why I hope to live beyond age 75 attaining wisdom!: A rebuttal to Dr. Ezekiel Emanuel's 75 age limit

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    American bioethicists have been providing persuasive arguments for rationing medical care via the theory of the necessary “rational allocation of finite health care resources.” Anticipating the need for the drastic rationing of medical care in the U.S. with the implementation of ObamaCare and assisted by various sectors of organized medicine in league with the State, bioethicists have deduced that more ingenious approaches are necessary to convince Americans who have been accustomed to receiving the best medical care that third-party payers are willing to pay for. It is in this context that the individual-based, patient-oriented ethics of Hippocrates, including his fundamental dictum, “First Do No Harm,” have to be supplanted by the utilitarian approach promoted by the bioethicists. And today's foremost proponent of the bioethics movement is Dr. Ezekiel Emanuel. This editorial proposes a rational rebuttal to Dr. Emanuel's proposal to limit life expectancy to age 75 as a rational paradigm to a better life. PMID:25789197

  1. Bio-ethical and legal issues in relation to HIV/AIDS: the Uganda experience.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, N K

    1998-01-01

    In Uganda, as in many other countries, there is a vacuum regarding an appropriate legal and ethical response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Whereas much has been done to address the HIV/AIDS pandemic in a multidisciplinary way, very little has been done regarding legal and ethical issues. Hence, cases of claimants to have cures for AIDS, spiritual healers and sale of fake drugs plus unauthorized vaccine and drug trials are on the increase. The rights and needs of people infected with HIV/AIDS are not adequately addressed. The property rights of those affected by the pandemic continue to be abused. Therefore there is need to mobilize doctors, lawyers and human rights activists who should advocate and address these issues. This paper therefore highlights the critical bio-ethical and legal issues in relation to HIV/AIDS. PMID:10396922

  2. From Nuremberg to bioethics: an educational project for students of dentistry and dental prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Marinozzi, Silvia; Corbellini, Gilberto; Ottolenghi, Livia; Ripari, Francesca; Pizzuti, Antonio; Pezzetti, Marcello; Gaj, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Summary In the lessons of medical-scientific methodologies of the medical faculty at the Sapienza University of Rome, basic notions on the ethical and deontologic aspects characterizing the history of the medical profession are provided, including the formulation and application of bioethical principles to clinics and biomedical research. Within such framework, an educational project has been initiated on the historical origin of the current normative and juridic dispositions in the regulation of experimental biomedical research and the relationship between health operators and patients, with particular attention to the procedure, the meaning the value either professional or deontologic, of ethics and the legality of the informed consensus. Emphasis is put on medical and experimental abuses that occurred in Germany during the nazi regime. PMID:23741533

  3. Confucian bioethics and cross-cultural considerations in health care decision-making.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Hyun

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the similarities and differences between Beauchamp and Childress's principlism and Confucian bioethics in terms of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. The author presents sensitive approaches for culturally diverse groups in health care areas and cautions against dichotomy in cross-cultural studies, which ignores the dynamic nature and intravariations of cultures. As a way of health care providers to become engaged in cultural diversity in nursing practice and research, the author suggests that they do not only have a general knowledge about the theoretical differences among groups through "normative analysis" but also learn to appreciate each individual's particular beliefs and values through narratives of morality. Health care providers as well as legal professionals need to cultivate "cultural humility," which is the willingness to explore the similarities and differences between their own and each client's priorities and values and to develop courses of action with patients. PMID:16832930

  4. Finding A Seat at the Table Together: Recommendations for Improving Collaboration between Social Work and Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Brazg, Tracy; Dotolo, Danae; Blacksher, Erika

    2015-06-01

    Social work and bioethics are fields deeply committed to cross-disciplinary collaboration to do their respective work. While scholars and practitioners from both fields share a commitment to social justice and to respecting the dignity, integrity and the worth of all persons, the overlap between the fields, including shared values, has received little attention. The purpose of this article is to describe the ways in which greater collaboration between the two fields can broaden their scope, enrich their scholarship, and better ground their practice. We describe the potential for realizing such benefits in two areas - health care ethics consultation and social inequalities in health - arguing that the fields both complement and challenge one another, making them ideal partners for the interdisciplinary inquiry and problem-solving so often called for today in health and health care. PMID:25066240

  5. A learning activity to introduce undergraduate students to bioethics in human clinical research: a case study.

    PubMed

    Segarra, Ignacio; Gomez, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    We developed a pharmacology practicum assignment to introduce students to the research ethics and steps involved in a clinical trial. The assignment included literature review, critical analysis of bioethical situations, writing a study protocol and presenting it before a simulated ethics committee, a practice interview with a faculty member to obtain informed consent, and a student reflective assessment and self-evaluation. Students were assessed at various steps in the practicum; the learning efficiency of the activity was evaluated using an independent survey as well as students' reflective feedback. Most of the domains of Bloom's and Fink's taxonomies of learning were itemized and covered in the practicum. Students highly valued the translatability of theoretical concepts into practice as well as the approach to mimic professional practice. This activity was within a pharmacy program, but may be easily transferable to other medical or health sciences courses. PMID:25747690

  6. Clinical use of amyloid-positron emission tomography neuroimaging: Practical and bioethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Witte, Michael M; Foster, Norman L; Fleisher, Adam S; Williams, Monique M; Quaid, Kimberly; Wasserman, Michael; Hunt, Gail; Roberts, J Scott; Rabinovici, Gil D; Levenson, James L; Hake, Ann Marie; Hunter, Craig A; Van Campen, Luann E; Pontecorvo, Michael J; Hochstetler, Helen M; Tabas, Linda B; Trzepacz, Paula T

    2015-09-01

    Until recently, estimation of β-amyloid plaque density as a key element for identifying Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology as the cause of cognitive impairment was only possible at autopsy. Now with amyloid-positron emission tomography (amyloid-PET) neuroimaging, this AD hallmark can be detected antemortem. Practitioners and patients need to better understand potential diagnostic benefits and limitations of amyloid-PET and the complex practical, ethical, and social implications surrounding this new technology. To complement the practical considerations, Eli Lilly and Company sponsored a Bioethics Advisory Board to discuss ethical issues that might arise from clinical use of amyloid-PET neuroimaging with patients being evaluated for causes of cognitive decline. To best address the multifaceted issues associated with amyloid-PET neuroimaging, we recommend this technology be used only by experienced imaging and treating physicians in appropriately selected patients and only in the context of a comprehensive clinical evaluation with adequate explanations before and after the scan. PMID:27239516

  7. Engelhardt and children: the failure of libertarian bioethics in pediatric interactions.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Stephen

    2005-06-01

    In Engelhardt's secular bioethics, moral obligations derive from contracts and agreements between rational persons, and no infants or children and few adolescents meet Engelhardt's requirements for being a rational person. This is a problem, as one cannot have any direct secular moral obligations toward nonpersons such as infants and adolescents. The Engelhardtian concepts of ownership, indenture, and social personhood, which are meant to allow the theory to accommodate children and adolescents adequately, fail to give an Engelhardtian any actual means of determining the right action to take in difficult cases, even on his or her own terms. Thus, the theory is incapable of determining the morally correct action to take in cases involving children and therefore is unhelpful in dealing with moral questions involving children. PMID:16149207

  8. Navigating the chasm between religious and secular perspectives in modern bioethics.

    PubMed

    Jotkowitz, A B; Glick, S

    2009-06-01

    In the past 3 years, three landmark laws relating to bioethics have been passed in the Israeli parliament. These are the Terminally Ill Patient Law (in 2005) and the Organ Donation Law and the Brain Death/Respiratory Law (in 2008). To reach consensus on these difficult issues in a multicultural society such as Israel was not an easy undertaking. Using learning from previous failed attempts, compromise, dialogue and work done in the absence of hysteria and publicity were crucial to the process. In all three laws, compromises were obtained between the secular and religious factions, from which an acceptable law was developed. The Israeli experience is a model of a country working to synthesise an ancient tradition with the complexities of modern life and could serve as an example for other countries struggling with similar issues. PMID:19482978

  9. Bioethical considerations of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis: donor transfer after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Nancy M; Grady, Christine; Pentz, Rebecca; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice; Raffeld, Mark; Fontaine, Laura S; Babb, Rebecca; Bishop, Michael R; Caporaso, Neil; Marti, Gerald E

    2007-12-01

    Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is a recently described laboratory finding in otherwise healthy individuals. In MBL, a light chain-restricted, clonal B-cell population, often with a chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) phenotype, is identified by flow cytometry. Although the prognostic significance remains unclear, there is an increased incidence in ageing populations and those with a family history of CLL. During the past decade of MBL study, three families have come to our attention in which prospective sibling haematopoietic stem cell donors were found to have an MBL. These families raise complex bioethical issues with regard to disclosure of research data, eligibility for clinical trials and potential donor transfer of MBL. These issues are explored in this report. Identification of MBL among prospective sibling transplant donors will become a common occurrence in transplant practice as transplantation is increasingly offered to older individuals and those with CLL. PMID:18021093

  10. An anthropological exploration of contemporary bioethics: the varieties of common sense.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, L

    1998-01-01

    Patients and physicians can inhabit distinctive social worlds where they are guided by diverse understandings of moral practice. Despite the contemporary presence of multiple moral traditions, religious communities and ethnic backgrounds, two of the major methodological approaches in bioethics, casuistry and principlism, rely upon the notion of a common morality. However, the heterogeneity of ethnic, moral, and religious traditions raises questions concerning the singularity of common sense. Indeed, it might be more appropriate to consider plural traditions of moral reasoning. This poses a considerable challenge for bioethicists because the existence of plural moral traditions can lead to difficulties regarding "closure" in moral reasoning. The topics of truth-telling, informed consent, euthanasia, and brain death and organ transplantation reveal the presence of different understandings of common sense. With regard to these subjects, plural accounts of "common sense" moral reasoning exist. PMID:9603001

  11. Bioethics consultation practices and procedures: a survey of a large Canadian community of practice.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, R A; Anstey, K W; Macri, R; Heesters, A; Bean, S; Zlotnik Shaul, R

    2014-06-01

    The literature fails to reflect general agreement over the nature of the services and procedures provided by bioethicists, and the training and core competencies this work requires. If bioethicists are to define their activities in a consistent way, it makes sense to look for common ground in shared communities of practice. We report results of a survey of the services and procedures among bioethicists affiliated with the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics (JCB). This is the largest group of bioethicists working in healthcare organizations in Canada. The results suggest there are many common services and procedures of JCB bioethicists. This survey can serve as a baseline for further exploration of the work of JCB bioethicists. Common practices exist with respect to the domains of practice, individual reporting relationships, service availability within business hours and the education and training of the bioethicist. PMID:24306818

  12. [Cultural diversity and pluralism in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights].

