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Sample records for autosomal dominant brachydactyly

  1. Autosomal dominant

    MedlinePlus

    ... dominant is one of several ways that a trait or disorder can be passed down (inherited) through ... Inheriting a disease, condition, or trait depends on the type of ... chromosome). It also depends on whether the trait is dominant or ...

  2. Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC).

    PubMed Central

    Blair, N P; Goldberg, M F; Fishman, G A; Salzano, T

    1984-01-01

    We report the second family recognised to have autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy. The clinical features were (1) autosomal dominant inheritance; (2) peripheral, coarse pigmentary degeneration of the fundus for 360 degrees, with a relatively discrete posterior border in the equatorial region (this finding may be pathognomonic); (3) superficial punctate yellowish-white opacities in the retina; (4) various vascular abnormalities; (5) breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier; (6) retinal neovascularisation; (7) vitreous abnormalities; and (8) choroidal atrophy. Visual reduction was mainly due to macular oedema or vitreous haemorrhage. Images PMID:6689931

  3. Autosomal dominant simple microphthalmos.

    PubMed Central

    Vingolo, E M; Steindl, K; Forte, R; Zompatori, L; Iannaccone, A; Sciarra, A; Del Porto, G; Pannarale, M R

    1994-01-01

    Congenital bilateral microphthalmos is a rare malformation of the eye, which ranges from extreme to mild reduction of total axial length. Microphthalmos may occur as an isolated ocular abnormality or as part of a systemic disorder, and different classifications of the condition have been attempted. We describe a large pedigree with 14 persons in four generations affected with bilateral microphthalmos without other ocular or systemic signs. An autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance is proposed. Five subjects underwent a complete ophthalmological evaluation. The total axial length was measured by A scan ultrasonography in all persons. Ultrasonography showed a reduction of the total axial length (range 18.4-19.7 mm) and a reduced vitreous cavity length (range 11.4-13.5 mm) in all investigated patients. All the patients had microcornea (range 8-9.7 mm). No other ocular anomalies or associated systemic malformations were found. A review of published reports also suggests that simple, partial, posterior, pure microphthalmos and nanophthalmos are similar clinical entities sharing total axial length and vitreous cavity length reduction. Therefore, the term simple microphthalmos is proposed to identify these clinical conditions. Images PMID:7815444

  4. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... clear how these versions of bestrophin affect chloride ion transport or lead to the eye abnormalities characteristic of ... 8. Vincent A, McAlister C, Vandenhoven C, Héon E. BEST1-related autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy: a degenerative disease ...

  5. Sulcus vocalis: evidence for autosomal dominant inheritance.

    PubMed

    Martins, R H G; Gonçalves, T M; Neves, D S; Fracalossi, T A; Tavares, E L M; Moretti-Ferreira, D

    2011-01-01

    We found evidence of autosomal dominant hereditary transmission of sulcus vocalis. Four dysphonic patients from three generations of the same family were submitted to videolaryngoscopic examination (three patients) and to direct laryngoscopy (one patient) to diagnose the hoarseness. Sulcus vocalis was diagnosed in all four patients. The finding of four affected individuals in three generations, with vertical transmission affecting man and women, is more consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance pattern; it is an etiological model that we propose for the sulcus vocalis in this pedigree. PMID:22194172

  6. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions ADPEAF autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features Enable Javascript to view the ... Open All Close All Description Autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features ( ADPEAF ) is an uncommon form ...

  7. Cleidocranial dysplasia with autosomal dominant inheritance pattern.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, P; Khan, S; Sharma, R; Bhargava, S

    2014-07-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant disease with a wide range of expression, characterized by clavicular hypoplasia, retarded cranial ossification, delayed bone and teeth development, supernumerary teeth, stomatognathic, craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities. This paper presents a case of CCD in a female with brachycephalic skull, depressed frontal bone and nasal bridge, hypoplastic middle one-third of face with mandibular prognathism and hyper mobility of both shoulders with associated radiographic features. Odontologist is often the first professional who patient of CCD approaches, since there is a delay in the eruption or absence of permanent teeth. The premature diagnosis allows a scope for proper treatment modalities, offering a better life quality for patient. PMID:25184084

  8. Cleidocranial Dysplasia with Autosomal Dominant Inheritance Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, P; Khan, S; Sharma, R; Bhargava, S

    2014-01-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant disease with a wide range of expression, characterized by clavicular hypoplasia, retarded cranial ossification, delayed bone and teeth development, supernumerary teeth, stomatognathic, craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities. This paper presents a case of CCD in a female with brachycephalic skull, depressed frontal bone and nasal bridge, hypoplastic middle one-third of face with mandibular prognathism and hyper mobility of both shoulders with associated radiographic features. Odontologist is often the first professional who patient of CCD approaches, since there is a delay in the eruption or absence of permanent teeth. The premature diagnosis allows a scope for proper treatment modalities, offering a better life quality for patient. PMID:25184084

  9. Autosomal Dominant Growth Hormone Deficiency (Type II).

    PubMed

    Alatzoglou, Kyriaki S; Kular, Dalvir; Dattani, Mehul T

    2015-06-01

    Isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) is the commonest pituitary hormone deficiency resulting from congenital or acquired causes, although for most patients its etiology remains unknown. Among the known factors, heterozygous mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) lead to the autosomal dominant form of GHD, also known as type II GHD. In many cohorts this is the commonest form of congenital isolated GHD and is mainly caused by mutations that affect the correct splicing of GH-1. These mutations cause skipping of the third exon and lead to the production of a 17.5-kDa GH isoform that exerts a dominant negative effect on the secretion of the wild type GH. The identification of these mutations has clinical implications for the management of patients, as there is a well-documented correlation between the severity of the phenotype and the increased expression of the 17.5-kDa isoform. Patients with type II GHD have a variable height deficit and severity of GHD and may develop additional pituitary hormone defiencies over time, including ACTH, TSH and gonadotropin deficiencies. Therefore, their lifelong follow-up is recommended. Detailed studies on the effect of heterozygous GH1 mutations on the trafficking, secretion and action of growth hormone can elucidate their mechanism on a cellular level and may influence future treatment options for GHD type II. PMID:26182479

  10. Rapid publication: Clinical and locus heterogeneity in brachydactyly type C

    SciTech Connect

    Robin, N.H.; Gunay-Aygun, M.; Polinkovsky, A.

    1997-01-31

    Brachydactyly type C is characterized by shortness of the second and fifth middle phalanges and the first metacarpal. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, and is noted for its widely variable clinical phenotype both within and between families. In most families involvement is limited to the hands. However, in some families additional skeletal and nonskeletal findings have been reported. We report on 12 affected members from a 5 generation kindred that segregates a brachydactyly type C phenotype. All affected individuals had shortness principally affecting the second and fifth phalanges and first metacarpal. However, the metacarpal-phalangeal profile indicated that other digital elements were short as well. In addition, one affected individual had a bilateral Madelung deformity, but none had foot involvement. No other non-skeletal findings cosegregated with brachydactyly in this family. Recently, a gene for brachydactyly type C has been localized to 12q24. This was done by studying a large kindred first reported by Haws [1963], which manifests both hand and foot anomalies. Here we present linkage data which excludes the 12q24 locus in our kindred, indicating locus heterogeneity as one explanation for the interfamilial variability described in brachydactyly type C. 33 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Epigenetics and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaogang

    2011-10-01

    The roles of epigenetic modulation of gene expression and protein functions in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) have recently become the focus of scientific investigation. Evidence generated to date indicates that one of the epigenetic modifiers, histone deacetylases (HDACs), are important regulators of ADPKD. HDACs are involved in regulating the expression of the Pkd1 gene and are the target of fluid flow-induced calcium signal in kidney epithelial cells. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC activity has been found to reduce the progression of cyst formation and slow the decline of kidney function in Pkd1 conditional knockout mice and Pkd2 knockout mice, respectively, implicating the potential clinical application of HDAC inhibitors on ADPKD. Since the expression of HDAC6 is upregulated in cystic epithelial cells, the potential roles of HDAC6 in regulating cilia resorption and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) trafficking through deacetylating α-tubulin and regulating Wnt signaling through deacetylating β-catenin are also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Polycystic Kidney Disease. PMID:20970496

  12. Symptom onset in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Aisen, Paul S.; Bird, Thomas; Danek, Adrian; Fox, Nick C.; Goate, Alison; Frommelt, Peter; Ghetti, Bernardino; Langbaum, Jessica B.S.; Lopera, Francisco; Martins, Ralph; Masters, Colin L.; Mayeux, Richard P.; McDade, Eric; Moreno, Sonia; Reiman, Eric M.; Ringman, John M.; Salloway, Steve; Schofield, Peter R.; Sperling, Reisa; Tariot, Pierre N.; Xiong, Chengjie; Morris, John C.; Bateman, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors influencing age at symptom onset and disease course in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD), and develop evidence-based criteria for predicting symptom onset in ADAD. Methods: We have collected individual-level data on ages at symptom onset and death from 387 ADAD pedigrees, compiled from 137 peer-reviewed publications, the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) database, and 2 large kindreds of Colombian (PSEN1 E280A) and Volga German (PSEN2 N141I) ancestry. Our combined dataset includes 3,275 individuals, of whom 1,307 were affected by ADAD with known age at symptom onset. We assessed the relative contributions of several factors in influencing age at onset, including parental age at onset, age at onset by mutation type and family, and APOE genotype and sex. We additionally performed survival analysis using data on symptom onset collected from 183 ADAD mutation carriers followed longitudinally in the DIAN Study. Results: We report summary statistics on age at onset and disease course for 174 ADAD mutations, and discover strong and highly significant (p < 10−16, r2 > 0.38) correlations between individual age at symptom onset and predicted values based on parental age at onset and mean ages at onset by mutation type and family, which persist after controlling for APOE genotype and sex. Conclusions: Significant proportions of the observed variance in age at symptom onset in ADAD can be explained by family history and mutation type, providing empirical support for use of these data to estimate onset in clinical research. PMID:24928124

  13. Weill-Marchesani syndrome - possible linkage of the autosomal dominant form to 15q21.1

    SciTech Connect

    Wirtz, M.K.; Samples, J.R.; Rust, K.

    1996-10-02

    Weill-Marchesani syndrome comprises short stature, brachydactyly, microspherophakia, glaucoma, and ectopia lentis is regarded as an autosomal recessive trait. We present two families each with affected individuals in 3 generations demonstrating autosomal dominant inheritance of Weill-Marchesani syndrome. Linkage analysis in these 2 families suggests a gene for Weill-Marchesani syndrome maps to 15q21.1. The dislocated lenses and connective tissue disorder in these families suggests that fibrillin-1 and microfibril-associated protein 1, which both map to 15q21.1, are candidate genes for Weill-Marchesani syndrome. Immunohistochemistry staining of skin sections from family 1 showed an apparent decrease in fibrillin staining compared to control individuals. 28 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Autosomal dominant inheritance of Brachmann-de Lange syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kozma, C.

    1996-12-30

    A mother with mild phenotype and her severely affected son, both with classic manifestations of Brachmann-de Lange syndrome (BDLS), are described. This documented mother-to-child transmission supports the hypothesis of autosomal dominant transmission with intrafamilial variability. Known cases of BDLS with autosomal dominant inheritance are reviewed. Although most cases of BDLS are sporadic, a careful evaluation of parents of affected children is important for appropriate genetic counseling. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Report of two novel mutations in PTHLH associated with brachydactyly type E and literature review.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Teinturier, Cecile; Pereda, Arrate; Garin, Intza; Diez-Lopez, Ignacio; Linglart, Agnès; Silve, Caroline; de Nanclares, Guiomar Pérez

    2016-03-01

    Autosomal-dominant brachydactyly type E is a congenital limb malformation characterized by small hands and feet as a result of shortened metacarpals and metatarsals. Alterations that predict haploinsufficiency of PTHLH, the gene coding for parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP), have been identified as a cause of this disorder in seven families. Here, we report three patients affected with brachydactyly type E, caused by PTHLH mutations expected to result in haploinsufficiency, and discuss our data compared to published reports. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26640227

  16. Evidence for further genetic heterogeneity in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar-Singh, R.; Kenna, P.F.; Farrar, G.J.; Humphries, P. )

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the possible involvement of further genetic heterogeneity in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa using a previously unreported large Irish family with the disease. We have utilized polymorphic microsatellite markers to exclude the disease gene segregating in this family from 3q, 6p, and the pericentric region of 8, that is, each of the three chromosomal regions to which adRP loci are known to map. Hence, we provide definitive evidence for the involvement of a fourth locus in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Autosomal dominant granulomatous arthritis, uveitis, skin rash, and synovial cysts.

    PubMed

    Pastores, G M; Michels, V V; Stickler, G B; Su, W P; Nelson, A M; Bovenmyer, D A

    1990-09-01

    In 1985, Blau reported a family with 11 members in four generations affected by granulomatous arthritis, iritis, skin rash, and periarticular synovial cysts. We report a second family with these abnormalities, thereby confirming this syndrome as a distinct familial entity with transmission compatible with autosomal dominant inheritance. Affected members in our family included a mother and two daughters. Disease onset was at 10 months to 8 years of age. Each had uveitis, symmetric polyarthritis, and synovial cysts overlying the ankle and wrist joints. In addition, both daughters had an intermittent generalized erythematous papular rash that on biopsy revealed noncaseating granulomatous infiltration. All three patients improved during alternate-day steroid therapy. Recognition of this disorder as distinct from other, more common causes of arthritis is important because of the apparent autosomal dominant transmission and because of the excellent responses to low-dose steroid therapy. PMID:2391595

  18. Familial aggregation of streptomycin ototoxicity: autosomal dominant inheritance?

    PubMed Central

    Viljoen, D L; Sellars, S L; Beighton, P

    1983-01-01

    Eight members of a large kindred of mixed ancestry from a remote rural area of South Africa were investigated for deafness. In each, severe permanent perceptive hearing loss had developed during antituberculous therapy with streptomycin sulphate in conventional doses. Although unproven by the data available in this study, the familial aggregation and pattern of distribution of sensitivity to streptomycin suggested autosomal dominant inheritance. PMID:6644766

  19. Predictors of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Brosnahan, Godela; Cadnapaphornchai, Melissa A.; Chonchol, Michel; Friend, Keith; Gitomer, Berenice; Rossetti, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder associated with substantial variability in its natural course within and between affected families. Understanding predictors for rapid progression of this disease has become increasingly important with the emergence of potential new treatments. This systematic review of the literature since 1988 evaluates factors that may predict and/or effect autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease progression. Predicting factors associated with early adverse structural and/or functional outcomes are considered. These factors include PKD1 mutation (particularly truncating mutation), men, early onset of hypertension, early and frequent gross hematuria, and among women, three or more pregnancies. Increases in total kidney volume and decreases in GFR and renal blood flow greater than expected for a given age also signify rapid disease progression. Concerning laboratory markers include overt proteinuria, macroalbuminuria, and perhaps, elevated serum copeptin levels in affected adults. These factors and others may help to identify patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease who are most likely to benefit from early intervention with novel treatments. PMID:24925719

  20. Nonallelic heterogeneity in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa with incomplete penetrance

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.K.; Berson, E.L.; Dryja, T.P.

    1994-08-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a group of retinal diseases in which photoreceptor cells throughout the retina degenerate. Although there is considerable genetic heterogeneity (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked forms exist), there is a possibility that some clinically defined subtypes of the disease may be the result of mutations at the same locus. One possible clinically defined subtype is that of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) with incomplete penetrance. Whereas in most families with ADRP, carriers can be clearly identified because of visual loss, ophthalmological findings, or abnormal electroretinograms (ERGs), in occasional families some obligate carriers are asymptomatic and have normal or nearly normal ERGs even late in life. A recent paper reported the mapping of the diseases locus in one pedigree (designated adRP7) with ADRP with incomplete penetrance to chromosome 7p. To test the idea that ADRP with incomplete penetrance may be genetically homogeneous, we have evaluated whether a different family with incomplete penetrance also has a disease gene linked to the same region. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Autosomal dominant optic nerve colobomas, vesicoureteral reflux, and renal anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmenti, L.A.; Pierpont, M.E.; Carpenter, B.L.M.

    1995-11-06

    We describe a father and 3 sons with optic nerve colobomas, vesicoureteral reflux, and renal anomalies. The youngest son had congenital renal failure and ultimately underwent renal transplantation. The father and one son had high frequency hearing loss. There were no other affected relatives. We conclude that the association of optic nerve colobomas, renal anomalies, and vesicoureteral reflux comprises a unique autosomal dominant syndrome. Molecular investigations have determined this disorder to be associated with a single nucleotide deletion in the PAX2 gene. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: the last 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Vicente E.; Harris, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most prevalent, potentially lethal monogenic disorder. It has large inter- and intra-familial variability explained to a large extent by its genetic heterogeneity and modifier genes. An increased understanding of its underlying genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms and a better appreciation of its progression and systemic manifestations have laid out the foundation for the development of clinical trials and potentially effective therapies. The purpose of this review is to update the core of knowledge in this area with recent publications that have appeared during 2006–2009. PMID:19455193

  3. Nutraceutical for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Therapy.

    PubMed

    Yuajit, Chaowalit; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited renal disorder caused by mutations of either PKD1 or PKD2 gene. Cyst formation initiates from a combination of abnormal cell proliferation along with enhanced fluid secretion. ADPKD is characterized by the progressive enlargement of cysts which destroy the renal parenchymal cells, resulting in renal failure. Currently, there is no effective treatment for this disease. Interestingly, several relevant therapeutic effects of herbal medicine relevant to pathogenic process of ADPKD have urged the researchers to search for potential candidate herb as nutraceutical for ADPKD therapy. Up to now, several natural compounds, such as triptolide, curcumin, ginkolide B, and steviol (stevia extract) have been shown to be able to retard cyst progression in ADPKD. The detailed mechanism of these compounds showed that triptolide enhanced calcium restoration, curcumin inhibited ERK & p-STAT3 pathways, ginkolide B inhibited Ras/MAPK pathway, and steviol activated AMPK, which inhibited CFTR channel and mTOR pathway in cell and mouse models of PKD. In addition, they are currently inpreclinical and clinical studies, respectively. This review focuses on the pathophysiology of ADPKD and the recent therapeutic approaches, especially a potential use of nutraceutical for the treatment of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PMID:26817244

  4. Homozygotes for the autosomal dominant neoplasia syndrome (MEN1)

    SciTech Connect

    Brandi, M.L.; Falchetti, A.; Tonelli, F. ); Weber, G.; Svensson, A.; Larsson, C. ); Castello, R.; Furlani, L.; Scappaticci, S.; Fraccaro, M.

    1993-12-01

    Families in which both parents are heterozygotes for the same autosomal dominant neoplasia syndrome are extremely unusual. Recently, the authors had the unique opportunity to evaluate three symptomatic siblings from the union between two unrelated individuals affected by multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). When the three siblings and their parents and relatives were genotyped for 12 markers tightly linked to the MEN1 locus, at 11q13, two of the siblings were found to be homozygotes, and one a heterozygote, for MEN1. With regard to the MEN1 syndrome, no phenotypic differences were observed between the two homozygotes and the heterozygotes. However, the two homozygotes showed unexplained infertility, which was not the case for any of the heterozygotes. Thus, MEN1 appears to be a disease with complete dominance, and the presence of two MEN1 alleles with mutations of the type that occur constitutionally may be insufficient for tumor development. 28 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Mutations in PRKCSH Cause Isolated Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Airong; Davila, Sonia; Furu, Laszlo; Qian, Qi; Tian, Xin; Kamath, Patrick S.; King, Bernard F.; Torres, Vicente E.; Somlo, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (ADPLD) is a distinct clinical and genetic entity that can occur independently from autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We previously studied two large kindreds and reported localization of a gene for ADPLD to an ∼8-Mb region, flanked by markers D19S586/D19S583 and D19S593/D19S579, on chromosome 19p13.2-13.1. Expansion of these kindreds and identification of an additional family allowed us to define flanking markers CA267 and CA048 in an ∼3-Mb region containing >70 candidate genes. We used a combination of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) heteroduplex analysis and direct sequencing to screen a panel of 15 unrelated affected individuals for mutations in genes from this interval. We found sequence variations in a known gene, PRKCSH, that were not observed in control individuals, that segregated with the disease haplotype, and that were predicted to be chain-terminating mutations. In contrast to PKD1, PKD2, and PKHD1, PRKCSH encodes a previously described human protein termed “protein kinase C substrate 80K-H” or “noncatalytic beta-subunit of glucosidase II.” This protein is highly conserved, is expressed in all tissues tested, and contains a leader sequence, an LDLa domain, two EF-hand domains, and a conserved C-terminal HDEL sequence. Its function may be dependent on calcium binding, and its putative actions include the regulation of N-glycosylation of proteins and signal transduction via fibroblast growth-factor receptor. In light of the focal nature of liver cysts in ADPLD, the apparent loss-of-function mutations in PRKCSH, and the two-hit mechanism operational in dominant polycystic kidney disease, ADPLD may also occur by a two-hit mechanism. PMID:12529853

  6. Autosomal dominant epidermodysplasia verruciformis: a clinicotherapeutic experience in two cases.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Surbhi; Sharma, Nand Lal; Shanker, Vinay; Mahajan, Vikram K; Jindal, Nidhi

    2010-01-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by a unique susceptibility to cutaneous infection by a group of phylogenetically related human papilloma viruses (HPVs). These patients show a defect in cell-mediated immunity specific toward the causative HPVs that lead to lifelong disease. The defect is usually inherited as autosomal recessive trait and presents clinically with plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions and reddish verrucous plaques. Dysplastic and malignant changes in the form of actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are common but metastasis occurs rarely. A totally effective treatment against EV is as yet highly desirable. Two siblings having autosomal dominant EV presented with multiple actinic keratoses in addition to classic lesions. One of them had also developed well-differentiated SCC over forehead with metastases to regional lymph nodes. They were treated with combination of excision of small malignant/premalignant lesions, topical 5-flurouracil and sun protection. Additionally, elective excision/grafting of large SCC was performed after chemotherapy/radiotherapy in patient with metastatic SCC. Oral acitretin (25 mg/day) was of benefit in the other patient. Overall clinicotherapeutic experience in both the patients is discussed here. PMID:20826999

  7. Mutations in PDGFRB Cause Autosomal-Dominant Infantile Myofibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Martignetti, John A.; Tian, Lifeng; Li, Dong; Ramirez, Maria Celeste M.; Camacho-Vanegas, Olga; Camacho, Sandra Catalina; Guo, Yiran; Zand, Dina J.; Bernstein, Audrey M.; Masur, Sandra K.; Kim, Cecilia E.; Otieno, Frederick G.; Hou, Cuiping; Abdel-Magid, Nada; Tweddale, Ben; Metry, Denise; Fournet, Jean-Christophe; Papp, Eniko; McPherson, Elizabeth W.; Zabel, Carrie; Vaksmann, Guy; Morisot, Cyril; Keating, Brendan; Sleiman, Patrick M.; Cleveland, Jeffrey A.; Everman, David B.; Zackai, Elaine; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2013-01-01

    Infantile myofibromatosis (IM) is a disorder of mesenchymal proliferation characterized by the development of nonmetastasizing tumors in the skin, muscle, bone, and viscera. Occurrence within families across multiple generations is suggestive of an autosomal-dominant (AD) inheritance pattern, but autosomal-recessive (AR) modes of inheritance have also been proposed. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in members of nine unrelated families clinically diagnosed with AD IM to identify the genetic origin of the disorder. In eight of the families, we identified one of two disease-causing mutations, c.1978C>A (p.Pro660Thr) and c.1681C>T (p.Arg561Cys), in PDGFRB. Intriguingly, one family did not have either of these PDGFRB mutations but all affected individuals had a c.4556T>C (p.Leu1519Pro) mutation in NOTCH3. Our studies suggest that mutations in PDGFRB are a cause of IM and highlight NOTCH3 as a candidate gene. Further studies of the crosstalk between PDGFRB and NOTCH pathways may offer new opportunities to identify mutations in other genes that result in IM and is a necessary first step toward understanding the mechanisms of both tumor growth and regression and its targeted treatment. PMID:23731542

  8. Novel therapeutic approaches to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    LaRiviere, Wells B; Irazabal, Maria V; Torres, Vicente E

    2015-04-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited disorder characterized by the progressive growth of renal cysts that, over time, destroy the architecture of the renal parenchyma and typically lead to kidney failure by the sixth decade of life. ADPKD is common and represents a leading cause of renal failure worldwide. Currently, there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments for the disease, and the existing standard of care is primarily supportive in nature. However, significant advances in the understanding of the molecular biology of the disease have inspired investigation into potential new therapies. Several drugs designed to slow or arrest the progression of ADPKD have shown promise in preclinical models and clinical trials, including vasopressin receptor antagonists and somatostatin analogs. This article examines the literature underlying the rationale for molecular therapies for ADPKD and reviews the existing clinical evidence for their indication for human patients with the disease. PMID:25438190

  9. Parkinsonism associated with autosomal dominant bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Manyam, B V.; Walters, A S.; Keller, I A.; Ghobrial, M

    2001-10-01

    Bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis (BSPDC, also known as Fahr's disease, a misnomer), is a rare disorder where bilateral, almost symmetric, calcium and other mineral deposits occur in subcortical nuclei and white matter. Neurological manifestations vary but movement disorders are the most common. Of the movement disorders, parkinsonism predominates. We describe 6 patients with BSPDC associated with parkinsonism. Of the 6 patients, one patient from an autosomal dominantly inherited family who responded to levodopa, showed Lewy bodies in substantia nigra neurons and changes consistent with BSPDC. Another patient, from the same family with clinical evidence of parkinsonism and radiological and neuropathological evidence of BSPDC, did not show Lewy bodies. Ten patients with BSPDC and parkinsonism (without evidence of parathyroid dysfunction) were found in the literature. When parkinsonism is associated with dementia and cerebellar signs, obtaining a CT scan may be helpful as BSPDC often presents with the above three conditions. PMID:11344012

  10. Platelet counts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Setyapranata, Stella; Holt, Stephen G

    2016-05-01

    Platelet counts in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) have been reported to be lower than in control populations in one small study but data are sparse. We retrospectively audited real world platelet data from 290 ADPKD patients with corresponding age and sex-matched controls. We analysed 42 972 individual blood counts and patients with ADPKD had statistically lower platelet counts (213 ± 63 vs. 238 ± 69 × 10(9)/L, p < 0.01) on dialysis. In the transplant and chronic kidney disease (CKD) groups, there were no significant differences in the platelet counts. The magnitude of the difference in platelet numbers was small and unlikely to be clinically significant, so findings of low platelets in ADPKD should be further investigated. PMID:26270278

  11. Metabolic abnormalities in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhiguo; Xie, Guoqiang; Ong, Albert C M

    2015-02-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited kidney disorder and is known to affect all ethnic groups with a prevalence of 1:400-1:1000 live births. The kidney in ADKPD is characterized by the formation of numerous cysts which progressively expand and eventually destroy normal kidney structure and function. Cysts occur in other organs outside the kidney, most commonly in the liver, pancreas and spleen. Important non-cystic features include intracranial aneurysms and cardiac valve defects. Less well recognized are a range of metabolic abnormalities, which could be involved in cystic disease progression or be associated with other disease complications. In this review, we summarize the literature suggesting that metabolic abnormalities could be important under-recognised and under-treated features in ADPKD. PMID:24589722

  12. Mitochondrial anomalies in a Swiss family with autosomal dominant myoglobinuria

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-du Pan, R.C.; Favre, H.; Junod, A.

    1997-04-14

    We report on a Swiss family in which 10 individuals of both sexes in 4 successive generations suffered from myoglobinuria, precipitated by febrile illness. It is the second family described with autosomal dominant inheritance of myoglobinuria. Four individuals suffered acute renal failure, which in two was reversible only after dialysis. In a recent case, a mitochondrial disorder was suspected because of an abnormal increase in lactate levels during an exercise test and because of a subsarcolemmal accumulation of mitochondria in a muscle biopsy, associated with a lack of cytochrome C oxidase in some muscle fibers. No mutation in the mitochondrial DNA was identified. Along with the inheritance pattern, these findings suggest that the myoglobinuria in this family is caused by a nuclear-encoded mutation affecting the respiratory chain. 22 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Novel therapeutic approaches to Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    LaRiviere, Wells B.; Irazabal, Maria V.; Torres, Vicente E.

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited disorder characterized by the progressive growth of renal cysts that, over time, destroy the architecture of the renal parenchyma and typically lead to kidney failure by the 6th decade of life. ADPKD is common and represents a leading cause of renal failure worldwide. Currently, there are no FDA approved treatment for the disease, and the existing standard of care is primarily supportive in nature. However, significant advances in the understanding of the molecular biology of the disease have inspired investigation into potential new therapies. Several drugs designed to slow or arrest the progression of ADPKD have shown promise in pre-clinical models and clinical trials, including vasopressin receptor antagonists and somatostatin analogs. This article examines literature underlying the rationale for molecular therapies for ADPKD and reviews the existing clinical evidence for their indication for human patients with the disease. PMID:25438190

  14. Autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease: a review and proposal for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease has provided significant understanding of the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. The present review summarizes clinical, pathological, imaging, biochemical, and molecular studies of autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease, highlighting the similarities and differences between the dominantly inherited form of Alzheimer's disease and the more common sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease. Current developments in autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease are presented, including the international Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network and this network's initiative for clinical trials. Clinical trials in autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease may test the amyloid hypothesis, determine the timing of treatment, and lead the way to Alzheimer's disease prevention. PMID:21211070

  15. SPP2 Mutations Cause Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Chen, Xue; Xu, Qihua; Gao, Xiang; Tam, Pancy O. S.; Zhao, Kanxing; Zhang, Xiumei; Chen, Li Jia; Jia, Wenshuang; Zhao, Qingshun; Vollrath, Douglas; Pang, Chi Pui; Zhao, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) shows progressive loss of photoreceptors involved with heterogeneous genetic background. Here, by exome sequencing and linkage analysis on a Chinese family with autosomal dominant RP, we identified a putative pathogenic variant, p.Gly97Arg, in the gene SPP2, of which expression was detected in multiple tissues including retina. The p.Gly97Arg was absent in 800 ethnically matched chromosomes and 1400 in-house exome dataset, and was located in the first of the two highly conserved disulfide bonded loop of secreted phosphoprotein 2 (Spp-24) encoded by SPP2. Overexpression of p.Gly97Arg and another signal peptide mutation, p.Gly29Asp, caused cellular retention of both endogenous wild type and exogenous mutants in vitro, and primarily affected rod photoreceptors in zebrafish mimicking cardinal feature of RP. Taken together, our data indicate that the two mutations of SPP2 have dominant negative effects and cellular accumulation of Spp-24 might be particularly toxic to photoreceptors and/or retinal pigment epithelium. SPP2 has a new role in retinal degeneration. PMID:26459573

  16. Desmin immunolocalisation in autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Piercy, Richard J; Zhou, Haiyan; Feng, Lucy; Pombo, Ana; Muntoni, Francesco; Brown, Susan C

    2007-04-01

    Autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (AD-EDMD) is one of a number of allelic disorders caused by mutations in the nuclear lamina proteins, lamins A and C. The disorder is characterised by the early onset of skeletal muscle weakness and joint contractures and later, by dilated cardiomyopathy and cardiac arrythmias. Although the pathophysiology is not understood, one theory suggests that disordered structural organisation at weakened nuclei in contractile cells may underlie the disease. Previous work shows that mice deficient in lamin A/C develop similar skeletal and cardiac muscle signs to patients with AD-EDMD and ultrastructural examination of muscle from these mice shows abnormal localisation of desmin. We hypothesised therefore that desmin localisation may be abnormal in muscle or cells from patients with AD-EDMD and/or in cells expressing mutant lamins. In order to evaluate this, desmin immunolocalisation was determined in skeletal muscle biopsy sections from patients with AD-EDMD and cell lines including MyoD-transfected fibroblast-derived myotubes from AD-EDMD patients and murine embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes stably transfected with mutant human lamin A. Ultrastructural examination of patient muscle was also performed. Desmin was expressed and localised normally in patient muscle and cell lines and ultrastructural examination was similar to controls. These results fail to provide any evidence that dominant mutations in lamin A/C lead to a disorganisation of the desmin associated cytoskeleton. PMID:17329105

  17. Autosomal dominant cyclic hematopoiesis: Genetics, phenotype, and natural history

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.E.; Stephens, K.; Dale, D.C.

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal dominant cyclic hematopoiesis (ADCH; cyclic neutropenia) is a rare disorder manifested by transient neutropenia that recurs every three weeks. To facilitate mapping the ADCH gene by genetic linkage analysis, we studied 9 ADCH families with 42 affected individuals. Pedigrees revealed AD inheritance with no evidence for decreased penetrance. Similar intra- and interfamilial variable expression was observed, with no evidence to support heterogeneity. At least 3 families displayed apparent new mutations. Many adults developed chronic neutropenia, while offspring always cycled during childhood. Children displayed recurrent oral ulcers, gingivitis, lymphadenopathy, fever, and skin and other infections with additional symptoms. Interestingly, there were no cases of neonatal infection. Some children required multiple hospitalizations for treatment. Four males under age 18 died of Clostridium sepsis following necrotizing enterocolitis; all had affected mothers. No other deaths due to ADCH were found; most had improvement of symptoms and infections as adults. Adults experienced increased tooth loss prior to age 30 (16 out of 27 adults, with 9 edentulous). No increase in myelodysplasia, malignancy, or congenital anomalies was observed. Recombinant G-CSF treatment resulted in dramatic improvement of symptoms and infections. The results suggest that ADCH is not a benign disorder, especially in childhood, and abdominal pain requires immediate evaluation. Diagnosis of ADCH requires serial blood counts in the proband and at least one CBC in relatives to exclude similar disorders. Genetic counseling requires specific histories as well as CBCs of each family member at risk to determine status regardless of symptom history, especially to assess apparent new mutations.

  18. Copa Syndrome: a Novel Autosomal Dominant Immune Dysregulatory Disease.

    PubMed

    Vece, Timothy J; Watkin, Levi B; Nicholas, Sarah K; Canter, Debra; Braun, Michael C; Guillerman, Robert Paul; Eldin, Karen W; Bertolet, Grant; McKinley, Scott D; de Guzman, Marietta; Forbes, Lisa R; Chinn, Ivan; Orange, Jordan S

    2016-05-01

    Inherently defective immunity typically results in either ineffective host defense, immune regulation, or both. As a category of primary immunodeficiency diseases, those that impair immune regulation can lead to autoimmunity and/or autoinflammation. In this review we focus on one of the most recently discovered primary immunodeficiencies that leads to immune dysregulation: "Copa syndrome". Copa syndrome is named for the gene mutated in the disease, which encodes the alpha subunit of the coatomer complex-I that, in aggregate, is devoted to transiting molecular cargo from the Golgi complex to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Copa syndrome is autosomal dominant with variable expressivity and results from mutations affecting a narrow amino acid stretch in the COPA gene-encoding COPα protein. Patients with these mutations typically develop arthritis and interstitial lung disease with pulmonary hemorrhage representing a striking feature. Immunologically Copa syndrome is associated with autoantibody development, increased Th17 cells and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression including IL-1β and IL-6. Insights have also been gained into the underlying mechanism of Copa syndrome, which include excessive ER stress owing to the impaired return of proteins from the Golgi, and presumably resulting aberrant cellular autophagy. As such it represents a novel cellular disorder of intracellular trafficking associated with a specific clinical presentation and phenotype. PMID:27048656

  19. Evaluation of Nephrolithiasis in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nishiura, José L.; Neves, Rodrigo F.C.A.; Eloi, Samara R.M.; Cintra, Susan M.L.F.; Ajzen, Sergio A.; Heilberg, Ita P.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Nephrolithiasis (LIT) is more prevalent in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) than in the general population. Renal ultrasonography may underdetect renal stones because of difficulties imposed by parenchymal and/or cyst wall calcifications. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: A total of 125 patients with ADPKD underwent ultrasonography and unenhanced computed tomography (CT) scan, routine blood chemistry, and spot and 24-h urine collections. Results: CT scan detected calculi in 32 patients, including 20 whose previous ultrasonography revealed no calculi. The percentage of hypocitraturia was high but not statistically different between patients with ADPKD+LIT or ADPKD. Hyperuricosuria and distal renal tubular acidosis were less prevalent but also did not differ between groups, whereas hyperoxaluria was significantly higher in the former. Hypercalciuria was not detected. Renal volume was significantly higher in patients with ADPKD+LIT versus ADPKD, and a stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a renal volume ≥500 ml was a significant predictor of LIT in patients with ADPKD and normal renal function, after adjustments for age and hypertension. Conclusions: CT scan was better than ultrasonography to detect LIT in patients with ADPKD. Larger kidneys from patients with ADPKD were more prone to develop stones, irrespective of the presence of metabolic disturbances. PMID:19339428

  20. Vestibular function in families with inherited autosomal dominant hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Street, Valerie A.; Kallman, Jeremy C.; Strombom, Paul D.; Bramhall, Naomi F.; Phillips, James O.

    2008-01-01

    The inner ear contains the developmentally related cochlea and peripheral vestibular labyrinth. Given the similar physiology between these two organs, hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction may be expected to occur simultaneously in individuals segregating mutations in inner ear genes. Twenty-two different genes have been discovered that when mutated lead to non-syndromic autosomal dominant hearing loss. A review of the literature indicates that families segregating mutations in 13 of these 22 genes have undergone formal clinical vestibular testing. Formal assessment revealed vestibular dysfunction in families with mutations in ten of these 13 genes. Remarkably, only families with mutations in the COCH and MYO7A genes self-report considerable vestibular challenges. Families segregating mutations in the other eight genes do not self-report significant balance problems and appear to compensate well in everyday life for vestibular deficits discovered during formal clinical vestibular assessment. An example of a family (referred to as the HL1 family) with progressive hearing loss and clinically-detected vestibular hypofunction that does not report vestibular symptoms is described in this review. Notably, one member of the HL1 family with clinically-detected vestibular hypofunction reached the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro. PMID:18776598

  1. [Clinical diagnosis of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease].

    PubMed

    Magistroni, Riccardo; Izzi, Claudia; Scolari, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common genetic disorder related to kidney. ADPKD is usually easy to diagnose in people who have a family history of ADPKDs developing typical symptoms, including flank, abdominal pain or macroscopic hematuria. In this setting, diagnosis in adults at risk for ADPKD is commonly performed by ultrasonography, which reveals two enlarged kidneys with multiple bilateral cysts. ADPKD may be more difficult to diagnose in the absence of family history or in subjects with atypical presentation, including asymmetric or focal renal imaging findings, discordant disease within family, early onset of ADPKD and development of ESRD before 30 yr of age. The presence of a total of three or more renal cysts for at-risk subjects aged 15-39 years and two cysts or more in each kidney for at-risk subjects aged 40-59 years are sufficient for the diagnosis of ADPKD. The absence of any renal cyst is sufficient for disease exclusion only for at-risk subjects aged 40 years or older. If the family history is negative, the diagnosis of ADPKD can be made in a patient with enlarged kidneys, numerous cysts, presence of liver cysts and absence of findings suggesting a different cystic disease. If the imaging diagnosis is not clear or showing atypical manifestations in subjects, molecular genetic testing should be performed. PMID:27067212

  2. Developments in the management of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Masoumi, Amirali; Reed-Gitomer, Berenice; Kelleher, Catherine; Bekheirnia, Mir Reza; Schrier, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent life- threatening, hereditary disease. ADPKD is more common than sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, Down’s syndrome, and Huntington’s disease combined. ADPKD is a multisystemic disorder characterized by the progressive development of renal cysts and marked renal enlargement. Structural and functional renal deterioration occurs in ADPKD patients and is the fourth leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in adults. Aside from the renal manifestations, extrarenal structural abnormalities, such as liver cysts, cardiovascular abnormalities, and intracranial aneurysms may lead to morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have identified prognostic factors for progressive renal impairment including gender, race, age, proteinuria, hematuria, hypertension and increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Early diagnosis and better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease provides the opportunity to aggressivly treat hypertension with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and thereby potentially reduce LVMI, prevent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and slow progression of the renal disease. PMID:18728845

  3. Genetics, phenotype, and natural history of autosomal dominant cyclic hematopoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.E.; Dale, D.C.

    1996-12-30

    Cyclic hematopoiesis (CH, or cyclic neutropenia) is a rare disease manifested by transient severe neutropenia that recurs approximately every 21 days. The hematologic profile of families with the autosomal dominant form (ADCH) has not been well characterized, and it is unknown if the phenotype is distinct from the more common sporadic congenital or acquired forms of CH. We studied nine ADCH families whose children displayed typical CH blood patterns. Pedigrees confirmed dominant inheritance without evidence of heterogeneity or decreased penetrance; three pedigrees suggested new mutations. Families were Caucasian with exception of one with a Cherokee Native American founder. A wide spectrum of symptom severity, ranging from asymptomatic to life-threatening illness, was observed within families. The phenotype changed with age. Children displayed typical neutrophil cycles with symptoms of mucosal ulceration, lymphadenopathy, and infections. Adults often had fewer and milder symptoms, sometimes accompanied by mild chronic neutropenia without distinct cycles. While CH is commonly described as {open_quotes}benign{close_quotes}, four children in three of the nine families died of Clostridium or E. coli colitis, documenting the need for urgent evaluation of abdominal pain. Misdiagnosis with other neutropenias was common but can be avoided by serial blood counts in index cases. Genetic counseling requires specific histories and complete blood counts in relatives at risk to assess status regardless of symptoms, especially to determine individuals with new mutations. We propose diagnostic criteria for ADCH in affected children and adults. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment resulted in dramatic improvement of neutropenia and morbidity. The differential diagnosis from other forms of familial neutropenia is reviewed. 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Multigenerational autosomal dominant inheritance of 5p chromosomal deletions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Willing, Marcia; Grange, Dorothy K; Shinawi, Marwan; Manwaring, Linda; Vineyard, Marisa; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Cottrell, Catherine E

    2016-03-01

    Deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-) is associated with phenotypic features including a cat-like cry in infancy, dysmorphic facial features, microcephaly, and intellectual disability, and when encompassing a minimal critical region, may be defined as Cri-du-Chat syndrome (CdCS). Most 5p deletions are de novo in origin, and familial cases are often associated with translocation and inversion. Herein, we report three multigenerational families carrying 5p terminal deletions of different size transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner causing variable clinical findings. Terminal 5p deletions and the mode of inheritance were clinically characterized and molecularly analyzed by a combination of microarray and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses. Shared phenotypic features documented in this cohort included neuropsychiatric findings, poor growth, and dysmorphic facial features. This study supports newly recognized effects of aberrant SEMA5A and CTNND2 dosage on severity of autistic and cognitive phenotypes. Comparative analysis of the breakpoints narrows the critical region for the cat-like cry down to an interval less than 1 Mb encompassing a candidate gene ICE1, which regulates small nuclear RNA transcription. This study also indicates that familial terminal 5p deletion is a rare presentation displaying intra- and inter-familial phenotypic variability, the latter of which may be attributed to size and gene content of the deletion. The observed intra-familial phenotypic heterogeneity suggests that additional modifying elements including genetic and environmental factors may have an impact on the clinical manifestations observed in 5p deletion carriers, and in time, further high resolution studies of 5p deletion breakpoints will continue to aid in defining genotype-phenotype correlations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26601658

  5. Current management of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2015-09-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the most frequent cause of genetic renal disease affecting approximately 4 to 7 million individuals worldwide and accounting for 7%-15% of patients on renal replacement therapy, is a systemic disorder mainly involving the kidney but cysts can also occur in other organs such as the liver, pancreas, arachnoid membrane and seminal vesicles. Though computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were similar in evaluating 81% of cystic lesions of the kidney, MRI may depict septa, wall thickening or enhancement leading to upgrade in cyst classification that can affect management. A screening strategy for intracranial aneurysms would provide 1.0 additional year of life without neurological disability to a 20-year-old patient with ADPKD and reduce the financial impact on society of the disease. Current treatment strategies include reducing: cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels, cell proliferation and fluid secretion. Several randomised clinical trials (RCT) including mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, somatostatin analogues and a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist have been performed to study the effect of diverse drugs on growth of renal and hepatic cysts, and on deterioration of renal function. Prophylactic native nephrectomy is indicated in patients with a history of cyst infection or recurrent haemorrhage or to those in whom space must be made to implant the graft. The absence of large RCT on various aspects of the disease and its treatment leaves considerable uncertainty and ambiguity in many aspects of ADPKD patient care as it relates to end stage renal disease (ESRD). The outlook of patients with ADPKD is improving and is in fact much better than that for patients in ESRD due to other causes. This review highlights the need for well-structured RCTs as a first step towards trying newer interventions so as to develop updated clinical management guidelines. PMID:26380198

  6. Current management of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the most frequent cause of genetic renal disease affecting approximately 4 to 7 million individuals worldwide and accounting for 7%-15% of patients on renal replacement therapy, is a systemic disorder mainly involving the kidney but cysts can also occur in other organs such as the liver, pancreas, arachnoid membrane and seminal vesicles. Though computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were similar in evaluating 81% of cystic lesions of the kidney, MRI may depict septa, wall thickening or enhancement leading to upgrade in cyst classification that can affect management. A screening strategy for intracranial aneurysms would provide 1.0 additional year of life without neurological disability to a 20-year-old patient with ADPKD and reduce the financial impact on society of the disease. Current treatment strategies include reducing: cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels, cell proliferation and fluid secretion. Several randomised clinical trials (RCT) including mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, somatostatin analogues and a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist have been performed to study the effect of diverse drugs on growth of renal and hepatic cysts, and on deterioration of renal function. Prophylactic native nephrectomy is indicated in patients with a history of cyst infection or recurrent haemorrhage or to those in whom space must be made to implant the graft. The absence of large RCT on various aspects of the disease and its treatment leaves considerable uncertainty and ambiguity in many aspects of ADPKD patient care as it relates to end stage renal disease (ESRD). The outlook of patients with ADPKD is improving and is in fact much better than that for patients in ESRD due to other causes. This review highlights the need for well-structured RCTs as a first step towards trying newer interventions so as to develop updated clinical management guidelines. PMID:26380198

  7. Heterozygous Reelin Mutations Cause Autosomal-Dominant Lateral Temporal Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dazzo, Emanuela; Fanciulli, Manuela; Serioli, Elena; Minervini, Giovanni; Pulitano, Patrizia; Binelli, Simona; Di Bonaventura, Carlo; Luisi, Concetta; Pasini, Elena; Striano, Salvatore; Striano, Pasquale; Coppola, Giangennaro; Chiavegato, Angela; Radovic, Slobodanka; Spadotto, Alessandro; Uzzau, Sergio; La Neve, Angela; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Mecarelli, Oriano; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.; Ottman, Ruth; Michelucci, Roberto; Nobile, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal-dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) is a genetic epilepsy syndrome clinically characterized by focal seizures with prominent auditory symptoms. ADLTE is genetically heterogeneous, and mutations in LGI1 account for fewer than 50% of affected families. Here, we report the identification of causal mutations in reelin (RELN) in seven ADLTE-affected families without LGI1 mutations. We initially investigated 13 ADLTE-affected families by performing SNP-array linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing and identified three heterozygous missense mutations co-segregating with the syndrome. Subsequent analysis of 15 small ADLTE-affected families revealed four additional missense mutations. 3D modeling predicted that all mutations have structural effects on protein-domain folding. Overall, RELN mutations occurred in 7/40 (17.5%) ADLTE-affected families. RELN encodes a secreted protein, Reelin, which has important functions in both the developing and adult brain and is also found in the blood serum. We show that ADLTE-related mutations significantly decrease serum levels of Reelin, suggesting an inhibitory effect of mutations on protein secretion. We also show that Reelin and LGI1 co-localize in a subset of rat brain neurons, supporting an involvement of both proteins in a common molecular pathway underlying ADLTE. Homozygous RELN mutations are known to cause lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia. Our findings extend the spectrum of neurological disorders associated with RELN mutations and establish a link between RELN and LGI1, which play key regulatory roles in both the developing and adult brain. PMID:26046367

  8. Heterozygous reelin mutations cause autosomal-dominant lateral temporal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Dazzo, Emanuela; Fanciulli, Manuela; Serioli, Elena; Minervini, Giovanni; Pulitano, Patrizia; Binelli, Simona; Di Bonaventura, Carlo; Luisi, Concetta; Pasini, Elena; Striano, Salvatore; Striano, Pasquale; Coppola, Giangennaro; Chiavegato, Angela; Radovic, Slobodanka; Spadotto, Alessandro; Uzzau, Sergio; La Neve, Angela; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Mecarelli, Oriano; Tosatto, Silvio C E; Ottman, Ruth; Michelucci, Roberto; Nobile, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    Autosomal-dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) is a genetic epilepsy syndrome clinically characterized by focal seizures with prominent auditory symptoms. ADLTE is genetically heterogeneous, and mutations in LGI1 account for fewer than 50% of affected families. Here, we report the identification of causal mutations in reelin (RELN) in seven ADLTE-affected families without LGI1 mutations. We initially investigated 13 ADLTE-affected families by performing SNP-array linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing and identified three heterozygous missense mutations co-segregating with the syndrome. Subsequent analysis of 15 small ADLTE-affected families revealed four additional missense mutations. 3D modeling predicted that all mutations have structural effects on protein-domain folding. Overall, RELN mutations occurred in 7/40 (17.5%) ADLTE-affected families. RELN encodes a secreted protein, Reelin, which has important functions in both the developing and adult brain and is also found in the blood serum. We show that ADLTE-related mutations significantly decrease serum levels of Reelin, suggesting an inhibitory effect of mutations on protein secretion. We also show that Reelin and LGI1 co-localize in a subset of rat brain neurons, supporting an involvement of both proteins in a common molecular pathway underlying ADLTE. Homozygous RELN mutations are known to cause lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia. Our findings extend the spectrum of neurological disorders associated with RELN mutations and establish a link between RELN and LGI1, which play key regulatory roles in both the developing and adult brain. PMID:26046367

  9. An autosomal dominant syndrome of acromegaloid facial appearance and generalised hypertrichosis terminalis.

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, A D; Dolan, O M; Hadden, D R; Stewart, F J; Bingham, E A; Nevin, N C

    1996-01-01

    We report a family in which a phenotype of acromegaloid facial appearance (AFA) and generalised hypertrichosis terminalis segregates through three generations. Congenital hypertrichosis terminalis and AFA have been previously reported as independent autosomal dominant traits. This is the first report to delineate an autosomal dominant transmission of the combined phenotype. Images PMID:8950682

  10. Angiotensin Blockade in Late Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Vicente E.; Abebe, Kaleab Z.; Chapman, Arlene B.; Schrier, Robert W.; Braun, William E.; Steinman, Theodore I.; Winklhofer, Franz T.; Brosnahan, Godela; Czarnecki, Peter G.; Hogan, Marie C.; Miskulin, Dana C.; Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic F.; Grantham, Jared J.; Harris, Peter C.; Flessner, Michael F.; Moore, Charity G.; Perrone, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hypertension develops early in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and is associated with disease progression. The renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension in patients with ADPKD. Dual blockade of the RAAS may circumvent compensatory mechanisms that limit the efficacy of monotherapy with an angiotensin-converting–enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin II–receptor blocker (ARB). METHODS In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 486 patients, 18 to 64 years of age, with ADPKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR], 25 to 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area) to receive an ACE inhibitor (lisinopril) and placebo or lisinopril and an ARB (telmisartan), with the doses adjusted to achieve a blood pressure of 110/70 to 130/80 mm Hg. The composite primary outcome was the time to death, end-stage renal disease, or a 50% reduction from the baseline estimated GFR. Secondary outcomes included the rates of change in urinary aldosterone and albumin excretion, frequency of hospitalizations for any cause and for cardiovascular causes, incidence of pain, frequency of ADPKD-related symptoms, quality of life, and adverse study-medication effects. Patients were followed for 5 to 8 years. RESULTS There was no significant difference between the study groups in the incidence of the composite primary outcome (hazard ratio with lisinopril–telmisartan, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.42). The two treatments controlled blood pressure and lowered urinary aldosterone excretion similarly. The rates of decline in the estimated GFR, urinary albumin excretion, and other secondary outcomes and adverse events, including hyperkalemia and acute kidney injury, were also similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Monotherapy with an ACE inhibitor was associated with blood-pressure control in most patients with ADPKD and stage 3 chronic kidney disease. The addition of an ARB did not alter the decline in the estimated GFR. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; HALT-PKD [Study B] ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01885559.) PMID:25399731

  11. Blood Pressure in Early Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schrier, Robert W.; Abebe, Kaleab Z.; Perrone, Ronald D.; Torres, Vicente E.; Braun, William E.; Steinman, Theodore I.; Winklhofer, Franz T.; Brosnahan, Godela; Czarnecki, Peter G.; Hogan, Marie C.; Miskulin, Dana C.; Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic F.; Grantham, Jared J.; Harris, Peter C.; Flessner, Michael F.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Moore, Charity G.; Chapman, Arlene B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hypertension is common in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and is associated with increased total kidney volume, activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, and progression of kidney disease. METHODS In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 558 hypertensive participants with ADPKD (15 to 49 years of age, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR] >60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area) to either a standard blood-pressure target (120/70 to 130/80 mm Hg) or a low blood-pressure target (95/60 to 110/75 mm Hg) and to either an angiotensin-converting–enzyme inhibitor (lisinopril) plus an angiotensin-receptor blocker (telmisartan) or lisinopril plus placebo. The primary outcome was the annual percentage change in the total kidney volume. RESULTS The annual percentage increase in total kidney volume was significantly lower in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (5.6% vs. 6.6%, P = 0.006), without significant differences between the lisinopril–telmisartan group and the lisinopril–placebo group. The rate of change in estimated GFR was similar in the two medication groups, with a negative slope difference in the short term in the low-blood-pressure group as compared with the standard-blood-pressure group (P<0.001) and a marginally positive slope difference in the long term (P = 0.05). The left-ventricular-mass index decreased more in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (−1.17 vs. −0.57 g per square meter per year, P<0.001); urinary albumin excretion was reduced by 3.77% with the low-pressure target and increased by 2.43% with the standard target (P<0.001). Dizziness and light-headedness were more common in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (80.7% vs. 69.4%, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS In early ADPKD, the combination of lisinopril and telmisartan did not significantly alter the rate of increase in total kidney volume. As compared with standard blood-pressure control, rigorous blood-pressure control was associated with a slower increase in total kidney volume, no overall change in the estimated GFR, a greater decline in the left-ventricular-mass index, and greater reduction in urinary albumin excretion. PMID:25399733

  12. Hypotrichosis with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia in three generations: a new autosomal dominant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Whyte, M P; Petersen, D J; McAlister, W H

    1990-07-01

    We describe a family with a new disorder characterized by congenital hypotrichosis and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia that results in mild rhizomelic short stature. Five individuals in 3 generations are affected with autosomal dominant inheritance. PMID:2363424

  13. A gene for autosomal dominant congenital nystagmus localizes to 6p12

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrison, J.B.; Arnould, V.J.; Koenekoop, R.K.

    1996-05-01

    Congenital nystagmus is an idiopathic disorder characterized by bilateral ocular oscillations usually manifest during infancy. Vision is typically decreased due to slippage of images across the fovea. As such, visual acuity correlates with nystagmus intensity, which is the amplitude and frequency of eye movements at a given position of gaze. X-linked, autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive pedigrees have been described, but no mapping studies have been published. We recently described a large pedigree with autosomal dominant congenital nystagmus. A genome-wide search resulted in six markers on 6p linked by two-point analysis at {theta} = 0 (D6S459, D6S452, D6S465, FTHP1, D6S257, D6S430). Haplotype analysis localizes the gene for autosomal dominant congenital motor mystagmus to an 18-cM region between D6S271 and D6S455. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Autosomal dominant familial spastic paraplegia: Tight linkage to chromosome 15q

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.; Wu, C.B.; Jones, S.M.; Lesicki, A.; Reinglass, T.; Sharp, G.B.; Lange, B.M.; Varvil, T.; Otterud, B.; Leppert, M.

    1995-01-01

    Autosomal dominant, uncomplicated familial spastic paraplegia (FSP) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by insidiously progressive lower-extremity spasticity. Recently, a locus on chromosome 14q was shown to be tightly linked with the disorder in one of three families. We performed linkage analysis in a kindred with autosomal dominant uncomplicated FSP. After excluding the chromosome 14q locus, we observed tight linkage of the disorder to a group of markers on chromosome 15q (maximum two-point lod score 9.70; {theta} = .05). Our results clearly establish the existence of a locus for autosomal dominant FSP in the centromeric region of chromosome 15q. Comparing clinical and genetic features in FSP families linked to chromosome 14q with those linked to chromosome 15q may provide insight into the pathophysiology of this disorder. 34 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Bovine Polledness – An Autosomal Dominant Trait with Allelic Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Medugorac, Ivica; Seichter, Doris; Graf, Alexander; Russ, Ingolf; Blum, Helmut; Göpel, Karl Heinrich; Rothammer, Sophie; Förster, Martin; Krebs, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The persistent horns are an important trait of speciation for the family Bovidae with complex morphogenesis taking place briefly after birth. The polledness is highly favourable in modern cattle breeding systems but serious animal welfare issues urge for a solution in the production of hornless cattle other than dehorning. Although the dominant inhibition of horn morphogenesis was discovered more than 70 years ago, and the causative mutation was mapped almost 20 years ago, its molecular nature remained unknown. Here, we report allelic heterogeneity of the POLLED locus. First, we mapped the POLLED locus to a ∼381-kb interval in a multi-breed case-control design. Targeted re-sequencing of an enlarged candidate interval (547 kb) in 16 sires with known POLLED genotype did not detect a common allele associated with polled status. In eight sires of Alpine and Scottish origin (four polled versus four horned), we identified a single candidate mutation, a complex 202 bp insertion-deletion event that showed perfect association to the polled phenotype in various European cattle breeds, except Holstein-Friesian. The analysis of the same candidate interval in eight Holsteins identified five candidate variants which segregate as a 260 kb haplotype also perfectly associated with the POLLED gene without recombination or interference with the 202 bp insertion-deletion. We further identified bulls which are progeny tested as homozygous polled but bearing both, 202 bp insertion-deletion and Friesian haplotype. The distribution of genotypes of the two putative POLLED alleles in large semi-random sample (1,261 animals) supports the hypothesis of two independent mutations. PMID:22737241

  16. Evidence of autosomal dominant mutations in childhood-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnik-Schoeneborn, S.; Wirth, B.; Zerres, K. )

    1994-07-01

    Autosomal recessive and dominant inheritance of proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are well documented. Several genetic studies found a significant deviation from the assumption of recessive inheritance in SMA, with affected children in one generation. The existence of new autosomal dominant mutations has been assumed as the most suitable explanation, which is supported by three observations of this study: (1) The segregation ratio calculated in 333 families showed a significant deviation from autosomal recessive inheritance in the milder forms of SMA (= .09[+-].06 for onset at 10-36 mo and .13[+-].07 for onset at >36 mo; and P = .09[+-]0.7 for SMA IIIa and .12[+-].07 for SMA IIIb). (2) Three families with affected subjects in two generations are reported, in whom the disease could have started as an autosomal dominant mutation. (3) Linkage studies with chromosome 5q markers showed that in 5 (5.4%) of 93 informative families the patient shared identical haplotypes with at least one healthy sib. Other mechanisms, such as the existence of phenocopies, pseudodominance, or a second autosomal recessive gene locus, cannot be excluded in single families. The postulation of spontaneous mutations, however, is a suitable explanation for all three observations. Estimated risk figures for genetic counseling are given. 29 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. A recurring dominant negative mutation causes autosomal dominant growth hormone deficiency - a clinical research center study

    SciTech Connect

    Cogan, J.D.; Prince, M.; Phillips, J.

    1995-12-01

    Familial isolated GH deficiency type II (IGHD-II) is an autosomal dominant disorder that has been previously shown in some patients to be caused by heterogeneous GH gene defects that affect GH messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing. We report here our findings of multiple G{r_arrow}A transitions of the first base of the donor splice site of IVS 3 (+1G{r_arrow}A) in IGHD II subjects from three nonrelated kindreds from Sweden, North America, and South Africa. This + 1G{r_arrow}A substitution creates an NlaIII site that was used to demonstrate that all affected individuals in all three families were heterozygous for the mutation. To determine the effect of this mutation of GH mRNA processing, HeLa cells were transfected with expression plasmids containing normal or mutant +1G{r_arrow}A alleles, and complementary DNAs from the resulting GH mRNAs were sequenced. The mutation was found to destroy the GH IVS3 donor splice site, causing skipping of exon 3 and loss of the codons for amino acids 32-71 of the mature GH peptide from the mutant GH mRNA. Our finding of exon 3 skipping in transcripts of the +1G{r_arrow}A mutant allele is identical to our previous report of a different sixth base transition (+6T{r_arrow}C) mutation of the IVS 3 donor splice site that also causes IGHD II. Microsatellite analysis of an affected subjects` DNA from each of the three nonrelated kindreds indicates that the +1G{r_arrow}A mutation arose independently in each family. Finding that neither grandparent has the mutation in the first family suggests that it arose de novo in that family. Our data indicate that (1) +1G{r_arrow}A IVS 3 mutations perturb GH mRNA splicing and cause IGHD II; and (2) these mutations can present as de novo GHD cases. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. A locus for autosomal dominant colobomatous microphthalmia maps to chromosome 15q12-q15.

    PubMed

    Morlé, L; Bozon, M; Zech, J C; Alloisio, N; Raas-Rothschild, A; Philippe, C; Lambert, J C; Godet, J; Plauchu, H; Edery, P

    2000-12-01

    Congenital microphthalmia is a common developmental ocular disorder characterized by shortened axial length. Isolated microphthalmia is clinically and genetically heterogeneous and may be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked manner. Here, we studied a five-generation family of Sephardic Jewish origin that included 38 members, of whom 7 have either unilateral or bilateral microphthalmia of variable severity inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete penetrance. After exclusion of several candidate loci, we performed a genome-scan study and demonstrated linkage to chromosome 15q12-q15. Positive LOD scores were obtained with a maximum at the D15S1007 locus (maximum LOD score 3.77, at recombination fraction 0.00). Haplotype analyses supported the location of the disease-causing gene in a 13.8-cM interval between loci D15S1002 and D15S1040. PMID:11035633

  19. A Locus for Autosomal Dominant Colobomatous Microphthalmia Maps to Chromosome 15q12-q15

    PubMed Central

    Morlé, L.; Bozon, M.; Zech, J.-C.; Alloisio, N.; Raas-Rothschild, A.; Philippe, C.; Lambert, J.-C.; Godet, J.; Plauchu, H.; Edery, P.

    2000-01-01

    Congenital microphthalmia is a common developmental ocular disorder characterized by shortened axial length. Isolated microphthalmia is clinically and genetically heterogeneous and may be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked manner. Here, we studied a five-generation family of Sephardic Jewish origin that included 38 members, of whom 7 have either unilateral or bilateral microphthalmia of variable severity inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete penetrance. After exclusion of several candidate loci, we performed a genome-scan study and demonstrated linkage to chromosome 15q12-q15. Positive LOD scores were obtained with a maximum at the D15S1007 locus (maximum LOD score 3.77, at recombination fraction 0.00). Haplotype analyses supported the location of the disease-causing gene in a 13.8-cM interval between loci D15S1002 and D15S1040. PMID:11035633

  20. Familial Paroxysmal Exercise-Induced Dystonia: Atypical Presentation of Autosomal Dominant GTP-Cyclohydrolase 1 Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Russell C.; Melchers, Anna; Fung, Victor S. C.; Grattan-Smith, Padraic; Houlden, Henry; Earl, John

    2010-01-01

    Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED) is one of the rarer forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia, and can occur in sporadic or familial forms. We report a family (male index case, mother and maternal grandfather) with autosomal dominant inheritance of paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia. The dystonia began in childhood and was only ever induced

  1. Evaluation and Management of Pain in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Marie C.; Norby, Suzanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Transient episodes of pain are common in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). A small fraction of patients have disabling chronic pain. In this review, we discuss the etiologies of pain in ADPKD; review how ADPKD patients should be assessed; and discuss medical, surgical, and other management options. PMID:20439087

  2. Familial Paroxysmal Exercise-Induced Dystonia: Atypical Presentation of Autosomal Dominant GTP-Cyclohydrolase 1 Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Russell C.; Melchers, Anna; Fung, Victor S. C.; Grattan-Smith, Padraic; Houlden, Henry; Earl, John

    2010-01-01

    Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED) is one of the rarer forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia, and can occur in sporadic or familial forms. We report a family (male index case, mother and maternal grandfather) with autosomal dominant inheritance of paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia. The dystonia began in childhood and was only ever induced…

  3. Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness and normal fundus with an electronegative electroretinogram.

    PubMed

    Noble, K G; Carr, R E; Siegel, I M

    1990-01-15

    We studied three members of three successive generations of a family with autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness and normal fundi. Psychophysical studies on two members showed normal final cone thresholds and mildly increased rod thresholds. Full-field electroretinograms on all three members showed normal photopic b-wave amplitudes and implicit times. Under scotopic conditions, the rod response was absent, and with a bright flash stimulus, there was a normal a-wave with no b-wave. This electronegative dark-adapted electroretinogram resembled the Schubert-Bornschein type seen in congenital stationary blindness, which has been seen only in autosomal and X-linked recessive pedigrees. PMID:2297031

  4. Localization of a gene for autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta (ADAI) to chromosome 4q

    SciTech Connect

    Forsman, K.; Lind. L.; Westermark, E.

    1994-09-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI), a disorder affecting the formation of enamel, is significantly more common in Northern Sweden than in other parts of the world. The disease is genetically and clinically heterogenous, and autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive and X-linked inheritance patterns have been recognized. Linkage analysis has identified two different loci for X-linked AI, one of which is identical to the gene encoding the enamel protein amelogenin. However, in families with an autosomal inheritance pattern for AI, the genetic basis of the disease still remains unknown. We report a linkage analysis study performed on three Swedish families where the affected members had an autosomal dominant variant of AI (ADAI) clinically characterized as local hypoplastic. Significant linkage to microsatellite markers on chromosome 4q were obtained, with a maximum lod score of 5.55 for the marker D4S428. Recombinations in the family localized the ADAI locus to the interval between D4S392 and D4S395. This chromosome region contains both a locus for the dental disorder dentinogenesis imperfecta and the albumin gene. Serum albumin has been suggested to play a role in enamel formation, and the albumin gene is therefore a candidate gene for this genetic disease.

  5. Pregnancy after preimplantation genetic diagnosis for brachydactyly type B.

    PubMed

    Hellani, Ali; Abu-Amero, Khaled; Azouri, Joseph; Al-Sharif, Hadeel; Barblet, Hamish; El-Akoum, Siham

    2009-01-01

    Brachydactyly type B (BDB) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the ROR2 gene. Truncating mutations lead to the severe form of the disease, which is characterized by terminal deficiency of fingers and toes. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) was carried out in a family suffering from severe BDB. The family was screened for mutations in exons 8 and 9 and found to harbour a known nonsense mutation (c.2265C-->A) in exon 9 of the ROR2 gene, which resulted in a premature stop-codon at residue 755. Three out of 10 linked markers tested were informative for this family and single cell work-up showed amplification efficiency in over 98% of the cells. Allele drop-out (ADO) was found in 0, 4.08 and 6.1% for D9S1803, D9S1842 and D9S280 respectively. The family underwent PGD using multiple displacement amplification, fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (informative short tandem repeat) and sequencing of exon 9. Two cells were taken from the three embryos generated in the PGD cycle and the diagnosis of both cells separately showed one normal embryo free of BDB abnormal allele. This embryo was transferred back to the mother and resulted in a singleton pregnancy. Postnatal DNA testing of the newborn confirmed the PGD result. PMID:19146779

  6. Locus heterogeneity in autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia: Evidence for the existence of a fifth locus

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrazin, J.; Rouleau, G.A.; Andermann, E.

    1994-09-01

    The autosomal dominantly inherited spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. To date, four loci have been identified: the SCA-1 locus (on chromosome (chr) 6p), the SCA-2 locus (on chr 12q), the SCA-3/MJD locus (on chr 14q), and more recently an SCA-4 locus was described (chr 16q) in a Utah kindred. We have studied one large French Canadian kindred with four generations of living affected individuals segregating an autosomal dominant form of SCA. Linkage analysis using anonymous DNA markers which flank the four previously described loci significantly excludes the French Canadian kindred from the SCA-1, SCA-2, SCA-3/MJD and SCA-4 loci. Therefore a fifth, still unmapped, SCA locus remains to be identified.

  7. Tuberous sclerosis complex with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a rare duo.

    PubMed

    Rijal, Jharendra P; Dhakal, Prajwal; Giri, Smith; Dahal, Khagendra V

    2014-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant condition characterised by the presence of multiple hamartomas in various organ systems in the body. The kidneys are affected in 80% of patients, usually in the form of renal angiomyolipomas, renal cysts or renal cell carcinoma. Although extremely rare, TSC and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) can co-exist in the same patient as a result of concurrent deletion of both polycystic kidney disease (PKD) 1 and TSC2 genes present on the chromosome 16p13.3. These patients develop end-stage renal disease at an earlier age and have an increased risk of malignancy. We present a case of a 30-year-old man with a history of tuberous sclerosis, presenting with loin pain and subsequently diagnosed to have ADPKD. PMID:25519866

  8. Imaging characteristics of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL).

    PubMed

    Stojanov, Dragan; Vojinovic, Slobodan; Aracki-Trenkic, Aleksandra; Tasic, Aleksandar; Benedeto-Stojanov, Daniela; Ljubisavljevic, Srdjan; Vujnovic, Sasa

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an autosomal dominant vascular disorder. Diagnosis and follow-up in patients with CADASIL are based mainly on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI shows white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), lacunar infarcts and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). WMHs lesions tend to be symmetrical and bilateral, distributed in the periventricular and deep white matter. The anterior temporal lobe and external capsules are predilection sites for WMHs, with higher specificity and sensitivity of anterior temporal lobe involvement compared to an external capsule involvement. Lacunar infarcts are presented by an imaging signal that has intensity of cerebrospinal fluid in all MRI sequences. They are localized within the semioval center, thalamus, basal ganglia and pons. CMBs are depicted as focal areas of signal loss on T2 images which increases in size on the T2*-weighted gradient echo planar images ("blooming effect"). PMID:25725137

  9. Molecular analysis and genetic mapping of the rhodopsin gene in families with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Bunge, S.; Wedemann, H.; Samanns, C.; Horn, M.; Schwinger, E.; Gal, A. ); David, D. ); Terwilliger, D.J.; Ott, J. ); Born, L.I. van den )

    1993-07-01

    Eighty-eight patients/families with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP) were screened for rhodopsin mutations. Direct sequencing revealed 13 different mutations in a total of 14 (i.e., 16%) unrelated patients. Five of these mutations (T4K, Q28H, R135G, F220C, and C222R) have not been reported so far. In addition, multipoint linkage analysis was performed on two large families with autosomal dominant RP due to rhodopsin mutations by using five DNA probes from 3q21-q24. No tight linkage was found between the rhodopsin locus (RHO) and D3S47 ([theta][sub max] = 0.08). By six-point analysis, RHO was localized in the region between D3S21 and D3S47, with a maximum lod score of 13.447 directly at D3S20. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Metaphyseal Dysplasia with Maxillary Hypoplasia and Brachydactyly Is Caused by a Duplication in RUNX2

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, Pierre; Ben Amor, Mouna; Glorieux, Francis H.; Roschger, Paul; Klaushofer, Klaus; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy A.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Hu, Pingzhao; Marshall, Christian; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Majewski, Jacek; Beaulieu, Chandree L.; Boycott, Kym M.; Rauch, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Metaphyseal dysplasia with maxillary hypoplasia and brachydactyly (MDMHB) is an autosomal-dominant bone dysplasia characterized by metaphyseal flaring of long bones, enlargement of the medial halves of the clavicles, maxillary hypoplasia, variable brachydactyly, and dystrophic teeth. We performed genome-wide SNP genotyping in five affected and four unaffected members of an extended family with MDMHB. Analysis for copy-number variations revealed that a 105 kb duplication within RUNX2 segregated with the MDMHB phenotype in a region with maximum linkage. Real-time PCR for copy-number variation in genomic DNA in eight samples, as well as sequence analysis of fibroblast cDNA from one subject with MDMHB confirmed that affected family members were heterozygous for the presence of an intragenic duplication encompassing exons 3 to 5 of RUNX2. These three exons code for the Q/A domain and the functionally essential DNA-binding runt domain of RUNX2. Transfection studies with murine Runx2 cDNA showed that cellular levels of mutated RUNX2 were markedly higher than those of wild-type RUNX2, suggesting that the RUNX2 duplication found in individuals with MDMHB leads to a gain of function. Until now, only loss-of-function mutations have been detected in RUNX2; the present report associates an apparent gain-of-function alteration of RUNX2 function with a distinct rare disease. PMID:23290074

  11. Successful conservative treatment of bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Jaisuresh, K.; Bavaharan, R.

    2013-01-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare, potentially lethal complication of polycystic kidney disease. Treatment mostly includes emergency nephrectomy of the affected kidney. We report a case of bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis in a 57-year-old diabetic male with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, who recovered with conservative treatment. Escherichia coli was cultured from the cyst aspirate. He was treated with percutaneous needle aspiration of infected cysts and intravenous antibiotics (meropenem and pazufloxacin) for 3 weeks. PMID:23814427

  12. Familial Hirschsprung's disease: report of autosomal dominant and probable recessive X-linked kindreds.

    PubMed

    Stannard, V A; Fowler, C; Robinson, L; Besner, G; Glick, P L; Allen, J E; Jewett, T C; Cooney, D R

    1991-05-01

    Multifactorial sex-modified inheritance has been proposed as the model of transmission in familial Hirschsprung's disease (HD). A review of two separate kindreds suggests that aganglionosis may be inherited as an X-linked recessive or an autosomal dominant trait. Chromosomal anomalies and other syndromes, including G6PD deficiency, may occur with familial HD. Recurrence risk counseling for family members depends on accurate pedigree analysis and a comprehensive understanding of the genetic factors involved. PMID:2061816

  13. Autosomal-dominant nystagmus, foveal hypoplasia and presenile cataract associated with a novel PAX6 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Shery; Thomas, Mervyn G; Andrews, Caroline; Chan, Wai-Man; Proudlock, Frank A; McLean, Rebecca J; Pradeep, Archana; Engle, Elizabeth C; Gottlob, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal-dominant idiopathic infantile nystagmus has been linked to 6p12 (OMIM 164100), 7p11.2 (OMIM 608345) and 13q31-q33 (OMIM 193003). PAX6 (11p13, OMIM 607108) mutations can also cause autosomal-dominant nystagmus, typically in association with aniridia or iris hypoplasia. We studied a large multigenerational white British family with autosomal-dominant nystagmus, normal irides and presenile cataracts. An SNP-based genome-wide analysis revealed a linkage to a 13.4-MB region on chromosome 11p13 with a maximum lod score of 2.93. A mutation analysis of the entire coding region and splice junctions of the PAX6 gene revealed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.227C>G) that segregated with the phenotype and is predicted to result in the amino-acid substitution of proline by arginine at codon 76 p.(P76R). The amino-acid variation p.(P76R) within the paired box domain is likely to destabilise the protein due to steric hindrance as a result of the introduction of a polar and larger amino acid. Eye movement recordings showed a significant intrafamilial variability of horizontal, vertical and torsional nystagmus. High-resolution in vivo imaging of the retina using optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed features of foveal hypoplasia, including rudimentary foveal pit, incursion of inner retinal layers, short photoreceptor outer segments and optic nerve hypoplasia. Thus, this study presents a family that segregates a PAX6 mutation with nystagmus and foveal hypoplasia in the absence of iris abnormalities. Moreover, it is the first study showing detailed characteristics using eye movement recordings of autosomal-dominant nystagmus in a multigenerational family with a novel PAX6 mutation. PMID:23942204

  14. Progressive Cone Dysfunction and Geographic Atrophy of the Macula in Late Stage Autosomal Dominant Vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC).

    PubMed

    Chen, Connie June; Goldberg, Morton F

    2016-03-01

    Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC) is a rare inherited ocular disease associated with distinct mutations in the BEST1 gene. Typically, patients have only mild visual impairment, and rarely do patients have moderate or severe visual impairment, often as a result of vitreous hemorrhage. We now describe progressive central macular atrophy and cone dysfunction leading to visual loss in an elderly ADVIRC patient 33 years after initial presentation. PMID:24564716

  15. Molecular Pathways and Therapies in Autosomal-Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Saigusa, Takamitsu

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most prevalent inherited renal disease, characterized by multiple cysts that can eventually lead to kidney failure. Studies investigating the role of primary cilia and polycystins have significantly advanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of PKD. This review will present clinical and basic aspects of ADPKD, review current concepts of PKD pathogenesis, evaluate potential therapeutic targets, and highlight challenges for future clinical studies. PMID:25933820

  16. Amyloidosis in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and tuberculosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sar, Fuat; Taylan, Ismail; Kutlu, Cigdem; Caymaz, Muazzez Sezer; Tatli, Emel; Kazancioglu, Rumeyza

    2007-01-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease is an inherited disorder characterized by the development and growth of cysts in the kidneys. Urinary protein excretion is generally less than 1 g/day, and the association of the nephrotic syndrome with this condition is considered rare. A 39-year-old man with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease and nephrotic-range proteiuria is described. During admission, he had general edema and a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. The patient had hyperlipidemia, hypoalbuminemia, and 11.8 g/day proteinuria. The gingiva and rectum biopsies were performed in order to evaluate the etiology of nephrotic syndrome, and revealed AA amyloidosis thought to be secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. We maintained the antituberculous treatment and began colchicine at a dose of 2 g/day and candesartan 8 mg/day. To our knowledge, this is the first autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease case with nephrotic syndrome due to amyloidosis secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:17318353

  17. Evidence for locus heterogeneity in autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Speer, M.C.; Stajich, J.M.; Gaskell, P.C.

