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1

Autosomal dominant simple microphthalmos.  

PubMed Central

Congenital bilateral microphthalmos is a rare malformation of the eye, which ranges from extreme to mild reduction of total axial length. Microphthalmos may occur as an isolated ocular abnormality or as part of a systemic disorder, and different classifications of the condition have been attempted. We describe a large pedigree with 14 persons in four generations affected with bilateral microphthalmos without other ocular or systemic signs. An autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance is proposed. Five subjects underwent a complete ophthalmological evaluation. The total axial length was measured by A scan ultrasonography in all persons. Ultrasonography showed a reduction of the total axial length (range 18.4-19.7 mm) and a reduced vitreous cavity length (range 11.4-13.5 mm) in all investigated patients. All the patients had microcornea (range 8-9.7 mm). No other ocular anomalies or associated systemic malformations were found. A review of published reports also suggests that simple, partial, posterior, pure microphthalmos and nanophthalmos are similar clinical entities sharing total axial length and vitreous cavity length reduction. Therefore, the term simple microphthalmos is proposed to identify these clinical conditions. Images PMID:7815444

Vingolo, E M; Steindl, K; Forte, R; Zompatori, L; Iannaccone, A; Sciarra, A; Del Porto, G; Pannarale, M R

1994-01-01

2

Epigenetics and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles of epigenetic modulation of gene expression and protein functions in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) have recently become the focus of scientific investigation. Evidence generated to date indicates that one of the epigenetic modifiers, histone deacetylases (HDACs), are important regulators of ADPKD. HDACs are involved in regulating the expression of the Pkd1 gene and are the target

Xiaogang Li

2011-01-01

3

Mechanisms of Disease: autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease are the best known of a large family of inherited diseases characterized by the development of renal cysts of tubular epithelial cell origin. Autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases have overlapping but distinct pathogeneses. Identification of the causative mutated genes and elucidation of the function of their encoded

Peter C Harris; Vicente E Torres

2006-01-01

4

Genetics Home Reference: Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness  

MedlinePLUS

... the brain, leading to a lack of visual perception in low light. Read more about the GNAT1 , ... blindness? autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; cell ; congenital ; gene ; inherited ; perception ; photoreceptor ; prevalence ; protein ; receptor ; retina ; rods ; subunit ; tissue ...

5

Autosomal dominant sacral agenesis: Currarino syndrome  

PubMed Central

Autosomal dominant sacral agenesis is characterised by a partial agenesis of the sacrum typically involving sacral vertebrae S2-S5 only. Associated features include anorectal malformation, a presacral mass, and urogenital malformation. Together, these features have been defined as the Currarino syndrome. Recently, HLXB9 has been identified as the major causative gene in Currarino syndrome allowing identification of asymptomatic heterozygotes. In this review, we have performed an analysis of medical publications, and our own additional cases, to identify the range of malformations and complications that occur. We have also estimated risks of malformation in heterozygotes by using Weinburg's proband method on families personally known to us in order to provide accurate genetic counselling information.???Keywords: sacral agenesis; presacral mass; anorectal malformation; Currarino triad PMID:10922380

Lynch, S. A.; Wang, Y.; Strachan, T; Burn, J.; Lindsay, S.

2000-01-01

6

A distinctive autosomal recessive syndrome of severe disproportionate short stature with short long bones, brachydactyly, and hypotrichosis in two consanguineous Arab families.  

PubMed

Disproportionate short stature is a heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders, which are classified according to their mode of inheritance, their clinical skeletal and non-skeletal manifestations, and their radiological characteristics. Herein, we inform on eight individuals with severe disproportionate short stature from two unrelated consanguineous families of Arab-Muslim ancestry. The adult height of the affected individuals is between 112 cm and 127 cm, and is due to pre- and post-natal growth retardation, which probably manifests as early as the second trimester of pregnancy. At a young age, the phenotype is characterized by a short stature, a relatively large head, and a long triangular face, and this phenotype later evolves to one with in which the head is relatively small, the mandible is large and pointy. The affected individuals have normal cognitive abilities and lack any neurological deficits. Other typical features include a prominent nose, a voice with an unusual high-pitched sound, relatively small ears, clinodactyly, brachydactyly, small hands, hypoplastic fingernails, a waddling gait, and sparse hair post-pubertally. Typical skeletal changes include short long bones, especially the femurs and humeri, with mild metaphyseal changes and very short femoral necks. After due consideration of the other hereditary causes of disproportionate short stature and close examination of the pedigrees of the two families, we concluded that these eight individuals have the same hitherto unreported form of severe disproportionate short stature that is inherited in the autosomal recessive mode. PMID:22440536

Shalev, Stavit A; Spiegel, Ronen; Borochowitz, Zvi U

2012-04-01

7

Epigenetics and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

The roles of epigenetic modulation of gene expression and protein functions in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) have recently become the focus of scientific investigation. Evidence generated to date indicates that one of the epigenetic modifiers, histone deacetylases (HDACs), are important regulators of ADPKD. HDACs are involved in regulating the expression of the Pkd1 gene and are the target of fluid flow-induced calcium signal in kidney epithelial cells. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC activity has been found to reduce the progression of cyst formation and slow the decline of kidney function in Pkd1 conditional knockout mice and Pkd2 knockout mice, respectively, implicating the potential clinical application of HDAC inhibitors on ADPKD. Since the expression of HDAC6 is upregulated in cystic epithelial cells, the potential roles of HDAC6 in regulating cilia resorption and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) trafficking through deacetylating ?-tubulin and regulating Wnt signaling through deacetylating ?-catenin are also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Polycystic Kidney Disease. PMID:20970496

Li, Xiaogang

2011-10-01

8

Symptom onset in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify factors influencing age at symptom onset and disease course in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD), and develop evidence-based criteria for predicting symptom onset in ADAD. Methods: We have collected individual-level data on ages at symptom onset and death from 387 ADAD pedigrees, compiled from 137 peer-reviewed publications, the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) database, and 2 large kindreds of Colombian (PSEN1 E280A) and Volga German (PSEN2 N141I) ancestry. Our combined dataset includes 3,275 individuals, of whom 1,307 were affected by ADAD with known age at symptom onset. We assessed the relative contributions of several factors in influencing age at onset, including parental age at onset, age at onset by mutation type and family, and APOE genotype and sex. We additionally performed survival analysis using data on symptom onset collected from 183 ADAD mutation carriers followed longitudinally in the DIAN Study. Results: We report summary statistics on age at onset and disease course for 174 ADAD mutations, and discover strong and highly significant (p < 10?16, r2 > 0.38) correlations between individual age at symptom onset and predicted values based on parental age at onset and mean ages at onset by mutation type and family, which persist after controlling for APOE genotype and sex. Conclusions: Significant proportions of the observed variance in age at symptom onset in ADAD can be explained by family history and mutation type, providing empirical support for use of these data to estimate onset in clinical research. PMID:24928124

Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Aisen, Paul S.; Bird, Thomas; Danek, Adrian; Fox, Nick C.; Goate, Alison; Frommelt, Peter; Ghetti, Bernardino; Langbaum, Jessica B.S.; Lopera, Francisco; Martins, Ralph; Masters, Colin L.; Mayeux, Richard P.; McDade, Eric; Moreno, Sonia; Reiman, Eric M.; Ringman, John M.; Salloway, Steve; Schofield, Peter R.; Sperling, Reisa; Tariot, Pierre N.; Xiong, Chengjie; Morris, John C.; Bateman, Randall J.

2014-01-01

9

Treatment prospects for autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment prospects for autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease. An increased understanding of the molecular genetic and cellular pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for the development of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), made possible by the advances in molecular biology and genetics of the last three decades, has laid the foundation for the development of effective therapies. As the concept that a polycystic kidney

Qi Qian; Peter C. Harris; Vicente E. Torres

2001-01-01

10

Cyst formation and growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyst formation and growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Previous morphologic studies on kidneys from adult patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) indicates that the cysts developed from nephrons and collecting ducts in association with hyperplasia of epithelial cells lining the cyst walls. In the present study, we systematically evaluated by scanning electron microscopy 387 cysts in

Jared J Grantham; James L Geiser; Andrew P Evan

1987-01-01

11

Renal structure and hypertension in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal structure and hypertension in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Hypertension has been reported to occur in 50 to 75 percent of subjects with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) prior to the onset of marked renal insufficiency but concurrent with cystic deformation of the renal parenchyma. The present study was undertaken to examine whether the renal structural abnormalities are

Patricia A Gabow; Arlene B Chapman; Ann M Johnson; Douglas J Tangel; Irene T Duley; William D Kaehny; Michael Manco-Johnson; Robert W Schrier

1990-01-01

12

INTRODUCTION Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, progressive  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, progressive neurodegenerative protein, huntingtin (Htt) (The Huntington's Disease Collaborative Research Group, 1993). The polyQ tract in HD (The Huntington's Disease Collaborative Research Group, 1993). Numerous studies have demonstrated

Perrimon, Norbert

13

Autosomal dominant inheritance of Brachmann-de Lange syndrome  

SciTech Connect

A mother with mild phenotype and her severely affected son, both with classic manifestations of Brachmann-de Lange syndrome (BDLS), are described. This documented mother-to-child transmission supports the hypothesis of autosomal dominant transmission with intrafamilial variability. Known cases of BDLS with autosomal dominant inheritance are reviewed. Although most cases of BDLS are sporadic, a careful evaluation of parents of affected children is important for appropriate genetic counseling. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Kozma, C. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-12-30

14

Rare form of autosomal dominant thalassemia--hemoglobin Hakkari.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant Beta Thalassemias are rare and are due to point or frame shift mutations resulting in production of abnormal unstable beta chains of hemoglobin which precipitate leading to hemolysis and anemia. We describe a case of Hemoglobin Hakkari, a rare variant of dominant Thalassemia arising due to a de novo mutation in the exon 2 of the beta globin gene. PMID:24789613

Nair, Sushmita; Eldjerou, Lamis K; Harris, Neil S; Dunbar, Levette N

2014-11-01

15

Evidence for locus heterogeneity in autosomal dominant torison dystonia  

SciTech Connect

Idiopathic torsion dystonia (ITD) is most commonly an autosomal dominant disorder with reduced penetrance and variable expression. A locus on the distal long arm of chromosome 9 has been identified in one large non-Jewish and several Jewish families in the United States. Linkage analysis in a large Australian kindred with ITD, also containing two patients with Wilson's disease, excludes a locus for ITD in chromosome 9q34 or the region of chromosome 13 containing the Wilson disease gene. This study provides evidence for locus heterogeneity in autosomal dominant ITD and also give additional information on gene order in chromosome 9q. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Ahmad, F.; Davis, M.B.; Waddy, H.M.; Marsden, C.D.; Harding, A.E. (University Dept. of Clinical Neurology, London (United Kingdom)); Oley, C.A. (Mater Misericordiae Mothers Hospital, Brisbane (Australia))

1993-01-01

16

Diversity of Autosomal Dominant Diseases in Populations of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of 20-year studies on the diversity of autosomal dominant (AD) diseases are summarized. The studies were carried out in six regions of Russia: Kirov, Kostroma, and Bryansk oblasts; Krasnodar krai; and Adygea and Marii El republics. A total of 1.5 million subjects from 44 raions (districts) were studied. In the populations studied, 144 AD diseases were found; the total

G. I. Elchinova; S. D. Nurbaev; E. K. Ginter

2001-01-01

17

Regulation of cell proliferation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

E-print Network

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a life-threatening genetic disorder characterized by the presence of fluid-filled cysts primarily in the kidneys. Mutations in either the PKD1 or PKD2 genes are the underlying cause of ADPKD...

Paul, Binu M.

2011-08-31

18

Cardiovascular abnormalities in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular problems are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Hypertension is a common early symptom of ADPKD, and occurs in approximately 60% of patients before renal function has become impaired. Hypertension is associated with an increased rate of progression to end-stage renal disease and is the most important potentially treatable variable

Robert W. Schrier; Tevfik Ecder

2009-01-01

19

Imaging for the prognosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by the unrelenting enlargement of innumerable cysts derived from renal tubules. This cystic growth often leads to a grotesque renal enlargement. Relatively early in life, the cysts trigger secondary complications including pain, hypertension and gross hematuria; renal insufficiency is usually not detected until the fifth or sixth decade of life. Therapies targeted

Kyongtae T. Bae; Jared J. Grantham

2010-01-01

20

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracranial aneurysms occur in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) approximately five times more often than in the general population, and in the same patient group, subarachnoid hemorrhage from rupture of aneurysms occurs about a decade earlier than in the general population. We present a case of unsuspected ADPKD presenting as spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured intracranial

Jeffrey P. Kanne; Lee B. Talner

2004-01-01

21

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: the last 3 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most prevalent, potentially lethal monogenic disorder. It has large inter- and intra-familial variability explained to a large extent by its genetic heterogeneity and modifier genes. An increased understanding of its underlying genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms and a better appreciation of its progression and systemic manifestations have laid out the foundation for the

Vicente E Torres; Peter C Harris

2009-01-01

22

Autosomal dominant osteosclerosisReport of a kindred  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant osteosclerosis (ADO), a rare inherited craniotubular bone disorder, is a generalized hyperostosis that manifests itself as increased cortical thickening of the skull, mandible, metacarpals, metatarsals, long bones, vertebral bodies, ribs, and clavicles. Jaw abnormalities, which clinically resemble the widening and deepening of the mandible seen in cherubism, begin in childhood and have been reported to stabilize after puberty.

Alice E. Curran; Robert C. Pfeffle; Edward Miller

1999-01-01

23

The Pathogenesis of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), renal function deteriorates as the kidneys become replaced by multitudes of fluid-filled cysts. Although the PKD genes were identified a decade ago, the pathway(s) leading from mutation to disease remain the subject of intense investigation. As a result of this work, it has become apparent that the polycystins are multifunctional proteins

Michael Sutters

2006-01-01

24

Gene therapy in animal models of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Gene therapy for dominantly inherited genetic disease is more difficult than gene-based therapy for recessive disorders, which can be treated with gene supplementation. Treatment of dominant disease may require gene supplementation partnered with suppression of the expression of the mutant gene either at the DNA level, by gene repair, or at the RNA level by RNA interference or transcriptional repression. In this review, we examine some of the gene delivery approaches used to treat animal models of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, focusing on those models associated with mutations in the gene for rhodopsin. We conclude that combinatorial approaches have the greatest promise for success. PMID:23077406

Rossmiller, Brian; Mao, Haoyu

2012-01-01

25

Genotypes of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in Japanese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common hereditary disorders. The prevalence of the\\u000a ADPKD genotype in the Caucasian and Latin populations has been reported. Here, we used linkage analysis to demonstrate the\\u000a prevalence of the genotype and the correlation between phenotypes and genotypes among 21 Japanese ADPKD families consisting\\u000a of 96 individuals and including 57

Michiko Mizoguchi; Takashi Tamura; Akiko Yamaki; Eiji Higashihara; Yoshiko Shimizu

2002-01-01

26

Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: Current and Emerging Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common hereditary disorders. Over the last decade,\\u000a knowledge of the pathology underlying this disease has increased rapidly. Attributing important roles to tubular cell ciliary\\u000a functioning, cell proliferation and fluid secretion, subsequent alterations in levels of intracellular calcium, adenosine\\u000a 3?,5?-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and activation of a variety of cellular kinases,

Ronald Villareal; Michael Fischer

2009-01-01

27

Autosomal dominant guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I deficiency (Segawa disease)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (GCH-I) deficiency (Segawa disease) is a dopa-responsive dystonia caused by mutation of the GCH-I gene located on 14q22.1-q22.2. Neurohistochemical examination revealed a decrease of the tyrosine hydroxylase protein as well as its activity in the striatum and decrease of dopamine content, particularly in its ventral portion rich in D1 receptors (striatal direct pathways). Neuroimaging,

Masaya Segawa; Yoshiko Nomura; Nobuyoshi Nishiyama

2003-01-01

28

Practical Genetics for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common mendelian disorder of the kidney and accounts for ?5% of end-stage renal disease in North America. It is characterized by focal development of renal cysts which increase in number and size with age. Mutations of PKD1 and PKD2 account for most cases. Although the clinical manifestations of both gene types

York Pei

2011-01-01

29

Predictors of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease progression.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder associated with substantial variability in its natural course within and between affected families. Understanding predictors for rapid progression of this disease has become increasingly important with the emergence of potential new treatments. This systematic review of the literature since 1988 evaluates factors that may predict and/or effect autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease progression. Predicting factors associated with early adverse structural and/or functional outcomes are considered. These factors include PKD1 mutation (particularly truncating mutation), men, early onset of hypertension, early and frequent gross hematuria, and among women, three or more pregnancies. Increases in total kidney volume and decreases in GFR and renal blood flow greater than expected for a given age also signify rapid disease progression. Concerning laboratory markers include overt proteinuria, macroalbuminuria, and perhaps, elevated serum copeptin levels in affected adults. These factors and others may help to identify patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease who are most likely to benefit from early intervention with novel treatments. PMID:24925719

Schrier, Robert W; Brosnahan, Godela; Cadnapaphornchai, Melissa A; Chonchol, Michel; Friend, Keith; Gitomer, Berenice; Rossetti, Sandro

2014-11-01

30

Autosomal dominant spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome: phenotypic homogeneity and genetic heterogeneity.  

PubMed

Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (SCT) (OMIM 272460), originally thought to be a failure of normal spine segmentation, is characterized by progressive fusion of vertebras and associates unsegmented bars, scoliosis, short stature, carpal and tarsal synostosis. Cleft palate, sensorineural or mixed hearing loss, joint limitation, clinodactyly, and dental enamel hypoplasia are variable manifestations. Twenty-five patients have been reported. Thirteen affected individuals were siblings from six families and four of these families were consanguineous. In four of those families, Krakow et al. [Krakow et al. (2004) Nat Genet 36:405-410] found homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for mutations in the gene encoding FLNB. This confirmed autosomal recessive inheritance of the disorder. We report on two new patients (a mother and her son) representing the first case of autosomal dominant inheritance. These patients met the clinical and radiological criteria for SCT and did not present any features which could exclude this diagnosis. Molecular analysis failed to identify mutations in NOG and FLNB. SCT is therefore, genetically heterogeneous. Both dominant and autosomal recessive forms of inheritance should be considered during genetic counseling. PMID:18470895

Isidor, B; Cormier-Daire, V; Le Merrer, M; Lefrancois, T; Hamel, A; Le Caignec, C; David, A; Jacquemont, S

2008-06-15

31

Seminal megavesicle in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Retrospective analysis of 99 male autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients compared to an age-matched control population showed seminal vesicle ectasia >10 mm (megavesicle) in 23% (23/99) of ADPKD patients that was not present in any controls (P<.0001). Median (range) seminal vesicle convoluted tubule diameter in ADPKD patients was 4.2 (1.7-30) mm compared to 3.1 (1.7-6.8) mm in controls (P<.0001). Discrete cysts were identified in four ADPKD patients but in none of the control population (P=.12). Seminal megavesicles may explain the infertility sometimes observed in male ADPKD patients. PMID:25542752

Reig, Beatriu; Blumenfeld, Jon; Donahue, Stephanie; Prince, Martin R

2015-01-01

32

Lymphocyte infiltration in CAPN5 autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe immunohistopathological findings in autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV). Methods An enucleated eye specimen from a patient with Stage V ADNIV was examined using standard histopathological methods and lymphocyte markers. Results A c.731T>C CAPN5 mutation resulted in a p.Leu244Pro substitution in calpain-5. The eye showed exudative retinal detachment and neovascularization, intraocular fibrosis, and features of phthisis bulbi. Chronic inflammatory CD3-positive cell infiltrates were identified throughout the uvea, vitreous and retina, consistent with chronic uveitis. Conclusion Mutations in CAPN5 trigger autoimmune uveitis characterized by inflammatory T-cells and severe neovascularization. PMID:23861576

Mahajan, Vinit B; Lin, Jonathan H

2013-01-01

33

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: the last 3 years  

PubMed Central

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most prevalent, potentially lethal monogenic disorder. It has large inter- and intra-familial variability explained to a large extent by its genetic heterogeneity and modifier genes. An increased understanding of its underlying genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms and a better appreciation of its progression and systemic manifestations have laid out the foundation for the development of clinical trials and potentially effective therapies. The purpose of this review is to update the core of knowledge in this area with recent publications that have appeared during 2006–2009. PMID:19455193

Torres, Vicente E.; Harris, Peter C.