    PubMed

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2011-01-01

    The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights represents a significant milestone in the history of Law, particularly in the application of International Law to an important area of human activity, namely the medical sciences, the life sciences and the technologies which, linked to both, can be applied to human relations. In parallel with this, and as will be analysed in this article, the Declaration has involved adopting a clear position regarding cultural diversity and pluralism in relation to Biomedicine. In this paper the author highlights the fact that perspectives have been opened which have hardly been explored concerning Biomedicine, such as the recognition of the value and respect which cultural diversity (multiculturalism), economic and social diversity deserve in relation to the issues covered by the Declaration, and the acceptance that the owners of the rights are not only individuals, but can also be groups. PMID:22984748

  13. The French bioethics public consultation and the anonymity doctrine: empirical ethics and normative assumptions.

    PubMed

    Spranzi, Marta; Brunet, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    The French bioethics laws of 1994 contain the principles of the anonymity and non commodification of all donations of body parts and products including gametes in medically assisted reproduction. The two revisions of the law, in 2004 and 2011 have upheld the rule. In view of the latest revision process, the French government organized a large public consultation in 2009 ("Etats généraux de la bioéthique"). Within the event a "consensus conference" was held in Rennes about different aspects of assisted reproduction (access, anonymity, gratuity and surrogacy). In what follows we shall first describe the anonymity clause for gamete donations in the French law and the debates surrounding it. We shall then analyse the procedure used for the 2009 public consultation and the related consensus conference, as well as its upshot concerning the anonymity doctrine. In this respect we shall compare the citizens' own recommendations on the gamete anonymity issue and its translation in the consultation's final report drafted by a philosopher mandated by the organizing committee. Whereas the final report cited some fundamental ethical arguments as reason for upholding the provisions of the law-most notably the refusal of the 'all biological' approach to reproductive issues-citizens were more careful and tentative in their position although they also concluded that for pragmatic reasons the anonymity rule should continue to hold. We shall argue that the conservative upshot of the public consultation is due to some main underlying presuppositions concerning the citizens' role and expertise as well as to the specific design of the consensus conference. Our conclusion will be that public consultations and consensus conferences can only serve as an empirical support for devising suitable bioethics norms by using second-order normative assumptions. PMID:25783454

  14. Future research and therapeutic applications of human stem cells: general, regulatory, and bioethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Liras, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    There is much to be investigated about the specific characteristics of stem cells and about the efficacy and safety of the new drugs based on this type of cells, both embryonic as adult stem cells, for several therapeutic indications (cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, diabetes, hematopoietic diseases, liver diseases). Along with recent progress in transference of nuclei from human somatic cells, as well as iPSC technology, has allowed availability of lineages of all three germ layers genetically identical to those of the donor patient, which permits safe transplantation of organ-tissue-specific adult stem cells with no immune rejection. The main objective is the need for expansion of stem cell characteristics to maximize stem cell efficacy (i.e. the proper selection of a stem cell) and the efficacy (maximum effect) and safety of stem cell derived drugs. Other considerations to take into account in cell therapy will be the suitability of infrastructure and technical staff, biomaterials, production costs, biobanks, biosecurity, and the biotechnological industry. The general objectives in the area of stem cell research in the next few years, are related to identification of therapeutic targets and potential therapeutic tests, studies of cell differentiation and physiological mechanisms, culture conditions of pluripotent stem cells and efficacy and safety tests for stem cell-based drugs or procedures to be performed in both animal and human models in the corresponding clinical trials. A regulatory framework will be required to ensure patient accessibility to products and governmental assistance for their regulation and control. Bioethical aspects will be required related to the scientific and therapeutic relevance and cost of cryopreservation over time, but specially with respect to embryos which may ultimately be used for scientific uses of research as source of embryonic stem cells, in which case the bioethical conflict may be further aggravated. PMID:21143967

  15. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE, MORAL, ETHICS, BIO-ETHICS AND WHAT IS IN BETWEEN.

    PubMed

    Keidar, Daniella; Yagoda, Arie

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, the study of emotions has broadened its scope and established its standing as a new scientific discipline. Humanity has become increasingly conscious of the seminal role played by the emotional components in both intrapersonal and interpersonal behavior. A deeply rooted and inherent correlation exists between emotional intelligence (E.I. - Emotional Intelligence) and positive social results: social adaptation, quality social relationships, the capacity for healthy social behaviors, caring, altruism, empathy, enlightened communication and the efficacy and personal coherence essential to moral and ethical behavior, including its manifestation in the sphere of bio-ethics. The importance of the personal relationship between the doctor and the patient is especially fundamental in the current era of immense and accelerated scientific-technological development, forcing doctors to cope with an increasingly complicated technical environment. Precisely because of this reality, it is essential that a doctor's actions and interpersonal relationship with the patient proceed from an ethical base, grounded in both professional and emotional responsibility. Emotional responsibility is one of the central elements underlying bioethical conduct and is the element that provides the guideposts for the treatment of others. The symbiotic connection between emotional intelligence and the sphere of ethics and morals is what delineates human beings. Human beings, by definition and in essence, bear responsibility for their actions. The beginning of ethics is in the human being's consciousness of choice in relation to self and to others. An individual's choices integrate emotion and cognition. That ability to integrate alongside the capacity for choice enables the human race to act in accordance with ethical and moral codes. At work, on a daily basis, a doctor is positioned opposite to the physical, emotional, cognitive and ethical entirety of the patient. Beyond the doctor

  16. Future research and therapeutic applications of human stem cells: general, regulatory, and bioethical aspects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    There is much to be investigated about the specific characteristics of stem cells and about the efficacy and safety of the new drugs based on this type of cells, both embryonic as adult stem cells, for several therapeutic indications (cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, diabetes, hematopoietic diseases, liver diseases). Along with recent progress in transference of nuclei from human somatic cells, as well as iPSC technology, has allowed availability of lineages of all three germ layers genetically identical to those of the donor patient, which permits safe transplantation of organ-tissue-specific adult stem cells with no immune rejection. The main objective is the need for expansion of stem cell characteristics to maximize stem cell efficacy (i.e. the proper selection of a stem cell) and the efficacy (maximum effect) and safety of stem cell derived drugs. Other considerations to take into account in cell therapy will be the suitability of infrastructure and technical staff, biomaterials, production costs, biobanks, biosecurity, and the biotechnological industry. The general objectives in the area of stem cell research in the next few years, are related to identification of therapeutic targets and potential therapeutic tests, studies of cell differentiation and physiological mechanisms, culture conditions of pluripotent stem cells and efficacy and safety tests for stem cell-based drugs or procedures to be performed in both animal and human models in the corresponding clinical trials. A regulatory framework will be required to ensure patient accessibility to products and governmental assistance for their regulation and control. Bioethical aspects will be required related to the scientific and therapeutic relevance and cost of cryopreservation over time, but specially with respect to embryos which may ultimately be used for scientific uses of research as source of embryonic stem cells, in which case the bioethical conflict may be further aggravated. PMID:21143967

  17. Bioethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Lawson, Erma; Macdonald, Arlene; Temple, Jeff R; Phelps, John Y

    2014-11-01

    The clinical literature notes that pregnancy has become an expected benefit of solid organ transplant. Establishing "best practices" in the management of this particular transplant population requires careful consideration of the ethical dimensions, broadly speaking, of posttransplant pregnancies and these women's lived experiences. In this article, we present the current clinical and social science posttransplant pregnancy research. We specifically address the psychosocial and ethical issues surrounding preconception counseling and posttransplant health quality of life and mothering and suggest areas for future research. PMID:25151472

  18. Twelve years of Fogarty-funded bioethics training in Latin America and the Caribbean: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Carla; Heitman, Elizabeth; Luna, Florencia; Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth W; Macklin, Ruth

    2014-04-01

    The landscape in research ethics has changed significantly in Latin America and the Caribbean over the past two decades. Research ethics has gone from being a largely foreign concept and unfamiliar practice to an integral and growing feature of regional health research systems. Four bioethics training programs have been funded by the Fogarty International Center (FIC) in this region in the past 12 years. Overall, they have contributed significantly to changing the face of research ethics through the creation of locally relevant training materials and courses (including distance learning), academic publications, workshops, and conferences in Spanish, and strengthening ethics review committees and national systems of governance. This paper outlines their achievements and challenges, and reflects on current regional needs and what the future may hold for research ethics and bioethics training in Latin America and the Caribbean. PMID:24782074

  19. [Resources of information in the field of bioethics in Italy: survey of the present state and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Della Seta, Maurella; Sellitri, Cinzia

    2004-01-01

    The research project "Collection and dissemination of bioethical information through an integrated electronic system", started in 2001 by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), had among its objectives, the realization of an integrated system for data collection and exchange of documents related to bioethics. The system should act as a reference tool for those research activities impacting on citizens' health and welfare. This paper aims at presenting some initiatives, developed in the project framework, in order to establish an Italian documentation network, among which: a) exchange of ISS publications with Italian institutions active in this field; b) survey through a questionnaire aimed at assessing Italian informative resources, state-of-the-art and holdings of documentation centres and ethical committees; c) Italian Internet resources analysis. The results of the survey, together with the analysis of web sites, show that at present in Italy there are many interesting initiatives for collecting and spreading of documentation in the bioethical fields, but there is an urgent need for an integration of such resources. Ethical committees generally speaking need a larger availability of documents, while there are good potentialities for the establishment of an electronic network for document retrieval and delivery. PMID:15637404

  20. Bioethics of life programs: Taking seriously moral pluralism in clinical settings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the more and more globalized world, the experience of moral pluralism (often related to, or based upon, religious pluralism) has become a common issue which ethical importance is undeniable. Potential conflicts between patients' and therapeutic teams' moral views and between moral beliefs of the particular member of this team are being resolved in the light of bioethical theories, among which principlism remains the mainstream approach to biomedical ethics. The question arises, however, whether this approach, in itself, as being strictly bound to the specific and distinct American philosophical tradition, is to be considered the tool for so called 'moral imperialism'. Also architectures of principlism, in particular by elaborating the concept of common morality, defend the applicability of their theory to the pluralistic settings, it should be emphasized that the idea that some norms and standards of moral character are shared by all morally serious people in every culture has attracted criticism both from empirical as well as theoretical backgrounds. Objective This paper aims at reconsidering principlism so that it would be more suitable for resolving moral dilemma in ethically pluralistic clinical settings. Methods Lakatos' sophisticated methodological falsification is used into two different ways: (1) to construct a concept of 'life programs' and (2) to confront a newly elaborated ethical theory with principlism. The reflection is limited to the norms related to the key issue in clinical ethics, i.e., respecting the patient's autonomy. Results The concepts of common morality and particular moralities are interpreted (in the light of Lakatos' philosophy of sciences) as 'hard core' and 'protective belt' of life programs, respectively. Accepting diversity of research programs, Lakatos maintains the idea of the objectivity of truth. Analogously, the plurality of life programs does not put into question the objectivity of moral values. The plurality of