    1995-12-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is a diagnostic classification encompassing a broad group of proximal myopathies. A gene for the dominant form of LGMD (LGMD1A) has recently been localized to a 7-cM region of chromosome 5q between D5S178 and IL9. We studied three additional dominant LGMD families for linkage to these two markers and excluded all from localization to this region, providing evidence for locus heterogeneity within the dominant form of LGMD. Although the patterns of muscle weakness were similar in all families studied, the majority of affected family members in the chromosome 5-linked pedigree have a dysarthric speech pattern, which is not present in any of the five unlinked families. The demonstration of heterogeneity within autosomal dominant LGMD is the first step in attempting to subclassify these families with similar clinical phenotypes on a molecular level. 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Diverging longitudinal changes in astrocytosis and amyloid PET in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Carter, Stephen F; Almkvist, Ove; Farid, Karim; Schöll, Michael; Chiotis, Konstantinos; Thordardottir, Steinunn; Graff, Caroline; Wall, Anders; Långström, Bengt; Nordberg, Agneta

    2016-03-01

    See Schott and Fox (doi:10.1093/brain/awv405) for a scientific commentary on this article.Alzheimer's disease is a multifactorial dementia disorder characterized by early amyloid-β, tau deposition, glial activation and neurodegeneration, where the interrelationships between the different pathophysiological events are not yet well characterized. In this study, longitudinal multitracer positron emission tomography imaging of individuals with autosomal dominant or sporadic Alzheimer's disease was used to quantify the changes in regional distribution of brain astrocytosis (tracer (11)C-deuterium-L-deprenyl), fibrillar amyloid-β plaque deposition ((11)C-Pittsburgh compound B), and glucose metabolism ((18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose) from early presymptomatic stages over an extended period to clinical symptoms. The 52 baseline participants comprised autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease mutation carriers (n = 11; 49.6 ± 10.3 years old) and non-carriers (n = 16; 51.1 ± 14.2 years old; 10 male), and patients with sporadic mild cognitive impairment (n = 17; 61.9 ± 6.4 years old; nine male) and sporadic Alzheimer's disease (n = 8; 63.0 ± 6.5 years old; five male); for confidentiality reasons, the gender of mutation carriers is not revealed. The autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease participants belonged to families with known mutations in either presenilin 1 (PSEN1) or amyloid precursor protein (APPswe or APParc) genes. Sporadic mild cognitive impairment patients were further divided into (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B-positive (n = 13; 62.0 ± 6.4; seven male) and (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B-negative (n = 4; 61.8 ± 7.5 years old; two male) groups using a neocortical standardized uptake value ratio cut-off value of 1.41, which was calculated with respect to the cerebellar grey matter. All baseline participants underwent multitracer positron emission tomography scans, cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analysis and neuropsychological assessment. Twenty-six of the participants underwent clinical and imaging follow-up examinations after 2.8 ± 0.6 years. By using linear mixed-effects models, fibrillar amyloid-β plaque deposition was first observed in the striatum of presymptomatic autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease carriers from 17 years before expected symptom onset; at about the same time, astrocytosis was significantly elevated and then steadily declined. Diverging from the astrocytosis pattern, amyloid-β plaque deposition increased with disease progression. Glucose metabolism steadily declined from 10 years after initial amyloid-β plaque deposition. Patients with sporadic mild cognitive impairment who were (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B-positive at baseline showed increasing amyloid-β plaque deposition and decreasing glucose metabolism but, in contrast to autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease carriers, there was no significant longitudinal decline in astrocytosis over time. The prominent initially high and then declining astrocytosis in autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease carriers, contrasting with the increasing amyloid-β plaque load during disease progression, suggests astrocyte activation is implicated in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease pathology. PMID:26813969

  19. Diverging longitudinal changes in astrocytosis and amyloid PET in autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Aubert, Laure; Carter, Stephen F.; Almkvist, Ove; Farid, Karim; Schöll, Michael; Chiotis, Konstantinos; Thordardottir, Steinunn; Graff, Caroline; Wall, Anders; Långström, Bengt; Nordberg, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    See Schott and Fox (doi:10.1093/brain/awv405) for a scientific commentary on this article. Alzheimer’s disease is a multifactorial dementia disorder characterized by early amyloid-β, tau deposition, glial activation and neurodegeneration, where the interrelationships between the different pathophysiological events are not yet well characterized. In this study, longitudinal multitracer positron emission tomography imaging of individuals with autosomal dominant or sporadic Alzheimer’s disease was used to quantify the changes in regional distribution of brain astrocytosis (tracer 11C-deuterium-L-deprenyl), fibrillar amyloid-β plaque deposition (11C-Pittsburgh compound B), and glucose metabolism (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose) from early presymptomatic stages over an extended period to clinical symptoms. The 52 baseline participants comprised autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease mutation carriers (n = 11; 49.6 ± 10.3 years old) and non-carriers (n = 16; 51.1 ± 14.2 years old; 10 male), and patients with sporadic mild cognitive impairment (n = 17; 61.9 ± 6.4 years old; nine male) and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (n = 8; 63.0 ± 6.5 years old; five male); for confidentiality reasons, the gender of mutation carriers is not revealed. The autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease participants belonged to families with known mutations in either presenilin 1 (PSEN1) or amyloid precursor protein (APPswe or APParc) genes. Sporadic mild cognitive impairment patients were further divided into 11C-Pittsburgh compound B-positive (n = 13; 62.0 ± 6.4; seven male) and 11C-Pittsburgh compound B-negative (n = 4; 61.8 ± 7.5 years old; two male) groups using a neocortical standardized uptake value ratio cut-off value of 1.41, which was calculated with respect to the cerebellar grey matter. All baseline participants underwent multitracer positron emission tomography scans, cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analysis and neuropsychological assessment. Twenty-six of the participants underwent clinical and imaging follow-up examinations after 2.8 ± 0.6 years. By using linear mixed-effects models, fibrillar amyloid-β plaque deposition was first observed in the striatum of presymptomatic autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease carriers from 17 years before expected symptom onset; at about the same time, astrocytosis was significantly elevated and then steadily declined. Diverging from the astrocytosis pattern, amyloid-β plaque deposition increased with disease progression. Glucose metabolism steadily declined from 10 years after initial amyloid-β plaque deposition. Patients with sporadic mild cognitive impairment who were 11C-Pittsburgh compound B-positive at baseline showed increasing amyloid-β plaque deposition and decreasing glucose metabolism but, in contrast to autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease carriers, there was no significant longitudinal decline in astrocytosis over time. The prominent initially high and then declining astrocytosis in autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease carriers, contrasting with the increasing amyloid-β plaque load during disease progression, suggests astrocyte activation is implicated in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease pathology. PMID:26813969

  20. The anterior segment disorder autosomal dominant keratitis is linked to the Aniridia/PAX-6 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzayans, F.; Pearce, W.G.; Mah, T.S.

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal dominant keratitis (ADK) is an eye disease characterized by anterior stromal corneal opacification and vascularization in the peripheral cornea. Progression into the central cornea may compromise visual acuity. Other anterior segment features include minimal radial defects of the iris stroma. Posterior segment involvement is characterized by foveal hypoplasia with minimal effect on visual acuity. Aniridia is a second autosomal dominantly inherited ocular disorder defined by structural defects of the iris, frequently severe enough to cause an almost complete absence of iris. This may be accompanied by other anterior segment manifestations, including cataract and keratitis. Posterior segment involvement in aniridia is characterized by foveal hypoplasia resulting in a highly variable impairment of visual acuity, often with nystagmus. Aniridia is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant disease and occurs in 1 in 50,000 to 100,000 people. Aniridia has been shown to result from mutations in PAX-6, a gene thought to regulate fetal eye development. The similar clinical findings in ADK and aniridia, with the similar patterns of inheritance, compelled us to investigate if these two ocular disorders are variants of the same genetic disorder. We have tested for linkage between PAX-6 and ADK within an ADK family with 33 members over four generations, including 11 affected individuals. Linkage studies reveal that D11S914 (located within 3 cM of PAX-6) does not recombine with ADK (LOD score 3.61; {theta} = 0.00), consistent with PAX-6 mutations being responsible for ADK. Direct sequencing of PAX-6 RT-PCR products from ADK patients is underway to identify the mutation within the PAX-6 gene that results in ADK. The linkage of PAX-6 with ADK, along with a recent report that mutations in PAX-6 also underlie Peter`s anomaly, implicates PAX-6 widely in anterior segment malformations.

  1. Autosomal-Dominant Multiple Pterygium Syndrome Is Caused by Mutations in MYH3

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Jessica X.; Burrage, Lindsay C.; Beck, Anita E.; Marvin, Colby T.; McMillin, Margaret J.; Shively, Kathryn M.; Harrell, Tanya M.; Buckingham, Kati J.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Jain, Mahim; Alanay, Yasemin; Berry, Susan A.; Carey, John C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lee, Brendan H.; Krakow, Deborah; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Anderson, Peter; Blue, Elizabeth Marchani; Annable, Marcus; Browning, Brian L.; Buckingham, Kati J.; Chen, Christina; Chin, Jennifer; Chong, Jessica X.; Cooper, Gregory M.; Davis, Colleen P.; Frazar, Christopher; Harrell, Tanya M.; He, Zongxiao; Jain, Preti; Jarvik, Gail P.; Jimenez, Guillaume; Johanson, Eric; Jun, Goo; Kircher, Martin; Kolar, Tom; Krauter, Stephanie A.; Krumm, Niklas; Leal, Suzanne M.; Luksic, Daniel; Marvin, Colby T.; McMillin, Margaret J.; McGee, Sean; O’Reilly, Patrick; Paeper, Bryan; Patterson, Karynne; Perez, Marcos; Phillips, Sam W.; Pijoan, Jessica; Poel, Christa; Reinier, Frederic; Robertson, Peggy D.; Santos-Cortez, Regie; Shaffer, Tristan; Shephard, Cindy; Shively, Kathryn M.; Siegel, Deborah L.; Smith, Joshua D.; Staples, Jeffrey C.; Tabor, Holly K.; Tackett, Monica; Underwood, Jason G.; Wegener, Marc; Wang, Gao; Wheeler, Marsha M.; Yi, Qian; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple pterygium syndrome (MPS) is a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of rare Mendelian conditions characterized by multiple pterygia, scoliosis, and congenital contractures of the limbs. MPS typically segregates as an autosomal-recessive disorder, but rare instances of autosomal-dominant transmission have been reported. Whereas several mutations causing recessive MPS have been identified, the genetic basis of dominant MPS remains unknown. We identified four families affected by dominantly transmitted MPS characterized by pterygia, camptodactyly of the hands, vertebral fusions, and scoliosis. Exome sequencing identified predicted protein-altering mutations in embryonic myosin heavy chain (MYH3) in three families. MYH3 mutations underlie distal arthrogryposis types 1, 2A, and 2B, but all mutations reported to date occur in the head and neck domains. In contrast, two of the mutations found to cause MPS in this study occurred in the tail domain. The phenotypic overlap among persons with MPS, coupled with physical findings distinct from other conditions caused by mutations in MYH3, suggests that the developmental mechanism underlying MPS differs from that of other conditions and/or that certain functions of embryonic myosin might be perturbed by disruption of specific residues and/or domains. Moreover, the vertebral fusions in persons with MPS, coupled with evidence of MYH3 expression in bone, suggest that embryonic myosin plays a role in skeletal development. PMID:25957469

  2. Autosomal-Dominant Multiple Pterygium Syndrome Is Caused by Mutations in MYH3.

    PubMed

    Chong, Jessica X; Burrage, Lindsay C; Beck, Anita E; Marvin, Colby T; McMillin, Margaret J; Shively, Kathryn M; Harrell, Tanya M; Buckingham, Kati J; Bacino, Carlos A; Jain, Mahim; Alanay, Yasemin; Berry, Susan A; Carey, John C; Gibbs, Richard A; Lee, Brendan H; Krakow, Deborah; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A; Bamshad, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Multiple pterygium syndrome (MPS) is a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of rare Mendelian conditions characterized by multiple pterygia, scoliosis, and congenital contractures of the limbs. MPS typically segregates as an autosomal-recessive disorder, but rare instances of autosomal-dominant transmission have been reported. Whereas several mutations causing recessive MPS have been identified, the genetic basis of dominant MPS remains unknown. We identified four families affected by dominantly transmitted MPS characterized by pterygia, camptodactyly of the hands, vertebral fusions, and scoliosis. Exome sequencing identified predicted protein-altering mutations in embryonic myosin heavy chain (MYH3) in three families. MYH3 mutations underlie distal arthrogryposis types 1, 2A, and 2B, but all mutations reported to date occur in the head and neck domains. In contrast, two of the mutations found to cause MPS in this study occurred in the tail domain. The phenotypic overlap among persons with MPS, coupled with physical findings distinct from other conditions caused by mutations in MYH3, suggests that the developmental mechanism underlying MPS differs from that of other conditions and/or that certain functions of embryonic myosin might be perturbed by disruption of specific residues and/or domains. Moreover, the vertebral fusions in persons with MPS, coupled with evidence of MYH3 expression in bone, suggest that embryonic myosin plays a role in skeletal development. PMID:25957469

  3. Evidence for a third genetic locus for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    SciTech Connect

    Daoust, M.C.; Bichet, D.G.; Reynolds, D.M.

    1995-02-10

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a genetically heterogeneous disease with loci on chromosomes 16p and 4q. It has a moderately high spontaneous mutation rate, although the relative frequency of such mutations at each gene locus is unknown. In studying genetic heterogeneity in the French-Canadian population, we identified a family in which a classical clinical presentation of ADPKD resulted from a mutation at a locus genetically distinct from either of the previously described loci for this disease. This suggests the existence of a third genetic locus for ADPKD. 21 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. FAM83H Mutations in Families with Autosomal-Dominant Hypocalcified Amelogenesis Imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Wook; Lee, Sook-Kyung; Lee, Zang Hee; Park, Joo-Cheol; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Lee, Myoung-Hwa; Park, Jong-Tae; Seo, Byoung-Moo; Hu, Jan C.-C.; Simmer, James P.

    2008-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a collection of diverse inherited disorders featuring dental-enamel defects in the absence of significant nondental symptoms. AI phenotypes vary and are categorized as hypoplastic, hypocalcified, and hypomaturation types. Phenotypic specificity to enamel has focused research on genes encoding enamel-matrix proteins. We studied two families with autosomal-dominant hypocalcified AI and have identified nonsense mutations (R325X and Q398X) in the FAM83H gene on chromosome 8q24.3. The mutations perfectly cosegregate with the disease phenotype and demonstrate that FAM83H is required for proper dental-enamel calcification. PMID:18252228

  5. A transducin-like gene maps to the autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease gene region

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstat-Saslow, D.L.; Reeders, S.T.; Germino, G.G.; Somlo, S. )

    1993-12-01

    A novel human gene (sazD) that maps to the autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease region shares sequence similarity with members of the [beta]-transducin superfamily. The cDNA sazD-c predicts an [approximately]58-kDa protein (sazD) with seven internal repeats, similar to the WD-40 motif of the transducin family. The size of this protein family has been expanding rapidly; however, neither the structure nor the function of this repeated motif is known. Preliminary data do not suggest that sazD is mutated in patients with polycystic kidney disease. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Abdominal Aortic Dissection in a Patient With Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease After Starting Peritoneal Dialysis☆

    PubMed Central

    He, Yingying; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Bo; Xiong, Zuying; Luo, Qiong; Wu, Song

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), one of the most common genetic disorders, is caused by mutations in the PKD1 or PKD2 gene. ADPKD primarily affects the kidneys, causing the development of multiple bilateral cysts that are characteristic of this condition. Besides renal abnormalities, other manifestations of ADPKD include hepatic, pancreatic, and splenic cysts, intracranial aneurysms, aortic aneurysms, and mitral valve prolapse. Reports of ADPKD-associated abdominal aortic dissections are not rare, but there have been no reports of an ADPKD patient developing intestinal obstruction and abdominal aortic dissection after initiating peritoneal dialysis. Herein, we present one such case. PMID:26839787

  7. An autosomal dominant genetically heterogeneous variant of rolandic epilepsy and speech disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kugler, Steven L.; Bali, Bhavna; Lieberman, Philip; Strug, Lisa; Gagnon, Bernadine; Murphy, Peregrine L.; Clarke, Tara; Greenberg, David A.; Pal, Deb K.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY We report a three generation pedigree with 11 of 22 affected with a variant form of rolandic epilepsy, speech impairment, oromotor apraxia, and cognitive deficit. The core features comprised nocturnal rolandic seizures, interictal centrotemporal spike waves with early age of onset and late age of offset. The transmission of the phenotype was consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance, with variable expressivity but no evidence of anticipation. We found evidence that the seizure and speech traits may be dissociated. No abnormalities were found by cytogenetic analysis. Linkage analysis excluded loci at 11p, 15q, 16p12, and Xq22 for related phenotypes, suggesting genetic heterogeneity. PMID:18248446

  8. DVL1 Frameshift Mutations Clustering in the Penultimate Exon Cause Autosomal-Dominant Robinow Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    White, Janson; Mazzeu, Juliana F.; Hoischen, Alexander; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Gambin, Tomasz; Alcino, Michele Calijorne; Penney, Samantha; Saraiva, Jorge M.; Hove, Hanne; Skovby, Flemming; Kayserili, Hülya; Estrella, Elicia; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T.; Steehouwer, Marloes; Muzny, Donna M.; Sutton, V. Reid; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lupski, James R.; Brunner, Han G.; van Bon, Bregje W.M.; Carvalho, Claudia M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Robinow syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by mesomelic limb shortening, genital hypoplasia, and distinctive facial features and for which both autosomal-recessive and autosomal-dominant inheritance patterns have been described. Causative variants in the non-canonical signaling gene WNT5A underlie a subset of autosomal-dominant Robinow syndrome (DRS) cases, but most individuals with DRS remain without a molecular diagnosis. We performed whole-exome sequencing in four unrelated DRS-affected individuals without coding mutations in WNT5A and found heterozygous DVL1 exon 14 mutations in three of them. Targeted Sanger sequencing in additional subjects with DRS uncovered DVL1 exon 14 mutations in five individuals, including a pair of monozygotic twins. In total, six distinct frameshift mutations were found in eight subjects, and all were heterozygous truncating variants within the penultimate exon of DVL1. In five families in which samples from unaffected parents were available, the variants were demonstrated to represent de novo mutations. All variant alleles are predicted to result in a premature termination codon within the last exon, escape nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), and most likely generate a C-terminally truncated protein with a distinct −1 reading-frame terminus. Study of the transcripts extracted from affected subjects’ leukocytes confirmed expression of both wild-type and variant alleles, supporting the hypothesis that mutant mRNA escapes NMD. Genomic variants identified in our study suggest that truncation of the C-terminal domain of DVL1, a protein hypothesized to have a downstream role in the Wnt-5a non-canonical pathway, is a common cause of DRS. PMID:25817016

  9. Evidence for locus heterogeneity in human autosomal dominant split hand/split foot malformation

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.E.; Wijsman, E.M.; Stephens, K.; Evans, J.P. ); Scherer, S.W.; Tsui, L.C. ); Kukolich, M. )

    1994-07-01

    Split hand/split foot (SHSF; also known as ectrodactyly) is a human developmental disorder characterized by missing central digits and other distal limb malformations. An association between SHSF and cytogenetically visible rearrangements of chromosome 7 at bands q21-q22 provides compelling evidence for the location of a causative gene at this location, and the locus has been designated SHFD1. In the present study, marker loci were localized to the SHFD1 critical region through the analysis of somatic cell hybrids derived from individuals with SHSF and cytogenetic abnormalities involving the 7q21-q22 region. Combined genetic and physical data suggest that the order of markers in the SHFD1 critical region is cen-D7S492-D7S527-(D7S479-D7S491)-SHFD1-D7S553-D7S518-qter. Dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms at three of these loci were used to test for linkage of SHSF to this region in a large pedigree that demonstrates autosomal dominant SHSF. Evidence against linkage of the SHSF gene to 7q21-q22 was obtained in this pedigree. Therefore, combined molecular and genetic data provide evidence for locus heterogeneity in autosomal dominant SHSF. The authors propose the name SHSF2 for this second locus. 34 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Inheritance of human breast cancer: Evidence for autosomal dominant transmission in high-risk families

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, B.; Austin, M.A.; Lee, M.; King, M.C.

    1988-05-01

    Segregation analysis of breast cancer in families can provide the logical basis and the specific genetic models for mapping and identifying genes responsible for human breast cancer. Patterns of breast cancer occurrence in families were investigated by complex segregation analysis. In a sample of 1579 nuclear families ascertained through a population-based series of probands, an autosomal dominant model with a highly penetrant susceptibility allele fully explained disease clustering. From the maximum-likelihood Mendelian model, the frequency of the susceptibility allele was 0.0006 in the general population, and lifetime risk of breast cancer was 0.82 among susceptible women and 0.08 among women without the susceptibility allele. Inherited susceptibility affected only 4% of families in the sample: multiple cases of this relatively common disease occurred in other families by change. The same genetic models, with higher gene frequency, explained disease clustering in an extended kindred at high risk of breast cancer. Evidence for a highly penetrant, autosomal dominant susceptibility allele for breast cancer in a high-risk family and the general population suggests that high-risk families can serve as models for understanding breast cancer in the population as a whole.

  11. A mutation in FRIZZLED2 impairs Wnt signaling and causes autosomal dominant omodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Saal, Howard M; Prows, Cynthia A; Guerreiro, Iris; Donlin, Milene; Knudson, Luke; Sund, Kristen L; Chang, Ching-Fang; Brugmann, Samantha A; Stottmann, Rolf W

    2015-06-15

    Autosomal dominant omodysplasia is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by short humeri, radial head dislocation, short first metacarpals, facial dysmorphism and genitourinary anomalies. We performed next-generation whole-exome sequencing and comparative analysis of a proband with omodysplasia, her unaffected parents and her affected daughter. We identified a de novo mutation in FRIZZLED2 (FZD2) in the proband and her daughter that was not found in unaffected family members. The FZD2 mutation (c.1644G>A) changes a tryptophan residue at amino acid 548 to a premature stop (p.Trp548*). This altered protein is still produced in vitro, but we show reduced ability of this mutant form of FZD2 to interact with its downstream target DISHEVELLED. Furthermore, expressing the mutant form of FZD2 in vitro is not able to facilitate the cellular response to canonical Wnt signaling like wild-type FZD2. We therefore conclude that the FRIZZLED2 mutation is a de novo, novel cause for autosomal dominant omodysplasia. PMID:25759469

  12. Familial clustering of medullary sponge kidney is autosomal dominant with reduced penetrance and variable expressivity.

    PubMed

    Fabris, Antonia; Lupo, Antonio; Ferraro, Pietro M; Anglani, Franca; Pei, York; Danza, Francesco M; Gambaro, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) is a renal malformation typically associated with nephrocalcinosis and recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis. Approximately 12% of recurrent stone formers have MSK, which is generally considered a sporadic disorder. Since its discovery, three pedigrees have been described in which an apparently autosomal dominant inheritance was suggested. Here, family members of 50 patients with MSK were systematically investigated by means of interviews, renal imaging, and biochemical studies in an effort to establish whether MSK is an inheritable disorder. Twenty-seven MSK probands had 59 first- and second-degree relatives of both genders with MSK in all generations. There were progressively lower mean levels of serum calcium, urinary sodium, pH, and volume, combined with higher serum phosphate and potassium from probands to relatives with bilateral, to those with unilateral, and to those unaffected by MSK. This suggests that most affected relatives have a milder form of MSK than the probands, which would explain why they had not been so diagnosed. Thus, our study provides strong evidence that familial clustering of MSK is common, and has an autosomal dominant inheritance, a reduced penetrance, and variable expressivity. PMID:23223172

  13. Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease: diagnosis, classification, and management--A KDIGO consensus report.

    PubMed

    Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Alper, Seth L; Antignac, Corinne; Bleyer, Anthony J; Chauveau, Dominique; Dahan, Karin; Deltas, Constantinos; Hosking, Andrew; Kmoch, Stanislav; Rampoldi, Luca; Wiesener, Michael; Wolf, Matthias T; Devuyst, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    Rare autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease is caused by mutations in the genes encoding uromodulin (UMOD), hepatocyte nuclear factor-1? (HNF1B), renin (REN), and mucin-1 (MUC1). Multiple names have been proposed for these disorders, including 'Medullary Cystic Kidney Disease (MCKD) type 2', 'Familial Juvenile Hyperuricemic Nephropathy (FJHN)', or 'Uromodulin-Associated Kidney Disease (UAKD)' for UMOD-related diseases and 'MCKD type 1' for the disease caused by MUC1 mutations. The multiplicity of these terms, and the fact that cysts are not pathognomonic, creates confusion. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) proposes adoption of a new terminology for this group of diseases using the term 'Autosomal Dominant Tubulointerstitial Kidney Disease' (ADTKD) appended by a gene-based subclassification, and suggests diagnostic criteria. Implementation of these recommendations is anticipated to facilitate recognition and characterization of these monogenic diseases. A better understanding of these rare disorders may be relevant for the tubulointerstitial fibrosis component in many forms of chronic kidney disease. PMID:25738250

  14. Lamin B1 overexpression increases nuclear rigidity in autosomal dominant leukodystrophy fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ferrera, Denise; Canale, Claudio; Marotta, Roberto; Mazzaro, Nadia; Gritti, Marta; Mazzanti, Michele; Capellari, Sabina; Cortelli, Pietro; Gasparini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The architecture and structural mechanics of the cell nucleus are defined by the nuclear lamina, which is formed by A- and B-type lamins. Recently, gene duplication and protein overexpression of lamin B1 (LB1) have been reported in pedigrees with autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD). However, how the overexpression of LB1 affects nuclear mechanics and function and how it may result in pathology remain unexplored. Here, we report that in primary human skin fibroblasts derived from ADLD patients, LB1, but not other lamins, is overexpressed at the nuclear lamina and specifically enhances nuclear stiffness. Transient transfection of LB1 in HEK293 and neuronal N2a cells mimics the mechanical phenotype of ADLD nuclei. Notably, in ADLD fibroblasts, reducing LB1 protein levels by shRNA knockdown restores elasticity values to those indistinguishable from control fibroblasts. Moreover, isolated nuclei from ADLD fibroblasts display a reduced nuclear ion channel open probability on voltage-step application, suggesting that biophysical changes induced by LB1 overexpression may alter nuclear signaling cascades in somatic cells. Overall, the overexpression of LB1 in ADLD cells alters nuclear mechanics and is linked to changes in nuclear signaling, which could help explain the pathogenesis of this disease.—Ferrera, D., Canale, C., Marotta, R., Mazzaro, N., Gritti, M., Mazzanti, M., Capellari, S., Cortelli, P., Gasparini, L. Lamin B1 overexpression increases nuclear rigidity in autosomal dominant leukodystrophy fibroblasts. PMID:24858279

  15. Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer Disease: A Unique Resource to Study CSF Biomarker Changes in Preclinical AD

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Suzanne Elizabeth; Fagan, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) has been greatly influenced by investigation of rare families with autosomal dominant mutations that cause early onset AD. Mutations in the genes coding for amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN-1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN-2) cause over-production of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) leading to early deposition of Aβ in the brain, which in turn is hypothesized to initiate a cascade of processes, resulting in neuronal death, cognitive decline, and eventual dementia. Studies of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from individuals with the common form of AD, late-onset AD (LOAD), have revealed that low CSF Aβ42 and high CSF tau are associated with AD brain pathology. Herein, we review the literature on CSF biomarkers in autosomal dominant AD (ADAD), which has contributed to a detailed road map of AD pathogenesis, especially during the preclinical period, prior to the appearance of any cognitive symptoms. Current drug trials are also taking advantage of the unique characteristics of ADAD and utilizing CSF biomarkers to accelerate development of effective therapies for AD. PMID:26175713

  16. Autosomal dominant and sporadic monocytopenia with susceptibility to mycobacteria, fungi, papillomaviruses, and myelodysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Vinh, Donald C.; Patel, Smita Y.; Uzel, Gulbu; Anderson, Victoria L.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Spalding, Christine; Hughes, Stephen; Pittaluga, Stefania; Raffeld, Mark; Sorbara, Lynn R.; Elloumi, Houda Z.; Kuhns, Douglas B.; Turner, Maria L.; Cowen, Edward W.; Fink, Danielle; Long-Priel, Debra; Hsu, Amy P.; Ding, Li; Paulson, Michelle L.; Whitney, Adeline R.; Sampaio, Elizabeth P.; Frucht, David M.; DeLeo, Frank R.

    2010-01-01

    We identified 18 patients with the distinct clinical phenotype of susceptibility to disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, viral infections, especially with human papillomaviruses, and fungal infections, primarily histoplasmosis, and molds. This syndrome typically had its onset in adulthood (age range, 7-60 years; mean, 31.1 years; median, 32 years) and was characterized by profound circulating monocytopenia (mean, 13.3 cells/μL; median, 14.5 cells/μL), B lymphocytopenia (mean, 9.4 cells/μL; median, 4 cells/μL), and NK lymphocytopenia (mean, 16 cells/μL; median, 5.5 cells/μL). T lymphocytes were variably affected. Despite these peripheral cytopenias, all patients had macrophages and plasma cells at sites of inflammation and normal immunoglobulin levels. Ten of these patients developed 1 or more of the following malignancies: 9 myelodysplasia/leukemia, 1 vulvar carcinoma and metastatic melanoma, 1 cervical carcinoma, 1 Bowen disease of the vulva, and 1 multiple Epstein-Barr virus+ leiomyosarcoma. Five patients developed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis without mutations in the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor or anti–granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor autoantibodies. Among these 18 patients, 5 families had 2 generations affected, suggesting autosomal dominant transmission as well as sporadic cases. This novel clinical syndrome links susceptibility to mycobacterial, viral, and fungal infections with malignancy and can be transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern. PMID:20040766

  17. A novel C202F mutation in the connexin26 gene (GJB2) associated with autosomal dominant isolated hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Morlé, L; Bozon, M; Alloisio, N; Latour, P; Vandenberghe, A; Plauchu, H; Collet, L; Edery, P; Godet, J; Lina-Granade, G

    2000-05-01

    Mutations in the GJB2 gene encoding connexin26 (CX26) account for up to 50% of cases of autosomal recessive hearing loss. In contrast, only one GJB2 mutation has been reported to date in an autosomal dominant form of isolated prelingual hearing loss. We report here a novel heterozygous 605G-->T mutation in GJB2 in all affected members of a large family with late childhood onset of autosomal dominant isolated hearing loss. The resulting C202F substitution, which lies in the fourth (M4) transmembrane domain of CX26, may impair connexin oligomerisation. Finally, our study suggests that GJB2 should be screened for heterozygous mutations in patients with autosomal dominant isolated hearing impairment, whatever the severity of the disease. PMID:10807696

  18. The myotubular myopathies: differential diagnosis of the X linked recessive, autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive forms and present state of DNA studies.

    PubMed Central

    Wallgren-Pettersson, C; Clarke, A; Samson, F; Fardeau, M; Dubowitz, V; Moser, H; Grimm, T; Barohn, R J; Barth, P G

    1995-01-01

    Clinical differences exist between the three forms of myotubular myopathy. They differ regarding age at onset, severity of the disease, and prognosis, and also regarding some of the clinical characteristics. The autosomal dominant form mostly has a later onset and milder course than the X linked form, and the autosomal recessive form is intermediate in both respects. These differences are, however, quantitative rather than qualitative. Muscle biopsy studies of family members are useful in some cases, and immunohistochemical staining of desmin and vimentin may help distinguish between the X linked and autosomal forms. Determining the mode of inheritance and prognosis in individual families, especially those with a single male patient, still poses a problem. Current molecular genetic results indicate that the gene for the X linked form is located in the proximal Xq28 region. Further molecular genetic studies are needed to examine the existence of genetic heterogeneity in myotubular myopathy and to facilitate diagnosis. Images PMID:8544184

  19. Suppression and replacement gene therapy for autosomal dominant disease in a murine model of dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Millington-Ward, Sophia; Chadderton, Naomi; O'Reilly, Mary; Palfi, Arpad; Goldmann, Tobias; Kilty, Claire; Humphries, Marian; Wolfrum, Uwe; Bennett, Jean; Humphries, Peter; Kenna, Paul F; Farrar, G Jane

    2011-04-01

    For dominantly inherited disorders development of gene therapies, targeting the primary genetic lesion has been impeded by mutational heterogeneity. An example is rhodopsin-linked autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa with over 150 mutations in the rhodopsin gene. Validation of a mutation-independent suppression and replacement gene therapy for this disorder has been undertaken. The therapy provides a means of correcting the genetic defect in a mutation-independent manner thereby circumventing the mutational diversity. Separate adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors were used to deliver an RNA interference (RNAi)-based rhodopsin suppressor and a codon-modified rhodopsin replacement gene resistant to suppression due to nucleotide alterations at degenerate positions over the RNAi target site. Viruses were subretinally coinjected into P347S mice, a model of dominant rhodopsin-linked retinitis pigmentosa. Benefit in retinal function and structure detected by electroretinography (ERG) and histology, respectively, was observed for at least 5 months. Notably, the photoreceptor cell layer, absent in 5-month-old untreated retinas, contained 3-4 layers of nuclei, whereas photoreceptor ultrastructure, assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) improved significantly. The study provides compelling evidence that codelivered suppression and replacement is beneficial, representing a significant step toward the clinic. Additionally, dual-vector delivery of combined therapeutics represents an exciting approach, which is potentially applicable to other inherited disorders. PMID:21224835

  20. Two novel disease-causing variants in BMPR1B are associated with brachydactyly type A1

    PubMed Central

    Racacho, Lemuel; Byrnes, Ashley M; MacDonald, Heather; Dranse, Helen J; Nikkel, Sarah M; Allanson, Judith; Rosser, Elisabeth; Underhill, T Michael; Bulman, Dennis E

    2015-01-01

    Brachydactyly type A1 is an autosomal dominant disorder primarily characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of the middle phalanges of digits 2–5. Human and mouse genetic perturbations in the BMP-SMAD signaling pathway have been associated with many brachymesophalangies, including BDA1, as causative mutations in IHH and GDF5 have been previously identified. GDF5 interacts directly as the preferred ligand for the BMP type-1 receptor BMPR1B and is important for both chondrogenesis and digit formation. We report pathogenic variants in BMPR1B that are associated with complex BDA1. A c.975A>C (p.(Lys325Asn)) was identified in the first patient displaying absent middle phalanges and shortened distal phalanges of the toes in addition to the significant shortening of middle phalanges in digits 2, 3 and 5 of the hands. The second patient displayed a combination of brachydactyly and arachnodactyly. The sequencing of BMPR1B in this individual revealed a novel c.447-1G>A at a canonical acceptor splice site of exon 8, which is predicted to create a novel acceptor site, thus leading to a translational reading frameshift. Both mutations are most likely to act in a dominant-negative manner, similar to the effects observed in BMPR1B mutations that cause BDA2. These findings demonstrate that BMPR1B is another gene involved with the pathogenesis of BDA1 and illustrates the continuum of phenotypes between BDA1 and BDA2. PMID:25758993

  1. Linkage of the late onset autosomal dominant familial spastic paraplegia (DFSPII) to chromosome 2p markers

    SciTech Connect

    Hentati, A.; Wasserman, B.; Siddique, T.

    1994-09-01

    Pure familial spastic paraplegias (FSP) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by spasticity of lower limbs. FSP in inherited as an autosomal dominant (DFSP) or an autosomal recessive (RFSP) trait. DFSP has been classified into early onset (DFSPI) and late onset (DFSPII) based on the mean age of onset in families. A locus for RFSP has been mapped to chromosome 8, while a locus for DFSPI has been mapped to chromosome 14q. Genetic locus heterogeneity was observed in both of these forms. The location of DFSPII locus (or loci) is unknown. We collected DNA samples from 81 individuals including 26 affecteds from three DFSPII families (9998, 840, 581). The mean age of onset of systems was 26.5, 42.5, and 35.2 years, respectively. We first tested 156 DNA markers distributed throughout the human 22 autosomes with family 9998 and positive lod scores were obtained with chromosome 2p markers D2S174 (Z({theta})=2.93 at {theta}=0.00), D2S146 (Z({theta})=1.03 at {theta}=0.00) and D2S177 (Z({theta})=1.04 at {theta}=0.00). Analysis of the 2 additional families confirmed the linkage with a peak lod score of Z({theta})=4.62 at {theta}=0.105 with D2S174. The multipoint linkage analysis using the map D2S175-10cM-D2S174-14cM-D2DS177 suggested that the DFSPII locus most likely maps between D2S174 and D2S177 with Z({theta})=6.11. There was no evidence in our data supporting genetic locus heterogeneity for the DFSPII.

  2. Screening for mutations in rhodopsin and peripherin/RDS in patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.A.; Gannon, A.M.; Daiger, S.P.

    1994-09-01

    Mutations in rhodopsin account for approximately 30% of all cases of autosomal dominant retinits pigmentosa (adRP) and mutations in peripherin/RDS account for an additional 5% of cases. Also, mutations in rhodopsin can cause autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa and mutations in peripherin/RDS can cause dominant macular degeneration. Most disease-causing mutations in rhodopsin and peripherin/RDS are unique to one family or, at most, to a few families within a limited geographic region, though a few mutations are found in multiple, unrelated families. To further determine the spectrum of genetic variation in these genes, we screened DNA samples from 134 unrelated patients with retinitis pigmentosa for mutations in both rhodopsin and peripherin/RDS using SSCP followed by genomic sequencing. Of the 134 patients, 86 were from families with apparent adRP and 48 were either isolated cases or were from families with an equivocal mode of inheritance. Among these patients we found 14 distinct rhodopsin mutations which are likely to cause retinal disease. Eleven of these mutations were found in one individual or one family only, whereas the Pro23His mutation was found in 14 {open_quotes}unrelated{close_quotes}individuals. The splice-site mutation produces dominant disease though with highly variable expression. Among the remaining patients were found 6 distinct peripherin/RDS mutations which are likely to cause retinal disease. These mutations were also found in one patient or family only, except the Gly266Asp mutation which was found in two unrelated patients. These results confirm the expected frequency and broad spectrum of mutations causing adRP.

  3. Quantitative Amyloid Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer's Disease: Results from the DIAN Study Group.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi; Blazey, Tyler M; Owen, Christopher J; Christensen, Jon J; Friedrichsen, Karl; Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Wang, Qing; Hornbeck, Russ C; Ances, Beau M; Snyder, Abraham Z; Cash, Lisa A; Koeppe, Robert A; Klunk, William E; Galasko, Douglas; Brickman, Adam M; McDade, Eric; Ringman, John M; Thompson, Paul M; Saykin, Andrew J; Ghetti, Bernardino; Sperling, Reisa A; Johnson, Keith A; Salloway, Stephen P; Schofield, Peter R; Masters, Colin L; Villemagne, Victor L; Fox, Nick C; Förster, Stefan; Chen, Kewei; Reiman, Eric M; Xiong, Chengjie; Marcus, Daniel S; Weiner, Michael W; Morris, John C; Bateman, Randall J; Benzinger, Tammie L S

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid imaging plays an important role in the research and diagnosis of dementing disorders. Substantial variation in quantitative methods to measure brain amyloid burden exists in the field. The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of methodological variations to the quantification of amyloid burden using data from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network (DIAN), an autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease population. Cross-sectional and longitudinal [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging data from the DIAN study were analyzed. Four candidate reference regions were investigated for estimation of brain amyloid burden. A regional spread function based technique was also investigated for the correction of partial volume effects. Cerebellar cortex, brain-stem, and white matter regions all had stable tracer retention during the course of disease. Partial volume correction consistently improves sensitivity to group differences and longitudinal changes over time. White matter referencing improved statistical power in the detecting longitudinal changes in relative tracer retention; however, the reason for this improvement is unclear and requires further investigation. Full dynamic acquisition and kinetic modeling improved statistical power although it may add cost and time. Several technical variations to amyloid burden quantification were examined in this study. Partial volume correction emerged as the strategy that most consistently improved statistical power for the detection of both longitudinal changes and across-group differences. For the autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease population with PiB imaging, utilizing brainstem as a reference region with partial volume correction may be optimal for current interventional trials. Further investigation of technical issues in quantitative amyloid imaging in different study populations using different amyloid imaging tracers is warranted. PMID:27010959

  4. Quantitative Amyloid Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer’s Disease: Results from the DIAN Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yi; Blazey, Tyler M.; Owen, Christopher J.; Christensen, Jon J.; Friedrichsen, Karl; Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Wang, Qing; Hornbeck, Russ C.; Ances, Beau M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Cash, Lisa A.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Klunk, William E.; Galasko, Douglas; Brickman, Adam M.; McDade, Eric; Ringman, John M.; Thompson, Paul M.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Salloway, Stephen P.; Schofield, Peter R.; Masters, Colin L.; Villemagne, Victor L.; Fox, Nick C.; Förster, Stefan; Chen, Kewei; Reiman, Eric M.; Xiong, Chengjie; Marcus, Daniel S.; Weiner, Michael W.; Morris, John C.; Bateman, Randall J.; Benzinger, Tammie L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid imaging plays an important role in the research and diagnosis of dementing disorders. Substantial variation in quantitative methods to measure brain amyloid burden exists in the field. The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of methodological variations to the quantification of amyloid burden using data from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer’s Network (DIAN), an autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population. Cross-sectional and longitudinal [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging data from the DIAN study were analyzed. Four candidate reference regions were investigated for estimation of brain amyloid burden. A regional spread function based technique was also investigated for the correction of partial volume effects. Cerebellar cortex, brain-stem, and white matter regions all had stable tracer retention during the course of disease. Partial volume correction consistently improves sensitivity to group differences and longitudinal changes over time. White matter referencing improved statistical power in the detecting longitudinal changes in relative tracer retention; however, the reason for this improvement is unclear and requires further investigation. Full dynamic acquisition and kinetic modeling improved statistical power although it may add cost and time. Several technical variations to amyloid burden quantification were examined in this study. Partial volume correction emerged as the strategy that most consistently improved statistical power for the detection of both longitudinal changes and across-group differences. For the autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population with PiB imaging, utilizing brainstem as a reference region with partial volume correction may be optimal for current interventional trials. Further investigation of technical issues in quantitative amyloid imaging in different study populations using different amyloid imaging tracers is warranted. PMID:27010959

  5. Autosomal dominant familial spastic paraplegia; Linkage analysis and evidence for linkage to chromosome 2p

    SciTech Connect

    Figlewicz, D.A.; Dube, M.P.; Rouleau, G.A.

    1994-09-01

    Familial spastic paraplegia (FSP) is a degenerative disorder of the motor system characterized by progressive weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs. Little is known about the pathophysiology of this disorder. FSP can be inherited as an autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive, or X-linked trait. We have undertaken linkage analysis for a group of 36 AD FSP families from which we have collected blood samples from 427 individuals, including 148 affected individuals. Typing of polymorphic markers has allowed us to exclude more than 50% of the genome. Recently, linkage for AD FSP to a locus on chromosome 14q was reported. Our AD FSP kindreds were tested for linkage to markers spanning the 20 cM region between D14S69 and D14S66; however, we were not able to establish linkage for any of our families to chromosome 14. Lod scores suggestive of linkage for some AD FSP kindreds have been obtained for markers on chromosome 2p. We have tested seven polymorphic markers spanning the region between D2S405 and D2S177. Our highest aggregate lod score, including all families tested, was obtained at the locus D2S352: 2.4 at 20 cM. Results from HOMOG analysis for linkage heterogeneity will be reported.

  6. Fine localization of the locus for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa on chromosome 17p

    SciTech Connect

    Goliath, R.; Janssens, P.; Beighton, P.

    1995-10-01

    The term {open_quotes}retintis pigmentosa{close_quotes} (RP) refers to a group of inherited retinal degenerative disorders. Clinical manifestations include night-blindness, with variable age of onset, followed by constriction of the visual field that may progress to total loss of sight in later life. Previous studies have shown that RP is caused by mutations within different genes and may be inherited as an X-linked recessive (XLRRP), autosomal recessive (ARRP), or autosomal dominant (ADRP) trait. The AD form of this group of conditions has been found to be caused by mutations within the rhodopsin gene in some families and the peripherin/RDS gene in others. In addition, some ADRP families have been found to be linked to anonymous markers on 8cen, 7p, 7q,19q, and, more recently, 17p. The ADRP gene locus on the short arm of chromosome 17 was identified in a large South African family (ADRP-SA) of British origin. The phenotypic expression of the disorder, which has been described elsewhere is consistent in the pedigree with an early onset of disease symptoms. In all affected subjects in the family, onset of symptoms commenced before the age of 10 years. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. A stepwise approach for effective management of chronic pain in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Casteleijn, Niek F.; Visser, Folkert W.; Drenth, Joost P.H.; Gevers, Tom J.G.; Groen, Gerbrand J.; Hogan, Marie C.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Drenth, J.P.H.; de Fijter, J.W.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Peters, D.J.M.; Wetzels, J.; Zietse, R.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain, defined as pain existing for >4–6 weeks, affects >60% of patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic disease (ADPKD). It can have various causes, indirectly or directly related to the increase in kidney and liver volume in these patients. Chronic pain in ADPKD patients is often severe, impacting physical activity and social relationships, and frequently difficult to manage. This review provides an overview of pathophysiological mechanisms that can lead to pain and discusses the sensory innervation of the kidneys and the upper abdominal organs, including the liver. In addition, the results of a systematic literature search of ADPKD-specific treatment options are presented. Based on pathophysiological knowledge and evidence derived from the literature an argumentative stepwise approach for effective management of chronic pain in ADPKD is proposed. PMID:25165181

  8. A Japanese pedigree of autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness with variable expressivity.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, M; Imai, Y; Wakita, M; Kato, K; Yanashima, K; Miyake, Y; Kanai, A

    1992-12-01

    Three cases in three successive generations of one family with autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness are presented. Case 1, the proband, and Case 3, his grandfather had the same electroretinographic responses: nonrecordable scotopic electroretinogram (ERG), normal but slightly diminished flicker ERG, and negative-shaped single bright-flash ERG. Their dark adaptation curves were monophasic with no rod segment. However, Case 2, the proband's father, showed different ERG findings; a moderately diminished scotopic ERG, a normal flicker ERG, and a biphasic dark adaptation curve with an elevated final rod threshold. The authors believe that these differences reflect variations in the expressivity of a single gene mutation with the lowest expressivity being seen in Case 2. PMID:1488221

  9. Linkage disequilibrium in the region of the autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease gene (PKD1)

    SciTech Connect

    Snarey, A. ); Thomas, S.; Harris, P.C. ); Schneider, M.C. ); Pound, S.E.; Wright, A.F. ); Barton, N.; Somlo, S.; Germino, G.G.; Reeders, S.T.

    1994-08-01

    The gene for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD1) is located on chromosome 16p, between the flanking markers D16S84 and D16S125 (26.6 prox). This region is 750 kb long and has been cloned. The authors have looked at the association of 10 polymorphic markers from the region, with the disease and with each other. This was done in a set of Scottish families that had previously shown association with D16S94, a marker proximal to the PKD1 region. They report significant association between two CA repeat markers and the disease but have not found evidence for a single founder haplotype in these families, indicating the presence of several mutations in this population. Their results favor a location of the PKD1 gene in the proximal part of the candidate region. 25 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  10. Refined localisation of the second gene for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, D.J.M.; Saris, J.J.; Spruit, L.

    1994-09-01

    The PKD1-gene responsible for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in 85% of the families maps to chromosome 16q13. Last year the PKD2-gene was localized on chromosome 4q21-23 between the markers D4S231 and D4S231 and D4S423, an interval of about 8cM. In a collaborative effort to narrow down the PKD2-region, families with recombinants have been analyzed with several markers within the interval. First, an integrated map had to be constructed which contains previously published markers of different sources. To construct this map, cosmids and/or YACs isolated with the markers have been mapped by two-color FISH and were screened with the other markers. Affected recombinants localize the disease between D4S1534 and D4S1544.

  11. Triphalangeal thumb and brachy-ectrodactyly syndrome. Confirmation of autosomal dominant inheritance.

    PubMed

    Silengo, M C; Biagioli, M; Bell, G L; Bona, G; Franceschini, P

    1987-01-01

    Two patients with triphalangeal thumbs-ectrodactyly syndrome are described. The first case is a 4-year-old female with triphalangeal thumbs, preaxial polydactyly with rudimentary polydactyly of the 3rd finger of the right hand and ectro-syndactyly of feet. Her stillborn sister had triphalangeal thumbs and ectrodactyly of feet. The mother has triphalangeal thumbs, brachy-syndactyly of the left foot and ectro-syndactyly of the right one. The maternal grandmother has syndactyly of 1st, 2nd, 3rd toes and hypoplasia of the 3rd toe on the right foot. The second case is sporadic and shows triphalangeal thumbs, preaxial polydactyly of the right hand and bilateral lobster-claw feet. Our observations confirm the variability of clinical expression and support the autosomal dominant inheritance of the syndrome. PMID:3568429

  12. High-density renal cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease demonstrated by CT

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, E.; Grantham, J.J.

    1985-02-01

    Unenhanced abdominal CT scans of 35 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) showed multiple high-density (58-84 HU) renal cysts in 42.9% of patients, occasional high-density cysts in 25.7%, and no high-density cysts in 31.4%. These high-density cysts were usually subcapsular and were more frequent in patients with markedly enlarged kidneys and flank pain at the time of CT. Follow-up CT often showed a reduction in cyst densities, although some cysts developed mural calcification and calcification of their contents. Renal carcinomas occur rarely in ADPKD and may occasionally be hyperdense. However, high-density cysts may usually be distinguished from carcinomas on CT by their smooth contours, sharp interfaces with renal parenchyma, homogeneity, and lack of contrast enhancement.

  13. A spectrum of mutations in the second gene for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD2).

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuisen, B; Saris, J J; de Haij, S; Hayashi, T; Reynolds, D M; Mochizuki, T; Elles, R; Fossdal, R; Bogdanova, N; van Dijk, M A; Coto, E; Ravine, D; Nørby, S; Verellen-Dumoulin, C; Breuning, M H; Somlo, S; Peters, D J

    1997-01-01

    Recently the second gene for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), located on chromosome 4q21-q22, has been cloned and characterized. The gene encodes an integral membrane protein, polycystin-2, that shows amino acid similarity to the PKD1 gene product and to the family of voltage-activated calcium (and sodium) channels. We have systematically screened the gene for mutations by single-strand conformation-polymorphism analysis in 35 families with the second type of ADPKD and have identified 20 mutations. So far, most mutations found seem to be unique and occur throughout the gene, without any evidence of clustering. In addition to small deletions, insertions, and substitutions leading to premature translation stops, one amino acid substitution and five possible splice-site mutations have been found. These findings suggest that the first step toward cyst formation in PKD2 patients is the loss of one functional copy of polycystin-2. Images Figure 2 PMID:9326320

  14. Benign autosomal dominant syndrome of neuronal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, ptosis, parkinsonism, and dementia.

    PubMed

    Tandan, R; Taylor, R; Adesina, A; Sharma, K; Fries, T; Pendlebury, W

    1990-05-01

    We present a kindred with a previously undescribed combination of neuronal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, ptosis, parkinsonism, and mild dementia. The propositus, a 72-year-old man, had pes cavus, peripheral neuropathy, ptosis, parkinsonism, hyperreflexia, orthostatic hypotension, central hypoventilation, and mild dementia. Peripheral electrophysiologic studies showed features of an axonal neuropathy. The electroencephalogram showed intermittent 2 to 4 Hz activity symmetrically in the hemispheres. Several family members in 3 generations had pes cavus, neuropathy, ptosis, parkinsonism, and dementia although not all of the features were consistently present. Survival past the 7th decade was common. Autopsy in 2 affected members revealed the neuropathy to be axonal in type and showed mild to moderate loss of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and pigmentary loss with gliosis in the substantia nigra. This is a unique, benign, autosomal dominant syndrome which shows complete penetrance, variable expression, and both central and peripheral nervous system involvement. PMID:2184381

  15. Autosomal dominant (Beukes) premature degenerative osteoarthropathy of the hip joint unlinked to COL2A1

    SciTech Connect

    Beighton, P.; Ramesar, R.; Cilliers, H.J.

    1994-12-01

    Molecular investigations have been undertaken in several separate large South African families with autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasias in which premature degenerative osteoarthropathy of the hip joint was the major manifestation. There are sometimes additional minor changes in the spine and these conditions fall into the general spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) nosological category. In some kindreds, linkage between phenotype and the type II collagen gene (COL2A1) has been established, while in others there is no linkage. We have now completed molecular linkage investigations in an Afrikaner family named Beukes, in which 47 members in 6 generations have premature osteoarthropathy of the hip joint. A LOD score of minus infinity indicates that this condition is not the result of a defect of the COL2A1 gene. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Autosomal dominant type I osteopetrosis is related with iatrogenic fractures in arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    van Hove, Ruud P; de Jong, Tjitte; Nolte, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (ADO) is a sclerotic bone disorder due to failure of osteoclasts. ADO poses difficulties during arthroplasty because of the increased chance for iatrogenic fractures due to sclerotic bone. ADO is divided into two types based on radiological findings, fracture risk, and osteoclast activity. These differences suggest less brittle bone in patients with ADO I compared to that of patients with ADO II, which suggests a smaller chance of preoperative fractures during cementless arthroplasty in ADO I compared with that in ADO II. A case of cementless total knee arthroplasty in a patient with ADO I is presented. Total hip arthroplasty was performed during follow-up, and known major problems related to ADO II were experienced. Therefore, the differences between ADO I and ADO II may not be clinically relevant for an iatrogenic fracture during arthroplasty in patients with ADO. PMID:25436076

  17. Salmon: a new autosomal mutation demonstrating incomplete dominance in the boine snake Boa constrictor.

    PubMed

    Ihle, R N; Schuett, G W; Hughes, K A

    2000-01-01

    An unusual and attractive pigmentation pattern mutation termed "salmon" has been identified in the United States in several captive colonies of the common neotropical boine snake boa constrictor [Boa constrictor (Boidae)]. Boa constrictors expressing the Sa pigmentation pattern appear to be restricted to regions of Panama. Animals with the Sa phenotype exhibit a sharp decrease in melanophore pigments (e.g., melanin) and an increase of xanthophore pigments (e.g., pteridines and carotenoids) throughout the body, including ventral and caudal regions. Moreover, the dorsal saddles (blotches) and lateral diamond patterns are greatly reduced and/or absent. Our study was initiated using a female B. constrictor born in captivity and expressed the Sa pigmentation pattern. Results from breeding experiments indicated an inheritance mode of autosomal incomplete dominance for the Sa and Wt alleles. PMID:10833054

  18. Mutational analysis of PKD1 gene in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingyan; Li, Lanrong; Liu, Qingmin

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a hereditary disease and common renal disease. Mutations of PKD genes are responsible for this disease. We analyzed a large Chinese family with ADPKD using Sanger sequencing to identify the mutation responsible for this disease. The family comprised 27 individuals including 10 ADPKD patients. These ADPKD patients had severe renal disease and most of them died very young. We analyzed 6 survival patients gene and found they all had C10529T mutation in exon 35 of PKD1 gene. We did not found gene mutation in any unaffected relatives or 300 unrelated controls. These findings suggested that the C10529T mutation in PKD1 gene might be the pathogenic mutation responsible for the disease in this family. PMID:26722532

  19. Genetic mechanisms and signaling pathways in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Peter C.; Torres, Vicente E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in defining the genetic mechanisms of disease causation and modification in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) have helped to explain some extreme disease manifestations and other phenotypic variability. Studies of the ADPKD proteins, polycystin-1 and -2, and the development and characterization of animal models that better mimic the human disease, have also helped us to understand pathogenesis and facilitated treatment evaluation. In addition, an improved understanding of aberrant downstream pathways in ADPKD, such as proliferation/secretion-related signaling, energy metabolism, and activated macrophages, in which cAMP and calcium changes may play a role, is leading to the identification of therapeutic targets. Finally, results from recent and ongoing preclinical and clinical trials are greatly improving the prospects for available, effective ADPKD treatments. PMID:24892705

  20. Identification and biochemical analysis of a novel APOB mutation that causes autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ellen R A; Atanur, Santosh S; Norsworthy, Penny J; Encheva, Vesela; Snijders, Ambrosius P; Game, Laurence; Vandrovcova, Jana; Siddiq, Afshan; Seed, Mary; Soutar, Anne K; Aitman, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Patients with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH) have a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease that can be effectively treated using statin drugs. Molecular diagnosis and family cascade screening is recommended for early identification of individuals at risk, but up to 40% of families have no mutation detected in known genes. This study combined linkage analysis and exome sequencing to identify a novel variant in exon 3 of APOB (Arg50Trp). Mass spectrometry established that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) containing Arg50Trp APOB accumulates in the circulation of affected individuals, suggesting defective hepatic uptake. Previously reported mutations in APOB causing ADH have been located in exon 26. This is the first report of a mutation outside this region causing this phenotype, therefore, more extensive screening of this large and highly polymorphic gene may be necessary in ADH families. This is now feasible due to the high capacity of recently available sequencing platforms. PMID:24498611

  1. Autosomal dominant nemaline myopathy caused by a novel alpha-tropomyosin 3 mutation.

    PubMed

    Kiphuth, I C; Krause, S; Huttner, H B; Dekomien, G; Struffert, T; Schröder, R

    2010-04-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a genetically and clinically heterogenous muscle disorder, which is myopathologically characterized by nemaline bodies. Mutations in six genes have been reported to cause NM: Nebulin (NEB Pelin 1999), alpha-skeletal muscle actin (ACTA1 Nowak 1999), alpha-slow tropomyosin (TPM3 Laing 1995), beta-tropomyosin (TPM2 Donner 2002), slow troponin T (TNNT1 Johnston 2000) and cofilin 2 (CFL2 Agrawal 2007). The majority of cases are due to mutation in NEB and ACTA1. We report on the clinical, myopathological and muscle MRI findings in a German family with autosomal dominant NM due to a novel pathogenic TPM3 mutation (p.Ala156Thr). PMID:20012312

  2. Perinatal Management of Pregnancy Complicated by Autosomal Dominant Emery–Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Megumi; Shirasawa, Hiromitsu; Makino, Kenichi; Miura, Hiroshi; Sato, Wataru; Shimizu, Dai; Sato, Naoki; Kumagai, Jin; Sato, Akira; Terada, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Autosomal dominant Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (AD-EDMD) is rare compared with other forms of muscular dystrophy and is characterized by cardiac conduction defects. Here, we present the case of a patient diagnosed with AD-EDMD during the first trimester of pregnancy who developed acute preeclampsia and subsequently, congestive heart failure (CHF) following cesarean section. Case A 36-year-old, gravida 0 para 0 woman was diagnosed with AD-EDMD by genetic testing during the first trimester of pregnancy, and she suddenly developed preeclampsia and partial HELLP (hemolytic anemia, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets) syndrome at 33 weeks of gestation. The patient subsequently developed CHF following cesarean section. Conclusion CHF can occur as a direct result of the cardiac defects arising due to EDMD, and therefore, careful prenatal and postpartum management is recommended for such cases. PMID:27054045

  3. Autosomal dominant zonular cataract with sutural opacities localized to chromosome 17q11-12

    SciTech Connect

    Padma, T.; Ayyagari, R.; Murty, J.S.

    1995-10-01

    Congenital cataracts constitute a morphologically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases that are a major cause of childhood blindness. Different loci for hereditary congenital cataracts have been mapped to chromosomes 1, 2, 16, and 17q24. We report linkage of a gene causing a unique form of autosomal dominant zonular cataracts with Y-sutural opacities to chromosome 17q11-12 in a three-generation family exhibiting a maximum lod score of 3.9 at D17S805. Multipoint analysis gave a Mod confidence interval of 17 cM. This interval is bounded by the markers D17S799 and D17S798, a region that would encompass a number of candidate genes including that coding for {Beta}A3/A1-crystallin. 30 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Functional heterogeneity of mutant rhodopsins responsible for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed Central

    Sung, C H; Schneider, B G; Agarwal, N; Papermaster, D S; Nathans, J

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen mutant rhodopsins responsible for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) have been produced by transfection of cloned cDNA into tissue culture cells. Three mutants [class I: Phe-45----Leu, Gln-344----termination (deletion of C-terminal positions 344-348), and Pro-347----Leu] resemble wild-type rhodopsin in yield, regenerability with 11-cis-retinal, and plasma membrane localization. Ten mutants [class II: Thr-17----Met, Pro-23----His, Thr-58----Arg, Val-87----Asp, Gly-89----Asp, Gly-106----Trp, Arg-135----Leu, Arg-135----Trp, Tyr-178----Cys, and Asp-190----Gly] accumulate to significantly lower levels, regenerate with 11-cis-retinal variably or not at all, and are transported inefficiently to the plasma membrane, remaining primarily in the endoplasmic reticulum. These data suggest that there are at least two distinct biochemical defects associated with different rhodopsin mutants in ADRP. Images PMID:1924344

  5. Regional variability of imaging biomarkers in autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Benzinger, Tammie L. S.; Blazey, Tyler; Jack, Clifford R.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Su, Yi; Xiong, Chengjie; Raichle, Marcus E.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Ances, Beau M.; Bateman, Randall J.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Fagan, Anne M.; Goate, Alison; Marcus, Daniel S.; Aisen, Paul S.; Christensen, Jon J.; Ercole, Lindsay; Hornbeck, Russ C.; Farrar, Angela M.; Aldea, Patricia; Jasielec, Mateusz S.; Owen, Christopher J.; Xie, Xianyun; Mayeux, Richard; Brickman, Adam; McDade, Eric; Klunk, William; Mathis, Chester A.; Ringman, John; Thompson, Paul M.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Saykin, Andrew J.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Salloway, Stephen; Correia, Stephen; Schofield, Peter R.; Masters, Colin L.; Rowe, Christopher; Villemagne, Victor L.; Martins, Ralph; Ourselin, Sebastien; Rossor, Martin N.; Fox, Nick C.; Cash, David M.; Weiner, Michael W.; Holtzman, David M.; Buckles, Virginia D.; Moulder, Krista; Morris, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Major imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease include amyloid deposition [imaged with [11C]Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET], altered glucose metabolism (imaged with [18F]fluro-deoxyglucose PET), and structural atrophy (imaged by MRI). Recently we published the initial subset of imaging findings for specific regions in a cohort of individuals with autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease. We now extend this work to include a larger cohort, whole-brain analyses integrating all three imaging modalities, and longitudinal data to examine regional differences in imaging biomarker dynamics. The anatomical distribution of imaging biomarkers is described in relation to estimated years from symptom onset. Autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease mutation carrier individuals have elevated PiB levels in nearly every cortical region 15 y before the estimated age of onset. Reduced cortical glucose metabolism and cortical thinning in the medial and lateral parietal lobe appeared 10 and 5 y, respectively, before estimated age of onset. Importantly, however, a divergent pattern was observed subcortically. All subcortical gray-matter regions exhibited elevated PiB uptake, but despite this, only the hippocampus showed reduced glucose metabolism. Similarly, atrophy was not observed in the caudate and pallidum despite marked amyloid accumulation. Finally, before hypometabolism, a hypermetabolic phase was identified for some cortical regions, including the precuneus and posterior cingulate. Additional analyses of individuals in which longitudinal data were available suggested that an accelerated appearance of volumetric declines approximately coincides with the onset of the symptomatic phase of the disease. PMID:24194552

  6. Mutational screening of 320 Brazilian patients with autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Cintra, Vívian Pedigone; Lourenço, Charles Marques; Marques, Sandra Elisabete; de Oliveira, Luana Michelli; Tumas, Vitor; Marques, Wilson

    2014-12-15

    Autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a clinical and genetically heterogeneous group of debilitating neurodegenerative diseases that are related to at least 36 different genetic loci; they are clinically characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia and are frequently accompanied by other neurological and non-neurological manifestations. The relative frequency of SCA varies greatly among different regions, presumably because of a founder effect or local ethnicities. Between July 1998 and May 2012, we investigated 320 Brazilian patients with an SCA phenotype who belonged to 150 unrelated families with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern and 23 sporadic patients from 13 Brazilian states. A total of 265 patients (82.8%) belonging to 131 unrelated families (87.3%) were found to have a definite mutation, and SCA3 accounted for most of the familial cases (70.7%), followed by SCA7 (6%), SCA1 (5.3%), SCA2 (2.7%), SCA6 (1.3%), SCA8 (0.7%) and SCA10 (0.7%). In the Ribeirão Preto mesoregion, which is located in the northeast part of São Paulo State, the prevalence of SCA3 was approximately 5 per 100,000 inhabitants, which is the highest prevalence found in Brazil. No mutation was found in the SCA12, SCA17 and DRPLA genes, and all the sporadic cases remained without a molecular diagnosis. This study further characterizes the spectrum of SCA mutations found in Brazilian patients, which suggests the existence of regional differences and demonstrates the expansion of the SCA8 locus in Brazilian families. PMID:25466696

  7. A novel LRSAM1 mutation is associated with autosomal dominant axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, Paschalis; Cianchetti, Carlo; Minaidou, Anna; Marrosu, Giovanni; Zamba-Papanicolaou, Eleni; Middleton, Lefkos; Christodoulou, Kyproula

    2013-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common hereditary neuropathy resulting from mutations in >30 genes expressed in either the Schwann cells or the axon of peripheral nerves. The disease is classified into demyelinating (CMT1), axonal (CMT2) or intermediate (CMTI) based on electrophysiological and pathological findings. Our study focused on the identification of a novel disease mutation in a large Sardinian family with CMT2 of autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance. All available family members were clinically evaluated and samples were collected from consenting individuals. Initially, we excluded known CMT2 genes/loci in this family. We then conducted a genome-wide linkage analysis and mapped the gene to chromosome 9q33–q34. Refined linkage and haplotype analyses defined an 11.6-Mb candidate region with a maximum LOD score of 8.06. Following exclusion of several candidate genes from the region, we targeted the LRSAM1 (leucine-rich repeat and sterile alpha motif-containing 1) gene, very recently found to be associated with autosomal recessive CMT2 in one family. For a more efficient investigation of this large gene, already available proband RNA (cDNA) was initially analyzed. Targeted DNA analysis then confirmed a novel LRSAM1 splice-site (c.2047-1G>A) mutation, causing a frameshift that introduces a stop codon three amino acids further down the new reading frame (p.Ala683ProfsX3). This mutation is located in the C-terminal RING finger motif of the encoded protein and leads to premature truncation of the protein. In the course of our work, a second LRSAM1 mutation dominantly transmitted was identified by another group. Our data further confirms that LRSAM1 mutations are associated with CMT2 of AD inheritance. PMID:22781092

  8. Further screening of the rhodopsin gene in patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Vaithinathan, R.; Berson, E.L.; Dryja, T.P. )

    1994-05-15

    Here the authors report 8 novel mutations and 8 previously reported mutations found from further analysis of the rhodopsin gene in a large set of additional patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Leukocyte DNA was purified from 122 unrelated patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa who were not included in previous analyses. The coding region and splice donor and acceptor sites of the rhodopsin gene were screened for mutations using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct genomic sequencing. They found 29 patients with varient bands that were due to mutations. Sequence analysis showed that 20 cases each had 1 of 9 previously published mutations: Pro23His, Thr58Arg, Gly89Asp, Pro171Leu, Glu181Lys, Pro347Leu, Phe45Leu, Arg135Trp, and Lys296Glu. In 9 other cases, they found 8 novel mutations. One was a 3-bp deletion (Cys264-del), and the rest were point mutations resulting in an altered amino acid: Gly51Arg (GGC [yields] CGC), Cys110Tyr (TCG [yields] TAC), Gly114Asp (GGC [yields] GAC), Ala164Glu (GCG [yields] GAG), Pro171Ser (CCA [yields] TCA), Val345Leu (GTG [yields] CTG), and Pro347Gln (CCG [yields] CAG). Each of these novel mutations was found in only one family except for Gly51Arg, which was found in two. In every family tested, the mutation cosegregated with the disease. However, in pedigree D865 only one affected member was available for analysis. About two-thirds of the mutations affect amino acids in transmembrane domains, yet only one-half of opsin's residues are in these regions. One-third of the mutations alter residues in the extracellular/intradiscal space, which includes only 25% of the protein.

  9. Autosomal dominant familial spastic paraplegia: Tight linkage to chromosome 15q

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.; Wu, C.T.B.; Jones, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    Familial spastic paraplegia (FSP) (MIM No.18260) constitutes a clinically and genetically diverse group of disorders that share the primary feature of progressive, severe, lower extremity spasticity. FSP is classified according to the mode of inheritance and whether progressive spasticity occurs in isolation ({open_quotes}uncomplicated FSP{close_quotes}) or with other neurologic abnormalities ({open_quotes}complicated FSP{close_quotes}), including optic neuropathy, retinopathy, extrapyramidal disturbance, dementia, ataxia, ichthyosis, mental retardation, or deafness. Recently, autosomal dominant, uncomplicated FSP was shown to be genetically heterogeneous and tightly linked to a group of microsatellite markers on chromosome 14q in one large kindred. We examined 126 members of a non-consanguineous North American kindred of Irish descent. FSP was diagnosed in 31 living subjects who developed insidiously progressive gait disturbance between ages 12 and 35 years. Using genetic linkage analysis to microsatellite DNA polymorphisms, we showed that the FSP locus on chromosome 14q was exluded from linkage with the disorder in our family. Subsequently, we searched for genetic linkage between the disorder and microsatellite DNA polymorphisms spanning approximately 50% of the genome. We observed significantly positive, two-point maximum lod scores (Z) for markers on chromosome 15q: D15S128 (Z=9.70, {theta}=0.05), D15S165 (Z=3.30, {theta}=0.10), and UT511 (Z=3.86, {theta}=0.10). Our data clearly establishes that one locus for autosomal dominant, uncomplicated FSP is mapped to the pericentric region of chromosome 15q. Identifying genes responsible for chromosome 15q-linked and chromosome 14q-linked FSP will greatly advance our understanding of this condition and hopefully other inherited and degenerative brain and spinal cord disorders that are also characterized by axonal degeneration.

  10. Acromicric dysplasia: long term outcome and evidence of autosomal dominant inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Faivre, L; Le Merrer, M; Baumann, C; Polak, M; Chatelain, P; Sulmont, V; Cousin, J; Bost, M; Cordier, M; Zackai, E; Russell, K; Finidori, G; Pouliquen, J; Munnich, A; Maroteaux, P; Cormier-Daire, V

    2001-01-01

    Acromicric dysplasia is a rare bone dysplasia characterised by short stature, short hands and feet, normal intelligence, mild facial dysmorphism, and characteristic x ray abnormalities of the hands. Only a very small number of children with this condition have been reported so far. Here we report on a series of 22 patients including 10 boys and 12 girls with acromicric dysplasia. Length was normal at birth and height fell progressively off the centiles postnatally. The mean adult height was 130 cm (133 cm in males, 129 cm in females). The hands, feet, and limbs were short and OFC was normal. Intelligence was normal and mild dysmorphic features were noted. Other occasional features included well developed muscles, a hoarse voice, generalised joint limitation in some patients, frequent ear, tracheal, and respiratory complication, and spine abnormalities. Long term follow up showed that facial dysmorphism was less obvious in adults and that carpal tunnel syndrome was frequent in older patients. Apart from short metacarpals and phalanges, internal notch of the second metacarpal, external notch of the fifth metacarpal, and internal notch of the femoral heads, there were no major x ray abnormalities. No major complications, such as cardiac disease or major orthopaedic problems, occurred in the course of the disease. The condition appeared to be sporadic in 16 cases but the observation of vertical transmission in three families was consistent with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance.


Keywords: acromicric dysplasia; geleophysic dysplasia; long term outcome; autosomal dominant inheritance PMID:11694546

  11. Localization of genes for autosomal dominant congenital cataracts to chromosomes 2 and 17

    SciTech Connect

    Ayyagari, R.; Scott, M.; Wozencraft, L.

    1994-09-01

    Linkage analysis was performed in a seven generation family in which 28 of 52 individuals examined had autosomal dominant congenital pulverulent cataracts and a five generation family in which 10 of 17 individuals examined had autosomal dominant congenital zonular cataracts with sutural opacities. Initial analysis with 21 microsatellite markers in 7 candidate gene regions localized the pulverulent cataract locus to the long arm of chromosome 2 near the {beta}B2-crystallin gene. A lod score of 3.6 was obtained with D2S72 ({theta}=0.12), 3.5 with CRYG ({theta}=0.06), 3.4 with ({theta}=0.05), 2.0 with D2S117 ({theta}=0.22) and 6.6 with D2S128 ({theta}=0.05). Multipoint linkage analysis gave Zmax=4.2 at D2S157 with a one lod confidence interval covering 19 cM. The closest flanking markers showing obligate recombinants are D2S157 and D2S173. The zonular cataract locus was mapped to chromosome 2 near the {gamma}-crystallin gene cluster. A maximum lod score of 3.8 was obtained with D17S805 ({theta}=0.0), 2.1 with D17S798 ({theta}=0.60), and 3.7 with NF1 ({theta}=0.0). Multipoint analysis showed Zmax=3.81 at D17S805 with a one lod confidence interval covering 17 cM based on the Genethon map, localizing cataracts between markers D17S799 and D17S800. Further efforts are being directed at refining the localization of these cataract loci and examining the nearby crystallin genes for possible mutations.