2010-01-01

34

Autosomal dominant thrombocytopenias with reduced expression of glycoprotein Ia.  

PubMed

We have recently studied a case series of 46 unrelated patients with inherited thrombocytopenias and identified 18 cases that did not fit any known platelet disorder. In two unrelated families, a mild thrombocytopenia with normal platelet size was transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. Bleeding time was prolonged in 5 investigated patients. In all of them, flow cytometry and SDS-PAGE of platelet glycoproteins (GP) showed a reduced content of GPIa, a subunit of the GPIa-IIa complex (also known as integrin alpha 2 beta(1)) that is a major collagen receptor on platelets. All other membrane GPs were within the normal range. GPIa deficiency was associated with severely reduced in vitro platelet adhesion to molecules known to interact selectively with GPIa. In vitro platelet aggregation was normal in all subjects, except for a suboptimal platelet response to fibrillar collagen in two patients. A mild defect of alpha-granules was observed in all affected subjects. No mutation was identified in the genes encoding for GPIa or GPIIa. Since no other similar cases have been reported in the literature, we suggest that an autosomal dominant thrombocytopenia associated with GPIa deficiency and alpha-granule defect represents a new form of inherited thrombocytopenia. PMID:16525577

Noris, Patrizia; Guidetti, Gianni F; Conti, Valeria; Ceresa, Iride F; Di Pumpo, Michele; Pecci, Alessandro; Torti, Mauro; Savoia, Anna; Balduini, Carlo L

2006-03-01

35

GCAP1 mutations associated with autosomal dominant cone dystrophy  

PubMed Central

We discuss the heterogeneity of autosomal dominant cone and cone-rod dystrophies (adCD, and adCORD, respectively). As one of the best characterized adCD genes, we focus on the GUCA1A gene encoding guanylate cyclase activating protein 1 (GCAP1), a protein carrying three high affinity Ca2+ binding motifs (EF hands). GCAP1 senses changes in cytoplasmic free [Ca2+] and communicates these changes to GC1, by either inhibiting it (at high free [Ca2+]), or stimulating it (at low free [Ca2+]). A number of missense mutations altering the structure and Ca2+ affinity of EF hands have been discovered. These mutations are associated with a gain of function, producing dominant cone and cone rod dystrophy phenotypes. In this article we review these mutations and describe the consequences of specific mutations on GCAP1 structure and GC stimulation. PMID:20238026

Jiang, Li; Baehr, Wolfgang

2010-01-01

36

Homozygotes for the autosomal dominant neoplasia syndrome (MEN1)  

SciTech Connect

Families in which both parents are heterozygotes for the same autosomal dominant neoplasia syndrome are extremely unusual. Recently, the authors had the unique opportunity to evaluate three symptomatic siblings from the union between two unrelated individuals affected by multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). When the three siblings and their parents and relatives were genotyped for 12 markers tightly linked to the MEN1 locus, at 11q13, two of the siblings were found to be homozygotes, and one a heterozygote, for MEN1. With regard to the MEN1 syndrome, no phenotypic differences were observed between the two homozygotes and the heterozygotes. However, the two homozygotes showed unexplained infertility, which was not the case for any of the heterozygotes. Thus, MEN1 appears to be a disease with complete dominance, and the presence of two MEN1 alleles with mutations of the type that occur constitutionally may be insufficient for tumor development. 28 refs., 2 figs.

Brandi, M.L.; Falchetti, A.; Tonelli, F. (Univ. of Florence (Italy)); Weber, G.; Svensson, A.; Larsson, C. (Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Castello, R.; Furlani, L.; Scappaticci, S.; Fraccaro, M.

1993-12-01

37

Histopathology of Nonsyndromic Autosomal Dominant Midfrequency Sensorineural Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Background Autosomal dominant, nonsyndromic, midfrequency sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a well-known clinical entity. There are no reported histopathologic studies of temporal bones from individuals with such a hearing loss. Objectives To describe the otopathology in 2 affected individuals from 2 different kindreds with nonsyndromic, dominant, midfrequency SNHL. Material and Methods Both subjects belonged to multigenerational families with nonsyndromic, autosomal dominant SNHL showing a cookie-bite pattern. Temporal bones were removed at autopsy and studied by light microscopy. Cytocochleograms were constructed for hair cells, stria vascularis, and cochlear neuronal cells. Results Subject 1 (a 77-yr-old man) from Kindred A was diagnosed in early childhood with an SNHL that was progressive, reaching profound levels by adulthood. Both cochleae showed complete loss of inner and outer hair cells, moderate to severe diffuse atrophy of the stria vascularis, and severe loss of cochlear neurons, including the peripheral dendrites. The hearing loss in Subject 2 (an 82-yr-old man from Kindred B) began in late childhood, was slowly progressive, and involved the higher frequencies later in life. Histopathology showed loss of outer and inner hair cells in the basal turn of the cochlea, moderate to severe loss of stria vascularis, but relative preservation of peripheral dendrites and cochlear neurons. Conclusion The main histopathologic abnormalities were loss of hair cells, stria vascularis, and cochlear neurons in 1 case and loss of hair cells and stria vascularis in the second case. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that dysfunction and loss of hair cells may have been the primary histopathologic correlate for the midfrequency hearing losses in these 2 subjects. PMID:18665028

Bahmad, Fayez; O’Malley, Jennifer; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Merchant, Saumil N.

2008-01-01

38

Autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease: a review and proposal for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease has provided significant understanding of the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. The present review summarizes clinical, pathological, imaging, biochemical, and molecular studies of autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease, highlighting the similarities and differences between the dominantly inherited form of Alzheimer's disease and the more common sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease. Current developments in autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease are presented, including the international Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network and this network's initiative for clinical trials. Clinical trials in autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease may test the amyloid hypothesis, determine the timing of treatment, and lead the way to Alzheimer's disease prevention. PMID:21211070

2011-01-01

39

LAMB3 Mutations Causing Autosomal-dominant Amelogenesis Imperfecta  

PubMed Central

Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) can be either isolated or part of a larger syndrome. Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a collection of autosomal-recessive disorders featuring AI associated with skin fragility and other symptoms. JEB is a recessive syndrome usually caused by mutations in both alleles of COL17A1, LAMA3, LAMB3, or LAMC2. In rare cases, heterozygous carriers in JEB kindreds display enamel malformations in the absence of skin fragility (isolated AI). We recruited two kindreds with autosomal-dominant amelogenesis imperfecta (ADAI) characterized by generalized severe enamel hypoplasia with deep linear grooves and pits. Whole-exome sequencing of both probands identified novel heterozygous mutations in the last exon of LAMB3 that likely truncated the protein. The mutations perfectly segregated with the enamel defects in both families. In Family 1, an 8-bp deletion (c.3446_3453del GACTGGAG) shifted the reading frame (p.Gly 1149Glufs*8). In Family 2, a single nucleotide substitution (c.C3431A) generated an in-frame translation termination codon (p.Ser1144*). We conclude that enamel formation is particularly sensitive to defects in hemidesmosome/basement-membrane complexes and that syndromic and non-syndromic forms of AI can be etiologically related. PMID:23958762

Kim, J.W.; Seymen, F.; Lee, K.E.; Ko, J.; Yildirim, M.; Tuna, E.B.; Gencay, K.; Shin, T.J.; Kyun, H.K.; Simmer, J.P.; Hu, J.C.-C.

2013-01-01

40

Germline mutation in ATR in autosomal- dominant oropharyngeal cancer syndrome.  

PubMed

ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related) is an essential regulator of genome integrity. It controls and coordinates DNA-replication origin firing, replication-fork stability, cell-cycle checkpoints, and DNA repair. Previously, autosomal-recessive loss-of-function mutations in ATR have been demonstrated in Seckel syndrome, a developmental disorder. Here, however, we report on a different kind of genetic disorder that is due to functionally compromised ATR activity, which translates into an autosomal-dominant inherited disease. The condition affects 24 individuals in a five-generation pedigree and comprises oropharyngeal cancer, skin telangiectases, and mild developmental anomalies of the hair, teeth, and nails. We mapped the disorder to a ?16.8 cM interval in chromosomal region 3q22-24, and by sequencing candidate genes, we found that ATR contained a heterozygous missense mutation (c.6431A>G [p.Gln2144Arg]) that segregated with the disease. The mutation occurs within the FAT (FRAP, ATM, and TRRAP) domain-which can activate p53-of ATR. The mutation did not lead to a reduction in ATR expression, but cultured fibroblasts showed lower p53 levels after activation of ATR with hydroxyurea than did normal control fibroblasts. Moreover, loss of heterozygosity for the ATR locus was noted in oropharyngeal-tumor tissue. Collectively, the clinicopathological and molecular findings point to a cancer syndrome and provide evidence implicating a germline mutation in ATR and susceptibility to malignancy in humans. PMID:22341969

Tanaka, Akio; Weinel, Sarah; Nagy, Nikoletta; O'Driscoll, Mark; Lai-Cheong, Joey E; Kulp-Shorten, Carol L; Knable, Alfred; Carpenter, Gillian; Fisher, Sheila A; Hiragun, Makiko; Yanase, Yuhki; Hide, Michihiro; Callen, Jeffrey; McGrath, John A

2012-03-01

41

Mutations in PDGFRB Cause Autosomal-Dominant Infantile Myofibromatosis  

PubMed Central

Infantile myofibromatosis (IM) is a disorder of mesenchymal proliferation characterized by the development of nonmetastasizing tumors in the skin, muscle, bone, and viscera. Occurrence within families across multiple generations is suggestive of an autosomal-dominant (AD) inheritance pattern, but autosomal-recessive (AR) modes of inheritance have also been proposed. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in members of nine unrelated families clinically diagnosed with AD IM to identify the genetic origin of the disorder. In eight of the families, we identified one of two disease-causing mutations, c.1978C>A (p.Pro660Thr) and c.1681C>T (p.Arg561Cys), in PDGFRB. Intriguingly, one family did not have either of these PDGFRB mutations but all affected individuals had a c.4556T>C (p.Leu1519Pro) mutation in NOTCH3. Our studies suggest that mutations in PDGFRB are a cause of IM and highlight NOTCH3 as a candidate gene. Further studies of the crosstalk between PDGFRB and NOTCH pathways may offer new opportunities to identify mutations in other genes that result in IM and is a necessary first step toward understanding the mechanisms of both tumor growth and regression and its targeted treatment. PMID:23731542

Martignetti, John A.; Tian, Lifeng; Li, Dong; Ramirez, Maria Celeste M.; Camacho-Vanegas, Olga; Camacho, Sandra Catalina; Guo, Yiran; Zand, Dina J.; Bernstein, Audrey M.; Masur, Sandra K.; Kim, Cecilia E.; Otieno, Frederick G.; Hou, Cuiping; Abdel-Magid, Nada; Tweddale, Ben; Metry, Denise; Fournet, Jean-Christophe; Papp, Eniko; McPherson, Elizabeth W.; Zabel, Carrie; Vaksmann, Guy; Morisot, Cyril; Keating, Brendan; Sleiman, Patrick M.; Cleveland, Jeffrey A.; Everman, David B.; Zackai, Elaine; Hakonarson, Hakon

2013-01-01

42

Mutation screening in candidate genes in four Chinese brachydactyly families.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant brachydactyly (BD) is a skeletal disorder with several subtypes, including brachydactyly type A1 (BDA1) and brachydactyly type B1 (BDB1). Mutations in Indian hedgehog (IHH) are usually associated with BDA1, whereas heterozygous mutations in receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (ROR2) are mainly responsible for BDB1. On the basis of the clinical phenotype identification, we screened IHH and ROR2 by the candidate gene approach using PCR direct sequencing. We found three known mutations of IHH (c.283_285delGAG, p.E95del; c.298 G>A, p.D100N; c.300C>G, p.D100E) in three Chinese families with BDA1, and a novel heterozygous nonsense mutation of ROR2 (c.2273C>A, p.S758X) in a BDB1 family. It was noted that c.300C>G mutation was a new nucleotide substitution compared to the reported c.300C>A, which led to the same amino acid change (p.D100E). The novel nonsense mutation p.S758X was verified by absence in the unaffected family members and the 100 randomly-selected controls. In this paper, we report three recurrent mutations with a new nucleotide substitution of IHH in three Chinese families with BDA1 and a novel nonsense mutation in BDB1 pedigree. We therefore recommend the approach of candidate gene screening as the first choice for genetic testing for BD. PMID:25696018

Dong, Sufang; Wang, Yinghui; Tao, Shengxiang; Zheng, Fang

2015-01-01

43

Autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease: a review and proposal for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease has provided significant understanding of the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. The present review summarizes clinical, pathological, imaging, biochemical, and molecular studies of autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease, highlighting the similarities and differences between the dominantly inherited form of Alzheimer's disease and the more common sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease. Current developments in autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease are presented, including

Randall J Bateman; Paul S Aisen; Bart De Strooper; Nick C Fox; Cynthia A Lemere; John M Ringman; Stephen Salloway; Reisa A Sperling; Manfred Windisch; Chengjie Xiong

2011-01-01

44

[Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: is the treatment for tomorrow?].  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent Mendelian inherited disorder. It covers 6.1% of incident ESRD patients in France in 2011. Long left untreated, this disease will soon benefit from targeted therapies currently under evaluation. Several molecules have already reached the stage of clinical trials: the evaluation of mTOR inhibitors yielded deceiving results and, more recently, 2 different molecules demonstrated a slight impact on the progression of total kidney volume (TKV): tolvaptan, vasopressin receptor-V2 inhibitor and somatostatin analogues; both of these molecules acting throughout the decrease of intracellular AMPc. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe the signaling pathways involved, then to present both the published and ongoing clinical trials and the promising molecules evaluated in murine models. PMID:25086476

Cornec-Le Gall, Emilie; Le Meur, Yannick

2014-11-01

45

Metabolic abnormalities in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited kidney disorder and is known to affect all ethnic groups with a prevalence of 1:400-1:1000 live births. The kidney in ADKPD is characterized by the formation of numerous cysts which progressively expand and eventually destroy normal kidney structure and function. Cysts occur in other organs outside the kidney, most commonly in the liver, pancreas and spleen. Important non-cystic features include intracranial aneurysms and cardiac valve defects. Less well recognized are a range of metabolic abnormalities, which could be involved in cystic disease progression or be associated with other disease complications. In this review, we summarize the literature suggesting that metabolic abnormalities could be important under-recognised and under-treated features in ADPKD. PMID:24589722

Mao, Zhiguo; Xie, Guoqiang; Ong, Albert C M

2015-02-01

46

[Hyperostosis cranialis interna; a new syndrome with autosomal dominant inheritance].  

PubMed

A family is described which currently comprises nine individuals, spanning three generations, who are affected with a bone disorder which is confined to the skull and is accompanied by impaired function of the cranial nerves. Radiological examination showed intracranial hyperostosis and osteosclerosis of the calvaria and the base of the skull, without involvement of the mandible or other skeletal bones. Invariably, the main presenting symptom was recurrent facial nerve paralysis from late childhood onwards, but concurrent and variable involvement of the olfactory, optic, vestibular and acoustic nerves was seen; this could be attributed to nerve compression by the bony encroachment into the cranial foramina. Morphological investigations revealed increased formation of bone tissue with a normal structure. The pedigree suggests an autosomal dominant mode of heredity. A review of the literature did not disclose any previous reports on this disorder. PMID:2215719

Manni, J J; Scaf, J J; Huygen, P L; Cruysberg, J R; Verhagen, W I

1990-09-01

47

Autosomal dominant palatal myoclonus and spinal cord atrophy.  

PubMed

We report a new family with palatal myoclonus, pyramidal tract signs, cerebellar signs, marked atrophy of the medulla oblongata and spinal cord, and autosomal dominant inheritance. These findings were almost identical with those in patients previously reported to have histopathologically confirmed adult-onset Alexander disease. Recently, heterozygous point mutations in the coding region of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in patients with an infantile form of Alexander disease have been reported. We found a new heterozygous amino acid substitution, Val87Gly in exon 1 of GFAP, in the affected individuals in this family but not in 100 spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) patients and 100 controls. Therefore, this family might have new clinical entities related to adult-onset Alexander disease and GFAP mutation. PMID:11867077

Okamoto, Yuji; Mitsuyama, Hideo; Jonosono, Manabu; Hirata, Keiko; Arimura, Kimiyoshi; Osame, Mitsuhiro; Nakagawa, Masanori

2002-03-15

48

Mitochondrial anomalies in a Swiss family with autosomal dominant myoglobinuria  

SciTech Connect

We report on a Swiss family in which 10 individuals of both sexes in 4 successive generations suffered from myoglobinuria, precipitated by febrile illness. It is the second family described with autosomal dominant inheritance of myoglobinuria. Four individuals suffered acute renal failure, which in two was reversible only after dialysis. In a recent case, a mitochondrial disorder was suspected because of an abnormal increase in lactate levels during an exercise test and because of a subsarcolemmal accumulation of mitochondria in a muscle biopsy, associated with a lack of cytochrome C oxidase in some muscle fibers. No mutation in the mitochondrial DNA was identified. Along with the inheritance pattern, these findings suggest that the myoglobinuria in this family is caused by a nuclear-encoded mutation affecting the respiratory chain. 22 refs., 2 figs.

Martin-du Pan, R.C. [Univ. Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland)] [Univ. Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); Favre, H.; Junod, A. [Univ. Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland)] [and others] [Univ. Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); and others

1997-04-14

49

Nephrocalcinosis in a child with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and a prolapsing ectopic ureterocele.  

PubMed

Although autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease commonly presents in adults, it can occur in children. Usually, renal calcification in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is manifested as calculi or as hemorrhage into a renal cyst. An ectopic ureterocele is a well-known finding in patients with renal duplication. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a child who had combined findings of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, nephrocalcinosis, and an obstructing ectopic ureterocele. PMID:7491203

Burton, E M; Hanna, J D; Mercado-Deane, M G

1995-01-01

50

Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Autosomal Dominant Congenital Stromal Corneal Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Autosomal-dominant congenital stromal corneal dystrophy (CSCD) is a human genetic disease characterized by corneal opacities beginning shortly after birth. It is linked to a frameshift mutation in decorin, resulting in a C-terminal truncation lacking 33 amino acids that includes the “ear” repeat, a feature specific for small leucine-rich proteoglycans. Our goals are to elucidate the roles of the mutant decorin in CSCD pathophysiology and to decipher the mechanism whereby mutant decorin affects matrix assembly. A novel animal model that recapitulates human CSCD was generated. This transgenic mouse model targets expression of truncated decorin to keratocytes, thereby mimicking the human frameshift mutation. Mutant mice expressed both wild-type and mutant decorin. Corneal opacities were found throughout, with increased severity toward the posterior stroma. The architecture of the lamellae was disrupted with relatively normal lamellae separated by regions of abnormal fibril organization. Within abnormal zones, the interfibrillar spacing and the fibril diameters were increased. Truncated decorin negatively affected the expression of endogenous decorin, biglycan, lumican, and keratocan and positively affected fibromodulin. Our results provide a mechanistic explanation for the generation of corneal opacities in CSCD. Thus, truncated decorin acts in a dominant-negative manner to interfere dually with matrix assembly and binding to receptor tyrosine kinases, thereby causing abnormal expression of endogenous small leucine-rich proteoglycans leading to structural abnormalities within the cornea and vision loss. PMID:21893019

Chen, Shoujun; Sun, Mei; Meng, Xianmin; Iozzo, Renato V.; Kao, Winston W.-Y.; Birk, David E.