  1. Bioethics in a different tongue: the case of truth-telling.

    PubMed

    Blackhall, L J; Frank, G; Murphy, S; Michel, V

    2001-03-01

    After a survey of 800 seniors from four different ethnic groups showed that Korean-American and Mexican-American subjects were much less likely than their European-American and African-American counterparts to believe that a patient should be told the truth about the diagnosis and prognosis of a terminal illness, we undertook an ethnographic study to look more deeply at attitudes and experiences of these respondents. European-American and African-American respondents were more likely to view truth-telling as empowering, enabling the patient to make choices, while the Korean-American and Mexican-American respondents were more likely to see the truth-telling as cruel, and even harmful, to the patients. Further differences were noted in how the truth should be told and even in definitions of what constitutes "truth" and "telling." Clinical and bioethics professionals should be aware of how their cultural and economic backgrounds influence the way they perceive ethical dilemmas and remember to make room for the diverse views of the populations they serve. PMID:11368203

  2. Bioethical dimensions of cultural psychosomatics: the need for an ethical research approach.

    PubMed

    Lolas, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary psychosomatics is a research-based technical discipline and its social power depends on how scientific knowledge is obtained and applied in practice, considering cultural contexts. This article presents the view that the dialogical principles on which bioethical discourse is based are more inclusive than professional ethics and philosophical reflection. The distinction is advanced between rule-guided behavior and norm-justifiable acts (substantiation and justification). The practical implications of good practices in the generation of valid, reliable, generalizable and applicable knowledge are emphasized. For practitioners and researchers, the need to reflect on the distinction between patient and research participant can avoid the therapeutic misunderstanding, a form of abuse of the doctor-patient relationship. In addition, in resource-poor settings, the dilemma presented by the know-do gap (inapplicability of research results due to financial or social constraints) is part of the ethics' realm of the profession. Future prospects include a wider use of research results in practice, but avoidance of the know-do gap (the disparity between what is known and what can be done, particularly in settings with limited resources) requires a synthetic and holistic approach to medical ethics, combining moral reflection, theoretical analysis and empirical data. PMID:23816868

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE NEW REGULATORY BIOETHICAL REVIEW FRAMEWORK FOR CLINICAL TRIALS IN TURKEY

    PubMed Central

    İlgili, Önder; Arda, Berna; Munir, Kerim

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a descriptive study of the existing research ethics committee (REC) review structure in Turkey with respect to clinical trials and discuss what can be expected in the future under the new regulation that came into effect in April 2013. We identified 78 RECs in Turkey under the Ministry of Health (MOH) as of September 2012, categorised under geographic location, type and institution. We identified REC member lists from the MOH in the same month and further characterize them under: membership number, gender, and speciality. MOH, universities, national nongovernmental organizations such as the Turkish Medical Association and the Turkish Bioethics Association, as well as clinical research and pharmaceutical bodies are intensively interested in the enhancement of the current system of research ethics review in the country. The European Union and Council directives have been important sources that have guided new developments. Proper evaluation of the existing system and introduction of new regulatory framework are expected to further clarify the obstacles and offer opportunities for institutions, researchers, REC members and administrators. PMID:25061448

  4. The meaning of synthetic gametes for gay and lesbian people and bioethics too.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-11-01

    Some commentators indirectly challenge the ethics of using synthetic gametes as a way for same-sex couples to have children with shared genetics. These commentators typically impose a moral burden of proof on same-sex couples they do not impose on opposite-sex couples in terms of their eligibility to have children. Other commentators directly raise objections to parenthood by same-sex couples on the grounds that it compromises the rights and/or welfare of children. Ironically, the prospect of synthetic gametes neutralises certain of these objections, insofar as they would ensure that children have parents whom they can know as their genetic parents, which outcome is not always possible when same-sex couples involve third parties as the source of gametes or embryos. Not all commentators in bioethics throw the use of synthetic gametes into doubt as far as same-sex couples are concerned, but even these commentators put parenting by gay men and lesbians at the conclusion of an argument rather than presupposing parental legitimacy from the outset. Synthetic gametes do raise questions of ethics in regard to parenthood for gay men and lesbians, but these are largely questions of access and equity, not questions of parental fitness and/or child welfare. PMID:24489106

  5. [The terminal patient: Jewish religious law, the Steinberg report and the bioethical discourse in Israel].

    PubMed

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2003-07-01

    This article surveys key texts in contemporary orthodox Jewish law (Halakha) with regard to end-of-life decision making. The author proposes twelve principles that govern Jewish law in that matter. The article proceeds to examine the Steinberg report in the light of Halakha. Orthodox Judaism regards human life as a prime value, which is always beyond consideration of economical means or quality of life. The avoidance of suffering is the only justification to shorten the life of the sufferer, provided that the acts performed do not fall within the Halakhic definition of murder, namely active and direct action that shortens life. It is argued that the main challenge of bioethics in Israel is the bridging between the positive law of Halakha whose fundamental value is submission to God's will as manifested in Halakha, and the rationalism, universalism, and egalitarianism which constitute naturalistic ethics. This challenge may produce ideas such as the "clock machine". It is too early to know if this is a trickery, or genuine ethical creativity. PMID:12908395

  6. Towards a Confucian virtue bioethics: reframing Chinese medical ethics in a market economy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruiping

    2006-01-01

    This essay addresses a moral and cultural challenge facing health care in the People's Republic of China: the need to create an understanding of medical professionalism that recognizes the new economic realities of China and that can maintain the integrity of the medical profession. It examines the rich Confucian resources for bioethics and health care policy by focusing on the Confucian tradition's account of how virtue and human flourishing are compatible with the pursuit of profit. It offers the Confucian account of the division of labor and the financial inequalities this produces with special attention to China's socialist project of creating the profession of barefoot doctors as egalitarian peasant physicians and why this project failed. It then further develops the Confucian acknowledgement of the unequal value of different services and products and how this conflicts with the current system of payment to physicians which has led to the corruption of medical professionalism through illegal supplementary payments. It further gives an account the oblique intentionality of Confucian moral psychology that shows how virtuous persons can pursue benevolent actions while both foreseeing profit and avoiding defining their character by greed. This account of Confucian virtue offers the basis for a medical professionalism that can function morally within a robustly profit-oriented market economy. The paper concludes with a summary of the characteristics of Confucian medical professionalism and of how it places the profit motive within its account of virtue ethics. PMID:17136438

  7. [Teaching Bioethics to Students of Medicine with Problem-Based Learning (PBL)].

    PubMed

    Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Briceño García, Hugo C; Capella, Dolors; De Castro Vila, Carmen; Farrés, Ramón; Quintanas, Anna; Ramis, Josep; Roca, Rosa; Brunet, Joan

    2015-01-01

    We present the experience of the introduction of the subject of bioethics in a medical school in order to give to the 73 students of 5th degree skills to handle ethical conflicts in their practice. The main teaching method used was problem-based learning (PBL). Skills objectives are described. The course was structured with a theoretical seminar (2 hours of duration), a workshop (2 hours of duration), 4 cases of PBL (24 hours of duration in total) and a role playing workshop (2 hours of duration). The seminar was aimed at the acquisition of theoretical knowledge. The PBL cases provided critical appraisal, obtaining knowledge, and application. The Role Playing set out for the practical demonstration of skills acquired in a simulated environment. A continuous assessment of students was performed throughout their practice on the PBL cases (40% of the final score) and also a final evaluation of the course was carried out via exam (60% of the final score). Students completed a course and faculty evaluation anonymously, which came out with positive results (median score of 8.5/10). PMID:26378602

  8. [Individual versus collective protection: bioethical analysis of the national program of mass child vaccination].

    PubMed

    Lessa, Sérgio de Castro; Schramm, Fermin Roland

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is considered one of the most efficient and cost-effective public health policies most used in the control and prevention of disease. However, it is also one of the most polemic and controversial biomedical techniques, making it difficult to avoid an ethical dilemma, especially when vaccination is compulsory for the entire population. Indeed, since vaccines are not totally effective and safe, there is an ethical conflict between the individual and the collective interest, because children effectively carry the burden of vaccination for the benefit of public health when they are affected with serious adverse reactions and do not benefit from the care that should be offered by the government. The objective of this article was to demonstrate that the tools of bioethics are relevant in this discussion to understand and analyze these dilemmas critically by providing convincing arguments to underpin the development of biopolitics that consider prevention not only rigorously, but also the joint responsibility of all as fundamental for individual and collective protection. PMID:25650604

  9. Education Research: A case-based bioethics curriculum for neurology residents

    PubMed Central

    Willey, Joshua Z.; Prager, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2012, the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) updated and expanded its ethics curriculum into Practical Ethics in Clinical Neurology, a case-based ethics curriculum for neurologists. Methods: We piloted a case-based bioethics curriculum for neurology residents using the framework and topics recommended by the AAN, matched to clinical cases drawn from Columbia's neurologic services. Our primary outcome was residents' ability to analyze and manage ethically complex cases as measured on precurriculum and postcurriculum multiple-choice quizzes. Secondary outcomes included precurriculum and postcurriculum self-assessed comfort in discussing and managing ethically complex cases, as well as attendance at ethics discussion sessions as compared to attendance at other didactic sessions. Results: Resident performance on quizzes improved from 75.8% to 86.7% (p = 0.02). Comfort in discussing ethically complex cases improved from 6.4 to 7.4 on a 10-point scale (p = 0.03). Comfort in managing such cases trended toward improvement but did not reach statistical significance. Attendance was significantly better at ethics discussions (73.5%) than at other didactic sessions (61.7%, p = 0.04). Conclusion: Our formal case-based ethics curriculum for neurology residents, based on core topics drawn from the AAN's published curricula, was successfully piloted. Our study showed a statistically significant improvement in residents' ability to analyze and manage ethically complex cases as measured by multiple-choice tests and self-assessments. PMID:25825469

  10. Globalization and gametes: reproductive 'tourism,' Islamic bioethics, and Middle Eastern modernity.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2011-04-01