  12. Kidney Function and Plasma Copeptin Levels in Healthy Kidney Donors and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zittema, Debbie; van den Berg, Else; Meijer, Esther; Boertien, Wendy E.; Muller Kobold, Anneke C.; Franssen, Casper F.M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; Navis, Gerjan

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Plasma copeptin, a marker of arginine vasopressin, is elevated in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and predicts disease progression. It is unknown whether elevated copeptin levels result from decreased kidney clearance or as compensation for impaired concentrating capacity. Data from patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and healthy kidney donors before and after donation were used, because after donation, overall GFR decreases with a functionally normal kidney. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Data were obtained between October of 2008 and January of 2012 from healthy kidney donors who visited the institution for routine measurements predonation and postdonation and patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease who visited the institution for kidney function measurement. Plasma copeptin levels were measured using a sandwich immunoassay, GFR was measured as 125I-iothalamate clearance, and urine concentrating capacity was measured as urine-to-plasma ratio of urea. In patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, total kidney volume was measured with magnetic resonance imaging. Results Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (n=122, age=40 years, men=56%) had significantly higher copeptin levels (median=6.8 pmol/L; interquartile range=3.4–15.7 pmol/L) compared with donors (n=134, age=52 years, men=49%) both predonation and postdonation (median=3.8 pmol/L; interquartile range=2.8–6.3 pmol/L; P<0.001; median=4.4 pmol/L; interquartile range=3.6–6.1 pmol/L; P<0.001). In donors, copeptin levels did not change after donation, despite a significant fall in GFR (from 105±17 to 66±10; P<0.001). Copeptin and GFR were significantly associated in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (β=−0.45, P<0.001) but not in donors. In patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, GFR and total kidney volume were both associated significantly with urine-to-plasma ratio of urea (β=0.84, P<0.001; β=−0.51, P<0.001, respectively). Conclusions On the basis of the finding in donors that kidney clearance is not a main determinant of plasma copeptin levels, it was hypothesized that, in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, kidney damage and associated impaired urine concentration capacity determine copeptin levels. PMID:24993447

  13. Molecular genetics of autosomal-dominant demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Houlden, Henry; Reilly, Mary M

    2006-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders and is the most common inherited neuromuscular disorder, with an estimated overall prevalence of 17-40/10,000. Although there has been major advances in the understanding of the genetic basis of CMT in recent years, the most useful classification is still a neurophysiological classification that divides CMT into type 1 (demyelinating; median motor conduction velocity < 38 m/s) and type 2 (axonal; median motor conduction velocity > 38 m/s). An intermediate type is also increasingly being described. Inheritance can be autosomal-dominant (AD), X-linked, or autosomal-recessive (AR). AD CMT1 is the most common type of CMT and was the first form of CMT in which a causative gene was described. This review provides an up-to-date overview of AD CMT1 concentrating on the molecular genetics as the clinical, neurophysiological, and pathological features have been covered elsewhere. Four genes (PMP22, MPZ, LITAF, and EGR2) have been described in the last 15 yr associated with AD CMTI and a further gene (NEFL), originally described as causing AD CMT2 can also cause AD CMT1 (by neurophysiological criteria). Studies have shown many of these genes, when mutated, can cause a wide range of CMT phenotypes from the relatively mild CMT1 to the more severe Dejerine-Sottas disease and congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy, and even in some cases axonal CMT2. This review discusses what is known about these genes and in particular how they cause a peripheral neuropathy, when mutated. PMID:16775366

  14. De Novo GMNN Mutations Cause Autosomal-Dominant Primordial Dwarfism Associated with Meier-Gorlin Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Burrage, Lindsay C; Charng, Wu-Lin; Eldomery, Mohammad K; Willer, Jason R; Davis, Erica E; Lugtenberg, Dorien; Zhu, Wenmiao; Leduc, Magalie S; Akdemir, Zeynep C; Azamian, Mahshid; Zapata, Gladys; Hernandez, Patricia P; Schoots, Jeroen; de Munnik, Sonja A; Roepman, Ronald; Pearring, Jillian N; Jhangiani, Shalini; Katsanis, Nicholas; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Brunner, Han G; Beaudet, Arthur L; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Eng, Christine M; Xia, Fan; Lalani, Seema R; Lupski, James R; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Yang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is a genetically heterogeneous primordial dwarfism syndrome known to be caused by biallelic loss-of-function mutations in one of five genes encoding pre-replication complex proteins: ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, and CDC6. Mutations in these genes cause disruption of the origin of DNA replication initiation. To date, only an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern has been described in individuals with this disorder, with a molecular etiology established in about three-fourths of cases. Here, we report three subjects with MGS and de novo heterozygous mutations in the 5' end of GMNN, encoding the DNA replication inhibitor geminin. We identified two truncating mutations in exon 2 (the 1(st) coding exon), c.16A>T (p.Lys6(∗)) and c.35_38delTCAA (p.Ile12Lysfs(∗)4), and one missense mutation, c.50A>G (p.Lys17Arg), affecting the second-to-last nucleotide of exon 2 and possibly RNA splicing. Geminin is present during the S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle and is degraded during the metaphase-anaphase transition by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which recognizes the destruction box sequence near the 5' end of the geminin protein. All three GMNN mutations identified alter sites 5' to residue Met28 of the protein, which is located within the destruction box. We present data supporting a gain-of-function mechanism, in which the GMNN mutations result in proteins lacking the destruction box and hence increased protein stability and prolonged inhibition of replication leading to autosomal-dominant MGS. PMID:26637980

  15. Prevalence of Mutations in eyeGENE Probands With a Diagnosis of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Lori S.; Bowne, Sara J.; Reeves, Melissa J.; Blain, Delphine; Goetz, Kerry; NDifor, Vida; Vitez, Sally; Wang, Xinjing; Tumminia, Santa J.; Daiger, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To screen samples from patients with presumed autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) for mutations in 12 disease genes as a contribution to the research and treatment goals of the National Ophthalmic Disease Genotyping and Phenotyping Network (eyeGENE). Methods. DNA samples were obtained from eyeGENE. A total of 170 probands with an intake diagnosis of adRP were tested through enrollment in eyeGENE. The 10 most common genes causing adRP (IMPDH1, KLHL7, NR2E3, PRPF3/RP18, PRPF31/RP11, PRPF8/RP13, PRPH2/RDS, RHO, RP1, and TOPORS) were chosen for PCR-based dideoxy sequencing, along with the two X-linked RP genes, RPGR and RP2. RHO, PRPH2, PRPF31, RPGR, and RP2 were completely sequenced, while only mutation hotspots in the other genes were analyzed. Results. Disease-causing mutations were identified in 52% of the probands. The frequencies of disease-causing mutations in the 12 genes were consistent with previous studies. Conclusions. The Laboratory for Molecular Diagnosis of Inherited Eye Disease at the University of Texas in Houston has thus far received DNA samples from 170 families with a diagnosis of adRP from the eyeGENE Network. Disease-causing mutations in autosomal genes were identified in 48% (81/170) of these families while mutations in X-linked genes accounted for an additional 4% (7/170). Of the 55 distinct mutations detected, 19 (33%) have not been previously reported. All diagnostic results were returned by eyeGENE to participating patients via their referring clinician. These genotyped samples along with their corresponding phenotypic information are also available to researchers who may request access to them for further study of these ophthalmic disorders. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00378742.) PMID:23950152

  16. Longitudinal change in CSF biomarkers in autosomal-dominant Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Anne M.; Xiong, Chengjie; Jasielec, Mateusz S.; Bateman, Randall J.; Goate, Alison M.; Benzinger, Tammie L.S.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Martins, Ralph N.; Masters, Colin L.; Mayeux, Richard; Ringman, John M.; Rossor, Martin N.; Salloway, Stephen; Schofield, Peter R.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Marcus, Daniel; Cairns, Nigel J.; Buckles, Virginia D.; Ladenson, Jack H.; Morris, John C.; Holtzman, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Clinicopathologic evidence suggests the pathology of Alzheimer disease (AD) begins many years prior to cognitive symptoms. Biomarkers are required to identify affected individuals during this asymptomatic (“pre-clinical”) stage to permit intervention with potential disease-modifying therapies designed to preserve normal brain function. Studies of families with autosomal-dominant AD (ADAD) mutations provide a unique and powerful means to investigate AD biomarker changes during the asymptomatic period. In this biomarker study comparing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma and in vivo amyloid imaging, cross-sectional data obtained at baseline in individuals from ADAD families enrolled in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) demonstrate reduced concentrations of CSF amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1–42) associated with the presence of β-amyloid plaques, and elevated concentrations of CSF tau, ptau181 and VILIP-1, markers of neurofibrillary tangles and/or neuronal injury/death, in asymptomatic mutation carriers 10-20 years prior to their estimated age at symptom onset (EAO), and prior to detection of cognitive deficits. When compared longitudinally, however, the concentrations of CSF biomarkers of neuronal injury/death within-individuals decrease after their EAO, suggesting a slowing of acute neurodegenerative processes with symptomatic disease progression. These results emphasize the importance of longitudinal, within-person assessment when modeling biomarker trajectories across the course of the disease. If corroborated, this pattern may influence the definition of a positive neurodegenerative biomarker outcome in clinical trials. PMID:24598588

  17. Preclinical trials in autosomal dominant AD: Implementation of the DIAN-TU trial

    PubMed Central

    Mills, S.M.; Mallmann, J.; Santacruz, A.M.; Fuqua, A.; Carril, M.; Aisen, P.S.; Althage, M.C.; Belyew, S.; Benzinger, T.L.; Brooks, W.S.; Buckles, V.D.; Cairns, N.J.; Clifford, D.; Danek, A.; Fagan, A.M.; Farlow, M.; Fox, N.; Ghetti, B.; Goate, A.M.; Heinrichs, D.; Hornbeck, R.; Jack, C.; Jucker, M.; Klunk, W.E.; Marcus, D.S.; Martins, R.N.; Masters, C.M.; Mayeux, R.; McDade, E.; Morris, J.C.; Oliver, A.; Ringman, J.M.; Rossor, M.N.; Salloway, S.; Schofield, P.R.; Snider, J.; Snyder, P.; Sperling, R.A.; Stewart, C.; Thomas, R.G.; Xiong, C.; Bateman, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    The Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer’s Network Trials Unit (DIAN-TU) was formed to direct the design and management of interventional therapeutic trials of international DIAN and autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease (ADAD) participants. The goal of the DIAN-TU is to implement safe trials that have the highest likelihood of success while advancing scientific understanding of these diseases and clinical effects of proposed therapies. The DIAN-TU has launched a trial design that leverages the existing infrastructure of the ongoing DIAN observational study, takes advantage of a variety of drug targets, incorporates the latest results of biomarker and cognitive data collected during the observational study, and implements biomarkers measuring Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biological processes to improve the efficiency of trial design. The DIAN-TU trial design is unique due to the sophisticated design of multiple drugs, multiple pharmaceutical partners, academics servings as sponsor, geographic distribution of a rare population and intensive safety and biomarker assessments. The implementation of the operational aspects such as home health research delivery, safety magnetic resonance imagings (MRIs) at remote locations, monitoring clinical and cognitive measures, and regulatory management involving multiple pharmaceutical sponsors of the complex DIAN-TU trial are described. PMID:24016464

  18. Heterozygous HTRA1 mutations are associated with autosomal dominant cerebral small vessel disease.

    PubMed

    Verdura, Edgard; Hervé, Dominique; Scharrer, Eva; Amador, Maria Del Mar; Guyant-Maréchal, Lucie; Philippi, Anne; Corlobé, Astrid; Bergametti, Françoise; Gazal, Steven; Prieto-Morin, Carol; Beaufort, Nathalie; Le Bail, Benoit; Viakhireva, Irina; Dichgans, Martin; Chabriat, Hugues; Haffner, Christof; Tournier-Lasserve, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease represents a heterogeneous group of disorders leading to stroke and cognitive impairment. While most small vessel diseases appear sporadic and related to age and hypertension, several early-onset monogenic forms have also been reported. However, only a minority of patients with familial small vessel disease carry mutations in one of known small vessel disease genes. We used whole exome sequencing to identify candidate genes in an autosomal dominant small vessel disease family in which known small vessel disease genes had been excluded, and subsequently screened all candidate genes in 201 unrelated probands with a familial small vessel disease of unknown aetiology, using high throughput multiplex polymerase chain reaction and next generation sequencing. A heterozygous HTRA1 variant (R166L), absent from 1000 Genomes and Exome Variant Server databases and predicted to be deleterious by in silico tools, was identified in all affected members of the index family. Ten probands of 201 additional unrelated and affected probands (4.97%) harboured a heterozygous HTRA1 mutation predicted to be damaging. There was a highly significant difference in the number of likely deleterious variants in cases compared to controls (P = 4.2 × 10(-6); odds ratio = 15.4; 95% confidence interval = 4.9-45.5), strongly suggesting causality. Seven of these variants were located within or close to the HTRA1 protease domain, three were in the N-terminal domain of unknown function and one in the C-terminal PDZ domain. In vitro activity analysis of HTRA1 mutants demonstrated a loss of function effect. Clinical features of this autosomal dominant small vessel disease differ from those of CARASIL and CADASIL by a later age of onset and the absence of the typical extraneurological features of CARASIL. They are similar to those of sporadic small vessel disease, except for their familial nature. Our data demonstrate that heterozygous HTRA1 mutations are an important cause of familial small vessel disease, and that screening of HTRA1 should be considered in all patients with a hereditary small vessel disease of unknown aetiology. PMID:26063658

  19. Relative Contribution of Mutations in Genes for Autosomal Dominant Distal Hereditary Motor Neuropathies: A Genotype-Phenotype Correlation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierick, Ines; Baets, Jonathan; Irobi, Joy; Jacobs, An; De Vriendt, Els; Deconinck, Tine; Merlini, Luciano; Van den Bergh, Peter; Rasic, Vedrana Milic; Robberecht, Wim; Fischer, Dirk; Morales, Raul Juntas; Mitrovic, Zoran; Seeman, Pavel; Mazanec, Radim; Kochanski, Andrzej; Jordanova, Albena; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Helderman-van den Enden, A. T. J. M.; Wokke, John H. J.; Nelis, Eva; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Distal hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders affecting spinal alpha-motor neurons. Since 2001, mutations in six different genes have been identified for autosomal dominant distal HMN; "glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS)," "dynactin 1 (DCTN1)," "small heat shock 27 kDa protein 1 (HSPB1),"…

  20. Relative Contribution of Mutations in Genes for Autosomal Dominant Distal Hereditary Motor Neuropathies: A Genotype-Phenotype Correlation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierick, Ines; Baets, Jonathan; Irobi, Joy; Jacobs, An; De Vriendt, Els; Deconinck, Tine; Merlini, Luciano; Van den Bergh, Peter; Rasic, Vedrana Milic; Robberecht, Wim; Fischer, Dirk; Morales, Raul Juntas; Mitrovic, Zoran; Seeman, Pavel; Mazanec, Radim; Kochanski, Andrzej; Jordanova, Albena; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Helderman-van den Enden, A. T. J. M.; Wokke, John H. J.; Nelis, Eva; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Distal hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders affecting spinal alpha-motor neurons. Since 2001, mutations in six different genes have been identified for autosomal dominant distal HMN; "glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS)," "dynactin 1 (DCTN1)," "small heat shock 27 kDa protein 1 (HSPB1),"

  1. A Mutation in a Skin-Specific Isoform of SMARCAD1 Causes Autosomal-Dominant Adermatoglyphia

    PubMed Central

    Nousbeck, Janna; Burger, Bettina; Fuchs-Telem, Dana; Pavlovsky, Mor; Fenig, Shlomit; Sarig, Ofer; Itin, Peter; Sprecher, Eli

    2011-01-01

    Monogenic disorders offer unique opportunities for researchers to shed light upon fundamental physiological processes in humans. We investigated a large family affected with autosomal-dominant adermatoglyphia (absence of fingerprints) also known as the “immigration delay disease.” Using linkage and haplotype analyses, we mapped the disease phenotype to 4q22. One of the genes located in this interval is SMARCAD1, a member of the SNF subfamily of the helicase protein superfamily. We demonstrated the existence of a short isoform of SMARCAD1 exclusively expressed in the skin. Sequencing of all SMARCAD1 coding and noncoding exons revealed a heterozygous transversion predicted to disrupt a conserved donor splice site adjacent to the 3′ end of a noncoding exon uniquely present in the skin-specific short isoform of the gene. This mutation segregated with the disease phenotype throughout the entire family. Using a minigene system, we found that this mutation causes aberrant splicing, resulting in decreased stability of the short RNA isoform as predicted by computational analysis and shown by RT-PCR. Taken together, the present findings implicate a skin-specific isoform of SMARCAD1 in the regulation of dermatoglyph development. PMID:21820097

  2. Characterization of a novel autosomal dominant bleeding disorder in a large kindred from east Texas.

    PubMed

    Kuang, S Q; Hasham, S; Phillips, M D; Wolf, D; Wan, Y; Thiagarajan, P; Milewicz, D M

    2001-03-15

    A large east Texas family with autosomal dominant inheritance of a novel bleeding disorder has been identified. The disorder is characterized clinically by easy bruising, life-threatening bleeding with trauma or surgery, and menorrhagia in affected women. Laboratory studies demonstrated prolongation of the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in affected individuals. Paradoxically, assays of known coagulation factors are all within normal limits. To determine the molecular basis of this disease, a candidate gene linkage analysis in this kindred was done. Initially it was hypothesized that the cause of the disease in this family could be an antithrombin III (AT3) mutation that resulted in a constitutively active AT3 in the absence of heparin binding. Linkage studies using DNA from the family and an intragenic polymorphic marker within the AT3 gene showed that the disease mapped to this locus. The coding region and intron/exon junctions of AT3 were sequenced using the proband's DNA, but this analysis failed to identify a mutation. Additional family members were recruited for the study, and 16 polymorphic markers around the AT3 gene were analyzed. Using 2 recombinants, the critical interval for the defective gene was narrowed to approximately 1.5 Mb, centromeric to AT3. The factor V (FV) gene was mapped into the disease interval and sequenced; there were no mutations found. Elucidation of the genetic defect causing the bleeding disorder in this family may reveal a novel protein involved in the coagulation cascade. PMID:11238089

  3. Autosomal dominant ataxia: Genetic evidence for locus heterogeneity from a cuban founder-effect population

    PubMed Central

    Auburger, Georg; Diaz, Guillermo Orozco; Capote, Raul Ferreira; Sanchez, Suzana Gispert; Perez, Marta Paradoa; del Cueto, Marianela Estrada; Meneses, Mirna Garcia; Farrall, Martin; Williamson, Robert; Chamberlain, Susan; Baute, Luis Heredero

    1990-01-01

    The locus for autosomal dominant ataxia with a diagnosis of olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy at autopsy has been previously assigned to chromosome 6p. However, evidence for two alternative locations has been reported. We have recently described a large potential founder-effect population of such patients in the Holguin province of Cuba. With an estimated 1,000 patients available for analysis, this extensive cluster of families provides a unique opportunity for the definitive localization of the genetic mutation. Linkage analysis between the disease locus in this population and markers within and flanking the HLA region on chromosome 6 were undertaken in 12 families comprising over 100 affected individuals. Despite similarity in the clinical phenotype between those families where the disease locus has been reported to be linked to the HLA locus and the Cuban patients, no evidence of linkage to this region could be demonstrated in the latter. The disease locus was excluded from a 96-cM genetic interval of the short arm of chromosome 6, encompassing the F13A1HLAGLO1MUT/D6S4 loci. These data strongly support the existence of genetic heterogeneity for the disease. PMID:1971152

  4. Prevalence and ethnic differences of autosomal-dominant cerebellar ataxia in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Tan, E K; Law, H Y; Yoon, C S; Wong, M C; Ng, I

    2002-12-01

    We report the prevalence and ethnic differences of autosomal-dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA) in Singapore. Amongst 204 patients with ataxia who underwent genetic testing for dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) and for spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 10 and 12, 58 (28.4%) patients from 36 families tested positive. SCA 3 was identified in 31 (53.4%) patients from 15 families, SCA 2 in 17 (29.3%) patients from 12 families and SCA 1 in four (6.9%) patients from four families. Other SCA subtypes were rare. SCA 2 was the only subtype identified amongst ethnic Malay and ethnic Indian families. The estimated prevalence of ADCA in Singaporean families was at least 1 : 27,000. Based on the history and ancestry of Singaporeans, our study supported a founder effect for specific SCA subtypes and the association of ethnicity-specific SCA subtypes. Our findings suggest that SCA 2 is relatively common amongst the Malay race and that priority testing for SCA 3 and SCA 2 for ethnic Chinese, and SCA 2 for ethnic Malay, may be cost effective and relevant for the region. PMID:12485197

  5. Fatty Acid Oxidation is Impaired in An Orthologous Mouse Model of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Luis F.; Lin, Cheng-Chao; Zhou, Fang; Germino, Gregory G.

    2016-01-01

    Background The major gene mutated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease was first identified over 20 years ago, yet its function remains poorly understood. We have used a systems-based approach to examine the effects of acquired loss of Pkd1 in adult mouse kidney as it transitions from normal to cystic state. Methods We performed transcriptional profiling of a large set of male and female kidneys, along with metabolomics and lipidomics analyses of a subset of male kidneys. We also assessed the effects of a modest diet change on cyst progression in young cystic mice. Fatty acid oxidation and glycolytic rates were measured in five control and mutant pairs of epithelial cells. Results We find that females have a significantly less severe kidney phenotype and correlate this protection with differences in lipid metabolism. We show that sex is a major determinant of the transcriptional profile of mouse kidneys and that some of this difference is due to genes involved in lipid metabolism. Pkd1 mutant mice have transcriptional profiles consistent with changes in lipid metabolism and distinct metabolite and complex lipid profiles in kidneys. We also show that cells lacking Pkd1 have an intrinsic fatty acid oxidation defect and that manipulation of lipid content of mouse chow modifies cystic disease. Interpretation Our results suggest PKD could be a disease of altered cellular metabolism. PMID:27077126

  6. Percutaneous Treatment of Pyocystis in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Akinci, Devrim Turkbey, Baris; Yilmaz, Rahmi; Akpinar, Erhan; Ozmen, Mustafa N.; Akhan, Okan

    2008-09-15

    The course of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is frequently complicated by infection of a cyst within a polycystic kidney, which is a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma damaging the clinical course of patients. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous drainage in management of infected cysts in ADPKD patients. Between May 2003 and December 2006, percutaneous drainage was performed in 16 infected renal cysts of four kidneys in three patients (two females, one male), with a mean age of 57.3 years. Cyst dimensions, total amount of drained cyst fluid, catheterization duration, isolated microorganisms, and follow-up duration were recorded. Technical, clinical success rates were 100%; the complication rate was 0%. Diameters of cysts ranged between 3 and 8 cm. Average volume of drained fluid and average duration of catheterization for one cyst were 226 ml and 9.8 days. No recurrence was encountered but one patient (no. 3), who had pyocystis in the right kidney and was treated with catheterization, referred with left flank pain due to pyocystis in her left kidney 3 months later. Follow-up durations were 35, 47, and 11 months for patients 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For patient 3, follow-up duration for the second procedure was 7 months. We conclude that percutaneous drainage with antibiotic therapy should be the initial method in management of infected cysts in ADPKD patients, with high success and low complication rates.

  7. Liver cysts in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease: clinical and computed tomographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, E.; Cook, L.T.; Grantham, J.J.

    1985-08-01

    Hepatic CT findings were analyzed in 44 patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease and were correlated with liver and renal function tests and liver, splenic, and renal CT volume measurements. CT showed many large liver cysts in 31.8% of patients, small liver cysts in 25%, and no liver cysts in 43.2%. Patients with many large cysts often showed increased liver volumes. There was no correlation between severity of liver involvement and extent of renal cystic disease as determined from urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and renal volumes. Liver function tests were normal except in two patients, one with a cholangiocarcinoma, which may have arisen from a cyst, and the other with an infected liver cyst and chronic active hepatitis. Accordingly, if liver function tests are abnormal, an attempt should be made to identify complications of polycystic liver disease such as tumor cyst infection, and biliary obstruction. CT is a useful method for detecting liver cysts and identifying patients at risk for these complications.

  8. Identification of the autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease gene, PKD1

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.C.; Zhang, F.; Geng, L.

    1994-09-01

    The PKDl gene was localized to an {approximately}480 kb interval of chromosome 16pl3. More than 20 independent transcripts were found in the interval. In view of the high new mutation rate in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney diseases (ADPKD), we anticipated the PKD1 gene would be large. The largest transcript in the region was represented by five cDNA clones located adjacent to the tuberin gene (TSC2). Two of these clones, KG8 and NKG9, contain {approximately}4.5 kb of contiguous sequence corresponding to the 3{prime} end of the 14 kb mRNA which is transcribed from telomeric to centromeric. They spans 11 exons, and to evaluate the reading frame of the cDNA, we have compared the human and monkey sequence using human primers, and found 90-94% identity at the DNA level, and by observing amino acid conservation, determined the reading frame. To date, our open-reading frame of {approximately}800 amino-acids contained only a potential threonine kinase site, but no other recognizable peptide motifs or repeats, and was not homologous to sequences in Swissprot and GenBank. No Southern blot abnormalities have been detected with the cDNA probes used. However, an exon-by-exon scan of 8 exons for mutations by SSCP and genomic sequencing (predicted missense changes) has identified 3 patients with mutations not found in normals, and identify the KG8 gene as the PKD1 gene.

  9. Peritoneal dialysis for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xi-Shao; Xie, Zhou-Tao; Xiang, Shi-Long; Yan, Xing-Qun; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Shou, Zhang-Fei; Chen, Jiang-Hua

    2016-05-01

    To describe the long-term clinical outcomes of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) who are on peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy. We performed a retrospective matched-cohort analysis comparing the clinical outcomes of 30 ADPKD patients with those of 30 non-diabetic patients who had bilateral small kidneys between July 1 2007 and July 31 2014. The patient groups were matched by age, gender, and time of PD initiation. There were no significant differences in the demographic or biochemical parameters, comorbid conditions, residual glomerular filtration rate, or Charlson comorbidity score at the beginning of PD. The median renal volume was 1315 ml for the ADPKD group and 213 ml for the control group. Patients with ADPKD had similar 3-year patient survival (90.6% versus 86.3%, P=0.807) and technique survival (89.2% versus 74.3%, P=0.506) compared with non-ADPKD patients. Also, there was no significant difference in the peritonitis-free survival between the ADPKD and control groups (P=0.22), and rates of peritonitis were similar (0.19 versus 0.21 episodes per patient-year, P=0.26). No differences were observed in the incidence of PD-related complications, such as hernia and dialysate leak. ADPKD is not a contraindication for PD, and a subgroup of ADPKD patients with relatively small kidney volume can be treated using PD. PMID:27143265

  10. Genetic analysis of Iranian autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: new insight to haplotype analysis.

    PubMed

    Entezam, M; Khatami, M R; Saddadi, F; Ayati, M; Roozbeh, J; Saghafi, H; Keramatipour, M

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) caused by mutations in two PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Due to the complexity of the PKD1 gene, its direct mutation screening is an expensive and time-consuming procedure. Pedigree-based haplotype analysis is a useful indirect approach to identify the responsible gene in families with multiple affected individuals, before direct mutation analysis. Here, we applied this approach to investigate 15 appropriate unrelated ADPKD families, selected from 25 families, who referred for genetic counseling. Four polymorphic microsatellite markers were selected around each PKD1 and PKD2 loci. In addition, by investigating the genomic regions, two novel flanking tetranucleotide STR markers were identified. Haplotype analysis and calculating Lod score confirmed linkage to PKD1 in 9 families (60%) and to PKD2 in 2 families (13%). Linkage to both loci was excluded in one family (6.6%). In 2 families (13%) the Lod scores were inconclusive. Causative mutation was identified successfully by direct analysis in two families with confirmed linkage, one to PKD1 and another to PKD2 locus. The study showed that determining the causative locus prior to direct mutation analysis is an efficient strategy to reduce the resources required for genetic analysis of ADPKD families. This is more prominent in PKD2-linked families. Selection of suitable markers, and appropriate PCR multiplexing strategy, using fluorescent labeled primers and 3 primer system, will also add value to this approach. PMID:26950445

  11. Comprehensive PKD1 and PKD2 Mutation Analysis in Prenatal Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Audrézet, Marie-Pierre; Corbiere, Christine; Lebbah, Said; Morinière, Vincent; Broux, Françoise; Louillet, Ferielle; Fischbach, Michel; Zaloszyc, Ariane; Cloarec, Sylvie; Merieau, Elodie; Baudouin, Véronique; Deschênes, Georges; Roussey, Gwenaelle; Maestri, Sandrine; Visconti, Chiara; Boyer, Olivia; Abel, Carine; Lahoche, Annie; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Bessenay, Lucie; Mekahli, Djalila; Ouertani, Ines; Decramer, Stéphane; Ryckenwaert, Amélie; Cornec-Le Gall, Emilie; Salomon, Rémi; Ferec, Claude; Heidet, Laurence

    2016-03-01

    Prenatal forms of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are rare but can be recurrent in some families, suggesting a common genetic modifying background. Few patients have been reported carrying, in addition to the familial mutation, variation(s) in polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1) or HNF1 homeobox B (HNF1B), inherited from the unaffected parent, or biallelic polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (PKHD1) mutations. To assess the frequency of additional variations in PKD1, PKD2, HNF1B, and PKHD1 associated with the familial PKD mutation in early ADPKD, these four genes were screened in 42 patients with early ADPKD in 41 families. Two patients were associated with de novo PKD1 mutations. Forty patients occurred in 39 families with known ADPKD and were associated with PKD1 mutation in 36 families and with PKD2 mutation in two families (no mutation identified in one family). Additional PKD variation(s) (inherited from the unaffected parent when tested) were identified in 15 of 42 patients (37.2%), whereas these variations were observed in 25 of 174 (14.4%, P=0.001) patients with adult ADPKD. No HNF1B variations or PKHD1 biallelic mutations were identified. These results suggest that, at least in some patients, the severity of the cystic disease is inversely correlated with the level of polycystin 1 function. PMID:26139440

  12. A mutation in COL4A2 causes autosomal dominant porencephaly with cataracts.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thuong T; Sadleir, Lynette G; Mandelstam, Simone A; Paterson, Sarah J; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Gecz, Jozef; Corbett, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in COL4A1 are well described and result in brain abnormalities manifesting with severe neurological deficits including cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, and focal epilepsy. Families with mutations in COL4A2 are now emerging with a similar phenotype. We describe a family with an autosomal dominant disorder comprising porencephaly, focal epilepsy, and lens opacities, which was negative for mutations in COL4A1. Using whole exome sequencing of three affected individuals from three generations, we identified a rare variant in COL4A2. This COL4A2 (c.2399G>A, p.G800E, CCDS41907.1) variant was predicted to be damaging by multiple bioinformatics tools and affects an invariable glycine residue that is essential for the formation of collagen IV heterotrimers. The cataracts identified in this family expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in COL4A2 and highlight the increasing overlap with phenotypes associated with COL4A1 mutations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26708157

  13. Neuropathology of Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer Disease in the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center Database.

    PubMed

    Ringman, John M; Monsell, Sarah; Ng, Denise W; Zhou, Yan; Nguyen, Andy; Coppola, Giovanni; Van Berlo, Victoria; Mendez, Mario F; Tung, Spencer; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel; Bigio, Eileen H; Gitelman, Darren R; Fisher-Hubbard, Amanda O; Albin, Roger L; Vinters, Harry V

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) represents a genetically heterogeneous entity. To elucidate neuropathologic features of autosomal dominant AD ([ADAD] due to PSEN1, APP, or PSEN2 mutations), we compared hallmark AD pathologic findings in 60 cases of ADAD and 120 cases of sporadic AD matched for sex, race, ethnicity, and disease duration. Greater degrees of neuritic plaque and neurofibrillary tangle formation and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) were found in ADAD (p values < 0.01). Moderate to severe CAA was more prevalent in ADAD (63.3% vs. 39.2%, p = 0.003), and persons with PSEN1 mutations beyond codon 200 had higher average Braak scores and severity and prevalence of CAA than those with mutations before codon 200. Lewy body pathology was less extensive in ADAD but was present in 27.1% of cases. We also describe a novel pathogenic PSEN1 mutation (P267A). The finding of more severe neurofibrillary pathology and CAA in ADAD, particularly in carriers of PSEN1 mutations beyond codon 200, warrants consideration when designing trials to treat or prevent ADAD. The finding of Lewy body pathology in a substantial minority of ADAD cases supports the assertion that development of Lewy bodies may be in part driven by abnormal β-amyloid protein precursor processing. PMID:26888304

  14. Trends in the Management and Outcomes of Kidney Transplantation for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Madhukar S.; Kandula, Praveen; Wojciechowski, David; Markmann, James F.; Vagefi, Parsia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common genetic disorder leading to end-stage renal failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate a longitudinal experience of kidney transplantation for ADPKD. Methods. A single center retrospective review of patients undergoing kidney transplantation was conducted, with comparisons across two time periods: early (02/2000–04/2007, n = 66) and late (04/2007–08/2012, n = 67). Results. Over the 13.5-year study period, 133 patients underwent transplantation for ADPKD. Overall, no significant difference between the early and late group with regard to intraoperative complications, need for reoperation, readmissions within 30 days, delayed graft function, and mortality was noted. There was a trend towards increase in one-year graft survival (early 93.1% versus late 100%, P = 0.05). In the early group, 67% of recipients had undergone aneurysm screening, compared to 91% of recipients in the late group (P < 0.001). Conclusions. This study demonstrates consistent clinical care with a trend towards improved rates of one-year graft survival. Interestingly, we also note a significantly higher use of cerebral imaging over time, with the majority that were detected requiring surgical intervention which may justify the current practice of nonselective radiological screening until improved screening criteria are developed. PMID:25165573

  15. Lamin B1 overexpression increases nuclear rigidity in autosomal dominant leukodystrophy fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Denise; Canale, Claudio; Marotta, Roberto; Mazzaro, Nadia; Gritti, Marta; Mazzanti, Michele; Capellari, Sabina; Cortelli, Pietro; Gasparini, Laura

    2014-09-01

    The architecture and structural mechanics of the cell nucleus are defined by the nuclear lamina, which is formed by A- and B-type lamins. Recently, gene duplication and protein overexpression of lamin B1 (LB1) have been reported in pedigrees with autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD). However, how the overexpression of LB1 affects nuclear mechanics and function and how it may result in pathology remain unexplored. Here, we report that in primary human skin fibroblasts derived from ADLD patients, LB1, but not other lamins, is overexpressed at the nuclear lamina and specifically enhances nuclear stiffness. Transient transfection of LB1 in HEK293 and neuronal N2a cells mimics the mechanical phenotype of ADLD nuclei. Notably, in ADLD fibroblasts, reducing LB1 protein levels by shRNA knockdown restores elasticity values to those indistinguishable from control fibroblasts. Moreover, isolated nuclei from ADLD fibroblasts display a reduced nuclear ion channel open probability on voltage-step application, suggesting that biophysical changes induced by LB1 overexpression may alter nuclear signaling cascades in somatic cells. Overall, the overexpression of LB1 in ADLD cells alters nuclear mechanics and is linked to changes in nuclear signaling, which could help explain the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:24858279

  16. Clinical, pathological and genetic characteristics of autosomal dominant inherited dynamin 2 centronuclear myopathy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinhong; Wu, Huamin; Gong, Jian; Wang, Tao; Yan, Chuanzhu

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to report on a family with pathologically and genetically diagnosed autosomal dominant inherited centronuclear myopathy (CNM). In addition, this study aimed to investigate the clinical, pathological and molecular genetic characteristics of the disease. This pedigree was traced back three generations, four patients underwent neurological examination, two patients underwent muscle biopsy, and eight family members were subjected to dynamin 2 (DNM2) gene mutation analysis. DNM2 mutations were detected in seven family members, of which four patients exhibited DNM2 mutation‑specific clinical and pathological features. Lower extremity weakness was the predominant symptom of these patients, however, proximal and distal lower extremity involvement was inconsistent. All patients exhibited marked systematic muscle atrophy and various degrees of facial muscle involvement. The patients presented the typical pathological changes of CNM, and their muscle tissues were heavily replaced by adipose tissue, with clustered distribution of muscle fibers as another notable feature. DNM2‑CNM patients of this pedigree exhibited heterogeneous clinical and pathological features, providing a basis for further molecular genetic analysis. PMID:27035234

  17. Pregnancy Outcomes in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Wang, Diping; Zand, Ladan; Harris, Peter C.; White, Wendy M.; Garovic, Vesna D.; Kermott, Cindy A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is associated with adverse fetal outcomes and maternal complications Methods We identified a cohort of 146 patients seen for pregnancy and cystic kidney disease at Mayo Clinic from 1975 to 2010. From this cohort, 54 patients met the ultrasound diagnostic criteria for ADPKD (ADPKD group), while the other 92 patients were diagnosed as “Simple Cyst” (control group). We compared the fetal and maternal outcomes of pregnancy and long-term maternal prognoses between these two groups. Results Overall, the fetal complication rates were similar between the ADPKD and control groups. Rates of spontaneous abortion (15.1% vs. 14%, P=.77) and premature birth (11.1% vs. 6.8%, P=.44) were comparable between groups, while the rate of fetal distress (3.4% vs. 0.7%, P<.01) was increased in the ADPKD group. The rate of preeclampsia in the patients with simple cysts (2%) was similar to that of the general population. In contrast, the pregnant ADPKD patients had higher risks for hypertension, proteinuria, edema, urinary tract infection, renal dysfunction, and preeclampsia during their pregnancies. Conclusion ADPKD is associated with increased maternal complications during pregnancy, but only has a slight potential of increased rates of fetal complications. PMID:25754208

  18. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in Persian and Persian-cross cats.

    PubMed

    Eaton, K A; Biller, D S; DiBartola, S P; Radin, M J; Wellman, M L

    1997-03-01

    A form of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) similar in clinical features to human ADPKD occurs in the Persian cat. We characterized the morphologic and immunohistochemical features of this disease in a colony of affected cats. Complete postmortem examinations were performed on 11 normal and 22 affected cats ranging in age from 3 months to 10 years. Kidneys were evaluated by gross and histologic examinations, ultrastructure, lectin staining, bromodeoxyuridine immunochemistry for labeling index and immunochemistry for distribution of Na/K ATPase. Feline ADPKD was characterized by variable numbers of cysts in the renal cortex and medullar. Ultrastructural examination and lectin staining suggested that cysts arose from proximal and distal nephron segments. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling demonstrated increased proliferation of epithelium lining some cysts in young cats. Immunohistochemical staining showed variable translocation of Na/K ATPase from the basolateral membranes of cyst-lining cells to the cytoplasm or luminal membranes. Cystic renal disease commonly was associated with chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis and hepatobiliary hyperplasia and fibrosis. Focal hyperplasia of renal tubular epithelium, hepatic cysts, and cardiac lesions were present in some cats. Feline ADPKD shares many morphologic and pathogenetic features with human ADPKD. PMID:9066078

  19. A Novel Missense SNRNP200 Mutation Associated with Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa in a Chinese Family

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Huijun; Cheng, Jing; Lee, Janet; Zhang, Baoquan; Zhang, Maonian; Wu, Jing; Wang, Lijuan; Tian, Geng; Wang, Weifeng

    2012-01-01

    The SNRNP200 gene encodes hBrr2, a helicase essential for pre-mRNA splicing. Six mutations in SNRNP200 have recently been discovered to be associated with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). In this work, we analyzed a Chinese family with adRP and identified a novel missense mutation in SNRNP200. To identify the genetic defect in this family, exome of the proband was captured and sequencing analysis was performed to exclude known genetic defects and find possible pathogenic mutations. Subsequently, candidate mutations were validated in affected family members using Sanger sequencing. A novel missense mutation, c.2653C>G transition (p.Q885E), in exon 20 of SNRNP200 was identified. The mutation co-segregated with the disease phenotype over four generations and was absent in 100 normal unaffected individuals. This mutation occurs at highly conserved position in hBrr2 and is predicted to have a functional impact, suggesting that hBrr2-dependent small nuclear riboproteins (snRNPs) unwinding and spliceosome activation is important in the pathogenesis of some variants of RP. PMID:23029027

  20. Peritoneal dialysis for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a retrospective study*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xi-shao; Xie, Zhou-tao; Xiang, Shi-long; Yan, Xing-qun; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Shou, Zhang-fei; Chen, Jiang-hua

    2016-01-01

    To describe the long-term clinical outcomes of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) who are on peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy. We performed a retrospective matched-cohort analysis comparing the clinical outcomes of 30 ADPKD patients with those of 30 non-diabetic patients who had bilateral small kidneys between July 1 2007 and July 31 2014. The patient groups were matched by age, gender, and time of PD initiation. There were no significant differences in the demographic or biochemical parameters, comorbid conditions, residual glomerular filtration rate, or Charlson comorbidity score at the beginning of PD. The median renal volume was 1315 ml for the ADPKD group and 213 ml for the control group. Patients with ADPKD had similar 3-year patient survival (90.6% versus 86.3%, P=0.807) and technique survival (89.2% versus 74.3%, P=0.506) compared with non-ADPKD patients. Also, there was no significant difference in the peritonitis-free survival between the ADPKD and control groups (P=0.22), and rates of peritonitis were similar (0.19 versus 0.21 episodes per patient-year, P=0.26). No differences were observed in the incidence of PD-related complications, such as hernia and dialysate leak. ADPKD is not a contraindication for PD, and a subgroup of ADPKD patients with relatively small kidney volume can be treated using PD. PMID:27143265

  1. Cerebral perfusion alterations and cerebral amyloid in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Albert; James, Jeffrey; Sheu, Lei K.; Kuan, Dora Chieh-Hsin; Minhas, Davneet; Gianaros, Peter J.; Ikonomovic, Snezana; Lopez, Oscar; Snitz, Beth; Price, Julie; Becker, Jim; Mathis, Chet; Klunk, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) using arterial spin-labeled MRI in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) mutation carriers (MCs) in relation to cerebral amyloid and compared with age-matched healthy controls. Background: Recent work has identified alterations in CBF in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia using MRI. However, similar studies are lacking in ADAD. Subjects with ADAD are generally free of significant vascular disease and offer the opportunity to measure CBF early in the pathologic process before significant symptom onset when unique markers might be identified. Methods: Fourteen MCs (presenilin-1 and amyloid beta precursor protein) (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] 0 = 9, CDR 0.5 = 4, CDR 1 = 1) and 50 controls underwent 3-tesla pulsed arterial spin-labeled MRI. SPM8 was used to test the effect of MC status at the voxel level on CBF before and after controlling for age and CDR. Results: MCs had decreased perfusion in the caudate and inferior striatum bilaterally even after controlling for age and CDR. In MCs, separate areas of decreased CBF were associated with increasing cerebral amyloid and to decreased performance of attention and executive function. Conclusions: Early CBF changes were identified in asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic subjects with ADAD, particularly in the anterior striatum. Furthermore, amyloid deposition was associated with decreased CBF in a number of regions including anterior and posterior cortical areas. Both amyloid and decreased CBF were associated with declines primarily in executive cognitive function. PMID:25031286

  2. A novel mutation in GDF5 causes autosomal dominant symphalangism in two Chinese families.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Xiao, Fuying; Yang, Qinbo; Liang, Bo; Tang, Zhaohui; Jiang, Linbin; Zhu, Qihui; Chang, Wei; Jiang, Jiuxi; Jiang, Chuanming; Ren, Xiang; Liu, Jing-Yu; Wang, Qing K; Liu, Mugen

    2006-09-01

    Proximal symphalangism (SYM1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by ankylosis of the proximal interphalangeal joints and fusion of carpal and tarsal bones. We identified and characterized two five-generation Chinese families with SYM1. The two families share some similarities (e.g., osseous fusion of interphalangeal joints of the 2-4 fingers) with SYM1 families with mutations in the NOG gene or the family with mutation R438L recently reported in the GDF5 gene (encoding a bone morphogenetic protein family member). However, they show some unique features including the absence of cuboid bone, the lack of shortness of the first and fifth metacarpal bones, and manifestation of flat feet. Genome-wide linkage analysis of the two families mapped the disease gene to marker D20S112 with a combined LOD score of 4.32. Mutational analysis revealed a novel E491K mutation in the GDF5 gene in both families. The mutation occurs at a highly conserved residue in the TGF-beta domain of GDF5 and represents the second GDF5 mutation identified for SYM1 to date. The E491K mutation co-segregated with the affected individuals in the two families, and did not exist in unaffected family members or 200 normal controls. These results indicate that defects in GDF5 can cause SYM1 in the Chinese population, and expand the spectrum of clinical phenotypes associated with mutant GDF5. PMID:16892395

  3. A recurrent deletion mutation in OPA1 causes autosomal dominant optic atrophy in a Chinese family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liping; Shi, Wei; Song, Liming; Zhang, Xiao; Cheng, Lulu; Wang, Yanfang; Ge, Xianglian; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Min, Qingjie; Jin, Zi-Bing; Qu, Jia; Gu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) is the most frequent form of hereditary optic neuropathy and occurs due to the degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells. To identify the genetic defect in a family with putative ADOA, we performed capture next generation sequencing (CNGS) to screen known retinal disease genes. However, six exons failed to be sequenced by CNGS in optic atrophy 1 gene (OPA1). Sequencing of those exons identified a 4 bp deletion mutation (c.2983-1_2985del) in OPA1. Furthermore, we sequenced the transcripts of OPA1 from the patient skin fibroblasts and found there is six-nucleotide deletion (c.2984-c.2989, AGAAAG). Quantitative-PCR and Western blotting showed that OPA1 mRNA and its protein expression have no obvious difference between patient skin fibroblast and control. The analysis of protein structure by molecular modeling suggests that the mutation may change the structure of OPA1 by formation of an alpha helix protruding into an existing pocket. Taken together, we identified an OPA1 mutation in a family with ADOA by filling the missing CNGS data. We also showed that this mutation affects the structural intactness of OPA1. It provides molecular insights for clinical genetic diagnosis and treatment of optic atrophy.

  4. Singleton-Merten syndrome: an autosomal dominant disorder with variable expression.

    PubMed

    Feigenbaum, Annette; Müller, Christine; Yale, Christopher; Kleinheinz, Johannes; Jezewski, Peter; Kehl, Hans Gerd; MacDougall, Mary; Rutsch, Frank; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2013-02-01

    In 1973, Singleton and Merten described two females with abnormal dentition, unique radiographic changes especially of the hands, and severe calcification and intimal weakening of the aortic arch and valve. Since then three additional cases with similar features have been reported and the diagnosis was suggested in another three individuals. We present an update of one case and the detailed clinical phenotype of six other cases with Singleton-Merten syndrome. The occurrence of the disorder in six members of two families and vertical male-to-male transmission indicate an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Variability in phenotype, also within a single family, is significant. Core manifestations are marked aortic calcification, dental anomalies (delayed eruption and immature root formation of primarily the anterior permanent teeth, and early loss of permanent teeth due to short roots, acute root resorption, high caries, and aggressive alveolar bone loss), osteopenia and acro-osteolysis, and to a lesser extend also glaucoma, psoriasis, muscle weakness, and joint laxity. Additional clinical characteristics described here include particular facial characteristics (high anterior hairline, broad forehead, smooth philtrum, thin upper vermillion) and abnormal joint and muscle ligaments. The cause and pathogenesis of this syndrome remain unknown. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23322711

  5. Determinants of renal volume in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Grantham, JJ; Cook, LT; Torres, VE; Bost, JE; Chapman, AB; Harris, PC; Guay-Woodford, LM; Bae, KT

    2009-01-01

    The Consortium of Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease (CRISP) recently showed that renal enlargement in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease mimicked exponential growth. We determined the effects of cyst initiation rate, total number, and growth rate on the time-dependent change of total cyst volume (TCV). Mathematical models with equations integrating cyst surface area, volume, and an invariant growth rate constant were used to compute the time-dependent change in volume of solitary and multiple cysts. Multiple expanding cysts increased TCV in an exponential-like pattern even when individual cysts formed at different rates or exhibited different but constant growth rates. TCV depended on the rate of cyst initiation and on the total number of cysts; however, the compounding effect of exponential-like growth was the most powerful determinant of long-term cyst expansion. Extrapolation of TCV data plots for individual subjects back to an age of 18 predicted TCV values within an established range. We conclude that cysts started early in life were the main contributor to eventual TCV while their growth rate primarily determined renal size; although the rate of formation and the ultimate number of cysts also contributed. The good fit between the exponential models and the extrapolated CRISP data indicates that the TCV growth rate is a defining trait for individual patients and may be used as a prognostic marker. PMID:17960141

  6. Mutation spectrum of the rhodopsin gene among patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Dryja, T.P.; Han, L.B.; Cowley, G.S.; McGee, T.L.; Berson, E.L. )

    1991-10-15

    The authors searched for point mutations in every exon of the rhodopsin gene in 150 patients from separate families with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Including the 4 mutations the authors reported previously, they found a total of 17 different mutations that correlate with the disease. Each of these mutations is a single-base substitution corresponding to a single amino acid substitution. Based on current models for the structure of rhodopsin, 3 of the 17 mutant amino acids are normally located on the cytoplasmic side of the protein, 6 in transmembrane domains, and 8 on the intradiscal side. Forty-three of the 150 patients (29%) carry 1 of these mutations, and no patient has more than 1 mutation. In every family with a mutation so far analyzed, the mutation cosegregates with the disease. They found one instance of a mutation in an affected patient that was absent in both unaffected parents (i.e., a new germ-line mutation), indicating that some isolate cases of retinitis pigmentosa carry a mutation of the rhodopsin gene.

  7. Identification of a rhodopsin gene mutation in a large family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinping; Shi, Wei; Cheng, Lulu; Wang, Yanfang; Chen, Ding; Hu, Xuting; Xu, Jinling; Xu, Limin; Wu, Yaming; Qu, Jia; Gu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically highly heterogeneous retinal disease and one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. Next-generation sequencing technology has enormous potential for determining the genetic etiology of RP. We sought to identify the underlying genetic defect in a 35-year-old male from an autosomal-dominant RP family with 14 affected individuals. By capturing next-generation sequencing (CNGS) of 144 genes associated with retinal diseases, we identified eight novel DNA variants; however, none of them cosegregated for all the members of the family. Further analysis of the CNGS data led to identification of a recurrent missense mutation (c.403C?>?T, p.R135W) in the rhodopsin (RHO) gene, which cosegregated with all affected individuals in the family and was not observed in any of the unaffected family members. The p.R135W mutation has a reference single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ID (rs104893775), and it appears to be responsible for the disease in this large family. This study highlights the importance of examining NGS data with reference SNP IDs. Thus, our study is important for data analysis of NGS-based clinical genetic diagnoses. PMID:26794436

  8. Further refinement of the location for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa on chromosome 7p (RP9)

    SciTech Connect

    Inglehearn, C.F.; Keen, T.J.; Al-Maghtheh, M.; Gregory, C.Y.; Bhattacharya, S.S.; Jay, M.R.; Moore, A.T.; Bird, A.C. )

    1994-04-01

    A form of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) mapping to chromosome 7p was recently reported by this laboratory, in a single large family from southeastern England. Further sampling of the family and the use a number of genetic markers from 7p have facilitated the construction of a series of multipoint linkage maps of the region with the most likely disease gene location. From this and haplotype data, the locus can now be placed between the markers D7S484 and D7S526, in an interval estimated to be 1.6-4 cM. Genetic distances between the markers previously reported to be linked to this region and those described in the recent whole-genome poly-CA map were estimated from data in this and other families. These data should assist in the construction of a physical map of the region and will help to identify candidate genes for the 7p adRP locus. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Localization of a new autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa gene on chromosome 17p screeningof candidate genes

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, J.; Goliath, R.; Shugart, Y.Y.

    1994-09-01

    A new gene locus for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) on 17p has been identified in a large South African (SA) family consisting of 28 living affected individuals in 4 successive generations. This is the first ADRP gene to be reported from SA. The human recoverin (RCVN) gene, which codes for a retinal-specific protein important in recovery to the dark state after visual excitation, has been mapped to 17p13.1 and was considered as a prime candidate gene for the disorder in this family. Mutation screening (using 8 different electrophoretic conditions to resolve heteroduplexes and SSCPs) did not produce any evidence of RCVN being involved in the pathogenesis of ADRP in this SA family. In addition, a mobility shift detected within exon 1 of the RCVN gene did not track with the ADRP phenotype. RP patients from 77 SA families and 30 normal individuals are being examined to establish the frequency of this polymorphism in the SA population. Highly polymorphic markers from 17p13 are now being sought in order to establish the minimum region containing this novel ADRP-SA gene. Two additional recently described retinal-expressed cDNAs, guanylyl cyclase and pigment epithelium-derived factor, which map to 17p13.1, will be tested for tight linkage to ADRP-SA.

  10. Novel targets for the treatment of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Belibi, Franck A; Edelstein, Charles L

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Autosomal dominant (AD) polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is the most common life-threatening hereditary disorder. There is currently no therapy that slows or prevents cyst formation and kidney enlargement in humans. An increasing number of animal studies have advanced our understanding of molecular and cellular targets of PKD. Areas covered in the review The purpose of this review is to summarize the molecular and cellular targets involved in cystogenesis and to update on the promising therapies that are being developed and tested based on knowledge of these molecular and cellular targets. What the reader will gain Insight into the pathogenesis of PKD and how a better understanding of the pathogenesis of PKD has led to the development of potential therapies to inhibit cyst formation and/or growth and improve kidney function. Take home message The results of animal studies in PKD have led to the development of clinical trials testing potential new therapies to reduce cyst formation and/or growth. A vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, mTOR inhibitors, blockade of the renin–angiotensin system and statins that reduce cyst formation and improve renal function in animal models of PKD are being tested in interventional studies in humans. PMID:20141351

  11. Antibody deficiency associated with an inherited autosomal dominant mutation in TWEAK

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Ying; Ma, Chi A.; Zhao, Yongge; Fan, Xiying; Zhou, Qing; Edmonds, Pamela; Uzel, Gulbu; Oliveira, Joao Bosco; Orange, Jordan; Jain, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the TNF family of proteins have been associated with inherited forms of immune deficiency. Using an array-based sequencing assay, we identified an autosomal-dominant deficiency in TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK; TNFSF12) in a kindred with recurrent infection and impaired antibody responses to protein and polysaccharide vaccines. This mutation occurs in the sixth exon of TWEAK and results in the amino acid substitution R145C within the conserved TNF-homology domain of the full-length protein. TWEAK mutant protein formed high molecular weight aggregates under nonreducing conditions, suggesting an increased propensity for intermolecular interactions. As a result, mutant TWEAK associated with B-cell–activating factor (BAFF) protein and down-regulated the BAFF-mediated activation of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway through inhibition of p100 processing to p52, resulting in inhibition of BAFF-dependent B-cell survival and proliferation. As BAFF mediates T-cell–independent isotype switching and B-cell survival, our data implicate TWEAK as a disease-susceptibility gene for a humoral immunodeficiency. PMID:23493554

  12. Novel role of ouabain as a cystogenic factor in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Darren P.

    2013-01-01

    The classic role of the Na-K-ATPase is that of a primary active transporter that utilizes cell energy to establish and maintain transmembrane Na+ and K+ gradients to preserve cell osmotic stability, support cell excitability, and drive secondary active transport. Recent studies have revealed that Na-K-ATPase located within cholesterol-containing lipid rafts serves as a receptor for cardiotonic steroids, including ouabain. Traditionally, ouabain was viewed as a toxin produced only in plants, and it was used in relatively high concentrations to experimentally block the pumping action of the Na-K-ATPase. However, the new and unexpected role of the Na-K-ATPase as a signal transducer revealed a novel facet for ouabain in the regulation of a myriad of cell functions, including cell proliferation, hypertrophy, apoptosis, mobility, and metabolism. The seminal discovery that ouabain is endogenously produced in mammals and circulates in plasma has fueled the interest in this endogenous molecule as a potentially important hormone in normal physiology and disease. In this article, we review the role of the Na-K-ATPase as an ion transporter in the kidney, the experimental evidence for ouabain as a circulating hormone, the function of the Na-K-ATPase as a signal transducer that mediates ouabain's effects, and novel results for ouabain-induced Na-K-ATPase signaling in cystogenesis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PMID:23761677

  13. Mutations in KIF11 Cause Autosomal-Dominant Microcephaly Variably Associated with Congenital Lymphedema and Chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ostergaard, Pia; Simpson, Michael A.; Mendola, Antonella; Vasudevan, Pradeep; Connell, Fiona C.; van Impel, Andreas; Moore, Anthony T.; Loeys, Bart L.; Ghalamkarpour, Arash; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Martinez-Corral, Ines; Devery, Sophie; Leroy, Jules G.; van Laer, Lut; Singer, Amihood; Bialer, Martin G.; McEntagart, Meriel; Quarrell, Oliver; Brice, Glen; Trembath, Richard C.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Makinen, Taija; Vikkula, Miikka; Mortimer, Peter S.; Mansour, Sahar; Jeffery, Steve

    2012-01-01

    We have identified KIF11 mutations in individuals with syndromic autosomal-dominant microcephaly associated with lymphedema and/or chorioretinopathy. Initial whole-exome sequencing revealed heterozygous KIF11 mutations in three individuals with a combination of microcephaly and lymphedema from a microcephaly-lymphedema-chorioretinal-dysplasia cohort. Subsequent Sanger sequencing of KIF11 in a further 15 unrelated microcephalic probands with lymphedema and/or chorioretinopathy identified additional heterozygous mutations in 12 of them. KIF11 encodes EG5, a homotetramer kinesin motor. The variety of mutations we have found (two nonsense, two splice site, four missense, and six indels causing frameshifts) are all predicted to have an impact on protein function. EG5 has previously been shown to play a role in spindle assembly and function, and these findings highlight the critical role of proteins necessary for spindle formation in CNS development. Moreover, identification of KIF11 mutations in patients with chorioretinopathy and lymphedema suggests that EG5 is involved in the development and maintenance of retinal and lymphatic structures. PMID:22284827

  14. Mutation of the PAX6 gene in patients with autosomal dominant keratitis

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzayans, F.; Pearce, W.G.; MacDonald, I.M.; Walter, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    Autosomal dominant keratitis (ADK) is an eye disorder chiefly characterized by corneal opacification and vascularization and by foveal hypoplasia. Aniridia (shown recently to result from mutations in the PAX6 gene) has overlapping clinical findings and a similar pattern of inheritance with ADK. On the basis of these similarities, we used a candidate-gene approach to investigate whether mutations in the PAX6 gene also result in ADK. Significant linkage was found between two polymorphic loci in the PAX6 region and ADK in a family with 15 affected members in four generations (peak LOD score = 4.45; {theta} = .00 with D11S914), consistent with PAX6 mutations being responsible for ADK. SSCP analysis and direct sequencing revealed a mutation in the PAX6 exon 11 splice-acceptor site. The predicted consequent incorrect splicing results in truncation of the PAX6 proline-serine-threonine activation domain. The Sey{sup Neu} mouse results from a mutation in the Pax-6 exon 10 splice-donor site that produces a PAX6 protein truncated from the same point as occurs in our family with ADK. Therefore, the Sey{sup Neu} mouse is an excellent animal model of ADK. The finding that mutations in PAX6 also underlie Peters anomaly implicates PAX6 broadly in human anterior segment malformations. 42 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Pathogenesis of Autosomal Dominant Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (SPG6) Revealed by a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Fumihiro; Arnold, William D.; Hammer, Robert E.; Ghodsizadeh, Odelia; Moti, Harmeet; Schumer, Mackenzie; Hashmi, Ahmed; Hernandez, Anthony; Sneh, Amita; Sahenk, Zarife

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness in the lower extremities that result from length-dependent central to peripheral axonal degeneration. Mutations in the non-imprinted Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome locus 1 (NIPA1) transmembrane protein cause an autosomal dominant form of HSP (SPG6). Here, we report that transgenic (Tg) rats expressing a human NIPA1/SPG6 mutation in neurons (Thy1.2-hNIPA1G106R) show marked early onset behavioral and electrophysiologic abnormalities. Detailed morphologic analyses reveal unique histopathologic findings, including the accumulation of tubulovesicular organelles with endosomal features that start at axonal and dendritic terminals, followed by multifocal vacuolar degeneration in both the CNS and peripheral nerves. In addition, the NIPA1G106R mutation in the spinal cord from older Tg rats results in an increase in bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor expression, suggesting that its degradation is impaired. This Thy1.2-hNIPA1G106R Tg rat model may serve as a valuable tool for understanding endosomal trafficking in the pathogenesis of a subgroup of HSP with an abnormal interaction with bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor, as well as for developing potential therapeutic strategies for diseases with axonal degeneration and similar pathogenetic mechanisms. PMID:24128679

  16. Detection of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease by NMR spectroscopic fingerprinting of urine.

    PubMed

    Gronwald, Wolfram; Klein, Matthias S; Zeltner, Raoul; Schulze, Bernd-Detlef; Reinhold, Stephan W; Deutschmann, Markus; Immervoll, Ann-Kathrin; Böger, Carsten A; Banas, Bernhard; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Oefner, Peter J

    2011-06-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a frequent cause of kidney failure; however, urinary biomarkers for the disease are lacking. In a step towards identifying such markers, we used multidimensional-multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with support vector machine-based classification and analyzed urine specimens of 54 patients with ADPKD and slightly reduced estimated glomerular filtration rates. Within this cohort, 35 received medication for arterial hypertension and 19 did not. The results were compared with NMR profiles of 46 healthy volunteers, 10 ADPKD patients on hemodialysis with residual renal function, 16 kidney transplant patients, and 52 type 2 diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. Based on the average of 51 out of 701 NMR features, we could reliably discriminate ADPKD patients with moderately advanced disease from ADPKD patients with end-stage renal disease, patients with chronic kidney disease of other etiologies, and healthy probands with an accuracy of >80%. Of the 35 patients with ADPKD receiving medication for hypertension, most showed increased excretion of proteins and also methanol. In contrast, elevated urinary methanol was not found in any of the control and other patient groups. Thus, we found that NMR fingerprinting of urine differentiates ADPKD from several other kidney diseases and individuals with normal kidney function. The diagnostic and prognostic potential of these profiles requires further evaluation. PMID:21389975

  17. Global molecular analysis and APOE mutations in a cohort of autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia patients in France.

    PubMed

    Wintjens, René; Bozon, Dominique; Belabbas, Khaldia; MBou, Félicien; Girardet, Jean-Philippe; Tounian, Patrick; Jolly, Mathilde; Boccara, Franck; Cohen, Ariel; Karsenty, Alexandra; Dubern, Béatrice; Carel, Jean-Claude; Azar-Kolakez, Ahlam; Feillet, François; Labarthe, François; Gorsky, Anne-Marie Colin; Horovitz, Alice; Tamarindi, Catherine; Kieffer, Pierre; Lienhardt, Anne; Lascols, Olivier; Di Filippo, Mathilde; Dufernez, Fabienne

    2016-03-01

    Autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH) is a human disorder characterized phenotypically by isolated high-cholesterol levels. Mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), APOB, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) genes are well known to be associated with the disease. To characterize the genetic background associated with ADH in France, the three ADH-associated genes were sequenced in a cohort of 120 children and 109 adult patients. Fifty-one percent of the cohort had a possible deleterious variant in LDLR, 3.1% in APOB, and 1.7% in PCSK9. We identified 18 new variants in LDLR and 2 in PCSK9. Three LDLR variants, including two newly identified, were studied by minigene reporter assay confirming the predicted effects on splicing. Additionally, as recently an in-frame deletion in the APOE gene was found to be linked to ADH, the sequencing of this latter gene was performed in patients without a deleterious variant in the three former genes. An APOE variant was identified in three patients with isolated severe hypercholesterolemia giving a frequency of 1.3% in the cohort. Therefore, even though LDLR mutations are the major cause of ADH with a large mutation spectrum, APOE variants were found to be significantly associated with the disease. Furthermore, using structural analysis and modeling, the identified APOE sequence changes were predicted to impact protein function. PMID:26802169

  18. Autosomal dominant cortical tremor, myoclonus, and epilepsy (ADCME) in a unique south Indian community.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Radha; Viswanathan, Natarajan; Shanmugam, Ganesan; Sankaralingam, Saravanan; Essaki, Bobby; Chelladurai, Rachel P

    2016-03-01

    Autosomal dominant cortical tremor, myoclonus, and epilepsy (ADCME)/familial adult onset myoclonic epilepsy (FAME) is a nonprogressive disorder characterized by (1) distal tremors that are usually precipitated by posture and action; (2) stimulus-sensitive myoclonus that is predominantly seen in the upper limb and is precipitated by photic stimuli, fatigue, emotional stress, and sleep deprivation; (3) seizures that were predominantly of the generalized tonic-clonic type that showed significant response to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). ADCME has been reported worldwide with different genetic loci in Japanese families (8q23.3-q24.1), Italian families (2p11.1-q12.2), a French family (5p15.3.1-p15.1), and a Thai family (3q26.32-q28). ADCME has not been reported in South India and is still not recognized as an independent entity under the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). We report 241 patients with ADCME identified belonging to 48 families. The 48 families are domiciled in two southern districts of Tamilnadu in India, belonging to a community called "Nadar" whose nativity is confined to these southern districts, with reported unique genetic characteristics. This study is reported for the presentation of this rare disease in a unique ethnic group, and is the largest single report on ADCME worldwide. PMID:26749494

  19. Identification of Gene Mutations in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease through Targeted Resequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hopp, Katharina; Sikkink, Robert A.; Sundsbak, Jamie L.; Lee, Yean Kit; Kubly, Vickie; Eckloff, Bruce W.; Ward, Christopher J.; Winearls, Christopher G.; Torres, Vicente E.; Harris, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in two large multi-exon genes, PKD1 and PKD2, cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The duplication of PKD1 exons 1–32 as six pseudogenes on chromosome 16, the high level of allelic heterogeneity, and the cost of Sanger sequencing complicate mutation analysis, which can aid diagnostics of ADPKD. We developed and validated a strategy to analyze both the PKD1 and PKD2 genes using next-generation sequencing by pooling long-range PCR amplicons and multiplexing bar-coded libraries. We used this approach to characterize a cohort of 230 patients with ADPKD. This process detected definitely and likely pathogenic variants in 115 (63%) of 183 patients with typical ADPKD. In addition, we identified atypical mutations, a gene conversion, and one missed mutation resulting from allele dropout, and we characterized the pattern of deep intronic variation for both genes. In summary, this strategy involving next-generation sequencing is a model for future genetic characterization of large ADPKD populations. PMID:22383692

  20. Identification of a rhodopsin gene mutation in a large family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinping; Shi, Wei; Cheng, Lulu; Wang, Yanfang; Chen, Ding; Hu, Xuting; Xu, Jinling; Xu, Limin; Wu, Yaming; Qu, Jia; Gu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically highly heterogeneous retinal disease and one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. Next-generation sequencing technology has enormous potential for determining the genetic etiology of RP. We sought to identify the underlying genetic defect in a 35-year-old male from an autosomal-dominant RP family with 14 affected individuals. By capturing next-generation sequencing (CNGS) of 144 genes associated with retinal diseases, we identified eight novel DNA variants; however, none of them cosegregated for all the members of the family. Further analysis of the CNGS data led to identification of a recurrent missense mutation (c.403C > T, p.R135W) in the rhodopsin (RHO) gene, which cosegregated with all affected individuals in the family and was not observed in any of the unaffected family members. The p.R135W mutation has a reference single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ID (rs104893775), and it appears to be responsible for the disease in this large family. This study highlights the importance of examining NGS data with reference SNP IDs. Thus, our study is important for data analysis of NGS-based clinical genetic diagnoses. PMID:26794436

  1. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) - literature review apropos an autopsy case.

    PubMed

    Weso?owski, Wojciech; Dziewulska, Dorota; Koziarska, Malwina; I?ycka-?wieszewska, Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a non-atherosclerotic, non-amyloid cerebral angiopathy involving small arteries and arterioles. This entity presents vascular changes in the form of smooth muscle degeneration with swollen myocytes and PAS-positive granular deposits, together with vascular fibrosis and hyalinization. In parallel, diffuse white matter destruction with infarcts, tissue rarefaction, spongiosis, lacunes and demyelination are characteristic. Ultrastructurally, vascular granular osmiophilic material (GOM) is pathognomonic for this hereditary disease caused by NOTCH3 mutation. We diagnosed CADASIL in the autopsy examination of a 53-year-old woman with a 9-year history of a progressive neurological disease with complex motor and cognitive deficits, accompanied by non-specific diffuse white matter changes on neuroimaging. Despite several multicentre hospitalizations, the precise diagnosis was not established until the post-mortem examination of the brain was made. CADASIL is a rare entity, but it should be considered by a pathologist in a differential diagnosis of vascular diseases of the brain, especially in cases with atypical clinical presentation and familial history. The prompt diagnosis depends on the quality of the brain autopsy and proper sampling. The post mortem examination, where Morituri vivos docent, is still significant. PMID:26619111

  2. Characterization of an autosomal dominant bleeding disorder caused by a thrombomodulin mutation

    PubMed Central

    Scoazec, Jean Yves; Wielders, Simone J. H.; Trzeciak, Christine; Hackeng, Tilman M.; Ngrier, Claude; Hemker, H. Coenraad; Lindhout, Theo; Castoldi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    We describe a family with an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by severe trauma- and surgery-related bleeding. The proband, who experienced life-threatening bleeding during a routine operation, had normal clotting times, but markedly reduced prothrombin consumption. Plasma levels of all coagulation factors and of the main coagulation inhibitors were normal. Thrombin generation at low triggers was severely impaired and mixing experiments suggested the presence of a coagulation inhibitor. Using whole exome sequencing, the underlying genetic defect was identified as the THBD c.1611C>A mutation (p.Cys537Stop), which predicts a truncated form of thrombomodulin that is shed from the vascular endothelium. The patient had decreased expression of endothelium-bound thrombomodulin, but extremely elevated levels of soluble thrombomodulin in plasma, impairing the propagation phase of coagulation via rapid activation of protein C and consequent inactivation of factors Va and VIIIa. The same thrombomodulin mutation has been recently described in an unrelated British family with strikingly similar features. PMID:25564403

  3. Morphological and Functional Features of Hepatic Cyst Epithelium in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro, Domenico; Onori, Paolo; Alpini, Gianfranco; Franchitto, Antonio; Jefferson, Douglas M.; Torrice, Alessia; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Stefanelli, Fabrizio; Mancino, Maria Grazia; Strazzabosco, Mario; Angelico, Mario; Attili, Adolfo; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the morphological and functional features of hepatic cyst epithelium in adult autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In six ADPKD patients, we investigated the morphology of cyst epithelium apical surface by scanning electron microscopy and the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF1 receptors (IGF1-R), growth hormone receptor, the proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and pAKT by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Proliferation of liver cyst-derived epithelial cells was evaluated by both MTS proliferation assay and [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA. The hepatic cyst epithelium displayed heterogeneous features, being normal in small cysts (<1 cm), characterized by rare or shortened cilia in 1- to 3-cm cysts, and exhibiting the absence of both primary cilia and microvilli in large cysts (>3 cm). Cyst epithelium showed marked immunohistochemical expression of ER, growth hormone receptor, IGF1, IGF1-R, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and pAKT. IGF1 was 10-fold more enriched in the hepatic cyst fluid than in serum. Serum-deprived liver cyst-derived epithelial cells proliferated when exposed to 17?-estradiol and IGF1 and when exposed to human cyst fluid. ER or IGF1-R antagonists inhibited the proliferative effect of serum readmission, cyst fluid, 17?-estradiol, and IGF1. Our findings could explain the role of estrogens in accelerating the progression of ADPKD and may suggest a potential benefit of therapeutic strategies based on estrogen antagonism. PMID:18202196

  4. New insights into the pathogenesis of autosomal dominant cutis laxa with report of five ELN mutations

    PubMed Central

    Callewaert, Bert; Renard, Marjolijn; Hucthagowder, Vishwanathan; Albrecht, Beate; Hausser, Ingrid; Blair, Edward; Dias, Cristina; Albino, Alice; Wachi, Hiroshi; Sato, Fumiaki; Mecham, Robert P.; Loeys, Bart; Coucke, Paul J.; De Paepe, Anne; Urban, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal dominant cutis laxa (ADCL) is characterized by a typical facial appearance and generalized loose skin folds, occasionally associated with aortic root dilatation and emphysema. We sequenced exons 28–34 of the ELN gene in 5 probands with ADCL features and found 5 de novo heterozygous mutations: c.2296_2299dupGCAG (CL-1), c.2333delC (CL-2), c.2137delG (CL-3), c.2262delA (monozygotic twin CL-4 and CL-5) and c.2124del25 (CL-6). Four probands (CL-1, -2, -3, -6) presented with progressive aortic root dilatation. CL-2 and CL-3 also had bicuspid aortic valves. CL-2 presented with severe emphysema. Electron microscopy revealed elastic fiber fragmentation and diminished dermal elastin deposition. RT-PCR studies showed stable mutant mRNA in all patients. Exon 32 skipping explains a milder phenotype in patients with exon 32 mutations. Mutant protein expression in fibroblast cultures impaired deposition of tropoelastin onto microfibril-containing fibers, and enhanced tropoelastin coacervation and globule formation leading to lower amounts of mature, insoluble elastin. Mutation-specific effects also included endoplasmic reticulum stress and increased apoptosis. Increased pSMAD2 staining in ADCL fibroblasts indicated enhanced transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling. We conclude that ADCL is a systemic disease with cardiovascular and pulmonary complications, associated with increased TGFβ signaling and mutation-specific differences in endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis. PMID:21309044

  5. A gene for autosomal dominant hearing loss on the short arm of chromosome 1

    SciTech Connect

    Van Camp, G.; Coucke, P.; Willems, P.J.

    1994-09-01

    Hearing loss is the most common form of sensory impairment and many cases are attributable to genetic causes. The genetic defects underlying several syndromic forms of deafness have been identified, but little is known about the causes of non-syndromic hereditary deafness which accounts for the majority of inherited hearing loss. We report here a large Indonesian family with non-syndromal postlingual hearing loss starting in the high frequencies and showing autosomal dominant inheritance. To locate the gene responsible for the hearing loss in this family, we performed a genome search by genetic linkage analysis with microsatellite markers distributed over the whole genome. We have mapped the gene causing deafness in an extended Indonesian family to chromosome 1p with a multipoint lod score higher than 7. Two other smaller families, showing a similar hereditary hearing loss, were also tested for linkage with chromosome 1p. One family originating from the U.S. was linked to this new locus with a multipoint lod score exceeding 5. In another family from the Netherlands this locus was excluded. The flanking markers D1S255 and D1S211 define a region of 6 cM on chromosome 1p which is likely to contain the deafness gene present in the Indonesian and American family.

  6. A novel OPA1 mutation in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant optic atrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Juanjuan; Yuan, Yimin; Lin, Bing; Feng, Hao; Li, Yan; Dai, Xianning; Zhou, Huihui; Dong, Xujie; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Guan, Min-Xin; Institute of Genetics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310012; Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, OH 45229

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the characterization of a four-generation large Chinese family with ADOA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find a new heterozygous mutation c.C1198G in OPA1 gene which may be a novel pathogenic mutation in this pedigree. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We do not find any mitochondrial DNA mutations associated with optic atrophy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other factors may also contribute to the phenotypic variability of ADOA in this pedigree. -- Abstract: A large four-generation Chinese family with autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) was investigated in the present study. Eight of the family members were affected in this pedigree. The affected family members exhibited early-onset and progressive visual impairment, resulting in mild to profound loss of visual acuity. The average age-at-onset was 15.9 years. A new heterozygous mutation c.C1198G was identified by sequence analysis of the 12th exon of the OPA1 gene. This mutation resulted in a proline to alanine substitution at codon 400, which was located in an evolutionarily conserved region. This missense mutation in the GTPase domain was supposed to result in a loss of function for the encoded protein and act through a dominant negative effect. No other mutations associated with optic atrophy were found in our present study. The c.C1198G heterozygous mutation in the OPA1 gene may be a novel key pathogenic mutation in this pedigree with ADOA. Furthermore, additional nuclear modifier genes, environmental factors, and psychological factors may also contribute to the phenotypic variability of ADOA in this pedigree.

  7. A Missense Mutation in KCTD17 Causes Autosomal Dominant Myoclonus-Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Mencacci, Niccolo E.; Rubio-Agusti, Ignacio; Zdebik, Anselm; Asmus, Friedrich; Ludtmann, Marthe H.R.; Ryten, Mina; Plagnol, Vincent; Hauser, Ann-Kathrin; Bandres-Ciga, Sara; Bettencourt, Conceição; Forabosco, Paola; Hughes, Deborah; Soutar, Marc M.P.; Peall, Kathryn; Morris, Huw R.; Trabzuni, Daniah; Tekman, Mehmet; Stanescu, Horia C.; Kleta, Robert; Carecchio, Miryam; Zorzi, Giovanna; Nardocci, Nardo; Garavaglia, Barbara; Lohmann, Ebba; Weissbach, Anne; Klein, Christine; Hardy, John; Pittman, Alan M.; Foltynie, Thomas; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Gasser, Thomas; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Wood, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a rare movement disorder characterized by a combination of non-epileptic myoclonic jerks and dystonia. SGCE mutations represent a major cause for familial M-D being responsible for 30%–50% of cases. After excluding SGCE mutations, we identified through a combination of linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing KCTD17 c.434 G>A p.(Arg145His) as the only segregating variant in a dominant British pedigree with seven subjects affected by M-D. A subsequent screening in a cohort of M-D cases without mutations in SGCE revealed the same KCTD17 variant in a German family. The clinical presentation of the KCTD17-mutated cases was distinct from the phenotype usually observed in M-D due to SGCE mutations. All cases initially presented with mild myoclonus affecting the upper limbs. Dystonia showed a progressive course, with increasing severity of symptoms and spreading from the cranio-cervical region to other sites. KCTD17 is abundantly expressed in all brain regions with the highest expression in the putamen. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis, based on mRNA expression profile of brain samples from neuropathologically healthy individuals, showed that KCTD17 is part of a putamen gene network, which is significantly enriched for dystonia genes. Functional annotation of the network showed an over-representation of genes involved in post-synaptic dopaminergic transmission. Functional studies in mutation bearing fibroblasts demonstrated abnormalities in endoplasmic reticulum-dependent calcium signaling. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the KCTD17 c.434 G>A p.(Arg145His) mutation causes autosomal dominant M-D. Further functional studies are warranted to further characterize the nature of KCTD17 contribution to the molecular pathogenesis of M-D. PMID:25983243

  8. A genome-wide search for genes predisposing to manic-depression, assuming autosomal dominant inheritance

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, H.; Jensen, S.; Hoff, M.; Holik, J.; Plaetke, R.; Reimherr, F.; Wender, P.; Leppert, M.; Byerley, W. )

    1993-06-01

    Manic-depressive illness (MDI), also known as [open quotes]bipolar affective disorder[close quotes], is a common and devastating neuropsychiatric illness. Although pivotal biochemical alterations underlying the disease are unknown, results of family, twin, and adoption studies consistently implicate genetic transmission in the pathogenesis of MDI. In order to carry out linkage analysis, the authors ascertained eight moderately sized pedigrees containing multiple cases of the disease. For a four-allele marker mapping at 5 cM from the disease gene, the pedigree sample has >97% power to detect a dominant allele under genetic homogeneity and has >73% power under 20% heterogeneity. To date, the eight pedigrees have been genotyped with 328 polymorphic DNA loci throughout the genome. When autosomal dominant inheritance was assumed, 273 DNA markers gave lod scores <[minus]2.0 at [theta] = .05, and 4 DNA marker loci yielded lod scores >1 (chromosome 5 -- D5S39, D5S43, and D5S62; chromosome 11 -- D11S85). Of the markers giving lod scores >1, only D5S62 continued to show evidence for linkage when the affected-pedigree-member method was used. The D5S62 locus maps to distal 5q, a region containing neurotransmitter-receptor genes for dopamine, norepinephrine, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid. Although additional work in this region may be warranted, the linkage results should be interpreted as preliminary data, as 68 unaffected individuals are not past the age of risk. 72 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Intermediate phenotypes in patients with autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome caused by somatic mosaicism

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Amy P.; Sowerwine, Kathryn J.; Lawrence, Monica G.; Davis, Joie; Henderson, Carolyn J.; Zarember, Kol A.; Garofalo, Mary; Gallin, John I.; Kuhns, Douglas B.; Heller, Theo; Milner, Joshua D.; Puck, Jennifer M.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Holland, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) is caused by mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). We describe 2 subjects in whom somatic mosaicism was associated with intermediate phenotypes. Objective Somatic mosaics might shed light on the pathogenesis of dominant STAT3 mutations and the mechanisms behind the immunologic and nonimmunologic features of the disease. Methods Clinical evaluations were conducted. Mutant STAT3 was amplified from different tissues and sequenced, and the percentage of mosaicism in various cell types was calculated. Flow cytometry was performed to determine percentages of IL-171 cells, IL-221 cells, or both. Suction blisters were induced in 1 subject, and exudate fluid was analyzed for whether emigrating neutrophils were STAT3 mutant or wild-type; neutrophils from peripheral blood were simultaneously examined. Results The 2 subjects with STAT3 somatic mosaicism had intermediate phenotypes and were found to have preserved TH17 cell compartments and apparently normal CD8 cells. However, they still had infections, including mucocutaneous candidiasis. The percentage of STAT3 mutant neutrophils migrating into blisters at 16 hours was the same as in peripheral blood, suggesting normal chemotaxis. Conclusion STAT3 mosaicism accounts for a milder phenotype and allows for further investigation into the pathogenesis of AD-HIES. Despite having a preserved TH17 cell compartment, both subjects with mosaicism had chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, suggesting that candidiasis in subjects with AD-HIES is not driven solely by low TH17 cell numbers. The percentage of STAT3 mutant neutrophils emigrating into a suction blister at 16 hours was the same as the percentage in peripheral blood, suggesting that early chemotaxis of STAT3 neutrophils is normal in vivo. PMID:23623265

  10. Progression of autosomal dominant kidney disease: measurement of the stage transitions of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Blanchette, Christopher M; Liang, Caihua; Lubeck, Deborah P; Newsome, Britt; Rossetti, Sandro; Gu, Xiangmei; Gutierrez, Benjamin; Lin, Nancy D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a progressive genetic disorder characterized by the development of numerous kidney cysts that result in kidney failure. Little is known regarding the key patient characteristics and utilization of healthcare resources for ADPKD patients along the continuum of disease progression. This observational study was designed to describe the characteristics of ADPKD patients and compare them with those of patients with other chronic kidney diseases. Methods: This retrospective cohort study involved patients with a claim for ADPKD or PKD unspecified from 1/1/20002/28/2013 and ?6 months of previous continuous enrollment (baseline) within a large database of administrative claims in the USA. A random sample of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients served as comparators. For a subset of ADPKD patients who had only a diagnosis code of unspecified PKD, abstraction of medical records was undertaken to estimate the proportion of patients who had medical chart-confirmed ADPKD. In patients with linked electronic laboratory data, the estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated via serum creatinine values to determine CKD stage at baseline and during follow-up. Proportions of patients transitioning to another stage and the mean age at transition were calculated. Results: ADPKD patients were, in general, younger and had fewer physician visits, but had more specific comorbidities at observation start compared with CKD patients. ADPKD patients had a longer time in the milder stages and longer duration before recorded transition to a more severe stage compared with CKD patients. Patients with ADPKD at risk of rapid progression had a shorter time-to-end-stage renal disease than patients with CKD and ADPKD patients not at risk, but stage duration was similar between ADPKD patients at risk and those not at risk. Conclusions: These results suggest that distribution of patients by age at transition to next stage may be useful for identification of ADPKD patients at risk of rapid progression. The results also suggest that medical claims with diagnosis codes for unspecified PKD, in absence of a diagnosis code for autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, may be a good proxy for ADPKD. PMID:25922609

  11. Further evidence for a locus for autosomal dominant juvenile glaucoma on chromosome 1q and evidence for genetic heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggs, J.; Paglinauan, C.; Stawski, S.

    1994-09-01

    Glaucoma is a term used to describe a group of disorders which have in common a characteristic degeneration of the optic nerve associated with typical visual field defects and usually associated with elevated intraocular pressure. Two percent of white Americans and 6-10% of black Americans are affected by the disease. Compelling data indicate that susceptibility to many types of glaucoma is inherited. Hereditary juvenile glaucoma is one form of glaucoma that develops in children and is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance. Using a single large Caucasian pedigree affected with autosomal dominant juvenile glaucoma, Sheffield discovered positive linkage to a group of markers that map to a 30 cM region on the long arm of chromosome 1 (1q21-q31). We have subsequently identified three unrelated Caucasian pedigrees affected with autosomal dominant juvenile glaucoma that also demonstrate linkage to this region on chromosome 1, with the highest combined lod score of 5.12 at theta = .05 for marker D1S218. The identification of critical recombinant individuals in our three pedigrees has allowed us to further localize the disease gene to a 12 cM region between markers D1S242 and D1S431. In addition, we have identified several pedigrees which do not demonstrate linkage to chromosome 1q, including a black family affected with autosomal dominant juvenile glaucoma that is indistinguishable clinically from the disorder affecting the caucasian pedigrees and three pedigrees affected with pigmentary dispersion syndrome, a form of glaucoma that also affects the juvenile population and is also inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. These findings provide evidence for genetic heterogeneity in juvenile glaucoma.