2011-01-01

51

Autosomal dominant policystic kidney disease, more than a renal disease.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a systemic disorder mainly involving the kidney. It affects one in 400-1000 live births. Early hypertension and progressive renal failure due to massive enlargement of cysts and fibrosis are hallmarks of the disease. ADPKD accounts for ~5-10% of cases requiring renal replacement therapy. But not only the kidneys are affected in ADPKD: cysts also occur in other organs such as the liver, pancreas, arachnoid membrane and seminal vesicles. Non-cystic manifestations of the diseases are intracranial aneurysms, hernias and valvular abnormalities. Complications in ADPKD usually result from kidney involvement and include cyst bleeding and cyst infection. However, serious extrarenal features such as subarachnoid haemorrhage can also occur. There is no specific treatment for ADPKD currently, but many molecules targeting up- or downregulated molecules in the renal epithelial cells are being tested. A clinical trial using tolvaptan (a vasopressin receptor antagonist) has demonstrated efficacy, while mTOR inhibitors have shown no positive effect in ADPKD. ACEIs and ARBs are the drugs of choice for treating hypertension in ADPKD. Until a specific therapy becomes available, early treatment of hypertension and lifestyle changes are encouraged. PMID:24736482

Torra, R

2014-06-01

52

Psychonephrology: psychological aspects in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

The biological, physical and psychological burden of a chronic disease has an impact on the quality of life of people who suffer from it. The perception of quality of life is affected by psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression that have a high prevalence in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). These factors are also linked to lower life expectancy. It is therefore surprising that the psychological aspects of people with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) have received so little attention in the medical literature, despite their importance for the overall health of these patients. The relatively new discipline called psychonephrology provides a broader view of the impact that these aspects have on individuals with chronic kidney disease, with a consequent practical application. In this article, we examine the consequences and prevalence of psychological problems that can be related to CKD and ADPKD. Firstly, we will focus on the field of CKD and ADPKD within the scope of psychonephrology. Secondly, the article introduces the concept of quality of life as a basic pillar of health that is affected when a person is diagnosed with CKD. Thirdly, we will present a summary of the main research related to anxiety and depression disorders in CKD and ADPKD. The article will conclude by synthesising findings from the different lines of research undertaken. PMID:22130288

Pérez Domínguez, T S; Rodríguez Pérez, A; Buset Ríos, N; Rodríguez Esparragón, F; García Bello, M A; Pérez Borges, P; Parodis López, Y; Rodríguez Pérez, J C

2011-01-01

53

Cardiovascular abnormalities in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular problems are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Hypertension is a common early symptom of ADPKD, and occurs in approximately 60% of patients before renal function has become impaired. Hypertension is associated with an increased rate of progression to end-stage renal disease and is the most important potentially treatable variable in ADPKD. Left ventricular hypertrophy, which is a powerful, independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, also occurs frequently in patients with ADPKD. Both hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy have important roles in cardiovascular complications in these individuals. Moreover, biventricular diastolic dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction, increased carotid intima-media thickness, and impaired coronary flow velocity reserve are present even in young patients with ADPKD who have normal blood pressure and well-preserved renal function. These findings suggest that cardiovascular involvement starts very early in the course of ADPKD. Intracranial and extracranial aneurysms and cardiac valvular defects are other potential cardiovascular problems in patients with ADPKD. Early diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, with drugs that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, has the potential to decrease the cardiovascular complications and slow the progression of renal disease in ADPKD. PMID:19322187

Ecder, Tevfik; Schrier, Robert W.

2009-01-01

54

Developments in the management of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent life- threatening, hereditary disease. ADPKD is more common than sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, Down’s syndrome, and Huntington’s disease combined. ADPKD is a multisystemic disorder characterized by the progressive development of renal cysts and marked renal enlargement. Structural and functional renal deterioration occurs in ADPKD patients and is the fourth leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in adults. Aside from the renal manifestations, extrarenal structural abnormalities, such as liver cysts, cardiovascular abnormalities, and intracranial aneurysms may lead to morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have identified prognostic factors for progressive renal impairment including gender, race, age, proteinuria, hematuria, hypertension and increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Early diagnosis and better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease provides the opportunity to aggressivly treat hypertension with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and thereby potentially reduce LVMI, prevent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and slow progression of the renal disease. PMID:18728845

Masoumi, Amirali; Reed-Gitomer, Berenice; Kelleher, Catherine; Bekheirnia, Mir Reza; Schrier, Robert W

2008-01-01

55

Familial central precocious puberty suggests autosomal dominant inheritance.  

PubMed

The prevalence of precocious puberty is higher in certain ethnic groups, and some cases may be familial. The aim of this study was to investigate the mode of inheritance of familial precocious puberty and to identify characteristics that distinguish familial from isolated precocious puberty. Of the 453 children referred to our center for suspected precocious puberty between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2000, 156 (147 girls and 9 boys) were found to have idiopathic central precocious puberty, which was familial in 43 (42 girls and 1 boy) (27.5%). Data of the familial and sporadic cases were compared. The familial group was characterized by a significantly lower maternal age at menarche than the sporadic group (mean, 11.47 +/- 1.96 vs. 12.66 +/- 1.18 yr; P = 0.0001) and more advanced puberty at admission (Tanner stage 2, 56.5% vs. 78.1%; P = 0.006). Segregation analysis was used to study the mode of inheritance. The segregation ratio for precocious puberty was 0.38 (0.45 after exclusion of young siblings) assuming incomplete penetrance and 0.58 (0.65 after exclusion of young siblings) assuming complete ascertainment. These results suggest autosomal dominant transmission with incomplete, sex-dependent penetrance. PMID:15070947

de Vries, Liat; Kauschansky, Arieh; Shohat, Mordechai; Phillip, Moshe

2004-04-01

56

Evaluation of polyglutamine repeats in autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

We evaluated the contributions of various polyglutamine (polyQ) disease genes to Parkinson's disease (PD). We compared the distributions of polyQ repeat lengths in 8 common genes (ATXN1, ATXN2, ATXN3, CACNA1A, ATXN7, TBP, ATN1, and HTT) in 299 unrelated patients with autosomal dominant PD (ADPD) and 329 normal controls. We also analyzed the possibility of genetic interactions between ATXN1 and ATXN2, ATXN2 and ATXN3, and ATXN2 and CACNA1A. Intermediate-length polyQ expansions (>24 Qs) of ATXN2 were found in 7 ADPD patients and no controls (7/299 = 2.34% and 0/329 = 0%, respectively; p = 0.0053 < 0.05/8 after Bonferroni correction). These patients showed typical L-DOPA-responsive PD phenotypes. Conversely, no significant differences in polyQ repeat lengths were found between the ADPD patients and the controls for the other 7 genes. Our results may support the hypothesis that ATXN2 polyQ expansion is a specific predisposing factor for multiple neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24534762

Yamashita, Chikara; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Funayama, Manabu; Inamizu, Saeko; Ando, Maya; Li, Yuanzhe; Yoshino, Hiroyo; Araki, Takehisa; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Ehara, Yoshiro; Ishikawa, Kinya; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Hattori, Nobutaka

2014-07-01

57

Caffeine intake by patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Because caffeine may induce cyst and kidney enlargement in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), we evaluated caffeine intake and renal volume using renal ultrasound in ADPKD patients. Caffeine intake was estimated by the average of 24-h dietary recalls obtained on 3 nonconsecutive days in 102 ADPKD patients (68 females, 34 males; 39 ± 12 years) and compared to that of 102 healthy volunteers (74 females, 28 males; 38 ± 14 years). The awareness of the need for caffeine restriction was assessed. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Mean caffeine intake was significantly lower in ADPKD patients versus controls (86 vs 134?mg/day), and 63% of the ADPKD patients had been previously aware of caffeine restriction. Caffeine intake did not correlate with renal volume in ADPKD patients. There were no significant differences between the renal volumes of patients in the highest and lowest tertiles of caffeine consumption. Finally, age-adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that renal volume was associated with hypertension, chronic kidney disease stage 3 and the time since diagnosis, but not with caffeine intake. The present small cross-sectional study indicated a low level of caffeine consumption by ADPKD patients when compared to healthy volunteers, which was most likely due to prior awareness of the need for caffeine restriction. Within the range of caffeine intake observed by ADPKD patients in this study (0-471?mg/day), the renal volume was not directly associated with caffeine intake. PMID:22801417

Vendramini, L.C.; Nishiura, J.L.; Baxmann, A.C.; Heilberg, I.P.

2012-01-01

58

Imaging-based diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

The clinical use of conventional ultrasonography (US) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is currently limited by reduced diagnostic sensitivity, especially in at-risk subjects younger than 30 years of age. In this single-center prospective study, we compared the diagnostic performance of MRI with that of high-resolution (HR) US in 126 subjects ages 16-40 years born with a 50% risk of ADPKD who underwent both these renal imaging studies and comprehensive PKD1 and PKD2 mutation screening. Concurrently, 45 healthy control subjects without a family history of ADPKD completed the same imaging protocol. We analyzed 110 at-risk subjects whose disease status was unequivocally defined by molecular testing and 45 unaffected healthy control subjects. Using a total of >10 cysts as a test criterion in subjects younger than 30 years of age, we found that MRI provided both a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Comparison of our results from HR US with those from a previous study of conventional US using the test criterion of a total of three or more cysts found a higher diagnostic sensitivity (approximately 97% versus approximately 82%) with a slightly decreased specificity (approximately 98% versus 100%) in this study. Similar results were obtained in test subjects between the ages of 30 and 40 years old. These results suggest that MRI is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosis of ADPKD. HR US has the potential to rival the diagnostic performance of MRI but is both center- and operator-dependent. PMID:25074509

Pei, York; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Conklin, John; Sundsbak, Jamie L; Heyer, Christina M; Chan, Winnie; Wang, Kairong; He, Ning; Rattansingh, Anand; Atri, Mostafa; Harris, Peter C; Haider, Masoom A

2015-03-01

59

Renal stone disease in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Nephrolithiasis is an important manifestation of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), which occurs in approximately 20% of patients. It should always enter the differential diagnosis of flank pain in patients with ADPKD. The diagnosis is hindered by the distorted anatomy of the polycystic kidneys and the frequent occurrence of parenchymal and cyst wall calcifications, and requires demonstration of the relationship to the collecting system by intravenous urography and/or computed tomography. Computed tomography is the most sensitive imaging technique for detection of stones or calcifications, whereas intravenous urography is the most sensitive for visualization of the intrarenal collecting system. Precaliceal tubular ectasia can be detected in 15% of patients with ADPKD and nephrolithiasis, but this association may not be specific to ADPKD. The composition of the stones is most frequently uric acid and/or calcium oxalate. Metabolic factors are important in their pathogenesis. Distal acidification defects may be important in a few patients, while an abnormal transport of ammonium, low urine pH, and hypocitruria are the most common abnormalities. The treatment of nephrolithiasis in patients with ADPKD is not different from that in patients without ADPKD. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrostolithotomy in patients with early disease and normal renal function are not contraindicated. PMID:8213789

Torres, V E; Wilson, D M; Hattery, R R; Segura, J W

1993-10-01

60

Repeat expansion and autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorders: consensus and controversy.  

PubMed

Repeat-expansion mutations cause 13 autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorders falling into three groups. Huntington's disease (HD), dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA), spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), and spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) types 1, 2, 3, 7 and 17 are each caused by a CAG repeat expansion that encodes polyglutamine. Convergent lines of evidence demonstrate that neurodegeneration in these diseases is a consequence of the neurotoxic effects of abnormally long stretches of glutamines. How polyglutamine induces neurodegeneration, and why neurodegeneration occurs in only select neuronal populations, remains a matter of intense investigation. SCA6 is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in CACNA1A, a gene that encodes a subunit of the P/Q-type calcium channel. The threshold length at which the repeat causes disease is much shorter than in the other polyglutamine diseases, and neurodegeneration may arise from expansion-induced change of function in the calcium channel. Huntington's disease-like 2 (HDL2) and SCAs 8, 10 and 12 are rare disorders in which the repeats (CAG, CTG or ATTCT) are not in protein-coding regions. Investigation into these diseases is still at an early stage, but it is now reasonable to hypothesise that the net effect of each expansion is to alter gene expression. The different pathogenic mechanisms in these three groups of diseases have important implications for the development of rational therapeutics. PMID:14585172

Rudnicki, Dobrila D; Margolis, Russell L

2003-08-01

61

Autosomal dominant cyclic hematopoiesis: Genetics, phenotype, and natural history  

SciTech Connect

Autosomal dominant cyclic hematopoiesis (ADCH; cyclic neutropenia) is a rare disorder manifested by transient neutropenia that recurs every three weeks. To facilitate mapping the ADCH gene by genetic linkage analysis, we studied 9 ADCH families with 42 affected individuals. Pedigrees revealed AD inheritance with no evidence for decreased penetrance. Similar intra- and interfamilial variable expression was observed, with no evidence to support heterogeneity. At least 3 families displayed apparent new mutations. Many adults developed chronic neutropenia, while offspring always cycled during childhood. Children displayed recurrent oral ulcers, gingivitis, lymphadenopathy, fever, and skin and other infections with additional symptoms. Interestingly, there were no cases of neonatal infection. Some children required multiple hospitalizations for treatment. Four males under age 18 died of Clostridium sepsis following necrotizing enterocolitis; all had affected mothers. No other deaths due to ADCH were found; most had improvement of symptoms and infections as adults. Adults experienced increased tooth loss prior to age 30 (16 out of 27 adults, with 9 edentulous). No increase in myelodysplasia, malignancy, or congenital anomalies was observed. Recombinant G-CSF treatment resulted in dramatic improvement of symptoms and infections. The results suggest that ADCH is not a benign disorder, especially in childhood, and abdominal pain requires immediate evaluation. Diagnosis of ADCH requires serial blood counts in the proband and at least one CBC in relatives to exclude similar disorders. Genetic counseling requires specific histories as well as CBCs of each family member at risk to determine status regardless of symptom history, especially to assess apparent new mutations.

Palmer, S.E.; Stephens, K.; Dale, D.C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1994-09-01

62

[Infectious complications in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease].  

PubMed

Despite advances in the management of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease over the past two decades, infection of liver and kidney cysts remains a serious and potentially threatening complication. Kidney cyst infection is the most frequent complication. It is differentiated from hemorrhage by the clinical presentation (mainly the severity and duration of fever), C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells levels, and the density of the suspected cyst on computed tomography. Liver cyst infection occurs more frequently in patients with large cysts volumes. It can be life threatening and has a tendency to recur. In both infections, the best radiological imaging technique is positron emission tomography after intravenous injection of [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose combined with computed tomography. Treatment with a fluoroquinolone should be continued for 6 weeks. Cyst aspiration is necessary only when cysts are very large and/or when infection is resistant to antibiotic treatment. In patients who are candidates to kidney transplantation, a history of recurrent kidney cyst infection justifies pre-transplant nephrectomy, while a past history of recurrent liver cyst infection or angiocholitis leads to consider liver transplantation. Among extrarenal and extrahepatic complications of polycystic disease, colic diverticulosis is reported to be associated with increased risk of infection in patients on hemodialysis and after kidney transplantation. However, this observation needs to be confirmed. PMID:25733396

Pirson, Yves; Kanaan, Nada

2015-04-01

63

A novel Twinkle gene mutation in autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia is a common neurological presentation of mitochondrial disease and is characterised by multiple deletions of mitochondrial DNA in muscle. We describe a family with autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia caused by a novel heterozygous A to C transversion at nucleotide 956 of the Twinkle gene. The deltoid muscle biopsy of the index case revealed sparse

Marcus Deschauer; Reinhard Kiefer; Emma L. Blakely; Langping He; Stephan Zierz; Douglass M. Turnbull; Robert W. Taylor

2003-01-01

64

Soluble Klotho and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels are elevated in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), but only the latter is characterized by a renal phosphate wasting phenotype. This study explored potential mechanisms underlying resistance to FGF23 in ADPKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements FGF23 and Klotho levels were measured, and renal phosphate transport was evaluated by calculating the ratio of the maximum rate of tubular phosphate reabsorption to GFR (TmP/GFR) in 99 ADPKD patients, 32 CKD patients, 12 XLH patients, and 20 healthy volunteers. ADPKD and CKD patients were classified by estimated GFR (CKD stage 1, ?90 ml/min per 1.73 m2; CKD stage 2, 60–89 ml/min per 1.73 m2). Results ADPKD patients had 50% higher FGF23 levels than did XLH patients; TmP/GFR was near normal in most ADPKD patients and very low in XLH patients. Serum Klotho levels were lowest in the ADPKD group, whereas the CKD and XLH groups and volunteers had similar levels. ADPKD patients with an apparent renal phosphate leak had two-fold higher Klotho levels than those without. Serum Klotho values correlated inversely with cyst volume and kidney growth. Conclusions Loss of Klotho might be a consequence of cyst growth and constrain the phosphaturic effect of FGF23 in most patients with ADPKD. Normal serum Klotho levels were associated with normal FGF23 biologic activity in all XLH patients and a minority of ADPKD patients. Loss of Klotho and FGF23 increase appear to exceed and precede the changes that can be explained by loss of GFR in patients with ADPKD. PMID:22193235

Pavik, Ivana; Jaeger, Philippe; Ebner, Lena; Poster, Diane; Krauer, Fabienne; Kistler, Andreas D.; Rentsch, Katharina; Andreisek, Gustav; Wagner, Carsten A.; Devuyst, Olivier; Wüthrich, Rudolf P.; Schmid, Christoph; Serra, Andreas L.

2012-01-01

65

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: presentation, complications, and prognosis.  

PubMed

Fifty-three symptomatic adults with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease were studied retrospectively for a mean follow-up of 12 years (range 10 months to 33 years). Diagnosis was confirmed by either x-ray, ultrasound, laparotomy, or autopsy. Commonest presenting clinical findings were flank pain (30%), hypertension (21%), symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) (19%), gross hematuria (19%), and palpable masses (15%). A total of nine patients (17%) progressed to end-stage renal disease. Change in renal function measured using the reciprocal of plasma creatinine plotted against time was linear for each individual patient with a maximum functional decline of 0.7 mg/dL/yr (slope = -0.07). Past the age of sixty renal failure was uncommon. Easily controlled hypertension developed in 64% attended by mild retinopathy. UTIs were common (53%), often recurrent (61%), precipitated by instrumentation in 6 of 14 patients (43%), leading to death in two (33%). Renal calculi were extremely common (34%) and had no defined metabolic cause. The presence of hematuria (64%), gross or microscopic, bore no relationship to the decline in renal function. Pregnancy was normal in these patients with no increase in fetal or maternal morbidity or mortality. We conclude the following: Renal functional deterioration is linear, less than previously reported, and bears no relationship to hematuria. Hypertension is common, easily treated, and causes minor end-organ damage. Renal calculi are frequent. Urinary tract instrumentation often induces infection with considerable morbidity and mortality and must be avoided. Pregnancy is not contraindicated if renal function is normal. The prognosis for survival in this disease is better than previously reported. PMID:3970015

Delaney, V B; Adler, S; Bruns, F J; Licinia, M; Segel, D P; Fraley, D S

1985-02-01

66

Messenger RNA processing is altered in autosomal dominant leukodystrophy†.  

PubMed

Adult-onset autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterized by autonomic dysfunction, followed by cerebellar and pyramidal features. ADLD is caused by duplication of the lamin B1 gene (LMNB1), which leads to its increased expression. The molecular pathways involved in the disease are still poorly understood. Hence, we analyzed global gene expression in fibroblasts and whole blood of LMNB1 duplication carriers and used Gene Set Enrichment Analysis to explore their gene signatures. We found that LMNB1 duplication is associated with dysregulation of genes involved in the immune system, neuronal and skeletal development. Genes with an altered transcriptional profile clustered in specific genomic regions. Among the dysregulated genes, we further studied the role of RAVER2, which we found to be overexpressed at mRNA and protein level. RAVER2 encodes a putative trans regulator of the splicing repressor polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) and is likely implicated in alternative splicing regulation. Functional studies demonstrated an abnormal splicing pattern of several PTB-target genes and of the myelin protein gene PLP1, previously demonstrated to be involved in ADLD. Mutant mice with different lamin B1 expression levels confirmed that Raver2 expression is dependent on lamin B1 in neural tissue and determines an altered splicing pattern of PTB-target genes and Plp1. Overall our results demonstrate that deregulation of lamin B1 expression induces modified splicing of several genes, likely driven by raver-2 overexpression, and suggest that an alteration of mRNA processing could be a pathogenic mechanism in ADLD. PMID:25637521

Bartoletti-Stella, Anna; Gasparini, Laura; Giacomini, Caterina; Corrado, Patrizia; Terlizzi, Rossana; Giorgio, Elisa; Magini, Pamela; Seri, Marco; Baruzzi, Agostino; Parchi, Piero; Brusco, Alfredo; Cortelli, Pietro; Capellari, Sabina

2015-05-15

67

PRPF4 mutations cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.  