    'Reproductive tourism' has been defined as the search for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and human gametes (eggs, sperm, embryos) across national and international borders. This article conceptualizes reproductive tourism within 'global reproscapes,' which involve the circulation of actors, technologies, money, media, ideas, and human gametes, all moving in complicated manners across geographical landscapes. Focusing on the Muslim countries of the Middle East, the article explores the Islamic 'local moral worlds' informing the movements of Middle Eastern infertile couples. The ban on third-party gamete donation in Sunni Muslim-majority countries and the recent allowance of donor technologies in the Shia Muslim-majority countries of Iran and Lebanon have led to significant movements of infertile couples across Middle Eastern national borders. In the new millennium, Iran is leading the way into this 'brave new world' of high-tech, third-party assisted conception, with Islamic bioethical discourses being used to justify various forms of technological assistance. Although the Middle East is rarely regarded in this way, it is a key site for understanding the intersection of technoscience, religious morality, and modernity, all of which are deeply implicated in the new world of reproductive tourism. PMID:21563005

  11. Disputes over moral status: philosophy and science in the future of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Bortolotti, Lisa

    2007-06-01

    Various debates in bioethics have been focused on whether non-persons, such as marginal humans or non-human animals, deserve respectful treatment. It has been argued that, where we cannot agree on whether these individuals have moral status, we might agree that they have symbolic value and ascribe to them moral value in virtue of their symbolic significance. In the paper I resist the suggestion that symbolic value is relevant to ethical disputes in which the respect for individuals with no intrinsic moral value is in conflict with the interests of individuals with intrinsic moral value. I then turn to moral status and discuss the suitability of personhood as a criterion. There some desiderata for a criterion for moral status: it should be applicable on the basis of our current scientific knowledge; it should have a solid ethical justification; and it should be in line with some of our moral intuitions and social practices. Although it highlights an important connection between the possession of some psychological properties and eligibility for moral status, the criterion of personhood does not meet the desiderata above. I suggest that all intentional systems should be credited with moral status in virtue of having preferences and interests that are relevant to their well-being. PMID:17628931

  12. Systemic Negligence: Why It Is Morally Important for Developing World Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Chhanda

    2015-12-01

    In the context of clinical and non-clinical biomedical practices, negligence is usually understood as a lapse of a specific professional duty by a healthcare worker or by a medical facility. This paper tries to delineate systemic negligence as another kind of negligence in the context of health systems, particularly in developing countries, that needs to be recognized and addressed. Systemic negligence is not just a mere collection of stray incidences of medical errors and system failures in a health system, but is proposed in this paper as a more pervasive kind of neglect. Several non-medical factors, such as lack of social and political will, also contribute to it and hence is more difficult to address in a health system. This paper argues that recognizing systemic negligence and including it research agenda have special moral importance for researchers in developing world bioethics, public health ethics and for health activists in the developing world. For, it can be a potent health system barrier, and can seriously impair efforts to ensure patient safety, particularly in the weaker health systems. As it erodes accountability in a health system, addressing it is also important for the twin goals of ensuring patient safety and improving health system performance. Above all, it needs to be addressed because the tolerance of its persistence in a health system seems to undervalue health as a social good. PMID:24761790

  13. The Bioethical Concept of Life for Life in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam: Abortion When the Mother’s Life is in Danger

    PubMed Central

    Khorfan, Rhami; Padela, Aasim I.

    2010-01-01

    Modern secular bioethics has focused on developing a set of universal principles to guide clinical decision making. However, this ignores the important role of religion in resolving bioethical questions. It is imperative that health-care providers understand these belief systems in order to traverse value conflicts and provide the highest quality care to a diverse population. This paper focuses on the process of bioethical deliberation in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam. Abortion is normatively prohibited in each faith and through examining how each ethical code allows for abortion when the mother’s life is in peril due to the fetus, we highlight the value of unborn life in each faith. Orthodox Judaism uses the concept of rodef, or pursuer, to permit abortion in this scenario, Catholicism uses the moral concept of “double effect,” while Islamic law cites the maqāṣid, higher objectives of the law, to permit abortion in this scenario. PMID:23864760

  14. 'One can always say no.' enriching the bioethical debate on antisocial behaviour, neurobiology and prevention: views of juvenile delinquents.

    PubMed

    Horstkötter, Dorothee; Berghmans, Ron; Feron, Frans; De Wert, Guido

    2014-06-01

    Genomic and neuro-scientific research into the causes and course of antisocial behaviour triggers bioethical debate. Often, these new developments are met with reservation, and possible drawbacks and negative side-effects are pointed out. This article reflects on these scientific developments and the bioethical debate by means of an exploration of the perspectives of one important stakeholder group: juveniles convicted of a serious crime who stay in a juvenile justice institution. The views of juveniles are particularly interesting, as possible applications of current and future scientific findings are considered to be most effective if applied early in life. Based on their statements we come to the following provisional conclusions. Concerns about labelling and stigmatization are recognized and widely shared. Possible effects on one's identity are acknowledged too. Yet, a possible biological underpinning of one's antisocial behaviour is not considered to result in the development of a criminal identity. Nonetheless, psychopharmacological interventions are experienced as endangering one's current self. Concerns regarding the refusal of responsibility and the blaming of one's genes or brain can be put into perspective. Instead, participants emphasize the motive of own choice as underlying their criminal behaviour. Moreover, bioethical debate should pay attention to the role of parents of children at risk and the parent-child relationship in families at-risk. We argue that the short-term and long-term interests of children at risk, as well as their interests and those of society at large, may conflict. In order to deal appropriately with newly arising dilemmas, a normative framework needs to be developed. PMID:22845747

  15. Child Rights and Clinical Bioethics: Historical Reflections on Modern Medicine and Ethics.

    PubMed

    Brosco, Jeffrey P

    2016-01-01

    Why might pediatric bioethicists in the United States reject the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) as a framework for resolving ethical issues? The essays in this issue present arguments and counterarguments regarding the usefulness of the CRC in various clinical and research cases. But underlying this debate are two historical factors that help explain the seeming paradox of pediatric bioethicists' arguing against child's rights. First, the profession of clinical bioethics emerged in the 1970s as one component of modern medicine's focus on improving health through the application of technologically sophisticated treatments. The everyday work of U.S. bioethicists thus usually involves emerging technologies or practices in clinical or laboratory settings; the articles of the CRC, in contrast, seem better suited to addressing broad policy issues that affect the social determinants of health. Second, U.S. child health policy veered away from a more communitarian approach in the early 20th century for reasons of demography that were reinforced by ideology and concerns about immigration. The divide between clinical medicine and public health in the United States, as well as the relatively meager social safety net, are not based on a failure to recognize the rights of children. Indeed, there is some historical evidence to suggest that "rights language" has hindered progress on child health and well-being in the United States. In today's political climate, efforts to ensure that governments pledge to treat children in accordance with their status as human beings (a child right's perspective) are less likely to improve child health than robust advocacy on behalf of children's unique needs, especially as novel models of health-care financing emerge. PMID:27157355

  16. Bioethics of Universal Knowledge: How Space Science is Transforming Global Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Kala

    A new universal culture is championing the human race; never before has immersion in the cosmological environment been so clearly presented nor invited as revolutionary a sense of participatory identity to the human race. We are delving into the awareness of a complex relatedness with the expanse of spatial architectures and life that astrophysics and cosmology are revealing. History is marked by waves of interest and inquiry into the possibilities of the existence of other worlds. Since the Renaissance, building of telescopes has been pursued in their quest; now Kepler and other space missions are leading us into direct apprehension of these worlds, scattered across the cosmological landscape. This affords a unique repertoire of dimensionalities in which to re-construe our global cultural evolution and identity. Spatial education, with related social science and humanities, are facilitating the actualization of a universal culture, redefining the collective global heritage, with infinity as our home. The potential significance of space sciences to the human cognitive environment is yet to be fully ascertained. We now understand that the entire history of the universe informs each and every particle and spin of the fabric of existence. The implications of this knowledge have the power to facilitate our overcoming many social diseases such as racism, nationalism and the ideological delusions that tolerate such activities as warfare. Space sciences may help to purge the human cognitive atmosphere of those ills and ignorance that sap global resources, challenging global sustainability, from the economic to the psychosocial. Were the full implications of our united origins and destiny as a cosmic organism to be applied to how we live as a species on the Earth, there would be adequate funds for all manner of science and education such as to transform the global human and ecological landscape in ways as yet only dreamt or fictionalized. The bioethics of universal

  17. Health care ethics consultation: nature, goals, and competencies. A position paper from the Society for Health and Human Values-Society for Bioethics Consultation Task Force on Standards for Bioethics Consultation.

    PubMed

    Aulisio, M P; Arnold, R M; Youngner, S J

    2000-07-01

    Patients, families, and health care providers have a right to expect that ethics consultants can deal competently with the complex issues that they are asked to address. The Society for Health and Human Values-Society for Bioethics Consultation Task Force on Standards for Bioethics Consultation explored core competencies and related issues in ethics consultation. This position paper summarizes the content of the resulting Task Force Report, which included nine general conclusions: 1) U.S. societal context makes "ethics facilitation" an appropriate approach to ethics consultation; 2) ethics facilitation requires certain core competencies; 3) core competencies can be acquired in various ways; 4) individual consultants, teams, or committees should have the core competencies for ethics consultation; 5) consult services should have policies that address access, patient notification, documentation, and case review; 6) abuse of power and conflicts of interest must be avoided; 7) ethics consultation must have institutional support; 8) evaluation of process, outcomes, and competencies is needed; and 9) certification of individuals and accreditation of programs are rejected. PMID:10877742

  18. Living with the label "disability": personal narrative as a resource for responsive and informed practice in biomedicine and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jeffery; Sunderland, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    What is it like to live with the label "Disability?" NIB editorial staff and narrative symposium editors, Jeffery Bishop and Naomi Sunderland developed a call for stories, which was sent to several list serves, shared with the 1000 Voices Project community and posted on Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics' website. The request for personal stories from people who identify with the label "disabled" asked them to: consider how the label "disability" interacts with other aspects of their life in health care settings; does the term "disability" reflect their actual embodied experiences of impairment or does it fail to do justice to their particular experience of impairment; describe the kind of experiences that are possible because of the impairment(s); discuss how the label has affected their "authentic voice"; and many other concepts about what effects the label has on their lives. These authors share deeply personal experiences that will help readers understand their world, challenges, and joys. Thirteen stories are found in the print version of the journal and an additional five supplemental stories are published online only through Project MUSE. The stories are complemented by four commentary articles by Elizabeth R. Schiltz; Lorna Hallahan; Nicole Matthews, Kathleen Ellem, and Lesley Chenoweth; and Jeffery Bishop, Rachelle Barina, and Devan Stahl. These scholars come from the disciplines of law, social work, media studies, medicine, and bioethics from Australia and the United States. Together, the symposium's storytellers and commentators offer striking and informative insights into the everydayness of living with disabilities. PMID:24407115

  19. The Effects of Decision-Making Activities about Bioethical Issues on Students' Rational Decision-Making Ability in High School Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Yun-Bok; Kim, Young-Shin; Chung, Wan-Ho

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effect of decision-making activities on improving decision-making abilities to meet bioethical issues in everyday situations. Uses worksheets for decision making that consists of six steps. Concludes that the resulting scores on decision-making were increased by the activities of the worksheets. (Contains 31 references.)…

  20. Conflicts Between Parents and Health Professionals About a Child's Medical Treatment: Using Clinical Ethics Records to Find Gaps in the Bioethics Literature.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Rosalind; Notini, Lauren; Phillips, Jessica

    2015-09-01

    Clinical ethics records offer bioethics researchers a rich source of cases that clinicians have identified as ethically complex. In this paper, we suggest that clinical ethics records can be used to point to types of cases that lack attention in the current bioethics literature, identifying new areas in need of more detailed bioethical work. We conducted an analysis of the clinical ethics records of one paediatric hospital in Australia, focusing specifically on conflicts between parents and health professionals about a child's medical treatment. We identified, analysed, and compared cases of this type from the clinical ethics records with cases of this type discussed in bioethics journals. While the cases from journals tended to describe situations involving imminent risk to the child's life, a significant proportion of the clinical ethics records cases involved different stakes for the child involved. These included distress, poorer functional outcome, poorer psychosocial outcome, or increased risk of surgical complications. Our analysis suggests that one type of case that warrants more detailed ethics research is parental refusal of recommended treatment, where the refusal does not endanger the child's life but rather some other aspect of the child's well-being. PMID:26133890

  1. Bioethics and Public Health Collaborate to Reveal Impacts of Climate Change on Caribbean Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macpherson, C.; Akpinar-Elci, M.