  12. Analysis of 31 families with an apparently autosomal-dominant transmission of migraine with aura in the nuclear family.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, V; Russell, M B; Ostergaard, S; Olesen, J

    1997-07-25

    We analyzed 31 families selected for an apparently autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance of migraine with aura (MA) in the nuclear family. The nuclear families were expanded with first- and second-degree relatives. All interviews were made by physicians experienced in headache diagnoses. The criteria of the International Headache Society were used. The population relative risk among children in nuclear families was similar to the estimated population relative risk of MA assuming an autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance. The population relative risk tended to decrease among first-degree relatives outside nuclear families and further among second-degree relatives. Both first- and second-degree relatives outside the nuclear families had a statistically significant lower risk of MA than expected. Thus, autosomal-dominant inheritance with or without reduced penetrance was unlikely. Autosomal-recessive inheritance was unlikely because of the unequal sex distribution. Other modes of inheritance were considered as well. Mitochondrial and X-linked inheritance were excluded because of paternal transmission. The female preponderance was too low to explain sex-influenced inheritance. We conclude that MA most likely has a multifactorial inheritance even in high-risk families with MA. PMID:9259375

  13. Does increased water intake prevent disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease?

    PubMed Central

    Higashihara, Eiji; Nutahara, Kikuo; Tanbo, Mitsuhiro; Hara, Hidehiko; Miyazaki, Isao; Kobayashi, Kuninori; Nitatori, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical effects of increased water intake on autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) progression are unknown. Methods ADPKD patients with creatinine clearance ≧50 mL/min/1.73 m2 were divided into high (H-, n = 18) and free (F-, n = 16) water-intake groups, mainly according to their preference. Prior to the study, 30 patients underwent annual evaluation of total kidney volume (TKV) and 24-h urine for an average of 33 months. During the 1-year study period, TKV and 24-h urine were analyzed at the beginning and end of the study and every 4 months, respectively. Results During the pre-study period, urine volume (UV) in the H-group was higher (P = 0.034), but TKV and kidney function and their slopes were not significantly different between the two groups. After the study commenced, UV further increased (P < 0.001) in the H-group but not in the F-group. During the study period, TKV and kidney function slopes were not significantly different between the two groups (primary endpoint). Plasma copeptin was lower (P = 0.024) in the H-group than in the F-group. TKV and kidney function slopes became worse (P = 0.047 and 0.011, respectively) after high water intake (H-group) but not in the F-group. High UV was associated with increased urine sodium, and urine sodium positively correlated with the % TKV slope (P = 0.014). Conclusions Although the main endpoint was not significant, high water intake enhanced disease progression in the H-group when compared with the pre-study period. These findings necessitate a long-term randomized study before drawing a final conclusion. PMID:24739484

  14. Radiologic and Clinical Bronchiectasis Associated with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moua, Teng; Zand, Ladan; Hartman, Robert P.; Hartman, Thomas E.; Qin, Dingxin; Peikert, Tobias; Qian, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycystin 1 and 2, the protein abnormalities associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), are also found in airway cilia and smooth muscle cells. There is evidence of increased radiologic bronchiectasis associated with ADPKD, though the clinical and functional implications of this association are unknown. We hypothesized an increased prevalence of both radiologic and clinical bronchiectasis is associated with APDKD as compared to non-ADPKD chronic kidney disease (CKD) controls. Materials and Methods A retrospective case-control study was performed at our institution involving consecutive ADPKD and non-ADPKD chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients seen over a 13 year period with both chest CT and PFT. CTs were independently reviewed by two blinded thoracic radiologists. Manually collected clinical data included symptoms, smoker status, transplant history, and PFT findings. Results Ninety-two ADPKD and 95 non-ADPKD CKD control patients were compared. Increased prevalence of radiologic bronchiectasis, predominantly mild lower lobe disease, was found in ADPKD patients compared to CKD control (19 vs. 9%, P = 0.032, OR 2.49 (CI 1.1–5.8)). After adjustment for covariates, ADPKD was associated with increased risk of radiologic bronchiectasis (OR 2.78 (CI 1.16–7.12)). Symptomatic bronchiectasis occurred in approximately a third of ADPKD patients with radiologic disease. Smoking was associated with increased radiologic bronchiectasis in ADPKD patients (OR 3.59, CI 1.23–12.1). Conclusions Radiological bronchiectasis is increased in patients with ADPKD particularly those with smoking history as compared to non-ADPKD CKD controls. A third of such patients have symptomatic disease. Bronchiectasis should be considered in the differential in ADPKD patients with respiratory symptoms and smoking history. PMID:24747723

  15. A Novel Missense Mutation of Wilms’ Tumor 1 Causes Autosomal Dominant FSGS

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Gentzon; Gbadegesin, Rasheed A.; Lavin, Peter; Wu, Guanghong; Liu, Yangfan; Oh, Edwin C.; Wang, Liming; Spurney, Robert F.; Eckel, Jason; Lindsey, Thomas; Homstad, Alison; Malone, Andrew F.; Phelan, Paul J.; Shaw, Andrey; Howell, David N.; Conlon, Peter J.; Katsanis, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    FSGS is a clinical disorder characterized by focal scarring of the glomerular capillary tuft, podocyte injury, and nephrotic syndrome. Although idiopathic forms of FSGS predominate, recent insights into the molecular and genetic causes of FSGS have enhanced our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Here, we report a novel missense mutation of the transcriptional regulator Wilms’ Tumor 1 (WT1) as the cause of nonsyndromic, autosomal dominant FSGS in two Northern European kindreds from the United States. We performed sequential genome-wide linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing to evaluate participants from family DUK6524. Subsequently, whole-exome sequencing and direct sequencing were performed on proband DNA from family DUK6975. We identified multiple suggestive loci on chromosomes 6, 11, and 13 in family DUK6524 and identified a segregating missense mutation (R458Q) in WT1 isoform D as the cause of FSGS in this family. The identical mutation was found in family DUK6975. The R458Q mutation was not found in 1600 control chromosomes and was predicted as damaging by in silico simulation. We depleted wt1a in zebrafish embryos and observed glomerular injury and filtration defects, both of which were rescued with wild-type but not mutant human WT1D mRNA. Finally, we explored the subcellular mechanism of the mutation in vitro. WT1R458Q overexpression significantly downregulated nephrin and synaptopodin expression, promoted apoptosis in HEK293 cells and impaired focal contact formation in podocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that the WT1R458Q mutation alters the regulation of podocyte homeostasis and causes nonsyndromic FSGS. PMID:25145932

  16. A Novel Retinal Oscillation Mechanism in an Autosomal Dominant Photoreceptor Degeneration Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Hung-Ya; Chen, Yu-Jiun; McQuiston, Adam R.; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Chen, Ching-Kang

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown in rd1 and rd10 models of photoreceptor degeneration (PD) that inner retinal neurons display spontaneous and rhythmic activities. Furthermore, the rhythmic activity has been shown to require the gap junction protein connexin 36, which is likely located in AII amacrine cells (AII-ACs). In the present study, an autosomal dominant PD model called rhoΔCTA, whose rods overexpress a C-terminally truncated mutant rhodopsin and degenerate with a rate similar to that of rd1, was used to investigate the generality and mechanisms of heightened inner retinal activity following PD. To fluorescently identify cholinergic starburst amacrine cells (SACs), the rhoΔCTA mouse was introduced into a combined ChAT-IRES-Cre and Ai9 background. In this mouse, we observed excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) oscillation and non-rhythmic inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) in both ON- and OFF-SACs. The IPSCs were more noticeable in OFF- than in ON-SACs. Similar to reported retinal ganglion cell (RGC) oscillation in rd1 mice, EPSC oscillation was synaptically driven by glutamate and sensitive to blockade of NaV channels and gap junctions. These data suggest that akin to rd1 mice, AII-AC is a prominent oscillator in rhoΔCTA mice. Surprisingly, OFF-SAC but not ON-SAC EPSC oscillation could readily be enhanced by GABAergic blockade. More importantly, weakening the AII-AC gap junction network by activating retinal dopamine receptors abolished oscillations in ON-SACs but not in OFF-SACs. Furthermore, the latter persisted in the presence of flupirtine, an M-type potassium channel activator recently reported to dampen intrinsic AII-AC bursting. These data suggest the existence of a novel oscillation mechanism in mice with PD. PMID:26793064

  17. Phosphodiesterase Isoform Regulation of Cell Proliferation and Fluid Secretion in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Cibele S; Raman, Archana; Reif, Gail A; Magenheimer, Brenda S; White, Corey; Calvet, James P; Wallace, Darren P

    2016-04-01

    cAMP stimulates cell proliferation and Cl(-)-dependent fluid secretion, promoting the progressive enlargement of renal cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Intracellular cAMP levels are determined by the balance of cAMP synthesis by adenylyl cyclases and degradation by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Therefore, PDE isoform expression and activity strongly influence global and compartmentalized cAMP levels. We report here that PDE3 and PDE4 expression levels are lower in human ADPKD tissue and cells compared with those of normal human kidneys (NHKs), whereas PDE1 levels are not significantly different. Inhibition of PDE4 caused a greater increase in basal and vasopressin (AVP)-stimulated cAMP levels and Cl(-)secretion by ADPKD cells than inhibition of PDE1, and inhibition of PDE4 induced cyst-like dilations in cultured mousePkd1(-/-)embryonic kidneys. In contrast, inhibition of PDE1 caused greater stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and proliferation of ADPKD cells than inhibition of PDE4, and inhibition of PDE1 enhanced AVP-induced ERK activation. Notably, inhibition of PDE1, the only family of Ca(2+)-regulated PDEs, also induced a mitogenic response to AVP in NHK cells, similar to the effect of restricting intracellular Ca(2+) PDE1 coimmunoprecipitated with B-Raf and A-kinase anchoring protein 79, and AVP increased this interaction in ADPKD but not NHK cells. These data suggest that whereas PDE4 is the major PDE isoform involved in the regulation of global intracellular cAMP and Cl(-)secretion, PDE1 specifically affects the cAMP signal to the B-Raf/MEK/ERK pathway and regulates AVP-induced proliferation of ADPKD cells. PMID:26289612

  18. Kelch-like homologue 9 mutation is associated with an early onset autosomal dominant distal myopathy

    PubMed Central

    von Deimling, Florian; Sachdev, Shrikesh; Errington, Wesley J.; Herrmann, Ralf; Bönnemann, Carsten; Brockmann, Knut; Hinderlich, Stephan; Lindner, Tom H.; Steinbrecher, Alice; Hoffmann, Katrin; Privé, Gilbert G.; Hannink, Mark; Nürnberg, Peter; Voit, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Distal myopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by progressive weakness and muscular atrophy, beginning in distal limb muscles and affecting proximal limb muscles at a later stage. We studied a large German kindred with 10 affected members. Weakness and atrophy of the anterior tibial muscles started between the ages of 8 and 16 years, followed by atrophy of intrinsic hand muscles. Progression was slow, and patients retained the ability to walk until the seventh decade. Serum creatinine kinase levels were increased in the range of 150–1400 U/l. Muscle biopsies showed myopathic changes, whereas immunohistochemistry showed normal expression of marker proteins for muscular dystrophies. Patients had reduced sensation with stocking-glove distribution in the distal limbs in later life. Nerve conduction studies revealed no evidence of neuropathy. Genome-wide linkage analysis in this family revealed a new locus for distal myopathy at 9p21.2-p22.3 (multipoint logarithm of the odds ratio = 4.21). By positional cloning we found a heterozygous mutation L95F in the Kelch-like homologue 9 gene, encoding a bric-a-brac Kelch protein. Molecular modelling indicated that the mutation may interfere with the interaction of the bric-a-brac domain with Cullin 3. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that the mutation reduces association with Cullin 3 in the Kelch-like homologue 9-Cullin 3–E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which is involved in ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation. We identified a unique form of early onset autosomal dominant distal myopathy which is associated with a Kelch-like homologue 9 mutation and interferes with normal skeletal muscle through a novel pathogenetic mechanism. PMID:20554658

  19. Allele-Specific Gene Silencing in Two Mouse Models of Autosomal Dominant Skeletal Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Loy, Ryan E.; Lueck, John D.; Mostajo-Radji, Mohammed A.; Carrell, Ellie M.; Dirksen, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    We explored the potential of mutant allele-specific gene silencing (ASGS) in providing therapeutic benefit in two established mouse models of the autosomal dominantly-inherited muscle disorders, Malignant Hyperthermia (MH) and Central Core Disease (CCD). Candidate ASGS siRNAs were designed and validated for efficacy and specificity on ryanodine receptor (RyR1) cDNA mini-constructs expressed in HEK293 cells using RT-PCR- and confocal microscopy-based assays. In vivo delivery of the most efficacious identified siRNAs into flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles was achieved by injection/electroporation of footpads of 4–6 month old heterozygous Ryr1Y524S/+ (YS/+) and Ryr1I4895T/+ (IT/+) knock-in mice, established mouse models of MH with cores and CCD, respectively. Treatment of IT/+ mice resulted in a modest rescue of deficits in the maximum rate (∼38% rescue) and magnitude (∼78%) of ligand-induced Ca2+ release that occurred in the absence of a change in the magnitude of electrically-evoked Ca2+ release. Compared to the difference between the caffeine sensitivity of Ca2+ release in FDB fibers from YS/+ and WT mice treated with SCR siRNA (EC50: 1.1 mM versus 4.4 mM, respectively), caffeine sensitivity was normalized in FDB fibers from YS/+ mice following 2 (EC50: 2.8 mM) and 4 week (EC50: 6.6 mM) treatment with YS allele-specific siRNA. Moreover, the temperature-dependent increase in resting Ca2+ observed in FDB fibers from YS/+ mice was normalized to WT levels after 2 weeks of treatment with YS allele-specific siRNA. As determined by quantitative real time PCR, the degree of functional rescue in YS/+ and IT/+ mice correlated well with the relative increase in fractional WT allele expression. PMID:23152933

  20. Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia type III: a review of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal Dominant Cerebellar Ataxia (ADCA) Type III is a type of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) classically characterized by pure cerebellar ataxia and occasionally by non-cerebellar signs such as pyramidal signs, ophthalmoplegia, and tremor. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in adulthood; however, a minority of patients develop clinical features in adolescence. The incidence of ADCA Type III is unknown. ADCA Type III consists of six subtypes, SCA5, SCA6, SCA11, SCA26, SCA30, and SCA31. The subtype SCA6 is the most common. These subtypes are associated with four causative genes and two loci. The severity of symptoms and age of onset can vary between each SCA subtype and even between families with the same subtype. SCA5 and SCA11 are caused by specific gene mutations such as missense, inframe deletions, and frameshift insertions or deletions. SCA6 is caused by trinucleotide CAG repeat expansions encoding large uninterrupted glutamine tracts. SCA31 is caused by repeat expansions that fall outside of the protein-coding region of the disease gene. Currently, there are no specific gene mutations associated with SCA26 or SCA30, though there is a confirmed locus for each subtype. This disease is mainly diagnosed via genetic testing; however, differential diagnoses include pure cerebellar ataxia and non-cerebellar features in addition to ataxia. Although not fatal, ADCA Type III may cause dysphagia and falls, which reduce the quality of life of the patients and may in turn shorten the lifespan. The therapy for ADCA Type III is supportive and includes occupational and speech modalities. There is no cure for ADCA Type III, but a number of recent studies have highlighted novel therapies, which bring hope for future curative treatments. PMID:23331413

  1. Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa: No evidence for nonallelic genetic heterogeneity on 3q

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar-Singh, R.; He Wang; Humphries, P.; Farrar, G.J. )

    1993-02-01

    Since the initial report of linkage of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) to the long arm of chromosome 3, several mutations in the gene encoding rhodopsin, which also maps to 3q, have been reported in adRP pedigrees. However, there has been some discussion as to the possibility of a second adRP locus on 3q. This suggestion has important diagnostic and research implications and must raise doubts about the usefulness of linked markers for reliable diagnosis of RP patients. In order to address this issue the authors have performed an admixture test (A-test) on 10 D3S47-linked adRP pedigrees and have found a likelihood ratio of heterogeneity versus homogeneity of 4.90. They performed a second A-test, combining the data from all families with known rhodopsin mutations. In this test they obtained a reduced likelihood ratio of heterogeneity versus homogeneity, of 1.0. On the basis of these statistical analyses they have found no significant support for two adRP loci on chromosome 3q. Furthermore, using 40 CEPH families, they have localized the rhodopsin gene to the D3S47-D3S20 interval, with a maximum lod score (Z[sub m]) of 20 and have found that the order qter-D3S47-rhodopsin-D3S20-cen is significantly more likely than any other order. In addition, they have mapped (Z[sub m] = 30) the microsatellite marker D3S621 relative to other loci in this region of the genome. 27 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Bilineal Disease and Trans-Heterozygotes in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pei, York; Paterson, Andrew D.; Wang, Kai Rong; He, Ning; Hefferton, Donna; Watnick, Terry; Germino, Greg G.; Parfrey, Patrick; Somlo, Stefan; St. George-Hyslop, Peter

    2001-01-01

    In searching for a putative third gene for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), we studied the genetic inheritance of a large family (NFL10) previously excluded from linkage to both the PKD1 locus and the PKD2 locus. We screened 48 members of the NFL10 pedigree, by ultrasonography, and genotyped them, with informative markers, at both the PKD1 locus and the PKD2 locus. Twenty-eight of 48 individuals assessed were affected with ADPKD. Inspection of the haplotypes of these individuals suggested the possibility of bilineal disease from independently segregating PKD1 and PKD2 mutations. Using single-stranded conformational analysis, we screened for and found a PKD2 mutation (i.e., 2152delA; L736X) in 12 affected pedigree members. Additionally, when the disease status of these individuals was coded as “unknown” in linkage analysis, we also found, with markers at the PKD1 locus, significant LOD scores (i.e., >3.0). These findings strongly support the presence of a PKD1 mutation in 15 other affected pedigree members, who lack the PKD2 mutation. Two additional affected individuals had trans-heterozygous mutations involving both genes, and they had renal disease that was more severe than that in affected individuals who had either mutation alone. This is the first documentation of bilineal disease in ADPKD. In humans, trans-heterozygous mutations involving both PKD1 and PKD2 are not necessarily embryonically lethal. However, the disease associated with the presence of both mutations appears to be more severe than the disease associated with either mutation alone. The presence of bilineal disease as a confounder needs to be considered seriously in the search for the elusive PKD3 locus. PMID:11156533

  3. A YAC contig encompassing the chromosome 7p locus for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Inglehearn, C.F.; Keen, T.J.; Ratel, R.

    1994-09-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is an inherited retinal degeneration characterized by night blindness and loss of peripheral vision, often leading to complete blindness. The autosomal dominant form (adRP) maps to at least six different loci, including the rhodopsin and peripherin/Rds genes and four loci identified only by linkage analysis on chromosomes 7p, 7q, 8cen and 19q. The 7p locus was reported by this laboratory in a large English family, with a lod score of 16.5. Several new genetic markers have been tested in the family and this locus has now been refined to an interval of approximately 1 cM between markers D7S795 and D7S484 in the 7p13-15 region. In order to clone the gene for adRP, we have used microsatellites and STSs from the region to identify over 80 YACs, from four different libraries, which map to this interval. End clones from key YACs were isolated for the generation of additional STSs. Eleven microsatellite markers between D7S435 (distal) and D7S484 (proximal) have been ordered by a combination of both physical and genetic mapping. In this way we have now obtained a YAC contig spanning approximately 3 megabases of chromosome 7p within which the adRP gene must lie. One gene (aquaporin) and one chromosome 7 brain EST have been placed on the contig but both map distal to the region of interest. Sixteen other ESTs and three further known 7p genes mapping in the region have been excluded. We are now attempting to build a cosmid contig in the defined interval and identify further expressed sequences from both YACs and cosmids to test as candidates for the adRP gene.

  4. Clinical Correlates of Mass Effect in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunsuk; Park, Hayne Cho; Ryu, Hyunjin; Kim, Kiwon; Kim, Hyo Sang; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Yu, Su Jong; Chung, Jin Wook; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Seung Hyup; Cheong, Hae Il; Lee, Kyubeck; Park, Jong Hoon; Pei, York; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Ahn, Curie

    2015-01-01

    Mass effect from polycystic kidney and liver enlargement can result in significant clinical complications and symptoms in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In this single-center study, we examined the correlation of height-adjusted total liver volume (htTLV) and total kidney volume (htTKV) by CT imaging with hepatic complications (n = 461) and abdominal symptoms (n = 253) in patients with ADPKD. “Mass-effect” complications were assessed by review of medical records and abdominal symptoms, by a standardized research questionnaire. Overall, 91.8% of patients had 4 or more liver cysts on CT scans. Polycystic liver disease (PLD) was classified as none or mild (htTLV < 1,600 mL/m); moderate (1,600 ≤ htTLV <3,200 mL/m); and severe (htTLV ≥ 3,200 mL/m). The prevalence of moderate and severe PLD in our patient cohort was 11.7% (n = 54/461) and 4.8% (n = 22/461), respectively, with a female predominance in both the moderate (61.1%) and severe (95.5%) PLD groups. Pressure-related complications such as leg edema (20.4%), ascites (16.6%), and hernia (3.6%) were common, and patients with moderate to severe PLD exhibited a 6-fold increased risk (compared to no or mild PLD) for these complications in multivariate analysis. Similarly, abdominal symptoms including back pain (58.8%), flank pain (53.1%), abdominal fullness (46.5%), and dyspnea/chest-discomfort (44.3%) were very common, and patients with moderate to severe PLD exhibited a 5-fold increased risk for these symptoms. Moderate to severe PLD is a common and clinically important problem in ~16% of patients with ADPKD who may benefit from referral to specialized centers for further management. PMID:26641645

  5. White Matter Abnormalities Track Disease Progression in PSEN1 Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Valle, Raquel; Monté, Gemma C; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Bosch, Beatriz; Fortea, Juan; Lladó, Albert; Antonell, Anna; Balasa, Mircea; Bargalló, Nuria; Molinuevo, José Luis

    2016-02-20

    PSEN1 mutations are the most frequent cause of autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD), and show nearly full penetrance. There is presently increasing interest in the study of biomarkers that track disease progression in order to test therapeutic interventions in ADAD. We used white mater (WM) volumetric characteristics and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics to investigate correlations with the normalized time to expected symptoms onset (relative age ratio) and group differences in a cohort of 36 subjects from PSEN1 ADAD families: 22 mutation carriers, 10 symptomatic (SMC) and 12 asymptomatic (AMC), and 14 non-carriers (NC). Subjects underwent a 3T MRI. WM morphometric data and DTI metrics were analyzed. We found that PSEN1 MC showed significant negative correlation between fractional anisotropy (FA) and the relative age ratio in the genus and body of corpus callosum and corona radiate (p <  0.05 Family-wise error correction (FWE) at cluster level) and positive correlation with mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AxD), and radial diffusivity (RD) in the splenium of corpus callosum. SMC presented WM volume loss, reduced FA and increased MD, AxD, and RD in the anterior and posterior corona radiate, corpus callosum (p <  0.05 FWE) compared with NC. No significant differences were observed between AMC and NC in WM volume or DTI measures. These findings suggest that the integrity of the WM deteriorates linearly in PSEN1 ADAD from the early phases of the disease; thus DTI metrics might be useful to monitor the disease progression. However, the lack of significant alterations at the preclinical stages suggests that these indexes might not be good candidates for early markers of the disease. PMID:26923015

  6. Evidence against a second autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa locus close to rhodopsin on chromosome 3q

    SciTech Connect

    Inglehearn, C.; Bhattacharya, S. ); Farrar, J.; Humphries, P. ); Denton, M. ); Gal, A. )

    1993-08-01

    In 1989 McWilliam et al. reported close linkage of the autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) locus to chromosome 3q marker D3S47 in a large Irish pedigree (McWilliam et al 1989). Subsequent studies confirmed linkage in two other adRP families (Lester et al 1990; Olsson et al. 1990). Shortly afterward, utations in the rhodopsin (RHO) gene, mapping to 3q21-24, were implicated in disease causation, and it is now known that around one-third of adRP results from such mutations (Dryja et al. 1991; Sung et al. 1991; Inglchearn et al. 1992a). At that time, sequencing studies had failed to find rhodopsin mutations in the three families first linked to 3q. Several adRP families in which rhodopsin mutations had been found gave lod scores that, when pooled, had a peak of 4.47 at a theta of .12 (Inglehearn et al. 1992b). The apparent lack of mutations in families TCDM1, adRP3, and 20 together with the linkage data in these and the proved RHO-RP families, led to speculation that two adRP loci existed on chromosome 3q (Olsson et al. 1990; Inglehearn et al. 1992b). However this situation has been reversed by more recent analysis, since rhodopsin mutations have now been found in all three families. There is therefore no longer any evidence to support the hypothesis that a second adRP locus exists close to rhodopsin on chromosome 3q.

  7. The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Becchetti, Andrea; Aracri, Patrizia; Meneghini, Simone; Brusco, Simone; Amadeo, Alida

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is a focal epilepsy with attacks typically arising in the frontal lobe during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. It is characterized by clusters of complex and stereotyped hypermotor seizures, frequently accompanied by sudden arousals. Cognitive and psychiatric symptoms may be also observed. Approximately 12% of the ADNFLE families carry mutations on genes coding for subunits of the heteromeric neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). This is consistent with the widespread expression of these receptors, particularly the α4β2* subtype, in the neocortex and thalamus. However, understanding how mutant nAChRs lead to partial frontal epilepsy is far from being straightforward because of the complexity of the cholinergic regulation in both developing and mature brains. The relation with the sleep-waking cycle must be also explained. We discuss some possible pathogenetic mechanisms in the light of recent advances about the nAChR role in prefrontal regions as well as the studies carried out in murine models of ADNFLE. Functional evidence points to alterations in prefrontal GABA release, and the synaptic unbalance probably arises during the cortical circuit maturation. Although most of the available functional evidence concerns mutations on nAChR subunit genes, other genes have been recently implicated in the disease, such as KCNT1 (coding for a Na+-dependent K+ channel), DEPD5 (Disheveled, Egl-10 and Pleckstrin Domain-containing protein 5), and CRH (Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone). Overall, the uncertainties about both the etiology and the pathogenesis of ADNFLE point to the current gaps in our knowledge the regulation of neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex. PMID:25717303

  8. The PROPKD Score: A New Algorithm to Predict Renal Survival in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Cornec-Le Gall, Emilie; Audrézet, Marie-Pierre; Rousseau, Annick; Hourmant, Maryvonne; Renaudineau, Eric; Charasse, Christophe; Morin, Marie-Pascale; Moal, Marie-Christine; Dantal, Jacques; Wehbe, Bassem; Perrichot, Régine; Frouget, Thierry; Vigneau, Cécile; Potier, Jérôme; Jousset, Philippe; Guillodo, Marie-Paule; Siohan, Pascale; Terki, Nazim; Sawadogo, Théophile; Legrand, Didier; Menoyo-Calonge, Victorio; Benarbia, Seddik; Besnier, Dominique; Longuet, Hélène; Férec, Claude; Le Meur, Yannick

    2016-03-01

    The course of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) varies among individuals, with some reaching ESRD before 40 years of age and others never requiring RRT. In this study, we developed a prognostic model to predict renal outcomes in patients with ADPKD on the basis of genetic and clinical data. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1341 patients from the Genkyst cohort and evaluated the influence of clinical and genetic factors on renal survival. Multivariate survival analysis identified four variables that were significantly associated with age at ESRD onset, and a scoring system from 0 to 9 was developed as follows: being male: 1 point; hypertension before 35 years of age: 2 points; first urologic event before 35 years of age: 2 points; PKD2 mutation: 0 points; nontruncating PKD1 mutation: 2 points; and truncating PKD1 mutation: 4 points. Three risk categories were subsequently defined as low risk (0-3 points), intermediate risk (4-6 points), and high risk (7-9 points) of progression to ESRD, with corresponding median ages for ESRD onset of 70.6, 56.9, and 49 years, respectively. Whereas a score ≤3 eliminates evolution to ESRD before 60 years of age with a negative predictive value of 81.4%, a score >6 forecasts ESRD onset before 60 years of age with a positive predictive value of 90.9%. This new prognostic score accurately predicts renal outcomes in patients with ADPKD and may enable the personalization of therapeutic management of ADPKD. PMID:26150605

  9. Screening for Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Survey of 420 Nephrologists

    PubMed Central

    Flahault, Adrien; Trystram, Denis; Fouchard, Marie; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Nataf, François; Joly, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a high prevalence of intracranial aneurysm (ICA) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), rupture events are rare. The current recommendations for ICA screening are based on expert opinions and studies with low levels of evidence. Objectives The aim of our study was to describe the attitudes of practicing nephrologists in Europe towards screening for ICA using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Methods We conducted a web-based survey among 1315 European French-speaking nephrologists and nephrology residents. An anonymous, electronic questionnaire including 24 independent questions related to ICA screening modalities, indications and participant profiles was sent by email between September and December 2014. Four hundred and twenty nephrologists (mostly from France) participated, including 31 nephrology residents; the response rate was 32%. Results Systematic screening for ICA was advocated by 28% of the nephrologists. A family history of ICA rupture, sudden death, stroke and migraine were consensual indications for screening (> 90% of the panel). In other clinical situations largely not covered by the recommendations (pregnancy, nephrectomy, kidney transplantation, cardiac or hepatic surgery, uncontrolled hypertension, lack of familial ADPKD history, at-risk activity, tobacco use), the attitudes towards screening were highly divergent. ICA screening was influenced by nephrologists experience with ADPKD and by their practice setting. The majority of participants (57%) would not repeat a normal ICA screening. Only a few participants (22%) knew that non-contrast MRA was the reference diagnostic tool for ICA screening, whereas most participants thought that contrast enhancement was necessary to screen for ICA. The results from the nephrology residents were analyzed separately and yielded similar results. Conclusion This practice survey revealed that most nephrologists follow the current recommendations for the initial screening of ICAs. However, more than a quarter of the panel was in favor of systematic ICA screening, most nephrologists did not know that contrast medium was not necessary to screen for ICA using MRA, and many areas of uncertainty remain. PMID:27054719

  10. Differences in allele frequencies of autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia SNPs in the Malaysian population.

    PubMed

    Alex, Livy; Chahil, Jagdish Kaur; Lye, Say Hean; Bagali, Pramod; Ler, Lian Wee

    2012-06-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is caused by different interactions of lifestyle and genetic determinants. At the genetic level, it can be attributed to the interactions of multiple polymorphisms, or as in the example of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), it can be the result of a single mutation. A large number of genetic markers, mostly single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) or mutations in three genes, implicated in autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH), viz APOB (apolipoprotein B), LDLR (low density lipoprotein receptor) and PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9), have been identified and characterized. However, such studies have been insufficiently undertaken specifically in Malaysia and Southeast Asia in general. The main objective of this study was to identify ADH variants, specifically ADH-causing mutations and hypercholesterolemia-associated polymorphisms in multiethnic Malaysian population. We aimed to evaluate published SNPs in ADH causing genes, in this population and to report any unusual trends. We examined a large number of selected SNPs from previous studies of APOB, LDLR, PCSK9 and other genes, in clinically diagnosed ADH patients (n=141) and healthy control subjects (n=111). Selection of SNPs was initiated by searching within genes reported to be associated with ADH from known databases. The important finding was 137 mono-allelic markers (44.1%) and 173 polymorphic markers (55.8%) in both subject groups. By comparing to publicly available data, out of the 137 mono-allelic markers, 23 markers showed significant differences in allele frequency among Malaysians, European Whites, Han Chinese, Yoruba and Gujarati Indians. Our data can serve as reference for others in related fields of study during the planning of their experiments. PMID:22534770

  11. The effect of caffeine on renal epithelial cells from patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Belibi, Franck A; Wallace, Darren P; Yamaguchi, Tamio; Christensen, Marcy; Reif, Gail; Grantham, Jared J

    2002-11-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a hereditary disorder characterized by the progressive enlargement of cysts derived from tubules. Tubule cell proliferation and chloride-dependent fluid accumulation, mechanisms underlying cyst expansion, are accelerated by adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). This study examined the extent to which caffeine may stimulate the production of cAMP by cyst epithelial cells, thereby adversely increasing proliferation and fluid secretion. Mural epithelial cells from ADPKD cysts and normal human kidney cortex cells (HKC) were cultured, and cAMP levels were determined in response to caffeine and receptor-mediated agonists linked to adenylyl cyclase. Caffeine, a methylxanthine, slightly increased basal levels of cAMP, as did other nonselective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors, 1-methyl-3- isobutyl xanthine and theophylline and rolipram, a specific PDE IV inhibitor. More importantly, clinically relevant concentrations of caffeine (10 to 50 micro M) potentiated the effects of desmopressin (DDAVP), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and isoproterenol to increase cAMP levels in both ADPKD and HKC cells. By contrast, at concentrations that augmented the DDAVP response, caffeine attenuated cAMP accumulation by adenosine, implicating an action apart from the inhibition of PDE. Caffeine enhanced the effect of DDAVP to stimulate transepithelial short-circuit current of polarized ADPKD monolayers, reflecting an increase in chloride secretion. Caffeine potentiated the effect of DDAVP and PGE(2) to increase the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (P-ERK). By contrast, P-ERK levels in HKC cells were not raised by increased intracellular concentrations of cAMP. It is concluded that PDE inhibition by caffeine increases the accumulation of cAMP, and through this mechanism activates the ERK pathway to cellular proliferation and increases transepithelial fluid secretion in ADPKD cystic epithelium. Caffeine is, therefore, a risk factor for the promotion of cyst enlargement in patients with ADPKD. PMID:12397042

  12. Subtle neurological and metabolic abnormalities in an Opa1 mouse model of autosomal dominant optic atrophy.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Marcel V; Fuhrmann, Nico; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Heiduschka, Peter; Chinnery, Patrick F; Wissinger, Bernd

    2009-12-01

    The ubiquitously expressed gene OPA1 is the main disease causing gene for autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA). These patients present with bilateral reduction in visual acuity, central visual field defects and impaired color vision, secondary to the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and subsequent degeneration of the optic nerve. Up to now, it is not clear why a mutation in a ubiquitously expressed gene affects only RGCs and the optic nerve. Twenty-two-month-old Opa1 animals underwent a full examination following the Shirpa protocol. Weight, food intake and life span were monitored. Rotarod treadmill experiments were performed to assess neuromuscular function. Limb skeletal muscle was evaluated morphologically, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity was studied histochemically and mtDNA integrity was determined by long-range PCR. The Shirpa test showed that 33% of the Opa1 mice suffered from tremor and 52% of the Opa1 animals showed an abnormal clutching reflex. Control animals performed well in the accelerating Rotarod treadmill experiment whereas the Opa1 mice performed significantly worse. Skeletal muscle fibers were morphologically normal, had normal COX activity and showed no evidence of secondary mtDNA damage in contrast to patients with syndromic ADOA. We also found a highly significant difference in body weight. Our results demonstrate that OPA1 mutations affect not only RGCs but also other tissues and cell types, though to a lesser extent. In particular we found deficits in both neuromuscular and metabolic function. We therefore want to encourage clinicians to be vigilant about to extra-ocular manifestations in ADOA patients. PMID:19815013

  13. Molecular Diagnosis of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Adrian Y.; Michaeel, Alber; Liu, Genyan; Elemento, Olivier; Blumenfeld, Jon; Donahue, Stephanie; Parker, Tom; Levine, Daniel; Rennert, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by mutations in PKD1 and PKD2. However, genetic analysis is complicated by six PKD1 pseudogenes, large gene sizes, and allelic heterogeneity. We developed a new clinical assay for PKD gene analysis using paired-end next-generation sequencing (NGS) by multiplexing individually bar-coded long-range PCR libraries and analyzing them in one Illumina MiSeq flow cell. The data analysis pipeline has been optimized and automated with Unix shell scripts to accommodate variant calls. This approach was validated using a cohort of 25 patients with ADPKD previously analyzed by Sanger sequencing. A total of 250 genetic variants were identified by NGS, spanning the entire exonic and adjacent intronic regions of PKD1 and PKD2, including all 16 pathogenic mutations. In addition, we identified three novel mutations in a mutation-negative cohort of 24 patients with ADPKD previously analyzed by Sanger sequencing. This NGS method achieved sensitivity of 99.2% (95% CI, 96.8%–99.9%) and specificity of 99.9% (95% CI, 99.7%–100.0%), with cost and turnaround time reduced by as much as 70%. Prospective NGS analysis of 25 patients with ADPKD demonstrated a detection rate comparable with Sanger standards. In conclusion, the NGS method was superior to Sanger sequencing for detecting PKD gene mutations, achieving high sensitivity and improved gene coverage. These characteristics suggest that NGS would be an appropriate new standard for clinical genetic testing of ADPKD. PMID:24374109

  14. Autosomal Dominant Familial Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate Deposition Disease Is Caused by Mutation in the Transmembrane Protein ANKH

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Charlene J.; Zhang, Yun; Timms, Andrew; Bonavita, Gina; Caeiro, Francisco; Broxholme, John; Cuthbertson, Jonathan; Jones, Yvonne; Marchegiani, Raul; Reginato, Antonio; Russell, R. Graham G.; Wordsworth, B. Paul; Carr, Andrew J.; Brown, Matthew A.

    2002-01-01

    Familial autosomal dominant calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) chondrocalcinosis has previously been mapped to chromosome 5p15. We have identified a mutation in the ANKH gene that segregates with the disease in a family with this condition. ANKH encodes a putative transmembrane inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) transport channel. We postulate that loss of function of ANKH causes elevated extracellular PPi levels, predisposing to CPPD crystal deposition. PMID:12297989

  15. Berberine slows cell growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonon, Anna; Mangolini, Alessandra; Pinton, Paolo; Senno, Laura del; Aguiari, Gianluca

    2013-11-22

    Highlights: •Berberine at appropriate doses slows cell proliferation in ADPKD cystic cells. •Reduction of cell growth by berberine occurs by inhibition of ERK and p70-S6 kinase. •Higher doses of berberine cause an overall cytotoxic effect. •Berberine overdose induces apoptotic bodies formation and DNA fragmentation. •Antiproliferative properties of this drug make it a new candidate for ADPKD therapy. -- Abstract: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary monogenic disorder characterized by development and enlargement of kidney cysts that lead to loss of renal function. It is caused by mutations in two genes (PKD1 and PKD2) encoding for polycystin-1 and polycystin-2 proteins which regulate different signals including cAMP, mTOR and EGFR pathways. Abnormal activation of these signals following PC1 or PC2 loss of function causes an increased cell proliferation which is a typical hallmark of this disease. Despite the promising findings obtained in animal models with targeted inhibitors able to reduce cystic cell growth, currently, no specific approved therapy for ADPKD is available. Therefore, the research of new more effective molecules could be crucial for the treatment of this severe pathology. In this regard, we have studied the effect of berberine, an isoquinoline quaternary alkaloid, on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human and mouse ADPKD cystic cell lines. Berberine treatment slows cell proliferation of ADPKD cystic cells in a dose-dependent manner and at high doses (100 μg/mL) it induces cell death in cystic cells as well as in normal kidney tubule cells. However, at 10 μg/mL, berberine reduces cell growth in ADPKD cystic cells only enhancing G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase of cell cycle and inhibiting ERK and p70-S6 kinases. Our results indicate that berberine shows a selected antiproliferative activity in cellular models for ADPKD, suggesting that this molecule and similar natural compounds could open new opportunities for the therapy of ADPKD patients.

  16. Hyperuricemia and deterioration of renal function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of hyperuricemia in disease progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) has not been defined well. We investigated the association of serum uric acid (sUA) with renal function and the effect of hypouricemic treatment on the rate of renal function decline. Methods This is a single-center, retrospective, observational cohort study. A total of 365 patients with ADPKD who had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 15 mL/min/1.73 m2 and who were followed up for > 1 year were included in our analysis. Hyperuricemia was defined by a sUA level of ≥ 7.0 mg/dL in male and ≥ 6.0 mg/dL in female or when hypouricemic medications were prescribed. Results Hyperuricemia was associated with reduced initial eGFR, independent of age, sex, hypertension, albuminuria, and total kidney volume. During a median follow-up period of over 6 years, patients with hyperuricemia showed a faster annual decline in eGFR (−6.3% per year vs. −0.9% per year, p = 0.008). However, after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension and initial eGFR, sUA was no longer associated with either annual eGFR decline or the development of ESRD. Among 53 patients who received hypouricemic treatment, the annual eGFR decline appeared to be attenuated after hypouricemic treatment (pretreatment vs. posttreatment: −5.3 ± 8. 2 vs. 0.2 ± 6.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year, p = 0.001 by Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Conclusions Although hyperuricemia was associated with reduced eGFR, it was not an independent factor for renal progression in ADPKD. However, the correction of hyperuricemia may attenuate renal function decline in some patients with mild renal insufficiency. PMID:24739095

  17. Peripheral augmentation index and vascular inflammation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuvin, Jeffrey T.; Sarnak, Mark J.; Perrone, Ronald D.; Miskulin, Dana C.; Rudym, Darya; Chandra, Priya; Karas, Richard H.; Menon, Vandana

    2011-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of premature mortality in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We examined peripheral augmentation index (AIx) as a measure of systemic vascular function and circulating markers of vascular inflammation in patients with ADPKD. Methods. Fifty-two ADPKD patients with hypertension and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, 50 ADPKD patients with hypertension and eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2, 42 normotensive ADPKD patients with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 51 normotensive healthy controls were enrolled in this study. AIx was measured from peripheral artery tone recordings using finger plethysmography. Serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin, E-selectin, soluble Fas (sFas) and Fas ligand (FasL) were measured as markers of vascular inflammation. Results. AIx was higher in all three patient groups with ADPKD compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). AIx was similar between the normotensive ADPKD patients with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and hypertensive ADPKD patients with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P > 0.05). ICAM, P-selectin, E-selectin and sFas were higher and FasL lower in all ADPKD groups compared to controls (P < 0.05). ICAM, P-selectin and E-selectin were similar between the normotensive ADPKD patients with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and hypertensive ADPKD patients with eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P > 0.05). According to multiple regression analysis, predictors of AIx in ADPKD included age, height, heart rate and mean arterial pressure (P < 0.05). Vascular inflammatory markers were not predictors of AIx in ADPKD. Conclusions. Systemic vascular dysfunction, manifesting as an increase in AIx and vascular inflammation is evident in young normotensive ADPKD patients with preserved renal function. Vascular inflammation is not associated with elevated AIx in ADPKD. PMID:21292815

  18. Mutation in the zonadhesin-like domain of alpha-tectorin associated with autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Alloisio, N; Morlé, L; Bozon, M; Godet, J; Verhoeven, K; Van Camp, G; Plauchu, H; Muller, P; Collet, L; Lina-Granade, G

    1999-01-01

    A gene responsible for autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing impairment in two families (DFNA8 and DFNA12) has recently been identified as TECTA encoding alpha-tectorin, a major component of the tectorial membrane. In these families, missense mutations within the zona pellucida domain of alpha-tectorin were associated with stable severe mid-frequency hearing loss. The present study reports linkage to DFNA12 in a new family with autosomal dominant high frequency hearing loss progressing from mild to moderate severity. The candidate region refined to 3.8 cM still contained the TECTA gene. A missense mutation (C1619S) was identified in the zonadhesin-like domain. This mutation abolishes the first of the vicinal cysteines (1619Cys-Gly-Leu- 1622Cys) present in the D4 von Willebrand factor (vWf) type D repeat. These results further support the involvement of TECTA mutations in autosomal dominant hearing impairment, and suggest that vicinal cysteines are involved in tectorial membrane matrix assembly. PMID:10196713

  19. A novel frameshift mutation of POU4F3 gene associated with autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hee Keun; Park, Hong-Joon; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Park, Rekil; Kim, Un-Kyung

    2010-06-04

    Autosomal dominant mutations in the transcription factor POU4F3 gene are associated with non-syndromic hearing loss in humans; however, there have been few reports of mutations in this gene worldwide. We performed a mutation analysis of the POU4F3 gene in 42 unrelated Koreans with autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss, identifying a novel 14-bp deletion mutation in exon 2 (c.662del14) in one patient. Audiometric examination revealed severe bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in this patient. The novel mutation led to a truncated protein that lacked both functional POU domains. We further investigated the functional distinction between wild-type and mutant POU4F3 proteins using in vitro assays. The wild-type protein was completely localized in the nucleus, while the truncation of protein seriously affected its nuclear localization. In addition, the mutant failed to activate reporter gene expression. This is the first report of a POU4F3 mutation in Asia, and moreover our data suggest that further investigation will need to delineate ethnicity-specific genetic background for autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss within Asian populations.

  20. Heterozygous missense mutation in the rod cGMP phosphodiesterase beta-subunit gene in autosomal dominant stationary night blindness.

    PubMed

    Gal, A; Orth, U; Baehr, W; Schwinger, E; Rosenberg, T

    1994-05-01

    The locus for autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness (adCSNB) has recently been assigned to distal chromosome 4p by linkage analysis in a large Danish family. Within the candidate gene encoding the beta-subunit of rod photoreceptor cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (beta PDE), we have identified a heterozygous C to A transversion in exon 4, predicting a His258Asp change in the polypeptide. We found a perfect cosegregation (Zmax = 22.6 at theta = 0.00) of this mutation with the disease phenotype suggesting that this missense mutation is responsible for the disease in this pedigree. Homozygous nonsense mutations in the beta PDE gene have been found recently in patients with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa, a common hereditary photoreceptor dystrophy. PMID:8075643

  1. Immunological loss-of-function due to genetic gain-of-function in humans: autosomal dominance of the third kind

    PubMed Central

    Quartier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    All the human primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) recognized as such in the 1950s were Mendelian traits and, whether autosomal or X-linked, displayed recessive inheritance. The first autosomal dominant (AD) PID, hereditary angioedema, was recognized in 1963. However, since the first identification of autosomal recessive (AR), X-linked recessive (XR) and AD PID-causing genes in 1985 (ADA; severe combined immunodeficiency), 1986 (CYBB, chronic granulomatous disease) and 1989 (SERPING1; hereditary angioedema), respectively, the number of genetically defined AD PIDs has increased more rapidly than that of any other type of PID. AD PIDs now account for 61 of the 260 known conditions (23%). All known AR PIDs are caused by alleles with some loss-of-function (LOF). A single XR PID is caused by gain-of-function (GOF) mutations (WASP-related neutropenia, 2001). In contrast, only 44 of 61 AD defects are caused by LOF alleles, which exert dominance by haploinsufficiency or negative dominance. Since 2003, up to 17 AD disorders of the third kind, due to GOF alleles, have been described. Remarkably, six of the 17 genes concerned also harbor monoallelic (STAT3), biallelic (C3, CFB, CARD11, PIK3R1) or both monoallelic and biallelic (STAT1) LOF alleles in patients with other clinical phenotypes. Most heterozygous GOF alleles result in auto-inflammation, auto-immunity, or both, with a wide range of immunological and clinical forms. Some also underlie infections and, fewer, allergies, by impairing or enhancing immunity to non-self. Malignancies are also rare. The enormous diversity of immunological and clinical phenotypes is thought provoking and mirrors the diversity and pleiotropy of the underlying genotypes. These experiments of nature provide a unique insight into the quantitative regulation of human immunity. PMID:25645939

  2. Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa: Absence of the rhodopsin proline→histidine substitution (codon 23) in pedigrees from Europe

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, G. J.; Kenna, P.; Redmond, R.; McWilliam, P.; Bradley, D. G.; Humphries, M. M.; Sharp, E. M.; Inglehearn, C. F.; Bashir, R.; Jay, M.; Watty, A.; Ludwig, M.; Schinzel, A.; Samanns, C.; Gal, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Humphries, P.

    1990-01-01

    In exon 1 at codon 23 of the rhodopsin gene, a mutation resulting in a proline-to-histidine substitution has previously been observed in approximately 12% of American autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) patients. The region around the site of this mutation in the rhodopsin gene has been amplified and analyzed in affected individuals from 91 European ADRP pedigrees. The codon 23 mutation has been found to be absent in all cases, including a large Irish pedigree in which the disease gene has previously been shown to be closely linked to the rhodopsin locus. This indicates the presence of either allelic or nonallelic heterogeneity in ADRP. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:2239971

  3. Early structural anomalies observed by high-resolution imaging in two related cases of autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Pyo; Lee, Winston; Bae, Eun Jin; Greenstein, Vivianne; Sin, Bum Ho; Chang, Stanley; Tsang, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    The authors report the use of adaptive-optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) to investigate RHO, D190N autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa in two siblings (11 and 16 years old, respectively). Each patient exhibited distinct hyperautofluorescence patterns in which the outer borders corresponded to inner segment ellipsoid band disruption. Areas within the hyperautofluorescence patterns exhibited normal photoreceptor outer segments and retinal pigment epithelium. However, AO-SLO imaging revealed noticeable spacing irregularities in the cone mosaic. AO-SLO allows researchers to characterize retinal structural abnormalities with precision so that early structural changes in retinitis pigmentosa can be identified and reconciled with genetic findings. PMID:25215869

  4. DGAT2 Mutation in a Family with Autosomal-Dominant Early-Onset Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young Bin; Kang, Junghee; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jinho; Kwak, Geon; Hyun, Young Se; Nam, Soo Hyun; Hong, Hyun Dae; Choi, Yu-Ri; Jung, Sung-Chul; Koo, Heasoo; Lee, Ji Eun; Choi, Byung-Ok; Chung, Ki Wha

    2016-05-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy and is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder. We examined a Korean family in which two individuals had an autosomal-dominant axonal CMT with early-onset, sensory ataxia, tremor, and slow disease progression. Pedigree analysis and exome sequencing identified a de novo missense mutation (p.Y223H) in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) gene. DGAT2 encodes an endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial-associated membrane protein, acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase, which catalyzes the final step of the triglyceride (TG) biosynthesis pathway. The patient showed consistently decreased serum TG levels, and overexpression of the mutant DGAT2 significantly inhibited the proliferation of mouse motor neuron cells. Moreover, the variant form of human DGAT2 inhibited the axonal branching in the peripheral nervous system of zebrafish. We suggest that mutation of DGAT2 is the novel underlying cause of an autosomal-dominant axonal CMT2 neuropathy. This study will help provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of axonal CMT and contribute to the molecular diagnostics of peripheral neuropathies. PMID:26786738

  5. Identification of a novel LRRK2 mutation linked to autosomal dominant parkinsonism: evidence of a common founder across European populations.

    PubMed

    Kachergus, Jennifer; Mata, Ignacio F; Hulihan, Mary; Taylor, Julie P; Lincoln, Sarah; Aasly, Jan; Gibson, J Mark; Ross, Owen A; Lynch, Timothy; Wiley, Joseph; Payami, Haydeh; Nutt, John; Maraganore, Demetrius M; Czyzewski, Krzysztof; Styczynska, Maria; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Farrer, Matthew J; Toft, Mathias

    2005-04-01

    Autosomal dominant parkinsonism has been attributed to pathogenic amino acid substitutions in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2). By sequencing multiplex families consistent with a PARK8 assignment, we identified a novel heterozygous LRRK2 mutation. A referral sample of 248 affected probands from families with autosomal dominant parkinsonism was subsequently assessed; 7 (2.8%) were found to carry a heterozygous LRRK2 6055G-->A transition (G2019S). These seven patients originate from the United States, Norway, Ireland, and Poland. In samples of patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD) from the same populations, further screening identified six more patients with LRRK2 G2019S; no mutations were found in matched control individuals. Subsequently, 42 family members of the 13 probands were examined; 22 have an LRRK2 G2019S substitution, 7 with a diagnosis of PD. Of note, all patients share an ancestral haplotype indicative of a common founder, and, within families, LRRK2 G2019S segregates with disease (multipoint LOD score 2.41). Penetrance is age dependent, increasing from 17% at age 50 years to 85% at age 70 years. In summary, our study demonstrates that LRRK2 G2019S accounts for parkinsonism in several families within Europe and North America. Our work highlights the fact that a proportion of clinically typical, late-onset PD cases have a genetic basis. PMID:15726496

  6. Exome Sequencing Identifies a Mutation in EYA4 as a Novel Cause of Autosomal Dominant Non-Syndromic Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wenjun; Hao, Lili; Ma, Jing; Ma, Duan; Ma, Zhaoxin

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss is highly heterogeneous, and eyes absent 4 (EYA4) is a disease-causing gene. Most EYA4 mutations founded in the Eya-homologous region, however, no deafness causative missense mutation in variable region of EYA4 have previously been found. In this study, we identified a pathogenic missense mutation located in the variable region of the EYA4 gene for the first time in a four-generation Chinese family with 57 members. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on samples from one unaffected and two affected individuals to systematically search for deafness susceptibility genes, and the candidate mutations and the co-segregation of the phenotype were verified by polymerase chain reaction amplification and by Sanger sequencing in all of the family members. Then, we identified a novel EYA4 mutation in exon 8, c.511G>C; p.G171R, which segregated with postlingual and progressive autosomal dominant sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). This report is the first to describe a missense mutation in the variable region domain of the EYA4 gene, which is not highly conserved in many species, indicating that the potential unconserved role of 171G>R in human EYA4 function is extremely important. PMID:25961296

  7. A New Susceptibility Locus for Autosomal Dominant Pancreatic Cancer Maps to Chromosome 4q32-34

    PubMed Central

    Eberle, Michael A.; Pfützer, Roland; Pogue-Geile, Kay L.; Bronner, Mary P.; Crispin, David; Kimmey, Michael B.; Duerr, Richard H.; Kruglyak, Leonid; Whitcomb, David C.; Brentnall, Teresa A.

    2002-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Nearly every person diagnosed with pancreatic cancer will die from it, usually in <6 mo. Familial clustering of pancreatic cancers is commonly recognized, with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern in ∼10% of all cases. However, the late age at disease onset and rapid demise of affected individuals markedly hamper collection of biological samples. We report a genetic linkage scan of family X with an autosomal dominant pancreatic cancer with early onset and high penetrance. For the study of this family, we have developed an endoscopic surveillance program that allows the early detection of cancer and its precursor, before family members have died of the disease. In a genomewide screening of 373 microsatellite markers, we found significant linkage (maximum LOD score 4.56 in two-point analysis and 5.36 in three-point analysis) on chromosome 4q32-34, providing evidence for a major locus for pancreatic cancer. PMID:11870593

  8. Renal fibrosis is the common feature of autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney diseases caused by mutations in mucin 1 or uromodulin.

    PubMed

    Ekici, Arif B; Hackenbeck, Thomas; Morinière, Vincent; Pannes, Andrea; Buettner, Maike; Uebe, Steffen; Janka, Rolf; Wiesener, Antje; Hermann, Ingo; Grupp, Sina; Hornberger, Martin; Huber, Tobias B; Isbel, Nikky; Mangos, George; McGinn, Stella; Soreth-Rieke, Daniela; Beck, Bodo B; Uder, Michael; Amann, Kerstin; Antignac, Corinne; Reis, André; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Wiesener, Michael S

    2014-09-01

    For decades, ill-defined autosomal dominant renal diseases have been reported, which originate from tubular cells and lead to tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. These diseases are clinically indistinguishable, but caused by mutations in at least four different genes: UMOD, HNF1B, REN, and, as recently described, MUC1. Affected family members show renal fibrosis in the biopsy and gradually declining renal function, with renal failure usually occurring between the third and sixth decade of life. Here we describe 10 families and define eligibility criteria to consider this type of inherited disease, as well as propose a practicable approach for diagnosis. In contrast to what the frequently used term 'Medullary Cystic Kidney Disease' implies, development of (medullary) cysts is neither an early nor a typical feature, as determined by MRI. In addition to Sanger and gene panel sequencing of the four genes, we established SNaPshot minisequencing for the predescribed cytosine duplication within a distinct repeat region of MUC1 causing a frameshift. A mutation was found in 7 of 9 families (3 in UMOD and 4 in MUC1), with one indeterminate (UMOD p.T62P). On the basis of clinical and pathological characteristics we propose the term 'Autosomal Dominant Tubulointerstitial Kidney Disease' as an improved terminology. This should enhance recognition and correct diagnosis of affected individuals, facilitate genetic counseling, and stimulate research into the underlying pathophysiology. PMID:24670410

  9. Whole Exome Sequencing Identified MCM2 as a Novel Causative Gene for Autosomal Dominant Nonsyndromic Deafness in a Chinese Family

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Cheng; Chen, Siqi; Qi, Yu; Liu, Yuhe

    2015-01-01

    We report the genetic analysis of autosomal dominant, nonsyndromic, progressive sensorineural hearing loss in a Chinese family. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified a missense variant (c.130C>T, p.R44C) in the MCM2 gene, which has a pro-apoptosis effect and is involved in the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. This missense variant is very likely to be the disease causing variant. It segregated with hearing loss in this pedigree, and was not found in the dbSNP database or databases of genomes and SNP in the Chinese population, in 76 patients with sporadic hearing loss, or in 145 normal individuals. We performed western blot and immunofluorescence to test the MCM2 protein expression in the cochlea of rats and guinea pigs, demonstrating that MCM2 was widely expressed in the cochlea and was also surprisingly expressed in the cytoplasm of terminally differentiated hair cells. We then transiently expressed the variant MCM2 cDNA in HEK293 cells, and found that these cells displayed a slight increase in apoptosis without any changes in proliferation or cell cycle, supporting the view that this variant is pathogenic. In summary, we have identified MCM2 as a novel gene responsible for nonsyndromic hearing loss of autosomal dominant inheritance in a Chinese family. PMID:26196677

  10. A de novo mutation of the MYH7 gene in a large Chinese family with autosomal dominant myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Tetsuya; Xiong, Hui; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Wang, Shuo; Satake, Wataru; Jiao, Hui; Yang, Yanling; Cha, Pei-Chieng; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Nishino, Ichizo; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio; Wu, Xiru; Toda, Tatsushi

    2015-01-01

    Laing distal myopathy (LDM) is an autosomal dominant myopathy that is caused by mutations in the slow/beta cardiac myosin heavy-chain (MYH7) gene. It has been recently reported that LDM presents with a wide range of clinical manifestations. We herein report a large Chinese family with autosomal dominant myopathy. The affected individuals in the family presented with foot drop in early childhood, along with progressive distal and proximal limb weakness. Their characteristic symptoms include scapular winging and scoliosis in the early disease phase and impairment of ambulation in the advanced phase. Although limb-girdle muscle dystrophy (LGMD) was suspected initially, a definite diagnosis could not be reached. As such, we performed linkage analysis and detected four linkage regions, namely 1q23.2-24.1, 14q11.2-12, 15q26.2-26.3 and 17q24.3. Through subsequent whole exome sequencing, we found a de novo p.K1617del causative mutation in the MYH7 gene and diagnosed the disease as LDM. This is the first LDM case in China. Our patients have severe clinical manifestations that mimic LGMD in comparison with the patients with the same mutation reported elsewhere.

  11. Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia with Bartter syndrome due to a novel activating mutation of calcium sensing receptor, Y829C

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Keun Hee; Yang, Sei Won; Cheong, Hae Il

    2015-01-01

    The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) plays an important role in calcium homeostasis. Activating mutations of CaSR cause autosomal dominant hypocalcemia by affecting parathyroid hormone secretion in parathyroid gland and calcium resorption in kidney. They can also cause a type 5 Bartter syndrome by inhibiting the apical potassium channel in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle in the kidney. This study presents a patient who had autosomal dominant hypocalcemia with Bartter syndrome due to an activating mutation Y829C in the transmembrane domain of the CaSR. Symptoms of hypocalcemia occurred 12 days after birth and medication was started immediately. Medullary nephrocalcinosis and basal ganglia calcification were found at 7 years old and at 17 years old. Three hypercalcemic episodes occurred, one at 14 years old and two at 17 years old. The Bartter syndrome was not severe while the serum calcium concentration was controlled, but during hypercalcemic periods, the symptoms of Bartter syndrome were aggravated. PMID:25932037

  12. Mutations in GATA2 are associated with the autosomal dominant and sporadic monocytopenia and mycobacterial infection (MonoMAC) syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Amy P.; Sampaio, Elizabeth P.; Khan, Javed; Calvo, Katherine R.; Lemieux, Jacob E.; Patel, Smita Y.; Frucht, David M.; Vinh, Donald C.; Auth, Roger D.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Uzel, Gulbu; Zerbe, Christa S.; Spalding, Christine; Pittaluga, Stefania; Raffeld, Mark; Kuhns, Douglas B.; Ding, Li; Paulson, Michelle L.; Marciano, Beatriz E.; Gea-Banacloche, Juan C.; Orange, Jordan S.; Cuellar-Rodriguez, Jennifer; Hickstein, Dennis D.

    2011-01-01

    The syndrome of monocytopenia, B-cell and NK-cell lymphopenia, and mycobacterial, fungal, and viral infections is associated with myelodysplasia, cytogenetic abnormalities, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and myeloid leukemias. Both autosomal dominant and sporadic cases occur. We identified 12 distinct mutations in GATA2 affecting 20 patients and relatives with this syndrome, including recurrent missense mutations affecting the zinc finger-2 domain (R398W and T354M), suggesting dominant interference of gene function. Four discrete insertion/deletion mutations leading to frame shifts and premature termination implicate haploinsufficiency as a possible mechanism of action as well. These mutations were found in hematopoietic and somatic tissues, and several were identified in families, indicating germline transmission. Thus, GATA2 joins RUNX1 and CEBPA not only as a familial leukemia gene but also as a cause of a complex congenital immunodeficiency that evolves over decades and combines predisposition to infection and myeloid malignancy. PMID:21670465

  13. BRAIN ABNORMALITIES IN YOUNG ADULTS AT GENETIC RISK FOR AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Reiman, Eric M.; Quiroz, Yakeel T.; Fleisher, Adam S.; Chen, Kewei; Velez-Pardo, Carlos; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Fagan, Anne M.; Shah, Aarti R.; Alvarez, Sergio; Arbelaez, Andrés; Giraldo, Margarita; Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Sperling, Reisa A.; Dickerson, Brad; Stern, Chantal E.; Tirado, Victoria; Munoz, Claudia; Reiman, Rebecca A.; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Alexander, Gene E.; Langbaum, Jessica B.S.; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Tariot, Pierre N.; Lopera, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background We previously detected functional brain imaging abnormalities in young adults at genetic risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we sought to characterize structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and plasma biomarker abnormalities in young adults at risk for autosomal dominant early-onset AD. Biomarker measurements were characterized and compared in presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation carriers and non-carriers from the world’s largest known autosomal dominant early-onset AD kindred, more than two decades before the carriers’ estimated median age of 44 at the onset of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and before their estimated age of 28 at the onset of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque deposition. Methods Biomarker data for this cross-sectional study were acquired in Antioquia, Colombia between July and August, 2010. Forty-four participants from the Colombian Alzheimer’s Prevention Initiative (API) Registry had structural MRIs, functional MRIs during associative memory encoding/novel viewing and control tasks, and cognitive assessments. They included 20 mutation carriers and 24 non-carriers, who were cognitively normal, 18-26 years old and matched for their gender, age, and educational level. Twenty of the participants, including 10 mutation carriers and 10 non-carriers, had lumbar punctures and venipunctures. Primary outcome measures included task-dependent hippocampal/parahippocampal activations and precuneus/posterior cingulate deactivations, regional gray matter reductions, CSF Aβ1-42, total tau and phospho-tau181 levels, and plasma Aβ1-42 levels and Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 ratios. Structural and functional MRI data were compared using automated brain mapping algorithms and AD-related search regions. Cognitive and fluid biomarkers were compared using Mann-Whitney tests. Findings The mutation carrier and non-carrier groups did not differ significantly in their dementia ratings, neuropsychological test scores, or proportion of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 carriers. Compared to the non-carriers, carriers had higher CSF Aβ1-42 levels (p=0·008), plasma Aβ1-42 levels (p=0·01), and plasma Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 ratios (p=0·001), consistent with Aβ1-42 overproduction. They also had greater hippocampal/parahippocampal activations (as low as p=0·008, after correction for multiple comparisons), less precuneus/posterior cingulate deactivations (as low as p=0·001, after correction), less gray matter in several regions (p-values <0·005, uncorrected, and corrected p=0·008 in the parietal search region), similar to findings in the later preclinical and clinical stages of autosomal dominant and late-onset AD. Interpretation Young adults at genetic risk for autosomal dominant AD have functional and structural MRI abnormalities, along with CSF and plasma biomarker findings consistent with Aβ1-42 over-production. While the extent to which the underlying brain changes are progressive or developmental remain to be determined, this study demonstrates the earliest known biomarker changes in cognitively normal people at genetic risk for autosomal dominant AD. Funding Banner Alzheimer’s Foundation, Nomis Foundation, Anonymous Foundation, Forget Me Not Initiative, Boston University Department of Psychology, Colciencias (1115-408-20512, 1115-545-31651), National Institute on Aging (R01 AG031581, P30 AG19610, UO1 AG024904, RO1 AG025526, RF1AG041705), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (F31-NS078786) and state of Arizona. PMID:23137948

  14. Mutations in BICD2, which Encodes a Golgin and Important Motor Adaptor, Cause Congenital Autosomal-Dominant Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Neveling, Kornelia; Martinez-Carrera, Lilian A.; Hölker, Irmgard; Heister, Angelien; Verrips, Aad; Hosseini-Barkooie, Seyyed Mohsen; Gilissen, Christian; Vermeer, Sascha; Pennings, Maartje; Meijer, Rowdy; te Riele, Margot; Frijns, Catharina J.M.; Suchowersky, Oksana; MacLaren, Linda; Rudnik-Schöneborn, Sabine; Sinke, Richard J.; Zerres, Klaus; Lowry, R. Brian; Lemmink, Henny H.; Garbes, Lutz; Veltman, Joris A.; Schelhaas, Helenius J.; Scheffer, Hans; Wirth, Brunhilde

    2013-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a heterogeneous group of neuromuscular disorders caused by degeneration of lower motor neurons. Although functional loss of SMN1 is associated with autosomal-recessive childhood SMA, the genetic cause for most families affected by dominantly inherited SMA is unknown. Here, we identified pathogenic variants in bicaudal D homolog 2 (Drosophila) (BICD2) in three families afflicted with autosomal-dominant SMA. Affected individuals displayed congenital slowly progressive muscle weakness mainly of the lower limbs and congenital contractures. In a large Dutch family, linkage analysis identified a 9q22.3 locus in which exome sequencing uncovered c.320C>T (p.Ser107Leu) in BICD2. Sequencing of 23 additional families affected by dominant SMA led to the identification of pathogenic variants in one family from Canada (c.2108C>T [p.Thr703Met]) and one from the Netherlands (c.563A>C [p.Asn188Thr]). BICD2 is a golgin and motor-adaptor protein involved in Golgi dynamics and vesicular and mRNA transport. Transient transfection of HeLa cells with all three mutant BICD2 cDNAs caused massive Golgi fragmentation. This observation was even more prominent in primary fibroblasts from an individual harboring c.2108C>T (p.Thr703Met) (affecting the C-terminal coiled-coil domain) and slightly less evident in individuals with c.563A>C (p.Asn188Thr) (affecting the N-terminal coiled-coil domain). Furthermore, BICD2 levels were reduced in affected individuals and trapped within the fragmented Golgi. Previous studies have shown that Drosophila mutant BicD causes reduced larvae locomotion by impaired clathrin-mediated synaptic endocytosis in neuromuscular junctions. These data emphasize the relevance of BICD2 in synaptic-vesicle recycling and support the conclusion that BICD2 mutations cause congenital slowly progressive dominant SMA. PMID:23664116

  15. Mutations in BICD2, which encodes a golgin and important motor adaptor, cause congenital autosomal-dominant spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Neveling, Kornelia; Martinez-Carrera, Lilian A; Hölker, Irmgard; Heister, Angelien; Verrips, Aad; Hosseini-Barkooie, Seyyed Mohsen; Gilissen, Christian; Vermeer, Sascha; Pennings, Maartje; Meijer, Rowdy; te Riele, Margot; Frijns, Catharina J M; Suchowersky, Oksana; MacLaren, Linda; Rudnik-Schöneborn, Sabine; Sinke, Richard J; Zerres, Klaus; Lowry, R Brian; Lemmink, Henny H; Garbes, Lutz; Veltman, Joris A; Schelhaas, Helenius J; Scheffer, Hans; Wirth, Brunhilde

    2013-06-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a heterogeneous group of neuromuscular disorders caused by degeneration of lower motor neurons. Although functional loss of SMN1 is associated with autosomal-recessive childhood SMA, the genetic cause for most families affected by dominantly inherited SMA is unknown. Here, we identified pathogenic variants in bicaudal D homolog 2 (Drosophila) (BICD2) in three families afflicted with autosomal-dominant SMA. Affected individuals displayed congenital slowly progressive muscle weakness mainly of the lower limbs and congenital contractures. In a large Dutch family, linkage analysis identified a 9q22.3 locus in which exome sequencing uncovered c.320C>T (p.Ser107Leu) in BICD2. Sequencing of 23 additional families affected by dominant SMA led to the identification of pathogenic variants in one family from Canada (c.2108C>T [p.Thr703Met]) and one from the Netherlands (c.563A>C [p.Asn188Thr]). BICD2 is a golgin and motor-adaptor protein involved in Golgi dynamics and vesicular and mRNA transport. Transient transfection of HeLa cells with all three mutant BICD2 cDNAs caused massive Golgi fragmentation. This observation was even more prominent in primary fibroblasts from an individual harboring c.2108C>T (p.Thr703Met) (affecting the C-terminal coiled-coil domain) and slightly less evident in individuals with c.563A>C (p.Asn188Thr) (affecting the N-terminal coiled-coil domain). Furthermore, BICD2 levels were reduced in affected individuals and trapped within the fragmented Golgi. Previous studies have shown that Drosophila mutant BicD causes reduced larvae locomotion by impaired clathrin-mediated synaptic endocytosis in neuromuscular junctions. These data emphasize the relevance of BICD2 in synaptic-vesicle recycling and support the conclusion that BICD2 mutations cause congenital slowly progressive dominant SMA. PMID:23664116

  16. A Novel Mutation in the TECTA Gene in a Chinese Family with Autosomal Dominant Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fei; Dai, Zhi-Yao; Zhao, Jian-Dong; Lu, Yu; Ji, Fei; Huang, Sha-Sha; Yuan, Yong-Yi; Han, Ming-Yu; Song, Yue-Shuai; Zhu, Yu-Hua; Kang, Dong-Yang; HAN, Dong-Yi; Dai, Pu

    2014-01-01

    TECTA-related deafness can be inherited as autosomal-dominant nonsyndromic deafness (designated DFNA) or as the autosomal-recessive version. The ?-tectorin protein, which is encoded by the TECTA gene, is one of the major components of the tectorial membrane in the inner ear. Using targeted DNA capture and massively parallel sequencing (MPS), we screened 42 genes known to be responsible for human deafness in a Chinese family (Family 3187) in which common deafness mutations had been ruled out as the cause, and identified a novel mutation, c.257262CCTTTC>GCT (p. Ser86Cys; p. Pro88del) in exon 3 of the TECTA gene in the proband and his extended family. All affected individuals in this family had moderate down-sloping hearing loss across all frequencies. To our knowledge, this is the second TECTA mutation identified in Chinese population. This study demonstrates that targeted genomic capture, MPS, and barcode technology might broaden the availability of genetic testing for individuals with undiagnosed DFNA. PMID:24586623

  17. Clinical and molecular analysis of the enamelin gene ENAM in Colombian families with autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Sandra; Torres, Diana; Briceño, Ignacio; Gómez, Ana Maria; Baquero, Eliana

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the phenotype, clinical characteristics and presence of mutations in the enamelin gene ENAM in five Colombian families with autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta (ADAI). 22 individuals (15 affected and seven unaffected) belonging to five Colombian families with ADAI and eight individuals (three affected and five unaffected) belonging to three Colombian families with autosomal recessive amelogenesis imperfecta (ARAI) that served as controls for molecular alterations and inheritance patterns were studied. Clinical, radiographic and genetic evaluations were done in all individuals. Eight exons and three intron-exon boundaries were sequenced for mutation analysis. Two of the five families with ADAI had the hypoplasic phenotype, two had the hypocalcified phenotype and one had the hypomaturative phenotype. Anterior open bite and mandibular retrognathism were the most frequent skeletal abnormalities in the families with ADAI. No mutations were found. These findings suggest that ADAI in these Colombian families was unrelated to previously described mutations in the ENAM gene. These results also indicate that other regions not included in this investigation, such as the promoter region, introns and other genes should be considered as potential ADAI candidates. PMID:23055792

  18. Spastin, a new AAA protein, is altered in the most frequent form of autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Hazan, J; Fonknechten, N; Mavel, D; Paternotte, C; Samson, D; Artiguenave, F; Davoine, C S; Cruaud, C; Dürr, A; Wincker, P; Brottier, P; Cattolico, L; Barbe, V; Burgunder, J M; Prud'homme, J F; Brice, A; Fontaine, B; Heilig, B; Weissenbach, J

    1999-11-01

    Autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP) is a genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive spasticity of the lower limbs. Among the four loci causing AD-HSP identified so far, the SPG4 locus at chromosome 2p2-1p22 has been shown to account for 40-50% of all AD-HSP families. Using a positional cloning strategy based on obtaining sequence of the entire SPG4 interval, we identified a candidate gene encoding a new member of the AAA protein family, which we named spastin. Sequence analysis of this gene in seven SPG4-linked pedigrees revealed several DNA modifications, including missense, nonsense and splice-site mutations. Both SPG4 and its mouse orthologue were shown to be expressed early and ubiquitously in fetal and adult tissues. The sequence homologies and putative subcellular localization of spastin suggest that this ATPase is involved in the assembly or function of nuclear protein complexes. PMID:10610178

  19. Genetic linkage analysis of 14 candidate gene loci in a family with autosomal dominant osteoarthritis without dysplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Meulenbelt, I; Bijkerk, C; Breedveld, F C; Slagboom, P E

    1997-01-01

    The role of various gene loci was investigated in a family in which familial osteoarthritis (FOA), with onset at an early age, is transmitted as an autosomal dominant mendelian trait. The absence of clinical and radiographic signs of dysplasia and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPDD) indicates that the basic disease process in this family is osteoarthritis (OA). Genetic linkage analysis of 14 candidate genes resulted in the exclusion of 10 important genes (COL2A1, COL9A1, COL9A2, COL11A1, COL11A2, COMP, the CPDD region, CRTL-1, CRTM, and MMP3). Other relevant genes were not informative in this family. The candidate loci previously identified in FOA and heritable skeletal disorders associated with OA are clearly not involved in the development of the primary FOA phenotype in the family investigated, indicating genetic heterogeneity. Images PMID:9429149

  20. Co-existing autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and nephrotic syndrome in a Nigerian patient with lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Akinbodewa, A A; Adejumo, O A; Ogunsemoyin, A O; Osasan, S A; Adefolalu, O A

    2016-01-01

    A little over 30 cases on co-existing nephrotic syndrome and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) have been reported from different regions of the world since 1957. We present a case report on co-existence of nephrotic syndrome (secondary to lupus nephritis) with ADPKD in a 24-year-old woman from Nigeria. She was positive for anti-double stranded DNA. Renal histology showed International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society Class II lupus nephritis. The co-existence of nephrotic syndrome and ADPKD may have been overlooked in Africa in the past. There is a need to screen for nephrotic syndrome in patients with ADPKD among clinicians in the African setting. PMID:27044732

  1. Pleuritic chest pain from portal hypertensive gastropathy in ESRD patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease misdiagnosed as pericarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Onuigbo, Macaulay Amechi Chukwukadibia; Agbasi, Nneoma; Achebe, Jennifer; Odenigbo, Charles; Oguejiofor, Fidelis

    2016-01-01

    Portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) is a gastric mucosal lesion complicating portal hypertension, with higher prevalence in decompensated cirrhosis. PHG can sometimes complicate autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) due to the presence of multiple liver cysts. Besides, PHG is known to present as chest pain, with or without hematemesis. Other causes of chest pain in ADPKD include referred chest pain from progressively enlarging kidney cysts, and rare pericardial cysts. Chest pain, especially if pleuritic, in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, is often ascribed to uremic pericarditis. We present recurrent pleuritic chest pain in a 24-year old ESRD patient with ADPKD that was initially misdiagnosed as uremic pericarditis. It was ultimately shown to represent symptomatic PHG with excellent therapeutic response to proton pump inhibitors. PMID:27069969

  2. Mapping of a gene for autosomal dominant juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma to chromosome 1 q

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, J.E.; Lichter, P.R.; Torrez, D.; Wong, D.; Johnson, A.T.; Boehnke, M.; Uro, J.L.A. )

    1994-01-01

    A large Caucasian family is presented, in which a juvenile-onset form of open-angle glaucoma is transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. Sixteen affected family members were identified from 31 at-risk individuals descended from the affected founder. Affected patients developed high intraocular pressures (sometimes >40 mm Hg) within the first 2 decades of life. Linkage analysis between the disease phenotype and 12 microsatellite repeat markers located on chromosome 1 q gave a maximum lod score of 8.38 at a recombination fraction of zero for marker D1S210. Analysis of recombinant haplotypes suggests a total inclusion region of about 14 cM between markers D1S194 and D1S218 at 1q21-q31. This represents the second juvenile-glaucoma family, in which the disease has been mapped to the long arm of chromosome 1. 57 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Genetic linkage of autosomal dominant juvenile glaucoma to 1q21-q31 in three affected pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggs, J.L.; Paglinauan, C.; Fine, A.; Sporn, C.; Lou, D. ); Haines, J.L. )

    1994-05-15

    Glaucoma is a common disorder that results in irreversible damage to the optic nerve, causing absolute blindness. In most cases, the optic nerve is damaged by an elevation of the intraocular pressure that is the result of an abnormality in the normal drainage function of the trabecular meshwork. A family history of glaucoma is an important risk factor for the disease, suggesting that genetic defects predisposing to this condition are likely. Three pedigrees segregating an autosomal dominant juvenile glaucoma demonstrated significant linkage to a group of closely spaced markers on chromosome 1. These results confirm the initial mapping of this disease and suggest that this region on chromosome 1 contains an important locus for juvenile glaucoma. The authors describe recombination events that improve the localization of the responsible gene, reducing the size of the candidate region from 30 to 12 cM. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Linkage analysis excludes the glaucoma locus on 1q from involvement in autosomal dominant glaucoma with iris hypoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Heon, E.; Sheth, B.P.; Kalenak, J.W.

    1994-09-01

    Genetic factors have been implicated in a variety of types of glaucoma including primary open-angle glaucoma, infantile glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma, and juvenile open-angle glaucoma. We previously mapped the disease-causing gene for one type of juvenile open angle glaucoma to chromosome 1q21-31. Weatherill and Hart (1969) and Pearce (1983) each noted the association of iris hypoplasia and early-onset autosomal dominant glaucoma. We recently had the opportunity to study a large family (12 affected members) with this phenotype. Affected individuals developed glaucoma at an average age of 30 years. These patients also have a strikingly underdeveloped iris stroma which causes a peculiar eye color. Linkage analysis was able to completely exclude the 1q glaucoma locus from involvement in the disorder that affects this family. A complete clinical description of the family and linkage results at additional candidate loci will be presented.

  5. Description of a large family with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia associated with the APOE p.Leu167del mutation

    PubMed Central

    Marduel, Marie; Ouguerram, Khadija; Serre, Valérie; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Marques-Pinheiro, Alice; Berge, Knut Erik; Devillers, Martine; Luc, Gérald; Lecerf, Jean-Michel; Tosolini, Laurent; Erlich, Danièle; Peloso, Gina M.; Stitziel, Nathan; Nitchké, Patrick; Jaïs, Jean-Philippe; Abifadel, Marianne; Kathiresan, Sekar; Leren, Trond Paul; Rabès, Jean-Pierre; Boileau, Catherine; Varret, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Apo E mutants are associated with type III hyperlipoproteinemia characterized by high cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Autosomal Dominant Hypercholesterolemia (ADH), due to mutations in the LDLR, APOB or PCSK9 genes, is characterized by an isolated elevation of cholesterol due to high levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). We now report an exceptionally large family including 14 members with ADH. Through genome wide mapping, analysis of regional/functional candidate genes and whole exome sequencing, we identified a mutation in the APOE gene, p.Leu167del previously reported associated with sea-blue histiocytosis and familial combined hyperlipidemia. We confirmed the involvement of the APOE p.Leu167del in ADH, with (1) a predicted destabilization of an alpha-helix in the binding domain; (2) a decreased apo E level in LDL; and (3) a decreased catabolism of LDL. Our results show that mutations in the APOE gene can be associated with bona fide ADH. PMID:22949395

  6. Long-Term Follow-Up of Bimaxillary Osteomyelitis Associated with Autosomal Dominant Osteopetrosis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kulyapina, A; Verdaguer Martin, J; Navarro Cuellar, C; Navarro Vila, C

    2016-03-01

    Osteopetrosis (OP) is a rare metabolic bone disease characterized by a generalized increase in skeletal mass. The disease is characterized by increased susceptibility to develop osteomyelitis of the jaws. We report a case of clinical and radiological progression of bimaxillary osteomyelitis in a patient with autosomal dominant OP. The patient presented non simultaneous osteomyelitis in both upper and lower jaws with time interval of 10 years. The osteomyelitis of maxilla resulted in oroantral fistula formation and required surgical closure with Bichat fat pad flap. The mandibular osteomyelitis resulted in sequestra formation and pathological fracture and required multiple debridement procedures. Both maxillary and mandibular osteomyelitic foci were persistent and healing required more than 2 years. The case confirms the possibility of development of non simultaneous bimaxillary osteomyelitis in patients with OP. The case enhances the need of close follow- up and preventive measures in patients with OP. PMID:26929564

  7. An incompletely penetrant novel MAFB (p.Ser56Phe) variant in autosomal dominant multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dworschak, Gabriel C; Draaken, Markus; Hilger, Alina; Born, Mark; Reutter, Heiko; Ludwig, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis syndrome (MCTO) is a rare autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia usually presenting in early childhood with variable phenotypic features and course. Clinical manifestations comprise aggressive osteolysis of the carpal and tarsal bones in particular, an often progressive nephropathy leading to end-stage renal disease, craniofacial anomalies and mental impairment. Recently, heterozygous missense mutations in the V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog B (avian) (MAFB) gene have been causally related to MCTO patients in 13 unrelated families investigated. Contrary to these findings suggesting complete penetrance, in the present study, we identified a novel missense MAFB variant present not only in the patient, but also in his unaffected mother, sister and maternal grandmother. This observation demonstrates an incomplete penetrance for some MAFB mutations, thereby suggesting that modifier genes, epigenetic mechanisms or environmental factors may modulate the MCTO phenotype. This should be considered in diagnosis and genetic counseling. PMID:23670161

  8. RBBP8 syndrome with microcephaly, intellectual disability, short stature and brachydactyly.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Sara; Y?ld?z, Esra; Jabeen, Saliha; Khan, Amjad; Tolun, Asl?han; Malik, Sajid

    2015-12-01

    Primary microcephaly is clinically variable and genetically heterogeneous. Four phenotypically distinct types of autosomal recessive microcephaly syndromes are due to different RBBP8 mutations. We report on a consanguineous Pakistani family with homozygous RBBP8 mutation c.1808_1809delTA (p.Ile603Lysfs*7) manifesting microcephaly and a distinct combination of skeletal, limb and ectodermal defects, mild intellectual disability, minor facial anomalies, anonychia, disproportionate short stature and brachydactyly, and additionally talipes in one patient. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26333564

  9. Mutation in the Novel Nuclear-Encoded Mitochondrial Protein CHCHD10 in a Family with Autosomal Dominant Mitochondrial Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Fecto, Faisal; Ajroud, Kaouther; Lalani, Irfan; Calvo, Sarah E.; Mootha, Vamsi K.; Deng, Han-Xiang; Siddique, Nailah; Tahmoush, Albert J.; Heiman-Patterson, Terry D.; Siddique, Teepu

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathies belong to a larger group of systemic diseases caused by morphological or biochemical abnormalities of mitochondria. Mitochondrial disorders can be caused by mutations in either the mitochondrial or the nuclear genome. Only 5% of all mitochondrial disorders are autosomal dominant. We analyzed DNA from members of a previously reported Puerto Rican kindred with an autosomal dominant mitochondrial myopathy (Heimann-Patterson et al. 1997). Linkage analysis suggested a putative locus on the pericentric region of the long arm of chromosome 22 (22q11). Using the tools of integrative genomics, we established C22orf16 (later designated as CHCHD10) as the only high scoring mitochondrial candidate gene in our minimal candidate region. Sequence analysis revealed a double missense mutation (R15S; G58R) in cis in CHCHD10 which encodes a coiled-coil helix coiled-coil helix protein of unknown function. These two mutations completely co-segregated with the disease phenotype and were absent in 1481 Caucasian and 80 Hispanic (including 32 Puerto Rican) controls. Expression profiling showed that CHCHD10 is enriched in skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial localization of the CHCHD10 protein was confirmed using immunofluorescence in cells expressing either wild-type or mutant CHCHD10. We found that expression of the G58R, but not the R15S, mutation induced mitochondrial fragmentation. Our findings identify a novel gene causing mitochondrial myopathy, thereby expanding the spectrum of mitochondrial myopathies caused by nuclear genes. Our findings also suggest a role for CHCHD10 in the morphologic remodeling of the mitochondria. PMID:25193783

  10. Characterization of macular structure and function in two Swedish families with genetically identified autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Abdulridha-Aboud, Wissam; Kjellström, Ulrika; Andréasson, Sten

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the phenotype in two families with genetically identified autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) focusing on macular structure and function. Methods Clinical data were collected at the Department of Ophthalmology, Lund University, Sweden, for affected and unaffected family members from two pedigrees with adRP. Examinations included optical coherence tomography (OCT), full-field electroretinography (ffERG), and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Molecular genetic screening was performed for known mutations associated with adRP. Results The mode of inheritance was autosomal dominant in both families. The members of the family with a mutation in the PRPF31 (p.IVS6+1G>T) gene had clinical features characteristic of RP, with severely reduced retinal rod and cone function. The degree of deterioration correlated well with increasing age. The mfERG showed only centrally preserved macular function that correlated well with retinal thinning on OCT. The family with a mutation in the RHO (p.R135W) gene had an extreme intrafamilial variability of the phenotype, with more severe disease in the younger generations. OCT showed pathology, but the degree of morphological changes was not correlated with age or with the mfERG results. The mother, with a de novo mutation in the RHO (p.R135W) gene, had a normal ffERG, and her retinal degeneration was detected merely with the reduced mfERG. Conclusions These two families demonstrate the extreme inter- and intrafamilial variability in the clinical phenotype of adRP. This is the first Swedish report of the clinical phenotype associated with a mutation in the PRPF31 (p.IVS6+1G>T) gene. Our results indicate that methods for assessment of the central retinal structure and function may improve the detection and characterization of the RP phenotype. PMID:27212874

  11. Whole exome sequencing identifies a novel NRL mutation in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Meng; Zhang, Su; Liu, Chunjie; Qin, Yayun; Archacki, Stephen; Jin, Ling; Wang, Yong; Liu, Fei; Chen, Jiaxiang; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jiuxiang; Huang, Mi; Liao, Shengjie; Tang, Zhaohui; Guo, An Yuan; Liu, Mugen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the genetic basis and its relationship to the clinical manifestations in a four generation Chinese family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Methods Ophthalmologic examinations including fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, fundus fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and a best-corrected visual acuity test were performed to define the clinical features of the patients. We extracted the genomic DNA from peripheral blood samples. The proband’s genomic DNA was submitted to the whole exome sequencing. Results Whole exome sequencing and the subsequent data analysis detected six candidate mutations in the proband of this pedigree. The novel c.146 C>T mutation in NRL was found to be the only mutation that co-segregated with the disease in this pedigree. This mutation resulted in a substitution of proline by a leucine at position 49 of NRL protein (p.P49L). Most importantly, the proline residue at position 49 of NRL is highly conserved from zebrafish to humans. The c.146 C>T mutation was not observed in 200 control individuals. What’s more, we performed the luciferase activity assay to prove that this mutation we detected alters the NRL protein function. Conclusions The c.146 C>T mutation in NRL gene causes autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa for this family. Our finding not only expands the mutation spectrum of NRL, but also demonstrates that whole-exome sequencing is a powerful strategy to detect causative genes and mutations in RP patients. This technique may provide a precise diagnosis for rare heterogeneous monogenic disorders such as RP. PMID:27081294

  12. Linkage and clinical characterization of families with the RP10 (chromosome 7q) form of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, S.A.; Humphries, P.; McGuire, R.E.