PubMed

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a disease characterized by progressive loss of photoreceptors, exhibits significant genetic heterogeneity. Several genes associated with U4/U6-U5 triple small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (tri-snRNP) complex of the spliceosome have been implicated in autosomal dominant RP (adRP). HPrp4, encoded by PRPF4, regulates the stability of U4/U6 di-snRNP, which is essential for continuous splicing. Here, we identified two heterozygous variants in PRPF4, including c.-114_-97del in a simplex RP patient and c.C944T (p.Pro315Leu), which co-segregates with disease phenotype in a family with adRP. Both variants were absent in 400 unrelated controls. The c.-114_-97del, predicted to affect two transcription factor binding sites, was shown to down-regulate the promoter activity of PRPF4 by a luciferase assay, and was associated with a significant reduction of PRPF4 expression in the blood cells of the patient. In fibroblasts from an affected individual with the p.Pro315Leu variant, the expression levels of several tri-snRNP components, including PRPF4 itself, were up-regulated, with altered expression pattern of SC35, a spliceosome marker. The same alterations were also observed in cells over expressing hPrp4(Pro315Leu), suggesting that they arose as a compensatory response to a compromised splicing mechanism caused by hPrp4 dysfunction. Further, over expression of hPrp4(Pro315Leu), but not hPrp4(WT), triggered systemic deformities in wild-type zebrafish embryos with the retina primarily affected, and dramatically augmented death rates in morphant embryos, in which orthologous zebrafish prpf4 gene was silenced. We conclude that mutations of PRPF4 cause RP via haploinsufficiency and dominant-negative effects, and establish PRPF4 as a new U4/U6-U5 snRNP component associated with adRP. PMID:24419317

Chen, Xue; Liu, Yuan; Sheng, Xunlun; Tam, Pancy O S; Zhao, Kanxing; Chen, Xuejuan; Rong, Weining; Liu, Yani; Liu, Xiaoxing; Pan, Xinyuan; Chen, Li Jia; Zhao, Qingshun; Vollrath, Douglas; Pang, Chi Pui; Zhao, Chen

2014-06-01

68

Thoracoscopic renal denervation for intractable autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease-related pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report a case of intractable autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease-related pain associated with normal renal function, treated with renal denervation. Renal denervation was performed via a thoracoscopic approach. The good medium-term result suggests that thoracoscopic sympatho-splanchnicectomy would be an attractive procedure for pain management in autosomal polycystic kidney disease.

Olivier Chapuis; Philippe Sockeel; Gilbert Pallas; François Pons; René Jancovici

2004-01-01

69

Thoracoscopic renal denervation for intractable autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease-related pain.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of intractable autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease-related pain associated with normal renal function, treated with renal denervation. Renal denervation was performed via a thoracoscopic approach. The good medium-term result suggests that thoracoscopic sympatho-splanchnicectomy would be an attractive procedure for pain management in autosomal polycystic kidney disease. PMID:14712440

Chapuis, Olivier; Sockeel, Philippe; Pallas, Gilbert; Pons, François; Jancovici, René

2004-01-01

70

The anterior segment disorder autosomal dominant keratitis is linked to the Aniridia\\/PAX6 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant keratitis (ADK) is an eye disease characterized by anterior stromal corneal opacification and vascularization in the peripheral cornea. Progression into the central cornea may compromise visual acuity. Other anterior segment features include minimal radial defects of the iris stroma. Posterior segment involvement is characterized by foveal hypoplasia with minimal effect on visual acuity. Aniridia is a second autosomal

F. Mirzayans; W. G. Pearce; T. S. Mah

1994-01-01

71

Hageman Trait (Factor XII Deficiency): A Probable Second Genotype Inherited as an Autosomal Dominant Characteristic  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family is described in which Hage- Immunologic studies suggested that man trait appeared to be inherited in the molecular defect was similar to an autosomal dominant manner in that of the autosomal recessive form contrast to previously reported families and consisted of deficiency of anti- in which the disorder behaves as an gens related to Hageman factor. autosomel recessive

Bruce Bennett; James B. Holt; Harold R. Roberts

1972-01-01

72

A novel locus for autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (DFNA44) maps to chromosome 3q28-29  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss (NSSHL) is a genetically highly heterogeneous group of disorders. Autosomal dominant forms account for up to 20% of cases. To date, 39 loci have been identified by linkage analysis of affected families that segregate NSSHL forms in the autosomal dominant mode (DFNA). Investigation of a large Spanish pedigree with autosomal dominant inheritance of bilateral and

Silvia Modamio-Høybjør; Miguel Angel Moreno-Pelayo; Angeles Mencía; Ignacio del Castillo; Sebastian Chardenoux; Daniel Armenta; Mark Lathrop; Christine Petit; Felipe Moreno

2003-01-01

73

Renal Relevant Radiology: Radiologic Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease is a systemic disorder and the most common hereditary renal disease, which is characterized by cyst growth, progressive renal enlargement, and development of renal failure. The cystic nature of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and its renal and extrarenal complications (kidney stones, cyst hemorrhage, intracerebral aneurysm, liver cysts, cardiac valve abnormalities, etc.) give radiologic imaging studies a central role in the management of these patients. This article reviews the indications, comparative use, and limitation of various imaging modalities (ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, computerized tomography scan, Positron emission tomography scan, and renal scintigraphy) for the diagnosis and management of complications in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Finally, this work provides evidence for the value of total kidney volume to predict disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PMID:24370765

Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic; Mittal, Ankush; Mittal, Pardeep

2014-01-01

74

Amyloidosis in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and tuberculosis: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease is an inherited disorder characterized by the development and growth of cysts\\u000a in the kidneys. Urinary protein excretion is generally less than 1 g\\/day, and the association of the nephrotic syndrome with\\u000a this condition is considered rare. A 39-year-old man with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease and nephrotic-range\\u000a proteiuria is described. During admission, he had general edema and

Fuat Sar; Ismail Taylan; Cigdem Kutlu; Muazzez Sezer Caymaz; Emel Tatli; Rumeyza Kazancioglu

2007-01-01

75

Autosomal dominant iridogoniodysgenesis with associated somatic anomalies: four-generation family with Rieger's syndrome.  

PubMed Central

A family extending over 4 generations showed iridogoniodysgenesis accompanied by somatic malformations inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Iridogoniodysgenesis was present in 10 members, of whom 5 had established glaucoma; 4 youthful members are likely to develop glaucoma. Somatic malformations were present in 5 members from the 3rd and 4th generations who did not manifest iridogoniodysgenesis. A possible polygenic basis is discussed, though the variable expression of an autosomal dominant inheritance is still the more likely explanation. Images PMID:6871144

Chisholm, I A; Chudley, A E

1983-01-01

76

Epidemiological study of kidney survival in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological study of kidney survival in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.BackgroundIt is unknown whether the substantial increase in research, identification of risk factors for renal progression, greater antihypertensive armamentarium including inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and enhanced educational information have impacted the progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) renal disease.MethodsAn epidemiological study involving 513 ADPKD subjects was

Robert W Schrier; Kimberly K McFann; Ann M Johnson

2003-01-01

77

Seven novel mutations of the PKD2 gene in families with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven novel mutations of thePKD2gene in families with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.BackgroundAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is genetically heterogeneous, with at least three chromosomal loci accounting for the disease. Mutations in the PKD2 gene on the long arm of chromosome 4 are expected to be responsible for approximately 15% of cases of ADPKD.MethodsWe report a systematic screening for

Roser Torra; Miguel Viribay; Dolores Tellería; Cèlia Badenas; Michael Watson; Peter Harris; Alejandro Darnell; José L San Millán

1999-01-01

78

A comparative study of three kidney biomarker tests in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of three kidney biomarker tests in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.BackgroundThe relationship between the progress of tubular damage and renal insufficiency in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a subject of doubtless interest, and is the object of this present work.MethodsA total of 92 adult ADPKD patients of both genders were studied, none of which presented end-stage renal

J. Antonio Casal; JESÚS HERMIDA; Xose M. Lens; J. Carlos Tutor

2005-01-01

79

Renin-Angiotensin-aldosterone system in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most frequent life-threatening hereditary disease. Prognostic factors for progressive renal impairment have been identified such as gender, race, age, proteinuria, hematuria, hypertension. Hypertension is the only risk factor for renal dysfunction in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, which is presently treatable. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of hypertension will help in defining appropriate interventions. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system is the pivotal factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Basic research and clinical studies in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease implicated activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system. Therapy of hypertension in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blocker has the potential to prevent cardiovascular complications and slow the progression of renal disease. The results of two large multicenter double-blind placebo controlled randomized clinical trials (the HALT-PKD trials) possibly will elucidate the beneficial effects of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system inhibition in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PMID:23971639

Tkachenko, Oleksandra; Helal, Imed; Shchekochikhin, Dmitry; Schrier, Robert W

2013-02-01

80

A gene for autosomal dominant congenital nystagmus localizes to 6p12  

SciTech Connect

Congenital nystagmus is an idiopathic disorder characterized by bilateral ocular oscillations usually manifest during infancy. Vision is typically decreased due to slippage of images across the fovea. As such, visual acuity correlates with nystagmus intensity, which is the amplitude and frequency of eye movements at a given position of gaze. X-linked, autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive pedigrees have been described, but no mapping studies have been published. We recently described a large pedigree with autosomal dominant congenital nystagmus. A genome-wide search resulted in six markers on 6p linked by two-point analysis at {theta} = 0 (D6S459, D6S452, D6S465, FTHP1, D6S257, D6S430). Haplotype analysis localizes the gene for autosomal dominant congenital motor mystagmus to an 18-cM region between D6S271 and D6S455. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Kerrison, J.B.; Arnould, V.J.; Koenekoop, R.K. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others] [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); and others

1996-05-01

81

Suppression and Replacement Gene Therapy for Autosomal Dominant Disease in a Murine Model of Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

For dominantly inherited disorders development of gene therapies, targeting the primary genetic lesion has been impeded by mutational heterogeneity. An example is rhodopsin-linked autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa with over 150 mutations in the rhodopsin gene. Validation of a mutation-independent suppression and replacement gene therapy for this disorder has been undertaken. The therapy provides a means of correcting the genetic defect

Sophia Millington-Ward; Naomi Chadderton; Mary O'Reilly; Arpad Palfi; Tobias Goldmann; Claire Kilty; Marian Humphries; Uwe Wolfrum; Jean Bennett; Peter Humphries; Paul F Kenna; G Jane Farrar

2011-01-01

82

Fibrosis and progression of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)  

PubMed Central

The age on onset of decline in renal function and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in autosomal polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is highly variable and there are currently no prognostic tools to identify patients who will progress rapidly to ESRD. In ADPKD, expansion of cysts and loss of renal function is associated with progressive fibrosis. Similar to the correlation between tubulointerstitial fibrosis and progression of CKD, in ADPKD, fibrosis has been identified as the most significant manifestation associated with an increased rate of progression to ESRD. Fibrosis in CKD has been studied extensively. In contrast, little is known about the mechanisms underlying progressive scarring in ADPKD although some commonality may be anticipated. Current data suggest that fibrosis associated with ADPKD shares at least some of the “classical” features of fibrosis in CKD (increased interstitial collagens, changes in MMPs, over-expression of TIMP-1, over-expression of PAI-1 and increased TGF?) but that there are also some unique and stage-specific features. Epithelial changes appear to precede and to drive interstitial changes leading to the proposal that development of fibrosis in ADPKD is biphasic with alterations in cystic epithelia precipitating changes in interstitial fibroblasts and that reciprocal interactions between these cell types drives progressive accumulation of ECM. Since fibrosis is a major component of ADPKD it follows that preventing or slowing fibrosis should retard disease progression with obvious therapeutic benefits. The development of effective anti-fibrotic strategies in ADPKD is dependent on understanding the precise mechanisms underlying initiation and progression of fibrosis in ADPKD and the role of the intrinsic genetic defect in these processes. PMID:21745567

Norman, Jill

2011-01-01

83

Autosomal dominant familial spastic paraplegia: Tight linkage to chromosome 15q  

SciTech Connect

Autosomal dominant, uncomplicated familial spastic paraplegia (FSP) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by insidiously progressive lower-extremity spasticity. Recently, a locus on chromosome 14q was shown to be tightly linked with the disorder in one of three families. We performed linkage analysis in a kindred with autosomal dominant uncomplicated FSP. After excluding the chromosome 14q locus, we observed tight linkage of the disorder to a group of markers on chromosome 15q (maximum two-point lod score 9.70; {theta} = .05). Our results clearly establish the existence of a locus for autosomal dominant FSP in the centromeric region of chromosome 15q. Comparing clinical and genetic features in FSP families linked to chromosome 14q with those linked to chromosome 15q may provide insight into the pathophysiology of this disorder. 34 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Fink, J.K.; Wu, C.B.; Jones, S.M.; Lesicki, A.; Reinglass, T. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sharp, G.B.; Lange, B.M. [Arkansas Children`s Hospital, Little Rock, AR (United States); Varvil, T.; Otterud, B.; Leppert, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1995-01-01

84

Clinical and Radiological Findings of Autosomal Dominant Osteopetrosis Type II: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited genetic disease characterized by sclerosis of the skeleton caused by the absence or malfunction of osteoclasts. Three distinct forms of the disease have been recognized, autosomal dominant osteopetrosis being the most common. Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis exhibits a heterogeneous trait with milder symptoms, often at later childhood or adulthood. The aim of this case report is to present the clinical and radiographic features of a 35-year-old female patient with autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II who exhibited features of chronic generalised periodontitis, and the radiographs revealed generalised osteosclerosis and hallmark radiographic features of ADO type II, that is, “bone-within-bone appearance” and “Erlenmeyer-flask deformity.” PMID:24260721

Kant, Priyanka; Sharda, Neelkamal; Bhowate, Rahul R.

2013-01-01

85

Evidence of autosomal dominant mutations in childhood-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy  

SciTech Connect

Autosomal recessive and dominant inheritance of proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are well documented. Several genetic studies found a significant deviation from the assumption of recessive inheritance in SMA, with affected children in one generation. The existence of new autosomal dominant mutations has been assumed as the most suitable explanation, which is supported by three observations of this study: (1) The segregation ratio calculated in 333 families showed a significant deviation from autosomal recessive inheritance in the milder forms of SMA (= .09[+-].06 for onset at 10-36 mo and .13[+-].07 for onset at >36 mo; and P = .09[+-]0.7 for SMA IIIa and .12[+-].07 for SMA IIIb). (2) Three families with affected subjects in two generations are reported, in whom the disease could have started as an autosomal dominant mutation. (3) Linkage studies with chromosome 5q markers showed that in 5 (5.4%) of 93 informative families the patient shared identical haplotypes with at least one healthy sib. Other mechanisms, such as the existence of phenocopies, pseudodominance, or a second autosomal recessive gene locus, cannot be excluded in single families. The postulation of spontaneous mutations, however, is a suitable explanation for all three observations. Estimated risk figures for genetic counseling are given. 29 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Rudnik-Schoeneborn, S.; Wirth, B.; Zerres, K. (Univ. of Bonn (Germany))

1994-07-01

86

Clinical and molecular genetic characterisation of a family segregating autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa and sensorineural deafness  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS\\/BACKGROUNDTo characterise clinically a large kindred segregating retinitis pigmentosa and sensorineural hearing impairment in an autosomal dominant pattern and perform genetic linkage studies in this family. Extensive linkage analysis in this family had previously excluded the majority of loci shown to be involved in the aetiologies of RP, some other forms of inherited retinal degeneration, and inherited deafness.METHODSMembers of the

Paul Kenna; Fiona Mansergh; Sophia Millington-Ward; Alexandra Erven; Rajendra Kumar-Singh; Rosemary Brennan; G Jane Farrar; Peter Humphries

1997-01-01

87

Abstract Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney dis-ease represents one of the most common monogenetic  

E-print Network

Abstract Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney dis- ease represents one of the most common. In this review, we will highlight some of the characteristics of polycystic kidney disease, briefly touch kidney disease actually behaves re- cessively on a cellular level. Finally, a model will be pre- sented

Witzgall, Ralph - Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät III

88

Homologues to the First Gene for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Are Pseudogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

PKD1 is the first gene identified to be causative for the condition of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. There are several genes homologous to PKD1 that are located proximal to the master gene on the same chromosome. Two of these genes have been recently covered in a large sequencing work on chromosome 16, and their structure has been broadly analyzed.

Nadia Bogdanova; Arseni Markoff; Volker Gerke; Marie McCluskey; Jürgen Horst; Bernd Dworniczak

2001-01-01

89

Increases in kidney volume in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease can be detected within 6 months  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kidney volume growth is considered the best surrogate marker predicting the decline of renal function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. To assess the therapeutic benefit of new drugs more rapidly, changes in kidney volume need to be determined over a short time interval. Here we measured renal volume changes by manual segmentation volumetry applied to magnetic resonance imaging scans

Andreas D. Kistler; Diane Poster; Fabienne Krauer; Dominik Weishaupt; Shagun Raina; Oliver Senn; Isabelle Binet; Katharina Spanaus; Rudolf P. Wuthrich; Andreas L. Serra

2009-01-01

90

Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: New Treatment Options and How to Test Their Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) represents a slowly progressing cystic kidney disorder which evolves into end-stage renal disease in the majority of patients. Currently, there are no established treatments to retard the progression of the disease, but several promising therapeutic options are being tested in ongoing clinical trials. An inherent dilemma for the investigation of therapies in ADPKD is

Rudolf P. Wüthrich; Andreas L. Serra; Andreas D. Kistler

2009-01-01

91

Gene mapping of familial autosomal dominant dilated cardiomyopathy to chromosome 10q21-23.  

PubMed Central

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common form of primary myocardial disorder, accounting for 60% of all cardiomyopathies. In 20-30% of cases, familial inheritance can be demonstrated; an autosomal dominant transmission is the usual type of inheritance pattern identified. Previously, genetic heterogeneity was demonstrated in familial autosomal dominant dilated cardiomyopathy (FDCM). Gene localization to chromosome 1 (1p1-1q1 and 1q32), chromosome 3 (3p25-3p22), and chromosome 9 (9q13-9q22) has recently been identified. We report one family with 26 members (12 affected) with familial autosomal dominant dilated cardiomyopathy in which linkage to chromosome 10 at the 10q21-q23 locus is identified. Using short tandem repeat polymorphism (STR) markers with heterozygosity > 70%, 169 markers (50% of the genome) were used before linkage was found to markers D10S605 and D10S201 with a pairwise LOD score = 3.91, theta = 0, penetrance = 100% for both markers. Linkage to 1p1-1q1, 1q32, 3p25-3p22, and 9q13-9q22 was excluded. We conclude that a new locus for pure autosomal dominant FDCM exists, and that this gene is localized to a 9 cM region of 10q21-10q23. The search for the disease causing gene and the responsible mutation(s) is ongoing. PMID:8823300

Bowles, K R; Gajarski, R; Porter, P; Goytia, V; Bachinski, L; Roberts, R; Pignatelli, R; Towbin, J A

1996-01-01

92

Gene mapping of familial autosomal dominant dilated cardiomyopathy to chromosome 10q21-23.  