    2011-12-01

    Interdisciplinary dialog and collaboration aimed at protecting health against climate change is impeded by the small number of scientists and health professionals skilled in interdisciplinary work, and by the view held by many that "climate change won't affect me personally". These challenges may be surmounted by discussions about the lived experience of climate change and how this threatens things we value. Dialog between bioethics and public health generated an innovative collaboration using the focus group method. The main limitation of focus groups is the small number of participants however the data obtained is generalizable to wider groups and is used regularly in business to enhance marketing strategies. Caribbean academicians from varied disciplines discussed how climate change affects them and life in the Caribbean. Caribbean states are particularly vulnerable to climate change because their large coastal areas are directly exposed to rising sea levels and their development relies heavily on foreign aid. The Caribbean comprises about half of the 39 members of the Association of Small Island States (AOSIS), and small island states comprise about 5% of global population [1]. Participants described socioeconomic and environmental changes in the Caribbean that they attribute to climate change. These include extreme weather, unusual rain and drought, drying rivers, beach erosion, declining fish catches, and others. The session exposed impacts on individuals, businesses, agriculture, and disaster preparedness. This data helps to reframe climate change as a personal reality rather than a vague future concern. It is relevant to the design, implementation, and sustainability of climate policies in the Caribbean and perhaps other small island states. The method and interdisciplinary approach can be used in other settings to elicit dialog about experiences and values across sectors, and to inform policies. Those who have experienced extreme weather are more concerned

  2. Bioethics in popular science: evaluating the media impact of The Immortal Llife of Henrietta Lacks on the biobank debate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The global expansion of biobanks has led to a range of bioethical concerns related to consent, privacy, control, ownership, and disclosure. As an opportunity to engage broader audiences on these concerns, bioethicists have welcomed the commercial success of Rebecca Skloot’s 2010 bestselling book The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. To assess the impact of the book on discussion within the media and popular culture more generally, we systematically analyzed the ethics-related themes emphasized in reviews and articles about the book, and in interviews and profiles of Skloot. Methods We conducted a content analysis of a population of relevant English-language articles and transcripts (n = 125) produced by news organizations and publications in the U.S., Canada, Great Britain/Ireland, and Australia/New Zealand. We scored each article for the emphasis and appearance of 9 ethics-related themes. These were informed consent, welfare of the vulnerable, compensation, scientific progress, control/access, accountability/oversight, privacy, public education, and advocacy. Results The informed consent theme dominated media discussion, with almost 39.2 percent of articles/transcripts featuring the theme as a major focus and 44.8 percent emphasizing the theme as a minor focus. Other prominent themes and frames of reference focused on the welfare of the vulnerable (18.4 percent major emphasis; 36.0 percent minor emphasis), and donor compensation (19.2 percent major; 52.8 percent minor). Ethical themes that comprised a second tier of prominence included those of scientific progress, control/access, and accountability/oversight. The least prominent themes were privacy, public education, and advocacy. Conclusions The book has been praised as an opportunity to elevate media discussion of bioethics, but such claims should be re-considered. The relatively narrow focus on informed consent in the media discussion generated by Skloot’s book may limit the ability of

  3. Nonegalitarian Social Responsibility for Health: A Confucian Perspective on Article 14 of the UNESCO: Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruiping

    2016-06-01

    This essay offers a Confucian evaluation of Article 14 of the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, with a focus given to its statement that "the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being." It indicates that "a right to health" contained in the statement is open to two different interpretations, one radically egalitarian, another a decent minimum. It shows that Confucianism has strong moral considerations to reject the radical egalitarian interpretation, and argues that a Confucian nonegalitarian health distribution ethics of differentiated and graded love and obligation can reasonably be supported with a right to the decent minimum of health at the international level. PMID:27477196

  4. [Considerations from a Children's Hospital Bioethics Committee about diagnosis and treatment of the disorders of sex development].

    PubMed

    Del Valle, Miguel; Díaz Zorita, María Isabel; Stepansky, Nuria; García Barthe, Mónica; Rodríguez, María Celeste; Sánchez, María Del Pilar; Garra, María Mabel; Cúneo, María Martha; Coglianese, Cristina; Firenze Aldeghi, Lorena; Jaureguizar, María de la Paz; Muraciole, Beatriz; Selinger, Cecilia; Chamorro, Gabriela

    2015-06-01

    Through history, diagnosis and management of sex development disorders has been very difficult due to the significant impact on affected children, their families and care takers, representing a great challenge to healthcare professionals. Nowadays, there is significant debate regarding these children's care and outcome. This discussion is not only a medical issue, but it also includes legal and ethical matters. The Bioethics Committee of the "Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez" has been considering this conflict and discussing its different aspects. Here we share our beliefs and opinions taking into account that they should not be considered the only and whole truth. There is an open debate in which all involved people should participate. PMID:25996326

  5. Do committees ru(i)n the bio-political culture? On the democratic legitimacy of bioethics committees.

    PubMed

    Friele, Minou Bernadette

    2003-08-01

    Bioethical and bio-political questions are increasingly tackled by committees, councils, and other advisory boards that work on different and often interrelated levels. Research ethics committees work on an institutional or clinical level; local advisory boards deal with biomedical topics on the level of particular political regions; national and international political advisory boards try to answer questions about morally problematic political decisions in medical research and practice. In accordance with the increasing number and importance of committees, the quality of their work and their functional status are being subjected to more and more scrutiny. Besides overall criticism regarding the quality of their work, particular committees giving political advice are often suspected of being incompatible with democratic values, such as respect for affected parties, representation of diverse values and transparency in the decision-making processes. Based on the example of the German National Ethics Council, whose inauguration caused a still ongoing debate on the aims and scopes of committees in general, this paper discusses: (1) the requirements of modern democratic societies in dealing with complex scientific-technical problems; (2) the composition and organisation of committees working as political advisory boards; and (3) the appointment procedures and roles of laymen and experts, and here in particular of ethicists, who may legitimately be taken on by a committee. I will argue that bioethics committees do not necessarily endanger democratic values, but can considerably improve their realisation in democratic decision-making procedures--if, and only if, they do not act as substitutes for parliamentarian processes, but help prepare parliamentarian processes to be organised as rationally as possible. PMID:14567389

  6. Whose dignity? Resolving ambiguities in the scope of "human dignity" in the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Harald

    2007-10-01

    In October 2005, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization adopted the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR). A concept of central importance in the declaration is that of "human dignity". However, there is lack of clarity about its scope, especially concerning the question of whether prenatal human life has the same dignity and rights as born human beings. This ambiguity has implications for the interpretation of important articles of the delcaration, including 2(c), 4, 8, 10 and 11. The paper applies relevant provisions of the UDBHR to specific cases, addresses problems of internal consistency and considers attempts at clarifying the scope of "human dignity" by the negotiating parties. An analysis of the important relationship between the UDBHR and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, to which the UDBHR refers in its title and elsewhere, shows that because of a crucial emphatic asymmetry, a broad reading according to which the UDBHR must be understood to ascribe human rights and dignity to prenatal life is untenable. However, the view that the UDBHR confers human rights and dignity on humans from the moment of birth onwards is robust and defensible. This conclusion is important for a proper understanding of the declaration and its use, as stated in Articles 1(2) and 22, the latter urging states ".. to give effect to the principles .. in this declaration". Similarly, it has implications for the use of the declaration in the wider context of bioethics-related law and policy, as well as in academic and other discussions where increasing reference to the UDBHR is likely. PMID:17906055

  7. Promoting Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qin; Zhao, Yongxin; Wu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Si

    There can be multitudinous models specifying aspects of the same system. Each model has a bias towards one aspect. These models often override in specific aspects though they have different expressions. A specification written in one model can be refined by introducing additional information from other models. The paper proposes a concept of promoting models which is a methodology to obtain refinements with support from cooperating models. It refines a primary model by integrating the information from a secondary model. The promotion principle is not merely an academic point, but also a reliable and robust engineering technique which can be used to develop software and hardware systems. It can also check the consistency between two specifications from different models. A case of modeling a simple online shopping system with the cooperation of the guarded design model and CSP model illustrates the practicability of the promotion principle.

  8. Bioethics in the Malay-Muslim Community in Malaysia: A Study on the Formulation of Fatwa on Genetically Modified Food by the National Fatwa Council.