    1994-09-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a set of degenerative retinal diseases characterized by night blindness and loss of peripheral vision, often followed by loss of central vision. Genetically heterogeneous, retinitis pigmentosa has been found in autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive and X-linked forms. For autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP), 6 loci have been mapped: rhodopsin on chromosome 3q, peripherin/RDS on 6p, RP9 on 7p, RP10 on 7q, RP1 on 8q, and RP11 on 19q. Jordan et al. first reported linkage to 7q in a Spanish family with early onset disease. Recently, McGuire et al. reported the existence of a second, unrelated family of American descent with adRP that maps to the same region of 7q. The second family also has classical, diffuse retinitis pigmentosa though with later onset. The finding of two unrelated families that map to this region suggests that RP10 may account for a significant fraction of retinitis pigmentosa cases. Combining data from both families localizes the disease gene to 7q31.1-q35. In the Spanish family a Z{sub max} of 7.2 at 0% recombination was found with the marker D7S480 and affected individuals recombinant for D7S486 and D7S650 flank the disease. The American family showed a Z{sub max} of 5.3 at 0% recombination wtih the marker D7S514 and there are affected individuals recombinant for the markers D7S522, D7S677 and D7S486, and one affected individual recombinant for D7S530. Together, these data place the disease locus between D7S522 and D7S650. In addition, blue cone pigment, which maps to 7q31.3-q32, was excluded as a candidate gene in both families by linkage testing using intragenic polymorphisms and mutation screening.

  13. Mutation detection in autosomal dominant Hirschsprung disease: SSCP analysis of the RET proto-oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Angrist, M.; Bolk, S.; Chakravarti, A.

    1994-09-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), or congenital aganglionic megacolon, is the most common cause of congenital bowel obstruction, with an incidence of 1 in 5000. Recently, linkage of an incompletely penetrant, dominant form of HSCR to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 10 was reported, followed by identification of mutations in the RET proto-oncogene in HSCR patients. RET mutations have also been reported in both sporadic and familial forms of three neuroendrocrine tumor syndromes. Unlike the clustered RET mutations observed in these syndromes, the 18 reported HSCR mutations are distributed throughout the extracellular and tryosine kinase domains of RET. In an effort to determine the frequency of RET mutations in HSCR and correlate genotype with phenotype, we have begun to screen for mutations among 80 HSCR probands representing a wide range of phenotypes and pedigree structures. Non-isotopic single strand conformation of polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was carried out using the Pharmacia PhastSystem{trademark}. Initial screening of exons 2 through 6 detected variants in 11 patients not seen in 24 controls. One additional band shift in exon 6 has been observed in both patients and controls. Preliminary sequence analysis has revealed two putative familial mutations in exon 2: a single base pair deletion (49Pro del C 296) and a point mutation that leads to a conservative amino acid substitution (93Gly{r_arrow}Ser). These results suggest that HSCR may be associated with a range of alterations in the coding sequence of the RET extracellular domain. Additional mutations will be described.

  14. A pregnancy following PGD for X-linked dominant [correction of X-linked autosomal dominant] incontinentia pigmenti (Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome): case report.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, R; Kuo, H C; Scriven, P; Rowell, P; Pal, K; Handyside, A; Braude, P; Ogilvie, C M

    2000-12-01

    Incontinentia Pigmenti (Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome) is a rare multisystem, ectodermal disorder associated with dermatological, dental and ocular features, and in <10% of cases, severe neurological deficit. Pedigree review suggests X-linked dominance with lethality in affected males. Presentation in female carriers is variable. Following genetic counselling, a mildly affected female carrier diagnosed in infancy with a de novo mutation was referred for preimplantation sexing, unusually selecting for male gender, with an acceptance of either normality or early miscarriage in an affected male. Following standard in-vitro fertilization and embryo biopsy, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) unambiguously identified two male and two female embryos. A single 8-cell, grade 4 male embryo was replaced. A positive pregnancy test was reported 2 weeks after embryo transfer, although ultrasonography failed to demonstrate a viable pregnancy. Post abortive fetal tissue karyotyping diagnosed a male fetus with trisomy 16. This is an unusual report of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) being used for selection of males in an X-linked autosomal dominant disorder and demonstrates the value of PGD where amniocentesis or chorion villus sampling followed by abortion is not acceptable to the patient. This case also demonstrates the importance of follow-up prenatal diagnosis. PMID:11098039

  15. A novel CRX mutation by whole-exome sequencing in an autosomal dominant cone-rod dystrophy pedigree

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qin-Kang; Zhao, Na; Lv, Ya-Su; Gong, Wei-Kun; Wang, Hui-Yun; Tong, Qi-Hu; Lai, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Rong-Rong; Fang, Ming-Yan; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Du, Zhen-Fang; Zhang, Xian-Ning

    2015-01-01

    AIM To identify the disease-causing gene mutation in a Chinese pedigree with autosomal dominant cone-rod dystrophy (adCORD). METHODS A southern Chinese adCORD pedigree including 9 affected individuals was studied. Whole-exome sequencing (WES), coupling the Agilent whole-exome capture system to the Illumina HiSeq 2000 DNA sequencing platform was used to search the specific gene mutation in 3 affected family members and 1 unaffected member. After a suggested variant was found through the data analysis, the putative mutation was validated by Sanger DNA sequencing of samples from all available family members. RESULTS The results of both WES and Sanger sequencing revealed a novel nonsense mutation c.C766T (p.Q256X) within exon 5 of CRX gene which was pathogenic for adCORD in this family. The mutation could affect photoreceptor-specific gene expression with a dominant-negative effect and resulted in loss of the OTX tail, thus the mutant protein occupies the CRX-binding site in target promoters without establishing an interaction and, consequently, may block transactivation. CONCLUSION All modes of Mendelian inheritance in CORD have been observed, and genetic heterogeneity is a hallmark of CORD. Therefore, conventional genetic diagnosis of CORD would be time-consuming and labor-intensive. Our study indicated the robustness and cost-effectiveness of WES in the genetic diagnosis of CORD. PMID:26682157

  16. Age-dependent gait abnormalities in mice lacking the Rnf170 gene linked to human autosomal-dominant sensory ataxia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsoo; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Kook Hwan; Chae, Sujin; Kim, Chanki; Kim, Jeongjin; Shin, Hee-Sup; Lee, Myung-Shik; Kim, Daesoo

    2015-12-20

    Really interesting new gene (RING) finger protein 170 (RNF170) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase known to mediate ubiquitination-dependent degradation of type-I inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (ITPR1). It has recently been demonstrated that a point mutation of RNF170 gene is linked with autosomal-dominant sensory ataxia (ADSA), which is characterized by an age-dependent increase of walking abnormalities, a rare genetic disorder reported in only two families. Although this mutant allele is known to be dominant, the functional identity thereof has not been clearly established. Here, we generated mice lacking Rnf170 (Rnf170(-/-)) to evaluate the effect of its loss of function in vivo. Remarkably, Rnf170(-/-) mice began to develop gait abnormalities in old age (12 months) in the form of asynchronous stepping between diagonal limb pairs with a fixed step sequence during locomotion, while age-matched wild-type mice showed stable gait patterns using several step sequence repertoires. As reported in ADSA patients, they also showed a reduced sensitivity for proprioception and thermal nociception. Protein blot analysis revealed that the amount of Itpr1 protein was significantly elevated in the cerebellum and spinal cord but intact in the cerebral cortex in Rnf170(-/-) mice. These results suggest that the loss of Rnf170 gene function mediates ADSA-associated phenotypes and this gives insights on the cure of patients with ADSA and other age-dependent walking abnormalities. PMID:26433933

  17. Two pedigrees of autosomal dominant atrioventricular canal defect (AVCD): Exclusion from the critical region on 8p

    SciTech Connect

    Amati, F.; Mari, A.; Mingarelli, R.

    1995-07-03

    Atrioventricular canal defects (AVCD) constitute the predominant congenital heart defect in Down`s syndrome. For this reason, a candidate gene involved in atrioventricular canal development was previously searched and excluded in dominant pedigrees of AVCD, using linkage analysis of polymorphisms from chromosome 21. Because of the striking association between 8p deletion and AVCD, a search for an AVCD gene was carried out in two pedigrees of individuals with autosomal dominant AVCD using a set of DNA markers of the 8pter{r_arrow}q12 region. These two families include affected individuals and subjects who have transmitted the defect but are not clinically affected. Two-point lod scores were significantly negative for all markers at penetrance levels of 90% and 50%. Multipoint analysis excluded the region covered by the markers LPL-D8S262 and 30 cM to either side of this area. This result corroborates heterogeneity of this heart defect and indicates that the genetic basis of familial AVCD is different from AVCD associated to either trisomy 21 or 8p deletion. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Acute simultaneous multiple lacunar infarcts as the initial presentation of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Cheng-Tsung; Chen, Yun-Chung; Liu, Yo-Tsen; Soong, Bing-Wen; Lee, Yi-Chung

    2015-07-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an adult-onset, dominantly inherited small-vessel disease of the brain caused by NOTCH3 mutations and characterized by recurrent subcortical infarctions, dementia, migraine with aura, and mood disturbance. We report a patient with unusual presentation of CADASIL with acute simultaneous multiple subcortical lacunar infarcts as the first manifestation. A 69-year-old man developed confusion, drowsiness, right hemiparesis, and slurred speech following orthopedic surgeries. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse leukoencephalopathy and multiple acute subcortical lacunar infarcts. Brain magnetic resonance angiography, echocardiography and 24-hour electrocardiography were unremarkable. The symptoms improved quickly after treatment with fluid hydration and antiplatelet agent, and his consciousness and mentality totally recovered within 3 days. The NOTCH3 genetic testing showed a heterozygous missense mutation, c.1630C>T (p. Arg544Cys). The experience in this case suggests that brain imaging is important in managing postoperative confusion, and any patient with diffuse leukoencephalopathy of unknown etiology may need to be tested for NOTCH3 mutations. Surgery is an important factor of encephalopathy and acute infarction in individuals with NOTCH3 mutations. Comprehensive presurgical evaluations and proactive perioperative precautions to avoid dehydration and anemia are necessary for patients with CADASIL who are about to receive anesthesia and surgery. PMID:25959358

  19. De Novo Occurrence of a Variant in ARL3 and Apparent Autosomal Dominant Transmission of Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Samuel P.; Clark, Michael J.; Martinez, Ariadna; Garcia, Sarah; Abelazeem, Amira A.; Matynia, Anna; Parikh, Sachin; Sullivan, Lori S.; Bowne, Sara J.; Daiger, Stephen P.; Gorin, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retinitis pigmentosa is a phenotype with diverse genetic causes. Due to this genetic heterogeneity, genome-wide identification and analysis of protein-altering DNA variants by exome sequencing is a powerful tool for novel variant and disease gene discovery. In this study, exome sequencing analysis was used to search for potentially causal DNA variants in a two-generation pedigree with apparent dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Methods Variant identification and analysis of three affected members (mother and two affected offspring) was performed via exome sequencing. Parental samples of the index case were used to establish inheritance. Follow-up testing of 94 additional retinitis pigmentosa pedigrees was performed via retrospective analysis or Sanger sequencing. Results and Conclusions A total of 136 high quality coding variants in 123 genes were identified which are consistent with autosomal dominant disease. Of these, one of the strongest genetic and functional candidates is a c.269A>G (p.Tyr90Cys) variant in ARL3. Follow-up testing established that this variant occurred de novo in the index case. No additional putative causal variants in ARL3 were identified in the follow-up cohort, suggesting that if ARL3 variants can cause adRP it is an extremely rare phenomenon. PMID:26964041

  20. Mutant ELOVL4 That Causes Autosomal Dominant Stargardt-3 Macular Dystrophy Is Misrouted to Rod Outer Segment Disks

    PubMed Central

    Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Tam, Beatrice M.; Wong, Jenny S.; Yang, Lee Ling; Anderson, Robert E.; Moritz, Orson L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Autosomal dominant Stargardt macular dystrophy caused by mutations in the Elongation of Very Long Chain fatty acids (ELOVL4) gene results in macular degeneration, leading to early childhood blindness. Transgenic mice and pigs expressing mutant ELOVL4 develop progressive photoreceptor degeneration. The mechanism by which these mutations cause macular degeneration remains unclear, but have been hypothesized to involve the loss of an ER-retention dilysine motif located in the extreme C-terminus. Dominant negative mechanisms and reduction in retinal polyunsaturated fatty acids also have been suggested. To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in disease progression in vivo, we addressed the hypothesis that the disease-linked C-terminal truncation mutant of ELOVL4 exerts a dominant negative effect on wild-type (WT) ELOVL4, altering its subcellular localization and function, which subsequently induces retinal degeneration and loss of vision. Methods. We generated transgenic Xenopus laevis that overexpress HA-tagged murine ELOVL4 variants in rod photoreceptors. Results. Tagged or untagged WT ELOVL4 localized primarily to inner segments. However, the mutant protein lacking the dilysine motif was mislocalized to post-Golgi compartments and outer segment disks. Coexpression of mutant and WT ELOVL4 in rods did not result in mislocalization of the WT protein to outer segments or in the formation of aggregates. Full-length HA-tagged ELOVL4 lacking the dilysine motif (K308R/K310R) necessary for targeting the WT ELOVL4 protein to the endoplasmic reticulum was similarly mislocalized to outer segments. Conclusions. We propose that expression and outer segment mislocalization of the disease-linked 5–base-pair deletion mutant ELOVL4 protein alters photoreceptor structure and function, which subsequently results in retinal degeneration, and suggest three possible mechanisms by which mutant ELOVL4 may induce retinal degeneration in STGD3. PMID:24833735

  1. The mutation ROR2W749X, linked to human BDB, is a recessive mutation in the mouse, causing brachydactyly, mediating patterning of joints and modeling recessive Robinow syndrome.

    PubMed

    Raz, Regina; Stricker, Sigmar; Gazzerro, Elizabetta; Clor, Julie L; Witte, Florian; Nistala, Harakiran; Zabski, Stefanie; Pereira, Renata C; Stadmeyer, Lisa; Wang, Xiangmin; Gowen, Lori; Sleeman, Mark W; Yancopoulos, George D; Canalis, Ernesto; Mundlos, Stefan; Valenzuela, David M; Economides, Aris N

    2008-05-01

    Mutations in ROR2 result in a spectrum of genetic disorders in humans that are classified, depending on the nature of the mutation and the clinical phenotype, as either autosomal dominant brachydactyly type B (BDB, MIM 113000) or recessive Robinow syndrome (RRS, MIM 268310). In an attempt to model BDB in mice, the mutation W749X was engineered into the mouse Ror2 gene. In contrast to the human situation, mice heterozygous for Ror2(W749FLAG) are normal and do not develop brachydactyly, whereas homozygous mice exhibit features resembling RRS. Furthermore, both Ror2(W749FLAG/W749FLAG) and a previously engineered mutant, Ror2(TMlacZ/TMlacZ), lack the P2/P3 joint. Absence of Gdf5 expression at the corresponding interzone suggests that the defect is in specification of the joint. As this phenotype is absent in mice lacking the entire Ror2 gene, it appears that specification of the P2/P3 joint is affected by ROR2 activity. Finally, Ror2(W749FLAG/W749FLAG) mice survive to adulthood and exhibit phenotypes (altered body composition, reduced male fertility) not observed in Ror2 knockout mice, presumably due to the perinatal lethality of the latter. Therefore, Ror2(W749FLAG/W749FLAG) mice represent a postnatal model for RRS, provide insight into the mechanism of joint specification, and uncover novel roles of Ror2 in the mouse. PMID:18353862

  2. PKDB: Polycystic Kidney Disease Mutation Database--a gene variant database for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gout, Alexander M; Martin, Neilson C; Brown, Alastair F; Ravine, David

    2007-07-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) arises from mutations in the PKD1 and PKD2 genes. The Polycystic Kidney Disease Mutation Database (PKDB) is an internet-accessible relational database containing comprehensive information about germline and somatic disease-causing variants within these two genes, as well as polymorphisms and variants of indeterminate pathogenicity. The PKDB database structure incorporates an interface between these gene variant data and any associated patient clinical data. An initiative of the Polycystic Kidney Disease Foundation, PKDB is a publicly accessible database that aims to streamline the evaluation of PKD1 and PKD2 gene variants detected in samples from those with ADPKD, as well as to assist ongoing clinical and molecular research in the field. As the accurate reporting of nucleotide variants is essential for ensuring the quality of data within PKDB, a mutation checker has been mounted on the PKDB server allowing contributors to assess the accuracy of their PKD1 and PKD2 variant reports. Researchers and clinicians may submit their PKD1/PKD2 gene variants and any associated deidentified clinical data via standardized downloadable data entry forms accessible through the PKDB site. PKDB has been launched with the full details of PKD1 and PKD2 gene variant reports published in 73 peer-reviewed articles. Through a series of user-friendly advanced search facilities, users are able to query the database as required. The PKDB server is accessible at http://pkdb.mayo.edu. PMID:17370309

  3. Dominant-negative action of the jimpy mutation in mice complemented with an autosomal transgene for myelin proteolipid protein.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, A M; Griffiths, I R; Readhead, C; Nave, K A

    1995-01-01

    Mutations in genes encoding membrane proteins have been associated with cell death of unknown cause from invertebrate development to human degenerative diseases. A point mutation in the gene for myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) underlies oligodendrocyte death and dysmyelination in jimpy mice, an accurate model for Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease. To distinguish the loss of PLP function from other effects of the misfolded protein, we took advantage of the X chromosomal linkage of the gene and have complemented jimpy with a wild-type PLP transgene. In this artificial heterozygous situation, the jimpy mutation emerged as genetically dominant. At the cellular level oligodendrocytes showed little increase in survival although endogenous PLP gene and autosomal transgene were truly coexpressed. In surviving oligodendrocytes, wild-type PLP was functional and immunodetectable in myelin. Moreover, compacted myelin sheaths regained their normal periodicity. This strongly suggests that, despite the presence of functional wild-type PLP, misfolded jimpy PLP is by itself the primary cause of abnormal oligodendrocyte death. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7538670

  4. Dominant-negative action of the jimpy mutation in mice complemented with an autosomal transgene for myelin proteolipid protein.

    PubMed

    Schneider, A M; Griffiths, I R; Readhead, C; Nave, K A

    1995-05-01

    Mutations in genes encoding membrane proteins have been associated with cell death of unknown cause from invertebrate development to human degenerative diseases. A point mutation in the gene for myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) underlies oligodendrocyte death and dysmyelination in jimpy mice, an accurate model for Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease. To distinguish the loss of PLP function from other effects of the misfolded protein, we took advantage of the X chromosomal linkage of the gene and have complemented jimpy with a wild-type PLP transgene. In this artificial heterozygous situation, the jimpy mutation emerged as genetically dominant. At the cellular level oligodendrocytes showed little increase in survival although endogenous PLP gene and autosomal transgene were truly coexpressed. In surviving oligodendrocytes, wild-type PLP was functional and immunodetectable in myelin. Moreover, compacted myelin sheaths regained their normal periodicity. This strongly suggests that, despite the presence of functional wild-type PLP, misfolded jimpy PLP is by itself the primary cause of abnormal oligodendrocyte death. PMID:7538670

  5. Whole-exome sequencing identifies OR2W3 mutation as a cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiangyu; Guan, Liping; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Yao; Zheng, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Long, Jirong; Wu, Na; Wu, Long; Xiang, Ying; Xu, Bin; Shen, Miaozhong; Chen, Yanhua; Wang, Yuewen; Yin, Ye; Li, Yingrui; Xu, Haiwei; Xu, Xun; Li, Yafei

    2015-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a heterogeneous group of inherited ocular diseases, is a genetic condition that causes retinal degeneration and eventual vision loss. Though some genes have been identified to be associated with RP, still a large part of the clinical cases could not be explained. Here we reported a four-generation Chinese family with RP, during which 6 from 9 members of the second generation affected the disease. To identify the genetic defect in this family, whole-exome sequencing together with validation analysis by Sanger sequencing were performed to find possible pathogenic mutations. After a pipeline of database filtering, including public databases and in-house databases, a novel missense mutation, c. 424 C > T transition (p.R142W) in OR2W3 gene, was identified as a potentially causative mutation for autosomal dominant RP. The mutation co-segregated with the disease phenotype over four generations. This mutation was validated in another independent three-generation family. RT-PCR analysis also identified that OR2W3 gene was expressed in HESC-RPE cell line. The results will not only enhance our current understanding of the genetic basis of RP, but also provide helpful clues for designing future studies to further investigate genetic factors for familial RP. PMID:25783483

  6. A novel mutation within the rhodopsin gene (Thr-94-Ile) causing autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness.

    PubMed

    al-Jandal, N; Farrar, G J; Kiang, A S; Humphries, M M; Bannon, N; Findlay, J B; Humphries, P; Kenna, P F

    1999-01-01

    More than 100 mutations within the rhodopsin gene have been found to be responsible for some forms of retinitis pigmentosa, a progressive retinal degeneration characterized by night blindness and subsequent disturbance of day vision that may eventually result in total blindness. Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is an uncommon inherited retinal dysfunction in which patients complain of night vision difficulties of a nonprogressive nature only and in which generally there is no involvement of day vision. We report the results of molecular genetic analysis of an Irish family segregating an autosomal dominant form of CSNB in which a previously unreported threonine-to-isoleucine substitution at codon 94 in the rhodopsin gene was found to segregate with the disease. Computer modeling suggests that constitutive activation of transducin by the altered rhodopsin protein may be a mechanism for disease causation in this family. Only two mutations within the rhodopsin gene have been previously reported in patients with congenital stationary night blindness, constitutive activation also having been proposed as a possible disease mechanism. PMID:9888392

  7. Antihypertensive treatments in adult autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: network meta-analysis of the randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Bing; Yu, Shengqiang; Xu, Chenggang; Mao, Zhiguo; Ye, Chaoyang; Chen, Dongping; Zhao, Xuezhi; Wu, Jun; Chen, Wansheng; Mei, Changlin

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood pressure (BP) control is one of the most important treatments of Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The comparative efficacy of antihypertensive treatments in ADPKD patients is inconclusive. Methods Network meta-analysis was used to evaluate randomized controlled trials (RCT) which investigated antihypertensive treatments in ADPKD. PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Cochrane Collaboration were searched. The primary outcome was estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Secondary outcomes were serum creatinine (Scr), urinary albumin excretion (UAE), systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean artery pressure (MAP) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Results We included 10 RCTs with 1386 patients and six interventions: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), Angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), combination of ACEI and ARB, calcium channel blockers (CCB), β-blockers and dilazep. There was no difference of eGFR in all the treatments in both network and direct comparisons. No significant differences of Scr, SBP, DBP, MAP, and LVMI were found in network comparisons. However, ACEI significantly reduced SBP, DBP, MAP and LVMI when compared to CCB. Significantly increased UAE was observed in CCB compared with ACEI or ARB. Bayesian probability analysis found ARB ranked first in the surrogate measures of eGFR, UAE and SBP. Conclusions There is little evidence to detect differences of antihypertensive treatments on kidney disease progression in ADPKD patients. More RCTs will be needed in the future. Use of ARB may be an optimal choice in clinical practice. PMID:26636542

  8. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: Localization of the second gene to chromosome 4q13-q23

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberling, W.J.; Kumar, S.; Kenyon, J.B.; Connolly, C.J. ); Gabow, P.A. ); Somlo, S. )

    1993-12-01

    At least two loci are known to exist for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). One was localized to 16p, but the second less common locus has remained unlinked. Over 100 microsatellite markers, distributed across all chromosomes, have been typed on informative family members from the large Sicilian kindred in which the genetic heterogeneity was first discovered. Both the affected and the unaffected status of every family member used in the study were consulted in the successful localization of a second ADPKD gene to chromosome 4q. It was found to be flanked by the markers D4S231 and D4S414, defining a segment that spans about 9 cM. The new locus has been designated PKD4. This second localization will allow researchers to target another ADPKD gene for isolation in an effort to understand the pathogenesis of this common disorder. Furthermore, when flanking markers for the second ADPKD gene are used in conjunction with flanking markers for PKD1, the accuracy of the diagnosis of the subtype of ADPKD present in any particular family will be enhanced. This will improve the accuracy of linkage-based presymptomatic diagnoses by reducing the error due to genetic heterogeneity. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Type III Bartter-like syndrome in an infant boy with Gitelman syndrome and autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Brugnara, Milena; Gaudino, Rossella; Tedeschi, Silvana; Syrèn, Marie-Louise; Perrotta, Silverio; Maines, Evelina; Zaffanello, Marco

    2014-09-01

    We report the case of an infant boy with polyuria and a familial history of central diabetes insipidus. Laboratory blood tests disclosed hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hyperreninemia, and hyperaldosteronism. Plasma magnesium concentration was slightly low. Urine analysis showed hypercalciuria, hyposthenuria, and high excretion of potassium. Such findings oriented toward type III Bartter syndrome (BSIII). Direct sequencing of the CLCNKB gene revealed no disease-causing mutations. The water deprivation test was positive. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lack of posterior pituitary hyperintensity. Finally, direct sequencing of the AVP-NPII gene showed a point mutation (c.1884G>A) in a heterozygous state, confirming an autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (adFNDI). This condition did not explain the patient's phenotype; thus, we investigated for Gitelman syndrome (GS). A direct sequencing of the SLC12A3 gene showed c.269A>C and c.1205C>A new mutations. In conclusion, the patient had a genetic combination of GS and adFNDI with a BSIII-like phenotype. PMID:24825090

  10. Brazilian family with pure autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia maps to 8q: analysis of muscle beta 1 syntrophin.

    PubMed

    Rocco, P; Vainzof, M; Froehner, S C; Peters, M F; Marie, S K; Passos-Bueno, M R; Zatz, M

    2000-05-15

    The autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegias (AD-HSP) are a heterogeneous group of degenerative disorders of the central motor system, characterized by progressive spasticity of the lower limbs. Five loci for pure AD-HSP have been identified to date: SPG3 at 14q, SPG4 at 2p, SPG6 at 15q, SPG8 at 8q, and more recently SPG10 at 12q. We have analyzed a Brazilian family with 16 affected individuals by pure AD-HSP who developed progressive gait disturbance with onset at age 18-26 years. Linkage analysis performed with 13 relatives (6 affected and 7 normal) excluded SPG3, SPG4, and SPG6 as candidate regions. However, positive LOD scores were obtained with markers flanking the candidate region for the SPG8 locus [maximum two point Lod score (Zmax) = 3.3 at theta = 0 for D8S1804]. In this region lies the syntrophin beta 1 gene (SNT2B1), a widely expressed dystrophin-associated protein and therefore a good positional and functional candidate for this disease. Immunohistochemical and Western Blot (WB) studies showed that the distribution, expression, and apparent molecular weight of the beta 1 syntrophin protein were comparable to those of normal control individuals. Therefore, it is unlikely that defects in this protein are related to SPG8, at least in the present family. PMID:10797436

  11. Identification of a locus which shows no genetic recombination with the autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease gene on chromosome 16.

    PubMed Central

    Germino, G G; Barton, N J; Lamb, J; Higgs, D R; Harris, P; Xiao, G H; Scherer, G; Nakamura, Y; Reeders, S T

    1990-01-01

    The major site for mutations leading to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is at the PKD1 locus, previously mapped to 16p13. Three additional probes have now been mapped within an existing array of genetic markers flanking this locus. One of these, CMM65b (D16S84), shows no recombination with PKD1 in 201 informative meioses. The others, Fr3-42 (D16S21) and EKMDA2 (D16S83), are shown to be the closest telomeric flanking markers. Somatic cell hybrids containing derivative chromosome 16s were used to construct a physical map of the region. Cosmid overlap cloning of the D16S84 region allowed a t(16;1) translocation breakpoint to be mapped at the molecular level, orientating the extended D16S84 locus with respect to the chromosome. The new markers and physical map described here provide an improved framework for attempts to clone the PKD1 region and to identify polycystic kidney disease mutations. Images Figure 4 Figure 4 Figure 2 PMID:2339691

  12. Fatal liver cyst rupture in polycystic liver disease complicated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: A case report.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fang; Liang, Yue; Zhang, Lin; Li, Wenhe; Chen, Peng; Duan, Yijie; Zhou, Yiwu

    2016-05-01

    A 59-year-old man was struck in the abdomen and later presented to the emergency room. His blood pressure dropped and eventually died 16h post trauma and just before emergency exploratory laparotomy. Autopsy revealed two polycystic kidneys and a giant polycystic liver with two ruptures. Blood (2225g) was observed in the peritoneum and the body-surface injury was minor. Genetic testing was performed to confirm that the man had an autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) complicated by polycystic liver disease (PLD). Autopsy, histopathology and medical history showed that the cause of death was the ruptures of liver cysts due to trauma. In this communication, we describe a fatal case and hope to increase awareness and recognition of PLD and ADPKD. We also wish to indicate that due to the fragile condition of liver cysts, trauma should be considered even if the body-surface injury is minor in fatal cases of PLD patient with a traumatic history. PMID:27050907

  13. Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Compensation May Preserve Vision in Patients with OPA1-Linked Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Van Bergen, Nicole J.; Crowston, Jonathan G.; Kearns, Lisa S.; Staffieri, Sandra E.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Cohn, Amy C.; Mackey, David A.; Trounce, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy (ADOA) is the most common inherited optic atrophy where vision impairment results from specific loss of retinal ganglion cells of the optic nerve. Around 60% of ADOA cases are linked to mutations in the OPA1 gene. OPA1 is a fission-fusion protein involved in mitochondrial inner membrane remodelling. ADOA presents with marked variation in clinical phenotype and varying degrees of vision loss, even among siblings carrying identical mutations in OPA1. To determine whether the degree of vision loss is associated with the level of mitochondrial impairment, we examined mitochondrial function in lymphoblast cell lines obtained from six large Australian OPA1-linked ADOA pedigrees. Comparing patients with severe vision loss (visual acuity [VA]<6/36) and patients with relatively preserved vision (VA>6/9) a clear defect in mitochondrial ATP synthesis and reduced respiration rates were observed in patients with poor vision. In addition, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymology in ADOA patients with normal vision revealed increased complex II+III activity and levels of complex IV protein. These data suggest that OPA1 deficiency impairs OXPHOS efficiency, but compensation through increases in the distal complexes of the respiratory chain may preserve mitochondrial ATP production in patients who maintain normal vision. Identification of genetic variants that enable this response may provide novel therapeutic insights into OXPHOS compensation for preventing vision loss in optic neuropathies. PMID:21731710

  14. Early astrocytosis in autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease measured in vivo by multi-tracer positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    Schöll, Michael; Carter, Stephen F.; Westman, Eric; Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena; Almkvist, Ove; Thordardottir, Steinunn; Wall, Anders; Graff, Caroline; Långström, Bengt; Nordberg, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    Studying autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease (ADAD), caused by gene mutations yielding nearly complete penetrance and a distinct age of symptom onset, allows investigation of presymptomatic pathological processes that can identify a therapeutic window for disease-modifying therapies. Astrocyte activation may occur in presymptomatic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) because reactive astrocytes surround β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in autopsy brain tissue. Positron emission tomography was performed to investigate fibrillar Aβ, astrocytosis and cerebral glucose metabolism with the radiotracers 11C-Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB), 11C-deuterium-L-deprenyl (DED) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) respectively in presymptomatic and symptomatic ADAD participants (n = 21), patients with mild cognitive impairment (n = 11) and sporadic AD (n = 7). Multivariate analysis using the combined data from all radiotracers clearly separated the different groups along the first and second principal components according to increased PIB retention/decreased FDG uptake (component 1) and increased DED binding (component 2). Presymptomatic ADAD mutation carriers showed significantly higher PIB retention than non-carriers in all brain regions except the hippocampus. DED binding was highest in presymptomatic ADAD mutation carriers. This suggests that non-fibrillar Aβ or early stage plaque depostion might interact with inflammatory responses indicating astrocytosis as an early contributory driving force in AD pathology. The novelty of this finding will be investigated in longitudinal follow-up studies. PMID:26553227

  15. Diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease using efficient PKD1 and PKD2 targeted next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Trujillano, Daniel; Bullich, Gemma; Ossowski, Stephan; Ballarín, José; Torra, Roser; Estivill, Xavier; Ars, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) relies on mutation screening of PKD1 and PKD2, which is complicated by extensive allelic heterogeneity and the presence of six highly homologous sequences of PKD1. To date, specific sequencing of PKD1 requires laborious long-range amplifications. The high cost and long turnaround time of PKD1 and PKD2 mutation analysis using conventional techniques limits its widespread application in clinical settings. We performed targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of PKD1 and PKD2. Pooled barcoded DNA patient libraries were enriched by in-solution hybridization with PKD1 and PKD2 capture probes. Bioinformatics analysis was performed using an in-house developed pipeline. We validated the assay in a cohort of 36 patients with previously known PKD1 and PKD2 mutations and five control individuals. Then, we used the same assay and bioinformatics analysis in a discovery cohort of 12 uncharacterized patients. We detected 35 out of 36 known definitely, highly likely, and likely pathogenic mutations in the validation cohort, including two large deletions. In the discovery cohort, we detected 11 different pathogenic mutations in 10 out of 12 patients. This study demonstrates that laborious long-range PCRs of the repeated PKD1 region can be avoided by in-solution enrichment of PKD1 and PKD2 and NGS. This strategy significantly reduces the cost and time for simultaneous PKD1 and PKD2 sequence analysis, facilitating routine genetic diagnostics of ADPKD. PMID:25333066

  16. Opposing Effects of Inhibitors of Aurora-A and EGFR in Autosomal-Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nikonova, Anna S.; Deneka, Alexander Y.; Eckman, Louisa; Kopp, Meghan C.; Hensley, Harvey H.; Egleston, Brian L.; Golemis, Erica A.

    2015-01-01

    Aurora-A kinase (AURKA) overexpression in numerous tumors induces aneuploidy, in part because of cytokinetic defects. Alisertib and other small-molecule inhibitors targeting AURKA are effective in some patients as monotherapies or combination therapies. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pro-proliferative signaling activity is commonly elevated in cancer, and the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib is commonly used as a standard of care agent for cancer. An erlotinib/alisertib combination therapy is currently under assessment in clinical trials, following pre-clinical studies that indicated synergy of these drugs in cancer. We were interested in further exploring the activity of this drug combination. Beyond well-established functions for AURKA in mitotic progression, additional non-mitotic AURKA functions include control of ciliary stability and calcium signaling. Interestingly, alisertib exacerbates the disease phenotype in mouse models for autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a common inherited syndrome induced by aberrant signaling from PKD1 and PKD2, cilia-localized proteins that have calcium channel activity. EGFR is also more active in ADPKD, making erlotinib also of potential interest in this disease setting. In this study, we have explored the interaction of alisertib and erlotinib in an ADPKD model. These experiments indicated erlotinib-­restrained cystogenesis, opposing alisertib action. Erlotinib also interacted with alisertib to regulate proliferative signaling proteins, albeit in a complicated manner. Results suggest a nuanced role of AURKA signaling in different pathogenic conditions and inform the clinical use of AURKA inhibitors in cancer patients with comorbidities. PMID:26528438

  17. Mutation Spectrum in the Large GTPase Dynamin 2, and GenotypePhenotype Correlation in Autosomal Dominant Centronuclear Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bhm, Johann; Biancalana, Valrie; DeChene, Elizabeth T.; Bitoun, Marc; Pierson, Christopher R.; Schaefer, Elise; Karasoy, Hatice; Dempsey, Melissa A.; Klein, Fabrice; Dondaine, Nicolas; Kretz, Christine; Haumesser, Nicolas; Poirson, Claire; Toussaint, Anne; Greenleaf, Rebecca S.; Barger, Melissa A.; Mahoney, Lane J.; Kang, Peter B.; Zanoteli, Edmar; Vissing, John; Witting, Nanna; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Dowling, James; Merlini, Luciano; Oldfors, Anders; Ousager, Lilian Bomme; Melki, Judith; Krause, Amanda; Jern, Christina; Oliveira, Acary S. B.; Petit, Florence; Jacquette, Aurlia; Chaussenot, Annabelle; Mowat, David; Leheup, Bruno; Cristofano, Michele; Aldea, Juan Jos Poza; Michel, Fabrice; Furby, Alain; Llona, Jose E. Barcena; Van Coster, Rudy; Bertini, Enrico; Urtizberea, Jon Andoni; Drouin-Garraud, Valrie; Broud, Christophe; Prudhon, Bernard; Bedford, Melanie; Mathews, Katherine; Erby, Lori A. H.; Smith, Stephen A.; Roggenbuck, Jennifer; Crowe, Carol A.; Spitale, Allison Brennan; Johal, Sheila C.; Amato, Anthony A.; Demmer, Laurie A.; Jonas, Jessica; Darras, Basil T.; Bird, Thomas D.; Laurino, Mercy; Welt, Selman I.; Trotter, Cynthia; Guicheney, Pascale; Das, Soma; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Beggs, Alan H.; Laporte, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Centronuclear myopathy (CNM) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder associated with general skeletal muscle weakness, type I fiber predominance and atrophy, and abnormally centralized nuclei. Autosomal dominant CNM is due to mutations in the large GTPase dynamin 2 (DNM2), a mechanochemical enzyme regulating cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking in cells. To date, 40 families with CNM-related DNM2 mutations have been described, and here we report 60 additional families encompassing a broad genotypic and phenotypic spectrum. In total, 18 different mutations are reported in 100 families and our cohort harbors nine known and four new mutations, including the first splice-site mutation. Genotypephenotype correlation hypotheses are drawn from the published and new data, and allow an efficient screening strategy for molecular diagnosis. In addition to CNM, dissimilar DNM2 mutations are associated with CharcotMarieTooth (CMT) peripheral neuropathy (CMTD1B and CMT2M), suggesting a tissue-specific impact of the mutations. In this study, we discuss the possible clinical overlap of CNM and CMT, and the biological significance of the respective mutations based on the known functions of dynamin 2 and its protein structure. Defects in membrane trafficking due to DNM2 mutations potentially represent a common pathological mechanism in CNM and CMT. PMID:22396310

  18. Identification of novel PKD1 and PKD2 mutations in a Chinese population with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bei; Chen, Song-Chang; Yang, Yan-Mei; Yan, Kai; Qian, Ye-Qing; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Hu, Yu-Ting; Dong, Min-Yue; Jin, Fan; Huang, He-Feng; Xu, Chen-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most frequently inherited renal diseases caused by mutations in PKD1 and PKD2. We performed mutational analyses of PKD genes in 49 unrelated patients using direct PCR-sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for PKD1 and PKD2. RT-PCR analysis was also performed in a family with a novel PKD2 splicing mutation. Disease-causing mutations were identified in 44 (89.8%) of the patients: 42 (95.5%) of the patients showed mutations in PKD1, and 2 (4.5%) showed mutations in PKD2. Ten nonsense, 17 frameshift, 4 splicing and one in-frame mutation were found in 32 of the patients. Large rearrangements were found in 3 patients, and missense mutations were found in 9 patients. Approximately 61.4% (27/44) of the mutations are first reported with a known mutation rate of 38.6%. RNA analysis of a novel PKD2 mutation (c.595_595?+?14delGGTAAGAGCGCGCGA) suggested monoallelic expression of the wild-type allele. Furthermore, patients with PKD1-truncating mutations reached end-stage renal disease (ESRD) earlier than patients with non-truncating mutations (47??3.522 years vs. 59??11.687 years, P?=?0.016). The mutation screening of PKD genes in Chinese ADPKD patients will enrich our mutation database and significantly contribute to improve genetic counselling for ADPKD patients. PMID:26632257

  19. Mutations in DNAJC5, Encoding Cysteine-String Protein Alpha, Cause Autosomal-Dominant Adult-Onset Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

    PubMed Central

    Nosková, Lenka; Stránecký, Viktor; Hartmannová, Hana; Přistoupilová, Anna; Barešová, Veronika; Ivánek, Robert; Hůlková, Helena; Jahnová, Helena; van der Zee, Julie; Staropoli, John F.; Sims, Katherine B.; Tyynelä, Jaana; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Nijssen, Peter C.G.; Mole, Sara E.; Elleder, Milan; Kmoch, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal-dominant adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (ANCL) is characterized by accumulation of autofluorescent storage material in neural tissues and neurodegeneration and has an age of onset in the third decade of life or later. The genetic and molecular basis of the disease has remained unknown for many years. We carried out linkage mapping, gene-expression analysis, exome sequencing, and candidate-gene sequencing in affected individuals from 20 families and/or individuals with simplex cases; we identified in five individuals one of two disease-causing mutations, c.346_348delCTC and c.344T>G, in DNAJC5 encoding cysteine-string protein alpha (CSPα). These mutations—causing a deletion, p.Leu116del, and an amino acid exchange, p.Leu115Arg, respectively—are located within the cysteine-string domain of the protein and affect both palmitoylation-dependent sorting and the amount of CSPα in neuronal cells. The resulting depletion of functional CSPα might cause in parallel the presynaptic dysfunction and the progressive neurodegeneration observed in affected individuals and lysosomal accumulation of misfolded and proteolysis-resistant proteins in the form of characteristic ceroid deposits in neurons. Our work represents an important step in the genetic dissection of a genetically heterogeneous group of ANCLs. It also confirms a neuroprotective role for CSPα in humans and demonstrates the need for detailed investigation of CSPα in the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses and other neurodegenerative diseases presenting with neuronal protein aggregation. PMID:21820099

  20. A Report of Accelerated Coronary Artery Disease Associated with Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Courtney B.; Hahn, Virginia; Kobayashi, Taisei; Litwack, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is the most common heritable form of vascular dementia and it is caused by mutations in the NOTCH3 gene. The neurologic manifestations of CADASIL syndrome have been well characterized; however, here we report one of the first de novo cases of CADASIL-associated coronary artery disease. A 45-year-old woman with a history of CADASIL and remote tobacco use presented with unstable angina. She was found to have diffuse and irregular narrowing of the left anterior descending artery and a drug eluting stent was deployed. Months later, she developed two subsequent episodes of unstable angina, requiring stent placement in the distal left anterior descending artery and the right coronary artery. Though the neurologic manifestations of CADASIL have been well described, these patients may also be predisposed to developing premature coronary artery disease. Patients with CADASIL and their physicians should be aware of this possible association because these patients may not be identified as high risk by traditional cardiovascular risk estimators. These patients may benefit from more aggressive interventions to reduce cardiac risk. PMID:26435852

  1. A Report of Accelerated Coronary Artery Disease Associated with Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Courtney B; Hahn, Virginia; Kobayashi, Taisei; Litwack, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is the most common heritable form of vascular dementia and it is caused by mutations in the NOTCH3 gene. The neurologic manifestations of CADASIL syndrome have been well characterized; however, here we report one of the first de novo cases of CADASIL-associated coronary artery disease. A 45-year-old woman with a history of CADASIL and remote tobacco use presented with unstable angina. She was found to have diffuse and irregular narrowing of the left anterior descending artery and a drug eluting stent was deployed. Months later, she developed two subsequent episodes of unstable angina, requiring stent placement in the distal left anterior descending artery and the right coronary artery. Though the neurologic manifestations of CADASIL have been well described, these patients may also be predisposed to developing premature coronary artery disease. Patients with CADASIL and their physicians should be aware of this possible association because these patients may not be identified as high risk by traditional cardiovascular risk estimators. These patients may benefit from more aggressive interventions to reduce cardiac risk. PMID:26435852

  2. Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa mutations in inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase type I disrupt nucleic acid binding

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Two mutations of IMPDH1 (inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase type I), R224P and D226N, have recently been found to cause adRP (autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa). IMPDH1 catalyses the rate-limiting step in guanine nucleotide biosynthesis and also binds single-stranded nucleic acids. In the present paper, we report the biochemical characterization of the adRP-linked mutations, R224P and D226N, and a potentially pathogenic mutation, V268I. The adRP-linked mutations have no effect on enzyme activity, protein stability or protein aggregation. These results suggest strongly that the mutations do not affect enzyme activity in vivo and thus do not perturb the guanine nucleotide pool. The R224P mutation changes the distribution of enzyme between the nucleus and cytoplasm. This effect was not observed with the D226N mutation, so the relevance of this observation to disease is unclear. In contrast, both mutations decrease the affinity of nucleic acid binding and both fail to co-immunoprecipitate RNA. These observations suggest that nucleic acid binding provides a functional assay for adRP pathogenicity. The putative adRP-linked mutation V268I also disrupts nucleic acid binding, which suggests that this mutation is indeed pathogenic. PMID:15882147

  3. A de novo mutation in KCNN3 associated with autosomal dominant idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Koot, Bart G P; Alders, Marielle; Verheij, Joanne; Beuers, Ulrich; Cobben, Jan M

    2016-04-01

    Non-cirrhotic portal hypertension is characterized by histopathological abnormalities in the liver, mostly affecting small intrahepatic portal veins that cause portal hypertension in the absence of cirrhosis. It can be secondary to coagulation disorders or toxic agents. However, most cases are idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (INCPH) and familial cases are rare. We report a family in which a father and three of his four children conceived with three different mothers are affected by INCPH. Whole exome and Sanger sequencing showed the father to have a de novo single nucleotide substitution c.1348G>C in the KCNN3 gene that was transmitted to all three of his affected offspring. The KCNN3 gene encodes small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel 3. SK channels are involved in the regulation of arterial and venous vascular tone by causing smooth muscle relaxation on activation. No data exist on the expression and function of SK channels in portal veins. The autosomal dominant inheritance in this unique pedigree and the single de novo mutation identified, strongly suggests that KCNN3 mutations have a pathogenetic role in INCPH. PMID:26658685

  4. Papillary renal cell carcinoma with a somatic mutation in MET in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanying; Tan, Adrian Y; Blumenfeld, Jon; Liu, Genyan; Michaeel, Alber; Zhang, Tuo; Robinson, Brian D; Salvatore, Steven P; Kapur, Sandip; Donahue, Stephanie; Bobb, Warren O; Rennert, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 and is characterized by proliferation of renal tubular epithelium and progressive chronic kidney disease. Derangements in similar cellular signaling pathways occur in ADPKD and renal malignancies, although an association of these disorders has not been established. Herein, we present a case of papillary RCC (pRCC) incidentally discovered in a patient with ADPKD following bilateral native nephrectomy during renal transplantation. Whole exome sequencing of the pRCC found a somatic missense mutation in MET proto-oncogene, p.Val1110Ile, not present in kidney cyst epithelium or non-cystic tissue. RNA sequencing demonstrated increased mRNA expression of MET and pathway-related genes, but no significant copy number variation of MET was detected. Genetic analysis of PKD genes from peripheral blood lymphocytes and renal cyst epithelium identified a constitutional PKD1 germline mutation, p.Trp1582Ser, predicted to be pathogenic. Unique somatic mutations in PKD1 were also detected in 80% of the renal cysts analyzed, but not in the pRCC. These results suggest that, in this patient, the pRCC utilized a signaling pathway involving MET that was distinct from the pathogenesis of ADPKD. This is the first report of PKD1 mutations and a somatic mutation of the MET oncogene in a pRCC in ADPKD. PMID:26718059

  5. Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 and brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome caused by a novel mutation in AGXT and a terminal deletion of chromosome 2.

    PubMed

    Tammachote, Rachaneekorn; Kingsuwannapong, Nelawat; Tongkobpetch, Siraprapa; Srichomthong, Chalurmpon; Yeetong, Patra; Kingwatanakul, Pornchai; Monico, Carla G; Suphapeetiporn, Kanya; Shotelersuk, Vorasuk

    2012-09-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGXT) gene, located on chromosome 2q37. Mutant AGXT leads to excess production and excretion of oxalate, resulting in accumulation of calcium oxalate in the kidney, and progressive loss of renal function. Brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome (BDMR) is an autosomal dominant disorder, caused by haploinsufficiency of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), also on chromosome 2q37. It is characterized by skeletal abnormalities and developmental delay. Here, we report on a girl who had phenotypes of both PH1 and BDMR. PCR-sequencing of the coding regions of AGXT showed a novel missense mutation, c.32C>G (p.Pro11Arg) inherited from her mother. Functional analyses demonstrated that it reduced the enzymatic activity to 31% of the wild-type and redirected some percentage of the enzyme away from the peroxisome. Microsatellite and array-CGH analyses indicated that the proband had a paternal de novo telomeric deletion of chromosome 2q, which included HDAC4. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PH1 and BDMR, with a novel AGXT mutation and a de novo telomeric deletion of chromosome 2q. PMID:22821680

  6. A novel single-base deletion in ROR2 causes atypical brachydactyly type B1 with cutaneous syndactyly in a large Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Lv, Dan; Luo, Yang; Yang, Wei; Cao, Lihua; Wen, Yaran; Zhao, Xiuli; Sun, Miao; Lo, Wilson H-Y; Zhang, Xue

    2009-07-01

    Mutations in ROR2, encoding the receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2, cause two distinct skeletal diseases: autosomal dominant brachydactyly type B1 (BDB1) and autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome. In a large Chinese family with a limb phenotype, consisting of atypical BDB1 and cutaneous syndactyly of varying degrees, we performed a two-point linkage analysis using microsatellite markers on 2q33-q37 and 9q22.31, and found a significant linkage to the ROR2 locus. We identified a novel single-base deletion in ROR2, c.2243delC (p.W749fsX24), and confirmed its segregation with the limb phenotype in the family. This deletion is predicted to produce a truncated ROR2 protein with an additional C-terminal polypeptide of 24 amino-acid residues. To the best of our knowledge, the deletion represents the second ROR2 mutation associated with a BDB1-syndactyly phenotype. PMID:19461659

  7. A secreted WNT-ligand-binding domain of FZD5 generated by a frameshift mutation causes autosomal dominant coloboma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunqiao; Widen, Sonya A; Williamson, Kathleen A; Ratnapriya, Rinki; Gerth-Kahlert, Christina; Rainger, Joe; Alur, Ramakrishna P; Strachan, Erin; Manjunath, Souparnika H; Balakrishnan, Archana; Floyd, James A; Li, Tiansen; Waskiewicz, Andrew; Brooks, Brian P; Lehmann, Ordan J; FitzPatrick, David R; Swaroop, Anand

    2016-04-01

    Ocular coloboma is a common eye malformation resulting from incomplete fusion of the optic fissure during development. Coloboma is often associated with microphthalmia and/or contralateral anophthalmia. Coloboma shows extensive locus heterogeneity associated with causative mutations identified in genes encoding developmental transcription factors or components of signaling pathways. We report an ultra-rare, heterozygous frameshift mutation in FZD5 (p.Ala219Glufs*49) that was identified independently in two branches of a large family with autosomal dominant non-syndromic coloboma. FZD5 has a single-coding exon and consequently a transcript with this frameshift variant is not a canonical substrate for nonsense-mediated decay. FZD5 encodes a transmembrane receptor with a conserved extracellular cysteine rich domain for ligand binding. The frameshift mutation results in the production of a truncated protein, which retains the Wingless-type MMTV integration site family member-ligand-binding domain, but lacks the transmembrane domain. The truncated protein was secreted from cells, and behaved as a dominant-negative FZD5 receptor, antagonizing both canonical and non-canonical WNT signaling. Expression of the resultant mutant protein caused coloboma and microphthalmia in zebrafish, and disruption of the apical junction of the retinal neural epithelium in mouse, mimicking the phenotype of Fz5/Fz8 compound conditional knockout mutants. Our studies have revealed a conserved role of Wnt-Frizzled (FZD) signaling in ocular development and directly implicate WNT-FZD signaling both in normal closure of the human optic fissure and pathogenesis of coloboma. PMID:26908622

  8. Gene Delivery of Wild-Type Rhodopsin Rescues Retinal Function in an Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Haoyu; Gorbatyuk, Marina S.; Hauswirth, William W.; Lewin, Alfred S.

    2012-01-01

    Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) is frequently caused by mutations within the gene for the opsin of rod photoreceptor cells. Studies on transgenic mice, carrying mutated rhodopsin (RHO) transgene on different genetic backgrounds suggested that that an increased amount of wild-type RHO in ADRP photoreceptors attenuated the impact of the mutant transgene. Therefore, we employed a gene therapy approach with a help of Adeno-associated virus (AAV) to treat mice expressing a P23H mutant human RHO transgene. Knowing that AAV5 primarily transduces photoreceptor cells, we designed “hardened” form of the rhodopsin gene (RHO301) that expressed normal rhodopsin and was specifically resistant to degradation by the previously tested siRNA301. AAV5 RHO301 was subretinaly injected into the right eyes of P23H RHO mice at post-natal day 15. Animals were analyzed monthly by electroretinography (ERG) for 6 months. Analysis of the full field scotopic electroretinogram (ERG) demonstrated that increased expression of opsin slowed the rate of retinal degeneration in P23H mice with increased amplitudes in both a-wave and b-wave amplitudes compared to control eyes. An increase in the ERG amplitudes was correlated with improvement of retinal structure. The thickness of the outer nuclear layer in AAV-RHO301 injected eyes was increased by 80% compared to control eyes. This finding indicates that wild -type RHO could rescue the retinal degeneration in transgenic mice carrying a dominant RHO mutation and that increased production of normal rhodopsin could suppress the effect of the mutant protein. These findings suggest that wild-type RHO can used as a therapeutic agent to retard retinal degeneration in ADRP caused by different mutations of RHO via increased production of normal rhodopsin protein. PMID:22183334

  9. Differential Phenotypes of Active Site and Human Autosomal Dominant Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia Mutations in Drosophila Mitochondrial DNA Helicase Expressed in Schneider Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Yuichi; Kaguni, Laurie S.

    2016-01-01

    We report the cloning and molecular analysis of Drosophila mitochondrial DNA helicase (d-mtDNA helicase) homologous to human TWINKLE, which encodes one of the genes responsible for autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia. An RNA interference construct was designed that reduces expression of d-mtDNA helicase to an undetectable level in Schneider cells. RNA interference knockdown of d-mtDNA helicase decreases the copy number of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) ~5-fold. In a corollary manner, overexpression of d-mtDNA helicase increases mtDNA levels 1.4-fold. Overexpression of helicase active site mutants K388A and D483A results in a severe depletion of mtDNA and a dominant negative lethal phenotype. Overexpression of mutants analogous to human autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia mutations shows differential effects. Overexpression of I334T and A442P mutants yields a dominant negative effect as for the active site mutants. In contrast, overexpression of A326T, R341Q, and W441C mutants results in increased mtDNA copy number, as observed with wild-type overexpression. Our dominant negative analysis of d-mtDNA helicase in cultured cells provides a tractable model for understanding human autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia mutations. PMID:17272269

  10. Pseudoachondroplasia: clinical diagnosis at different ages and comparison of autosomal dominant and recessive types. A review of 32 patients (26 kindreds).

    PubMed Central

    Wynne-Davies, R; Hall, C M; Young, I D

    1986-01-01

    This survey reviews the diagnosis (predominantly radiological) of 32 cases of pseudoachondroplasia from 26 kindreds and illustrates the natural history and varying appearance of the disordered bone growth from infancy to adult life. In addition, an attempt has been made to detect phenotypic differences between autosomal dominant and recessive types (excluding isolated cases), analysing 10 kindreds of dominant inheritance (three in the current survey, seven from published reports) and six of recessive inheritance (three in the current survey, three from published reports). There appears to be no clinical or radiographical feature which clearly distinguishes them, but, using height as a criterion of severity, among those with autosomal recessive inheritance there was a disproportionate number of the most severely affected cases and there also appears to be very little intrafamilial variation. It is possible that pseudoachondroplasia can be subdivided into autosomal dominant mild and severe and autosomal recessive mild and severe, but full delineation must await elucidation of the basic defect at biochemical and molecular levels. Images PMID:3783619

  11. Chronic asymptomatic pyuria precedes overt urinary tract infection and deterioration of renal function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infection (UTI) occurs in 30%-50% of individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). However, the clinical relevance of asymptomatic pyuria in ADPKD patients remains unknown. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 256 ADPKD patients who registered to the ADPKD clinic at Seoul National University Hospital from Aug 1999 to Aug 2010. We defined the asymptomatic pyuria as more than 5-9 white blood cells in high-power field with no related symptoms or signs of overt UTI. Patients were categorized into 2 groups depending on its duration and frequency: Group A included non-pyuria and transient pyuria patients; Group B included recurrent and persistent pyuria patients. The association between asymptomatic pyuria and both the development of overt UTI and the deterioration of renal function were examined. Results With a mean follow-up duration of 65.3 months, 176 (68.8%) out of 256 patients experienced 681 episodes of asymptomatic pyuria and 50 episodes of UTI. The annual incidence of asymptomatic pyuria was 0.492 episodes/patient/year. The patients in group B showed female predominance (58.5% vs. 42.0%, P=0.01) and experienced an upper UTI more frequently (hazard ratio: 4.612, 95% confidence interval: 1.735-12.258; P=0.002, adjusted for gender and hypertension). The annual change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (ΔeGFR) was significantly larger in magnitude in group B than in group A (-2.7±4.56 vs. -1.17±5.8, respectively; P=0.01). Age and Group B found to be the independent variables for ΔeGFR and developing end-stage renal disease (16.0% vs. 4.3%, respectively; P=0.001). Conclusions Chronic asymptomatic pyuria may increase the risk of developing overt UTI and may contribute to declining renal function in ADPKD. PMID:23295127

  12. Unfolded protein response-induced dysregulation of calcium homeostasis promotes retinal degeneration in rat models of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, V; Kotla, P; Strang, C; Gorbatyuk, M

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) in rats is closely associated with a persistently activated unfolded protein response (UPR). If unchecked, the UPR might trigger apoptosis, leading to photoreceptor death. One of the UPR-activated cellular signaling culminating in apoptotic photoreceptor cell death is linked to an increase in intracellular Ca2+. Therefore, we validated whether ADRP retinas experience a cytosolic Ca2+ overload, and whether sustained UPR in the wild-type retina could promote retinal degeneration through Ca2+-mediated calpain activation. We performed an ex vivo experiment to measure intracellular Ca2+ in ADRP retinas as well as to detect the expression levels of proteins that act as Ca2+ sensors. In separate experiments with the subretinal injection of tunicamycin (UPR inducer) and a mixture of calcium ionophore (A231278) and thapsigargin (SERCA2b inhibitor) we assessed the consequences of a sustained UPR activation and increased intracellular Ca2+ in the wild-type retina, respectively, by performing scotopic ERG, histological, and western blot analyses. Results of the study revealed that induced UPR in the retina activates calpain-mediated signaling, and increased intracellular Ca2+ is capable of promoting retinal degeneration. A significant decline in ERG amplitudes at 6 weeks post treatment was associated with photoreceptor cell loss that occurred through calpain-activated CDK5-pJNK-Csp3/7 pathway. Similar calpain activation was found in ADRP rat retinas. A twofold increase in intracellular Ca2+ and up- and downregulations of ER membrane-associated Ca2+-regulated IP3R channels and SERCA2b transporters were detected. Therefore, sustained UPR activation in the ADRP rat retinas could promote retinal degeneration through increased intracellular Ca2+ and calpain-mediated apoptosis. PMID:26844699

  13. Unfolded protein response-induced dysregulation of calcium homeostasis promotes retinal degeneration in rat models of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, V; Kotla, P; Strang, C; Gorbatyuk, M

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) in rats is closely associated with a persistently activated unfolded protein response (UPR). If unchecked, the UPR might trigger apoptosis, leading to photoreceptor death. One of the UPR-activated cellular signaling culminating in apoptotic photoreceptor cell death is linked to an increase in intracellular Ca2+. Therefore, we validated whether ADRP retinas experience a cytosolic Ca2+ overload, and whether sustained UPR in the wild-type retina could promote retinal degeneration through Ca2+-mediated calpain activation. We performed an ex vivo experiment to measure intracellular Ca2+ in ADRP retinas as well as to detect the expression levels of proteins that act as Ca2+ sensors. In separate experiments with the subretinal injection of tunicamycin (UPR inducer) and a mixture of calcium ionophore (A231278) and thapsigargin (SERCA2b inhibitor) we assessed the consequences of a sustained UPR activation and increased intracellular Ca2+ in the wild-type retina, respectively, by performing scotopic ERG, histological, and western blot analyses. Results of the study revealed that induced UPR in the retina activates calpain-mediated signaling, and increased intracellular Ca2+ is capable of promoting retinal degeneration. A significant decline in ERG amplitudes at 6 weeks post treatment was associated with photoreceptor cell loss that occurred through calpain-activated CDK5-pJNK-Csp3/7 pathway. Similar calpain activation was found in ADRP rat retinas. A twofold increase in intracellular Ca2+ and up- and downregulations of ER membrane-associated Ca2+-regulated IP3R channels and SERCA2b transporters were detected. Therefore, sustained UPR activation in the ADRP rat retinas could promote retinal degeneration through increased intracellular Ca2+ and calpain-mediated apoptosis.

  14. Loss-of-Function Mutations in the WNT Co-receptor LRP6 Cause Autosomal-Dominant Oligodontia

    PubMed Central

    Massink, Maarten P.G.; Créton, Marijn A.; Spanevello, Francesca; Fennis, Willem M.M.; Cune, Marco S.; Savelberg, Sanne M.C.; Nijman, Isaäc J.; Maurice, Madelon M.; van den Boogaard, Marie-José H.; van Haaften, Gijs

    2015-01-01

    Tooth agenesis is one of the most common developmental anomalies in man. Oligodontia, a severe form of tooth agenesis, occurs both as an isolated anomaly and as a syndromal feature. We performed exome sequencing on 20 unrelated individuals with apparent non-syndromic oligodontia and failed to detect mutations in genes previously associated with oligodontia. In three of the probands, we detected heterozygous variants in LRP6, and sequencing of additional oligodontia-affected individuals yielded one additional mutation in LRP6. Three mutations (c.1144_1145dupAG [p.Ala383Glyfs∗8], c.1779dupT [p.Glu594∗], and c.2224_2225dupTT [p.Leu742Phefs∗7]) are predicted to truncate the protein, whereas the fourth (c.56C>T [p.Ala19Val]) is a missense variant of a conserved residue located at the cleavage site of the protein’s signal peptide. All four affected individuals harboring a LRP6 mutation had a family history of tooth agenesis. LRP6 encodes a transmembrane cell-surface protein that functions as a co-receptor with members from the Frizzled protein family in the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade. In this same pathway, WNT10A was recently identified as a major contributor in the etiology of non-syndromic oligodontia. We show that the LRP6 missense variant (c.56C>T) results in altered glycosylation and improper subcellular localization of the protein, resulting in abrogated activation of the Wnt pathway. Our results identify LRP6 variants as contributing to the etiology of non-syndromic autosomal-dominant oligodontia and suggest that this gene is a candidate for screening in DNA diagnostics. PMID:26387593

  15. Molecular modelling of the interactions of carbamazepine and a nicotinic receptor involved in the autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ortells, M O; Barrantes, G E

    2002-07-01

    1. The normal and a mutant (S248F) human neuronal alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors, and their interaction with the channel blocker carbamazepine (CBZ) have been modelled. The mutant, responsible for the autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE), has an enhanced sensitivity to and a slower recovery from desensitization, a lower conductance, short open times, reduced calcium permeability, and is 3 fold more sensitive to CBZ, a drug used in the treatment of partial epilepsies. 2. Mutant channel properties are explained by the physicochemical properties of the two Phe248 side chains, including size and cation-pi interaction, and their dynamic behaviour. A defective mechanism of dehydration might be responsible for the reduced calcium influx. 3. Phe248 residues are the main component of CBZ binding sites in the mutant, while this is not true for Ser248 in the normal receptor. 4. A higher number of blocking binding sites and a predicted higher affinity found for CBZ in the mutant account for its differential sensitivity to CBZ. 5. Aromatic-aromatic interactions between CBZ and the two Phe248 account for the difference in affinity, which is at least 12 times higher for the mutant, depending on the method used for calculating K(i). 6. Normal vs mutant differences in K(i), enhanced by the higher number of blocking binding sites in the mutant, seem excessive compared to the differential sensitivities to CBZ experimentally found. The negative cooperativity suggested by a predicted overlapping of blocking and non-blocking binding sites gives an explanation, as overlapping is higher in the mutant. 7. For both types of receptors we found that the carbamyl group of the best blocking conformers of CBZ forms hydrogen bonds with serine residues, which may explain the fundamental role of that moiety for this molecule to act as antiepileptic drug. PMID:12110613

  16. Identification of two novel mutations in FAM136A and DTNA genes in autosomal-dominant familial Meniere's disease.

    PubMed

    Requena, Teresa; Cabrera, Sonia; Martín-Sierra, Carmen; Price, Steven D; Lysakowski, Anna; Lopez-Escamez, José A

    2015-02-15

    Meniere's disease (MD) is a chronic disorder of the inner ear defined by sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus and episodic vertigo, and familial MD is observed in 5-15% of sporadic cases. Although its pathophysiology is largely unknown, studies in human temporal bones have found an accumulation of endolymph in the scala media of the cochlea. By whole-exome sequencing, we have identified two novel heterozygous single-nucleotide variants in FAM136A and DTNA genes, both in a Spanish family with three affected cases in consecutive generations, highly suggestive of autosomal-dominant inheritance. The nonsense mutation in the FAM136A gene leads to a stop codon that disrupts the FAM136A protein product. Sequencing revealed two mRNA transcripts of FAM136A in lymphoblasts from patients, which were confirmed by immunoblotting. Carriers of the FAM136A mutation showed a significant decrease in the expression level of both transcripts in lymphoblastoid cell lines. The missense mutation in the DTNA gene produces a novel splice site which skips exon 21 and leads to a shorter alternative transcript. We also demonstrated that FAM136A and DTNA proteins are expressed in the neurosensorial epithelium of the crista ampullaris of the rat by immunohistochemistry. While FAM136A encodes a mitochondrial protein with unknown function, DTNA encodes a cytoskeleton-interacting membrane protein involved in the formation and stability of synapses with a crucial role in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Neither of these genes has been described in patients with hearing loss, FAM136A and DTNA being candidate gene for familiar MD. PMID:25305078

  17. Urinary Proteomic Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Risk Stratification of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Multicentric Study

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Andreas D.; Serra, Andreas L.; Siwy, Justyna; Poster, Diane; Krauer, Fabienne; Torres, Vicente E.; Mrug, Michal; Grantham, Jared J.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Bost, James E.; Mullen, William; Wüthrich, Rudolf P.; Mischak, Harald; Chapman, Arlene B.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment options for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) will likely become available in the near future, hence reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for the disease are strongly needed. Here, we aimed to define urinary proteomic patterns in ADPKD patients, which aid diagnosis and risk stratification. By capillary electrophoresis online coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS), we compared the urinary peptidome of 41 ADPKD patients to 189 healthy controls and identified 657 peptides with significantly altered excretion, of which 209 could be sequenced using tandem mass spectrometry. A support-vector-machine based diagnostic biomarker model based on the 142 most consistent peptide markers achieved a diagnostic sensitivity of 84.5% and specificity of 94.2% in an independent validation cohort, consisting of 251 ADPKD patients from five different centers and 86 healthy controls. The proteomic alterations in ADPKD included, but were not limited to markers previously associated with acute kidney injury (AKI). The diagnostic biomarker model was highly specific for ADPKD when tested in a cohort consisting of 481 patients with a variety of renal and extrarenal diseases, including AKI. Similar to ultrasound, sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic score depended on patient age and genotype. We were furthermore able to identify biomarkers for disease severity and progression. A proteomic severity score was developed to predict height adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) based on proteomic analysis of 134 ADPKD patients and showed a correlation of r = 0.415 (p<0.0001) with htTKV in an independent validation cohort consisting of 158 ADPKD patients. In conclusion, the performance of peptidomic biomarker scores is superior to any other biochemical markers of ADPKD and the proteomic biomarker patterns are a promising tool for prognostic evaluation of ADPKD. PMID:23326375

  18. De novo post-transplant thrombotic microangiopathy localized only to the graft in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with thrombophilia

    PubMed Central

    Rolla, Davide; Fontana, Iris; Ravetti, Jean Louis; Marsano, Luigina; Bellino, Diego; Panaro, Laura; Ansaldo, Francesca; Mathiasen, Lisa; Storace, Giulia; Trezzi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a serious complication of renal transplantation and is mostly related to the prothrombotic effect of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). A subset of TMA (29%-38%) is localized only to the graft. Case 1: A young woman suffering from autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) underwent kidney transplant. After 2 months, she showed slow renal deterioration (serum creatinine from 1.9 to 3.1 mg/dl), without hematological signs of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS); only LDH enzyme transient increase was detected. Renal biopsy showed TMA: temporary withdraw of tacrolimus and plasmapheresis was performed. The renal function recovered (serum creatinine 1.9 mg/dl). From screening for thrombophilia, we found a mutation of the Leiden factor V gene. Case 2: A man affected by ADPKD underwent kidney transplantation, with delay graft function; first biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis, but a second biopsy revealed TMA, while no altered hematological parameters of HUS was detected. We observed only a slight increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. The tacrolimus was halved and plasmapheresis was performed: LDH levels normalized within 10 days and renal function improved (serum creatinine from 9 to 2.9 mg/dl). We found a mutation of the prothrombin gene. Only a renal biopsy clarifies the diagnosis of TMA, but it is necessary to pay attention to light increasing level of LDH. Conclusion: Prothrombotic effect of CNIs and mTOR inhibitor, mutation of genes encoding factor H or I, anticardiolipin antibodies, vascular rejection, cytomegalovirus infection are proposed to trigger TMA; we detected mutations of factor II and Leiden factor V, as facilitating conditions for TMA in patients affected by ADPKD. PMID:26693501

  19. Identification of a Novel Gene on 10q22.1 Causing Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa (adRP).

    PubMed

    Daiger, Stephen P; Sullivan, Lori S; Bowne, Sara J; Koboldt, Daniel C; Blanton, Susan H; Wheaton, Dianna K; Avery, Cheryl E; Cadena, Elizabeth D; Koenekoop, Robert K; Fulton, Robert S; Wilson, Richard K; Weinstock, George M; Lewis, Richard A; Birch, David G

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome linkage mapping identified a region on chromosome 10q21.3-q22.1 with a maximum LOD score of 3.0 at 0 % recombination in a six-generation family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). All known adRP genes and X-linked RP genes were excluded in the family by a combination of methods. Whole-exome next-generation sequencing revealed a missense mutation in hexokinase 1, HK1 c.2539G > A, p.Glu847Lys, tracking with disease in all affected family members. One severely-affected male is homozygous for this region by linkage analysis and has two copies of the mutation. No other potential mutations were detected in the linkage region nor were any candidates identified elsewhere in the genome. Subsequent testing detected the same mutation in four additional, unrelated adRP families, for a total of five mutations in 404 probands tested (1.2 %). Of the five families, three are from the Acadian population in Louisiana, one is French Canadian and one is Sicilian. Haplotype analysis of the affected chromosome in each family and the homozygous individual revealed a rare, shared haplotype of 450 kb, suggesting an ancient founder mutation. HK1 is a widely-expressed gene, with multiple, abundant retinal transcripts, coding for hexokinase 1. Hexokinase catalyzes phosphorylation of glucose to glusose-6-phospate, the first step in glycolysis. The Glu847Lys mutation is in a highly-conserved site, outside of the active site or known functional sites. PMID:26427411

  20. Unfolded protein response-induced dysregulation of calcium homeostasis promotes retinal degeneration in rat models of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Shinde, V; Kotla, P; Strang, C; Gorbatyuk, M

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) in rats is closely associated with a persistently activated unfolded protein response (UPR). If unchecked, the UPR might trigger apoptosis, leading to photoreceptor death. One of the UPR-activated cellular signaling culminating in apoptotic photoreceptor cell death is linked to an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). Therefore, we validated whether ADRP retinas experience a cytosolic Ca(2+) overload, and whether sustained UPR in the wild-type retina could promote retinal degeneration through Ca(2+)-mediated calpain activation. We performed an ex vivo experiment to measure intracellular Ca(2+) in ADRP retinas as well as to detect the expression levels of proteins that act as Ca(2+) sensors. In separate experiments with the subretinal injection of tunicamycin (UPR inducer) and a mixture of calcium ionophore (A231278) and thapsigargin (SERCA2b inhibitor) we assessed the consequences of a sustained UPR activation and increased intracellular Ca(2+) in the wild-type retina, respectively, by performing scotopic ERG, histological, and western blot analyses. Results of the study revealed that induced UPR in the retina activates calpain-mediated signaling, and increased intracellular Ca(2+) is capable of promoting retinal degeneration. A significant decline in ERG amplitudes at 6 weeks post treatment was associated with photoreceptor cell loss that occurred through calpain-activated CDK5-pJNK-Csp3/7 pathway. Similar calpain activation was found in ADRP rat retinas. A twofold increase in intracellular Ca(2+) and up- and downregulations of ER membrane-associated Ca(2+)-regulated IP3R channels and SERCA2b transporters were detected. Therefore, sustained UPR activation in the ADRP rat retinas could promote retinal degeneration through increased intracellular Ca(2+) and calpain-mediated apoptosis. PMID:26844699

  1. Therapeutic Area Data Standards for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Report From the Polycystic Kidney Disease Outcomes Consortium (PKDOC).

    PubMed

    Perrone, Ronald D; Neville, Jon; Chapman, Arlene B; Gitomer, Berenice Y; Miskulin, Dana C; Torres, Vicente E; Czerwiec, Frank S; Dennis, Eslie; Kisler, Bron; Kopko, Steve; Krasa, Holly B; LeRoy, Elizabeth; Castedo, Juliana; Schrier, Robert W; Broadbent, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Data standards provide a structure for consistent understanding and exchange of data and enable the integration of data across studies for integrated analysis. There is no data standard applicable to kidney disease. We describe the process for development of the first-ever Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) data standard for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) by the Polycystic Kidney Disease Outcomes Consortium (PKDOC). Definition of common data elements and creation of ADPKD-specific data standards from case report forms used in long-term ADPKD registries, an observational cohort (Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease [CRISP] 1 and 2), and a randomized clinical trial (Halt Progression of Polycystic Kidney Disease [HALT-PKD]) are described in detail. This data standard underwent extensive review, including a global public comment period, and is now available online as the first PKD-specific data standard (www.cdisc.org/therapeutic). Submission of clinical trial data that use standard data structures and terminology will be required for new electronic submissions to the US Food and Drug Administration for all disease areas by the end of 2016. This data standard will allow for the mapping and pooling of available data into a common data set in addition to providing a foundation for future studies, data sharing, and long-term registries in ADPKD. This data set will also be used to support the regulatory qualification of total kidney volume as a prognostic biomarker for use in clinical trials. The availability of consensus data standards for ADPKD has the potential to facilitate clinical trial initiation and increase sharing and aggregation of data across observational studies and among completed clinical trials, thereby improving our understanding of disease progression and treatment. PMID:26088508

  2. Imaging Classification of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Simple Model for Selecting Patients for Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Irazabal, María V.; Rangel, Laureano J.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Osborn, Sara L.; Harmon, Amber J.; Sundsbak, Jamie L.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Chapman, Arlene B.; Grantham, Jared J.; Mrug, Michal; Hogan, Marie C.; El-Zoghby, Ziad M.; Harris, Peter C.; Erickson, Bradley J.; King, Bernard F.