PubMed

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common form of primary myocardial disorder, accounting for 60% of all cardiomyopathies. In 20-30% of cases, familial inheritance can be demonstrated; an autosomal dominant transmission is the usual type of inheritance pattern identified. Previously, genetic heterogeneity was demonstrated in familial autosomal dominant dilated cardiomyopathy (FDCM). Gene localization to chromosome 1 (1p1-1q1 and 1q32), chromosome 3 (3p25-3p22), and chromosome 9 (9q13-9q22) has recently been identified. We report one family with 26 members (12 affected) with familial autosomal dominant dilated cardiomyopathy in which linkage to chromosome 10 at the 10q21-q23 locus is identified. Using short tandem repeat polymorphism (STR) markers with heterozygosity > 70%, 169 markers (50% of the genome) were used before linkage was found to markers D10S605 and D10S201 with a pairwise LOD score = 3.91, theta = 0, penetrance = 100% for both markers. Linkage to 1p1-1q1, 1q32, 3p25-3p22, and 9q13-9q22 was excluded. We conclude that a new locus for pure autosomal dominant FDCM exists, and that this gene is localized to a 9 cM region of 10q21-10q23. The search for the disease causing gene and the responsible mutation(s) is ongoing. PMID:8823300

Bowles, K R; Gajarski, R; Porter, P; Goytia, V; Bachinski, L; Roberts, R; Pignatelli, R; Towbin, J A

1996-09-15

93

Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is a distinct human epileptic syndrome. In some families, it is associated with mutations of the Ŏ or the Š subunit of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). It has been suggested that these mutations are the causative factors responsible for the induction and expression of this syndrome. However, the pathogenic mechanisms leading

Bernd Sutor; Gerd Zolles

2001-01-01

94

Progress in Blood Pressure Control in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension occurs commonly in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and is an important factor in the progression of the disease and cardiovascular mortality. The aim of this prospective 15-year study is to report the rate of blood pressure control and the potential effect of a 10-point education program developed by our center for ADPKD patients and their physicians. The

Tevfik Ecder; Charles L. Edelstein; Godela M. Fick-Brosnahan; Ann M. Johnson; Irene T. Duley; Patricia A. Gabow; Robert W. Schrier

2000-01-01

95

Mutation of the PAX6 gene in patients with autosomal dominant keratitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant keratitis (ADK) is an eye disorder chiefly characterized by corneal opacification and vascularization and by foveal hypoplasia. Aniridia (shown recently to result from mutations in the PAX6 gene) has overlapping clinical findings and a similar pattern of inheritance with ADK. On the basis of these similarities, we used a candidate-gene approach to investigate whether mutations in the PAX6

F. Mirzayans; W. G. Pearce; I. M. MacDonald; M. A. Walter

1995-01-01

96

Determinants of renal volume in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Consortium of Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease (CRISP) recently showed that renal enlargement in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease mimicked exponential growth. We determined the effects of cyst initiation rate, total number, and growth rate on the time-dependent change of total cyst volume (TCV). Mathematical models with equations integrating cyst surface area, volume, and an invariant growth rate

J J Grantham; L T Cook; V E Torres; J E Bost; A B Chapman; P C Harris; L M Guay-Woodford; K T Bae

2008-01-01

97

Familial Paroxysmal Exercise-Induced Dystonia: Atypical Presentation of Autosomal Dominant GTP-Cyclohydrolase 1 Deficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED) is one of the rarer forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia, and can occur in sporadic or familial forms. We report a family (male index case, mother and maternal grandfather) with autosomal dominant inheritance of paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia. The dystonia began in childhood and was only ever induced…

Dale, Russell C.; Melchers, Anna; Fung, Victor S. C.; Grattan-Smith, Padraic; Houlden, Henry; Earl, John

2010-01-01

98

Prevalence of epididymal, seminal vesicle, prostate, and testicular cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To assess the prevalence of cysts in the epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate, and testes of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and determine their clinical significance. Extrarenal cystic involvement is a well-known manifestation of ADPKD. Although a few reports exist about cysts in the epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate, and testes, the true prevalence of cysts in these

Umit Belet; Murat Danaci; ?aban Sarikaya; Ferda Odaba?; Cengiz Uta?; Bülent Tokgöz; Tu?rul Sezer; Tayfun Turgut; Nuri Erdo?an; Tekin Akpolat

2002-01-01

99

Characterization of a novel autosomal dominant bleeding disorder in a large kindred from east Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large east Texas family with autosomal dominant inheritance of a novel bleeding disorder has been identified. The disor- der is characterized clinically by easy bruising, life-threatening bleeding with trauma or surgery, and menorrhagia in affected women. Laboratory studies dem- onstrated prolongation of the prothrom- bin time and activated partial thrombo- plastin time in affected individuals. Paradoxically, assays of known

Shao-Qing Kuang; Sumera Hasham; Martin D. Phillips; David Wolf; Ying Wan; Perumal Thiagarajan; Dianna M. Milewicz

2001-01-01

100

Distinct Mutations in the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Gene ROR2 Cause Brachydactyly Type B  

PubMed Central

Brachydactyly type B (BDB) is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of distal phalanges and nails. Recently, heterozygous mutations of the orphan receptor tyrosine kinase (TK) ROR2, located within a distinct segment directly after the TK domain, have been shown to be responsible for BDB. We report four novel mutations in ROR2 (two frameshifts, one splice mutation, and one nonsense mutation) in five families with BDB. The mutations predict truncation of the protein within two distinct regions immediately before and after the TK domain, resulting in a complete or partial loss of the intracellular portion of the protein. Patients affected with the distal mutations have a more severe phenotype than do those with the proximal mutation. Our analysis includes the first description of homozygous BDB in an individual with a 5-bp deletion proximal to the TK domain. His phenotype resembles an extreme form of brachydactyly, with extensive hypoplasia of the phalanges and metacarpals/metatarsals and absence of nails. In addition, he has vertebral anomalies, brachymelia of the arms, and a ventricular septal defect—features that are reminiscent of Robinow syndrome, which has also been shown to be caused by mutations in ROR2. The BDB phenotype, as well as the location and the nature of the BDB mutations, suggests a specific mutational effect that cannot be explained by simple haploinsufficiency and that is distinct from that in Robinow syndrome. PMID:10986040

Schwabe, Georg C.; Tinschert, Sigrid; Buschow, Christian; Meinecke, Peter; Wolff, Gerhard; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Oldridge, Michael; Wilkie, Andrew O. M.; Kömec, Reyhan; Mundlos, Stefan

2000-01-01

101

Autosomal Dominant Stargardt-like Macular Dystrophy Founder Effect and Reassessment of Genetic Heterogeneity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To characterize a disease-associated hap- lotype in 7 families with autosomal dominant Stargardt- like macular dystrophy and to determine whether these families share a common ancestor. Methods: Twenty-five polymorphic DNA markers span- ning known dominant Stargardt-like gene loci were used to determine the haplotype associated with disease. In addition, an extensive genealogical investigation search- ing for a common ancestor

Larry A. Donoso; Arcilee T. Frost; Edwin M. Stone; Richard G. Weleber; Ian M. MacDonald; Gregory S. Hageman; Gerhard W. Cibis; Robert Ritter; Albert O. Edwards; Liliana Werner; Suresh K. Pandey; Barbara E. K. Klein; Peter W. DeBry; Jerry A. Shields; Carol L. Shields; Ralph C. Eagle; Arun D. Singh; Harvey S. Uy; Quan Dong Nguyen; Jean Arbour; Michel Gravel; Donald J. D'Amico; Frederick A. Jakobiec; C. Stephen Foster; Craig M. Greven; Tina Singh; Constance A. Stanton; Timothy J. Martin

2001-01-01

102

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis - an unusual association: a case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is an inherited disorder that is characterized by the development and growth of cysts in the kidneys and other organs. Urinary protein excretion is usually less than 1 g\\/24 hours in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, and an association of nephrotic syndrome with this condition is considered rare. There are only anecdotal case reports

Sanjay D'Cruz; Rajdeep Singh; Harsh Mohan; Ravinder Kaur; Ranjana Walker Minz; Vinay Kapoor; Atul Sachdev

2010-01-01

103

The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mediates transepithelial fluid secretion by human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease epithelium in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mediates transepithelial fluid secretion by human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease epithelium in vitro. Transepithelial fluid secretion promotes the progressive enlargement of cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Recent indirect evidence indicated that active chloride transport may drive net fluid secretion in cultures of epithelia derived from ADPKD cysts. We now report

Clarissa J Davidow; Robin L Maser; Lorraine A Rome; James P Calvet; Jared J Grantham

1996-01-01

104

Localization of a gene for autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta (ADAI) to chromosome 4q  

SciTech Connect

Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI), a disorder affecting the formation of enamel, is significantly more common in Northern Sweden than in other parts of the world. The disease is genetically and clinically heterogenous, and autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive and X-linked inheritance patterns have been recognized. Linkage analysis has identified two different loci for X-linked AI, one of which is identical to the gene encoding the enamel protein amelogenin. However, in families with an autosomal inheritance pattern for AI, the genetic basis of the disease still remains unknown. We report a linkage analysis study performed on three Swedish families where the affected members had an autosomal dominant variant of AI (ADAI) clinically characterized as local hypoplastic. Significant linkage to microsatellite markers on chromosome 4q were obtained, with a maximum lod score of 5.55 for the marker D4S428. Recombinations in the family localized the ADAI locus to the interval between D4S392 and D4S395. This chromosome region contains both a locus for the dental disorder dentinogenesis imperfecta and the albumin gene. Serum albumin has been suggested to play a role in enamel formation, and the albumin gene is therefore a candidate gene for this genetic disease.

Forsman, K.; Lind. L.; Westermark, E. [Univ. of Umea (Sweden)] [and others

1994-09-01

105

Familial hiatal hernia in a large five generation family confirming true autosomal dominant inheritance  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Familial hiatal hernia has only rarely been documented.?AIMS—To describe the pattern of inheritance of familial hiatal hernia within an affected family.?SUBJECTS—Thirty eight members of a family pedigree across five generations.?METHODS—All family members were interviewed and investigated by barium meal for evidence of a hiatal hernia.?RESULTS—Twenty three of 38 family members had radiological evidence of a hiatal hernia. No individual with a hiatal hernia was born to unaffected parents. In one case direct male to male transmission was shown.?CONCLUSIONS—Familial inheritance of hiatal hernia does occur. Evidence of direct male to male transmission points to an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance.???Keywords: familial hiatal hernia; Barrett's oesophagus; autosomal dominant genetics PMID:10517898

Carre, I; Johnston, B; Thomas, P; Morrison, P

1999-01-01

106

A novel locus for autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNA13, maps to chromosome 6p.  

PubMed Central

Nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL) is the most common type of hearing impairment in the elderly. Environmental and hereditary factors play an etiologic role, although the relative contribution of each is unknown. To date, 39 NSHL genes have been localized. Twelve produce autosomal dominant hearing loss, most frequently postlingual in onset and progressive in nature. We have ascertained a large, multigenerational family in which a gene for autosomal dominant NSHL is segregating. Affected individuals experience progressive hearing loss beginning in the 2d-4th decades, eventually making the use of amplification mandatory. A novel locus, DFNA13, was identified on chromosome 6p; the disease gene maps to a 4-cM interval flanked by D6S1663 and D6S1691, with a maximum two-point LOD score of 6.409 at D6S299. PMID:9382104

Brown, M R; Tomek, M S; Van Laer, L; Smith, S; Kenyon, J B; Van Camp, G; Smith, R J

1997-01-01

107

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy in a Chinese pedigree  

PubMed Central

The present study enrolled a Chinese family that comprised 34 members and spanned three generations. Eight members were diagnosed with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, and disease diagnoses corresponded with autosomal incomplete dominance inheritance. The primary clinical manifestations included paralysis, dysarthria, and mild cognitive deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse leukoencephalopathy with involvement of bilateral anterior temporal lobes, in particular the pons. In addition, multiple cerebral infarction was identified in the proband. Sural nerve biopsy findings of the proband revealed granular osmophilic material deposits in the extracellular matrix, which were adjacent to smooth muscle cells of dermal arterioles. Screening exons 2–4 for NOTCH 3 mutations by direct sequencing did not reveal any abnormalities. PMID:25767504

Xu, Erhe; Dong, Huiqing; Zhang, Milan; Xu, Min

2012-01-01

108

Imaging characteristics of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL)  

PubMed Central

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an autosomal dominant vascular disorder. Diagnosis and follow-up in patients with CADASIL are based mainly on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI shows white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), lacunar infarcts and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). WMHs lesions tend to be symmetrical and bilateral, distributed in the periventricular and deep white matter. The anterior temporal lobe and external capsules are predilection sites for WMHs, with higher specificity and sensitivity of anterior temporal lobe involvement compared to an external capsule involvement. Lacunar infarcts are presented by an imaging signal that has intensity of cerebrospinal fluid in all MRI sequences. They are localized within the semioval center, thalamus, basal ganglia and pons. CMBs are depicted as focal areas of signal loss on T2 images which increases in size on the T2*-weighted gradient echo planar images (“blooming effect”). PMID:25725137

Stojanov, Dragan; Aracki-Trenkic, Aleksandra; Vojinovic, Slobodan; Ljubisavljevic, Srdjan; Benedeto-Stojanov, Daniela; Tasic, Aleksandar; Vujnovic, Sasa

2015-01-01

109

Outcome of kidney transplantation in autosomal dominant medullary cystic kidney disease type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Autosomal dominant medullary cystic kidney disease (ADMCKD) is an inherited, distinct, chronic, tubulointerstitial, cystic-type nephropathy, often described together with juvenile nephronoph- thisis as a single disease complex (NPH-MCD). However, since the recent localization of two genes responsible for ADMCKD, namely MCKD1 and MCKD2, ADMCKD has gained independent status. Unfortunately, there appears to be a distinct lack of up-to-date information

Christoforos Stavrou; C. Constantinou Deltas; Tasos C. Christophides; Alkis Pierides

2003-01-01

110

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: Genetics, mutations and microRNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common, monogenic multi-systemic disorder characterized by the development of renal cysts and various extrarenal manifestations. Worldwide, it is a common cause of end-stage renal disease. ADPKD is caused by mutation in either one of two principal genes, PKD1 and PKD2, but has large phenotypic variability among affected individuals, attributable to PKD genic

Ying-Cai Tan; Jon Blumenfeld; Hanna Rennert

2011-01-01

111

The etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: Recent advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by mutations in at least three different genes: PKD1, PKD2, and PKD3. ADPKD1 is an inherited disorder that has led to the discovery of a novel protein, polycystin. Polycystin, a 460 kd protein with a host of domains implicating a potential role in cell-cell and cell-matrix regulation, is encoded by a 52

Jared J. Grantham

1996-01-01

112

Novel CACNA1S mutation causes autosomal dominant hypokalemic periodic paralysis in a South American family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder, which is characterized by periodic attacks of muscle weakness associated with a decrease in the serum potassium level. A major disease-causing gene for HypoPP has been identified as CACNA1S, which encodes the skeletal muscle calcium channel ?-subunit with four transmembrane domains (I–IV), each with six transmembrane segments (S1–S6). To date, all

Tie Ke; Cladelis Rubio Gomez; Heidi Eliana Mateus; Juan Andres Castano; Qing Kenneth Wang

2009-01-01

113

A mutation in PCSK9 causing autosomal-dominant hypercholesterolemia in a Utah pedigree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial hypercholesterolemia results from mutations in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor or apolipoprotein B genes. We have previously reported the identification of a Utah autosomal-dominant hypercholesterolemia pedigree (kindred 1173) that did not show linkage to either of these loci (Hunt et al. 2000). Expansion of the pedigree and increased marker density within the region of interest have resulted in a multipoint

Kirsten M. Timms; Susanne Wagner; Mark E. Samuels; Kristian Forbey; Howard Goldfine; Srikanth Jammulapati; Mark H. Skolnick; Paul N. Hopkins; Steve C. Hunt; Donna M. Shattuck

2004-01-01

114

Structure-function defects of human mitochondrial DNA polymerase in autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) is a mitochondrial disorder associated with mutations in the POLG gene encoding the mitochondrial DNA polymerase (pol ?). Four autosomal dominant mutations that cause PEO encode the amino acid substitutions G923D, R943H, Y955C and A957S in the polymerase domain of pol ?. A homology model of the pol ? catalytic domain in complex with DNA was

Maria A Graziewicz; Matthew J Longley; Rachelle J Bienstock; Massimo Zeviani; William C Copeland

2004-01-01

115

MRI of the intraorbital optic nerve in patients with autosomal dominant optic atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the intraorbital optic nerve were made using high-resolution coronal MRI in 10 adults with autosomal dominant\\u000a optic atrophy. Comparisons were made with previous studies of 10 normal adult subjects. The cross-sectional diameters of the\\u000a optic nerve and the perineural subarachnoid space were measured and a ratio of there diameters at anterior, mid and posterior\\u000a positions along the optic

M. Votruba; S. Leary; N. Losseff; S. S. Bhattacharya; A. T. Moore; D. H. Miller; I. F. Moseley

2000-01-01

116

Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: Recent Advances in Pathogenesis and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common genetic disorder affecting 1 in 1,000 people in the general population and accounts for up to 10% of all patients on renal replacement therapy. Numerous fluid-filled epithelial cysts arise from different nephron segments as spherical dilatations or small out-pouchings, enlarge progressively and eventually become disconnected from the rest of the renal

Ming-Yang Chang; Albert C. M. Ong

2008-01-01

117

Impaired TH17 cell differentiation in subjects with autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES, `Job's syndrome') is characterized by recurrent and often severe pulmonary infections, pneumatoceles, eczema, staphylococcal abscesses, mucocutaneous candidiasis, and abnormalities of bone and connective tissue. Mutations presumed to underlie HIES have recently been identified in stat3, the gene encoding STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) (refs 3, 4). Although impaired production of interferon-gamma

Joshua D. Milner; Jason M. Brenchley; Arian Laurence; Alexandra F. Freeman; Brenna J. Hill; Kevin M. Elias; Yuka Kanno; Christine Spalding; Houda Z. Elloumi; Michelle L. Paulson; Joie Davis; Amy Hsu; Ava I. Asher; John O'Shea; Steven M. Holland; William E. Paul; Daniel C. Douek

2008-01-01

118

Mutations in LRRK2 Cause Autosomal-Dominant Parkinsonism with Pleomorphic Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously linked families with autosomal-dominant, late-onset parkinsonism to chromosome 12p11.2-q13.1 (PARK8). By high-resolution recombination mapping and candidate gene sequencing in 46 families, we have found six disease-segregating mutations (five missense and one putative splice site mutation) in a gene encoding a large, multifunctional protein, LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2). It belongs to the ROCO protein family and includes

Alexander Zimprich; Saskia Biskup; Petra Leitner; Peter Lichtner; Matthew Farrer; Sarah Lincoln; Jennifer Kachergus; Mary Hulihan; Ryan J. Uitti; Donald B. Calne; A. Jon Stoessl; Ronald F. Pfeiffer; Nadja Patenge; Iria Carballo Carbajal; Peter Vieregge; Friedrich Asmus; Bertram Müller-Myhsok; Dennis W. Dickson; Thomas Meitinger; Tim M. Strom; Zbigniew K. Wszolek; Thomas Gasser

2004-01-01

119

Recurrent fetal loss associated with bilineal inheritance of type 1 autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common Mendelian disorder that affects approximately 1 in 500 to 1,000 live births. Mutations in one of two genes, PKD1 and PKD2, account for the disease in most ADPKD families. Despite the relative high frequency of PKD1 mutant alleles, compound heterozygotes or diseased homozygotes have not been described. Methods and Results:

Andrew D. Paterson; Kai Rong Wang; Doina Lupea; Peter St. George-Hyslop; York Pei

2002-01-01

120

Mutation Analysis of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Genes in Han Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by mutations in two genes, PKD1 and PKD2. The complexity of these genes, particularly PKD1, has complicated genetic screening, though recent advances have provided new opportunities for amplifying these genes. In the Han Chinese population, no complete mutational analysis has previously been conducted across the entire span of PKD1 and PKD2. Here,

Shuzhong Zhang; Changlin Mei; Dianyong Zhang; Bing Dai; Bing Tang; Tianmei Sun; Haidan Zhao; Yukun Zhou; Lin Li; Yumei Wu; Wenjing Wang; Xuefei Shen; Ji Song

2005-01-01

121

Comparison of Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Patients with Autosomal-Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are two subtypes of hemorrhagic stroke that may cause severe complications in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The differences in clinical features between SAH and ICH associated with ADPKD are not known. Methods: Among 647 ADPKD patients hospitalized between 1997 and 2007 in our hospital, 11 with ICH (1.7%) and

Ming-Yang Chang; Chi-Man Kuok; Yung-Cheng Chen; Shan-Jin Ryu; Ya-Chung Tian; Yah-Huei Wu-Chou; Fang-Ji Tseng; Chih-Wei Yang

2010-01-01

122

Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Multicenter Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary kidney disease. It accounts for 5–10% of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The aim of this multicenter study was to investigate the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with ADPKD. Methods: 1,139 patients with ADPKD who were followed up at 12 different centers were recruited for this

Rumeyza Kazancioglu; Tevfik Ecder; Lutfullah Altintepe; Mehmet Riza Altiparmak; Serhan Tuglular; Abdullah Uyanik; Caner Cavdar; Sabahat Alisir Ecder; Bulent Tokgoz; Neval Duman; Ali Duzova; Ramazan Cetinkaya

2011-01-01

123

Autosomal-dominant nystagmus, foveal hypoplasia and presenile cataract associated with a novel PAX6 mutation  

PubMed Central

Autosomal-dominant idiopathic infantile nystagmus has been linked to 6p12 (OMIM 164100), 7p11.2 (OMIM 608345) and 13q31-q33 (OMIM 193003). PAX6 (11p13, OMIM 607108) mutations can also cause autosomal-dominant nystagmus, typically in association with aniridia or iris hypoplasia. We studied a large multigenerational white British family with autosomal-dominant nystagmus, normal irides and presenile cataracts. An SNP-based genome-wide analysis revealed a linkage to a 13.4-MB region on chromosome 11p13 with a maximum lod score of 2.93. A mutation analysis of the entire coding region and splice junctions of the PAX6 gene revealed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.227C>G) that segregated with the phenotype and is predicted to result in the amino-acid substitution of proline by arginine at codon 76 p.(P76R). The amino-acid variation p.(P76R) within the paired box domain is likely to destabilise the protein due to steric hindrance as a result of the introduction of a polar and larger amino acid. Eye movement recordings showed a significant intrafamilial variability of horizontal, vertical and torsional nystagmus. High-resolution in vivo imaging of the retina using optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed features of foveal hypoplasia, including rudimentary foveal pit, incursion of inner retinal layers, short photoreceptor outer segments and optic nerve hypoplasia. Thus, this study presents a family that segregates a PAX6 mutation with nystagmus and foveal hypoplasia in the absence of iris abnormalities. Moreover, it is the first study showing detailed characteristics using eye movement recordings of autosomal-dominant nystagmus in a multigenerational family with a novel PAX6 mutation. PMID:23942204

Thomas, Shery; Thomas, Mervyn G; Andrews, Caroline; Chan, Wai-Man; Proudlock, Frank A; McLean, Rebecca J; Pradeep, Archana; Engle, Elizabeth C; Gottlob, Irene

2014-01-01

124

Successful steroid treatment of a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease complicated by sarcoidosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The patient was a 54-year-old woman with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) who developed complicating systemic\\u000a sarcoidosis. Hypercalcemia and an abrupt increase in serum creatinine levels were observed during the clinical course. Steroid\\u000a therapy was initiated and produced a distinct improvement in renal function. A kidney biopsy was not feasible because ADPKD\\u000a is a contraindication for renal needle biopsy.