    PubMed

    Isa, Noor Munirah; Baharuddin, Azizan; Man, Saadan; Chang, Lee Wei

    2015-12-01

    The field of bioethics aims to ensure that modern scientific and technological advancements have been primarily developed for the benefits of humankind. This field is deeply rooted in the traditions of Western moral philosophy and socio-political theory. With respect to the view that the practice of bioethics in certain community should incorporate religious and cultural elements, this paper attempts to expound bioethical tradition of the Malay-Muslim community in Malaysia, with shedding light on the mechanism used by the National Fatwa Council to evaluate whether an application of biological sciences is ethical or not. By using the application of the genetically modified food as a case study, this study has found that the council had reviewed the basic guidelines in the main references of shari'ah in order to make decision on the permissibility of the application. The fatwa is made after having consultation with the experts in science field. The council has taken all factors into consideration and given priority to the general aim of shari'ah which to serve the interests of mankind and to save them from harm. PMID:24750562

  9. Promoting Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechanic, David

    1990-01-01

    Argues that culture change or modification of the social structure is necessary for effective health promotion because health behavior is closely tied to basic group structures and processes. Examines the health attitudes of Mormons, low income and minority groups, and developing Islamic nations, emphasizing attitudes towards education and women.…

  10. Ecumenical in spite of ourselves: a Protestant assessment of Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Anglican Catholic approaches to bioethics.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Darrel W; Mandahl, Otto W

    1995-09-01

    A Christian approach to the issues that constitute bioethics is inevitable for us who cherish the truth of historic, creedal, trinitarian Christianity. Scripture teaches and the Greek and Latin Church Fathers as well as the Reformers aver that man, created in the image of God, has an inherent, if vestigial, sense of right and wrong and a conscience however marred by the fall and by rebellion. We must believe that we share this most basic ecumenism with all humanity, not because of rational observation and analysis of nature, but because Scripture reveals it. We who are convinced of the truth of historic, creedal, trinitarian Christianity have a high view of Scripture and hold it to be infallible and utterly trustworthy irrespective of the importance we assign to our specific post-biblical traditional distinctives. This is a narrower but much more vital ecumenism than the first. Faithful adherence to Scripture inevitably manifests itself in remarkably similar priorities and values, often, lamentably, not because of, but in spite of, ourselves. PMID:11654508

  11. In vitro fertilization (IVF) in mammals: epigenetic and developmental alterations. Scientific and bioethical implications for IVF in humans.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Juncá, Patricio; Irarrázaval, Isabel; Rolle, Augusto J; Gutiérrez, Juan I; Moreno, Ricardo D; Santos, Manuel J

    2015-01-01

    The advent of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in animals and humans implies an extraordinary change in the environment where the beginning of a new organism takes place. In mammals fertilization occurs in the maternal oviduct, where there are unique conditions for guaranteeing the encounter of the gametes and the first stages of development of the embryo and thus its future. During this period a major epigenetic reprogramming takes place that is crucial for the normal fate of the embryo. This epigenetic reprogramming is very vulnerable to changes in environmental conditions such as the ones implied in IVF, including in vitro culture, nutrition, light, temperature, oxygen tension, embryo-maternal signaling, and the general absence of protection against foreign elements that could affect the stability of this process. The objective of this review is to update the impact of the various conditions inherent in the use of IVF on the epigenetic profile and outcomes of mammalian embryos, including superovulation, IVF technique, embryo culture and manipulation and absence of embryo-maternal signaling. It also covers the possible transgenerational inheritance of the epigenetic alterations associated with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), including its phenotypic consequences as is in the case of the large offspring syndrome (LOS). Finally, the important scientific and bioethical implications of the results found in animals are discussed in terms of the ART in humans. PMID:26683055

  12. A discourse of relationships in bioethics: patient autonomy and end-of-life decision making among elderly Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Frank, G; Blackhall, L J; Michel, V; Murphy, S T; Azen, S P; Park, K

    1998-12-01

    A two-year, multidisciplinary study (N = 800) was conducted on attitudes about end-of-life decision making among elderly individuals in four ethnic groups (African American, European American, Korean American, and Mexican American). On a quantitative survey, Korean Americans reported negative attitudes about the use of life-sustaining technology for themselves but positive attitudes about its use in general. This article reports on an interview with a 79-year-old typical Korean American respondent to explain the contradiction in the survey data. Expectations among elderly Korean Americans include protecting family members with a life-threatening illness from being informed of their diagnosis and prognosis, and doing everything to keep them alive. Two conclusions, one substantive and the other methodological, are drawn: First, the bioethics discourse on individual rights (patient autonomy) is insufficient to explain the preferences of many Korean Americans and must be supplemented with a discourse on relationships. Second, the rigorous use of qualitative, narrative methods clarifies quantitative data and should not be dismissed as "anecdotal." PMID:9884991

  13. Fisher-Mendel controversy in genetics: scientific argument, intellectual integrity, a fair society, Western falls and bioethical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bing H

    2009-10-01

    This review article aims to discuss and analyze the background and findings regarding Fisher-Mendel Controversy in Genetics and to elucidate the scientific argument and intellectual integrity involved, as well as their importance in a fair society, and the lesson of Western falls as learned. At the onset of this review, the kernel of Mendel-Fisher Controversy is dissected and then identified. The fact of an organizational restructuring that had never gone towards a happy synchronization for the ensuing years since 1933 is demonstrated. It was at that time after Fisher succeeded Karl Pearson not only as the Francis Galton Professor of Eugenics but also as the chief of the Galton Laboratory at University College, London. The academic style of eugenics in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the UK is then introduced. Fisher's ideology at that time, with its effects on the human value system and policy-making at that juncture are portrayed. Bioethical assessment is provided. Lessons in history, the emergence of the Eastern phenomenon and the decline of the Western power are outlined. PMID:19811718

  14. The Foundations of a Human Right to Health: Human Rights and Bioethics in Dialogue.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Human rights, including the right to health, are grounded in protecting and promoting human dignity. Although commitment to human dignity is a widely shared value, the precise meaning and requirements behind the term are elusive. It is also unclear as to how a commitment to human dignity translates into specific human rights, such as the right to the highest attainable standard of health, and delineates their scope and obligations. The resulting lack of clarity about the foundations of and justification for the right to health has been problematic in a number of ways. This article identifies the strengths of and some of the issues with the grounding of the right to health in human dignity. It then examines ethical and philosophical expositions of human dignity and several alternative foundations proposed for the right to health, including capability theory and the work of Norman Daniels, to assess whether any offer a richer and more adequate conceptual grounding for the right to health. PMID:26204585

  15. [Bioethics and nutrition in adult patients with cancer in palliative care].

    PubMed

    Benarroz, Monica de Oliveira; Faillace, Giovanna Borges Damião; Barbosa, Leandro Augusto

    2009-09-01

    Cancer constitutes a major group of chronic diseases and is the second leading cause of death in the developed countries. Palliative care proposes to offer comprehensive support to control symptoms and improve quality of life for patients and their families. Nutrition is an important tool in palliative care, helping patients with their physical, psychological, and social issues and promoting comfort and quality of life. However, in the context of palliative care, nutritional support rarely achieves its role of fully recovering and assuring nutritional status. At this point, the nutritionist must consider the individual patient's needs, preferences, and eating habits, which are essential both for controlling symptoms and assuring satisfaction and comfort. The impossibility of conventionally applying established management and the development of a new perception of the patient often raise dilemmas for professional nutritionists. PMID:19750375

  16. Ethical acceptability of research on human-animal chimeric embryos: summary of opinions by the Japanese Expert Panel on Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hiroshi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Kato, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    Human-animal chimeric embryos are embryos obtained by introducing human cells into a non-human animal embryo. It is envisaged that the application of human-animal chimeric embryos may make possible many useful research projects including producing three-dimensional human organs in animals and verification of the pluripotency of human ES cells or iPS cells in vivo. The use of human-animal chimeric embryos, however, raises several ethical and moral concerns. The most fundamental one is that human-animal chimeric embryos possess the potential to develop into organisms containing human-derived tissue, which may lead to infringing upon the identity of the human species, and thus impairing human dignity. The Japanese Expert Panel on Bioethics in the Cabinet Office carefully considered the scientific significance and ethical acceptability of the issue and released its "Opinions regarding the handling of research using human-animal chimeric embryos". The Panel proposed a framework of case-by-case review, and suggested that the following points must be carefully reviewed from the perspective of ethical acceptability: (a) Types of animal embryos and types of animals receiving embryo transfers, particularly in dealing with non-human primates; (b) Types of human cells and organs intended for production, particularly in dealing with human nerve or germ cells; and (c) Extent of the period required for post-transfer studies. The scientific knowledge that can be gained from transfer into an animal uterus and from the production of an individual must be clarified to avoid unnecessary generation of chimeric animals. The time is ripe for the scientific community and governments to start discussing the ethical issues for establishing a global consensus. PMID:26694481

  17. Transplant of bone marrow and cord blood hematopoietic stem cells in pediatric practice, revisited according to the fundamental principles of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Burgio, G R; Locatelli, F

    1997-06-01

    The two most widely used sources of hematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplants in pediatric practice are bone marrow (BM) and cord blood (CB). While bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is reaching its 30th year of application, human umbilical cord blood transplantation (HUCBT) is approaching its 10th. Although these procedures have basically the same purpose, a number of biological differences distinguish them. In particular, the intrinsically limited quantity of CB stem cells and their immunological naiveté confer peculiar characteristics to these hematopoietic progenitors. From a bioethical point of view, the problems which have repeatedly been raised when the BM donor is a child are well-known. Different but no less important ethical problems are raised when one considers HUCBT; in this regard the most important issues are the easier propensity of programming a CB donor in comparison with a BM donor (clearly due to the shorter time interval needed to collect the hematopoietic progenitors); the in utero HLA-typing; the implication of employing 'blood belonging to a neonate' for a third party; the need to perform a number of investigations both on the CB of the donor and on the mother and the implications that the discovery of disease may have for them, but also the need to establish banks for storing CB, with the accompanying administration and management problems. All these different aspects of UCBT will be discussed in the light of the four fundamental and traditional principles of bioethics, namely autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice. PMID:9208108

  18. AIDS, policy and bioethics: ethical dilemmas facing China in HIV prevention: a report from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Guang

    1997-01-01

    The present situation of the HIV/AIDS epidemic is very grim in China. The probability of China becoming a country with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS cannot be excluded because there have been factors which promote the wide spread of HIV if we fail to take timely action to prevent it at the opportune moment. However, China's HIV prevention policy is inadequate. Health professionals and programmers believed that they could take a conventional public health approach to cope with the HIV epidemic. They simply ignored the fact that HIV infection is an epidemic so special that their approach is not effective to deter the epidemic. Many health professionals and programmers bypassed ethical issues that had emerged in the prevention of the HIV epidemic. Even some health educators, sexologists and officials believe that 'AIDS is the punishment for promiscuity', and this belief has led to discrimination and stigmatization of AIDS patients, HIV positive people, their family members and high risk groups. Although homosexuality is not illegal, the police can always find any reason to detain homosexuals. A difficult ethical issue is about the laws prohibiting prostitution and drug use in China which force prostitutes and intravenous drug users underground, giving them no chance to access information, education and the services needed to protect them. The dilemma facing China is whether to stay with a restrictive policy for the reason of ideology cleansing or to turn to a more supportive policy. It is necessary to have some change in the ethical framework to evaluate the action in HIV prevention. Tolerance should be the first ethical principle. PMID:11654786

  19. [Perinatal bioethics: euthanasia or end-of-life decisions? Analysis of the Groningen Protocol].