    2015-01-01

    The rate of renal disease progression varies widely among patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), necessitating optimal patient selection for enrollment into clinical trials. Patients from the Mayo Clinic Translational PKD Center with ADPKD (n=590) with computed tomography/magnetic resonance images and three or more eGFR measurements over ≥6 months were classified radiologically as typical (n=538) or atypical (n=52). Total kidney volume (TKV) was measured using stereology (TKVs) and ellipsoid equation (TKVe). Typical patients were randomly partitioned into development and internal validation sets and subclassified according to height-adjusted TKV (HtTKV) ranges for age (1A–1E, in increasing order). Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Study of PKD (CRISP) participants (n=173) were used for external validation. TKVe correlated strongly with TKVs, without systematic underestimation or overestimation. A longitudinal mixed regression model to predict eGFR decline showed that log2HtTKV and age significantly interacted with time in typical patients, but not in atypical patients. When 1A–1E classifications were used instead of log2HtTKV, eGFR slopes were significantly different among subclasses and, except for 1A, different from those in healthy kidney donors. The equation derived from the development set predicted eGFR in both validation sets. The frequency of ESRD at 10 years increased from subclass 1A (2.4%) to 1E (66.9%) in the Mayo cohort and from 1C (2.2%) to 1E (22.3%) in the younger CRISP cohort. Class and subclass designations were stable. An easily applied classification of ADPKD based on HtTKV and age should optimize patient selection for enrollment into clinical trials and for treatment when one becomes available. PMID:24904092

  3. Molecular modelling of the interactions of carbamazepine and a nicotinic receptor involved in the autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ortells, M O; Barrantes, G E

    2002-01-01

    The normal and a mutant (S248F) human neuronal α4β2 nicotinic receptors, and their interaction with the channel blocker carbamazepine (CBZ) have been modelled. The mutant, responsible for the autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE), has an enhanced sensitivity to and a slower recovery from desensitization, a lower conductance, short open times, reduced calcium permeability, and is 3 fold more sensitive to CBZ, a drug used in the treatment of partial epilepsies. Mutant channel properties are explained by the physicochemical properties of the two Phe248 side chains, including size and cation-π interaction, and their dynamic behaviour. A defective mechanism of dehydration might be responsible for the reduced calcium influx. Phe248 residues are the main component of CBZ binding sites in the mutant, while this is not true for Ser248 in the normal receptor. A higher number of blocking binding sites and a predicted higher affinity found for CBZ in the mutant account for its differential sensitivity to CBZ. Aromatic–aromatic interactions between CBZ and the two Phe248 account for the difference in affinity, which is at least 12 times higher for the mutant, depending on the method used for calculating Ki. Normal vs mutant differences in Ki, enhanced by the higher number of blocking binding sites in the mutant, seem excessive compared to the differential sensitivities to CBZ experimentally found. The negative cooperativity suggested by a predicted overlapping of blocking and non-blocking binding sites gives an explanation, as overlapping is higher in the mutant. For both types of receptors we found that the carbamyl group of the best blocking conformers of CBZ forms hydrogen bonds with serine residues, which may explain the fundamental role of that moiety for this molecule to act as antiepileptic drug. PMID:12110613

  4. Clinical Characteristics and Disease Predictors of a Large Chinese Cohort of Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueqi; Yu, Shengqiang; Li, Lin; Dai, Bing; Mao, Zhiguo; Sun, Lijun; Xu, Chenggang; Rong, Shu; Tang, Mengjun; Zhao, Hongbo; Liu, Hongchao; Serra, Andreas L.; Graf, Nicole; Liu, Shiyuan; Wthrich, Rudolf P.; Mei, Changlin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a relentlessly progressing form of chronic kidney disease for which there is no cure. The aim of this study was to characterize Chinese patients with ADPKD and to identify the factors which predict cyst growth and renal functional deterioration. Methods To analyze disease predicting factors we performed a prospective longitudinal observational study in a cohort of 541 Chinese patients with ADPKD and an eGFR ?30 ml/min/1.73 m2. Patients were followed clinically and radiologically with sequential abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Clinical characteristics and laboratory data were related to changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and total kidney volume (TKV). A linear regression model was developed to analyze the factors which determine eGFR and TKV changes. Results The age range of this unselected cohort ranged from 4 to 77 years. Median follow-up time was 14.310.6 months. Although inter-individual differences in eGFR and TKV were large, there was a consistent link between these two parameters. Baseline log10-transformed TKV and urinary protein/creatinine ratio were identified as the major predictors for a faster eGFR decline and were associated with a higher TKV growth rate. Interestingly, a lower thrombocyte count correlated significantly with lower eGFR (r?=?0.222) and higher TKV (r?=?0.134). Conclusions This large cohort of Chinese patients with ADPKD provides unique epidemiological data for comparison with other cohorts of different ethnicity. In Chinese patients we identified a lower thrombocyte count as a significant predictor of disease progression. These results are important for the design of future clinical trials to retard polycystic kidney disease progression. PMID:24651850

  5. Ouabain activates the Na-K-ATPase signalosome to induce autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Anh-Nguyet T.; Jansson, Kyle; Sánchez, Gladis; Sharma, Madhulika; Reif, Gail A.; Wallace, Darren P.

    2011-01-01

    The Na-K-ATPase is part of a cell signaling complex, the Na-K-ATPase signalosome, which upon activation by the hormone ouabain regulates the function of different cell types. We previously showed that ouabain induces proliferation of epithelial cells derived from renal cysts of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD cells). Here, we investigated the signaling pathways responsible for mediating the effects of ouabain in these cells. Incubation of ADPKD cells with ouabain, in concentrations similar to those found in blood, stimulated phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and promoted its association to the Na-K-ATPase. In addition, ouabain activated the kinase Src, but not the related kinase Fyn. Tyrphostin AG1478 and PP2, inhibitors of EGFR and Src, respectively, blocked ouabain-dependent ADPKD cell proliferation. Treatment of ADPKD cells with ouabain also caused phosphorylation of the caveolar protein caveolin-1, and disruption of cell caveolae with methyl-β-cyclodextrin prevented Na-K-ATPase-EGFR interaction and ouabain-induced proliferation of the cells. Downstream effects of ouabain in ADPKD cells included activation of B-Raf and MEK and phosphorylation of the extracellular regulated kinase ERK, which translocated into the ADPKD cell nuclei. Finally, ouabain reduced expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, which are suppressors of cell proliferation. Different from ADPKD cells, ouabain showed no significant effect on B-Raf, p21, and p27 in normal human kidney epithelial cells. Altogether, these results identify intracellular pathways of ouabain-dependent Na-K-ATPase-mediated signaling in ADPKD cells, including EGFR-Src-B-Raf-MEK/ERK, and establish novel mechanisms involved in ADPKD cell proliferation. PMID:21697238

  6. Risk of intracranial hemorrhage associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in patients with end stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An analysis of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in a national sample of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients receiving long-term dialysis has not been reported. It is often assumed that patients with ADPKD are not at increased risk of ICH after starting dialysis. We hypothesized that patients with ADPKD would have a higher subsequent risk of ICH even after the start of chronic dialysis. Methods Retrospective cohort study of Medicare primary patients with and without ADPKD in the United States Renal Data System (USRDS), initiated on chronic dialysis or transplanted between 1 January 1999 and 3 July 2009, and followed until 31 December 2009. Covariates included age, gender, race, prior stroke, diabetes mellitus, dialysis modality, body mass index, serum albumin and other co-morbid conditions from the Medical Evidence Form. Primary outcome was ICH, based on inpatient and outpatient Medicare claims, and all-cause mortality. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used for unadjusted assessment of time to events. Cox regression was used for assessment of factors associated with ICH and mortality. We performed competing risk regression using kidney transplant and death as competing risks. Kidney transplant was also modeled as a time-dependent covariate in Cox regression. Results Competing risk regression demonstrated that ADPKD had a subhazard ratio 2.97 for ICH (95% CI 2.27-3.89). Adjusted Cox analysis showed that ADPKD patients had an AHR for death of 0.59 vs. non-ADPKD patients (95% CI 0.57-0.61). Conclusions ADPKD is a significant risk factor for ICH among patients on maintenance dialysis. Our Medicare primary cohort was older than in previous studies of intracranial aneurysm rupture among ADPKD patients. There are also limitations inherent to using the USRDS database. PMID:24571546

  7. Somatotroph pituitary adenoma with acromegaly and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: SSTR5 polymorphism and PKD1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Syro, Luis V; Sundsbak, Jamie L; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Toledo, Rodrigo A; Camargo, Mauricio; Heyer, Christina M; Sekiya, Tomoko; Uribe, Humberto; Escobar, Jorge I; Vasquez, Martin; Rotondo, Fabio; Toledo, Sergio P A; Kovacs, Kalman; Horvath, Eva; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Harris, Peter C

    2012-09-01

    A 39-year-old woman with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) presented with acromegaly and a pituitary macroadenoma. There was a family history of this renal disorder. She had undergone surgery for pituitary adenoma 6 years prior. Physical examination disclosed bitemporal hemianopsia and elevation of both basal growth hormone (GH) 106 ng/mL (normal 0-5) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) 811 ng/mL (normal 48-255) blood levels. A magnetic resonance imaging scan disclosed a 3.0 cm sellar and suprasellar mass with both optic chiasm compression and left cavernous sinus invasion. Pathologic, cytogenetic, molecular and in silico analysis was undertaken. Histologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies of the lesion disclosed a sparsely granulated somatotroph adenoma. Standard chromosome analysis on the blood sample showed no abnormality. Sequence analysis of the coding regions of PKD1 and PKD2 employing DNA from both peripheral leukocytes and the tumor revealed the most common PKD1 mutation, 5014_5015delAG. Analysis of the entire SSTR5 gene disclosed the variant c.142C>A (p.L48M, rs4988483) in the heterozygous state in both blood and tumor, while no pathogenic mutations were noted in the MEN1, AIP, p27Kip1 and SSTR2 genes. To our knowledge, this is the fourth reported case of a GH-producing pituitary adenoma associated with ADPKD, but the first subjected to extensive morphological, ultrastructural, cytogenetic and molecular studies. The physical proximity of the PKD1 and SSTR5 genes on chromosome 16 suggests a causal relationship between ADPKD and somatotroph adenoma. PMID:21744088

  8. Somatotroph Pituitary Adenoma with Acromegaly and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease – SSTR5 polymorphism and PKD1 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Syro, Luis V.; Sundsbak, Jamie L.; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Camargo, Mauricio; Heyer, Christina M.; Sekiya, Tomoko; Uribe, Humberto; Escobar, Jorge I.; Vasquez, Martin; Rotondo, Fabio; Toledo, Sergio P. A.; Kovacs, Kalman; Horvath, Eva; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Harris, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    A 39-year-old woman with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) presented with acromegaly and a pituitary macroadenoma. There was a family history of this renal disorder. She had undergone surgery for pituitary adenoma 6 years prior. Physical examination disclosed bitemporal hemianopsia and elevation of both basal growth hormone (GH) 106 ng/mL (normal 0–5) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) 811 ng/mL (normal 48–255) blood levels. A magnetic resonance imaging scan disclosed a 3.0 cm sellar and suprasellar mass with both optic chiasm compression and left cavernous sinus invasion. Histologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies of the lesion disclosed a sparsely granulated somatotroph adenoma. Standard chromosome analysis on the blood sample showed no abnormality. Sequence analysis of the coding regions of PKD1 and PKD2 employing DNA from both peripheral leukocytes and the tumor revealed the most common PKD1 mutation, 5014_5015delAG. Analysis of the entire SSTR5 gene disclosed the variant c.143C>A (p.L48M, rs4988483) change in the heterozygous state in both blood and tumor, while no pathogenic mutations were noted in the MEN1, AIP, p27Kip1 and SSTR2 genes. To our knowledge, this is the fourth reported case of a GH-producing pituitary adenoma associated with ADPKD, but the first subject to extensive morphological, ultrastructural, cytogenetic and molecular studies. The question arises whether the physical proximity of the PKD1 and SSTR5 genes on chromosome 16 indicates a causal relationship between ADPKD and the somatotroph adenoma. PMID:21744088

  9. A novel autosomal dominant condition consisting of congenital heart defects and low atrial rhythm maps to chromosome 9q

    PubMed Central

    van de Meerakker, Judith B A; van Engelen, Klaartje; Mathijssen, Inge B; Lekanne dit Deprez, Ronald H; Lam, Jan; Wilde, Arthur A M; Baars, Marieke J H; Mannens, Marcel M A M; Mulder, Barbara J M; Moorman, Antoon F M; Postma, Alex V

    2011-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) occur mostly sporadic, but familial CHD cases have been reported. Mutations in several genes, including NKX2.5, GATA4 and NOTCH1, were identified in families and patients with CHD, but the mechanisms underlying CHD are largely unknown. We performed genome-wide linkage analysis in a large four-generation family with autosomal dominant CHD (including atrial septal defect type I and II, tetralogy of Fallot and persistent left superior vena cava) and low atrial rhythm, a unique phenotype that has not been described before. We obtained phenotypic information including electrocardiography, echocardiography and DNA of 23 family members. Genome-wide linkage analysis on 12 affected, 5 unaffected individuals and 1 obligate carrier demonstrated significant linkage only to chromosome 9q21–33 with a multipoint maximum LOD score of 4.1 at marker D9S1690, between markers D9S167 and D9S1682. This 48-c critical interval corresponds to 39 Mb and contains 402 genes. Sequence analysis of nine candidate genes in this region (INVS, TMOD1, TGFBR1, KLF4, IPPK, BARX1, PTCH1, MEGF9 and S1PR3) revealed no mutations, nor were genomic imbalances detected using array comparative genomic hybridization. In conclusion, we describe a large family with CHD and low atrial rhythm with a significant LOD score to chromosome 9q. The phenotype is representative of a mild form of left atrial isomerism or a developmental defect of the sinus node and surrounding tissue. Because the mechanisms underlying CHD are largely unknown, this study represents an important step towards the discovery of genes implied in cardiogenesis. PMID:21386876

  10. Identification of two novel mutations in FAM136A and DTNA genes in autosomal-dominant familial Meniere's disease

    PubMed Central

    Requena, Teresa; Cabrera, Sonia; Martín-Sierra, Carmen; Price, Steven D.; Lysakowski, Anna; Lopez-Escamez, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Meniere's disease (MD) is a chronic disorder of the inner ear defined by sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus and episodic vertigo, and familial MD is observed in 5–15% of sporadic cases. Although its pathophysiology is largely unknown, studies in human temporal bones have found an accumulation of endolymph in the scala media of the cochlea. By whole-exome sequencing, we have identified two novel heterozygous single-nucleotide variants in FAM136A and DTNA genes, both in a Spanish family with three affected cases in consecutive generations, highly suggestive of autosomal-dominant inheritance. The nonsense mutation in the FAM136A gene leads to a stop codon that disrupts the FAM136A protein product. Sequencing revealed two mRNA transcripts of FAM136A in lymphoblasts from patients, which were confirmed by immunoblotting. Carriers of the FAM136A mutation showed a significant decrease in the expression level of both transcripts in lymphoblastoid cell lines. The missense mutation in the DTNA gene produces a novel splice site which skips exon 21 and leads to a shorter alternative transcript. We also demonstrated that FAM136A and DTNA proteins are expressed in the neurosensorial epithelium of the crista ampullaris of the rat by immunohistochemistry. While FAM136A encodes a mitochondrial protein with unknown function, DTNA encodes a cytoskeleton-interacting membrane protein involved in the formation and stability of synapses with a crucial role in the permeability of the blood–brain barrier. Neither of these genes has been described in patients with hearing loss, FAM136A and DTNA being candidate gene for familiar MD. PMID:25305078

  11. Hereditary error in epidermal growth factor prohormone metabolism in a rat model of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, J; Eysselein, V

    1993-12-30

    Normal Sprague Dawley (SPRD) rats of both sexes secrete an 165 kDa EGF prohormone in urine. Sexually mature Hannover-Sprague Dawley rats (Han:SPRD) heterozygous males and females with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) secrete a prohormone of similar molecular mass in urine. The male, but not the female, also secretes two variant prohormone isoforms with molecular masses close to 200 kDa. Both the 165 and 200 kDa EGF prohormone isoforms are totally absent, in urine, at 11 months of age in male but not in female heterozygous Han:SPRD rats. At this age, the male kidneys exhibit numerous cysts filled with colorless fluids and these fluids contain abundant quantities of a 66 kDa EGF prohormone metabolite. Homozygous Han:SPRD rats which are born with cystic disease secrete only trace amounts of 165 kDa EGF prohormone in their urine while their normal looking littermates secrete the 165 kDa EGF prohormone in abundant quantities. The cyst fluids of homozygous rats contain trace amounts of 165 and 154 kDa EGF prohormone isoforms while the 66 kDa EGF prohormone metabolites present in abundant quantities. The massive amounts of 66 kDa EGF prohormone metabolite in cyst fluids of PKD rats suggests that EGF prohormone and its isoforms undergo aberrant proteolysis in association with cyst pathogenesis both in heterozygous and homozygous kidneys. The specific retention of the 66 kDa EGF prohormone metabolite within the cyst suggests that this molecule may function as a cystogen. PMID:8280123

  12. Imaging classification of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a simple model for selecting patients for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Irazabal, María V; Rangel, Laureano J; Bergstralh, Eric J; Osborn, Sara L; Harmon, Amber J; Sundsbak, Jamie L; Bae, Kyongtae T; Chapman, Arlene B; Grantham, Jared J; Mrug, Michal; Hogan, Marie C; El-Zoghby, Ziad M; Harris, Peter C; Erickson, Bradley J; King, Bernard F; Torres, Vicente E

    2015-01-01

    The rate of renal disease progression varies widely among patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), necessitating optimal patient selection for enrollment into clinical trials. Patients from the Mayo Clinic Translational PKD Center with ADPKD (n=590) with computed tomography/magnetic resonance images and three or more eGFR measurements over ≥6 months were classified radiologically as typical (n=538) or atypical (n=52). Total kidney volume (TKV) was measured using stereology (TKVs) and ellipsoid equation (TKVe). Typical patients were randomly partitioned into development and internal validation sets and subclassified according to height-adjusted TKV (HtTKV) ranges for age (1A-1E, in increasing order). Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Study of PKD (CRISP) participants (n=173) were used for external validation. TKVe correlated strongly with TKVs, without systematic underestimation or overestimation. A longitudinal mixed regression model to predict eGFR decline showed that log2HtTKV and age significantly interacted with time in typical patients, but not in atypical patients. When 1A-1E classifications were used instead of log2HtTKV, eGFR slopes were significantly different among subclasses and, except for 1A, different from those in healthy kidney donors. The equation derived from the development set predicted eGFR in both validation sets. The frequency of ESRD at 10 years increased from subclass 1A (2.4%) to 1E (66.9%) in the Mayo cohort and from 1C (2.2%) to 1E (22.3%) in the younger CRISP cohort. Class and subclass designations were stable. An easily applied classification of ADPKD based on HtTKV and age should optimize patient selection for enrollment into clinical trials and for treatment when one becomes available. PMID:24904092

  13. Cold temperature improves mobility and survival in Drosophila models of autosomal-dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP).

    PubMed

    Baxter, Sally L; Allard, Denise E; Crowl, Christopher; Sherwood, Nina Tang

    2014-08-01

    Autosomal-dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP) is a crippling neurodegenerative disease for which effective treatment or cure remains unknown. Victims experience progressive mobility loss due to degeneration of the longest axons in the spinal cord. Over half of AD-HSP cases arise from loss-of-function mutations in spastin, which encodes a microtubule-severing AAA ATPase. In Drosophila models of AD-HSP, larvae lacking Spastin exhibit abnormal motor neuron morphology and function, and most die as pupae. Adult survivors display impaired mobility, reminiscent of the human disease. Here, we show that rearing pupae or adults at reduced temperature (18°C), compared with the standard temperature of 24°C, improves the survival and mobility of adult spastin mutants but leaves wild-type flies unaffected. Flies expressing human spastin with pathogenic mutations are similarly rescued. Additionally, larval cooling partially rescues the larval synaptic phenotype. Cooling thus alleviates known spastin phenotypes for each developmental stage at which it is administered and, notably, is effective even in mature adults. We find further that cold treatment rescues larval synaptic defects in flies with mutations in Flower (a protein with no known relation to Spastin) and mobility defects in flies lacking Kat60-L1, another microtubule-severing protein enriched in the CNS. Together, these data support the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of cold extend beyond specific alleviation of Spastin dysfunction, to at least a subset of cellular and behavioral neuronal defects. Mild hypothermia, a common neuroprotective technique in clinical treatment of acute anoxia, might thus hold additional promise as a therapeutic approach for AD-HSP and, potentially, for other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24906373

  14. Cold temperature improves mobility and survival in Drosophila models of autosomal-dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP)

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Sally L.; Allard, Denise E.; Crowl, Christopher; Sherwood, Nina Tang

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal-dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP) is a crippling neurodegenerative disease for which effective treatment or cure remains unknown. Victims experience progressive mobility loss due to degeneration of the longest axons in the spinal cord. Over half of AD-HSP cases arise from loss-of-function mutations in spastin, which encodes a microtubule-severing AAA ATPase. In Drosophila models of AD-HSP, larvae lacking Spastin exhibit abnormal motor neuron morphology and function, and most die as pupae. Adult survivors display impaired mobility, reminiscent of the human disease. Here, we show that rearing pupae or adults at reduced temperature (18°C), compared with the standard temperature of 24°C, improves the survival and mobility of adult spastin mutants but leaves wild-type flies unaffected. Flies expressing human spastin with pathogenic mutations are similarly rescued. Additionally, larval cooling partially rescues the larval synaptic phenotype. Cooling thus alleviates known spastin phenotypes for each developmental stage at which it is administered and, notably, is effective even in mature adults. We find further that cold treatment rescues larval synaptic defects in flies with mutations in Flower (a protein with no known relation to Spastin) and mobility defects in flies lacking Kat60-L1, another microtubule-severing protein enriched in the CNS. Together, these data support the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of cold extend beyond specific alleviation of Spastin dysfunction, to at least a subset of cellular and behavioral neuronal defects. Mild hypothermia, a common neuroprotective technique in clinical treatment of acute anoxia, might thus hold additional promise as a therapeutic approach for AD-HSP and, potentially, for other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24906373

  15. Autosomal dominant familial spastic paraplegia: Reduction of the FSPI candidate region on chromosome 14q to 7 cM and locus heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Gispert, S.; Santos, N.; Auburger, G.; Damen, R.; Voit, T.; Schulz, J.; Klockgether, T.; Orozco, G.; Kreuz, F.; Weissenbach, J.

    1995-01-01

    Three large pedigrees of Germany descent with autosomal dominant {open_quotes}pure{close_quotes} familial spastic paraplegia (FSP) were characterized clinically and genetically. Haplotype and linkage analyses, with microsatellites covering the FSP region on chromosome 14q (locus FSP1), were performed. In pedigree W, we found a haplotype that cosegregates with the disease and observed three crossing-over events, reducing the FSP1 candidate region to 7 cM; in addition, the observation of apparent anticipation in this family suggests a trinucleotide repeat expansion as the mutation. In pedigree D and S, the gene locus could be excluded from the whole FSP1 region, confirming the locus heterogeneity of autosomal dominant FSP. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy in a Chinese pedigree: A case report using brain magnetic resonance imaging and biospy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Erhe; Dong, Huiqing; Zhang, Milan; Xu, Min

    2012-01-25

    The present study enrolled a Chinese family that comprised 34 members and spanned three generations. Eight members were diagnosed with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, and disease diagnoses corresponded with autosomal incomplete dominance inheritance. The primary clinical manifestations included paralysis, dysarthria, and mild cognitive deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse leukoencephalopathy with involvement of bilateral anterior temporal lobes, in particular the pons. In addition, multiple cerebral infarction was identified in the proband. Sural nerve biopsy findings of the proband revealed granular osmophilic material deposits in the extracellular matrix, which were adjacent to smooth muscle cells of dermal arterioles. Screening exons 2-4 for NOTCH 3 mutations by direct sequencing did not reveal any abnormalities. PMID:25767504

  17. Urine-sample-derived human induced pluripotent stem cells as a model to study PCSK9-mediated autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Si-Tayeb, Karim; Idriss, Salam; Champon, Benoite; Caillaud, Amandine; Pichelin, Matthieu; Arnaud, Lucie; Lemarchand, Patricia; Le May, Cédric; Zibara, Kazem; Cariou, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a critical modulator of cholesterol homeostasis. Whereas PCSK9 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations are associated with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH) and premature atherosclerosis, PCSK9 loss-of-function (LOF) mutations have a cardio-protective effect and in some cases can lead to familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL). However, limitations of the currently available cellular models preclude deciphering the consequences of PCSK9 mutation further. We aimed to validate urine-sample-derived human induced pluripotent stem cells (UhiPSCs) as an appropriate tool to model PCSK9-mediated ADH and FHBL. To achieve our goal, urine-sample-derived somatic cells were reprogrammed into hiPSCs by using episomal vectors. UhiPSC were efficiently differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). Compared to control cells, cells originally derived from an individual with ADH (HLC-S127R) secreted less PCSK9 in the media (-38.5%; P=0.038) and had a 71% decrease (P<0.001) of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake, whereas cells originally derived from an individual with FHBL (HLC-R104C/V114A) displayed a strong decrease in PCSK9 secretion (-89.7%; P<0.001) and had a 106% increase (P=0.0104) of LDL uptake. Pravastatin treatment significantly enhanced LDL receptor (LDLR) and PCSK9 mRNA gene expression, as well as PCSK9 secretion and LDL uptake in both control and S127R HLCs. Pravastatin treatment of multiple clones led to an average increase of LDL uptake of 2.19±0.77-fold in HLC-S127R compared to 1.38±0.49 fold in control HLCs (P<0.01), in line with the good response to statin treatment of individuals carrying the S127R mutation (mean LDL cholesterol reduction=60.4%, n=5). In conclusion, urine samples provide an attractive and convenient source of somatic cells for reprogramming and hepatocyte differentiation, but also a powerful tool to further decipher PCSK9 mutations and function. PMID:26586530

  18. Low-Dose Rapamycin (Sirolimus) Effects in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: An Open-Label Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Schold, Jesse D.; Stephany, Brian R.; Spirko, Rita A.; Herts, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives The two largest studies of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor treatment of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) demonstrated no clear benefit on the primary endpoint of total kidney volume (TKV) or on eGFR. The present study evaluated two levels of rapamycin on the 12-month change in 125I-iothalamate GFR (iGFR) as the primary endpoint and TKV secondarily. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In a 12-month open-label pilot study, 30 adult patients with ADPKD were randomly assigned to low-dose (LD) rapamycin (rapamycin trough blood level, 2–5 ng/ml) (LD group, n=10), standard-dose (STD) rapamycin trough level (>5–8 ng/ml) (STD group, n=10), or standard care (SC group, n=10). They were evaluated with iGFR and noncontrast computed tomography. Results Change in iGFR at 12 months was significantly higher in the LD group (7.7±12.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2; n=9) than in the SC group (−11.2±9.1 ml/min per 1.73 m2; n=9) (LD versus SC: P<0.01). Change in iGFR at 12 months in the STD group (1.6±12.1 ml/min per 1.73 m2; n=8) was not significantly greater than that in the SC group (P=0.07), but it was in the combined treatment groups (LD+STD versus SC: P<0.01). Neither eGFR calculated by the CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration equation nor TKV (secondary endpoint) changed significantly from baseline to 12 months in any of the groups. On the basis of results of the mixed model, during the study, patients in the LD group had significantly lower trough blood levels of rapamycin (mean range±SD, 2.40±0.64 to 2.90±1.20 ng/ml) compared with those in the STD group (3.93±2.27 to 5.77±1.06 ng/ml) (P<0.01). Conclusion Patients with ADPKD receiving LD rapamycin demonstrated a significant increase in iGFR compared with those receiving standard care, without a significant effect on TKV after 12 months. PMID:24721888

  19. Urine-sample-derived human induced pluripotent stem cells as a model to study PCSK9-mediated autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Si-Tayeb, Karim; Idriss, Salam; Champon, Benoite; Caillaud, Amandine; Pichelin, Matthieu; Arnaud, Lucie; Lemarchand, Patricia; Le May, Cédric; Zibara, Kazem; Cariou, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a critical modulator of cholesterol homeostasis. Whereas PCSK9 gain-of-function (GOF) mutations are associated with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH) and premature atherosclerosis, PCSK9 loss-of-function (LOF) mutations have a cardio-protective effect and in some cases can lead to familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL). However, limitations of the currently available cellular models preclude deciphering the consequences of PCSK9 mutation further. We aimed to validate urine-sample-derived human induced pluripotent stem cells (UhiPSCs) as an appropriate tool to model PCSK9-mediated ADH and FHBL. To achieve our goal, urine-sample-derived somatic cells were reprogrammed into hiPSCs by using episomal vectors. UhiPSC were efficiently differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). Compared to control cells, cells originally derived from an individual with ADH (HLC-S127R) secreted less PCSK9 in the media (−38.5%; P=0.038) and had a 71% decrease (P<0.001) of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake, whereas cells originally derived from an individual with FHBL (HLC-R104C/V114A) displayed a strong decrease in PCSK9 secretion (−89.7%; P<0.001) and had a 106% increase (P=0.0104) of LDL uptake. Pravastatin treatment significantly enhanced LDL receptor (LDLR) and PCSK9 mRNA gene expression, as well as PCSK9 secretion and LDL uptake in both control and S127R HLCs. Pravastatin treatment of multiple clones led to an average increase of LDL uptake of 2.19±0.77-fold in HLC-S127R compared to 1.38±0.49 fold in control HLCs (P<0.01), in line with the good response to statin treatment of individuals carrying the S127R mutation (mean LDL cholesterol reduction=60.4%, n=5). In conclusion, urine samples provide an attractive and convenient source of somatic cells for reprogramming and hepatocyte differentiation, but also a powerful tool to further decipher PCSK9 mutations and function. PMID:26586530

  20. Functional characteristics of three new germline mutations of the thyrotropin receptor gene causing autosomal dominant toxic thyroid hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Tonacchera, M.; Van Sande, J.; Cetani, F.

    1996-02-01

    We report three unrelated families in which hyperthyroidism associated with thyroid hyperplasia was transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion, in the absence of signs of autoimmunity. Exon 10 of the TSH receptor gene was directly sequenced after PCR amplification from DNA of peripheral leukocytes. In one family, a C to A transversion resulted in an S505R substitution in the third transmembrane segment; in the second, an A to T transversion caused an N650Y substitution in the sixth transmembrane segment; and in the third family, an A to G transition resulted in an N670S substitution in the seventh transmembrane segment. When expressed by transfection in COS-7 cells, each mutated receptor displayed an increase in constitutive stimulation of cAMP production; no effect on basal accumulation of inositol phosphates (IP) could be detected. In binding studies, cells transfected with wild-type of mutated receptors showed similar levels of expression, with the mutated receptors displaying similar or slightly increased affinity for bovine TSH (bTSH) binding. Cells transfected with S505R and N650Y mutants showed a similar cAMP maximal TSH-stimulated accumulation over the cells transfected with the wild type, whereas N670S transfectants showed a blunted response with an increase in EC{sub 50}. A higher IP response to 100 mU/mL bTSH over that obtained with the wild-type receptor was obtained in cells transfected with N650Y; in contrast, cells transfected with S505R showed a blunted IP production (50% less), and the N670S mutant completely lost the ability to stimulate IP accumulation in response to bTSH. The differential effects of individual mutations on stimulation by bTSH of cAMP or IP accumulation suggest that individual mutant receptors may achieve different active conformations with selective abilities to couple to G{sub s}{alpha} and to G{sub q}{alpha}. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  1. In Vivo CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Editing Corrects Retinal Dystrophy in the S334ter-3 Rat Model of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Bakondi, Benjamin; Lv, Wenjian; Lu, Bin; Jones, Melissa K; Tsai, Yuchun; Kim, Kevin J; Levy, Rachelle; Akhtar, Aslam Abbasi; Breunig, Joshua J; Svendsen, Clive N; Wang, Shaomei

    2016-03-01

    Reliable genome editing via Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 may provide a means to correct inherited diseases in patients. As proof of principle, we show that CRISPR/Cas9 can be used in vivo to selectively ablate the rhodopsin gene carrying the dominant S334ter mutation (Rho(S334)) in rats that model severe autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. A single subretinal injection of guide RNA/Cas9 plasmid in combination with electroporation generated allele-specific disruption of Rho(S334), which prevented retinal degeneration and improved visual function. PMID:26666451

  2. In Vivo CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Editing Corrects Retinal Dystrophy in the S334ter-3 Rat Model of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Bakondi, Benjamin; Lv, Wenjian; Lu, Bin; Jones, Melissa K; Tsai, Yuchun; Kim, Kevin J; Levy, Rachelle; Akhtar, Aslam Abbasi; Breunig, Joshua J; Svendsen, Clive N; Wang, Shaomei

    2016-01-01

    Reliable genome editing via Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 may provide a means to correct inherited diseases in patients. As proof of principle, we show that CRISPR/Cas9 can be used in vivo to selectively ablate the rhodopsin gene carrying the dominant S334ter mutation (RhoS334) in rats that model severe autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. A single subretinal injection of guide RNA/Cas9 plasmid in combination with electroporation generated allele-specific disruption of RhoS334, which prevented retinal degeneration and improved visual function. PMID:26666451

  3. PID in Disguise: Molecular Diagnosis of IRAK-4 Deficiency in an Adult Previously Misdiagnosed With Autosomal Dominant Hyper IgE Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Frans, Glynis; Moens, Leen; Schrijvers, Rik; Wuyts, Greet; Bouckaert, Bernard; Schaballie, Heidi; Dupont, Lieven; Bossuyt, Xavier; Corveleyn, Anniek; Meyts, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    Autosomal recessive IL-1R-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) deficiency is a rare cause of recurrent pyogenic infections with limited inflammatory responses. We describe an adult female patient with severe lung disease who was phenotypically diagnosed as suffering from autosomal dominant Hyper IgE syndrome (AD HIES) because of recurrent skin infections with Staphylococcus aureus, recurrent pneumonia and elevated serum IgE levels. In contrast to findings in AD HIES patients, no abnormalities were found in the Th17 and circulating follicular helper T cell subsets. A panel-based sequencing approach led to the identification of a homozygous IRAK4 stop mutation (c.877C > T, p.Gln293*). PMID:26472314

  4. Prevalence and novelty of PRPF31 mutations in French autosomal dominant rod-cone dystrophy patients and a review of published reports

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rod-cone dystrophies are heterogeneous group of inherited retinal disorders both clinically and genetically characterized by photoreceptor degeneration. The mode of inheritance can be autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X-linked. The purpose of this study was to identify mutations in one of the genes, PRPF31, in French patients with autosomal dominant RP, to perform genotype-phenotype correlations of those patients, to determine the prevalence of PRPF31 mutations in this cohort and to review previously identified PRPF31 mutations from other cohorts. Methods Detailed phenotypic characterization was performed including precise family history, best corrected visual acuity using the ETDRS chart, slit lamp examination, kinetic and static perimetry, full field and multifocal ERG, fundus autofluorescence imaging and optic coherence tomography. For genetic diagnosis, genomic DNA of ninety families was isolated by standard methods. The coding exons and flanking intronic regions of PRPF31 were PCR amplified, purified and sequenced in the index patient. Results We showed for the first time that 6.7% cases of a French adRP cohort have a PRPF31 mutation. We identified in total six mutations, which were all novel and not detected in ethnically matched controls. The mutation spectrum from our cohort comprises frameshift and splice site mutations. Co-segregation analysis in available family members revealed that each index patient and all affected family members showed a heterozygous mutation. In five families incomplete penetrance was observed. Most patients showed classical signs of RP with relatively preserved central vision and visual field. Conclusion Our studies extended the mutation spectrum of PRPF31 and as previously reported in other populations, it is a major cause of adRP in France. PMID:20939871

  5. A novel locus for autosomal dominant non‐syndromic deafness, DFNA53, maps to chromosome 14q11.2‐q12

    PubMed Central

    Yan, D; Ke, X; Blanton, S H; Ouyang, X M; Pandya, A; Du, L L; Nance, W E; Liu, X Z

    2006-01-01

    Background Non‐syndromic hearing loss is among the most genetically heterogeneous traits known in humans. To date, at least 50 loci for autosomal dominant non‐syndromic sensorineural hearing loss (ADNSSHL) have been identified by linkage analysis. Objective To report the mapping of a novel autosomal dominant deafness locus on the long arm of chromosome 14 at 14q11.2‐q12, DFNA53, in a large multigenerational Chinese family with post‐lingual, high frequency hearing loss that progresses to involve all frequencies. Results A maximum multipoint LOD score of 5.4 was obtained for marker D14S1280. The analysis of recombinant haplotypes mapped DFNA53 to a 9.6 cM region interval between markers D14S581 and D14S1021. Four deafness loci (DFNA9, DFNA23, DFNB5, and DFNB35) have previously been mapped to the long arm of chromosome 14. The critical region for DFNA53 contains the gene for DFNA9 but does not overlap with the regions for DFNB5, DFNA23, or DFNB35. Screening of the COCH gene (DFNA9), BOCT, EFS, and HSPC156 within the DFNA53 interval did not identify the cause for deafness in this family. Conclusions Identifying the DFNA53 locus is the first step in isolating the gene responsible for hearing loss in this large multigeneration Chinese family. PMID:15958501

  6. Mapping of the locus for autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta (AIH2) to a 4-Mb YAC contig on chromosome 4q11-q21

    SciTech Connect

    Kaerrman, C.; Holmgren, G.; Forsman, K. |

    1997-01-15

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (Al) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited enamel defects. We recently mapped a locus for autosomal dominant local hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta (AIH2) to the long arm of chromosome 4. The disease gene was localized to a 17.6-cM region between the markers D4S392 and D4S395. The albumin gene (ALB), located in the same interval, was a candidate gene for autosomal dominant AI (ADAI) since albumin has a potential role in enamel maturation. Here we describe refined mapping of the AIH2 locus and the construction of marker maps by radiation hybrid mapping and yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)-based sequence tagged site-content mapping. A radiation hybrid map consisting of 11 microsatellite markers in the 5-cM interval between D4S409 and D4S1558 was constructed. Recombinant haplotypes in six Swedish ADAI families suggest that the disease gene is located in the interval between D4S2421 and ALB. ALB is therefore not likely to be the disease-causing gene. Affected members in all six families share the same allele haplotypes, indicating a common ancestral mutation in all families. The AIH2 critical region is less than 4 cM and spans a physical distance of approximately 4 Mb as judged from radiation hybrid maps. A YAC contig over the AIH2 critical region including several potential candidate genes was constructed. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Exome sequencing reveals a heterozygous DLX5 mutation in a Chinese family with autosomal-dominant split-hand/foot malformation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Xin, Qian; Li, Lin; Li, Jiangxia; Zhang, Changwu; Qiu, Rongfang; Qian, Chenmin; Zhao, Hailing; Liu, Yongchao; Shan, Shan; Dang, Jie; Bian, Xianli; Shao, Changshun; Gong, Yaoqin; Liu, Qiji

    2014-01-01

    Split-hand/foot malformation (SHFM) is a congenital limb deformity due to the absence or dysplasia of central rays of the autopod. Six SHFM loci have already been identified. Here we describe a Chinese family with autosomal-dominant SHFM1 that has previously been mapped to 7q21.2-21.3. The two affected family members, mother and son, showed deep median clefts between toes, ectrodactyly and syndactyly; the mother also showed triphalangeal thumbs. Exome sequencing and variant screening of candidate genes in the six loci known to be responsible for SHFM revealed a novel heterozygous mutation, c.558G>T (p.(Gln186His)), in distal-less homeobox 5 (DLX5). As DLX5 encodes a transcription factor capable of transactivating MYC, we also tested whether the mutation could affect DLX5 transcription acitivity. Results from luciferase reporter assay revealed that a mutation in DLX5 compromised its transcriptional activity. This is the first report of a mutation in DLX5 leading to autosomal-dominant SHFM1. PMID:24496061

  8. Next generation sequencing to identify novel genetic variants causative of autosomal dominant familial hypercholesterolemia associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Allaf, Faisal A; Athar, Mohammad; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Taher, Mohiuddin M; Khan, Wajahatullah; Ba-Hammam, Faisal A; Abalkhail, Hala; Alashwal, Abdullah

    2015-07-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant inherited disease characterized by elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). It is an autosomal dominant disease, caused by variants in Ldlr, ApoB or Pcsk9, which results in high levels of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) leading to early coronary heart disease. Sequencing whole genome for screening variants for FH are not suitable due to high cost. Hence, in this study we performed targeted customized sequencing of FH 12 genes (Ldlr, ApoB, Pcsk9, Abca1, Apoa2, Apoc3, Apon2, Arh, Ldlrap1, Apoc2, ApoE, and Lpl) that have been implicated in the homozygous phenotype of a proband pedigree to identify candidate variants by NGS Ion torrent PGM. Only three genes (Ldlr, ApoB, and Pcsk9) were found to be highly associated with FH based on the variant rate. The results showed that seven deleterious variants in Ldlr, ApoB, and Pcsk9 genes were pathological and were clinically significant based on predictions identified by SIFT and PolyPhen. Targeted customized sequencing is an efficient technique for screening variants among targeted FH genes. Final validation of seven deleterious variants conducted by capillary resulted to only one novel variant in Ldlr gene that was found in exon 14 (c.2026delG, p. Gly676fs). The variant found in Ldlr gene was a novel heterozygous variant derived from a male in the proband. PMID:25839937

  9. Report of a kindred with x-linked (or autosomal dominant sex-limited) 46, XY partial gonadal dysgenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fechner, P.Y.; Marcantonio, S.M.; Ogata, T.; Rosales, T.O.; Smith, K.D.; Goodfellow, P.N.; Migeon, C.J.; Berkovitz, G.D. )

    1993-05-01

    The condition termed 46, XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is characterized by the lack of testicular determination with resulting streak gonads, normal Mullerian structures, and female external genitalia. In the partial form, there is incomplete testicular determination with a wide range in the degree of ambiguous genitalia and sexual duct development. The authors evaluated a kindred in which a partial form of 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis occurred in four subjects from two generations. Pedigree analysis indicated an X-linked or possibly an autosomal sex-limited mode of inheritance. All affected subjects were ascertained because of ambiguous genitalia with minimal virilization. At 10 days of age, the proband had a subnormal plasma level of testosterone, and at 4 months, there was no rise in plasma T after stimulation with hCG. At laparotomy, a dysgenetic gonad was found on the right side, but no gonad was found on the left side. A vas deferens was present on the right, indicating the presence of functional leydig cells early in fetal life. In the other affected subjects, gonadal tissue was also limited to one side of the abdomen and showed poorly developed seminiferous tubules. The sex-determining region Y gene, which encodes the testis-determining factor, was present and unaltered in the genomic DNA of all affected subjects. Duplication of the distal short arm of the X-chromosome has been associated with 46, XY complete gonadal dysgenesis in some patients. In the authors studies, Southern blot analysis revealed that sequences of the distal short arm of the X-chromosome were present in single copy, excluding a large duplication in this area of the X. Several kindreds with familial 46, XY complete gonadal dysgenesis have been reported; five of them had evidence of an X-linked mode of inheritance. The authors study of a kindred with 46, XY partial gonadal dysgenesis further supports the role of an X chromosome gene in testicular determination. 44 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. Two double non allelic heterozygotes for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease at loci PKD1 and PKD4 are not more affected than heterozygous relatives

    SciTech Connect

    Bachner, L.; Vinet, M.C.; Kaplan, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    We describe a family in which both members of a non-consanguineous couple are affected by autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). They have three affected children without obvious clinical differences, and three affected grand-children. Two different morbid loci for this disease have been localized, PKD1 on chromosome 16p and PKD4 on chromosome 4q. There were four a priori mating possibilities for this couple: PKD1xPKD1, PKD1xPKD4 or PKD4xPKD1 and PKD4xPKD4. We demonstrate by linkage analysis that: (i) the father is heterozygous at the PKD1 locus (most probably a de novo mutation); (ii) the mother is heterozygous at the PKD4 locus. The abnormal alleles segregates as follows: one child has the abnormal PKD1, another child has the abnormal PKD4 while the third child is a compound heterozygote for both abnormal PKD1 and PKD4 alleles, which were both transmitted to one offspring. The clinical status of these subjects is similar to the status of their relatives in the same age range, suggesting that both PKD1 and PKD4 are truly dominant disease. As there is no other example of such a situation for heterogeneous dominant diseases, we discuss this issue and some possible pathogenic processes by comparison with the similar problem of expressivity in homozygotes for dominant diseases.

  11. [18F-FDG PET/CT diagnosis of liver cyst infection in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and fever of unknown origin].

    PubMed

    Banzo, J; Ubieto, M A; Gil, D; Prats, E; Razola, P; Tardín, L; Andrés, A; Rambalde, E F; Ayala, S M; Cáncer, L; Velilla, J

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis, localization and treatment of infected cysts in the kidney or liver of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) remain a clinical challenge. We report the findings of (18)F-FDG PET-CT in an ADPKD diagnosed patient who required renal transplantation five years before and in his follow up presented repeated episodes of bacteriemia without known focus on radiological tests performed. The (18)F-FDG PET-CT scan showed numerous hypermetabolic images with focal or ring-shaped morphology related to the content and the wall of some hepatic cysts. The increased metabolic activity was localized on segments VI and VII. We proceeded to drainage of one cyst in segment VI, removing 110 cc of purulent fluid which grew E. Coli BLEE. The (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan should be included in the diagnostic algorithm for detecting infected liver cysts in patients with ADPKD and fever of unknown origin. PMID:23153986

  12. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) associated with a novel C82R mutation in the NOTCH3 gene.

    PubMed

    Zea-Sevilla, M Ascensin; Bermejo-Velasco, Pedro; Serrano-Heranz, Regino; Calero, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a rare inherited cerebrovascular disease associated with mutations in the NOTCH3 gene on chromosome 19, and represents the most common hereditary stroke disorder. We describe a pedigree, which suffered the classical clinical CADASIL pattern of migraine headaches, recurrent subcortical infarcts, and subcortical dementia, associated with a previously undescribed missense mutation (c.[244T>C], p.[C82R]) in NOTCH3. This new mutation extends the list of known pathogenic mutations responsible for CADASIL, which are associated with an odd number of cysteine residues within any of the epidermal growth factor-like repeats of Notch3 receptor protein. PMID:25096610

  13. Mutation associated with an autosomal dominant cone-rod dystrophy CORD7 modifies RIM1-mediated modulation of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Takafumi; Kiyonaka, Shigeki; Uriu, Yoshitsugu; De Waard, Michel; Wakamori, Minoru; Beedle, Aaron; Campbell, Kevin; Mori, Yasuo

    2007-01-01

    Genetic analyses have revealed an association of the gene encoding the Rab3A-interacting molecule (RIM1) with an autosomal dominant cone-rod dystrophy CORD7. However, the pathogenesis of CORD7 has remained unclear. Recently, we have revealed that RIM1 exerts functional impacts on voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (VDCC) currents and anchors neurotransmitter-containing vesicles to VDCCs, controlling neurotransmitter release. On the basis of this study, we demonstrate here that the mouse RIM1 arginine-to-histidine substitution (R655H), which corresponds to the human CORD7 mutation, modifies RIM1 function in regulating VDCC currents elicited by the P/Q-type Cav2.1 and L-type Cav1.4 channels. Thus, we can raise an interesting possibility that CORD7 phenotypes including retinal deficits and enhanced cognition are at least partly underlaid by altered regulation of presynaptic VDCC currents. PMID:18690027

  14. Autosomal dominant Kufs` disease: Clinical heterogeneity in nine families, and exclusion of linkage to CLN1 and CLN3 markers in a large American kindred

    SciTech Connect

    Andermann, F.; Andermann, E.; Carpenter, S.

    1994-09-01

    Most forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are autosomal recessive, and three genes have already been mapped: the infantile form (CLN 1); the juvenile form (CLN 3); and the early juvenile variant (CLN 5) on chromosomes 1, 16 and 13, respectively. Kufs` disease or adolescent-adult onset NCL is usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, and presents as three distinct clinical syndromes: progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) with onset in the early teens or around age 30; and onset of dementia with motor disability in the 30s. We have studied three families originating from different parts of the USA manifesting dominantly inherited Kufs` disease. Granular osmophilic deposits (GROD) were found in brain, but storage in skin was not an obligatory feature. Six dominantly inherited PME families have been ascertained from three different regions of Spain. No storage was found in skin or muscle in any of these families. The mean age of onset in the American families is earlier, the clinical manifestations more severe, and the progression much more rapid that in the Spanish families. These findings would suggest the possibility of genetic heterogeneity involving two or more loci, or different mutations at the same gene locus. Genetic linkage studies have been carried out in a six-generation New Jersey family in an attempt to characterize the gene(s) responsible for this disorder. The infantile NCL locus on chromosome 1p (CLN1) and the juvenile NCL locus on chromosome 16p (CLN 3) have been excluded in this family. Further clinical, pathological and molecular genetic studies should lead to the clarification of the diagnostic approaches in this disorder.

  15. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, genetic homogeneity, and mapping of the locus within a 2-cM interval

    SciTech Connect

    Ducros, A.; Alamowitch, S.; Nagy, T.

    1996-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a recently identified autosomal dominant cerebral arteriopathy characterized by the recurrence of subcortical infarcts leading to dementia. A genetic linkage analysis conducted in two large families recently allowed us to map the affected gene on chromosome 19 in a 12-cM interval bracketed by D19S221 and D19S215. In the present study, these first 2 families and 13 additional ones, including a total of 199 potentially informative meiosis, have been genotyped with eight polymorphic markers located between D19S221 and D19S215. All families were linked to chromosome 19. The highest combined lod score (Z{sub max} = 37.24 at {theta} = .01) was obtained with marker D19S841, a new CA{sub n} microsatellite marker that we isolated from chromosome 19 cosmids. The recombinant events observed within these families were used to refine the genetic mapping of CADASIL within a 2-cM interval that is now bracketed by D19S226 and D19S199 on 19p13.1. These data strongly suggest the genetic homogeneity of this recently identified condition and establish the value of its clinical and neuroimaging diagnostic criteria. Besides their importance for the ongoing positional cloning of the CADASIL gene, these data help to refine the genetic mapping of CADASIL relative to familial hemiplegic migraine and hereditary paroxysmal cerebellar ataxia, conditions that we both mapped within the same chromosome 19 region. 35 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Novel heterozygous C243Y A20/TNFAIP3 gene mutation is responsible for chronic inflammation in autosomal-dominant Behçet's disease

    PubMed Central

    Shigemura, Tomonari; Kaneko, Naoe; Kobayashi, Norimoto; Kobayashi, Keiko; Takeuchi, Yusuke; Nakano, Naoko; Masumoto, Junya; Agematsu, Kazunaga

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of uncertain aetiology, the existence of familial BD with autosomal-dominant traits suggests that a responsibility gene (or genes) exists. We investigated a Japanese family with a history of BD to search for pathogenic mutations underlying the biological mechanisms of BD. Methods 6 patients over 4 generations who had suffered from frequent oral ulcers, genital ulcers and erythaema nodosum-like lesions in the skin were assessed. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on genomic DNA, and cytokine production was determined from stimulated mononuclear cells. Inflammatory cytokine secretion and Nod2-mediated NF-κB activation were analysed using the transfected cells. Results By whole-exome sequencing, we identified a common heterozygous missense mutation in A20/TNFAIP3, a gene known to regulate NF-κB signalling, for which all affected family members carried a heterozygous C243Y mutation in the ovarian tumour domain. Mononuclear cells obtained from the proband and his mother produced large amounts of interleukin 1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-a) on stimulation as compared with those from normal controls. Although inflammatory cytokine secretion was suppressed by wild-type transfected cells, it was suppressed to a much lesser extent by mutated C243Y A20/TNFAIP3-transfected cells. In addition, impaired suppression of Nod2-mediated NF-κB activation by C243Y A20/TNFAIP3 was observed. Conclusions A C243Y mutation in A20/TNFAIP3 was likely responsible for increased production of human inflammatory cytokines by reduced suppression of NF-κB activation, and may have accounted for the autosomal-dominant Mendelian mode of BD transmission in this family. PMID:27175295

  17. Brachydactyly E: isolated or as a feature of a syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Brachydactyly (BD) refers to the shortening of the hands, feet or both. There are different types of BD; among them, type E (BDE) is a rare type that can present as an isolated feature or as part of more complex syndromes, such as: pseudohypopthyroidism (PHP), hypertension with BD or Bilginturan BD (HTNB), BD with mental retardation (BDMR) or BDE with short stature, PTHLH type. Each syndrome has characteristic patterns of skeletal involvement. However, brachydactyly is not a constant feature and shows a high degree of phenotypic variability. In addition, there are other syndromes that can be misdiagnosed as brachydactyly type E, some of which will also be discussed. The objective of this review is to describe some of the syndromes in which BDE is present, focusing on clinical, biochemical and genetic characteristics as features of differential diagnoses, with the aim of establishing an algorithm for their differential diagnosis. As in our experience many of these patients are recruited at Endocrinology and/or Pediatric Endocrinology Services due to their short stature, we have focused the algorithm in those steps that could mainly help these professionals. PMID:24028571

  18. Brachydactyly E: isolated or as a feature of a syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pereda, Arrate; Garin, Intza; Garcia-Barcina, Maria; Gener, Blanca; Beristain, Elena; Ibañez, Ane Miren; Perez de Nanclares, Guiomar

    2013-01-01

    Brachydactyly (BD) refers to the shortening of the hands, feet or both. There are different types of BD; among them, type E (BDE) is a rare type that can present as an isolated feature or as part of more complex syndromes, such as: pseudohypopthyroidism (PHP), hypertension with BD or Bilginturan BD (HTNB), BD with mental retardation (BDMR) or BDE with short stature, PTHLH type. Each syndrome has characteristic patterns of skeletal involvement. However, brachydactyly is not a constant feature and shows a high degree of phenotypic variability. In addition, there are other syndromes that can be misdiagnosed as brachydactyly type E, some of which will also be discussed. The objective of this review is to describe some of the syndromes in which BDE is present, focusing on clinical, biochemical and genetic characteristics as features of differential diagnoses, with the aim of establishing an algorithm for their differential diagnosis. As in our experience many of these patients are recruited at Endocrinology and/or Pediatric Endocrinology Services due to their short stature, we have focused the algorithm in those steps that could mainly help these professionals. PMID:24028571

  19. Repair of Rhodopsin mRNA by Spliceosome-Mediated RNA Trans-Splicing: A New Approach for Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Adeline; Lorain, Stéphanie; Joséphine, Charlène; Desrosiers, Melissa; Peccate, Cécile; Voit, Thomas; Garcia, Luis; Sahel, José-Alain; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The promising clinical results obtained for ocular gene therapy in recent years have paved the way for gene supplementation to treat recessively inherited forms of retinal degeneration. The situation is more complex for dominant mutations, as the toxic mutant gene product must be removed. We used spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing as a strategy for repairing the transcript of the rhodopsin gene, the gene most frequently mutated in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. We tested 17 different molecules targeting the pre-mRNA intron 1, by transient transfection of HEK-293T cells, with subsequent trans-splicing quantification at the transcript level. We found that the targeting of some parts of the intron promoted trans-splicing more efficiently than the targeting of other areas, and that trans-splicing rate could be increased by modifying the replacement sequence. We then developed cell lines stably expressing the rhodopsin gene, for the assessment of phenotypic criteria relevant to the pathogenesis of retinitis pigmentosa. Using this model, we showed that trans-splicing restored the correct localization of the protein to the plasma membrane. Finally, we tested our best candidate by AAV gene transfer in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa that expresses a mutant allele of the human rhodopsin gene, and demonstrated the feasibility of trans-splicing in vivo. This work paves the way for trans-splicing gene therapy to treat retinitis pigmentosa due to rhodopsin gene mutation and, more generally, for the treatment of genetic diseases with dominant transmission. PMID:25619725

  20. Superficial temporal artery-to-middle cerebral artery bypass surgery for middle cerebral artery stenosis in a patient with cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Muta, Daisuke; Kawano, Takayuki; Shinojima, Naoki; Kuratsu, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy is a rare hereditary small vessel disease. Ischemic events are the main clinical manifestation of this condition. Here, we present a case in which superficial temporal artery-to-middle cerebral artery anastomosis was performed in a patient with cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy who developed cerebral infarctions caused by severe middle cerebral artery stenosis. Cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity were effectively improved using double anastomoses. To our knowledge, surgical revascularization for patients with this condition has not yet been described in the literature. Superficial temporal artery-to-middle cerebral artery anastomosis is effective for patients with cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy who show marked regional cerebral hypoperfusion. PMID:26543744

  1. Isolated and syndromic brachydactylies: Diagnostic value of hand X-rays.

    PubMed

    David, A; Vincent, M; Quéré, M-P; Lefrançois, T; Frampas, E; David, A

    2015-05-01

    Brachydactyly, or shortening of the digits, is due to the abnormal development of phalanges, metacarpals and/or metatarsals. This congenital malformation is common, easily detectable clinically but often requires additional radiological exploration. Radiographs are essential to characterize the type of brachydactyly and to show the location of the bone shortening, as well as any associated malformation. This article reviews the radiological findings for isolated brachydactylies (according to the types classified by Bell, and Temtamy and McKusick) and for brachydactylies that are part of complex multisystem malformation syndromes. If warranted by the clinical and radiological examinations, a genetic analysis (molecular and/or cytogenetic) can confirm the etiologic diagnosis. PMID:25758756

  2. A Nonsyndromic Autosomal Dominant Oligodontia with A Novel Mutation of PAX9-A Clinical and Genetic Report

    PubMed Central

    Prasanna, Praveen; Athimuthu, Anantharaj; Bhat, Prasanna Kumar; Puttashamachari, Yogish

    2015-01-01

    Oligodontia is congenital absence of one or more teeth which has familial abnormality and attributable to various mutations or polymorphisms of genes often associated with malformative syndromes. The present case reports a rare case of non syndromic oligodontia in an 8-year-old girl with missing 14 permanent teeth excluding third molars in mixed dentition. It is a rare finding which has not been frequently documented in Indian children. Mutations in MSX1 and PAX9 have been described in families in which inherited oligodontia characteristically involves permanent incisors, lateral incisors, premolars and molars. Our study analysed one large family with dominantly inherited oligodontia clinically and genetically. This phonotype is distinct from oligodontia phenotypes associated with mutations in PAX9. Sequencing of the PAX9 revealed a novel mutation in the paired domain of the molecule. The multiple sequence alignment and SNP analysis of the PAX9 exon 2 revealed two mutations. PMID:26266225

  3. DVL3 Alleles Resulting in a -1 Frameshift of the Last Exon Mediate Autosomal-Dominant Robinow Syndrome.

    PubMed

    White, Janson J; Mazzeu, Juliana F; Hoischen, Alexander; Bayram, Yavuz; Withers, Marjorie; Gezdirici, Alper; Kimonis, Virginia; Steehouwer, Marloes; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; van Bon, Bregje W M; Sutton, V Reid; Lupski, James R; Brunner, Han G; Carvalho, Claudia M B

    2016-03-01

    Robinow syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by mesomelic limb shortening, genital hypoplasia, and distinctive facial features. Recent reports have identified, in individuals with dominant Robinow syndrome, a specific type of variant characterized by being uniformly located in the penultimate exon of DVL1 and resulting in a -1 frameshift allele with a premature termination codon that escapes nonsense-mediated decay. Here, we studied a cohort of individuals who had been clinically diagnosed with Robinow syndrome but who had not received a molecular diagnosis from variant studies of DVL1, WNT5A, and ROR2. Because of the uniform location of frameshift variants in DVL1-mediated Robinow syndrome and the functional redundancy of DVL1, DVL2, and DVL3, we elected to pursue direct Sanger sequencing of the penultimate exon of DVL1 and its paralogs DVL2 and DVL3 to search for potential disease-associated variants. Remarkably, targeted sequencing identified five unrelated individuals harboring heterozygous, de novo frameshift variants in DVL3, including two splice acceptor mutations and three 1 bp deletions. Similar to the variants observed in DVL1-mediated Robinow syndrome, all variants in DVL3 result in a -1 frameshift, indicating that these highly specific alterations might be a common cause of dominant Robinow syndrome. Here, we review the current knowledge of these peculiar variant alleles in DVL1- and DVL3-mediated Robinow syndrome and further elucidate the phenotypic features present in subjects with DVL1 and DVL3 frameshift mutations. PMID:26924530

  4. Temtamy Preaxial Brachydactyly Syndrome Is Caused by Loss-of-Function Mutations in Chondroitin Synthase 1, a Potential Target of BMP Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Laue, Kathrin; Temtamy, Samia; Aglan, Mona; Kotan, L. Damla; Yigit, Gökhan; Canan, Husniye; Pawlik, Barbara; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Wakeling, Emma L.; Quarrell, Oliver W.; Baessmann, Ingelore; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Hegele, Robert A.; Amr, Khalda; May, Klaus W.; Nürnberg, Peter; Topaloglu, A. Kemal; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Wollnik, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Altered Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling leads to multiple developmental defects, including brachydactyly and deafness. Here we identify chondroitin synthase 1 (CHSY1) as a potential mediator of BMP effects. We show that loss of human CHSY1 function causes autosomal-recessive Temtamy preaxial brachydactyly syndrome (TPBS), mainly characterized by limb malformations, short stature, and hearing loss. After mapping the TPBS locus to chromosome 15q26-qterm, we identified causative mutations in five consanguineous TPBS families. In zebrafish, antisense-mediated chsy1 knockdown causes defects in multiple developmental processes, some of which are likely to also be causative in the etiology of TPBS. In the inner ears of zebrafish larvae, chsy1 is expressed similarly to the BMP inhibitor dan and in a complementary fashion to bmp2b. Furthermore, unrestricted Bmp2b signaling or loss of Dan activity leads to reduced chsy1 expression and, during epithelial morphogenesis, defects similar to those that occur upon Chsy1 inactivation, indicating that Bmp signaling affects inner-ear development by repressing chsy1. In addition, we obtained strikingly similar zebrafish phenotypes after chsy1 overexpression, which might explain why, in humans, brachydactyly can be caused by mutations leading either to loss or to gain of BMP signaling. PMID:21129728

  5. Recurrent De Novo Mutations Affecting Residue Arg138 of Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase Cause a Progeroid Form of Autosomal-Dominant Cutis Laxa

    PubMed Central

    Fischer-Zirnsak, Björn; Escande-Beillard, Nathalie; Ganesh, Jaya; Tan, Yu Xuan; Al Bughaili, Mohammed; Lin, Angela E.; Sahai, Inderneel; Bahena, Paulina; Reichert, Sara L.; Loh, Abigail; Wright, Graham D.; Liu, Jaron; Rahikkala, Elisa; Pivnick, Eniko K.; Choudhri, Asim F.; Krüger, Ulrike; Zemojtel, Tomasz; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny; Mostafavi, Roya; Stolte-Dijkstra, Irene; Symoens, Sofie; Pajunen, Leila; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Meierhofer, David; Robinson, Peter N.; Mundlos, Stefan; Villarroel, Camilo E.; Byers, Peter; Masri, Amira; Robertson, Stephen P.; Schwarze, Ulrike; Callewaert, Bert; Reversade, Bruno; Kornak, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Progeroid disorders overlapping with De Barsy syndrome (DBS) are collectively denoted as autosomal-recessive cutis laxa type 3 (ARCL3). They are caused by biallelic mutations in PYCR1 or ALDH18A1, encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 and pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), respectively, which both operate in the mitochondrial proline cycle. We report here on eight unrelated individuals born to non-consanguineous families clinically diagnosed with DBS or wrinkly skin syndrome. We found three heterozygous mutations in ALDH18A1 leading to amino acid substitutions of the same highly conserved residue, Arg138 in P5CS. A de novo origin was confirmed in all six probands for whom parental DNA was available. Using fibroblasts from affected individuals and heterologous overexpression, we found that the P5CS-p.Arg138Trp protein was stable and able to interact with wild-type P5CS but showed an altered sub-mitochondrial distribution. A reduced size upon native gel electrophoresis indicated an alteration of the structure or composition of P5CS mutant complex. Furthermore, we found that the mutant cells had a reduced P5CS enzymatic activity leading to a delayed proline accumulation. In summary, recurrent de novo mutations, affecting the highly conserved residue Arg138 of P5CS, cause an autosomal-dominant form of cutis laxa with progeroid features. Our data provide insights into the etiology of cutis laxa diseases and will have immediate impact on diagnostics and genetic counseling. PMID:26320891

  6. Autosomal recessive transmission of a rare KRT74 variant causes hair and nail ectodermal dysplasia: allelism with dominant woolly hair/hypotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Raykova, Doroteya; Klar, Joakim; Azhar, Aysha; Khan, Tahir Naeem; Malik, Naveed Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad; Tariq, Muhammad; Baig, Shahid Mahmood; Dahl, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    Pure hair and nail ectodermal dysplasia (PHNED) comprises a heterogeneous group of rare heritable disorders characterized by brittle hair, hypotrichosis, onychodystrophy and micronychia. Autosomal recessive (AR) PHNED has previously been associated with mutations in either KRT85 or HOXC13 on chromosome 12p11.1-q14.3. We investigated a consanguineous Pakistani family with AR PHNED linked to the keratin gene cluster on 12p11.1 but without detectable mutations in KRT85 and HOXC13. Whole exome sequencing of affected individuals revealed homozygosity for a rare c.821T>C variant (p.Phe274Ser) in the KRT74 gene that segregates AR PHNED in the family. The transition alters the highly conserved Phe274 residue in the coil 1B domain required for long-range dimerization of keratins, suggesting that the mutation compromises the stability of intermediate filaments. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses confirmed a strong keratin-74 expression in the nail matrix, the nail bed and the hyponychium of mouse distal digits, as well as in normal human hair follicles. Furthermore, hair follicles and epidermis of an affected family member stained negative for Keratin-74 suggesting a loss of function mechanism mediated by the Phe274Ser substitution. Our observations show for the first time that homozygosity for a KRT74 missense variant may be associated with AR PHNED. Heterozygous KRT74 mutations have previously been associated with autosomal dominant woolly hair/hypotrichosis simplex (ADWH). Thus, our findings expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with KRT74 mutations and imply that a subtype of AR PHNED is allelic with ADWH. PMID:24714551

  7. Recurrent De Novo Mutations Affecting Residue Arg138 of Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase Cause a Progeroid Form of Autosomal-Dominant Cutis Laxa.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Zirnsak, Björn; Escande-Beillard, Nathalie; Ganesh, Jaya; Tan, Yu Xuan; Al Bughaili, Mohammed; Lin, Angela E; Sahai, Inderneel; Bahena, Paulina; Reichert, Sara L; Loh, Abigail; Wright, Graham D; Liu, Jaron; Rahikkala, Elisa; Pivnick, Eniko K; Choudhri, Asim F; Krüger, Ulrike; Zemojtel, Tomasz; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny; Mostafavi, Roya; Stolte-Dijkstra, Irene; Symoens, Sofie; Pajunen, Leila; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Meierhofer, David; Robinson, Peter N; Mundlos, Stefan; Villarroel, Camilo E; Byers, Peter; Masri, Amira; Robertson, Stephen P; Schwarze, Ulrike; Callewaert, Bert; Reversade, Bruno; Kornak, Uwe

    2015-09-01

    Progeroid disorders overlapping with De Barsy syndrome (DBS) are collectively denoted as autosomal-recessive cutis laxa type 3 (ARCL3). They are caused by biallelic mutations in PYCR1 or ALDH18A1, encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 and pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), respectively, which both operate in the mitochondrial proline cycle. We report here on eight unrelated individuals born to non-consanguineous families clinically diagnosed with DBS or wrinkly skin syndrome. We found three heterozygous mutations in ALDH18A1 leading to amino acid substitutions of the same highly conserved residue, Arg138 in P5CS. A de novo origin was confirmed in all six probands for whom parental DNA was available. Using fibroblasts from affected individuals and heterologous overexpression, we found that the P5CS-p.Arg138Trp protein was stable and able to interact with wild-type P5CS but showed an altered sub-mitochondrial distribution. A reduced size upon native gel electrophoresis indicated an alteration of the structure or composition of P5CS mutant complex. Furthermore, we found that the mutant cells had a reduced P5CS enzymatic activity leading to a delayed proline accumulation. In summary, recurrent de novo mutations, affecting the highly conserved residue Arg138 of P5CS, cause an autosomal-dominant form of cutis laxa with progeroid features. Our data provide insights into the etiology of cutis laxa diseases and will have immediate impact on diagnostics and genetic counseling. PMID:26320891

  8. A novel DFNA36 mutation in TMC1 orthologous to the Beethoven (Bth) mouse associated with autosomal dominant hearing loss in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yali; Wang, Dayong; Zong, Liang; Zhao, Feifan; Guan, Liping; Zhang, Peng; Shi, Wei; Lan, Lan; Wang, Hongyang; Li, Qian; Han, Bing; Yang, Ling; Jin, Xin; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Wang, Qiuju

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the transmembrane channel-like gene 1 (TMC1) can cause both DFNA36 and DFNB7/11 hearing loss. More than thirty DFNB7/11 mutations have been reported, but only three DFNA36 mutations were reported previously. In this study, we found a large Chinese family with 222 family members showing post-lingual, progressive sensorineural hearing loss which were consistent with DFNA36 hearing loss. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) test of the youngest patient showed a special result with nearly normal threshold but prolonged latency, decreased amplitude, and the abnormal waveform morphology. Exome sequencing of the proband found four candidate variants in known hearing loss genes. Sanger sequencing in all family members found a novel variant c.1253T>A (p.M418K) in TMC1 at DFNA36 that co-segregated with the phenotype. This mutation in TMC1 is orthologous to the mutation found in the hearing loss mouse model named Bth ten years ago. In another 51 Chinese autosomal dominant hearing loss families, we screened the segments containing the dominant mutations of TMC1 and no functional variants were found. TMC1 is expressed in the hair cells in inner ear. Given the already known roles of TMC1 in the mechanotransduction in the cochlea and its expression in inner ear, our results may provide an interesting perspective into its function in inner ear. PMID:24827932

  9. A Novel DFNA36 Mutation in TMC1 Orthologous to the Beethoven (Bth) Mouse Associated with Autosomal Dominant Hearing Loss in a Chinese Family

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yali; Wang, Dayong; Zong, Liang; Zhao, Feifan; Guan, Liping; Zhang, Peng; Shi, Wei; Lan, Lan; Wang, Hongyang; Li, Qian; Han, Bing; Yang, Ling; Jin, Xin; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Wang, Qiuju

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the transmembrane channel-like gene 1 (TMC1) can cause both DFNA36 and DFNB7/11 hearing loss. More than thirty DFNB7/11 mutations have been reported, but only three DFNA36 mutations were reported previously. In this study, we found a large Chinese family with 222 family members showing post-lingual, progressive sensorineural hearing loss which were consistent with DFNA36 hearing loss. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) test of the youngest patient showed a special result with nearly normal threshold but prolonged latency, decreased amplitude, and the abnormal waveform morphology. Exome sequencing of the proband found four candidate variants in known hearing loss genes. Sanger sequencing in all family members found a novel variant c.1253T>A (p.M418K) in TMC1 at DFNA36 that co-segregated with the phenotype. This mutation in TMC1 is orthologous to the mutation found in the hearing loss mouse model named Bth ten years ago. In another 51 Chinese autosomal dominant hearing loss families, we screened the segments containing the dominant mutations of TMC1 and no functional variants were found. TMC1 is expressed in the hair cells in inner ear. Given the already known roles of TMC1 in the mechanotransduction in the cochlea and its expression in inner ear, our results may provide an interesting perspective into its function in inner ear. PMID:24827932

  10. Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP): exclusion of a gene from three mapped loci provides evidence for the existence of a fourth locus.

    PubMed

    Jordan, S A; del Rio, T; Soriano, N; Garcia-Sandoval, B; Kenna, P; Ayuso, C; Benitez, J; Humphries, P

    1992-09-01

    Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited retinopathies which affect approximately 1 in 4,000 individuals. The disorder can be classified on the basis of inheritance; dominant, recessive and X-linked forms have been well documented. The existence of genetic heterogeneity within autosomal dominant RP (adRP) had been previously demonstrated. As a result of extensive linkage studies in 2 large Irish families and 1 American pedigree three adRP genes have been mapped. adRP genes have been localised to chromosome 3q close to the rod photoreceptor gene, rhodopsin; to chromosome 6p close to another transmembrane photoreceptor gene, peripherin/RDS and to the pericentric region of chromosome 8, although the causative gene in this region has not yet been identified. Here we report the results of a linkage study in a Spanish family, who exhibit an early-onset form of adRP. The adRP gene segregating in this family has been excluded from the three known adRP loci on chromosomes 3q, 6p and 8 using a series of both intragenic microsatellite markers from the rhodopsin and peripherin/RDS genes and markers flanking the three known loci. These results provide definitive evidence for the existence of a fourth adRP locus, further emphasising the genetic heterogeneity that exists within adRP. PMID:1301915

  11. Recovery of Dominant, Autosomal Flightless Mutants of Drosophila Melanogaster and Identification of a New Gene Required for Normal Muscle Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, R. M.; Ball, E.; Stark, M.; Lawn, A.; Sparrow, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    To identify further mutations affecting muscle function and development in Drosophila melanogaster we recovered 22 autosomal dominant flightless mutations. From these we have isolated eight viable and lethal alleles of the muscle myosin heavy chain gene, and seven viable alleles of the indirect flight muscle (IFM)-specific Act88F actin gene. The Mhc mutations display a variety of phenotypic effects, ranging from reductions in myosin heavy chain content in the indirect flight muscles only, to reductions in the levels of this protein in other muscles. The Act88F mutations range from those which produce no stable actin and have severely abnormal myofibrillar structure, to those which accumulate apparently normal levels of actin in the flight muscles but which still have abnormal myofibrils and fly very poorly. We also recovered two recessive flightless mutants on the third chromosome. The remaining five dominant flightless mutations are all lethal alleles of a gene named lethal(3)Laker. The Laker alleles have been characterized and the gene located in polytene bands 62A10,B1-62B2,4. Laker is a previously unidentified locus which is haplo-insufficient for flight. In addition, adult wild-type heterozygotes and the lethal larval trans-heterozygotes show abnormalities of muscle structure indicating that the Laker gene product is an important component of muscle. PMID:8056306

  12. Targeted Genes Sequencing Identified a Novel 15 bp Deletion on GJA8 in a Chinese Family with Autosomal Dominant Congenital Cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Min, Han-Yi; Qiao, Peng-Peng; Asan; Yan, Zhi-Hui; Jiang, Hui-Feng; Zhu, Ya-Ping; Du, Hui-Qian; Li, Qin; Wang, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Jun; Yi, Xin; Yang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background: Congenital cataract (CC) is the leading cause of visual impairment or blindness in children worldwide. Because of highly genetic and clinical heterogeneity, a molecular diagnosis of the lens disease remains a challenge. Methods: In this study, we tested a three-generation Chinese family with autosomal dominant CCs by targeted sequencing of 45 CC genes on next generation sequencing and evaluated the pathogenicity of the detected mutation by protein structure, pedigree validation, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Results: A novel 15 bp deletion on GJA8 (c.426_440delGCTGGAGGGGACCCT or p. 143_147delLEGTL) was detected in the family. The deletion, concerned with an in-frame deletion of 5 amino acid residues in a highly evolutionarily conserved region within the cytoplasmic loop domain of the gap junction channel protein connexin 50 (Cx50), was in full cosegregation with the cataract phenotypes in the family but not found in 1100 control exomes. MD simulation revealed that the introduction of the deletion destabilized the Cx50 gap junction channel, indicating the deletion as a dominant-negative mutation. Conclusions: The above results support the pathogenic role of the 15 bp deletion on GJA8 in the Chinese family and demonstrate targeted genes sequencing as a resolution to molecular diagnosis of CCs. PMID:26996484

  13. Application of Whole Exome Sequencing in Six Families with an Initial Diagnosis of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-San Jose, Patricia; Liu, Yichuan; March, Michael; Pellegrino, Renata; Golhar, Ryan; Corton, Marta; Blanco-Kelly, Fiona; López-Molina, Maria Isabel; García-Sandoval, Blanca; Guo, Yiran; Tian, Lifeng; Liu, Xuanzhu; Guan, Liping; Zhang, Jianguo; Keating, Brendan; Xu, Xun

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the genetics underlying dominant forms of inherited retinal dystrophies using whole exome sequencing (WES) in six families extensively screened for known mutations or genes. Thirty-eight individuals were subjected to WES. Causative variants were searched among single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertion/deletion variants (indels) and whenever no potential candidate emerged, copy number variant (CNV) analysis was performed. Variants or regions harboring a candidate variant were prioritized and segregation of the variant with the disease was further assessed using Sanger sequencing in case of SNVs and indels, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) for CNVs. SNV and indel analysis led to the identification of a previously reported mutation in PRPH2. Two additional mutations linked to different forms of retinal dystrophies were identified in two families: a known frameshift deletion in RPGR, a gene responsible for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and p.Ser163Arg in C1QTNF5 associated with Late-Onset Retinal Degeneration. A novel heterozygous deletion spanning the entire region of PRPF31 was also identified in the affected members of a fourth family, which was confirmed with qPCR. This study allowed the identification of the genetic cause of the retinal dystrophy and the establishment of a correct diagnosis in four families, including a large heterozygous deletion in PRPF31, typically considered one of the pitfalls of this method. Since all findings in this study are restricted to known genes, we propose that targeted sequencing using gene-panel is an optimal first approach for the genetic screening and that once known genetic causes are ruled out, WES might be used to uncover new genes involved in inherited retinal dystrophies. PMID:26197217

  14. Laparoscopic nephrectomy for autosomal dominant polycystic kidneys in patients with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis: 10-year single surgeon experience from an Indian center

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, George P; Siddaiah, Avinash T; Das, Krishanu; Ramaswami, Krishnamohan; George, Datson P; Thampan, Oppukeril S

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Pure laparoscopic nephrectomy in patients with ADPKD (autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease) and ESRD (end-stage renal disease) on MHD (maintenance hemodialysis) is challenging with high incidence of complications. Limited experiences from India has been reported in these scenarios. AIMS: To present a 10-year single surgeon experience from India in laparoscopic nephrectomy in autosomal dominant polycystic kidneys (ADPKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of records of similar subset of patients who were offered laparoscopic nephrectomy between 2003 and 2012. Preoperative, operative and postoperative parameters were recorded. Few technical modifications were adopted over the years. Patients were sub-classified into two groups (Group I: 2003–2006, Group II: 2007–2012) based on surgical technique. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: SAS software 9.1 version. RESULTS: 75 patients (84 renal units, Group I: 31, Group II: 53) were included in this analysis. Unilateral procedure was performed in 66 and bilateral staged or simultaneous procedure in 9. Despite larger kidneys in Group II (mean longitudinal renal length 25.7 ± 3.4 vs 17.5 ± 2.7 centimeters, P <0.001), improved operative and postoperative profile were noted in Group II in several parameters-mean total operative time (205 ± 11.5 vs 310 ± 15.3 min, P = 0.00), time for specimen retrieval (30.5 ± 3.5 vs 45 ± 4.1 min, P = 0.02), postprocedure drop in hemoglobin (1.1 ± 0.1 vs 2.27 ± 0.03 grams/deciliter, P = 0.00). Conversion rates, intraoperative and postoperative events were also considerably less in Group II. CONCLUSIONS: Despite existence of comorbidities and technical difficulties, laparoscopic nephrectomy in patients with ADPKD with ESRD and on MHD is a feasible option. Technical modifications with increasing surgeon's experience allows successful conductance of this approach in more complex cases with better outcome. PMID:26195877

  15. Associations Between Biomarkers and Age in the Presenilin 1 E280A Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer Disease Kindred A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Fleisher, Adam S.; Chen, Kewei; Quiroz, Yakeel T.; Jakimovich, Laura J.; Gomez, Madelyn Gutierrez; Langois, Carolyn M.; Langbaum, Jessica B. S.; Roontiva, Auttawut; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Lee, Wendy; Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Lopez, Liliana; Moreno, Sonia; Muñoz, Claudia; Tirado, Victoria; Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Fagan, Anne M.; Giraldo, Margarita; Garcia, Gloria; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Tariot, Pierre N.; Lopera, Francisco; Reiman, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Age-associated changes in brain imaging and fluid biomarkers are characterized and compared in presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation carriers and noncarriers from the world’s largest known autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (AD) kindred. OBJECTIVE To characterize and compare age-associated changes in brain imaging and fluid biomarkers in PSEN1 E280A mutation carriers and noncarriers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional measures of 18F-florbetapir positron emission tomography, 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, structural magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and plasma biomarkers of AD were assessed from 54 PSEN1 E280A kindred members (age range, 20-59 years). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We used brain mapping algorithms to compare regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose and gray matter volumes in cognitively unimpaired mutation carriers and noncarriers. We used regression analyses to characterize associations between age and the mean cortical to pontine 18F-florbetapir standard uptake value ratios, precuneus cerebral metabolic rates for glucose, hippocampal gray matter volume, CSF Aβ1-42, total tau and phosphorylated tau181, and plasma Aβ measurements. Age at onset of progressive biomarker changes that distinguish carriers from noncarriers was estimated using best-fitting regression models. RESULTS Compared with noncarriers, cognitively unimpaired mutation carriers had significantly lower precuneus cerebral metabolic rates for glucose, smaller hippocampal volume, lower CSF Aβ1-42, higher CSF total tau and phosphorylated tau181, and higher plasma Aβ1-42 measurements. Sequential changes in biomarkers were seen at age 20 years (95% CI, 14-24 years) for CSF Aβ1-42, age 16 years (95% CI, 11-24 years) for the mean cortical 18F-florbetapir standard uptake value ratio, age 15 years (95% CI, 10-24 years) for precuneus cerebral metabolic rate for glucose, age 15 years (95% CI, 7-20 years) for CSF total tau, age 13 years (95% CI, 8-19 years) for phosphorylated tau181, and age 6 years (95% CI, 1-10 years) for hippocampal volume, with cognitive decline up to 6 years before the kindred’s estimated median age of 44 years (95% CI, 43-45 years) at mild cognitive impairment diagnosis. No age-associated findings were seen in plasma Aβ1-42 or Aβ1-40. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This cross-sectional study provides additional information about the course of different AD biomarkers in the preclinical and clinical stages of autosomal dominant AD. PMID:25580592

  16. Identification of 13 new mutations in the vasopressin-neurophysin II gene in 17 kindreds with familial autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed Central

    Rittig, S.; Robertson, G. L.; Siggaard, C.; Kovács, L.; Gregersen, N.; Nyborg, J.; Pedersen, E. B.