Yuko Iwasa; Junko Arai; Michihiro Mitobe; Ken Tsuchiya; Kosaku Nitta

2011-01-01

125

FOXC2 haploinsufficient mice are a model for human autosomal dominant lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphedema-distichiasis (LD) (OMIM 153400) is a rare autosomal-dominant condition characterized by pubertal onset of lower limb lymphedema and an aberrant second row of eyelashes arising from the meibomian glands. In some patients cardiac, skeletal and other defects coexist. We previously identified inactivating, nonsense and frameshift mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXC2 in affected members of LD families. To further

Benjamin M. Kriederman; Teressa L. Myloyde; Marlys H. Witte; Susan L. Dagenais; Charles L. Witte; Margaret Rennels; Michael J. Bernas; Michelle T. Lynch; Robert P. Erickson; Mark S. Caulder; Naoyuki Miura; David Jackson; Brian P. Brooks; Thomas W. Glover

2003-01-01

126

Description of familial keloids in five pedigrees: evidence for autosomal dominant inheritance and phenotypic heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Background Familial keloids have been reported, having either autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive inheritance. We wished to determine the inheritance pattern and phenotype of keloids among multigenerational families, as a prelude to a positional mapping strategy to identify candidate genes. Methods We studied three African American families, one Afro-Caribbean family and one Asian-American family. Phenotyping including assessing all patients for the presence, distribution, and appearance of keloids, together with the timing of keloid onset and provocative factors. The clinical trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00005802). Results Age of keloid onset varied considerably within families, but commonly occurred by the second decade. The fraction of affected individuals was 38%, 45%, 62%, 67% and 73% among the five families respectively. Keloid severity and morphology differed within and between families. A novel finding is that certain families manifest keloids in distinct locations, with one family showing an excess of extremity keloids and two families showing an excess of axilla-groin keloids. Conclusion Familial keloids appear to most commonly manifest autosomal dominant or semidominant inheritance, and there may be familial patterns of keloid distribution. PMID:19638218

Clark, Jason A; Turner, Maria L; Howard, Lillian; Stanescu, Horia; Kleta, Robert; Kopp, Jeffrey B

2009-01-01

127

Evidence for locus heterogeneity in autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy  

SciTech Connect

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) is a diagnostic classification encompassing a broad group of proximal myopathies. A gene for the dominant form of LGMD (LGMD1A) has recently been localized to a 7-cM region of chromosome 5q between D5S178 and IL9. We studied three additional dominant LGMD families for linkage to these two markers and excluded all from localization to this region, providing evidence for locus heterogeneity within the dominant form of LGMD. Although the patterns of muscle weakness were similar in all families studied, the majority of affected family members in the chromosome 5-linked pedigree have a dysarthric speech pattern, which is not present in any of the five unlinked families. The demonstration of heterogeneity within autosomal dominant LGMD is the first step in attempting to subclassify these families with similar clinical phenotypes on a molecular level. 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Speer, M.C.; Stajich, J.M.; Gaskell, P.C. [Duke Univ. Medical School, Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

1995-12-01

128

Recessive versus imprinted disorder: consanguinity can impede establishing the diagnosis of autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib  

PubMed Central

Hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia with low/normal parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels can be observed in hypoparathyroidism (HP), a disorder that may follow an autosomal dominant (AD) or autosomal recessive (AR) mode of inheritance. Similar biochemical changes are also observed in pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) type Ia and Ib, but affected patients usually show elevated PTH levels indicative of hormonal resistance. Features of Albright’s hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) are typically not observed in patients affected by familial forms of PHP-Ib, which are most frequently caused by maternally inherited, heterozygous microdeletions within STX16 and are associated with isolated loss of methylation at GNAS exon A/B. We established the molecular defect in two children of consanguineous Turkish parents, who presented with hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and low 25-OH vitamin D levels, but initially normal or only mildly elevated PTH levels, i.e. findings that do not readily exclude HP. After normalizing serum magnesium levels, hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia persisted, and PTH levels increased, suggesting PTH-resistance rather than PTH-deficiency. Because of the absence of AHO and parental consanguinity, an AR form of PHP-Ib appeared plausible, which had previously been suggested for sporadic cases. However, loss of GNAS methylation was restricted to exon A/B, which led to the identification of the 3-kb STX16 microdeletion. The same mutation was also detected in the healthy mother, who did not show any GNAS methylation abnormality, indicating that her deletion resides on the paternal allele. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering a parentally imprinted, autosomal dominant disorder even if consanguinity suggests an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. PMID:20538864

Turan, Serap; Akin, Leyla; Akcay, Teoman; Adal, Erdal; Sarikaya, Sevil; Bastepe, Murat; Jüppner, Harald

2010-01-01

129

Novel mutations in the keratin-74 ( KRT74 ) gene underlie autosomal dominant woolly hair\\/hypotrichosis in Pakistani families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant woolly hair (ADWH) is an inherited condition of tightly curled and twisted scalp hair. Recently, a mutation\\u000a in human keratin-74 (KRT74) gene has been shown to cause this form of hereditary hair disorder. In the present study, we have described two families\\u000a (A and B) having multiple individuals affected with autosomal dominant form of hair loss disorders. In

Naveed Wasif; Syed Kamran ul-Hassan Naqvi; Sulman Basit; Nadir Ali; Muhammad Ansar; Wasim Ahmad

2011-01-01

130

The anterior segment disorder autosomal dominant keratitis is linked to the Aniridia/PAX-6 gene  

SciTech Connect

Autosomal dominant keratitis (ADK) is an eye disease characterized by anterior stromal corneal opacification and vascularization in the peripheral cornea. Progression into the central cornea may compromise visual acuity. Other anterior segment features include minimal radial defects of the iris stroma. Posterior segment involvement is characterized by foveal hypoplasia with minimal effect on visual acuity. Aniridia is a second autosomal dominantly inherited ocular disorder defined by structural defects of the iris, frequently severe enough to cause an almost complete absence of iris. This may be accompanied by other anterior segment manifestations, including cataract and keratitis. Posterior segment involvement in aniridia is characterized by foveal hypoplasia resulting in a highly variable impairment of visual acuity, often with nystagmus. Aniridia is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant disease and occurs in 1 in 50,000 to 100,000 people. Aniridia has been shown to result from mutations in PAX-6, a gene thought to regulate fetal eye development. The similar clinical findings in ADK and aniridia, with the similar patterns of inheritance, compelled us to investigate if these two ocular disorders are variants of the same genetic disorder. We have tested for linkage between PAX-6 and ADK within an ADK family with 33 members over four generations, including 11 affected individuals. Linkage studies reveal that D11S914 (located within 3 cM of PAX-6) does not recombine with ADK (LOD score 3.61; {theta} = 0.00), consistent with PAX-6 mutations being responsible for ADK. Direct sequencing of PAX-6 RT-PCR products from ADK patients is underway to identify the mutation within the PAX-6 gene that results in ADK. The linkage of PAX-6 with ADK, along with a recent report that mutations in PAX-6 also underlie Peter`s anomaly, implicates PAX-6 widely in anterior segment malformations.

Mirzayans, F.; Pearce, W.G.; Mah, T.S. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)] [and others

1994-09-01

131

Should patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease be screened for cerebral aneurysms?  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder affecting 1 in 1000 people worldwide and is associated with an increased risk of intracranial aneurysms. It remains unclear whether there is sufficient net benefit to screening this patient population for IA, considering recent developments in imaging and treatment and our evolving understanding of the natural history of unruptured aneurysms. There is currently no standardized screening protocol for IA in patients with ADPCKD. Our review of the literature focused on the above issues and presents our appraisal of the estimated value of screening for IA in the setting of ADPCKD. PMID:23292526

Rozenfeld, M N; Ansari, S A; Shaibani, A; Russell, E J; Mohan, P; Hurley, M C

2014-01-01

132

Novel CACNA1S mutation causes autosomal dominant hypokalemic periodic paralysis in a Chinese family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder which is characterized by periodic attacks of muscle weakness associated with a decrease in the serum potassium level. The skeletal muscle calcium channel a-subunit gene CACNA1S is a major disease-causing gene for HypoPP, however, only three specific HypoPP-causing mutations, Arg528His, Arg1,239His and Arg1,239Gly, have been identified in CACNA1S to date. In

Qiufen Wang; Mugen Liu; Chunsheng Xu; Zhaohui Tang; Yuhua Liao; Rong Du; Wei Li; Xiaoyan Wu; Xu Wang; Ping Liu; Xianqin Zhang; Jianfang Zhu; Xiang Ren; Tie Ke; Qing Wang; Junguo Yang

2005-01-01

133

Seizure semiology in autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features, due to novel LGI1 mutations.  

PubMed

Mutations in LGI1 are found in 50% of families with autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features (ADEAF). In ADEAF, family members have predominantly lateral temporal lobe seizures but mesial temporal lobe semiology may also occur. We report here three families with novel LGI1 mutations (p.Ile82Thr, p.Glu225*, c.432-2_436del). Seven affected individuals reported an auditory aura and one a visual aura. A 10-year old boy described a cephalic aura followed by an unpleasant taste and oral automatisms without auditory, visual or psychic features. PMID:24206907

Sadleir, Lynette G; Agher, Dahbia; Chabrol, Elodie; Elkouby, Léa; Leguern, Eric; Paterson, Sarah J; Harty, Rosie; Bellows, Susannah T; Berkovic, Samuel F; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Baulac, Stéphanie

2013-12-01

134

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL): a rare cause of dementia  

PubMed Central

The clinical course of a 60-year-old gentleman with a history of atypical migraine, recurrent encephalopathic episodes and progressive cognitive impairment is presented. He was diagnosed with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy, a rare genetic disorder of the cerebral blood vessels caused by mutations in the Notch 3 gene on chromosome 19. The diagnosis was confirmed by MRI, skin biopsy and genetic testing. His cognitive function has progressively deteriorated and he continues to receive supportive care provision. The course and review of the condition are highlighted. PMID:23355563

Toni-Uebari, Thelma K

2013-01-01

135

DVL1 Frameshift Mutations Clustering in the Penultimate Exon Cause Autosomal-Dominant Robinow Syndrome.  

PubMed

Robinow syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by mesomelic limb shortening, genital hypoplasia, and distinctive facial features and for which both autosomal-recessive and autosomal-dominant inheritance patterns have been described. Causative variants in the non-canonical signaling gene WNT5A underlie a subset of autosomal-dominant Robinow syndrome (DRS) cases, but most individuals with DRS remain without a molecular diagnosis. We performed whole-exome sequencing in four unrelated DRS-affected individuals without coding mutations in WNT5A and found heterozygous DVL1 exon 14 mutations in three of them. Targeted Sanger sequencing in additional subjects with DRS uncovered DVL1 exon 14 mutations in five individuals, including a pair of monozygotic twins. In total, six distinct frameshift mutations were found in eight subjects, and all were heterozygous truncating variants within the penultimate exon of DVL1. In five families in which samples from unaffected parents were available, the variants were demonstrated to represent de novo mutations. All variant alleles are predicted to result in a premature termination codon within the last exon, escape nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), and most likely generate a C-terminally truncated protein with a distinct -1 reading-frame terminus. Study of the transcripts extracted from affected subjects' leukocytes confirmed expression of both wild-type and variant alleles, supporting the hypothesis that mutant mRNA escapes NMD. Genomic variants identified in our study suggest that truncation of the C-terminal domain of DVL1, a protein hypothesized to have a downstream role in the Wnt-5a non-canonical pathway, is a common cause of DRS. PMID:25817016

White, Janson; Mazzeu, Juliana F; Hoischen, Alexander; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Gambin, Tomasz; Alcino, Michele Calijorne; Penney, Samantha; Saraiva, Jorge M; Hove, Hanne; Skovby, Flemming; Kayserili, Hülya; Estrella, Elicia; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Steehouwer, Marloes; Muzny, Donna M; Sutton, V Reid; Gibbs, Richard A; Lupski, James R; Brunner, Han G; van Bon, Bregje W M; Carvalho, Claudia M B

2015-04-01

136

Evidence for locus heterogeneity in human autosomal dominant split hand/split foot malformation  

SciTech Connect

Split hand/split foot (SHSF, also known as ectrodactyly) is a human developmental disorder characterized by absent central rays and other distal limb malformations. Physical mapping of SHSF-associated chromosomal rearrangements has provided compelling evidence for the location of a causative gene locus (designated SHFD1) on chromosome 7 within q21.3-q22.1. In the present study, marker loci were localized to the SHFD1 critical region through the analysis of somatic cell hybrids derived from individuals with SHSF and cytogenetic abnormalities involving the 7q21.3q22.1 region. Combined genetic and physical data suggest that the order of markers in the SHFD1 critical region is cen - D7S492 - COL1A2 - D7S527 - D7S479 - D7S491 - SHFD1 - D7S554 - ASNS - D7S518 -qter. Dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms at several of these loci were used to test for linkage of SHSF to this region in a large pedigree that demonstrated autosomal dominant inheritance of this disorder. Strong evidence against linkage of SHSF to the SHFD1 critical region was obtained, and the gene responsible for the SHSF phenotype in this pedigree was excluded from a 10 cM interval spanning the entire SHFD1 critical region. Evidence of exclusion to the SHFD1 critical region was also observed in five additional families. Thus, combined molecular and genetic data provide evidence for locus heterogeneity in autosomal dominant SHSF, implying that mutations in at least two separate autosomal genes can result in this distinctive human developmental disorder.

Evans, J.P.; Palmer, S.E.; Wijsman, E.M. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

137

Autosomal dominant oculoauriculovertebral spectrum and 14q23.1 microduplication.  

PubMed

Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS; OMIM 164210) is characterized by anomalies derived from an abnormal development of the first and second branchial arches, with marked inter and intra-familial phenotypic variability. Main clinical features are defects on aural, oral, mandibular, and vertebral development. Cardiac, pulmonary, renal, skeletal, and central nervous system anomalies have also been described. Most affected individuals are isolated cases in otherwise normal families. Autosomal dominant inheritance has been observed in about 2-10% of cases and linkage analysis as well as array-CGH analysis have detected candidate loci for OAVS offering new insights into the understanding of pathogenesis of this entity. We describe a family with clinical diagnosis of OAVS, autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, and detection of a 14q23.1 duplication of 1.34 Mb in size which segregates with the phenotype. This region contains OTX2, which is involved in the development of the forebrain, eyes, and ears, and appears to be a good candidate gene for OAVS. PMID:23794319

Ballesta-Martínez, Maria Juliana; López-González, Vanesa; Dulcet, Lluis Armengol; Rodríguez-Santiago, Benjamín; Garcia-Miñaúr, Sixto; Guillen-Navarro, Encarna

2013-08-01

138

Mutation spectra in autosomal dominant and recessive retinitis pigmentosa in northern Sweden.  

PubMed

Retinal degenerations represent a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting the function of the retina. The frequency of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is 1/3500 worldwide, however, in northern Sweden it is 1/2000 due to limited migration and a 'founder' effect. In this study we identified genetic mechanisms underlying autosomal dominant and recessive RP present in northern Sweden. Several novel mutations unique for this region were found. In an autosomal recessive form of RP, Bothnia dystrophy caused by mutations in the RLBP1 gene, bi-allelic mutations R234W, M226K and compound heterozygosity, M226K+R234W was detected.In dominant form of RP mapped to 19q13.42 a 59 kb genomic deletion including the PRPF31 and three other genes was found.These data provide additional information on the molecular mechanisms of RP evolvement and in the future might be useful in development of therapeutic strategies. Identification of the disease-causing mutations allowed introducing molecular genetic testing of the patients and their families into the clinical practice. PMID:20238024

Golovleva, Irina; Köhn, Linda; Burstedt, Marie; Daiger, Stephen; Sandgren, Ola

2010-01-01

139

Mutation Spectra in Autosomal Dominant and Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa in Northern Sweden  

PubMed Central

Retinal degenerations represent a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting the function of the retina. The frequency of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is 1/3500 worldwide, however, in northern Sweden it is 1/2000 due to limited migration and a ‘founder’ effect. In this study we identified genetic mechanisms underlying autosomal dominant and recessive RP present in northern Sweden. Several novel mutations unique for this region were found. In an autosomal recessive form of RP, Bothnia dystrophy caused by mutations in the RLBP1 gene, bi-allelic mutations R234W, M226K and compound heterozygosity, M226K+R234W was detected. In dominant form of RP mapped to 19q13.42 a 59 kb genomic deletion including the PRPF31 and three other genes was found. These data provide additional information on the molecular mechanisms of RP evolvement and in the future might be useful in development of therapeutic strategies. Identification of the disease-causing mutations allowed introducing molecular genetic testing of the patients and their families into the clinical practice. PMID:20238024

Köhn, Linda; Burstedt, Marie; Daiger, Stephen; Sandgren, Ola

2014-01-01

140

Lamin B1 overexpression increases nuclear rigidity in autosomal dominant leukodystrophy fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

The architecture and structural mechanics of the cell nucleus are defined by the nuclear lamina, which is formed by A- and B-type lamins. Recently, gene duplication and protein overexpression of lamin B1 (LB1) have been reported in pedigrees with autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD). However, how the overexpression of LB1 affects nuclear mechanics and function and how it may result in pathology remain unexplored. Here, we report that in primary human skin fibroblasts derived from ADLD patients, LB1, but not other lamins, is overexpressed at the nuclear lamina and specifically enhances nuclear stiffness. Transient transfection of LB1 in HEK293 and neuronal N2a cells mimics the mechanical phenotype of ADLD nuclei. Notably, in ADLD fibroblasts, reducing LB1 protein levels by shRNA knockdown restores elasticity values to those indistinguishable from control fibroblasts. Moreover, isolated nuclei from ADLD fibroblasts display a reduced nuclear ion channel open probability on voltage-step application, suggesting that biophysical changes induced by LB1 overexpression may alter nuclear signaling cascades in somatic cells. Overall, the overexpression of LB1 in ADLD cells alters nuclear mechanics and is linked to changes in nuclear signaling, which could help explain the pathogenesis of this disease.—Ferrera, D., Canale, C., Marotta, R., Mazzaro, N., Gritti, M., Mazzanti, M., Capellari, S., Cortelli, P., Gasparini, L. Lamin B1 overexpression increases nuclear rigidity in autosomal dominant leukodystrophy fibroblasts. PMID:24858279

Ferrera, Denise; Canale, Claudio; Marotta, Roberto; Mazzaro, Nadia; Gritti, Marta; Mazzanti, Michele; Capellari, Sabina; Cortelli, Pietro; Gasparini, Laura

2014-01-01

141

Clinical and laboratory markers of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) progression: an overview.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney (ADPKD) is the most common inherited renal cystic disease and it occurs in all races, the reported prevalence is between 1:400 and 1:1000. It is characterized by development of cysts in both kidneys and progressive renal function loss. Among most Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney patients, renal function remains intact until the fourth decade of life. It is very important to identify early markers of disease progression to recognize patients with a worse prognosis. The aim of this study is to review the clinical and laboratory markers of ADPKD progression. The early clinical parameters evaluated seem to be directly correlated with the volume of the cysts that determine the kidney volume. From a clinical point of view, total kidney volume (TKV) appears to be the best marker of early ADPKD progression. This review evaluated several ADPKD progression markers comparing the early consolidated clinical and the new promising laboratory indicators. From a laboratory point of view, copeptin has a potential role between the serum biomarkers of ADPKD progression. However, further studies are necessary to validate the potential predictive value of its serum level and to adopt it for routine use. The combination of biomarkers could probably predict ADPKD progression with more accuracy than the use of a single biomarker. PMID:25300895

Corradi, V; Gastaldon, F; Virzì, G M; Caprara, C; Martino, F; Ronco, C

2015-02-01

142

Suppression and replacement gene therapy for autosomal dominant disease in a murine model of dominant retinitis pigmentosa.  