    PubMed

    Halac, Jacobo; Halac, Eduardo; Moya, Martín P; Olmas, José M; Dopazo, Silvina L; Dolagaray, Nora

    2009-12-01

    The so called "Groningen Protocol" was conceived as a framework to discuss the euthanasia in neonates. Originally, it presents three groups of babies who might be candidates to this option. We analyzed the protocol in its original context and that of the Dutch society in which it was created. The analysis started with a careful reading of the protocol in both English and Dutch versions, translated later into Spanish. The medical and nursing staff participated in discussing it. A final consensus was reached. The Institutional Ethics Committee at our hospital discussed it freely and made recommendations for its application as a guideline to honestly discuss with parents the clinical condition of their babies, without permitting the option included literally in the word euthanasia. We selected four extremely ill infants. Their parents were interviewed at least twice daily: three stages were identified: the initial one of promoting all possible treatments; a second one of guarded and cautious request for the staff to evaluate "suffering", and a last one where requests were made to reduce therapeutic efforts to provide dignified death. A week after the death of their infants, they were presented with the facts of the protocol and the limits of our legal system. In all four cases the parents suggested that they would have chosen ending the life of their infants, in order to avoid them undue suffering. They clearly pointed out that this option emerged as a viable one to them once the ultimate outcome was evident. The protocol must not be viewed as a guideline for euthanasia in newborns, but rather as a mean to discuss the critical condition of an infant with the parents. Its direct implementation in our setting remains difficult. As a clear limitation for its overall application remains the definition of what is considered "unbearable suffering" in newborns, and how to certify when the infant has "no prospect". We emphasize the benefits of securing the help of the Ethics

  20. [Ethical issues raised by direct-to-consumer personal genome analysis and whole body scans: discussion and contextualisation of a report by the Nuffield Council on Bioethics].

    PubMed

    Buyx, Alena M; Strech, Daniel; Schmidt, Harald

    2012-01-01

    The paradigm of personalised medicine has many different facets, further to the application of pharmacogenetics. We examine here (direct-to-consumer) personal genome analysis and whole body scans and summarise findings from the Nuffield Council's on Bioethics recent report "Medical profiling and online medicine: the ethics of 'personalised healthcare' in a consumer age". We describe the current situation in Germany with regard to access to such services, and contextualise the Nuffield Council's report with summaries of position statements by German professional bodies. We conclude with three points that merit examination further to the analyses of the Nuffield Council's report and the German professional bodies. These concern the role of indirect evidence in considering restrictive policies, the question of whether regulations should require commercial providers to contribute to the generation of better evidence, and the option of using data from evaluations in combination with indirect evidence in justifying restrictive policies. PMID:22325105

  1. [Transcultural discussion in bioethics drawn from research experience in China: building up a theoretical and methodological framework for further research cooperation].

    PubMed

    Micollier, Evelyne

    2012-06-01

    My article discusses bioethics in transcultural context and builds on an experience of conducting research in China in partnership with Chinese scholars and institutions. Key points are about the creation of ethical committees and their prerogatives, the regulation of experimenting in human and animal, and of donating and transplanting organs. Ethical issues are approached according to an anthropological reading. Three transversal lines for further research are suggested: global/local ethical governance applied to research ethics; implications of transnationalizing and delocalizing research practices with regards to governance; theoretical positioning--conceptual pluralism versus pragmatic pluralism--following actual confrontation to transcultural variations in research ethics. Moreover, this work claims for conceptualizing and implementing an ethics in context while assessing intangible (non-relative) principles based on knowledge production and a global patrimony. PMID:22924196

  2. Health care ethics consultation: an update on core competencies and emerging standards from the American Society For Bioethics and Humanities' core competencies update task force.

    PubMed

    Tarzian, Anita J

    2013-01-01

    Ethics consultation has become an integral part of the fabric of U.S. health care delivery. This article summarizes the second edition of the Core Competencies for Health Care Ethics Consultation report of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities. The core knowledge and skills competencies identified in the first edition of Core Competencies have been adopted by various ethics consultation services and education programs, providing evidence of their endorsement as health care ethics consultation (HCEC) standards. This revised report was prompted by thinking in the field that has evolved since the original report. Patients, family members, and health care providers who encounter ethical questions or concerns that ethics consultants could help address deserve access to efficient, effective, and accountable HCEC services. All individuals providing such services should be held to the standards of competence and quality described in the revised report. PMID:23391049

  3. Research Challenges and Bioethics Responsibilities in the Aftermath of the Presidential Apology to the Survivors of the U. S. Public Health Services Syphilis Study at Tuskegee

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.

    2013-01-01

    In 1997 President William Clinton issued an apology to the living male survivors of the U.S. Public Health Syphilis Study at Tuskegee. While the apology became the focus for many, little attention has been paid going forward to two very important recommendations by President Clinton that accompanied the apology. President Clinton pointed out that it is through the remembering of the shameful past of the Syphilis Study at Tuskegee that we can build a better present and a better future for the nation. Second, President Clinton directed the Secretary of Health and Human Services to work in partnership with higher education to prepare training materials for medical researchers as well as postgraduate fellowships to train bioethicists to build on core ethical principles of respect for individuals, justice, and informed consent, and how to use these principles effectively in racial/ethnic minority populations, especially African Americans. This article examines bioethical research challenges left in the wake of the U.S. Public Health Syphilis Study at Tuskegee and the presidential apology. This manuscript raises for consideration the inclusion of these issues in health care reform and the implementation of the Affordable Care Act. It asks: What is the right or good thing to do? What are our obligations to one another? Two challenges are examined: 1) Conducting research with African Americans without knowledge of bioethics specific to this population; and 2) The ethical dilemma of conducting research that does not adequately take into account the diversity within the Black population that is a contributing factor in health disparities. Training and policy recommendations responsive to President Clinton’s Apology are presented. PMID:23878499

  4. Bioethics Principles, Informed Consent, and Ethical Care for Special Populations: Curricular Needs Expressed by Men and Women Physicians-in-Training

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Laura Weiss; M.A., Cynthia; Geppert; Warner, Teddy D.; Green Hammond, Katherine A.; Lamberton, Leandrea Prosen

    2006-01-01

    Objective Physicians-in-training today are learning in an ethical environment that is unprecedented in its complexity. There is a call for new approaches in preparing medical students and residents for the ethical and professional issues they will encounter. The perspectives of physicians-in-training at different levels regarding the level of curricular attention needed for emerging bioethics concepts, practical informed consent considerations, and the care of special populations are unknown. Method The authors performed a hypothesis-driven, confidential survey study to assess perceived needs and preferences among medical students and residents related to medical ethics education at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. Results A total of 336 physicians-in-training volunteered (62% response rate). Overall, strong interest was expressed for increased curricular attention to the domains of bioethics principles, informed consent, and care of special populations. Women students expressed greater interest generally. For certain domains, clinical students expressed relatively less curricular need and psychiatry and primary care residents expressed relatively greater curricular need. Two of the four hypotheses were supported, a third received partial support, and a fourth was not supported by the findings. Discussion To be valuable and effective, new ethics curricular approaches must be responsive to the current complex ethical environment and attentive to the preferences of medical students and residents of both genders, at different stages of training, with different patient care responsibilities. This hypothesis-driven study provides guidance for the inclusion of novel and important ethics domains in training curricula across medical school and diverse residency programs. PMID:16145189

  5. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness

    PubMed Central

    Dove, Edward S.; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-01-01

    The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science); and consortia ethics (Big Ethics). These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, “extreme centrism”, and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics—separate and together—have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness. By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit) to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit. PMID:26345196

  6. Bioethics and medicine.

    PubMed

    Marcelleti, C

    1995-01-01

    The difficult ethical choice to be made between 'extraordinary' treatment or no treatment is discussed with reference to hypoplastic left heart syndrome, which affects a number of neonates each year. The treatment involves heart transplantation and xenotransplantation, which on their own bring about a host of problems. PMID:7666751

  7. Bioethics and caring.

    PubMed Central

    van Hooft, S

    1996-01-01

    The author agrees with the critiques of moral theory offered by such writers as Bernard Williams and Alasdair MacIntyre, and uses ideas from Heidegger and Levinas to argue that caring is an ontological structure of human existence which takes two forms: caring about on self (which he calls our "self-project") and caring-about-others. This dual form of caring is expressed on four Aristotelian levels of human living which the author describes and illustrates with reference to the phenomenon of pain. It is concluded from this analysis that traditional notions of morality as imposing obligations should give way to an understanding of ethics as the social forms given to our caring for ourselves and for others. A number of implications for ethical theory are sketched out with the conclusion that virtue theory should be preferred and that the model could be worked out more fully to show that virtue theory can be internalist, particularist, pluralist, personalist and objectivist. PMID:8731533

  8. Bioethics of Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    As the ability to transplant organs and tissues has grown, the demand for these procedures has increased as well—to the point at which it far exceeds the available supply creating the core ethical challenge for transplantation—rationing. The gap between supply and demand, although large, is worse than it appears to be. There are two key steps to gaining access to a transplant. First, one must gain access to a transplant center. Then, those waiting need to be selected for a transplant. Many potential recipients do not get admitted to a program. They are deemed too old, not of the right nationality, not appropriate for transplant as a result of severe mental impairment, criminal history, drug abuse, or simply because they do not have access to a competent primary care physician who can refer them to a transplant program. There are also financial obstacles to access to transplant waiting lists in the United States and other nations. In many poor nations, those needing transplants simply die because there is no capacity or a very limited capacity to perform transplants. Although the demand for organs now exceeds the supply, resulting in rationing, the size of waiting lists would quickly expand were there to suddenly be an equally large expansion in the number of organs available for transplantation. Still, even with the reality of unavoidable rationing, saving more lives by increasing organ supply is a moral good. Current public policies for obtaining organs from cadavers are not adequate in that they do not produce the number of organs that public polls of persons in the United States indicate people are willing to donate. PMID:24478386

  9. Legal trends in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Onel, S; Fry-Revere, S

    1992-01-01

    Directives given in advance of need and substituted consent cases include: the New York trial court that denied the request of a patient's son for an order revoking the health care proxy his mother had given to his sister, the tape-recorded telephone conversation between the son and his mother was ruled to be insufficient evidence of the mother's desire to revoke the proxy, the mother was not fully responsive or articulate enough to convey her thoughts concerning the proxy. By the end of 1991, all states except Pennsylvania and Nebraska had enacted some form of advance directive legislation. The article highlights legislation from Arizona, California, Connecticut, Illinois, Hawaii, Louisiana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, and Virginia. A study from Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York comparing the views of surrogate decision makers with the decisions of currently competent, chronically ill, elderly patients found that surrogates were unable to predict the patients' wishes about resuscitation. AIDS developments include: The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) abandoning its plan to publish a list of categories of exposure-prone invasive procedures. The appropriation bill for the Treasury, Postal Service and General Government requires that states adopt CDC's guidelines or their equivalent within one year, or risk losing all Public Health Service funding. The article highlights 2 court cases relating to AIDS questions. The section on assisted suicide discusses the medical license suspension of Jack Kevorkian and his "suicide" machine. On the discontinuation of treatment, the authors discuss several court cases. patients' rights examples include the Washington State decision imposing a duty on the examining doctor to disclose abnormal test results to the person being examined, regardless of whether a doctor-patient relationship exists. Other topics include reproductive issues, the right to treatment, and treatment refusals. PMID:1301833