    1996-01-01

    Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by progressive postnatal deficiency of arginine vasopressin as a result of mutation in the gene that encodes the hormone. To determine the extent of mutations in the coding region that produce the phenotype, we studied members of 17 unrelated kindreds with the disorder. We sequenced all 3 exons of the gene by using a rapid, direct dye-terminator method and found the causative mutation in each kindred. In four kindreds, the mutations were each identical to mutations described in other affected families. In the other 13 kindreds each mutation was unique. There were two missense mutations that altered the cleavage region of the signal peptide, seven missense mutations in exon 2, which codes for the conserved portion of the protein, one nonsense mutation in exon 2, and three nonsense mutations in exon 3. These findings, together with the clinical features of FNDI, suggest that each of the mutations exerts an effect by directing the production of a pre-prohormone that cannot be folded, processed, or degraded properly and eventually destroys vasopressinergic neurons. Images Figure 3 PMID:8554046

  17. Fine mapping of the Autosomal Dominant Split Hand/Split Foot Locus on Chromosome 7, Band q21.3-q22.1

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Stephen W.; Poorkaj, Parvoneh; Allen, Todd; Kim, Julia; Geshuri, Dorrit; Nunes, Mark; Soder, Sylvia; Stephens, Karen; Pagon, Roberta A.; Patton, Michael A.; Berg, Mary Anne; Donlon, Tim; Rivera, Horacio; Pfeiffer, R. A.; Naritomi, Kenji; Hughes, Helen; Genuardi, Maurizio; Gurrieri, Fiorella; Neri, Giovanni; Lovrein, Everett; Magenis, Ellen; Tsui, Lap-Chee; Evans, James P.

    1994-01-01

    Split hand/split foot (SHFD) is a human developmental defect characterized by missing digits, fusion of remaining digits, and a deep median cleft in the hands and feet. Cytogenetic studies of deletions and translocations associated with this disorder have indicated that an autosomal dominant split hand/split foot locus (gene SHFD1) maps to 7q21-q22. To characterize the SHFD1 locus, somatic cell hybrid lines were constructed from cytogenetically abnormal individuals with SHFD. Molecular analysis resulted in the localization of 93 DNA markers to one of 10 intervals surrounding the SHFD1 locus. The translocation breakpoints in four SHFD patients were encompassed by the smallest region of overlap among the SHFD-associated deletions. The order of DNA markers in the SHFD1 critical region has been defined as PON–D7S812–SHFD1–D7S811–ASNS. One DNA marker, D7S811, detected altered restriction enzyme fragments in three patients with translocations when examined by pulsed-field gel electro-phoresis (PFGE). These data map SHFD1, a gene that is crucial for human limb differentiation, to a small interval in the q21.3-q22.1 region of human chromosome 7. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 4 PMID:8023840

  18. A Pkd1-Fbn1 Genetic Interaction Implicates TGF-β Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Vascular Complications in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongyan; Wang, Connie J.; Judge, Daniel P.; Halushka, Marc K.; Ni, Jie; Habashi, Jennifer P.; Moslehi, Javid; Bedja, Djahida; Gabrielson, Kathleen L.; Xu, Hangxue; Qian, Feng; Huso, David; Dietz, Harry C.; Germino, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common cause of renal failure that is due to mutations in two genes, PKD1 and PKD2. Vascular complications, including aneurysms, are a well recognized feature of ADPKD, and a subgroup of families exhibits traits reminiscent of Marfan syndrome (MFS). MFS is caused by mutations in fibrillin-1 (FBN1), which encodes an extracellular matrix protein with homology to latent TGF-β binding proteins. It was recently demonstrated that fibrillin-1 deficiency is associated with upregulation of TGF-β signaling. We investigated the overlap between ADPKD and MFS by breeding mice with targeted mutations in Pkd1 and Fbn1. Double heterozygotes displayed an exacerbation of the typical Fbn1 heterozygous aortic phenotype. We show that the basis of this genetic interaction results from further upregulation of TGF-β signaling caused by Pkd1 haploinsufficiency. In addition, we demonstrate that loss of PKD1 alone is sufficient to induce a heightened responsiveness to TGF-β. Our data link the interaction of two important diseases to a fundamental signaling pathway. PMID:24071006

  19. Autosomal dominant Marfan-like connective-tissue disorder with aortic dilation and skeletal anomalies not linked to the fibrillin genes

    PubMed Central

    Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Babron, Marie-Claude; Coulon, Monique; Alexandre, Jeanne-Armelle; Sakai, Lynn; Melki, Judith; Delorme, Gabriel; Dubourg, Olivier; Bonaïti-Pellié, Catherine; Bourdarias, Jean-Pierre; Junien, Claudine

    1993-01-01

    We describe a large family with a connective-tissue disorder that exhibits some of the skeletal and cardiovascular features seen in Marfan syndrome. However, none of the 19 affected individuals displayed ocular abnormalities and therefore did not comply with recognized criteria for this disease. These patients could alternatively be diagnosed as MASS (mitral valve, aorta, skeleton, and skin) phenotype patients or represent a distinct clinical entity, i.e., a new autosomal dominant connective-tissue disorder. The fibrillin genes located on chromosomes 15 and 5 are clearly involved in the classic form of Marfan syndrome and a clinically related disorder (congenital contractural arachnodactyly), respectively. To test whether one of these genes was also implicated in this French family, we performed genetic analyses. Blood samples were obtained for 56 family members, and four polymorphic fibrillin gene markers, located on chromosomes 15 (Fibl5) and 5 (Fib5), respectively, were tested. Linkage between the disease allele and the markers of these two genes was excluded with lod scores of –11.39 (for Fibl5) and –13.34 (for Fib5), at θ = .001, indicating that the mutation is at a different locus. This phenotype thus represents a new connective-tissue disorder, overlapping but different from classic Marfan syndrome. PMID:8317497

  20. Disease Progression in Autosomal Dominant Cone-Rod Dystrophy Caused by a Novel Mutation (D100G) in the GUCA1A Gene

    PubMed Central

    Nong, Eva; Lee, Winston; Merriam, Joanna E.; Allikmets, Rando; Tsang, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To document longitudinal fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and electroretinogram (ERG) findings in a family with cone-rod dystrophy (CRD) caused by a novel missense mutation (D100G) in the GUCA1A gene. Methods Observational case series. Results Three family members 26 to 49 years old underwent complete clinical examinations. In all patients, funduscopic findings showed intraretinal pigment migration, loss of neurosensory retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and macular atrophy. Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging revealed the presence of a progressive hyperautofluorescent ring around a hypoautofluorescent center corresponding to macular atrophy. Full-field electroretinograms (ERG) showed a more severe loss of cone than rod function in each patient. 30 Hz flicker responses fell far below normal limits. Longitudinal FAF and ERG findings in one patient suggested progressive cone-rod dystrophy. Two more advanced patients exhibited reduced rod response consistent with disease stage. Direct sequencing of the GUCA1A gene revealed a new missense mutation, p.Asp100Gly (D100G), in each patient. Conclusion Patients with autosomal dominant CRD caused by a D100G mutation in GUCA1A exhibit progressive vision loss early within the first decade of life identifiable by distinct ERG characteristics and subsequent genetic testing. PMID:24352742

  1. The gene for autosomal dominant craniometaphyseal dysplasia maps to chromosome 5p and is distinct from the growth hormone-receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Nürnberg, P; Tinschert, S; Mrug, M; Hampe, J; Müller, C R; Fuhrmann, E; Braun, H S; Reis, A

    1997-01-01

    Craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD) is an osteochondrodysplasia of unknown etiology characterized by hyperostosis and sclerosis of the craniofacial bones associated with abnormal modeling of the metaphyses. Sclerosis of the skull may lead to asymmetry of the mandible, as well as to cranial nerve compression, that finally may result in hearing loss and facial palsy. We have analyzed a large German kindred with autosomal dominant (AD) CMD and found tight linkage between the disorder and microsatellite markers on chromosome 5p (maximum two-point LOD score 4.82; theta = 0). Our results clearly establish the existence of a locus for AD CMD on central chromosome 5p (5p15.2-p14.1). This region overlaps with the mapping interval of the growth hormone-receptor (GHR) gene (5p14-p12), which is known to be involved in the mitogenic activation of osteoblasts. Therefore, we tested the GHR gene as a candidate gene. However, recombination events between the CMD locus and the GHR gene identified in two members of this family clearly exclude this candidate. PMID:9382103

  2. Exome sequencing identifies a novel CEACAM16 mutation associated with autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss DFNA4B in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honghan; Wang, Xinwei; He, Chufeng; Li, Haibo; Qing, Jie; Grati, M'hamed; Hu, Zhengmao; Li, Jiada; Hu, Yiqiao; Xia, Kun; Mei, Lingyun; Wang, Xingwei; Yu, Jianjun; Chen, Hongsheng; Jiang, Lu; Liu, Yalan; Men, Meichao; Zhang, Hailin; Guan, Liping; Xiao, Jingjing; Zhang, Jianguo; Liu, Xuezhong; Feng, Yong

    2015-03-01

    Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL/DFNA) is a highly genetically heterogeneous disorder. Hitherto only about 30 ADNSHL-causing genes have been identified and many unknown genes remain to be discovered. In this research, genome-wide linkage analysis mapped the disease locus to a 4.3 Mb region on chromosome 19q13 in SY-026, a five-generation nonconsanguineous Chinese family affected by late-onset and progressive ADNSHL. This linkage region showed partial overlap with the previously reported DFNA4. Simultaneously, probands were analyzed using exome capture followed by next-generation sequencing. Encouragingly, a heterozygous missense mutation, c.505G>A (p.G169R) in exon 3 of the CEACAM16 gene (carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 16), was identified via this combined strategy. Sanger sequencing verified that the mutation co-segregated with hearing loss in the family and that it was not present in 200 unrelated control subjects with matched ancestry. This is the second report in the literature of a family with ADNSHL caused by CEACAM16 mutation. Immunofluorescence staining and western blots also prove CEACAM16 to be a secreted protein. Furthermore, our studies in transfected HEK293T cells show that the secretion efficacy of the mutant CEACAM16 is much lower than that of the wild type, suggesting a deleterious effect of the sequence variant. PMID:25589040

  3. Refining the localization of the PKD2 locus on chromosome 4q by linkage analysis in Spanish families with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease type 2

    SciTech Connect

    San Millan, J.L.; Viribay, M.; Peral, B.; Moreno, F.; Martinez, I.; Weissenbach, J.

    1995-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. At least two distinct forms of ADPKD are now well defined. In {approximately}86% of affected European families, a gene defect localized to 16p13.3 was responsible for ADPKD, while a second locus has been recently localized to 4q13-q23 as candidate for the disease in the remaining families. We present confirmation of linkage to microsatellite markers on chromosome 4q in eight Spanish families with ADPKD, in which the disease was not linked to 16p13.3. By linkage analysis with marker D4S423, a maximum lod score of 9.03 at a recombination fraction of .00 was obtained. Multipoint linkage analysis, as well as a study of recombinant haplotypes, placed the PKD2 locus between D4S1542 and D4S1563, thereby defining a genetic interval of {approximately}1 cM. The refined map will serve as a genetic framework for additional genetic and physical mapping of the region and will improve the accuracy of presymptomatic diagnosis of PKD2. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. APC-like congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) in non-APC patients: Evidence for autosomal dominant transmission in one family

    SciTech Connect

    Thonney, E.; Munier, F.L. Pescia, G.

    1994-09-01

    The presence of congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) is known to be the earliest phenotypic marker in carriers of a mutant allele of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC). The specificity of CHRPE is known to be over 97%, provided that the lesions are bilateral and their total number higher than 4. In the present study, we describe 3 patients from 2 unrelated families with bilateral multiple asymptomatic CHRPE (8-17), normal visual function and no family history of APC. Clinical examination failed to detect other extracolonic signs of APC nor did a search for adenomatous polyps by colonscopy. In one family, the ocular phenotype was transmitted from a father to his only son. Mutation hot spots at codons 302, 622, 625, 1061 and 1309 of the APC gene (about 25% of germline mutations) were all tested normal. We postulate that these APC-free ocular findings reflect the allelic involvement of a mutant APC allele that remains to be characterized. However, involvement of another yet unrecognized autosomal dominant gene cannot be ruled out and additional families with this unique trait should be studied.

  5. Exome Sequencing Identifies a Novel CEACAM16 Mutation Associated with Autosomal Dominant Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss DFNA4B in a Chinese Family

    PubMed Central

    He, Chufeng; Li, Haibo; Qing, Jie; Grati, Mhamed; Hu, Zhengmao; Li, Jiada; Hu, Yiqiao; Xia, Kun; Mei, Lingyun; Wang, Xingwei; Yu, Jianjun; Chen, Hongsheng; Jiang, Lu; Liu, Yalan; Men, Meichao; Zhang, Hailin; Guan, Liping; Xiao, Jingjing; Zhang, Jianguo; Liu, Xuezhong; Feng, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL/DFNA) is a highly genetically heterogeneous disorder. Hitherto only about 30 ADNSHL-causing genes have been identified and many unknown genes remain to be discovered. In this research, genome-wide linkage analysis mapped the disease locus to a 4.3 Mb region on chromosome 19q13 in SY-026, a five-generation nonconsanguineous Chinese family affected by late-onset and progressive ADNSHL. This linkage region showed partial overlap with the previously reported DFNA4. Simultaneously, probands were analyzed using exome capture followed by next generation sequencing. Encouragingly, a heterozygous missense mutation, c.505G>A (p.G169R) in exon 3 of the CEACAM16 gene (carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 16), was identified via this combined strategy. Sanger sequencing verified that the mutation co-segregated with hearing loss in the family and that it was not present in 200 unrelated control subjects with matched ancestry. This is the second report in the literature of a family with ADNSHL caused by CEACAM16 mutation. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blots also prove CEACAM16 to be a secreted protein. Furthermore, our studies in transfected HEK293T cells show that the secretion efficacy of the mutant CEACAM16 is much lower than that of the wild-type, suggesting a deleterious effect of the sequence variant. PMID:25589040

  6. A pedigree with autosomal dominant thrombocytopenia, red cell macrocytosis, and an occurrence of t(12:21) positive pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Escher, Robert; Wilson, Peter; Carmichael, Catherine; Suppiah, Ram; Liu, Marjorie; Kavallaris, Maria; Cannon, Ping; Michaud, Joelle; Scott, Hamish S

    2007-01-01

    Sampling and analyzing new families with inherited blood disorders are major steps contributing to the identification of gene(s) responsible for normal and pathologic hematopoiesis. Familial occurrences of hematological disorders alone, or as part of a syndromic disease, have been reported, and for some the underlying genetic mutation has been identified. Here we describe a new autosomal dominant inherited phenotype of thrombocytopenia and red cell macrocytosis in a four-generation pedigree. Interestingly, in the youngest generation, a 2-year-old boy presenting with these familial features has developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia characterized by a t(12;21) translocation. Tri-lineage involvement of platelets, red cells and white cells may suggest a genetic defect in an early multiliear progenitor or a stem cell. Functional assays in EBV-transformed cell lines revealed a defect in cell proliferation and tubulin dynamics. Two candidate genes, RUNX1 and FOG1, were sequenced but no pathogenic mutation was found. Identification of the underlying genetic defect(s) in this family may help in understanding the complex process of hematopoiesis. PMID:17434765

  7. A Non-Synonymous Mutation in the Canine Pkd1 Gene Is Associated with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease in Bull Terriers

    PubMed Central

    Gharahkhani, Puya; O'Leary, Caroline A.; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat; Sturm, Richard A.; Duffy, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic Kidney Disease is an autosomal dominant disease common in some lines of Bull Terriers (BTPKD). The disease is linked to the canine orthologue of human PKD1 gene, Pkd1, located on CFA06, but no disease-associated mutation has been reported. This study sequenced genomic DNA from two Bull Terriers with BTPKD and two without the disease. A non-synonymous G>A transition mutation in exon 29 of Pkd1 was identified. A TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assay was designed and demonstrated the heterozygous detection of the mutation in 47 Bull Terriers with BTPKD, but not in 102 Bull Terriers over one year of age and without BTPKD. This missense mutation replaces a glutamic acid residue with a lysine residue in the predicted protein, Polycystin 1. This region of Polycystin 1 is highly conserved between species, and is located in the first cytoplasmic loop of the predicted protein structure, close to the PLAT domain and the second transmembrane region. Thus, this change could alter Polycystin 1 binding or localization. Analytic programs PolyPhen 2, Align GVGD and SIFT predict this mutation to be pathogenic. Thus, BTPKD is associated with a missense mutation in Pkd1, and the application of this mutation specific assay could reduce disease transmission by allowing diagnosis of disease in young animals prior to breeding. PMID:21818326

  8. Ectrodactyly with aplasia of long bones (OMIM; 119100) in a large inbred Arab family with an apparent autosomal dominant inheritance and reduced penetrance: clinical and genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Naveed, Mohammed; Al-Ali, Mahmoud T; Murthy, Sabita K; Al-Hajali, Sarah; Al-Khaja, Najib; Deutsch, Samuel; Bottani, Armand; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Nath, Swapan K; Radhakrishna, Uppala

    2006-07-01

    Ectrodactyly with aplasia of long bones syndrome is one of the most recognizable defects involving the extremities. We have studied a very large eight-generation consanguineous Arab family from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) with multiple severe limb anomalies resembling this condition (OMIM; 119100), for which the affected gene is unknown. The pedigree consists of 145 individuals including 23 affected (14 males/9 females) with limb anomalies. Of these, 18 had tibial aplasia (TA) usually on the right side. The expression of the phenotype was variable and ranged from bilateral to unilateral TA with ectrodactyly and other defects of the extremities. The mode of inheritance appears to be autosomal dominant with reduced penetrance. There were 10 consanguineous marriages observed in this pedigree. This could suggest possible pseudodominance due to high frequency of the mutant allele. Candidate loci for the described syndrome include GLI3 (OMIM: 165240) on 7p13, sonic hedgehog; (OMIM: 600725) on 7q36, Langer-Giedion syndrome (OMIM: 150230) on 8q24.1 and split-hand/foot malformation 3 (OMIM: 600095) on 10q24. In addition, bilateral tibial hemimelia and unilateral absence of the ulna was previously observed to co-segregate with deletion of 8q24.1. Two-point linkage and haplotype analyses did not show the involvement of the above regions in this family. PMID:16688753

  9. Identification of 13 new mutations in the vasopressin-neurophysin II gene in 17 kindreds with familial autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus

    SciTech Connect

    Rittig, S.; Siggaard, C.; Pedersen, E.B.

    1996-01-01

    Familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by progressive postnatal deficiency of arginine vasopressin as a result of mutation in the gene that encodes the hormone. To determine the extent of mutations in the coding region that produce the phenotype, we studied members of 17 unrelated kindreds with the disorder. We sequenced all 3 exons of the gene by using a rapid, direct dye-terminator method and found the causative mutation in each kindred. In four kindreds, the mutations were each identical to mutations described in other affected families. In the other 13 kindreds each mutation was unique. There were two missense mutations that altered the cleavage region of the signal peptide, seven missense mutations in exon 2, which codes for the conserved portion of the protein, one nonsense mutation in exon 2, and three nonsense mutations in exon 3. These findings, together with the clinical features of FNDI, suggest that each of the mutations exerts an effect by directing the production of a pre-prohormone that cannot be folded, processed, or degraded properly and eventually destroys vasopressinergic neurons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. A novel mutation (ASn244Lys) in the peripherin/RDS gene causing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa associated with bull's eye maculopathy detected by nonradioisotopic SSCP

    SciTech Connect

    Kikawa, Emi; Nakazawa, Mitsuru; Chida, Yasushi; Shiono, Takashi; Tamai, Makota )

    1994-03-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is characterized by night blindness, an eventual loss of visual field, a diminished response on the electroretinogram, and pigmentary retinal degeneration. These features are primarily explained by the degeneration of photoreceptors. The recent development of the molecular genetic approach has enabled the identification of genes responsible for parts of autosomal dominant RP (ADRP). Rhodopsin and peripherin/RDS genes, in particular, have been successfully shown to cosegregate with ADRP. The authors, therefore, screened 42 unrelated Japanese patients with ADRP to search for mutations in the peripherin/RDS gene. The method we employed for screening was a nonradioisotopic modification of single-strand conformation polymorphism. Among 42 unrelated patients with ADRP, the DNA from one patient (SY) showed an abnormal pattern in exon 2 on SSCP. The DNA fragments were then amplified from affected and nonaffected members of the same family as SY. The alteration in the DNA sequence that was commonly found in the affected members of the family was identified as a heterozygous transversional change of C to A at the third nucleotide in codon 244, resulting in the amino acid replacement of asparagine residue with lysine residue. None of unaffected family members or 30 normal control individuals had this alteration.

  11. A missense mutation in the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit is associated with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Steinlein, O K; Mulley, J C; Propping, P; Wallace, R H; Phillips, H A; Sutherland, G R; Scheffer, I E; Berkovic, S F

    1995-10-01

    Epilepsy affects at least 2% of the population at some time in their lives. The epilepsies are a heterogeneous group of disorders, many with an inherited component. Although specific genes have been identified in a few rare diseases causing seizures as part of a more diffuse brain disorder, the molecular pathology of the common idiopathic epilepsies is still unknown. Linkage has been reported for some generalised epilepsy syndromes, but only very recently for familial partial epilepsy syndromes. Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is a partial epilepsy causing frequent, violent, brief seizures at night, usually beginning in childhood. The gene for ADNFLE maps to chromosome 20q13.2-q13.3 in one large Australian kindred. The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit (CHRNA4) maps to the same region of 20q (ref. 12) and the gene is expressed in all layers of the frontal cortex. We screened affected family members for mutations within CHRNA4 and found a missense mutation that replaces serine with phenylalanine at codon 248, a strongly conserved amino acid residue in the second transmembrane domain. The mutation is present in all 21 available affected family members and in four obligate carriers, but not in 333 healthy control subjects. PMID:7550350

  12. Hyperactive behavior in a family with autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy caused by a mutation in the LGI1/epitempin gene.

    PubMed

    Berghuis, B; Brilstra, E H; Lindhout, D; Baulac, S; de Haan, G J; van Kempen, M

    2013-07-01

    Autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (ADLTE) is characterized by focal seizures with auditory features or aphasia. Mutations in the leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) gene have been reported in up to 50% of families with ADLTE. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms have not yet been reported in these families. Clinical data were collected from a family with five affected members. Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 exons and boundaries were sequenced by standard methods. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were scored based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria. Affected members had seizures with auditory features and psychic auras, and some experienced nightmares. A heterozygous c.431+1G>A substitution in LGI1 was detected in all members. Significantly more hyperactivity symptoms were found in family members carrying the LGI1 mutation. This study expands the phenotypic spectrum associated with ADLTE due to LGI1 mutation and underlines the need for more systematic evaluation of ADHD and related symptoms. PMID:23651915

  13. The Impact of the Availability of Prevention Studies on the Desire to Undergo Predictive Testing in Persons at-risk for Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Megan; Grill, Joshua D.; Rodriguez-Agudelo, Yaneth; Medina, Luis D.; Fox, Michelle; Alvarez-Retuerto, Ana Isabel; Wharton, David; Brook, Jenny; Ringman, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Persons at-risk for autosomal dominant neurodegenerative diseases provide the opportunity to efficiently test preventive interventions. Only a minority of such persons, however, choose to undergo revealing genetic testing, presenting a challenge to enrollment. Thirty-four preclinical Latinos (n = 26) and non-Latinos at-risk for familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD) unaware of their genetic status were administered a questionnaire exploring their interest in undergoing revealing genetic testing at baseline and in the context of eligibility for four prevention trials of increasing invasiveness. Forty-four percent of subjects expressed a baseline interest in undergoing revealing testing which increased to 85% in order to be eligible for a study of an oral drug "felt to be very safe.” If there were a 50% chance of receiving placebo, this number dropped to 62% (p = 0.02). For those not interested in a study involving a 50% chance of receiving placebo, a range of 5% to 40% chance of receiving placebo was given as acceptable. For more invasive studies, living in the U.S. (as opposed to Mexico) positively influenced the likelihood of participating. Our data suggests that clinical trial designs in which persons must confront their genetic status prior to enrollment are feasible. Study designs to minimize the likelihood of being placed on placebo or provide the eventual administration of the drug through open-label extensions should be considered. PMID:23876673

  14. The disruption of a novel limb cis-regulatory element of SHH is associated with autosomal dominant preaxial polydactyly-hypertrichosis.

    PubMed

    Petit, Florence; Jourdain, Anne-Sophie; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Keren, Boris; Andrieux, Joris; Duterque-Coquillaud, Martine; Porchet, Nicole; Manouvrier-Hanu, Sylvie; Escande, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    The expression gradient of the morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) is crucial in establishing the number and the identity of the digits during anteroposterior patterning of the limb. Its anterior ectopic expression is responsible for preaxial polydactyly (PPD). Most of these malformations are due to the gain-of-function of the Zone of Polarizing Activity Regulatory Sequence, the only limb-specific enhancer of SHH known to date. We report a family affected with a novel condition associating PPD and hypertrichosis of the upper back, following an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. This phenotype is consistent with deregulation of SHH expression during limb and follicle development. In affected members, we identified a 2 kb deletion located ~240 kb upstream from the SHH promoter. The deleted sequence is capable of repressing the transcriptional activity of the SHH promoter in vitro, consistent with a silencer activity. We hypothesize that the deletion of this silencer could be responsible for SHH deregulation during development, leading to a PPD-hypertrichosis phenotype. PMID:25782671

  15. Autosomal dominant Marfan-like connective-tissue disorder with aortic dilation and skeletal anomaslies not linked to the Fibrillin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Boileau, C.; Coulon, M.; Alexandre, J.-A.; Junien, C. ); Jondeau, G.; Delorme, G.; Dubourg, O.; Bourdarias, J.-P. ); Babron, M.-C.; Bonaieti-Pellie, C. ); Sakai, L. ); Melki, J. )

    1993-07-01

    The authors describe a large family with a connective-tissue disorder that exhibits some of the skeletal and cardiovascular features seen in Marfan syndrome. However, none of the 19 affected individuals displayed ocular abnormalities and therefore did not comply with recognized criteria for this disease. These patients could alternatively be diagnosed as MASS (mitral valve, aorta, skeleton, and skin) phenotype patients or represent a distinct clinical entity, i.e., a new autosomal dominant connective-tissue disorder. The fibrillin genes located on chromosomes 15 and 5 are clearly involved in the classic form of Marfan syndrome and a clinically related disorder (congenital contractural arachnodactyly), respectively. To test whether one of these genes was also implicated in this French family, the authors performed genetic analyses. Blood samples were obtained for 56 family members, and four polymorphic fibrillin gene markers, located on chromosomes 15 (Fib15) and 5 (Fib5), respectively, were tested. Linkage between the disease allele and the markers of these two genes was excluded with lod scores of [minus]11.39 (for Fib15) and [minus]13.34 (for Fib5), at 0 = .001, indicating that the mutation is at a different locus. This phenotype thus represents a new connective-tissue disorder, overlapping but different from classic Marfan syndrome. 33 refs., 1 fig. 2 tabs.

  16. Exome Sequencing Identifies a Missense Variant in EFEMP1 Co-Segregating in a Family with Autosomal Dominant Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, Donna S.; Bennett, Thomas M.; Shiels, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a clinically important and genetically heterogeneous cause of progressive vision loss as a result of retinal ganglion cell death. Here we have utilized trio-based, whole-exome sequencing to identify the genetic defect underlying an autosomal dominant form of adult-onset POAG segregating in an African-American family. Exome sequencing identified a novel missense variant (c.418C>T, p.Arg140Trp) in exon-5 of the gene coding for epidermal growth factor (EGF) containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1) that co-segregated with disease in the family. Linkage and haplotype analyses with microsatellite markers indicated that the disease interval overlapped a known POAG locus (GLC1H) on chromosome 2p. The p.Arg140Trp substitution was predicted in silico to have damaging effects on protein function and transient expression studies in cultured cells revealed that the Trp140-mutant protein exhibited increased intracellular accumulation compared with wild-type EFEMP1. In situ hybridization of the mouse eye with oligonucleotide probes detected the highest levels of EFEMP1 transcripts in the ciliary body, cornea, inner nuclear layer of the retina, and the optic nerve head. The recent finding that a common variant near EFEMP1 was associated with optic nerve-head morphology supports the possibility that the EFEMP1 variant identified in this POAG family may be pathogenic. PMID:26162006

  17. Mapping one form of autosomal dominant postaxial polydactyly type A to chromosome 7p15-q11.23 by linkage analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishna, U; Blouin, J L; Mehenni, H; Patel, U C; Patel, M N; Solanki, J V; Antonarakis, S E

    1997-01-01

    Postaxial polydactyly type-A (PAP-A) in humans is an autosomal dominant trait characterized by an extra digit in the ulnar and/or fibular side of the upper and/or lower extremities. The extra digit is well formed and articulates with the fifth, or extra, metacarpal/metatarsal, and thus it is usually functional. In order to map the gene responsible for PAP-A, we studied a five-generation Indian family of 37 individuals (15 of whom were affected). A genomewide search with highly informative polymorphic markers on part of the pedigree showed linkage between the PAP-A phenotype and markers on chromosome 7p15-q11.23 (no crossovers were found with D7S526, D7S795, D7S528, D7S521, D7S691, D7S667, D7S478, D7S1830, D7S803, D7S801, or ELN). The highest LOD score was obtained with marker D7S801 (zeta max = 4.21; theta = 0). Haplotype analysis enabled the mapping of the PAP-A phenotype in this family between markers D7S2848 and D7S669. Analysis of additional families with PAP-A will narrow down the critical genomic region, facilitate positional cloning of the PAP-A gene, and/or uncover potential genetic heterogeneity. Images Figure 2 PMID:9042919

  18. Physical and transcript map of the autosomal dominant colobomatous microphthalmia locus on chromosome 15q12-q15 and refinement to a 4.4 Mb region.

    PubMed

    Michon, Laetitia; Morlé, Laurette; Bozon, Muriel; Duret, Laurent; Zech, Jean-Christophe; Godet, Jacqueline; Plauchu, Henry; Edery, Patrick

    2004-07-01

    Congenital microphthalmia is a developmental disorder characterized by shortened axial length of the eye. We have previously mapped the gene responsible for autosomal dominant colobomatous microphthalmia in a 5-generation family to chromosome 15q12-q15. Here, we set up a physical and transcript map of the 13.8 cM critical region, flanked by loci D15S1002 and D15S1040. Physical mapping and genetic linkage analysis using 20 novel polymorphic markers allowed the refinement of the disease locus to two intervals in close vicinity, namely a centromeric interval, bounded by microsatellite DNA markers m3-m17, and a telomeric interval, m76-m24, encompassing respectively 1.9 and 2.5 Mb. Moreover, we excluded three candidate genes, CKTSF1B1, KLF13 and CX36. Finally, although a phenomenon of anticipation was suggested by phenotypic and pedigree data, no abnormal expansion of three trinucleotide repeats mapping to the refine interval was found in affected individuals. PMID:15083168

  19. SNP Linkage Analysis and Whole Exome Sequencing Identify a Novel POU4F3 Mutation in Autosomal Dominant Late-Onset Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss (DFNA15)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoung-Jin; Hong, Sung Hwa; Ki, Chang-Seok; Cho, Sang Sun; Venselaar, Hanka; Vriend, Gert; Kim, Jong-Won

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (AD-NSHL) is one of the most common genetic diseases in human and is well-known for the considerable genetic heterogeneity. In this study, we utilized whole exome sequencing (WES) and linkage analysis for direct genetic diagnosis in AD-NSHL. The Korean family had typical AD-NSHL running over 6 generations. Linkage analysis was performed by using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip and pinpointed a genomic region on 5q31 with a significant linkage signal. Sequential filtering of variants obtained from WES, application of the linkage region, bioinformatic analyses, and Sanger sequencing validation identified a novel missense mutation Arg326Lys (c.977G>A) in the POU homeodomain of the POU4F3 gene as the candidate disease-causing mutation in the family. POU4F3 is a known disease gene causing AD-HSLH (DFNA15) described in 5 unrelated families until now each with a unique mutation. Arg326Lys was the first missense mutation affecting the 3rd alpha helix of the POU homeodomain harboring a bipartite nuclear localization signal sequence. The phenotype findings in our family further supported previously noted intrafamilial and interfamilial variability of DFNA15. This study demonstrated that WES in combination with linkage analysis utilizing bi-allelic SNP markers successfully identified the disease locus and causative mutation in AD-NSHL. PMID:24260153

  20. Mutational analysis of CHRNB2, CHRNA2 and CHRNA4 genes in Chinese population with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhihong; Wang, Lingan; Wang, Chun; Chen, Qian; Zhai, Qiongxiang; Guo, Yuxiong; Zhang, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study aims to investigate the gene mutations of CHRNB2, CHRNA2 and CHRNA4 in Chinese population with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE). Methods: 257 ADNFLE patients (74 sporadic and 32 familial) were collected, including 42 pedigree patients and 215 sporadic cases. Exon mutational screening of CHRNB2, CHRNA2 and CHRNA4 was performed by direct PCR sequencing. Results: No published mutations of CHRNB2, CHRNA4 and CHRNA2 genes were detected in this study. Three kinds of c.SNP (c.66C> T, c.249C> T, c.375A> G) were detected on the 2nd and 5th exons of CHRNA2; six kinds of c.SNP (c.639T> C, c.678T> C, c.1209G> T, c.1227T> C, c.1659G> A, c.1629C> T) were detected on the 5th exon of CHRNA4. Three novel mutations were discovered, respectively locating on the exon 5 of CHRNA4 gene (c.570C> T), 5th and 6th exons of CHRNB2 gene (c.483C> T and c.1407C> G). The three mutations were absent in 200 healthy controls, indicating that the mutations were very rare. Conclusion: CHRNA4, CHRNB2 and CHRNA2 may be not the causative genes of Chinese ADNFLE population. Whether the three novel synonymous mutations were genetic factors of ADNFLE pathogenesis in Chinese Han population needs to be further studied. PMID:26309560

  1. HPPD: A newly recognized autosomal dominant disorder involving hypertelorism, preauricular sinus, punctal pits, and deafness mapping to chromosome 14q31.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Srirangan; Keats, Bronya J B; Lacassie, Yves

    2011-05-01

    We report on a novel autosomal dominant disorder with variable phenotypic expression in a three-generation family; the major features include hypertelorism, preauricular sinus, deafness, and punctal pits with lacrimal-duct obstruction. We ruled out the involvement of EYA1, SIX1, and SIX5 as candidate genes by direct sequencing of their exons and by SNP-based linkage analysis. Subsequent SNP-based whole-genome genotyping and parametric multipoint linkage analysis gave lod scores >1 at 14q31 (LOD?=?3.14), 11q25 (LOD?=?1.87), and 8p23 (LOD?=?1.18). By genotyping additional microsatellite markers at two of these three loci and using an expanded phenotype definition, the LOD at 14q31 increased to 3.34. Direct sequencing of the gene exons within the 14q31 critical interval and a custom aCGH experiment did not show any pathogenic mutation or copy-number changes. Further sequencing of 21?kb of promoter regions showed a novel polymorphism 1,249?bp upstream from the SELIL start codon that segregated with the disease haplotype. Cloning the novel polymorphism into luciferase reporter constructs resulted in a 20% reduction in the expression levels. The identification of this family with a distinctive clinical phenotype and linkage to a novel locus at 14q31 supports the existence of a new syndrome of the branchial cleft. PMID:21480481

  2. Whole exome sequencing links dental tumor to an autosomal-dominant mutation in ANO5 gene associated with gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia and muscle dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, T V; Tyazhelova, T V; Rykalina, V N; Gusev, F E; Goltsov, A Yu; Zolotareva, O I; Aliseichik, M P; Borodina, T A; Grigorenko, A P; Reshetov, D A; Ginter, E K; Amelina, S S; Zinchenko, R A; Rogaev, E I

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the jaws may represent different human disorders and frequently associate with pathologic bone fractures. In this report, we analyzed two affected siblings from a family of Russian origin, with a history of dental tumors of the jaws, in correspondence to original clinical diagnosis of cementoma consistent with gigantiform cementoma (GC, OMIM: 137575). Whole exome sequencing revealed the heterozygous missense mutation c.1067G > A (p.Cys356Tyr) in ANO5 gene in these patients. To date, autosomal-dominant mutations have been described in the ANO5 gene for gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD, OMIM: 166260), and multiple recessive mutations have been described in the gene for muscle dystrophies (OMIM: 613319, 611307); the same amino acid (Cys) at the position 356 is mutated in GDD. These genetic data and similar clinical phenotypes demonstrate that the GC and GDD likely represent the same type of bone pathology. Our data illustrate the significance of mutations in single amino-acid position for particular bone tissue pathology. Modifying role of genetic variations in another gene on the severity of the monogenic trait pathology is also suggested. Finally, we propose the model explaining the tissue-specific manifestation of clinically distant bone and muscle diseases linked to mutations in one gene. PMID:27216912

  3. A large genomic deletion leads to enhancer adoption by the lamin B1 gene: a second path to autosomal dominant adult-onset demyelinating leukodystrophy (ADLD)

    PubMed Central

    Giorgio, Elisa; Robyr, Daniel; Spielmann, Malte; Ferrero, Enza; Di Gregorio, Eleonora; Imperiale, Daniele; Vaula, Giovanna; Stamoulis, Georgios; Santoni, Federico; Atzori, Cristiana; Gasparini, Laura; Ferrera, Denise; Canale, Claudio; Guipponi, Michel; Pennacchio, Len A.; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Brussino, Alessandro; Brusco, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements with duplication of the lamin B1 (LMNB1) gene underlie autosomal dominant adult-onset demyelinating leukodystrophy (ADLD), a rare neurological disorder in which overexpression of LMNB1 causes progressive central nervous system demyelination. However, we previously reported an ADLD family (ADLD-1-TO) without evidence of duplication or other mutation in LMNB1 despite linkage to the LMNB1 locus and lamin B1 overexpression. By custom array-CGH, we further investigated this family and report here that patients carry a large (∼660 kb) heterozygous deletion that begins 66 kb upstream of the LMNB1 promoter. Lamin B1 overexpression was confirmed in further ADLD-1-TO tissues and in a postmortem brain sample, where lamin B1 was increased in the frontal lobe. Through parallel studies, we investigated both loss of genetic material and chromosomal rearrangement as possible causes of LMNB1 overexpression, and found that ADLD-1-TO plausibly results from an enhancer adoption mechanism. The deletion eliminates a genome topological domain boundary, allowing normally forbidden interactions between at least three forebrain-directed enhancers and the LMNB1 promoter, in line with the observed mainly cerebral localization of lamin B1 overexpression and myelin degeneration. This second route to LMNB1 overexpression and ADLD is a new example of the relevance of regulatory landscape modifications in determining Mendelian phenotypes. PMID:25701871

  4. Identification of p.A684V missense mutation in the WFS1 gene as a frequent cause of autosomal dominant optic atrophy and hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    Rendtorff, Nanna D.; Lodahl, Marianne; Boulahbel, Houda; Johansen, Ida R.; Pandya, Arti; Welch, Katherine O.; Norris, Virginia W.; Arnos, Kathleen S.; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria; Emery, Sarah B.; Mets, Marilyn B.; Fagerheim, Toril; Eriksson, Kristina; Hansen, Lars; Bruhn, Helene; Möller, Claes; Lindholm, Sture; Ensgård, Stefan; Lesperance, Marci M.; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    Optic atrophy (OA) and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) are key abnormalities in several syndromes, including the recessively inherited Wolfram syndrome, caused by mutations in WFS1. In contrast, the association of autosomal dominant OA and SNHL without other phenotypic abnormalities is rare, and almost exclusively attributed to mutations in the Optic Atrophy-1 gene (OPA1), most commonly the p.R445H mutation. We present eight probands and their families from the US, Sweden, and UK with OA and SNHL, whom we analyzed for mutations in OPA1 and WFS1. Among these families, we found three heterozygous missense mutations in WFS1 segregating with OA and SNHL: p.A684V (six families), and two novel mutations, p.G780S and p.D797Y, all involving evolutionarily conserved amino acids and absent from 298 control chromosomes. Importantly, none of these families harbored the OPA1 p.R445H mutation. No mitochondrial DNA deletions were detected in muscle from one p.A684V patient analyzed. Finally, wolframin p.A684V mutant ectopically expressed in HEK cells showed reduced protein levels compared to wild-type wolframin, strongly indicating that the mutation is disease-causing. Our data support OA and SNHL as a phenotype caused by dominant mutations in WFS1 in these additional eight families. Importantly, our data provide the first evidence that a single, recurrent mutation in WFS1, p.A684V, may be a common cause of ADOA and SNHL, similar to the role played by the p.R445H mutation in OPA1. Our findings suggest that patients who are heterozygous for WFS1 missense mutations should be carefully clinically examined for OA and other manifestations of Wolfram syndrome. PMID:21538838

  5. Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. A video-polysomnographic and genetic appraisal of 40 patients and delineation of the epileptic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oldani, A; Zucconi, M; Asselta, R; Modugno, M; Bonati, M T; Dalprà, L; Malcovati, M; Tenchini, M L; Smirne, S; Ferini-Strambi, L

    1998-02-01

    A number of clinical and aetiological studies have been performed, during the last 30 years, on patients with abnormal nocturnal motor and behavioural phenomena. The aetiological conclusions of these studies were often conflicting, suggesting either an epileptic or a non-epileptic origin. Among the clinical characteristics of these patients, the familial clustering was one thoroughly accepted. A nocturnal familial form of frontal lobe epilepsy (autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, ADNFLE), often misdiagnosed as parasomnia, has been recently described in some families. In one large Australian kindred, a missense mutation in the second transmembrane domain of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit (CHRNA4) gene, located on chromosome 20 q13.2-13.3, has been reported to be associated with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. We performed an extensive clinical and video-polysomnographic study in 40 patients complaining of repeated abnormal nocturnal motor and/or behavioural phenomena, from 30 unrelated Italian families. Thirty-eight patients had an electroclinical picture strongly suggesting the diagnosis of ADNFLE. They had a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from nocturnal enuresis to sleep-related violent behaviour, thus including all the main features of the so-called 'typical' parasomnias. The video-polysomnographic recording confirmed the wide spectrum of abnormal manifestations, including sudden awakenings with dystonic/ dyskinetic movements (in 42.1% of patients), complex behaviours (13.2%) and sleep-related violent behaviour (5.3%). The EEG findings showed ictal epileptiform abnormalities predominantly over frontal areas in 31.6% of patients. In another 47.4% of patients the EEG showed ictal rhythmic slow activity over anterior areas. Only 18.4% of the patients had already received a correct diagnosis of epilepsy. In 73.3% of the patients treated with anti-epileptic drugs the seizures were readily controlled. Pedigree analysis on 28 of the families was consistent with autosomal dominant transmission with reduced penetrance (81%). DNAs from 20 representative affected individuals were sequenced in order to check for the presence of the missense mutation in the CHRNA4 gene found in the Australian kindred affected by ADNFLE. Nucleotide sequence analysis did not reveal the presence of this mutation, but it did confirm the presence of two other base substitutions, not leading to amino acid changes. These two intragenic polymorphisms, together with a closely linked restriction fragment length polymorphism at the D20S20 locus, have been used for linkage analysis of ADNFLE to the terminal region of the long arm of chromosome 20 in five compliant families. The results allowed us to exclude linkage of ADNFLE to this chromosomal region in these families, thus confirming the locus heterogeneity of the disorder. Large and full video-polysomnographical studies are of the utmost importance in order to clarify the real prevalence of both nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy and parasomnias, and to provide a correct therapy. PMID:9549500

  6. Map refinement of locus RP13 to human chromosome 17p13.3 in a second family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Kojis, T.L.; Heinzmann, C.; Ngo, J.T.

    1996-02-01

    In order to elucidate the genetic basis of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) in a large eight-generation family (UCLA-RP09) of British descent, we assessed linkage between the UCLA-RP09 adRP gene and numerous genetic loci, including eight adRP candidate genes, five anonymous adRP-linked DNA loci, and 20 phenotypic markers. Linkage to the UCLA-RP09 disease gene was excluded for all eight candidate genes analyzed, including rhodopsin (RP4) and peripherin/RDS (RP7), for the four adRP loci RP1, RP9, RP10 and RP11, as well as for 17 phenotypic markers. The anonymous DNA marker locus D17S938, linked to adRP locus RP13 on chromosome 17p13.1, yielded a suggestive but not statistically significant positive lod score. Linkage was confirmed between the UCLA-RP09 adRP gene and markers distal to D17S938 in the chromosomal region 17p13.3. A reanalysis of the original RP13 data from a South African adRP family of British descent, in conjunction with our UCLA-RP09 data, suggests that only one adRP locus exists on 17p but that it maps to a more telomeric position, at band 17p13.3, than previously reported. Confirmation of the involvement of RP13 in two presumably unrelated adRP families, both of British descent, suggests that this locus is a distinct adRP gene in a proportion of British, and possibly other, adRP families. 39 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. A Recurrent Mutation in CACNA1G Alters Cav3.1 T-Type Calcium-Channel Conduction and Causes Autosomal-Dominant Cerebellar Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Coutelier, Marie; Blesneac, Iulia; Monteil, Arnaud; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Ando, Kunie; Mundwiller, Emeline; Brusco, Alfredo; Le Ber, Isabelle; Anheim, Mathieu; Castrioto, Anna; Duyckaerts, Charles; Brice, Alexis; Durr, Alexandra; Lory, Philippe; Stevanin, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary cerebellar ataxias (CAs) are neurodegenerative disorders clinically characterized by a cerebellar syndrome, often accompanied by other neurological or non-neurological signs. All transmission modes have been described. In autosomal-dominant CA (ADCA), mutations in more than 30 genes are implicated, but the molecular diagnosis remains unknown in about 40% of cases. Implication of ion channels has long been an ongoing topic in the genetics of CA, and mutations in several channel genes have been recently connected to ADCA. In a large family affected by ADCA and mild pyramidal signs, we searched for the causative variant by combining linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing. In CACNA1G, we identified a c.5144G>A mutation, causing an arginine-to-histidine (p.Arg1715His) change in the voltage sensor S4 segment of the T-type channel protein Cav3.1. Two out of 479 index subjects screened subsequently harbored the same mutation. We performed electrophysiological experiments in HEK293T cells to compare the properties of the p.Arg1715His and wild-type Cav3.1 channels. The current-voltage and the steady-state activation curves of the p.Arg1715His channel were shifted positively, whereas the inactivation curve had a higher slope factor. Computer modeling in deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) neurons suggested that the mutation results in decreased neuronal excitability. Taken together, these data establish CACNA1G, which is highly expressed in the cerebellum, as a gene whose mutations can cause ADCA. This is consistent with the neuropathological examination, which showed severe Purkinje cell loss. Our study further extends our knowledge of the link between calcium channelopathies and CAs. PMID:26456284

  8. A Truncated Form of Rod Photoreceptor PDE6 ?-Subunit Causes Autosomal Dominant Congenital Stationary Night Blindness by Interfering with the Inhibitory Activity of the ?-Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Anurima; Bocquet, Batrice; Snchal, Audrey; Artemyev, Nikolai O.; Hamel, Christian P.; Brabet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness (adCSNB) is caused by mutations in three genes of the rod phototransduction cascade, rhodopsin (RHO), transducin ?-subunit (GNAT1), and cGMP phosphodiesterase type 6 ?-subunit (PDE6B). In most cases, the constitutive activation of the phototransduction cascade is a prerequisite to cause adCSNB. The unique adCSNB-associated PDE6B mutation found in the Rambusch pedigree, the substitution p.His258Asn, leads to rod photoreceptors desensitization. Here, we report a three-generation French family with adCSNB harboring a novel PDE6B mutation, the duplication, c.928-9_940dup resulting in a tyrosine to cysteine substitution at codon 314, a frameshift, and a premature termination (p.Tyr314Cysfs*50). To understand the mechanism of the PDE6?1-314fs*50 mutant, we examined the properties of its PDE6-specific portion, PDE6?1-313. We found that PDE6?1-313 maintains the ability to bind noncatalytic cGMP and the inhibitory ?-subunit (P?), and interferes with the inhibition of normal PDE6?? catalytic subunits by P?. Moreover, both truncated forms of the PDE6? protein, PDE6?1-313 and PDE6?1-314fs*50 expressed in rods of transgenic X. laevis are targeted to the phototransduction compartment. We hypothesize that in affected family members the p.Tyr314Cysfs*50 change results in the production of the truncated protein, which binds P? and causes constitutive activation of the phototransduction thus leading to the absence of rod adaptation. PMID:24760071

  9. A truncated form of rod photoreceptor PDE6 ?-subunit causes autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness by interfering with the inhibitory activity of the ?-subunit.

    PubMed

    Manes, Gal; Cheguru, Pallavi; Majumder, Anurima; Bocquet, Batrice; Snchal, Audrey; Artemyev, Nikolai O; Hamel, Christian P; Brabet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness (adCSNB) is caused by mutations in three genes of the rod phototransduction cascade, rhodopsin (RHO), transducin ?-subunit (GNAT1), and cGMP phosphodiesterase type 6 ?-subunit (PDE6B). In most cases, the constitutive activation of the phototransduction cascade is a prerequisite to cause adCSNB. The unique adCSNB-associated PDE6B mutation found in the Rambusch pedigree, the substitution p.His258Asn, leads to rod photoreceptors desensitization. Here, we report a three-generation French family with adCSNB harboring a novel PDE6B mutation, the duplication, c.928-9_940dup resulting in a tyrosine to cysteine substitution at codon 314, a frameshift, and a premature termination (p.Tyr314Cysfs*50). To understand the mechanism of the PDE6?1-314fs*50 mutant, we examined the properties of its PDE6-specific portion, PDE6?1-313. We found that PDE6?1-313 maintains the ability to bind noncatalytic cGMP and the inhibitory ?-subunit (P?), and interferes with the inhibition of normal PDE6?? catalytic subunits by P?. Moreover, both truncated forms of the PDE6? protein, PDE6?1-313 and PDE6?1-314fs*50 expressed in rods of transgenic X. laevis are targeted to the phototransduction compartment. We hypothesize that in affected family members the p.Tyr314Cysfs*50 change results in the production of the truncated protein, which binds P? and causes constitutive activation of the phototransduction thus leading to the absence of rod adaptation. PMID:24760071

  10. p.Gln200Glu, a putative constitutively active mutant of rod alpha-transducin (GNAT1) in autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Viktoria; Kreienkamp, Hans-Jrgen; Rosenberg, Thomas; Gal, Andreas

    2007-07-01

    Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a non-progressive Mendelian condition resulting from a functional defect in rod photoreceptors. A small number of unique missense mutations in the genes encoding various members of the rod phototransduction cascade, e.g. rhodopsin (RHO), cGMP phosphodiesterase beta-subunit (PDE6B), and transducin alpha-subunit (GNAT1) have been reported to cause autosomal dominant (ad) CSNB. While the RHO and PDE6B mutations result in constitutively active proteins, the only known adCSNB-associated GNAT1 change (p.Gly38Asp) produces an alpha-transducin that is unable to activate its downstream effector molecule in vitro. In a multigeneration Danish family with adCSNB, we identified a novel heterozygous C to G transversion (c.598C>G) in exon 6 of GNAT1 that should result in a p.Gln200Glu substitution in the evolutionarily highly conserved Switch 2 region of alpha-transducin, a domain that has an important role in binding and hydrolyzing GTP. Computer modeling based on the known crystal structure of transducin suggests that the p.Gln200Glu mutant exhibits impaired GTPase activity, and thereby leads to constitutive activation of phototransduction. This assumption is in line with our results of trypsin protection assays as well as previously published biochemical data on mutants of this glutamine in the GTPase active site of alpha-transducin following in vitro expression, and observations that inappropriately activating mutants of various members of the rod phototransduction cascade represent one of the major molecular causes of adCSNB. PMID:17584859

  11. Identification of Two Disease-causing Genes TJP2 and GJB2 in a Chinese Family with Unconditional Autosomal Dominant Nonsyndromic Hereditary Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Yang; Zhao, Ya-Li; Liu, Qiong; Yuan, Hu; Gao, Yun; Lan, Lan; Yu, Lan; Wang, Da-Yong; Guan, Jing; Wang, Qiu-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are more than 300 genetic loci that have been found to be related to hereditary hearing impairment (HHI), including 92 causative genes for nonsyndromic hearing loss, among which 34 genes are related to autosomal dominant nonsyndromic HHI (ADNSHHI). Traditional linkage analysis and candidate gene sequencing are not effective at detecting the ADNSHHI, especially for the unconditional families that may have more than one pathogenic cause. This study identified two disease-causing genes TJP2 and GJB2 in a Chinese family with unconditional ADNSHHI. Methods: To decipher the genetic code of a Chinese family (family 686) with ADNSHHI, different gene screening techniques have been performed, including linkage analysis, candidate genes screening, high-throughput sequencing and Sanger sequencing. These techniques were done on samples obtained from this family over a period of 10 years. Results: We identified a pathogenic missense mutation, c. 2081G>A (p.G694E), in TJP2, a gene that plays a crucial role in apoptosis and age-related hearing loss (ARHL). The mutation was co-segregated in this pedigree in all, but not in the two patients who presented with different phenotypes from the other affected family members. In one of the two patients, we confirmed that the compound heterozygosity for p. Y136* and p.G45E in the GJB2 gene may account for the phenotype shown in this patient. Conclusions: We identified the co-occurrence of two genetic causes in family 686. The possible disease-causing missense mutation of TJP2 in family 686 presents an opportunity for further investigation into ARHL. It is necessary to combine various genes screening methods, especially for some unconventional cases. PMID:26668150

  12. Localization of a gene (CMT2A) for autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 to chromosome 1p and evidence of genetic heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Othmane, K.B.; Loprest, L.J.; Wilkinson, K.M. ); Middleton, L.T. )

    1993-08-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 2 (CMT2) is an inherited peripheral neuropathy characterized by variable age of onset and normal or slightly diminished nerve conduction velocity. CMT2 is pathologically and genetically distinct from CMT type 1 (CMT1). While CMT1 has been shown to be genetically heterogeneous, no chromosomal localization has been established for CMT2. The authors have performed pedigree linkage analysis in six large autosomal dominant CMT2 families and have demonstrated linkage and heterogeneity to a series of microsatellites (D1S160, D1S170, D1S244, D1S228 and D1S199) in the distal region of the short arm of chromosome 1. Significant evidence for heterogeneity was found using admixture analyses and the two-point lod scores. Admixture analyses using the multipoint results for the markers D1S244, D1S228, and D1S199 supported the two-point findings. Three families, DUK662, DUK1241, and 1523 gave posterior probabilities of 1.0, 0.98, and 0.88 of being of the linked type. Multipoint analysis examining the [open quotes]linked[close quotes] families showed that the most favored location for the CMT2A gene is within the interval flanked by D1S244 and D1S228 (odds approximately 70:1 of lying within versus outside that interval). These findings suggest that the CMT2 phenotype is secondary to at least two different genes and demonstrate further heterogeneity in the CMT phenotype.

  13. Autosomal-Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa Caused by a Mutation in SNRNP200, a Gene Required for Unwinding of U4/U6 snRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chen; Bellur, Deepti L.; Lu, Shasha; Zhao, Feng; Grassi, Michael A.; Bowne, Sara J.; Sullivan, Lori S.; Daiger, Stephen P.; Chen, Li Jia; Pang, Chi Pui; Zhao, Kanxing; Staley, Jonathan P.; Larsson, Catharina

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in genes associated with the U4/U6-U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) complex of the spliceosome are implicated in autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP), a group of progressive retinal degenerative disorders leading to visual impairment, loss of visual field, and even blindness. We recently assigned a locus (RP33) for adRP to 2cen-q12.1, a region that harbors the SNRNP200 gene encoding hBrr2, another U4/U6-U5 snRNP component that is required for unwinding of U4/U6 snRNAs during spliceosome activation and for disassembly of the spliceosome. Here, we report the identification of a missense mutation, c.3260C>T (p.S1087L), in exon 25 of the SNRNP200 gene in an RP33-linked family. The c.3260C>T substitution showed complete cosegregation with the retinitis pigmentosa (RP) phenotype over four generations, but was absent in a panel of 400 controls. The p.S1087L mutation and p.R1090L, another adRP-associated allele, reside in the “ratchet” helix of the first of two Sec63 domains implicated in the directionality and processivity of nucleic acid unwinding. Indeed, marked defects in U4/U6 unwinding, but not U4/U6-U5 snRNP assembly, were observed in budding yeast for the analogous mutations (N1104L and R1107L) of the corresponding Brr2p residues. The linkage of hBrr2 to adRP suggests that the mechanism of pathogenesis for splicing-factor-related RP may fundamentally derive from a defect in hBrr2-dependent RNA unwinding and a consequent defect in spliceosome activation. PMID:19878916

  14. Nonmuscle Myosin Heavy Chain IIA Mutations Define a Spectrum of Autosomal Dominant Macrothrombocytopenias: May-Hegglin Anomaly and Fechtner, Sebastian, Epstein, and Alport-Like Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Karen E.; Campos-Barros, Angel; Toren, Amos; Rozenfeld-Granot, Galit; Carlsson, Lena E.; Savige, Judy; Denison, Joyce C.; Gregory, Martin C.; White, James G.; Barker, David F; Greinacher, Andreas; Epstein, Charles J.; Glucksman, Marc J.; Martignetti, John A.

    2001-01-01

    May-Hegglin anomaly (MHA) and Fechtner (FTNS) and Sebastian (SBS) syndromes are autosomal dominant platelet disorders that share macrothrombocytopenia and characteristic leukocyte inclusions. FTNS has the additional clinical features of nephritis, deafness, and cataracts. Previously, mutations in the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9), which encodes nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (MYHIIA), were identified in all three disorders. The spectrum of mutations and the genotype-phenotype and structure-function relationships in a large cohort of affected individuals (n=27) has now been examined. Moreover, it is demonstrated that MYH9 mutations also result in two other FTNS-like macrothrombocytopenia syndromes: Epstein syndrome (EPS) and Alport syndrome with macrothrombocytopenia (APSM). In all five disorders, MYH9 mutations were identified in 20/27 (74%) affected individuals. Four mutations, R702C, D1424N, E1841K, and R1933X, were most frequent. R702C and R702H mutations were only associated with FTNS, EPS, or APSM, thus defining a region of MYHIIA critical in the combined pathogenesis of macrothrombocytopenia, nephritis, and deafness. The E1841K, D1424N, and R1933X coiled-coil domain mutations were common to both MHA and FTNS. Haplotype analysis using three novel microsatellite markers revealed that three E1841K carriers—one with MHA and two with FTNS—shared a common haplotype around the MYH9 gene, suggesting a common ancestor. The two new globular-head mutations, K371N and R702H, as well as the recently identified MYH9 mutation, R705H, which results in DFNA17, were modeled on the basis of X-ray crystallographic data. Altogether, our data suggest that MHA, SBS, FTNS, EPS, and APSM comprise a phenotypic spectrum of disorders, all caused by MYH9 mutations. On the basis of our genetic analyses, the name “MYHIIA syndrome” is proposed to encompass all of these disorders. PMID:11590545

  15. Characterization of a Recurrent In-frame UMOD Indel Mutation Causing Late-onset Autosomal Dominant End-Stage Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Graham D.; Robinson, Caroline; Stewart, Andrew P.; Edwards, Emily L.; Karet, Hannah I.; Norden, Anthony G. W.; Sandford, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives In a single-center renal clinic, we have established routine mutation testing to diagnose UMOD-associated kidney disease (UAKD), an autosomal dominant disorder typically characterized by gout, hyperuricemia, and renal failure in the third to sixth decades. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Four probands and their multigeneration kindreds were assessed by clinical, historical, and biochemical means. Diagnostic UMOD sequencing was performed, and mutant uromodulin was characterized in vitro. Results All available affected members of the four kindreds harbored the same complex indel change in UMOD, which was associated with almost complete absence of gout and a later onset of CKD; the youngest age at ESRD or death was 38 years (range, 38 to 68 years) compared with 3 to 70 years in other reports. Three mutation carriers (all ≤35 years) are currently asymptomatic. The indel sequence (c.278_289del TCTGCCCCGAAGinsCCGCCTCCT; p.V93_G97del/ins AASC) results in the replacement of five amino acids, including one cysteine, by four novel residues, also including a cysteine. Uromodulin staining of the only available patient biopsy suggested disorganized intracellular trafficking with cellular accumulation. Functional characterization of the mutant isoform revealed retarded intracellular trafficking associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention and reduced secretion into cell culture media, but to a lesser extent than we observed with the previously reported C150S mutation. Conclusions The indel mutation is associated with a relatively mild clinical UAKD phenotype, consistent with our in vitro analysis. UAKD should be routinely considered as a causative gene for ESRD of unknown cause, especially where there is an associated family history or where biopsy reveals interstitial fibrosis. PMID:22034507

  16. Erythropoietin production in renal cell carcinoma and renal cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in a chronic dialysis patient with polycythemia: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ito, Keiichi; Asano, Takako; Tominaga, Susumu; Yoshii, Hidehiko; Sawazaki, Harutake; Asano, Tomohiko

    2014-11-01

    In patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD), erythropoietin (EPO) production from the kidney generally decreases and renal anemia develops. Patients without anemia, but with high serum EPO (sEPO) levels are rare among HD patients. The current study presents the case of a 67-year-old female HD patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC), manifesting polycythemia with elevated sEPO levels. A radical nephrectomy was performed, which diminished the polycythemia, but the sEPO levels remained high. To determine the origin of the EPO production, immunohistochemistry was performed to detect EPO in the RCC and the renal cysts of the surgically resected kidney. In addition, the sEPO and EPO levels in a renal cyst were determined by enzyme immunoassay. EPO expression was demonstrated in RCC and cyst epithelial cells using immunohistochemistry, revealing extremely high EPO levels in the cyst fluid. Due to the remission of polycythemia following the nephrectomy, EPO production from the resected kidney appeared to have been the cause of the polycythemia. Positive EPO staining of the renal cysts in the resected polycystic kidney and sustained sEPO elevation following nephrectomy led to the hypothesis of EPO production in the renal cysts of the contralateral polycystic kidney. Although the postoperative EPO level was higher than the normal range, the hematocrit (Hct) level gradually decreased and recombinant human EPO was required again three months following the nephrectomy. Eight months after the nephrectomy, the Hct level was 30.2% with the use of rHuEPO. In conclusion, EPO production from RCC and renal cysts in ADPKD appeared to cause polycythemia in the HD patient. PMID:25295086

  17. Modeling of autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa in Caenorhabditis elegans uncovers a nexus between global impaired functioning of certain splicing factors and cell type-specific apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Peña, Karinna; Fontrodona, Laura; Aristizábal-Corrales, David; Torres, Silvia; Cornes, Eric; García-Rodríguez, Francisco J; Serrat, Xènia; González-Knowles, David; Foissac, Sylvain; Porta-De-La-Riva, Montserrat; Cerón, Julián

    2015-12-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a rare genetic disease that causes gradual blindness through retinal degeneration. Intriguingly, seven of the 24 genes identified as responsible for the autosomal-dominant form (adRP) are ubiquitous spliceosome components whose impairment causes disease only in the retina. The fact that these proteins are essential in all organisms hampers genetic, genomic, and physiological studies, but we addressed these difficulties by using RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our study of worm phenotypes produced by RNAi of splicing-related adRP (s-adRP) genes functionally distinguishes between components of U4 and U5 snRNP complexes, because knockdown of U5 proteins produces a stronger phenotype. RNA-seq analyses of worms where s-adRP genes were partially inactivated by RNAi, revealed mild intron retention in developing animals but not in adults, suggesting a positive correlation between intron retention and transcriptional activity. Interestingly, RNAi of s-adRP genes produces an increase in the expression of atl-1 (homolog of human ATR), which is normally activated in response to replicative stress and certain DNA-damaging agents. The up-regulation of atl-1 correlates with the ectopic expression of the pro-apoptotic gene egl-1 and apoptosis in hypodermal cells, which produce the cuticle, but not in other cell types. Our model in C. elegans resembles s-adRP in two aspects: The phenotype caused by global knockdown of s-adRP genes is cell type-specific and associated with high transcriptional activity. Finally, along with a reduced production of mature transcripts, we propose a model in which the retina-specific cell death in s-adRP patients can be induced through genomic instability. PMID:26490224

  18. Structure-Function Modeling of Optical Coherence Tomography and Standard Automated Perimetry in the Retina of Patients with Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Travis B.; Parker, Maria; Steinkamp, Peter N.; Weleber, Richard G.; Smith, Ning; Wilson, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess relationships between structural and functional biomarkers, including new topographic measures of visual field sensitivity, in patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Methods Spectral domain optical coherence tomography line scans and hill of vision (HOV) sensitivity surfaces from full-field standard automated perimetry were semi-automatically aligned for 60 eyes of 35 patients. Structural biomarkers were extracted from outer retina b-scans along horizontal and vertical midlines. Functional biomarkers were extracted from local sensitivity profiles along the b-scans and from the full visual field. These included topographic measures of functional transition such as the contour of most rapid sensitivity decline around the HOV, herein called HOV slope for convenience. Biomarker relationships were assessed pairwise by coefficients of determination (R2) from mixed-effects analysis with automatic model selection. Results Structure-function relationships were accurately modeled (conditional R2>0.8 in most cases). The best-fit relationship models and correlation patterns for horizontally oriented biomarkers were different than vertically oriented ones. The structural biomarker with the largest number of significant functional correlates was the ellipsoid zone (EZ) width, followed by the total photoreceptor layer thickness. The strongest correlation observed was between EZ width and HOV slope distance (marginal R2 = 0.85, p<10−10). The mean sensitivity defect at the EZ edge was 7.6 dB. Among all functional biomarkers, the HOV slope mean value, HOV slope mean distance, and maximum sensitivity along the b-scan had the largest number of significant structural correlates. Conclusions Topographic slope metrics show promise as functional biomarkers relevant to the transition zone. EZ width is strongly associated with the location of most rapid HOV decline. PMID:26845445

  19. A model for the initiation and progression of non-chromaffin paragangliomas: An autosomal dominant disorder with genetic heterogeneity and genomic imprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Mariman, E.C.M.; Beersum, S.E.C. van; Ropers, H.H.

    1994-09-01

    Non-chromaffin paragangliomas are autosomal dominantly inherited tumors of the head and neck region (frequency: 1:30,000). Genomic imprinting influences the expression of the disorder. Tumor development is restricted to offspring of male disease gene carriers. By linkage analysis and haplotyping of a single family, in which the pattern of inheritance is consistent with genomic imprinting, we have mapped the gene to a 5 cM region of chromosome 11q13.1 between D11S956 and PYGM. A maximum lod score of 7.62 at {theta}=0.0 was obtained for D11S480. This interval does not overlap with the segment 11q22.3-q23.3, to which a locus for glomus tumors has been assigned in other families. Moreover, the 5cM interval was excluded as the location of the disease gene in a second family showing the imprinting phenomenon, whereas an indication for linkage was obtained (Z=+2.65) with markers from the distal locus. These observations argue for the presence of two distinct imprinted genes for paragangliomas on 11q. Clinical findings suggest that at least one, but probably both genes code for tumor suppressor required for tumor initiation. According to this model, imprinting would account for the silencing of the two maternal copies, whereas a paternal copy would be inactive due to an inherited mutation. Tumors would then result from somatic inactivation of the other paternal gene copy in individual cells. In tumors, relaxation of imprinting seems to be a frequent feature. Here, it would necessitate subsequent inactivation of maternal gene copies to allow tumor progression. Indeed, selective loss of maternal alleles in paragangliomas has been observed with markers from 11 q. Definite proof for this model should come from the isolation and expression studies of the involved genes.

  20. Autosomal dominant STAT3 deficiency and hyper-IgE syndrome: molecular, cellular, and clinical features from a French national survey.

    PubMed

    Chandesris, Marie-Olivia; Melki, Isabelle; Natividad, Angels; Puel, Anne; Fieschi, Claire; Yun, Ling; Thumerelle, Caroline; Oksenhendler, Eric; Boutboul, David; Thomas, Caroline; Hoarau, Cyrille; Lebranchu, Yvon; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Cazorla, Celine; Aladjidi, Nathalie; Micheau, Marguerite; Tron, Franois; Baruchel, Andr; Barlogis, Vincent; Palenzuela, Gilles; Mathey, Catherine; Dominique, Stphane; Body, Grard; Munzer, Martine; Fouyssac, Fanny; Jaussaud, Rolland; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Blanche, Stphane; Debr, Marianne; Le Bourgeois, Muriel; Gandemer, Virginie; Lambert, Nathalie; Grandin, Virginie; Ndaga, Stphanie; Jacques, Corinne; Harre, Chantal; Forveille, Monique; Alyanakian, Marie-Alexandra; Durandy, Anne; Bodemer, Christine; Suarez, Felipe; Hermine, Olivier; Lortholary, Olivier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Fischer, Alain; Picard, Capucine

    2012-07-01

    Autosomal dominant deficiency of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is the main genetic etiology of hyper-immunoglobulin (Ig) E syndrome. We documented the molecular, cellular, and clinical features of 60 patients with heterozygous STAT3 mutations from 47 kindreds followed in France. We identified 11 known and 13 new mutations of STAT3. Low levels of interleukin (IL)-6-dependent phosphorylation and nuclear translocation (or accumulation) of STAT3 were observed in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes (EBV-B cells) from all STAT3-deficient patients tested. The immunologic phenotype was characterized by high serum IgE levels (96% of the patients), memory B-cell lymphopenia (94.5%), and hypereosinophilia (80%). A low proportion of IL-17A-producing circulating T cells was found in 14 of the 15 patients tested. Mucocutaneous infections were the most frequent, typically caused by Staphylococcus aureus (all patients) and Candida albicans (85%). Up to 90% of the patients had pneumonia, mostly caused by Staph. aureus (31%) or Streptococcus pneumoniae (30%). Recurrent pneumonia was associated with secondary bronchiectasis and pneumatocele (67%), as well as secondary aspergillosis (22%). Up to 92% of the patients had dermatitis and connective tissue abnormalities, with facial dysmorphism (95%), retention of decidual teeth (65%), osteopenia (50%), and hyperextensibility (50%). Four patients developed non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The clinical outcome was favorable, with 56 patients, including 43 adults, still alive at the end of study (mean age, 21 yr; range, 1 mo to 46 yr). Only 4 patients died, 3 from severe bacterial infection (aged 1, 15, and 29 yr, respectively). Antibiotic prophylaxis (90% of patients), antifungal prophylaxis (50%), and IgG infusions (53%) improved patient health, as demonstrated by the large decrease in pneumonia recurrence. Overall, the prognosis of STAT3 deficiency may be considered good, provided that multiple prophylactic measures, including IgG infusions, are implemented. PMID:22751495

  1. Diagnostic performance of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in cyst infection in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Bobot, M; Ghez, C; Gondouin, B; Sallée, M; Fournier, P E; Burtey, S; Legris, T; Dussol, B; Berland, Y; Souteyrand, P; Tessonnier, L; Cammilleri, S; Jourde-Chiche, N

    2016-01-01

    Cyst infection is a common complication of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Diagnosis is challenging with standard imaging techniques. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18-FDG PET-CT) for the diagnosis of cyst infections among ADPKD patients, in comparison with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All APKD patients who underwent 18-FDG PET-CT for suspected cyst infection between 2006 and 2013 in a French teaching hospital were included. Diagnosis of cyst infection was retained a posteriori on an index of clinical suspicion. 18-FDG PET-CT findings were was considered to be positive in cases of cyst wall hypermetabolism. CT or MRI findings were were considered to be positive in cases of cyst wall thickening (and enhancement if contrast medium was injected) and infiltration of the adjacent fat. A control group of ADPKD patients with 18-FDG PET-CT performed for other reasons was included. Thirty-two 18-FDG PET-CT scans were performed in 24 ADPKD patients with suspected cyst infection. A diagnosis of cyst infection was retained in 18 of 32 cases: 14 with positive 18-FDG PET-CT findings, and four false negatives. There were no false positives and no hypermetabolism of cyst walls in nine ADPKD control patients. 18-FDG PET-CT had a sensitivity of 77%, a specificity of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 77%. 18-FDG PET-CT allowed a differential diagnosis in three patients. In contrast, CT had a sensitivity of 7% and a negative predictive value of 35% (p <0.001 vs. 18-FDG PET-CT). Only eight MRI scans were performed. The diagnostic performance of 18-FDG PET-CT is superior to that of CT in cyst infections, for comparable radiation doses and with no injection of nephrotoxic contrast medium, in ADPKD patients. PMID:26454062

  2. A Novel GCAP1 Missense Mutation (L151F) in a Large Family with Autosomal Dominant Cone-Rod Dystrophy (adCORD)

    PubMed Central

    Sokal, Izabela; Dupps, William J.; Grassi, Michael A.; Brown, Jeremiah; Affatigato, Louisa M.; Roychowdhury, Nirmalya; Yang, Lili; Filipek, Slawomir; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Stone, Edwin M.; Baehr, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the phenotypic and biochemical characteristics of a novel mutation associated with autosomal dominant cone–rod dystrophy (adCORD). Methods Twenty-three family members of a CORD pedigree underwent clinical examinations, including visual acuity tests, standardized full-field ERG, and fundus photography. Genomic DNA was screened for mutations in GCAP1 exons using DNA sequencing and single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Function and stability of recombinant GCAP1-L151F were tested as a function of [Ca2+], and its structure was probed by molecular dynamics. Results Affected family members experienced dyschromatopsia, hemeralopia, and reduced visual acuity by the second to third decade of life. Electrophysiology revealed a nonrecordable photopic response with later attenuation of the scotopic response. Affected family members harbored a C→T transition in exon 4 of the GCAP1 gene, resulting in an L151F missense mutation affecting the EF hand motif 4 (EF4). This change was absent in 11 unaffected family members and in 100 unrelated normal subjects. GCAP1-L151F stimulation of photoreceptor guanylate cyclase was not completely inhibited at high physiological [Ca2+], consistent with a lowered affinity for Ca2+-binding to EF4. Conclusions A novel L151F mutation in the EF4 hand domain of GCAP1 is associated with adCORD. The clinical phenotype is characterized by early cone dysfunction and a progressive loss of rod function. The biochemical phenotype is best described as persistent stimulation of photoreceptor guanylate cyclase, representing a gain of function of mutant GCAP1. Although a conservative substitution, molecular dynamics suggests a significant change in Ca2+-binding to EF4 and EF2 and changes in the shape of L151F-GCAP1. PMID:15790869

  3. Medical resource utilization and costs associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the USA: a retrospective matched cohort analysis of private insurer data

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Tyler; Schaefer, Caroline; Krasa, Holly; Oberdhan, Dorothee; Chapman, Arlene; Perrone, Ronald D

    2015-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) results in kidney cyst development and enlargement, resulting in chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to renal failure. This study sought to determine if ADPKD patients in the early stages of CKD contribute to a sizable economic burden for the US health care system. Methods This was a retrospective, matched cohort study, reviewing medical resource utilization (MRU) and costs for adults in a US private-payer claims database with a diagnosis code of ADPKD (ICD-9-CM 753.13). ADPKD patients were matched by age grouping (0–17, 18–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64, and 65+ years) and sex to controls to understand the burden of ADPKD. Descriptive statistics on 6-month MRU and costs were assessed by CKD stages, dialysis use, or previous renal transplant. Results The analysis included ADPKD patients in CKD stages 1–5 (n=316 to n=860), dialysis (n=586), and post-transplant (n=615). Mean ages did not differ across CKD stages (range 43–56 years). Men were the majority in the later stages but the minority in the early stages. The proportion of patients with at least one hospitalization increased with CKD stage, (12% to >40% CKD stage 2 to stage 5, dialysis or post-transplant). The majority had at least one hospital outpatient visit and at least one pharmacy claim. Total 6-month per-patient costs were greater among ADPKD patients than in age-matched and sex-matched healthy non-ADPKD controls (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion ADPKD patients with normal kidney function are associated with a significant economic burden to the health care system relative to the general population. Any treatments that delay progression to later stages of CKD may provide potential health care cost offsets. PMID:25759590

  4. A Novel STX16 Deletion in Autosomal Dominant Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type Ib Redefines the Boundaries of a cis-Acting Imprinting Control Element of GNAS

    PubMed Central

    Linglart, Agnès; Gensure, Robert C.; Olney, Robert C.; Jüppner, Harald; Bastepe, Murat

    2005-01-01

    A unique heterozygous 3-kb microdeletion within STX16, a closely linked gene centromeric of GNAS, was previously identified in multiple unrelated kindreds as a cause of autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (AD-PHP-Ib). We now report a novel heterozygous 4.4-kb microdeletion in a large kindred with AD-PHP-Ib. Affected individuals from this kindred share an epigenetic defect that is indistinguishable from that observed in patients with AD-PHP-Ib who carry the 3-kb microdeletion in the STX16 region (i.e., an isolated loss of methylation at GNAS exon A/B). The novel 4.4-kb microdeletion overlaps with the previously identified deletion by 1,286 bp and, similar to the latter deletion, removes several exons of STX16 (encoding syntaxin-16). Because these microdeletions lead to AD-PHP-Ib only after maternal transmission, we analyzed expression of this gene in lymphoblastoid cells of affected individuals with the 3-kb or the 4.4-kb microdeletion, an individual with a NESP55 deletion, and a healthy control. We found that STX16 mRNA was expressed in all cases from both parental alleles. Thus, STX16 is apparently not imprinted, and a loss-of-function mutation in one allele is therefore unlikely to be responsible for this disorder. Instead, the region of overlap between the two microdeletions likely harbors a cis-acting imprinting control element that is necessary for establishing and/or maintaining methylation at GNAS exon A/B, thus allowing normal Gαs expression in the proximal renal tubules. In the presence of either of the two microdeletions, parathyroid hormone resistance appears to develop over time, as documented in an affected individual who was diagnosed at birth with the 4.4-kb deletion of STX16 and who had normal serum parathyroid hormone levels until the age of 21 mo. PMID:15800843

  5. A novel STX16 deletion in autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib redefines the boundaries of a cis-acting imprinting control element of GNAS.