PubMed

For dominantly inherited disorders development of gene therapies, targeting the primary genetic lesion has been impeded by mutational heterogeneity. An example is rhodopsin-linked autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa with over 150 mutations in the rhodopsin gene. Validation of a mutation-independent suppression and replacement gene therapy for this disorder has been undertaken. The therapy provides a means of correcting the genetic defect in a mutation-independent manner thereby circumventing the mutational diversity. Separate adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors were used to deliver an RNA interference (RNAi)-based rhodopsin suppressor and a codon-modified rhodopsin replacement gene resistant to suppression due to nucleotide alterations at degenerate positions over the RNAi target site. Viruses were subretinally coinjected into P347S mice, a model of dominant rhodopsin-linked retinitis pigmentosa. Benefit in retinal function and structure detected by electroretinography (ERG) and histology, respectively, was observed for at least 5 months. Notably, the photoreceptor cell layer, absent in 5-month-old untreated retinas, contained 3-4 layers of nuclei, whereas photoreceptor ultrastructure, assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) improved significantly. The study provides compelling evidence that codelivered suppression and replacement is beneficial, representing a significant step toward the clinic. Additionally, dual-vector delivery of combined therapeutics represents an exciting approach, which is potentially applicable to other inherited disorders. PMID:21224835

Millington-Ward, Sophia; Chadderton, Naomi; O'Reilly, Mary; Palfi, Arpad; Goldmann, Tobias; Kilty, Claire; Humphries, Marian; Wolfrum, Uwe; Bennett, Jean; Humphries, Peter; Kenna, Paul F; Farrar, G Jane

2011-04-01

143

[Evidence for autosomal dominant inheritance through the maternal line in a case of primary ciliary diskinesia].  

PubMed

An atypical case of primary ciliary dyskinesia is presented in which the inheritance, rather than the classical autosomal recessive, appears to be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait through the maternal line. The case involves two brothers of 29 and 30 years of age, married without children, with a history of infertility, frequent episodes of sinusitis, and recurrent pulmonary infections. Their mother and sister have chronic bronchopathy of unknown etiology. Their father is healthy without pulmonary problems or sinusitis. At physical exam, both brothers, sister and mother presented with bronchial rhonchi at lung auscultation. Blood analysis and pulmonary function, liver and renal tests were all normal. The ultraestructual study of the sperm flagellum by electron microscopy revealed that both brothers have the same anomaly. Namely, in the majority of the cross-sections, both dynein arms are missing. The nexin filament was present, as well as the radial spokes and the central pair of microtubules. In some sperm, besides the absence of dynein arms, there was also absence of the central pair of microtubules. Neither anomalies of the fibrous sheath nor of the dense fibers were found. In approximately 50% of the spermatozoa, the midpiece had a decreased number of mitochondria and extra non-aligned mitochondria. Other findings included extra peripheral microtubules in the axoneme. PMID:17058621

Alvarez González, J; Busto Castañón, L; Nistal Serrano, M

2006-01-01

144

Fine localization of the locus for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa on chromosome 17p  

SciTech Connect

The term {open_quotes}retintis pigmentosa{close_quotes} (RP) refers to a group of inherited retinal degenerative disorders. Clinical manifestations include night-blindness, with variable age of onset, followed by constriction of the visual field that may progress to total loss of sight in later life. Previous studies have shown that RP is caused by mutations within different genes and may be inherited as an X-linked recessive (XLRRP), autosomal recessive (ARRP), or autosomal dominant (ADRP) trait. The AD form of this group of conditions has been found to be caused by mutations within the rhodopsin gene in some families and the peripherin/RDS gene in others. In addition, some ADRP families have been found to be linked to anonymous markers on 8cen, 7p, 7q,19q, and, more recently, 17p. The ADRP gene locus on the short arm of chromosome 17 was identified in a large South African family (ADRP-SA) of British origin. The phenotypic expression of the disorder, which has been described elsewhere is consistent in the pedigree with an early onset of disease symptoms. In all affected subjects in the family, onset of symptoms commenced before the age of 10 years. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Goliath, R.; Janssens, P.; Beighton, P. [Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)] [and others

1995-10-01

145

Gamma-D crystallin gene (CRYGD) mutation causes autosomal dominant congenital cerulean cataracts  

PubMed Central

Congenital cataracts are a major cause of bilateral visual impairment in childhood. We mapped the gene responsible for autosomal congenital cerulean cataracts to chromosome 2q33–35 in a four generation family of Moroccan descent. The maximum lod score (7.19 at recombination fraction ?=0) was obtained for marker D2S2208 near the ?-crystallin gene (CRYG) cluster. Sequencing of the coding regions of the CRYGA, B, C, and D genes showed the presence of a heterozygous C>A transversion in exon 2 of CRYGD that is associated with cataracts in this family. This mutation resulted in a proline to threonine substitution at amino acid 23 of the protein in the first of the four Greek key motifs that characterise this protein. We show that although the x ray crystallography modelling does not indicate any change of the backbone conformation, the mutation affects a region of the Greek key motif that is important for determining the topology of this protein fold. Our data suggest strongly that the proline to threonine substitution may alter the protein folding or decrease the thermodynamic stability or solubility of the protein. Furthermore, this is the first report of a mutation in this gene resulting in autosomal dominant congenital cerulean cataracts. PMID:12676897

Nandrot, E; Slingsby, C; Basak, A; Cherif-Chefchaoun..., M; Benazzouz, B; Hajaji, Y; Boutayeb, S; Gribouval, O; Arbogast, L; Berraho, A; Abitbol, M; Hilal, L

2003-01-01

146

Autosomal dominant familial spastic paraplegia; Linkage analysis and evidence for linkage to chromosome 2p  

SciTech Connect

Familial spastic paraplegia (FSP) is a degenerative disorder of the motor system characterized by progressive weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs. Little is known about the pathophysiology of this disorder. FSP can be inherited as an autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive, or X-linked trait. We have undertaken linkage analysis for a group of 36 AD FSP families from which we have collected blood samples from 427 individuals, including 148 affected individuals. Typing of polymorphic markers has allowed us to exclude more than 50% of the genome. Recently, linkage for AD FSP to a locus on chromosome 14q was reported. Our AD FSP kindreds were tested for linkage to markers spanning the 20 cM region between D14S69 and D14S66; however, we were not able to establish linkage for any of our families to chromosome 14. Lod scores suggestive of linkage for some AD FSP kindreds have been obtained for markers on chromosome 2p. We have tested seven polymorphic markers spanning the region between D2S405 and D2S177. Our highest aggregate lod score, including all families tested, was obtained at the locus D2S352: 2.4 at 20 cM. Results from HOMOG analysis for linkage heterogeneity will be reported.

Figlewicz, D.A. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Dube, M.P.; Rouleau, G.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)] [and others

1994-09-01

147

Autosomal dominant zonular cataract with sutural opacities localized to chromosome 17q11-12  

SciTech Connect

Congenital cataracts constitute a morphologically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases that are a major cause of childhood blindness. Different loci for hereditary congenital cataracts have been mapped to chromosomes 1, 2, 16, and 17q24. We report linkage of a gene causing a unique form of autosomal dominant zonular cataracts with Y-sutural opacities to chromosome 17q11-12 in a three-generation family exhibiting a maximum lod score of 3.9 at D17S805. Multipoint analysis gave a Mod confidence interval of 17 cM. This interval is bounded by the markers D17S799 and D17S798, a region that would encompass a number of candidate genes including that coding for {Beta}A3/A1-crystallin. 30 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Padma, T.; Ayyagari, R.; Murty, J.S. [and others

1995-10-01

148

A stepwise approach for effective management of chronic pain in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Chronic pain, defined as pain existing for >4-6 weeks, affects >60% of patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic disease (ADPKD). It can have various causes, indirectly or directly related to the increase in kidney and liver volume in these patients. Chronic pain in ADPKD patients is often severe, impacting physical activity and social relationships, and frequently difficult to manage. This review provides an overview of pathophysiological mechanisms that can lead to pain and discusses the sensory innervation of the kidneys and the upper abdominal organs, including the liver. In addition, the results of a systematic literature search of ADPKD-specific treatment options are presented. Based on pathophysiological knowledge and evidence derived from the literature an argumentative stepwise approach for effective management of chronic pain in ADPKD is proposed. PMID:25165181

Casteleijn, Niek F; Visser, Folkert W; Drenth, Joost P H; Gevers, Tom J G; Groen, Gerbrand J; Hogan, Marie C; Gansevoort, Ron T

2014-09-01

149

Generation of the first Autosomal Dominant Osteopetrosis Type II (ADO2) disease models  

PubMed Central

Autosomal Dominant Osteopetrosis Type II (ADO2) is a heritable osteosclerotic disorder dependent on osteoclast impairment. In most patients it results from heterozygous missense mutations in the chloride channel 7 (CLCN7) gene, encoding for a 2Cl?/1H+ antiporter. By a knock-in strategy inserting a missense mutation in the Clcn7 gene, our two research groups independently generated mouse models of ADO2 on different genetic backgrounds carrying the homolog of the most frequent heterozygous mutation (p.G213R) in the Clcn7 gene found in humans. Our results demonstrate that the heterozygous model holds true presenting with higher bone mass, increased numbers of poorly resorbing osteoclasts and a lethal phenotype in the homozygous state. Considerable variability is observed in the heterozygous mice according with the mouse background, suggesting that modifier genes could influence the penetrance of the disease gene. PMID:24185277

Alam, Imranul; Gray, Amie K.; Chu, Kang; Ichikawa, Shoji; Mohammad, Khalid S.; Capannolo, Marta; Capulli, Mattia; Maurizi, Antonio; Muraca, Maurizio; Teti, Anna; Econs, Michael J.; Fattore, Andrea Del

2013-01-01

150

[Clinical features in a Japanese patient with autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy having LGI1 mutation].  

PubMed

We described a clinical feature of autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) in a Japanese patient having LGI1 mutation. The patient was a 27-year-old woman who had her first seizure at the age of 10 years, a nocturnal generalized seizure. She then had partial seizures manifesting auditory symptoms with or without anxiety, panic attack, déjà vu, sensory aphasia and visual symptoms. Repeated EEGs were normal. Brain MRI showed small left superior temporal gyrus. 18F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PDG-PET) demonstrated glucose hypometabolism in the left lateral temporal lobe. Sequencing of the LGI1 revealed a single base substitution in exon 8 (1642C-->T) causing missense mutation at residue 473 of the LGI1 protein (S473 L). When one demonstrates ictal symptoms arising from the lateral temporal to occipital area with psychotic symptoms, ADLTE should be suspected and a detailed family history is warranted. PMID:19462817

Fujita, Youshi; Ikeda, Akio; Kadono, Kentaro; Kawamata, Jun; Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Takahashi, Ryosuke

2009-04-01

151

Functional heterogeneity of mutant rhodopsins responsible for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.  

PubMed Central

Thirteen mutant rhodopsins responsible for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) have been produced by transfection of cloned cDNA into tissue culture cells. Three mutants [class I: Phe-45----Leu, Gln-344----termination (deletion of C-terminal positions 344-348), and Pro-347----Leu] resemble wild-type rhodopsin in yield, regenerability with 11-cis-retinal, and plasma membrane localization. Ten mutants [class II: Thr-17----Met, Pro-23----His, Thr-58----Arg, Val-87----Asp, Gly-89----Asp, Gly-106----Trp, Arg-135----Leu, Arg-135----Trp, Tyr-178----Cys, and Asp-190----Gly] accumulate to significantly lower levels, regenerate with 11-cis-retinal variably or not at all, and are transported inefficiently to the plasma membrane, remaining primarily in the endoplasmic reticulum. These data suggest that there are at least two distinct biochemical defects associated with different rhodopsin mutants in ADRP. Images PMID:1924344

Sung, C H; Schneider, B G; Agarwal, N; Papermaster, D S; Nathans, J

1991-01-01

152

Autosomal dominant nemaline myopathy caused by a novel alpha-tropomyosin 3 mutation.  

PubMed

Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a genetically and clinically heterogenous muscle disorder, which is myopathologically characterized by nemaline bodies. Mutations in six genes have been reported to cause NM: Nebulin (NEB Pelin 1999), alpha-skeletal muscle actin (ACTA1 Nowak 1999), alpha-slow tropomyosin (TPM3 Laing 1995), beta-tropomyosin (TPM2 Donner 2002), slow troponin T (TNNT1 Johnston 2000) and cofilin 2 (CFL2 Agrawal 2007). The majority of cases are due to mutation in NEB and ACTA1. We report on the clinical, myopathological and muscle MRI findings in a German family with autosomal dominant NM due to a novel pathogenic TPM3 mutation (p.Ala156Thr). PMID:20012312

Kiphuth, I C; Krause, S; Huttner, H B; Dekomien, G; Struffert, T; Schröder, R

2010-04-01

153

Autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE): absence of chromosomal rearrangements in LGI1 gene.  

PubMed

Mutations of leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) gene are found in about half of the families with autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE). More recently a LGI1 heterozygous microdeletion was found in a single ADLTE family, suggesting that submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities should be investigated in cases negative for LGI1 mutations. This study examines whether microdeletions and duplications of the LG1 gene occurred in eight ADLTE families and 20 sporadic patients that were negative for LGI1 mutations. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was applied to detect potential deletions and duplications of LGI1 gene. In all patients, MLPA analysis did not reveal any pathogenic changes in the LGI1 gene. Chromosomal rearrangements involving the LGI1 gene were not identified in our series of familial or sporadic LTE. These results further illustrate the considerable genetic heterogeneity for ADLTE, despite the relatively homogeneous clinical picture. There are as yet undiscovered mechanisms underlying ADLTE. PMID:24315022

Manna, Ida; Mumoli, Laura; Labate, Angelo; Citrigno, Luigi; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Aguglia, Umberto; Quattrone, Aldo; Gambardella, Antonio

2014-03-01

154

[Cardiac tamponade as first manifestation in Mediterranean fever with autosomal dominant form].  

PubMed

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a hereditary disease characterized by brief, recurring and self-limited episodes of fever and pain with inflammation, of one or several serous (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium, synovial or vaginal tunic of the testicle). Amyloidosis is its more important complication and the principal reason of death in the cases in which it appears. Diagnosis is based on the clinic and is confirmed by genetic tests. The treatment with Colchicine (0,02-0,03 mg/kg/day) prevents the recurrence of FMF attacks and the development of secondary (AA) amyloidosis. We report a case of a 13-year-old child in which FMF was diagnosed after several coincidental episodes with fever, pericarditis and cardiac tamponade. The genetic confirmation showed an autosomal dominant inheritance that is less frecuent than the recesive form, in this disease. PMID:24365392

Sánchez Ferrer, F; Martinez Villar, M; Fernández Bernal, A; Martín de Lara, I; Paya Elorza, I

2015-01-01

155

Mutational screening of 320 Brazilian patients with autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a clinical and genetically heterogeneous group of debilitating neurodegenerative diseases that are related to at least 36 different genetic loci; they are clinically characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia and are frequently accompanied by other neurological and non-neurological manifestations. The relative frequency of SCA varies greatly among different regions, presumably because of a founder effect or local ethnicities. Between July 1998 and May 2012, we investigated 320 Brazilian patients with an SCA phenotype who belonged to 150 unrelated families with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern and 23 sporadic patients from 13 Brazilian states. A total of 265 patients (82.8%) belonging to 131 unrelated families (87.3%) were found to have a definite mutation, and SCA3 accounted for most of the familial cases (70.7%), followed by SCA7 (6%), SCA1 (5.3%), SCA2 (2.7%), SCA6 (1.3%), SCA8 (0.7%) and SCA10 (0.7%). In the Ribeirão Preto mesoregion, which is located in the northeast part of São Paulo State, the prevalence of SCA3 was approximately 5 per 100,000 inhabitants, which is the highest prevalence found in Brazil. No mutation was found in the SCA12, SCA17 and DRPLA genes, and all the sporadic cases remained without a molecular diagnosis. This study further characterizes the spectrum of SCA mutations found in Brazilian patients, which suggests the existence of regional differences and demonstrates the expansion of the SCA8 locus in Brazilian families. PMID:25466696

Cintra, Vívian Pedigone; Lourenço, Charles Marques; Marques, Sandra Elisabete; de Oliveira, Luana Michelli; Tumas, Vitor; Marques, Wilson

2014-12-15

156

Autosomal dominant familial spastic paraplegia: Tight linkage to chromosome 15q  

SciTech Connect

Familial spastic paraplegia (FSP) (MIM No.18260) constitutes a clinically and genetically diverse group of disorders that share the primary feature of progressive, severe, lower extremity spasticity. FSP is classified according to the mode of inheritance and whether progressive spasticity occurs in isolation ({open_quotes}uncomplicated FSP{close_quotes}) or with other neurologic abnormalities ({open_quotes}complicated FSP{close_quotes}), including optic neuropathy, retinopathy, extrapyramidal disturbance, dementia, ataxia, ichthyosis, mental retardation, or deafness. Recently, autosomal dominant, uncomplicated FSP was shown to be genetically heterogeneous and tightly linked to a group of microsatellite markers on chromosome 14q in one large kindred. We examined 126 members of a non-consanguineous North American kindred of Irish descent. FSP was diagnosed in 31 living subjects who developed insidiously progressive gait disturbance between ages 12 and 35 years. Using genetic linkage analysis to microsatellite DNA polymorphisms, we showed that the FSP locus on chromosome 14q was exluded from linkage with the disorder in our family. Subsequently, we searched for genetic linkage between the disorder and microsatellite DNA polymorphisms spanning approximately 50% of the genome. We observed significantly positive, two-point maximum lod scores (Z) for markers on chromosome 15q: D15S128 (Z=9.70, {theta}=0.05), D15S165 (Z=3.30, {theta}=0.10), and UT511 (Z=3.86, {theta}=0.10). Our data clearly establishes that one locus for autosomal dominant, uncomplicated FSP is mapped to the pericentric region of chromosome 15q. Identifying genes responsible for chromosome 15q-linked and chromosome 14q-linked FSP will greatly advance our understanding of this condition and hopefully other inherited and degenerative brain and spinal cord disorders that are also characterized by axonal degeneration.

Fink, J.K.; Wu, C.T.B.; Jones, S.M.