  10. Bioethics and biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Biotechnology is at the intersection of science and ethics. Technological developments are shaped by an ethical vision, which in turn is shaped by available technology. Much in biotechnology can be celebrated for how it benefits humanity. But technology can have a darker side. Biotechnology can produce unanticipated consequences that cause harm or dehumanise people. The ethical implications of proposed developments must be carefully examined. The ethical assessment of new technologies, including biotechnology, requires a different approach to ethics. Changes are necessary because new technology can have a more profound impact on the world; because of limitations with a rights-based approach to ethics; because of the importance and difficulty of predicting consequences; and because biotechnology now manipulates humans themselves. The ethical questions raised by biotechnology are of a very different nature. Given the potential to profoundly change the future course of humanity, such questions require careful consideration. Rather than focussing on rights and freedoms, wisdom is needed to articulate our responsibilities towards nature and others, including future generations. The power and potential of biotechnology demands caution to ensure ethical progress. PMID:19003197

  11. Bioethics in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur

    2016-07-01

    This article examines ethical issues debated in Iceland concerning population genetic research, specifically methods of collecting biosamples and ways to return clinically relevant results to participants. Also discussed are scientific research in the health sector, a bill on surrogacy, and a policy on consent for organ donation. PMID:27348827

  12. Bioethics of organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Arthur

    2014-03-01

    As the ability to transplant organs and tissues has grown, the demand for these procedures has increased as well--to the point at which it far exceeds the available supply creating the core ethical challenge for transplantation--rationing. The gap between supply and demand, although large, is worse than it appears to be. There are two key steps to gaining access to a transplant. First, one must gain access to a transplant center. Then, those waiting need to be selected for a transplant. Many potential recipients do not get admitted to a program. They are deemed too old, not of the right nationality, not appropriate for transplant as a result of severe mental impairment, criminal history, drug abuse, or simply because they do not have access to a competent primary care physician who can refer them to a transplant program. There are also financial obstacles to access to transplant waiting lists in the United States and other nations. In many poor nations, those needing transplants simply die because there is no capacity or a very limited capacity to perform transplants. Although the demand for organs now exceeds the supply, resulting in rationing, the size of waiting lists would quickly expand were there to suddenly be an equally large expansion in the number of organs available for transplantation. Still, even with the reality of unavoidable rationing, saving more lives by increasing organ supply is a moral good. Current public policies for obtaining organs from cadavers are not adequate in that they do not produce the number of organs that public polls of persons in the United States indicate people are willing to donate. PMID:24478386

  13. Eight years of bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Exebio, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta la experiencia que significó el paso por el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la investigación biomédica y psicosocial del Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile (2003–2004) y algunas reflexiones respecto de la integración de lo aprendido en mi posterior labor en comités de ética y programas académicos de ética de investigación. Asimismo, en la elaboración de regulaciones que permitan una mejor evaluación ética y científica. PMID:23172984

  14. Developing a Promotional Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epley, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for Extension professionals to show clientele the benefits of their program. This article shares how promotional videos are one way of reaching audiences online. An example is given on how a promotional video has been used and developed using iMovie software. Tips are offered for how professionals can create a promotional video and…

  15. A modern twist on the beaumont and st. Martin case: encouraging analysis and discussion in the bioethics classroom with reflective writing and concept mapping.

    PubMed

    Goller, Carlos C

    2014-12-01

    Historical ethical dilemmas are a valuable tool in bioethics courses. However, garnering student interest in reading and discussing the assigned cases in the classroom can be challenging. In an effort to actively engage undergraduate and graduate students in an Ethical Issues in Biotechnology course, an activity was developed to encourage reflection on a classical ethical dilemma between a patient, St. Martin, and his employer/caretaker, Beaumont. Two different texts were used to analyze the ethical ramifications of this relationship: a chapter in a popular press book and a short perspective in a medical journal. Participants read the book chapter for homework and discussed it in class. This easy read highlights the fundamental ethical issues in the relationship between two men. Students were then provided with a second text focusing on the scientific accomplishments achieved through Beaumont's experimentation on St. Martin. A structured worksheet prompted participants to reflect on their feelings after reading each text and create a concept map depicting the dilemma. Student-generated concept maps and written reflections indicate participants were able to list the ethical issues, analyze the situation, and evaluate the information provided. This activity not only encouraged higher-level thinking and reflection, it also mirrored the course's structured approach of using concept mapping and reflection to dissect ethical dilemmas. PMID:25574285

  16. A Modern Twist on the Beaumont and St. Martin Case: Encouraging Analysis and Discussion in the Bioethics Classroom with Reflective Writing and Concept Mapping†

    PubMed Central

    Goller, Carlos C.

    2014-01-01

    Historical ethical dilemmas are a valuable tool in bioethics courses. However, garnering student interest in reading and discussing the assigned cases in the classroom can be challenging. In an effort to actively engage undergraduate and graduate students in an Ethical Issues in Biotechnology course, an activity was developed to encourage reflection on a classical ethical dilemma between a patient, St. Martin, and his employer/caretaker, Beaumont. Two different texts were used to analyze the ethical ramifications of this relationship: a chapter in a popular press book and a short perspective in a medical journal. Participants read the book chapter for homework and discussed it in class. This easy read highlights the fundamental ethical issues in the relationship between two men. Students were then provided with a second text focusing on the scientific accomplishments achieved through Beaumont’s experimentation on St. Martin. A structured worksheet prompted participants to reflect on their feelings after reading each text and create a concept map depicting the dilemma. Student-generated concept maps and written reflections indicate participants were able to list the ethical issues, analyze the situation, and evaluate the information provided. This activity not only encouraged higher-level thinking and reflection, it also mirrored the course’s structured approach of using concept mapping and reflection to dissect ethical dilemmas. PMID:25574285

  17. Bio-ethical dilemmas related to medical treatment in pre-modern Jewish society, as a portal for raising current ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Mack, Tamar Salmon; Shaham, Dorith; Marcus, Esther-Lee

    2013-09-01

    Real-life ethical issues that concern those engaged in medical practice existed and were discussed in earlier ages. It seems that many of the same dilemmas that we face today occupied our ancestors as well. An investigation of historical sources may be useful in showing earlier methods of coping with the dilemmas relating to health and illness. In this article we will present several such topics taken from the sources of Jewish society in pre-modern Europe. These sources served as the basis for a course given to medical students as part of the Medical Humanities track. The "raw materials" are historical, written Hebrew and Yiddish sources from Jewish society. Genres include Minute books, the huge corpus of Responsa, historical elegies written about epidemics, memoirs, and instruction books written by Jewish physicians. Profound bio-ethical issues can be found in historical sources. Main issues discussed are: physician's fees, obligations, and rights; personal characteristics expected of physicians; physician's obligations when his/her own life is endangered; medicalization of certain human conditions; and ideological questions regarding the relationship between traditional folk medicine and modern, academic medicine. The historical distance facilitates a freer discussion about distant people, while getting in touch with our own attitudes. PMID:24340482

  18. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; de Carvalho, Antonio Ivo

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of health promotion within the Brazilian health system is examined, including an assessment of the intersectoral and development policies that have influenced the process. Particular attention is paid to the legal characteristics of the Unified Health System. Human resources formation and research initiatives in health promotion are outlined, with a summary of the obstacles that need to be overcome in order to ensure the effective implementation of health promotion in the future. Up to the end of the 20th Century health promotion was not used as a term in the Brazilian public heath context. Health promoting activities were concentrated in the area of health education, although targeting the social determinants of health and the principle of intersectoral action were part of the rhetoric. The situation has changed during the last decade, with the publication of a national policy of health promotion, issued by the Ministry of Health and jointly implemented with the States and Municipals Health Secretaries. More recently there has been a re-emergence of the discourse on the social determinants of health and the formation of intersectoral public policies as the basis of a comprehensive health promotion. Health promotion infrastructure, particularly around human resources and financing, requires strengthening in order to ensure capacity and sustainability in health promotion practice. PMID:18372870

  19. Mercy health promoter: A paradigm for just health care

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter A.; Schadt, Sam

    2013-01-01

    The foreign-born population in the United States, according to the “Current Populations Report” published in 2010, is estimated to exceed 39.9 million, or “12.9 percent of the U.S. population.” The increase in foreign-born peoples and their need for health care is a complicated issue facing many cities, health systems and hospitals. Over the course of the past few years Mercy Hospital of Philadelphia has treated increasing numbers of foreign-born African patients. The majority have been presenting in the late stages of disease. The increase of foreign-born documented and undocumented African patients seen by Mercy Hospitals seems to reflect a foreign-born population “boom” in Philadelphia over the past decade. To meet the needs of this growing population, the Mercy Hospital Task Force on African Immigration and the Institute of Catholic Bioethics at Saint Joseph’s University designed a program that centers on the third world concept of “Health Promoters.” This program is intended to serve as one possible solution for hospitals to cost-effectively manage the care of this growing percentage of foreign-born individuals in the population. This notion of a “Health Promoter” program in Philadelphia is unique as one of those rare occasions when a third world concept is being utilized in a first world environment. It is also unique in that it can serve as a paradigm for other hospitals in the United States to meet the growing need of health care for the undocumented population. As of November 2012 the Mercy Hospital of Philadelphia clinic became operative for patients who were referred from the Health Promoter clinics. To date, a total of forty-two patients have actively participated in the screenings, sixteen of which have been referred to Mercy Hospital of Philadelphia clinic for further evaluation. More than 75% of patient referrals were a result of high blood pressure. According to the American Medical Association, readings of 140–159 mmHg and

  20. High expression Zymomonas promoters

    DOEpatents

    Viitanen, Paul V.; Tao, Luan; Zhang, Yuying; Caimi, Perry G.; McCole, Laura : Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; McCutchen, Carol M.; Franden, Mary Ann

    2011-08-02

    Identified are mutants of the promoter of the Z. mobilis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, which direct improved expression levels of operably linked heterologous nucleic acids. These are high expression promoters useful for expression of chimeric genes in Zymomonas, Zymobacter, and other related bacteria.