    PubMed

    Linglart, Agnès; Gensure, Robert C; Olney, Robert C; Jüppner, Harald; Bastepe, Murat

    2005-05-01

    A unique heterozygous 3-kb microdeletion within STX16, a closely linked gene centromeric of GNAS, was previously identified in multiple unrelated kindreds as a cause of autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (AD-PHP-Ib). We now report a novel heterozygous 4.4-kb microdeletion in a large kindred with AD-PHP-Ib. Affected individuals from this kindred share an epigenetic defect that is indistinguishable from that observed in patients with AD-PHP-Ib who carry the 3-kb microdeletion in the STX16 region (i.e., an isolated loss of methylation at GNAS exon A/B). The novel 4.4-kb microdeletion overlaps with the previously identified deletion by 1,286 bp and, similar to the latter deletion, removes several exons of STX16 (encoding syntaxin-16). Because these microdeletions lead to AD-PHP-Ib only after maternal transmission, we analyzed expression of this gene in lymphoblastoid cells of affected individuals with the 3-kb or the 4.4-kb microdeletion, an individual with a NESP55 deletion, and a healthy control. We found that STX16 mRNA was expressed in all cases from both parental alleles. Thus, STX16 is apparently not imprinted, and a loss-of-function mutation in one allele is therefore unlikely to be responsible for this disorder. Instead, the region of overlap between the two microdeletions likely harbors a cis-acting imprinting control element that is necessary for establishing and/or maintaining methylation at GNAS exon A/B, thus allowing normal G alpha(s) expression in the proximal renal tubules. In the presence of either of the two microdeletions, parathyroid hormone resistance appears to develop over time, as documented in an affected individual who was diagnosed at birth with the 4.4-kb deletion of STX16 and who had normal serum parathyroid hormone levels until the age of 21 mo. PMID:15800843

  6. Nicotine-induced dystonic arousal complex in a mouse line harboring a human autosomal-dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy mutation.

    PubMed

    Teper, Yaroslav; Whyte, Douglas; Cahir, Elizabeth; Lester, Henry A; Grady, Sharon R; Marks, Michael J; Cohen, Bruce N; Fonck, Carlos; McClure-Begley, Tristan; McIntosh, J Michael; Labarca, Cesar; Lawrence, Andrew; Chen, Feng; Gantois, Ilse; Davies, Philip J; Petrou, Steven; Murphy, Mark; Waddington, John; Horne, Malcolm K; Berkovic, Samuel F; Drago, John

    2007-09-19

    We generated a mouse line harboring an autosomal-dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) mutation: the alpha4 nicotinic receptor S248F knock-in strain. In this mouse, modest nicotine doses (1-2 mg/kg) elicit a novel behavior termed the dystonic arousal complex (DAC). The DAC includes stereotypical head movements, body jerking, and forelimb dystonia; these behaviors resemble some core features of ADNFLE. A marked Straub tail is an additional component of the DAC. Similar to attacks in ADNFLE, the DAC can be partially suppressed by the sodium channel blocker carbamazepine or by pre-exposure to a very low dose of nicotine (0.1 mg/kg). The DAC is centrally mediated, genetically highly penetrant, and, surprisingly, not associated with overt ictal electrical activity as assessed by (1) epidural or frontal lobe depth-electrode electroencephalography or (2) hippocampal c-fos-regulated gene expression. Heterozygous knock-in mice are partially protected from nicotine-induced seizures. The noncompetitive antagonist mecamylamine does not suppress the DAC, although it suppresses high-dose nicotine-induced wild-type-like seizures. Experiments on agonist-induced 86Rb+ and neurotransmitter efflux from synaptosomes and on alpha4S248Fbeta2 receptors expressed in oocytes confirm that the S248F mutation confers resistance to mecamylamine blockade. Genetic background, gender, and mutant gene expression levels modulate expression of the DAC phenotype in mice. The S248F mouse thus appears to provide a model for the paroxysmal dystonic element of ADNFLE semiology. Our model complements what is seen in other ADNFLE animal models. Together, these mice cover the spectrum of behavioral and electrographic events seen in the human condition. PMID:17881519

  7. Limited ATF4 Expression in Degenerating Retinas with Ongoing ER Stress Promotes Photoreceptor Survival in a Mouse Model of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Bhootada, Yogesh; Kotla, Pravallika; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Gorbatyuk, Oleg; Bebok, Zsuzsanna; Athar, Mohammad; Gorbatyuk, Marina

    2016-01-01

    T17M rhodopsin expression in rod photoreceptors leads to severe retinal degeneration and is associated with the activation of ER stress related Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) signaling. Here, we show a novel role of a UPR transcription factor, ATF4, in photoreceptor cellular pathology. We demonstrated a pro-death role for ATF4 overexpression during autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP). Based on our results in ATF4 knockout mice and adeno-associated viral (AAV) delivery of ATF4 to the retina, we validated a novel therapeutic approach targeting ATF4 over the course of retinal degeneration. In T17M rhodopsin retinas, we observed ATF4 overexpression concomitantly with reduction of p62 and elevation of p53 levels. These molecular alterations, together with increased CHOP and caspase-3/7 activity, possibly contributed to the mechanism of photoreceptor cell loss. Conversely, ATF4 knockdown retarded retinal degeneration in 1-month-old T17M Rhodopsin mice and promoted photoreceptor survival, as measured by scotopic and photopic ERGs and photoreceptor nuclei row counts. Similarly, ATF4 knockdown also markedly delayed retinal degeneration in 3-month-old ADRP animals. This delay was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in UPR signaling, the launching of anti-oxidant defense, initiation of autophagy, and improvement of rhodopsin biosynthesis which together perhaps combat the cellular stress associated with T17M rhodopsin. Our data indicate that augmented ATF4 signals during retinal degeneration plays a cytotoxic role by triggering photoreceptor cell death. Future ADRP therapy regulating ATF4 expression can be developed to treat retinal degenerative disorders associated with activated UPR. PMID:27144303

  8. Limited ATF4 Expression in Degenerating Retinas with Ongoing ER Stress Promotes Photoreceptor Survival in a Mouse Model of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Bhootada, Yogesh; Kotla, Pravallika; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Gorbatyuk, Oleg; Bebok, Zsuzsanna; Athar, Mohammad; Gorbatyuk, Marina

    2016-01-01

    T17M rhodopsin expression in rod photoreceptors leads to severe retinal degeneration and is associated with the activation of ER stress related Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) signaling. Here, we show a novel role of a UPR transcription factor, ATF4, in photoreceptor cellular pathology. We demonstrated a pro-death role for ATF4 overexpression during autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP). Based on our results in ATF4 knockout mice and adeno-associated viral (AAV) delivery of ATF4 to the retina, we validated a novel therapeutic approach targeting ATF4 over the course of retinal degeneration. In T17M rhodopsin retinas, we observed ATF4 overexpression concomitantly with reduction of p62 and elevation of p53 levels. These molecular alterations, together with increased CHOP and caspase-3/7 activity, possibly contributed to the mechanism of photoreceptor cell loss. Conversely, ATF4 knockdown retarded retinal degeneration in 1-month-old T17M Rhodopsin mice and promoted photoreceptor survival, as measured by scotopic and photopic ERGs and photoreceptor nuclei row counts. Similarly, ATF4 knockdown also markedly delayed retinal degeneration in 3-month-old ADRP animals. This delay was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in UPR signaling, the launching of anti-oxidant defense, initiation of autophagy, and improvement of rhodopsin biosynthesis which together perhaps combat the cellular stress associated with T17M rhodopsin. Our data indicate that augmented ATF4 signals during retinal degeneration plays a cytotoxic role by triggering photoreceptor cell death. Future ADRP therapy regulating ATF4 expression can be developed to treat retinal degenerative disorders associated with activated UPR. PMID:27144303

  9. Map refinement of locus RP13 to human chromosome 17p13.3 in a second family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed Central

    Kojis, T. L.; Heinzmann, C.; Flodman, P.; Ngo, J. T.; Sparkes, R. S.; Spence, M. A.; Bateman, J. B.; Heckenlively, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    In order to elucidate the genetic basis of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) in a large eight-generation family (UCLA-RP09) of British descent, we assessed linkage between the UCLA-RP09 adRP gene and numerous genetic loci, including eight adRP candidate genes, five anonymous adRP-linked DNA loci, and 20 phenotypic markers. Linkage to the UCLA-RP09 disease gene was excluded for all eight candidate genes analyzed, including rhodopsin (RP4) and peripherin/RDS (RP7), for the four adRP loci RP1, RP9, RP10 and RP11, as well as for 17 phenotypic markers. The anonymous DNA marker locus D17S938, linked to adRP locus RP13 on chromosome 17p13.1, yielded a suggestive but not statistically significant positive lod score. Linkage was confirmed between the UCLA-RP09 adRP gene and markers distal to D17S938 in the chromosomal region 17p13.3. A reanalysis of the original RP13 data from a South African adRP family of British descent, in conjunction with our UCLA-RP09 data, suggests that only one adRP locus exists on 17p but that it maps to a more telomeric position, at band 17p13.3, than previously reported. Confirmation of the involvement of RP13 in two presumably unrelated adRP families, both of British descent, suggests that this locus is a distinct adRP gene in a proportion of British, and possibly other, adRP families. PMID:8571961

  10. Calcium-phosphate metabolism parameters and erythrocyte Ca2+ concentration in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients with normal renal function

    PubMed Central

    Safranow, Krzysztof; Bober, Joanna; Olszewska, Maria; Birkenfeld, Bożena; Nowosiad, Monika; Ciechanowski, Kazimierz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess calcium-phosphate metabolism of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients with a special consideration to the following serum parameters: calcium (Ca2+), inorganic phosphate (Pi), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and intracellular erythrocyte calcium ([Ca2+]i) concentrations. Material and methods The study included 49 adult ADPKD patients (19 males, 30 females) aged 36 ±11 years with normal renal function and no diagnosis of diabetes as well as 50 healthy controls (22 males, 28 females) matched for age and gender. Serum concentrations of sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ions and Pi were determined with an indirect ion-selective method, while Ca2+ concentration was measured with a direct ion-selective method. The PTH was detected using a radioimmunometric method. [Ca2+]i concentration was determined with the Ca2+ sensitive fluorescent dye Fura-2 method. Results In the ADPKD group, when compared to controls, the following concentrations were significantly higher: serum Ca2+ (1.18 ±0.06 mmol/l vs. 1.15 ±0.06 mmol/l, p = 0.0085), [Ca2+]i (146.9 ±110.0 nmol/l vs. 96.5 ±52.7 nmol/l, p = 0.0075), serum Na+ (139.4 ±2.7 mmol/l vs. 138.5 ±2.1 mmol/l, p = 0.060, borderline significance), and PTH (15.5 ±6.8 pg/ml vs. 13.6 ±5.3 pg/ml, p = 0.066, borderline significance), while serum Mg2+ was significantly lower (0.81 ±0.09 mmol/l vs. 0.85 ±0.05 mmol/l, p = 0.021). In the ADPKD group we observed significant negative correlations of PTH with Ca2+ serum concentrations (Rs = –0.32, p = 0.025) and with estimated glomerular filtration rate (Rs = –0.31, p = 0.033). Conclusions The erythrocyte Ca2+ concentration is elevated in ADPKD patients with normal renal function. It may result from a dysfunction of mutated polycystins which can affect various aspects of electrolyte metabolism. PMID:24273566

  11. Rationale and Design of the DIPAK 1 Study: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Assessing the Efficacy of Lanreotide to Halt Disease Progression in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Esther; Drenth, Joost P.H.; d’Agnolo, Hedwig; Casteleijn, Niek F.; de Fijter, Johan W.; Gevers, Tom J.; Kappert, Peter; Peters, Dorien J.M.; Salih, Mahdi; Soonawala, Darius; Spithoven, Edwin M.; Torres, Vicente E.; Visser, Folkert W.; Wetzels, Jack F.M.; Zietse, Robert; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2014-01-01

    Background There are limited therapeutic options to slow the progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Recent clinical studies indicate that somatostatin analogues are promising for treating polycystic liver disease and potentially also for the kidney phenotype. We report on the design of the DIPAK 1 (Developing Interventions to Halt Progression of ADPKD 1) Study, which will examine the efficacy of the somatostatin analogue lanreotide on preservation of kidney function in ADPKD. Study Design The DIPAK 1 Study is an investigator-driven, randomized, multicenter, controlled, clinical trial. Setting & Participants We plan to enroll 300 individuals with ADPKD and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 who are aged 18-60 years. Intervention Patients will be randomly assigned (1:1) to standard care or lanreotide, 120 mg, subcutaneously every 28 days for 120 weeks, in addition to standard care. Outcomes Main study outcome is the slope through serial eGFR measurements starting at week 12 until end of treatment for lanreotide versus standard care. Secondary outcome parameters include change in eGFR from pretreatment versus 12 weeks after treatment cessation, change in kidney volume, change in liver volume, and change in quality of life. Measurements Blood and urine will be collected and questionnaires will be filled in following a fixed scheme. Magnetic resonance imaging will be performed for assessment of kidney and liver volume. Results Assuming an average change in eGFR of 5.2 ± 4.3 (SD) mL/min/1.73 m2 per year in untreated patients, 150 patients are needed in each group to detect a 30% reduction in the rate of kidney function loss between treatment groups with 80% power, 2-sided α = 0.05, and 20% protocol violators and/or dropouts. Limitations The design is an open randomized controlled trial and measurement of our primary end point does not begin at randomization. Conclusions The DIPAK 1 Study will show whether subcutaneous administration of lanreotide every 4 weeks attenuates disease progression in patients with ADPKD. PMID:24342522

  12. Expression and localization of nuclear proteins in autosomal-dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy with LMNA R377H mutation

    PubMed Central

    Reichart, Beate; Klafke, Ruth; Dreger, Christine; Krüger, Eleonora; Motsch, Isabell; Ewald, Andrea; Schäfer, Jochen; Reichmann, Heinz; Müller, Clemens R; Dabauvalle, Marie-Christine

    2004-01-01

    Background The autosomal dominant form of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (AD-EDMD) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding for the lamins A and C (LMNA). Lamins are intermediate filament proteins which form the nuclear lamina underlying the inner nuclear membrane. We have studied the expression and the localization of nuclear envelope proteins in three different cell types and muscle tissue of an AD-EDMD patient carrying a point mutation R377H in the lamin A/C gene. Results Lymphoblastoid cells, skin fibroblasts, primary myoblasts and muscle thin sections were studied by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Cellular levels of A-type lamins were reduced compared to control cells. In contrast, the amount of emerin and lamin B appeared unaltered. Cell synchronization experiments showed that the reduction of the cellular level of A-type lamin was due to instability of lamin A. By electron microscopy, we identified a proportion of nuclei with morphological alterations in lymphoblastoid cells, fibroblasts and mature muscle fibres. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that a major population of the lamin B receptor (LBR), an inner nuclear membrane protein, was recovered in the cytoplasm in association with the ER. In addition, the intranuclear organization of the active form of RNA polymerase II was markedly different in cells of this AD-EDMD patient. This aberrant intranuclear distribution was specifically observed in muscle cells where the pathology of EDMD predominates. Conclusions From our results we conclude: Firstly, that structural alterations of the nuclei which are found only in a minor fraction of lymphoblastoid cells and mature muscle fibres are not sufficient to explain the clinical pathology of EDMD; Secondly, that wild type lamin A is required not only for the retention of LBR in the inner nuclear membrane but also for a correct localization of the transcriptionally active RNA pol II in muscle cells. We speculate that a rearrangement of the internal chromatin could lead to muscle-specific disease symptoms by interference with proper mRNA transcription. PMID:15053843

  13. Mutations in SPECC1L, encoding sperm antigen with calponin homology and coiled-coil domains 1-like, are found in some cases of autosomal dominant Opitz G/BBB syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kruszka, Paul; Li, Dong; Harr, Margaret H; Wilson, Nathan R; Swarr, Daniel; McCormick, Elizabeth M; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Li, Mindy; Martinez, Ariel F; Hart, Rachel A; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Deardorff, Matthew A; Falk, Marni J; Allanson, Judith E; Hudson, Cindy; Johnson, John P; Saadi, Irfan; Hakonarson, Hakon; Muenke, Maximilian; Zackai, Elaine H

    2015-01-01

    Background Opitz G/BBB syndrome is a heterogeneous disorder characterised by variable expression of midline defects including cleft lip and palate, hypertelorism, laryngealtracheoesophageal anomalies, congenital heart defects, and hypospadias. The X-linked form of the condition has been associated with mutations in the MID1 gene on Xp22. The autosomal dominant form has been linked to chromosome 22q11.2, although the causative gene has yet to be elucidated. Methods and results In this study, we performed whole exome sequencing on DNA samples from a three-generation family with characteristics of Opitz G/BBB syndrome with negative MID1 sequencing. We identified a heterozygous missense mutation c.1189A>C (p.Thr397Pro) in SPECC1L, located at chromosome 22q11.23. Mutation screening of an additional 19 patients with features of autosomal dominant Opitz G/BBB syndrome identified a c.3247G>A ( p.Gly1083Ser) mutation segregating with the phenotype in another three-generation family. Conclusions Previously, SPECC1L was shown to be required for proper facial morphogenesis with disruptions identified in two patients with oblique facial clefts. Collectively, these data demonstrate that SPECC1L mutations can cause syndromic forms of facial clefting including some cases of autosomal dominant Opitz G/BBB syndrome and support the original linkage to chromosome 22q11.2. PMID:25412741

  14. Autosomal recessive

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the other gene comes from the father. Recessive inheritance means both genes in a pair must be abnormal to cause ... born to parents who carry the same autosomal recessive change ... abnormal gene from both parents and developing the disease. You ...

  15. Gene for autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness maps to the same region as the gene for the beta-subunit of the rod photoreceptor cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDEB) in chromosome 4p16.3.

    PubMed

    Gal, A; Xu, S; Piczenik, Y; Eiberg, H; Duvigneau, C; Schwinger, E; Rosenberg, T

    1994-02-01

    We studied a large multigeneration Danish family with autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness. Both electrophysiological and psychophysical findings in affected family members were identical to those reported in patients from the 'Nougaret family'. The disease locus in the Danish family has now been mapped by demonstrating close linkage without recombination (Q = 0.00 at Zmax = 14.4) to the locus for alpha-L-iduronidase assigned to chromosome 4p16.3. Interestingly the gene for the beta-subunit of the rod photoreceptor cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase maps to the very same chromosomal region. PMID:8004102

  16. Sex-linked dominant

    MedlinePlus

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... type of chromosome that is affected (autosomal or sex chromosome). It also depends on whether the trait ...

  17. The deleted in brachydactyly B domain of ROR2 is required for receptor activation by recruitment of Src.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh, Shiva; Wheldon, Lee M; Sweet, Steve M M; Talma, Sonia; Mardakheh, Faraz Khosravi; Heath, John K

    2008-01-01

    The transmembrane receptor 'ROR2' resembles members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family of signalling receptors in sequence but its' signal transduction mechanisms remain enigmatic. This problem has particular importance because mutations in ROR2 are associated with two human skeletal dysmorphology syndromes, recessive Robinow Syndrome (RS) and dominant acting Brachydactyly type B (BDB). Here we show, using a constitutive dimerisation approach, that ROR2 exhibits dimerisation-induced tyrosine kinase activity and the ROR2 C-terminal domain, which is deleted in BDB, is required for recruitment and activation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src. Native ROR2 phosphorylation is induced by the ligand Wnt5a and is blocked by pharmacological inhibition of Src kinase activity. Eight sites of Src-mediated ROR2 phosphorylation have been identified by mass spectrometry. Activation via tyrosine phosphorylation of ROR2 receptor leads to its internalisation into Rab5 positive endosomes. These findings show that BDB mutant receptors are defective in kinase activation as a result of failure to recruit Src. PMID:18365018

  18. Complete Heart Block with Diastolic Heart Failure and Pulmonary Edema Secondary to Enlarging Previously Diagnosed Thrombosed Aneurysm of Sinus of Valsalva in a Patient with History of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Eltawansy, Sherif Ali; Thomas, Maria Joana; Daniels, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is associated with vascular aneurysms that can affect any part of the vascular tree, like ascending aorta or coronary arteries. Sinus of Valsalva is known as an anatomical dilation at the root of aorta above the aortic valve and very few cases show aneurysm at that site in patients with ADPKD. Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm (SVA) can present with rupture and acute heart failure and infective endocarditis or could be asymptomatic accidentally discovered during cardiac catheterization. We report a case of a 76-year-old male with a unique constellation of cardiovascular anomalies associated with ADPKD. Patient was previously diagnosed with aneurysms affecting ascending aorta, sinus of Valsalva, and coronary arteries. Several years later, he came with complete heart block which was discovered later to be secondary to enlargement of his previously diagnosed thrombosed SVA. His case was complicated with acute heart failure and pulmonary edema. Conclusion. Patients with ADPKD can present with extrarenal manifestations. In our case, aneurysm at sinus of Valsalva was progressively enlarging and presented with complete heart block. PMID:25861484

  19. Recommendations for the use of tolvaptan in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a position statement on behalf of the ERA-EDTA Working Groups on Inherited Kidney Disorders and European Renal Best Practice

    PubMed Central

    Gansevoort, Ron T.; Arici, Mustafa; Benzing, Thomas; Birn, Henrik; Capasso, Giovambattista; Covic, Adrian; Devuyst, Olivier; Drechsler, Christiane; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Emma, Francesco; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Le Meur, Yannick; Massy, Ziad A.; Ong, Albert C.M.; Ortiz, Alberto; Schaefer, Franz; Torra, Roser; Vanholder, Raymond; Więcek, Andrzej; Zoccali, Carmine; Van Biesen, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the European Medicines Agency approved the use of the vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan to slow the progression of cyst development and renal insufficiency of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in adult patients with chronic kidney disease stages 1–3 at initiation of treatment with evidence of rapidly progressing disease. In this paper, on behalf of the ERA-EDTA Working Groups of Inherited Kidney Disorders and European Renal Best Practice, we aim to provide guidance for making the decision as to which ADPKD patients to treat with tolvaptan. The present position statement includes a series of recommendations resulting in a hierarchical decision algorithm that encompasses a sequence of risk-factor assessments in a descending order of reliability. By examining the best-validated markers first, we aim to identify ADPKD patients who have documented rapid disease progression or are likely to have rapid disease progression. We believe that this procedure offers the best opportunity to select patients who are most likely to benefit from tolvaptan, thus improving the benefit-to-risk ratio and cost-effectiveness of this treatment. It is important to emphasize that the decision to initiate treatment requires the consideration of many factors besides eligibility, such as contraindications, potential adverse events, as well as patient motivation and lifestyle factors, and requires shared decision-making with the patient. PMID:26908832

  20. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) in an Italian family carrying a novel nonsense mutation and two missense changes in exons 44 and 45 of the PKD1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Rossetti, S.; Bresin, E.; Corra, S.

    1996-10-16

    Sixty-seven Italian patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) were screened for mutations in the 3{prime} unique region of the PKD1 gene, using heteroduplex DNA analysis. Novel aberrant bands were detected in 3 patients from the same family. DNA sequencing showed a C to T transition in exon 44 (C12269T), resulting in a premature stop codon (R4020X), predicted to impair the synthesis of the putative intracytoplasmic C-terminus tail of the PKD1 protein, polycystin. The mutation also generates a novel DdeI restriction site, and the abnormal restriction pattern was observed both on genomic DNA and on cDNA from the affected relatives, indicating that this is indeed the pathogenetic molecular lesion. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) performed on lymphocyte mRNA showed that the mutant transcript is normally present and stable. No aberrantly spliced mRNAs were detected. Interestingly, the mutant PKD1 chromosome in this family also bears two missense mutations downstream (A12341G and C12384T), not found in the other ADPKD families studied. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  1. A de Novo mutation in the coding sequence for neurophysin-II (Pro{sup 24} {yields} Leu) is associated with onset and transmission of autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus

    SciTech Connect

    Repaske, D.R.; Browning, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    The molecular basis of autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus, a hereditary deficiency of vasopressin, was determined by nucleotide sequence analysis of the arginine vasopressin-neurophysin-II gene. A C{yields}T mutation at nucleotide 1761 was detected in one allele of this gene in each affected individual in three generations of one family. This mutant gene encodes a normal arginine vasopressin peptide, but predicts a substitution of leucine for proline at amino acid 24 of neurophysin-II, the arginine vasopressin carrier protein. This mutation was not detected in 50 control individuals, thus demonstrating that it is not a common silent genetic polymorphism. The disease arose in the second generation of the studied family, and the chromosome 20 carrying this new mutation was identified by polymorphic CA microsatellite haplotype analysis. The first affected individual inherited this chromosome segment from her mother, who had neither the disease nor this mutation in her somatic cell DNA. Third generation individuals who subsequently inherited this mutation were affected. These data demonstrate that this amino acid substitution in neurophysin-II causes this disease. Two possibilities to explain the mechanism by which clinical deficiency of arginine vasopressin develops even in the presence of one normal arginine vasopressin-neurophysin-II allele are discussed. 40 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. A novel point mutation in the translation initiation codon of the pre-pro-vasopressin-neurophysin II gene: Cosegregation with morphological abnormalities and clinical symptoms in autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus

    SciTech Connect

    Rutishauser, J.; Boeni-Schnetzler, M.; Froesch, E.R.; Wichmann, W.; Huisman, T.

    1996-01-01

    Autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (ADNDI) is a rare variant of idiopathic central diabetes insipidus. Several different mutations in the human vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NP II) gene have been described. We studied nine family members from three generations of an ADNDI pedigree at the clinical, morphological, and molecular levels. AVP concentrations were measured during diagnostic fluid restriction tests. Coronal and sagittal high resolution T1-weighted images of the pituitary were obtained from affected and healthy family members. PCR was used to amplify the AVP-NP II precursor gene, and PCR products were directly sequenced. Under maximal osmotic stimulation, AVP serum levels were close to or below the detection limit in affected individuals. Magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed the characteristic hyperintense ({open_quotes}bright spot{close_quotes}) appearance of the posterior pituitary in two healthy family members. This signal was absent in all four ADNDI patients examined. The coding sequences of AVP and its carrier protein, neurophysin II, were normal in all family members examined. Affected individuals showed a novel single base deletion (G 227) in the translation initiation codon of the AVP-NP II signal peptide on one allele. The mutation in the AVP-NP II leader sequence appears to be responsible for the disease in this kindred, possibly by interfering with protein translocation. The absence of the hyperintense posterior pituitary signal in affected individuals could reflect deficient posterior pituitary function. 56 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Recommendations for the use of tolvaptan in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a position statement on behalf of the ERA-EDTA Working Groups on Inherited Kidney Disorders and European Renal Best Practice.

    PubMed

    Gansevoort, Ron T; Arici, Mustafa; Benzing, Thomas; Birn, Henrik; Capasso, Giovambattista; Covic, Adrian; Devuyst, Olivier; Drechsler, Christiane; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Emma, Francesco; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Le Meur, Yannick; Massy, Ziad A; Ong, Albert C M; Ortiz, Alberto; Schaefer, Franz; Torra, Roser; Vanholder, Raymond; Więcek, Andrzej; Zoccali, Carmine; Van Biesen, Wim

    2016-03-01

    Recently, the European Medicines Agency approved the use of the vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan to slow the progression of cyst development and renal insufficiency of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in adult patients with chronic kidney disease stages 1-3 at initiation of treatment with evidence of rapidly progressing disease. In this paper, on behalf of the ERA-EDTA Working Groups of Inherited Kidney Disorders and European Renal Best Practice, we aim to provide guidance for making the decision as to which ADPKD patients to treat with tolvaptan. The present position statement includes a series of recommendations resulting in a hierarchical decision algorithm that encompasses a sequence of risk-factor assessments in a descending order of reliability. By examining the best-validated markers first, we aim to identify ADPKD patients who have documented rapid disease progression or are likely to have rapid disease progression. We believe that this procedure offers the best opportunity to select patients who are most likely to benefit from tolvaptan, thus improving the benefit-to-risk ratio and cost-effectiveness of this treatment. It is important to emphasize that the decision to initiate treatment requires the consideration of many factors besides eligibility, such as contraindications, potential adverse events, as well as patient motivation and lifestyle factors, and requires shared decision-making with the patient. PMID:26908832

  4. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant hypocalcemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... MR, Heath H 3rd, Thakker RV. Mutations affecting G-protein subunit α11 in hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jun 27;368(26):2476-86. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1300253. Raue F, Pichl J, Dörr HG, Schnabel D, Heidemann P, Hammersen G, Jaursch-Hancke C, Santen R, Schöfl C, Wabitsch ...

  5. Deletions in 14q24.1q24.3 are associated with congenital heart defects, brachydactyly, and mild intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Oehl-Jaschkowitz, Barbara; Vanakker, Olivier M; De Paepe, Anne; Menten, Björn; Martin, Thomas; Weber, Georg; Christmann, Alexander; Krier, Romain; Scheid, Simone; McNerlan, Susan E; McKee, Shane; Tzschach, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Interstitial deletions of chromosome band 14q24.1q24.3 are apparently very rare. We report on three unrelated patients with overlapping de novo deletions of sizes 5.4, 2.8, and 2.3 Mb in this region. While some clinical problems such as intestinal malrotation, cryptorchidism, and ectopic kidney were only observed in single patients, all three patients had mild intellectual disability, congenital heart defects (truncus arteriosus, pulmonary atresia, atrial septal defect, and/or ventricular septal defect), brachydactyly, hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, and thin upper lips. Likely haploinsufficiency of one or several of the 19 genes in the common deleted interval (ACTN1, DCAF5, EXD2, GALNTL1, ERH, SLC39A9, PLEKHD1, CCDC177, KIAA0247, LOC100289511, SRSF5, SLC10A1, SMOC1, SLC8A3, ADAM21P1, COX16, SYNJ2BP, SYNJ2BP-COX16, ADAM21) was responsible for these manifestations, but apart from SMOC1, mutations in which cause autosomal recessive Waardenburg anophthalmia syndrome, and ACTN1, mutations in which are associated with congenital macrothrombocytopenia, no disease associations have so far been reported for the other genes. Functional studies and a systematic search for mutations or chromosome aberrations in this region will elucidate the role of individual genes in the clinical manifestations and will provide insight into the underlying biological mechanisms. PMID:24357125

  6. Mutation in the cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein-1 (CDMP1) gene in a kindred affected with fibular hypoplasia and complex brachydactyly (DuPan syndrome).

    PubMed

    Faiyaz-Ul-Haque, M; Ahmad, W; Zaidi, S H E; Haque, S; Teebi, A S; Ahmad, M; Cohn, D H; Tsui, L-C

    2002-06-01

    The present authors have previously described a consanguineous Pakistani family with fibular hypoplasia and complex brachydactyly (DuPan syndrome) inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. All affected individuals showed either reductions or absence of bones in the limbs, and appendicular bone dysmorphogenesis with unaffected axial bones. Obligate heterozygote parents were phenotypically normal. Mutations in the cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein 1 (CDMP1) gene have been reported in two acromesomelic chondrodysplasias (i.e. Hunter-Thompson type and Grebe type) which are phenotypically related to DuPan syndrome. CDMP1, a member of the transforming growth factor beta super-family of secreted signalling molecules, has been reported to regulate limb patterning and distal bone growth. Therefore, the present authors examined genomic DNA from the family with DuPan syndrome for mutations in the CDMP1 gene. Affected individuals were homozygous for a missense mutation, T1322C, in the coding region of the CDMP1 gene. This mutation was not found in 44 control subjects of Pakistani origin. The T1322C change predicts a leu441pro substitution in the mature domain of the CDMP1 protein. This is likely to cause a conformational change in the CDMP1 protein that influences the expression of genes which are required for normal bone development. This finding extends the spectrum of phenotypes produced by defects in the CDMP1 gene. PMID:12121354

  7. A Point Mutation in the Ubiquitin Ligase RNF170 That Causes Autosomal Dominant Sensory Ataxia Destabilizes the Protein and Impairs Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor-mediated Ca2+ Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wright, Forrest A; Lu, Justine P; Sliter, Danielle A; Dupr, Nicolas; Rouleau, Guy A; Wojcikiewicz, Richard J H

    2015-05-29

    RNF170 is an endoplasmic reticulum membrane ubiquitin ligase that contributes to the ubiquitination of activated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors, and also, when point mutated (arginine to cysteine at position 199), causes autosomal dominant sensory ataxia (ADSA), a disease characterized by neurodegeneration in the posterior columns of the spinal cord. Here we demonstrate that this point mutation inhibits RNF170 expression and signaling via IP3 receptors. Inhibited expression of mutant RNF170 was seen in cells expressing exogenous RNF170 constructs and in ADSA lymphoblasts, and appears to result from enhanced RNF170 autoubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. The basis for these effects was probed via additional point mutations, revealing that ionic interactions between charged residues in the transmembrane domains of RNF170 are required for protein stability. In ADSA lymphoblasts, platelet-activating factor-induced Ca(2+) mobilization was significantly impaired, whereas neither Ca(2+) store content, IP3 receptor levels, nor IP3 production were altered, indicative of a functional defect at the IP3 receptor locus, which may be the cause of neurodegeneration. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genetic deletion of RNF170 showed that RNF170 mediates the addition of all of the ubiquitin conjugates known to become attached to activated IP3 receptors (monoubiquitin and Lys(48)- and Lys(63)-linked ubiquitin chains), and that wild-type and mutant RNF170 have apparently identical ubiquitin ligase activities toward IP3 receptors. Thus, the Ca(2+) mobilization defect seen in ADSA lymphoblasts is apparently not due to aberrant IP3 receptor ubiquitination. Rather, the defect likely reflects abnormal ubiquitination of other substrates, or adaptation to the chronic reduction in RNF170 levels. PMID:25882839

  8. Multi-electrode array study of neuronal cultures expressing nicotinic β2-V287L subunits, linked to autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. An in vitro model of spontaneous epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gullo, Francesca; Manfredi, Irene; Lecchi, Marzia; Casari, Giorgio; Wanke, Enzo; Becchetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is a partial sleep-related epilepsy which can be caused by mutant neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We applied multi-electrode array (MEA) recording methods to study the spontaneous firing activity of neocortical cultures obtained from mice expressing or not (WT) an ADNFLE-linked nAChR subunit (β2-V287L). More than 100,000 up-states were recorded during experiments sampling from several thousand neurons. Data were analyzed by using a fast sliding-window procedure which computes histograms of the up-state durations. Differently from the WT, cultures expressing β2-V287L displayed long (10–32 s) synaptic-induced up-state firing events. The occurrence of such long up-states was prevented by both negative (gabazine, penicillin G) and positive (benzodiazepines) modulators of GABAA receptors. Carbamazepine (CBZ), a drug of choice in ADNFLE patients, also inhibited the long up-states at micromolar concentrations. In cultures expressing β2-V287L, no significant effect was observed on the action potential waveform either in the absence or in the presence of pharmacological treatment. Our results show that some aspects of the spontaneous hyperexcitability displayed by a murine model of a human channelopathy can be reproduced in neuronal cultures. In particular, our cultures represent an in vitro chronic model of spontaneous epileptiform activity, i.e., not requiring pre-treatment with convulsants. This opens the way to the study in vitro of the role of β2-V287L on synaptic formation. Moreover, our neocortical cultures on MEA platforms allow to determine the effects of prolonged pharmacological treatment on spontaneous network hyperexcitability (which is impossible in the short-living brain slices). Methods such as the one we illustrate in the present paper should also considerably facilitate the preliminary screening of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), thereby reducing the number of in vivo experiments. PMID:25104926

  9. Autosomal dominant transmission of a Goldenhar-like syndrome: Description of a family and report of a sporadic case with a de novo 4p16;8q24.11 translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Graganm H.N. Jr.; Hixon, H.; Bacino, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    We report vertical transmission of a Goldenhar-like syndrome, including a father and 5 offspring, with male-to-male transmission and variable features that include hearing loss, ear anomalies (microtia, ear tags/pits), branchial cysts, ocular/periocular dermoids, micrognathia and seizures. We also report an individual with an apparently balanced de novo reciprocal translocation with breakpoints at 4p16 and 8q24.11. This individual has unilateral microtia, an epibulbar dermoid cyst, facial asymmetry with a small chin, and seizures. In addition to these features resembling those seen in the family above, she has multiple exostoses, supraventricular tachycardia, hypoglycemia and mild developmental delays. Based on the overlap in physical findings between this family and the individual with the de novo reciprocal translocation, linkage studies on the family were intiated. Preliminary results exclude linkage to HOX 7 at 4p16.1 but not to 8q. The brancho-oto-renal syndrome has previously been localized to 8q11-8q13, but linkage to this region appears unlikely. Although most cases of Goldenhar syndrome appear to be sporadic, there are a few reports of autosomal dominant inheritance (MIM No. 164210). One such family showed vertical transmission of dermoids, ear anomalies, hearing loss, micrognathia and vertebral anomalies, but no branchial cysts. Another family showed sensorineural deafness, preauricular pits, and branchial fistulae, and other families reveal ear anomalies, branchial fistulas, and hearing loss. These latter families appear to lack ocular/periocular dermoids, and appear to be affected by a different disorder (MIM No. 125100). Further clinical delineation of such families, combined with genetic linkage analysis, should help to sort out this heterogeneity.

  10. Dissociation of Pupillary Post-Illumination Responses from Visual Function in Confirmed OPA1 c.983A > G and c.2708_2711delTTAG Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Claus; Rönnbäck, Cecilia; Sander, Birgit; Herbst, Kristina; Milea, Dan; Larsen, Michael; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether the melanopsin-containing, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), as evaluated by examination of the pupillary light reflex (PLR), are preserved in genetically confirmed autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA). Method: Twenty-nine patients with either the c.983A > G (n = 14) or the c.2708_ 2711delTTAG mutation (n = 15) were examined with monochromatic pupillometry, using isoluminant (300 cd/m2), red (660 nm) or blue (470 nm) light, optical coherence tomography, automated visual field analysis, and with determination of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Since we examined two different mutations, initially we compared all outcome variables between the two, and finding no statistically significant difference, pooled them. Results: Despite a poor BCVA (56 letters, ETDRS) in the ADOA patients, their post-illuminatory pupil responses did not differ significantly from those of healthy controls (blue, p = 0.45, red, p = 0.49, t-test), and no statistically significant effect was noted of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness, or age. Conclusion: The PLR to blue light of high luminance (300 cd/m2) was preserved in both c.983A > G and c.2708_2711delTTAG ADOA despite severe visual loss and optic nerve atrophy. The study confirms, in a large sample of two genetically homogenous groups, that the ipRGCs are spared in ADOA. PMID:25699009

  11. Congenital insensitivity to pain: Fracturing without apparent skeletal pathobiology caused by an autosomal dominant, second mutation in SCN11A encoding voltage-gated sodium channel 1.9.

    PubMed

    Phatarakijnirund, Voraluck; Mumm, Steven; McAlister, William H; Novack, Deborah V; Wenkert, Deborah; Clements, Karen L; Whyte, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) comprises the rare heritable disorders without peripheral neuropathy that feature inability to feel pain. Fracturing and joint destruction are common complications, but lack detailed studies of mineral and skeletal homeostasis and bone histology. In 2013, discovery of a heterozygous gain-of-function mutation in SCN11A encoding voltage-gated sodium channel 1.9 (Nav1.9) established a distinctive CIP in three unrelated patients who suffered multiple painless fractures, self-inflicted mutilation, chronic diarrhea, and hyperhidrosis. Here, we studied a mother and two children with CIP by physical examination, biochemical testing, radiological imaging including DXA, iliac crest histology, and mutation analysis. She suffered fractures primarily of her lower extremities beginning at age two years, and had Charcot deformity of both ankles and joint hypermobility. Nerve conduction velocity together with electromyography were normal. Her children had recurrent major fractures beginning in early childhood, joint hypermobility, and chronic diarrhea. She had an excoriated external nare, and both children had hypertrophic scars from scratching. Skin collagen studies were normal. Radiographs revealed fractures and deformities. However, lumbar spine and total hip BMD Z-scores, biochemical parameters of mineral and skeletal homeostasis, and iliac crest histology of the mother (after in vivo tetracycline labeling) were normal. Genomic DNA from the children revealed a unique heterozygous missense mutation in exon 23 (c.3904C>T, p.Leu1302Phe) of SCN11A that is absent in SNP databases and alters an evolutionarily conserved amino acid. This autosomal dominant CIP reflects the second gain-of-function mutation of SCN11A. Perhaps joint hypermobility is an unreported feature. How mutation of Nav1.9 causes fracturing remains unexplained. Lack of injury awareness is typically offered as the reason, and was supported by our unremarkable biochemical, radiological, and histological findings indicating no skeletal pathobiology. However, low-trauma fracturing in these patients suggests an uncharacterized defect in bone quality. PMID:26746779

  12. Congenital anonychia and brachydactyly of the left foot - Cooks syndrome variant: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Daipayan

    2014-01-01

    Cooks syndrome is characterized by familial congenital anonychia or onychodystrophy, hypoplasia or absence of distal phalanges of the hands and feet with brachydactyly of the fifth finger and digitalization of the thumb (triphalangism). It is listed as a “rare disease” by the Office of Rare Diseases of the National Institutes of Health. Here, we report a case of congenital anonychia and brachydactyly of the left foot, which possibly is a variant of Cooks syndrome with a positive family history of similar deformity. PMID:25400355

  13. Familial co-segregation of Coffin-Lowry syndrome inherited from the mother and autosomal dominant Waardenburg type IV syndrome due to deletion of EDNRB inherited from the father.

    PubMed

    Loupe, Jacob; Sampath, Srirangan; Lacassie, Yves

    2014-10-01

    We report an African-American family that was identified after the proposita was referred for diagnostic evaluation at 4½ months with a history of Hirschsprung and dysmorphic features typical of Waardenburg syndrome (WS). Family evaluation revealed that the father had heterochromidia irides and hypertelorism supporting the clinical diagnosis of WS; however, examination of the mother revealed characteristic facial and digital features of Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS). Molecular testing of the mother identified a novel 2 bp deletion (c.865_866delCA) in codon 289 of RPS6KA3 leading to a frame-shift and premature termination of translation 5 codons downstream (NM_004586.2:p.Gln289ValfsX5). This deletion also was identified in the proposita and her three sisters with a clinical suspicion of CLS, all of whom as carriers for this X-linked disorder had very subtle manifestations. The molecular confirmation of WS type 4 (Shah-Waardenburg; WS4) was not as straightforward. To evaluate WS types 1-4, multiple sequential molecular tests were requested, including Sanger sequencing of all exons, and deletion/duplication analysis using MLPA for PAX3, MITF, SOX10, EDN3 and EDNRB. Although sequencing did not identify any disease causing variants, MLPA identified a heterozygous deletion of the entire EDNRB in the father. This deletion was also found in the proposita and the oldest child. Since the heterozygous deletion was the only change identified in EDNRB, this family represents one of the few cases of an autosomal dominant inheritance of WS4 involving the endothelin pathway. Altogether, clinical evaluation of the family revealed one child to be positive for WS4 and two positive for CLS, while two children were positive for both diseases simultaneously (including the proposita) while another pair test negative for either disease. This kinship is an example of the coincidence of two conditions co-segregating in one family, with variable phenotypes requiring molecular testing to confirm the clinical diagnoses. PMID:25118007

  14. A novel patient with Cooks syndrome supports splitting from "classic" brachydactyly type B.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Brancati, Francesco; Mingarelli, Rita; Mundlos, Stefan; Dallapiccola, Bruno

    2007-01-15

    We report on a 2-year-old girl affected by an isolated form of brachydactyly type B (BDB)-like malformation of the limbs consistent with Cooks syndrome (CS). A literature review was carried out in an attempt to delineate the CS clinical spectrum and separate it from BDB. The two conditions can be differentiated on clinical, radiological, and genetic grounds. In particular, CS shows a characteristic pattern of ungueal and phalangeal anomalies. In the hands, all rays are involved to a similar extent with bulbous tips. The feet are generally more severely affected than the hands. Involvement of the nails appears to be a primary feature and not secondary to phalangeal hypo/aplasia. Also, radial and ulnar rays are similarly affected. The CS clinical spectrum is expanded to include ungueal tumor-like lesions, observed in the present patient. PMID:17163524

  15. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Brachydactyly and mental retardation: An Albright hereditary osteodystrophy-like syndrome localized to 2q37

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, L.C. |; Oude Luttikhuis, M.E.M.; Duckett, D.P.; Barrow, M.A.; Leverton, K.; Read, A.P.; Oley, C.A.; Wolstenholme, J.; Flint, J.; Leonard, J.V.

    1995-02-01

    We report five patients with a combination of brachymetaphalangia and mental retardation, similar to that observed in Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). Four patients had cytogenetically visible de novo deletions of chromosome 2q37. The fifth patient was cytogenetically normal and had normal bioactivity of the {alpha} subunit of Gs (Gs{alpha}), the protein that is defective in AHO. In this patient, we have used a combination of highly polymorphic molecular markers and FISH to demonstrate a microdeletion at 2q37. The common region of deletion overlap involves the most telomeric 2q marker, D2S125, and extends proximally for a maximum distance of 17.6 cM. We suggest this represents a consistent phenotype associated with some deletions at 2q37 and that genes important for skeletal and neurodevelopment lie within this region. Screening for deletions at this locus should be considered in individuals with brachymetaphalangia and mental retardation. Furthermore, 2q37 represents a candidate region for type E brachydactyly. 28 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Brachydactyly type A2 associated with a defect in proGDF5 processing.

    PubMed

    Plöger, Frank; Seemann, Petra; Schmidt-von Kegler, Mareen; Lehmann, Katarina; Seidel, Jörg; Kjaer, Klaus W; Pohl, Jens; Mundlos, Stefan

    2008-05-01

    We investigated a family with a brachydactyly type A2 and identified a heterozygous arginine to glutamine (R380Q) substitution in the growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) in all affected individuals. The observed mutation is located at the processing site of the protein, at which the GDF5 precursor is thought to be cleaved releasing the mature molecule from the prodomain. In order to test the effect of the mutation, we generated the GDF5-R380Q mutant and a cleavage-resistant proGDF5 mutant (R380A/R381A) in vitro. Both mutants were secreted from chicken micromass cultures, but showed diminished biological activity. Western blot analyses showed that wt GDF5 was processed by the chicken micromass cells, whereas the mutants were not, indicating that the mutations interfere with processing and that this leads to a strong reduction of biological activity. To test the requirements for GDF5 processing in vitro we produced recombinant human (rh) proGDF5 wild-type protein in Escherichia coli. The results show that unprocessed (rh) proGDF5 is virtually inactive but can be proteolytically activated by different enzymes such as trypsin, furin, and MMP3. (rh) proGDF5 could thus be used as a locally administered depot form with retarded release of activity. In contrast to mature rhGDF5, (rh) proGDF5 shows a high solubility at physiological pH, a characteristic that might be useful for therapeutic applications. PMID:18203755

  18. The first familial case of inherited 2q37.3 interstitial deletion with isolated skeletal abnormalities including brachydactyly type E and short stature.

    PubMed

    Jean-Marçais, Nolwenn; Decamp, Matthieu; Gérard, Marion; Ribault, Virginie; Andrieux, Joris; Kottler, Marie-Laure; Plessis, Ghislaine

    2015-01-01

    Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO)-like syndrome is also known as brachydactyly-mental retardation syndrome (BDMR; OMIM 60040). This disorder includes intellectual disability in all patients, skeletal abnormalities, including brachydactyly E (BDE) in approximately half, obesity, and facial dysmorphism. Patients with 2q37 microdeletion or HDAC4 mutation are defined as having an AHO-like phenotype with normal stimulatory G (Gs) function. HDAC4 is involved in neurological, cardiac, and skeletal function. This paper reports the first familial case of 2q37.3 interstitial deletion affecting two genes, HDAC4 and TWIST2. Patients presented with BDE and short stature without intellectual disability, showing that haploinsufficiency of the HDAC4 critical region may lead to a spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from isolated brachydactyly type E to BDMR. PMID:25402011

  19. Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias

    PubMed Central

    Palau, Francesc; Espinós, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias (ARCA) are a heterogeneous group of rare neurological disorders involving both central and peripheral nervous system, and in some case other systems and organs, and characterized by degeneration or abnormal development of cerebellum and spinal cord, autosomal recessive inheritance and, in most cases, early onset occurring before the age of 20 years. This group encompasses a large number of rare diseases, the most frequent in Caucasian population being Friedreich ataxia (estimated prevalence 2–4/100,000), ataxia-telangiectasia (1–2.5/100,000) and early onset cerebellar ataxia with retained tendon reflexes (1/100,000). Other forms ARCA are much less common. Based on clinicogenetic criteria, five main types ARCA can be distinguished: congenital ataxias (developmental disorder), ataxias associated with metabolic disorders, ataxias with a DNA repair defect, degenerative ataxias, and ataxia associated with other features. These diseases are due to mutations in specific genes, some of which have been identified, such as frataxin in Friedreich ataxia, α-tocopherol transfer protein in ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED), aprataxin in ataxia with oculomotor apraxia (AOA1), and senataxin in ataxia with oculomotor apraxia (AOA2). Clinical diagnosis is confirmed by ancillary tests such as neuroimaging (magnetic resonance imaging, scanning), electrophysiological examination, and mutation analysis when the causative gene is identified. Correct clinical and genetic diagnosis is important for appropriate genetic counseling and prognosis and, in some instances, pharmacological treatment. Due to autosomal recessive inheritance, previous familial history of affected individuals is unlikely. For most ARCA there is no specific drug treatment except for coenzyme Q10 deficiency and abetalipoproteinemia. PMID:17112370

  20. Identification of a GDF5 mutation in a Korean patient with brachydactyly type C without foot involvement.

    PubMed

    Seo, Soo Hyun; Park, Mi Jung; Kim, Shin-Hye; Kim, Ok-Hwa; Park, Seungman; Cho, Sung Im; Park, Sung Sup; Seong, Moon-Woo

    2013-03-01

    Brachydactyly type C (BDC) is characterized by shortening of the middle phalanges of the index, middle, and little fingers. Hyperphalangy of the index and middle finger and shortening of the first metacarpal can also be observed. BDC is a rare genetic condition associated with the GDF5 gene, and this condition has not been confirmed by genetic analysis so far in the Korean population. Herein, we present a case of a 6-yr-old girl diagnosed with BDC confirmed by molecular genetic analysis. The patient presented with shortening of the second and third digits of both hands. Sequence analysis of the GDF5 gene was performed and the pathogenic mutation, c.1312C>T (p.Arg438Cys), was identified. Interestingly, this mutation was previously described in a patient who presented with the absence of the middle phalanges in the second through fifth toes. However, our patient showed no involvement of the feet. Considering intrafamilial and interfamilial variability, molecular analysis of isolated brachydactyly is warranted to elucidate the genetic origin and establish a diagnosis. PMID:23483675

  1. De novo apparently balanced reciprocal translocation between 5q11.2 and 17q23 associated with Klippel-Feil anomaly and type A1 brachydactyly

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Wakui, Keiko

    1995-07-03

    We report on a girl with Klippel-Feil anomaly, type A1 brachydactyly, and minor facial anomalies. She has an apparently balanced de novo reciprocal translocation between 5q11.2 and 17q23. The possible significance of this chromosomal abnormality is discussed. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Congenital vocal cord paralysis with possible autosomal recessive inheritance: Case report and review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Koppel, R.; Friedman, S.; Fallet, S.

    1996-08-23

    We describe an infant with congenital vocal cord paralysis born to consanguineous parents. While autosomal dominant and X-linked inheritance have been previously reported in this condition, we conclude that the degree of parental consanguinity in this case strongly suggests autosomal recessive inheritance. Although we cannot exclude X-linked inheritance, evidence from animal studies demonstrates autosomal recessive inheritance and provides a possible molecular basis for congenital vocal cord paralysis. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  3. [Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Chabriat, Hugues

    2014-06-01

    CADASIL is an inherited small vessel disease of the brain caused by mutations of the NOTCH3 gene encoding a receptor of smooth muscle cells and pericytes within the wall of arterioles and capillaries. The mutated gene is responsible for accumulation of NOTCH3 protein and aggregation of various proteins in the vascular wall. The disease occurs during mid-adulthood and is responsible for attacks of migraine with aura, ischemic stroke, mood disorders and cognitive impairment ranging from mild alterations of attentional performances and executive functions to severe dementia. The disease develops in adults with aging and is responsible at the latest stage of gait and balance troubles associated with cognitive impairment that may lead to severe disability and dependence. MRI shows widespread white matter lesions that may involve the anterior part of temporal lobes often associated with small cerebral infarcts and with microbleeds. The clinical severity is related to accumulation of small infarcts and the development of cerebral atrophy over time. The diagnosis of the disease is confirmed by genetic testing or skin biopsy. PMID:24939405

  4. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a larger molecule called a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). This receptor plays an important role ... C, Guerrini R. The role of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in sleep-related epilepsy. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007 ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gal A, Orth U, Baehr W, Schwinger E, Rosenberg T. Heterozygous missense mutation in the rod cGMP ... 1399-9_30. Review. Szabo V, Kreienkamp HJ, Rosenberg T, Gal A. p.Gln200Glu, a putative constitutively ...

  6. Autosomal dominant stationary night-blindness. A large family rediscovered.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, T; Haim, M; Piczenik, Y; Simonsen, S E

    1991-12-01

    In 1909, 2 years after the famous publication by Nettleship, a large family with congenital stationary night-blindness of the 'Nougaret type' was published by the Danish district surgeon, Sigurd Rambusch. In 1990 the 'Rambusch family', still resident in the original area, was sought out and rediscovered, at which time the reconstructed part of the pedigree comprised more than 200 affected persons in 11 generations. Dark adaptometry and electroretinography were performed on a few affected family members, including a descendant with a uniocular affection. The pedigree is presented and recordings of dark adaptation courses and electroretinographical responses from a few family members are demonstrated. PMID:1789082

  7. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... HIES highly susceptible to infections, particularly bacterial and fungal infections of the lungs and skin. The STAT3 protein ... C, Pettigrew RI, Holland SM, Gharib AM. Coronary artery abnormalities in Hyper-IgE syndrome. J Clin Immunol. ...

  8. Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infacts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)

    MedlinePlus

    ... functions such as sensation, voluntary muscle movement, thought, reasoning, memory, etc. Infarcts : areas of tissue that have ... therapy are instituted for rehabilitation from stroke. Other Clinical Names for CADASIL Hereditary multi-infarct dementia Chronic ...

  9. Ataxias with autosomal, X-chromosomal or maternal inheritance.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef

    2009-07-01

    Heredoataxias are a group of genetic disorders with a cerebellar syndrome as the leading clinical manifestation. The current classification distinguishes heredoataxias according to the trait of inheritance into autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked, and maternally inherited heredoataxias. The autosomal dominant heredoataxias are separated into spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA1-8, 10-15, 17-23, 25-30, and dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy), episodic ataxias (EA1-7), and autosomal dominant mitochondrial heredoataxias (Leigh syndrome, MIRAS, ADOAD, and AD-CPEO). The autosomal recessive ataxias are separated into Friedreich ataxia, ataxia due to vitamin E deficiency, ataxia due to Abeta-lipoproteinemia, Refsum disease, late-onset Tay-Sachs disease, cerebrotendineous xanthomatosis, spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy, ataxia telangiectasia, ataxia telangiectasia-like disorder, ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 1 and 2, spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay, Cayman ataxia, Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome, and autosomal recessive mitochondrial ataxias (AR-CPEO, SANDO, SCAE, AHS, IOSCA, MEMSA, LBSL CoQ-deficiency, PDC-deficiency). Only two of the heredoataxias, fragile X/tremor/ataxia syndrome, and XLSA/A are transmitted via an X-linked trait. Maternally inherited heredoataxias are due to point mutations in genes encoding for tRNAs, rRNAs, respiratory chain subunits or single large scale deletions/duplications of the mitochondrial DNA and include MELAS, MERRF, KSS, PS, MILS, NARP, and non-syndromic mitochondrial disorders. Treatment of heredoataxias is symptomatic and supportive and may have a beneficial effect in single patients. **Please see page 424 for abbreviation list. PMID:19650351

  10. Mutations in SYNGAP1 in Autosomal Nonsyndromic Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, Fadi F.; Gauthier, Julie; Spiegelman, Dan; Noreau, Anne; Yang, Yan; Pellerin, Stéphanie; Dobrzeniecka, Sylvia; Côté, Mélanie; Perreau-Linck, Elizabeth; Carmant, Lionel; D’Anjou, Guy; Fombonne, Éric; Addington, Anjene M.; Rapoport, Judith L.; Delisi, Lynn E.; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Mouaffak, Faycal; Joober, Ridha; Mottron, Laurent; Drapeau, Pierre; Marineau, Claude; Lafrenière, Ronald G.; Lacaille, Jean Claude; Rouleau, Guy A.; Michaud, Jacques L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although autosomal forms of nonsyndromic mental retardation account for the majority of cases of mental retardation, the genes that are involved remain largely unknown. We sequenced the autosomal gene SYNGAP1, which encodes a ras GTPase-activating protein that is critical for cognition and synapse function, in 94 patients with nonsyndromic mental retardation. We identified de novo truncating mutations (K138X, R579X, and L813RfsX22) in three of these patients. In contrast, we observed no de novo or truncating mutations in SYNGAP1 in samples from 142 subjects with autism spectrum disorders, 143 subjects with schizophrenia, and 190 control subjects. These results indicate that SYNGAP1 disruption is a cause of autosomal dominant nonsyndromic mental retardation. PMID:19196676

  11. Autosomal recessive primary microcephalies (MCPH).

    PubMed

    Kaindl, Angela M

    2014-07-01

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by a pronounced reduction in volume of otherwise architectonical normal brains and intellectual deficit. Here, we summarize the genetic causes of MCPH types 1-12 known to date. PMID:24780602

  12. A new subtype of brachydactyly type B caused by point mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein antagonist NOGGIN.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, K; Seemann, P; Silan, F; Goecke, T O; Irgang, S; Kjaer, K W; Kjaergaard, S; Mahoney, M J; Morlot, S; Reissner, C; Kerr, B; Wilkie, A O M; Mundlos, S

    2007-08-01

    Brachydactyly type B (BDB) is characterized by terminal deficiency of fingers and toes, which is caused by heterozygous truncating mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (ROR2) in the majority of patients. In a subset of ROR2-negative patients with BDB, clinically defined by the additional occurrence of proximal symphalangism and carpal synostosis, we identified six different point mutations (P35A, P35S, A36P, E48K, R167G, and P187S) in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist NOGGIN (NOG). In contrast to previously described loss-of-function mutations in NOG, which are known to cause a range of conditions associated with abnormal joint formation but without BDB, the newly identified BDB mutations do not indicate a major loss of function, as suggested by calculation of free-binding energy of the modeled NOG-GDF5 complex and functional analysis of the micromass culture system. Rather, they presumably alter NOG's ability to bind to BMPs and growth-differentiation factors (GDFs) in a subtle way, thus disturbing the intricate balance of BMP signaling. The combined features observed in this phenotypic subtype of BDB argue for a functional connection between BMP and ROR2 signaling and support previous findings of a modulating effect of ROR2 on the BMP-receptor pathway through the formation of a heteromeric complex of the receptors at the cell surface. PMID:17668388

  13. Novel indel Mutation in the GDF5 Gene Is Associated with Brachydactyly Type C in a Four-Generation Turkish Family

    PubMed Central

    Uyguner, Z.O.; Kocaoğlu, M.; Toksoy, G.; Basaran, S.; Kayserili, H.

    2014-01-01

    Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations of GDF5 are reported to cause hypoplasia/aplasia of certain skeletal elements (brachydactyly), and heterozygous gain-of-function mutations, occurring either on the gene itself or through the loss of its inhibitor noggin, result in joint fusion (symphalangism). We present here the clinical and molecular investigation of a family with disproportionate shortness of the second and third fingers which comprises 9 variably affected members spanning 4 generations. In this study, we performed clinical and radiographical examinations of 2 patients of this family, sequencing of GDF5 and 3D protein modeling of the wildtype and mutated polypeptide to predict the structural alteration. Diagnoses were compatible with familial brachydactyly type C. GDF5 analysis revealed a novel heterozygous in-frame indel mutation (c.803_ 827del25ins25), involving the propeptide domain of GDF5 that alters the number of random coil and beta-strand structures, creating a 1-turn-helix at the mutated site. The mutation described here is the second indel reported in GDF5. The previously published homozygous indel mutation affected the TGF-beta like domain and was associated with Du Pan syndrome. The novel mutation reported here presents further allelic heterogeneity and a probable intrafamilial variable clinical expressivity of GDF5. PMID:24715855

  14. Phenotypic variant of Brachydactyly-mental retardation syndrome in a family with an inherited interstitial 2q37.3 microdeletion including HDAC4

    PubMed Central

    Villavicencio-Lorini, Pablo; Klopocki, Eva; Trimborn, Marc; Koll, Randi; Mundlos, Stefan; Horn, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Deletions of the chromosomal region 2q37 cause brachydactyly-mental retardation syndrome (BDMR), also known as Albright hereditary osteodystrophy-like syndrome. Recently, histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) haploinsufficiency has been postulated to be the critical genetic mechanism responsible for the main clinical characteristics of the BDMR syndrome like developmental delay and behavioural abnormalities in combination with brachydactyly type E (BDE). We report here on the first three generation familial case of BDMR syndrome with inheritance of an interstitial microdeletion of chromosome 2q37.3. The deletion was detected by array comparative genomic hybridization and comprises the HDAC4 gene and two other genes. The patients of this pedigree show a variable severity of psychomotor and behavioural abnormalities in combination with a specific facial dysmorphism but without BDE. Given that only about half of the patients with 2q37 deletions have BDE; we compared our patients with other patients carrying 2q37.3 deletions or HDAC4 mutations known from the literature to discuss the diagnostic relevance of the facial dysmorphism pattern in 2q37.3 deletion cases involving the HDAC4 gene. We conclude that HDAC4 haploinsufficiency is responsible for psychomotor and behavioural abnormalities in combination with the BDMR syndrome-specific facial dysmorphism pattern and that these clinical features have a central diagnostic relevance. PMID:23188045

  15. A novel approach identifying hybrid sterility QTL on the autosomes of Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana.

    PubMed

    Dickman, Christopher T D; Moehring, Amanda J

    2013-01-01

    When species interbreed, the hybrid offspring that are produced are often sterile. If only one hybrid sex is sterile, it is almost always the heterogametic (XY or ZW) sex. Taking this trend into account, the predominant model used to explain the genetic basis of F1 sterility involves a deleterious interaction between recessive sex-linked loci from one species and dominant autosomal loci from the other species. This model is difficult to evaluate, however, as only a handful of loci influencing interspecies hybrid sterility have been identified, and their autosomal genetic interactors have remained elusive. One hindrance to their identification has been the overwhelming effect of the sex chromosome in mapping studies, which could 'mask' the ability to accurately map autosomal factors. Here, we use a novel approach employing attached-X chromosomes to create reciprocal backcross interspecies hybrid males that have a non-recombinant sex chromosome and recombinant autosomes. The heritable variation in phenotype is thus solely caused by differences in the autosomes, thereby allowing us to accurately identify the number and location of autosomal sterility loci. In one direction of backcross, all males were sterile, indicating that sterility could be entirely induced by the sex chromosome complement in these males. In the other direction, we identified nine quantitative trait loci that account for a surprisingly large amount (56%) of the autosome-induced phenotypic variance in sterility, with a large contribution of autosome-autosome epistatic interactions. These loci are capable of acting dominantly, and thus could contribute to F1 hybrid sterility. PMID:24039910

  16. The cytogenetics of mammalian autosomal rearrangements

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, A.

    1988-01-01

    Combining data from animal and clinical studies with classical cytogenetic observations, the volume provides information on various aspects of mammalian autosomal rearrangements. Topics range from the reproductive consequences to carriers of autosomal rearrangements to the application of structural rearrangements and DNA probes to gene mapping. In addition, the book presents an overview of new perspectives and future directions for research.

  17. NEW BEST1 MUTATIONS IN AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE BESTROPHINOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    FUNG, ADRIAN T.; YZER, SUZANNE; GOLDBERG, NAOMI; WANG, HAO; NISSEN, MICHAEL; GIOVANNINI, ALFONSO; MERRIAM, JOANNA E.; BUKANOVA, ELENA N.; CAI, CAROLYN; YANNUZZI, LAWRENCE A.; TSANG, STEPHEN H.; ALLIKMETS, RANDO

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the ocular phenotype in patients with autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy and carriers, and to describe novel BEST1 mutations. Methods Patients with clinically suspected and subsequently genetically proven autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy underwent full ophthalmic examination and investigation with fundus autofluorescence imaging, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, electroretinography, and electrooculography. Mutation analysis of the BEST1 gene was performed through direct Sanger sequencing. Results Five affected patients from four families were identified. Mean age was 16 years (range, 6–42 years). All affected patients presented with reduced visual acuity and bilateral, hyperautofluorescent subretinal yellowish deposits within the posterior pole. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography demonstrated submacular fluid and subretinal vitelliform material in all patients. A cystoid maculopathy was seen in all but one patient. In 1 patient, the location of the vitelliform material was seen to change over a follow-up period of 3 years despite relatively stable vision. Visual acuity and fundus changes were unresponsive to topical and systemic carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and systemic steroids. Carriers had normal ocular examinations including normal fundus autofluorescence. Three novel mutations were detected. Conclusion Three novel BEST1 mutations are described, suggesting that many deleterious variants in BEST1 resulting in haploinsufficiency are still unknown. Mutations causing autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy are mostly located outside of the exons that usually harbor vitelliform macular dystrophy–associated dominant mutations. PMID:25545482

  18. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal recessive primary microcephaly

    MedlinePlus

    ... This Page Cox J, Jackson AP, Bond J, Woods CG. What primary microcephaly can tell us about ... Mannon J, Rashid Y, Crow Y, Bond J, Woods CG. Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly: an analysis of ...

  19. Autosomal recessive Klippel-Feil syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Elias Oliveira Da

    1982-01-01

    An inbred kindred with 12 cases of Klippel-Feil syndrome (seven females and five males) is reported. Inheritance is undoubtedly autosomal recessive. The main characteristic of the syndrome is fusion of cervical vertebrae. Images PMID:7077623

  20. Orofacial Manifestations of Autosomal Recessive Robinow’s Syndrome: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mali, Santosh; Dhokar, Amol; Yadav, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Robinow’s syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder which bears a resemblance to a foetal face. It is characterized by short-limbed dwarfism, defects in vertebral segmentation and abnormalities in the head, face and external genitalia. It has a genetic heterogeneity with autosomal dominant and recessive forms which relates to the severity of phenotype presentation. A rare case of an autosomal recessive form of Robinow’s syndrome is presented with emphasis on, characteristic craniofacial and intraoral manifestations to aid in diagnosis and dental management of this patient. PMID:27135013

  1. Orofacial Manifestations of Autosomal Recessive Robinow's Syndrome: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mali, Santosh; Bansal, Neha; Dhokar, Amol; Yadav, Monica

    2016-03-01

    Robinow's syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder which bears a resemblance to a foetal face. It is characterized by short-limbed dwarfism, defects in vertebral segmentation and abnormalities in the head, face and external genitalia. It has a genetic heterogeneity with autosomal dominant and recessive forms which relates to the severity of phenotype presentation. A rare case of an autosomal recessive form of Robinow's syndrome is presented with emphasis on, characteristic craniofacial and intraoral manifestations to aid in diagnosis and dental management of this patient. PMID:27135013

  2. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis in Arab children.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Al, Y K; Shabani, I S; Lubani, M M; al-Ghawabi, M A; Ibrahim, M D; al-Mohtaseb, S; Duodin, K I

    1994-01-01

    Nineteen Arab children including six boys and 13 girls in ten sibships were diagnosed as having osteopetrosis over a 5-year period in various hospitals in Kuwait. Eighteen patients had an isolated autosomal recessive form and one had autosomal recessive osteopetrosis associated with renal tubular acidosis. The mean age of diagnosis was 24 months. Parental consanguinity was high amongst them (68%). Anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, failure to thrive, recurrent infections and neurological manifestations were common. Associated congenital abnormalities were found in 26%. Deafness, hydrocephalus and dental caries were relatively less common. A high mortality (37%) owing to infection was noted. The medical management and recommendations for patient care are discussed briefly. PMID:7516136

  3. Oculodentodigital dysplasia: study of ophthalmological and clinical manifestations in three boys with probably autosomal recessive inheritance.

    PubMed

    Frasson, Maria; Calixto, Nassim; Cronemberger, Sebastião; de Aguiar, Regina Amélia Lopes Pessoa; Leão, Letícia Lima; de Aguiar, Marcos José Burle

    2004-09-01

    Oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) is a rare inherited disorder affecting the development of the face, eyes, teeth, and limbs. The majority of cases of ODDD are inherited as an autosomal dominant condition. There are few reports of probable autosomal recessive transmission. Affected patients exhibit a distinctive physiognomy with a narrow nose, hypoplastic alae nasi, and anteverted nostrils, bilateral microphthalmos, and microcornea. Sometimes iris anomalies and secondary glaucoma are present. There are malformations of the distal extremities such as syndactyly. In addition, there are defects in the dental enamel with hypoplasia and yellow discoloration of the teeth. Less common features include hypotrichosis, intracranial calcifications, and conductive deafness secondary to recurrent otitis media. We describe three brothers with ODDD. Their parents are first cousins and present no features of ODDD. These data are in favor of autosomal recessive inheritance and suggest genetic heterogeneity for this entity. PMID:15512999

  4. Fine genetic mapping of a gene for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa on chromosome 6p21

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, Yin Y.; Banerjee, P.; Knowles, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    The inherited retinal degenerations known as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) can be caused by mutations at many different loci and can be inherited as an autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, or X-linked recessive trait. Two forms of autosomal recessive (arRP) have been reported to cosegregate with mutations in the rhodopsin gene and the beta-subunit of rod phosphodiesterase on chromosome 4p. Genetic linkage has been reported on chromosomes 6p and 1q. In a large Dominican family, we reported an arRp gene near the region of the peripherin/RDS gene. Four recombinations were detected between the disease locus and an intragenic marker derived from peripherin/RDS. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. A novel heterozygous mutation in the Indian hedgehog gene (IHH) is associated with brachydactyly type A1 in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mugen; Wang, Xu; Cai, Zhou; Tang, Zhaohui; Cao, Kangsheng; Liang, Bo; Ren, Xiang; Liu, Jing Yu; Wang, Qing K

    2006-01-01

    Brachydactyly type A1 (BDA1) is caused by mutations in the Indian hedgehog gene, IHH, on chromosome 2q35-36. In this study, a large five-generation Chinese family with BDA1 was identified and characterized. All affected family members demonstrated significant homogeneous phenotype and some unique clinical features different from those associated with the reported BDA1 mutations in IHH. Linkage analysis showed that the BDA1 gene in the family was linked to marker D2S126 close to IHH with a LOD score of 4.74 at a recombination fraction of 0. DNA sequence analysis revealed a heterozygous C to T transition at nucleotide 461 of IHH, resulting in a novel T154I substitution. The T154I mutation co-segregated with all affected individuals in the family, and was not present in normal family members or 200 normal controls. These results expand the spectrum of clinical phenotype associated with IHH mutations. PMID:16871364

  6. Cloning and expression pattern of chicken Ror2 and functional characterization of truncating mutations in Brachydactyly type B and Robinow syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Sigmar; Verhey van Wijk, Nicole; Witte, Florian; Brieske, Norbert; Seidel, Kathrin; Mundlos, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    Ror2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase mutated in the human syndromes Brachydactyly type B (BDB) and recessive Robinow syndrome (RS). In this study, we used the chick as a model to investigate the role of Ror2 in skeletogenesis and to elucidate the functional consequences of Ror2 mutations. For this purpose, we cloned chicken Ror2 and analyzed its expression pattern at various embryonic stages by in situ hybridization and immunolabeling. We document expression of cRor2 in several organs, including mesonephros, heart, nervous system, intestine and cartilage. The high conservation of expression when compared with the mouse underlines the validity of the chick as a model system. Using replication-competent retroviral vector-mediated overexpression, we analyzed the functional consequences of truncating BDB and RS mutations in the developing chick limb. Overexpression of Ror2 mutants led to a disturbance of growth plate architecture and a severe block of chondrocyte differentiation, demonstrating the functional importance of Ror2 in skeletogenesis. PMID:17061261

  7. Role of CFTR in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, K; Sweeney, W E; Macrae Dell, K; Cotton, C U; Avner, E D

    2001-04-01

    An extensive body of in vitro data implicates epithelial chloride secretion, mediated through cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, in generating or maintaining fluid filled cysts in MDCK cells and in human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In contrast, few studies have addressed the pathophysiology of fluid secretion in cyst formation and enlargement in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). Murine models of targeted disruptions or deletions of specific genes have created opportunities to examine the role of individual gene products in normal development and/or disease pathophysiology. The creation of a murine model of CF, which lacks functional CFTR protein, provides the opportunity to determine whether CFTR activity is required for renal cyst formation in vivo. Therefore, this study sought to determine whether renal cyst formation could be prevented by genetic complementation of the BPK murine model of ARPKD with the CFTR knockout mouse. The results of this study reveal that in animals that are homozygous for the cystic gene (bpk), the lack of functional CFTR protein on the apical surface of cystic epithelium does not provide protection against cyst growth and subsequent decline in renal function. Double mutant mice (bpk -/-; cftr -/-) developed massively enlarged kidneys and died, on average, 7 d earlier than cystic, non-CF mice (bpk -/-; cftr +/+/-). This suggests fundamental differences in the mechanisms of transtubular fluid secretion in animal models of ARPKD compared with ADPKD. PMID:11274233

  8. Autosomal monoallelic expression in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Random monoallelic expression defines an unusual class of genes displaying random choice for expression between the maternal and paternal alleles. Once established, the allele-specific expression pattern is stably maintained and mitotically inherited. Examples of random monoallelic genes include those found on the X-chromosome and a subset of autosomal genes, which have been most extensively studied in humans. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of random monoallelic expression in the mouse. We used high density mouse genome polymorphism mapping arrays to assess allele-specific expression in clonal cell lines derived from heterozygous mouse strains. Results Over 1,300 autosomal genes were assessed for allele-specific expression, and greater than 10% of them showed random monoallelic expression. When comparing mouse and human, the number of autosomal orthologs demonstrating random monoallelic expression in both organisms was greater than would be expected by chance. Random monoallelic expression on the mouse autosomes is broadly similar to that in human cells: it is widespread throughout the genome, lacks chromosome-wide coordination, and varies between cell types. However, for some mouse genes, there appears to be skewing, in some ways resembling skewed X-inactivation, wherein one allele is more frequently active. Conclusions These data suggest that autosomal random monoallelic expression was present at least as far back as the last common ancestor of rodents and primates. Random monoallelic expression can lead to phenotypic variation beyond the phenotypic variation dictated by genotypic variation. Thus, it is important to take into account random monoallelic expression when examining genotype-phenotype correlation. PMID:22348269

  9. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... recessive axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Open All Close All Description Autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia is a disorder that affects the ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia type 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... autosomal recessive 8 Johns Hopkins Medicine Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery: What is Ataxia? MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Dysarthria-- ... autosomal recessive 8 Johns Hopkins Medicine Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery: What is Ataxia? Kennedy Krieger Institute: ...

  11. Aicardi syndrome associated with autosomal genomic imbalance: coincidence or evidence for autosomal inheritance with sex-limited expression?

    PubMed

    Prontera, P; Bartocci, A; Ottaviani, V; Isidori, I; Rogaia, D; Ardisia, C; Guercini, G; Mencarelli, A; Donti, E

    2013-04-01

    Aicardi syndrome (AIS), a rare neurodevelopmental disorder thought to be caused by an X-linked dominant mutation, is characterized by 3 main features: agenesis of corpus callosum, infantile spams and chorioretinal lacunae. A genome-wide study of a girl with AIS lead us to identify a 6q deletion;12q duplication, derived from a maternal 6q;12q translocation. The two intellectually impaired brothers of the proband showed the same genomic anomalies, but not the constellation of features characterizing the AIS. This could be either a coincidental observation of 2 rare conditions, but can also suggest an alternative hypothesis for the genetic etiology of AIS, indicating the existence of a subset of autosomal genes whose mutation could act in a sex-confined manner. PMID:23801936

  12. Dominantly inherited nonprogressive cerebellar hypoplasia identified in utero.

    PubMed

    Zerem, Ayelet; Hacohen, Yael; Ben-Sira, Liat; Lev, Dorit; Malinger, Gustavo; Lerman-Sagie, Tally

    2012-08-01

    Cerebellar hypoplasia is the hallmark of a heterogeneous group of disorders that are caused by genetic and metabolic disorders. Prenatal identification of cerebellar hypoplasia and accurate prediction of outcome are challenging. Autosomal dominant nonprogressive cerebellar ataxia is a rare disorder that typically presents with early hypotonia and delayed motor milestones followed by the onset of mild ataxia and occasionally cognitive impairment. We present a case of a mother and her female fetus. Fetal sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed generalized cerebellar hypoplasia. The mother had mild learning difficulties and clinically showed minor features of cerebellar ataxia. Her MRI also demonstrated extreme cerebellar hypoplasia. The diagnosis of autosomal dominant nonprogressive cerebellar ataxia was suggested. This is the first report of prenatal diagnosis of autosomal dominant nonprogressive cerebellar ataxia. We recommend obtaining a family history, examining the parents, and when appropriate obtaining an MRI before counseling parents of a fetus with a brain malformation. PMID:22241708

  13. Identification of autosomal regions involved in Drosophila Raf function.

    PubMed Central

    Li, W; Noll, E; Perrimon, N

    2000-01-01

    Raf is an essential downstream effector of activated p21(Ras) (Ras) in transducing proliferation or differentiation signals. Following binding to Ras, Raf is translocated to the plasma membrane, where it is activated by a yet unidentified "Raf activator." In an attempt to identify the Raf activator or additional molecules involved in the Raf signaling pathway, we conducted a genetic screen to identify genomic regions that are required for the biological function of Drosophila Raf (Draf). We tested a collection of chromosomal deficiencies representing approximately 70% of the autosomal euchromatic genomic regions for their abilities to enhance the lethality associated with a hypomorphic viable allele of Draf, Draf(Su2). Of the 148 autosomal deficiencies tested, 23 behaved as dominant enhancers of Draf(Su2), causing lethality in Draf(Su2) hemizygous males. Four of these deficiencies identified genes known to be involved in the Drosophila Ras/Raf (Ras1/Draf) pathway: Ras1, rolled (rl, encoding a MAPK), 14-3-3epsilon, and bowel (bowl). Two additional deficiencies removed the Drosophila Tec and Src homologs, Tec29A and Src64B. We demonstrate that Src64B interacts genetically with Draf and that an activated form of Src64B, when overexpressed in early embryos, causes ectopic expression of the Torso (Tor) receptor tyrosine kinase-target gene tailless. In addition, we show that a mutation in Tec29A partially suppresses a gain-of-function mutation in tor. These results suggest that Tec29A and Src64B are involved in Tor signaling, raising the possibility that they function to activate Draf. Finally, we discovered a genetic interaction between Draf(Su2) and Df(3L)vin5 that revealed a novel role of Draf in limb development. We find that loss of Draf activity causes limb defects, including pattern duplications, consistent with a role for Draf in regulation of engrailed (en) expression in imaginal discs. PMID:11014822

  14. Infantile hypophosphatasia: autosomal recessive transmission to two related sibships.

    PubMed

    Moore, C A; Ward, J C; Rivas, M L; Magill, H L; Whyte, M P

    1990-05-01

    Hypophosphatasia, a rare heritable form of rickets/osteomalacia, is characterized by deficient activity of the tissue nonspecific (liver/bone/kidney) isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Signs may be present prenatally or not until late adult life. Although the infantile form of hypophosphatasia has usually been categorized as an autosomal recessive (AR) disorder, several studies suggest that childhood cases are the consequence of either AR or autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance and adult cases are primarily AD. Eastman and Bixler (J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol 3:213-234, 1983) propose that all cases of hypophosphatasia may reflect AD inheritance with 85% penetrance and homozygous lethality. We report on 3 patients with hypophosphatasia in a black family, first manifested clinically during infancy, where the pattern of inheritance for each is consistent with AR transmission. Two were brothers who died from the disorder. The other patient, a cousin, presented with classic stigmata of hypophosphatasia during infancy, but is now age 5 1/2 years and has had a much milder clinical course. Although consanguinity is absent, the maternal grandmothers are sibs as are the maternal grandfathers and the paternal grandmothers. The family history is otherwise negative for skeletal or dental disease. Laboratory and radiographic results are consistent with heterozygosity in each parent. Fibroblast ALP activity is less than 1% normal in all 3 patients with no complementation observed in heterokaryon analysis. Accordingly, the