1994-09-01

157

Missense mutations in ITPR1 cause autosomal dominant congenital nonprogressive spinocerebellar ataxia  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital nonprogressive spinocerebellar ataxia is characterized by early gross motor delay, hypotonia, gait ataxia, mild dysarthria and dysmetria. The clinical presentation remains fairly stable and may be associated with cerebellar atrophy. To date, only a few families with autosomal dominant congenital nonprogressive spinocerebellar ataxia have been reported. Linkage to 3pter was demonstrated in one large Australian family and this locus was designated spinocerebellar ataxia type 29. The objective of this study is to describe an unreported Canadian family with autosomal dominant congenital nonprogressive spinocerebellar ataxia and to identify the underlying genetic causes in this family and the original Australian family. Methods and Results Exome sequencing was performed for the Australian family, resulting in the identification of a heterozygous mutation in the ITPR1 gene. For the Canadian family, genotyping with microsatellite markers and Sanger sequencing of ITPR1 gene were performed; a heterozygous missense mutation in ITPR1 was identified. Conclusions ITPR1 encodes inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 1, a ligand-gated ion channel that mediates calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Deletions of ITPR1 are known to cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 15, a distinct and very slowly progressive form of cerebellar ataxia with onset in adulthood. Our study demonstrates for the first time that, in addition to spinocerebellar ataxia type 15, alteration of ITPR1 function can cause a distinct congenital nonprogressive ataxia; highlighting important clinical heterogeneity associated with the ITPR1 gene and a significant role of the ITPR1-related pathway in the development and maintenance of the normal functions of the cerebellum. PMID:22986007

2012-01-01

158

Prevalence of Mutations in eyeGENE Probands With a Diagnosis of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To screen samples from patients with presumed autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) for mutations in 12 disease genes as a contribution to the research and treatment goals of the National Ophthalmic Disease Genotyping and Phenotyping Network (eyeGENE). Methods. DNA samples were obtained from eyeGENE. A total of 170 probands with an intake diagnosis of adRP were tested through enrollment in eyeGENE. The 10 most common genes causing adRP (IMPDH1, KLHL7, NR2E3, PRPF3/RP18, PRPF31/RP11, PRPF8/RP13, PRPH2/RDS, RHO, RP1, and TOPORS) were chosen for PCR-based dideoxy sequencing, along with the two X-linked RP genes, RPGR and RP2. RHO, PRPH2, PRPF31, RPGR, and RP2 were completely sequenced, while only mutation hotspots in the other genes were analyzed. Results. Disease-causing mutations were identified in 52% of the probands. The frequencies of disease-causing mutations in the 12 genes were consistent with previous studies. Conclusions. The Laboratory for Molecular Diagnosis of Inherited Eye Disease at the University of Texas in Houston has thus far received DNA samples from 170 families with a diagnosis of adRP from the eyeGENE Network. Disease-causing mutations in autosomal genes were identified in 48% (81/170) of these families while mutations in X-linked genes accounted for an additional 4% (7/170). Of the 55 distinct mutations detected, 19 (33%) have not been previously reported. All diagnostic results were returned by eyeGENE to participating patients via their referring clinician. These genotyped samples along with their corresponding phenotypic information are also available to researchers who may request access to them for further study of these ophthalmic disorders. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00378742.) PMID:23950152

Sullivan, Lori S.; Bowne, Sara J.; Reeves, Melissa J.; Blain, Delphine; Goetz, Kerry; NDifor, Vida; Vitez, Sally; Wang, Xinjing; Tumminia, Santa J.; Daiger, Stephen P.

2013-01-01

159

Cyclic mood disorder heralding adult-onset autosomal dominant leucodystrophy: a clinical masquerader.  

PubMed

Leucodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of progressive white matter diseases which may be inherited in dominant, recessive or X-linked fashion depending on the type. Adrenoleucodystrophy (ALD) and metachromatic leucodystrophy (MLD) are rather commoner forms of leucodystrophies whereas krabbes disease, alexander disease, cannavans disease etc. are of less common type. Adult-onset autosomal dominant leucodystrophy (ADLD) is a lately described rarer form of leucodystrophy with perhaps no case report from India. Various leucodystrophies may have different clinical presentations, ranging from subtle cognitive and psychiatric manifestations to gross motor disabilities, visual impairment and seizure. Psychiatric manifestations in the form of psychoses and frank schizophrenia are commonly described in MLD. Depression though uncommonly reported in MLD, cyclic mood disorders have been rarely described in any form of leucodystrophies. We are reporting an eye opener, a case of ADLD which masqueraded as a rapid cyclic mood disorder for initial four years, later to be followed by progressive neurological signs and symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is perhaps the first case report of ADLD presenting as rapid cyclic mood disorder in the world literature. PMID:24813031

Jain, Rajendra S; Prakash, Swayam; Raghavendra, B S; Nagpal, Kadam; Handa, Rahul

2014-06-01

160

Longitudinal change in CSF biomarkers in autosomal-dominant Alzheimer disease  

PubMed Central

Clinicopathologic evidence suggests the pathology of Alzheimer disease (AD) begins many years prior to cognitive symptoms. Biomarkers are required to identify affected individuals during this asymptomatic (“pre-clinical”) stage to permit intervention with potential disease-modifying therapies designed to preserve normal brain function. Studies of families with autosomal-dominant AD (ADAD) mutations provide a unique and powerful means to investigate AD biomarker changes during the asymptomatic period. In this biomarker study comparing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma and in vivo amyloid imaging, cross-sectional data obtained at baseline in individuals from ADAD families enrolled in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) demonstrate reduced concentrations of CSF amyloid-?1-42 (A?1–42) associated with the presence of ?-amyloid plaques, and elevated concentrations of CSF tau, ptau181 and VILIP-1, markers of neurofibrillary tangles and/or neuronal injury/death, in asymptomatic mutation carriers 10-20 years prior to their estimated age at symptom onset (EAO), and prior to detection of cognitive deficits. When compared longitudinally, however, the concentrations of CSF biomarkers of neuronal injury/death within-individuals decrease after their EAO, suggesting a slowing of acute neurodegenerative processes with symptomatic disease progression. These results emphasize the importance of longitudinal, within-person assessment when modeling biomarker trajectories across the course of the disease. If corroborated, this pattern may influence the definition of a positive neurodegenerative biomarker outcome in clinical trials. PMID:24598588

Fagan, Anne M.; Xiong, Chengjie; Jasielec, Mateusz S.; Bateman, Randall J.; Goate, Alison M.; Benzinger, Tammie L.S.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Martins, Ralph N.; Masters, Colin L.; Mayeux, Richard; Ringman, John M.; Rossor, Martin N.; Salloway, Stephen; Schofield, Peter R.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Marcus, Daniel; Cairns, Nigel J.; Buckles, Virginia D.; Ladenson, Jack H.; Morris, John C.; Holtzman, David M.

2014-01-01

161

Preclinical trials in autosomal dominant AD: Implementation of the DIAN-TU trial  

PubMed Central

The Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer’s Network Trials Unit (DIAN-TU) was formed to direct the design and management of interventional therapeutic trials of international DIAN and autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease (ADAD) participants. The goal of the DIAN-TU is to implement safe trials that have the highest likelihood of success while advancing scientific understanding of these diseases and clinical effects of proposed therapies. The DIAN-TU has launched a trial design that leverages the existing infrastructure of the ongoing DIAN observational study, takes advantage of a variety of drug targets, incorporates the latest results of biomarker and cognitive data collected during the observational study, and implements biomarkers measuring Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biological processes to improve the efficiency of trial design. The DIAN-TU trial design is unique due to the sophisticated design of multiple drugs, multiple pharmaceutical partners, academics servings as sponsor, geographic distribution of a rare population and intensive safety and biomarker assessments. The implementation of the operational aspects such as home health research delivery, safety magnetic resonance imagings (MRIs) at remote locations, monitoring clinical and cognitive measures, and regulatory management involving multiple pharmaceutical sponsors of the complex DIAN-TU trial are described. PMID:24016464

Mills, S.M.; Mallmann, J.; Santacruz, A.M.; Fuqua, A.; Carril, M.; Aisen, P.S.; Althage, M.C.; Belyew, S.; Benzinger, T.L.; Brooks, W.S.; Buckles, V.D.; Cairns, N.J.; Clifford, D.; Danek, A.; Fagan, A.M.; Farlow, M.; Fox, N.; Ghetti, B.; Goate, A.M.; Heinrichs, D.; Hornbeck, R.; Jack, C.; Jucker, M.; Klunk, W.E.; Marcus, D.S.; Martins, R.N.; Masters, C.M.; Mayeux, R.; McDade, E.; Morris, J.C.; Oliver, A.; Ringman, J.M.; Rossor, M.N.; Salloway, S.; Schofield, P.R.; Snider, J.; Snyder, P.; Sperling, R.A.; Stewart, C.; Thomas, R.G.; Xiong, C.; Bateman, R.J.

2013-01-01

162

Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia type I: A review of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics  

PubMed Central

Type I autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA) is a type of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) characterized by ataxia with other neurological signs, including oculomotor disturbances, cognitive deficits, pyramidal and extrapyramidal dysfunction, bulbar, spinal and peripheral nervous system involvement. The global prevalence of this disease is not known. The most common type I ADCA is SCA3 followed by SCA2, SCA1, and SCA8, in descending order. Founder effects no doubt contribute to the variable prevalence between populations. Onset is usually in adulthood but cases of presentation in childhood have been reported. Clinical features vary depending on the SCA subtype but by definition include ataxia associated with other neurological manifestations. The clinical spectrum ranges from pure cerebellar signs to constellations including spinal cord and peripheral nerve disease, cognitive impairment, cerebellar or supranuclear ophthalmologic signs, psychiatric problems, and seizures. Cerebellar ataxia can affect virtually any body part causing movement abnormalities. Gait, truncal, and limb ataxia are often the most obvious cerebellar findings though nystagmus, saccadic abnormalities, and dysarthria are usually associated. To date, 21 subtypes have been identified: SCA1-SCA4, SCA8, SCA10, SCA12-SCA14, SCA15/16, SCA17-SCA23, SCA25, SCA27, SCA28 and dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA). Type I ADCA can be further divided based on the proposed pathogenetic mechanism into 3 subclasses: subclass 1 includes type I ADCA caused by CAG repeat expansions such as SCA1-SCA3, SCA17, and DRPLA, subclass 2 includes trinucleotide repeat expansions that fall outside of the protein-coding regions of the disease gene including SCA8, SCA10 and SCA12. Subclass 3 contains disorders caused by specific gene deletions, missense mutation, and nonsense mutation and includes SCA13, SCA14, SCA15/16, SCA27 and SCA28. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, physical examination, genetic molecular testing, and exclusion of other diseases. Differential diagnosis is broad and includes secondary ataxias caused by drug or toxic effects, nutritional deficiencies, endocrinopathies, infections and post-infection states, structural abnormalities, paraneoplastic conditions and certain neurodegenerative disorders. Given the autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, genetic counseling is essential and best performed in specialized genetic clinics. There are currently no known effective treatments to modify disease progression. Care is therefore supportive. Occupational and physical therapy for gait dysfunction and speech therapy for dysarthria is essential. Prognosis is variable depending on the type of ADCA and even among kindreds. PMID:21619691

2011-01-01

163

Expression and Cellular Localisation of Renal Endothelin1 and Endothelin Receptor Subtypes in Autosomal-Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major factors influencing the rate of progression of chronic renal disease in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are unknown and there are currently no effective treatments for slowing the progression of chronic renal failure in ADPKD patients. As a first step in investigating the potential role of endothelin-1 (ET1) and its receptors (ETA and ETB) in the pathophysiology of

Albert C. M. Ong; Linda J. Newby; Michael R. Dashwood

2003-01-01

164

Evidence of angiogenesis and microvascular regression in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease kidneys: A corrosion cast study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) accounts for about 10% of all cases of chronic renal failure requiring dialysis. The disease is characterized by proliferation of renal epithelial cells and formation of cysts that expand over years and replace the normal parenchyma of the kidney. As the cysts grow, the volume of the kidney can increase by more than 10-fold, implying

W Wei; V Popov; J A Walocha; J Wen; E Bello-Reuss

2006-01-01

165

Autosomal Dominant Pseudohypoaldosteronism Type 1 in an Infant with Salt Wasting Crisis Associated with Urinary Tract Infection and Obstructive Uropathy  

PubMed Central

Type 1 pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA1) is a salt wasting syndrome caused by renal resistance to aldosterone. Primary renal PHA1 or autosomal dominant PHA1 is caused by mutations in mineralocorticoids receptor gene (NR3C2), while secondary PHA1 is frequently associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) and/or urinary tract malformations (UTM). We report a 14-day-old male infant presenting with severe hyperkalemia, hyponatremic dehydration, metabolic acidosis, and markedly elevated serum aldosterone level, initially thought to have secondary PHA1 due to the associated UTI and posterior urethral valves. His serum aldosterone remained elevated at 5 months of age, despite resolution of salt wasting symptoms. Chromosomal microarray analysis revealed a deletion of exons 3–5 in NR3C2 in the patient and his asymptomatic mother who also had elevated serum aldosterone level, confirming that he had primary or autosomal dominant PHA1. Our case raises the possibility that some patients with secondary PHA1 attributed to UTI and/or UTM may instead have primary autosomal dominant PHA1, for which genetic testing should be considered to identify the cause, determine future recurrence risk, and possibly prevent the life-threatening salt wasting in a subsequent family member. Future clinical research is needed to investigate the potential overlapping between secondary PHA1 and primary autosomal dominant PHA1. PMID:24455331

Bowden, Sasigarn A.; Cozzi, Corin; Hickey, Scott E.; Thrush, Devon Lamb; Astbury, Caroline; Nuthakki, Sushma

2013-01-01

166

Ocular findings associated with a 3 base pair deletion in the peripherin-RDS gene in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affected members of a family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa were found to have a 3 base pair deletion at codon 118 or 119 of the retinal degeneration slow gene. This mutation causes the loss of a highly conserved cysteine residue in the predicted third transmembrane domain of peripherin-rds, a photo-receptor specific structural glycoprotein localised to both rod and cone

J J Wroblewski; J A Wells; A Eckstein; F W Fitzke; C Jubb; T J Keen; C F Inglehearn; S S Bhattacharya; G B Arden; M R Jay

1994-01-01

167

Concurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma and Central Nervous System Lymphoma in a Patient with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To report an unusual case of synchronous renal cell carcinoma and CNS lymphoma in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Case Presentation and Intervention: A 58-year-old woman presented with progressive right hemiparesis of 2 months’ duration. A brain CT scan revealed multiple enhanced lesions in the basal ganglia and the right occipital lobe. CNS lymphoma was

Ming-Yang Chang; Yu-Ming Chen; Yung-Cheng Chen; Ya-Chung Tian; Ji-Tseng Fang; Chih-Wei Yang

2009-01-01

168

Relative Contribution of Mutations in Genes for Autosomal Dominant Distal Hereditary Motor Neuropathies: A Genotype-Phenotype Correlation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distal hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders affecting spinal alpha-motor neurons. Since 2001, mutations in six different genes have been identified for autosomal dominant distal HMN; "glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS)," "dynactin 1 (DCTN1)," "small heat shock 27 kDa protein 1 (HSPB1),"…

Dierick, Ines; Baets, Jonathan; Irobi, Joy; Jacobs, An; De Vriendt, Els; Deconinck, Tine; Merlini, Luciano; Van den Bergh, Peter; Rasic, Vedrana Milic; Robberecht, Wim; Fischer, Dirk; Morales, Raul Juntas; Mitrovic, Zoran; Seeman, Pavel; Mazanec, Radim; Kochanski, Andrzej; Jordanova, Albena; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Helderman-van den Enden, A. T. J. M.; Wokke, John H. J.; Nelis, Eva; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent

2008-01-01

169

A 4-year-old girl with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease complicated by a ruptured intracranial aneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), intracranial aneurysms (ICAs) are extrarenal manifestations and may result in serious and potentially fatal outcome following rupture. Although ICAs are a well-known complication of ADPKD, nearly all cases of ICA occurring in the context of ADPKD are adults. Here, we report the case of a Japanese girl with ADPKD who developed

Satomi Kubo; Mitsuru Nakajima; Kazuyoshi Fukuda; Misato Nobayashi; Toshisuke Sakaki; Katsuya Aoki; Yoshihiko Hirao; Akira Yoshioka

2004-01-01

170

Renal and cardiac effects of antihypertensive treatment with ramipril vs metoprolol in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Hypertension is a common complication in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). This prospective randomized double-blind study was per- formed to compare the renal and cardiac effects of the ACE inhibitor ramipril and the ?-blocker metoprolol as first line therapy in ADPKD patients with hypertension. Methods. Forty-six hypertensive ADPKD patients were randomized to either ramipril (n = 23) or

Raoul Zeltner; Roudolf Poliak; Birgit Stiasny; Roland E. Schmieder; Bernd D. Schulze

2008-01-01

171

A Comprehensive Survey of Mutations in the OPA1 Gene in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To characterize the spectrum of mutations in the OPA1 gene in a large international panel of patients with autosomal dominant optic atrophy (adOA), to improve under- standing of the range of functional deficits attributable to sequence variants in this gene, and to assess any genotype- phenotype correlations. METHODS. All 28 coding exons of OPA1, intron- exon splice sites, 273

Dawn L. Thiselton; Christiane Alexander; Jan-Willem Taanman; Simon Brooks; Thomas Rosenberg; Hans Eiberg; Sten Andreasson; Nicole Van Regemorter; Francis L. Munier; Anthony T. Moore; Shomi S. Bhattacharya; Marcela Votruba

172

Autosomal dominant inheritance of cardiac valves anomalies in two families: extended spectrum of left-ventricular outflow tract obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only a limited number of families with clear monogenic inheritance of nonsyndromic forms of congenital valve defects have been described. We describe two multiplex pedigrees with a similar nonsyndromic form of heart valve anomalies that segregate as an autosomal dominant condition. The first family is a three-generation pedigree with 10 family members affected with congenital defects of the cardiac valves,

Marja W. Wessels; Ingrid M. B. H. van de Laar; Jolien Roos-Hesselink; Sipke Strikwerda; Danielle F. Majoor-Krakauer; L. B. A. de Vries; Wilhelmina S. Kerstjens-Frederikse; Yvonne J. Vos; Bianca M. de Graaf; Aida M. Bertoli-Avella; Patrick J. Willems

2009-01-01

173

Ultrastructural Appearance of Renal and Other Basement Membranes in the Bull Terrier Model of Autosomal Dominant Hereditary Nephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bull terrier hereditary nephritis may represent a model for autosomal dominant Alport's syndrome because affected dogs have the typically lamellated glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and father-to-son disease transmission occurs. This study examined the ultrastructural appearance of the renal and extrarenal basement membranes and their composition in affected Bull terriers. Affected stillborn animals and puppies had subepithelial frilling and vacuolation of

Jennifer C Hood; Judy Savige; Anthony E. Seymour; John Dowling; Paul Martinello; Deb Colville; Roger Sinclair; Ichiro Naito; Glenn Jennings; Clive Huxtable

2000-01-01

174

Further evidence for a locus for autosomal dominant juvenile glaucoma on chromosome 1q and evidence for genetic heterogeneity  

SciTech Connect

Glaucoma is a term used to describe a group of disorders which have in common a characteristic degeneration of the optic nerve associated with typical visual field defects and usually associated with elevated intraocular pressure. Two percent of white Americans and 6-10% of black Americans are affected by the disease. Compelling data indicate that susceptibility to many types of glaucoma is inherited. Hereditary juvenile glaucoma is one form of glaucoma that develops in children and is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance. Using a single large Caucasian pedigree affected with autosomal dominant juvenile glaucoma, Sheffield discovered positive linkage to a group of markers that map to a 30 cM region on the long arm of chromosome 1 (1q21-q31). We have subsequently identified three unrelated Caucasian pedigrees affected with autosomal dominant juvenile glaucoma that also demonstrate linkage to this region on chromosome 1, with the highest combined lod score of 5.12 at theta = .05 for marker D1S218. The identification of critical recombinant individuals in our three pedigrees has allowed us to further localize the disease gene to a 12 cM region between markers D1S242 and D1S431. In addition, we have identified several pedigrees which do not demonstrate linkage to chromosome 1q, including a black family affected with autosomal dominant juvenile glaucoma that is indistinguishable clinically from the disorder affecting the caucasian pedigrees and three pedigrees affected with pigmentary dispersion syndrome, a form of glaucoma that also affects the juvenile population and is also inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. These findings provide evidence for genetic heterogeneity in juvenile glaucoma.

Wiggs, J.; Paglinauan, C.; Stawski, S. [New England Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

175

A recurrent deletion mutation in OPA1 causes autosomal dominant optic atrophy in a Chinese family  

PubMed Central

Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) is the most frequent form of hereditary optic neuropathy and occurs due to the degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells. To identify the genetic defect in a family with putative ADOA, we performed capture next generation sequencing (CNGS) to screen known retinal disease genes. However, six exons failed to be sequenced by CNGS in optic atrophy 1 gene (OPA1). Sequencing of those exons identified a 4?bp deletion mutation (c.2983-1_2985del) in OPA1. Furthermore, we sequenced the transcripts of OPA1 from the patient skin fibroblasts and found there is six-nucleotide deletion (c.2984-c.2989, AGAAAG). Quantitative-PCR and Western blotting showed that OPA1 mRNA and its protein expression have no obvious difference between patient skin fibroblast and control. The analysis of protein structure by molecular modeling suggests that the mutation may change the structure of OPA1 by formation of an alpha helix protruding into an existing pocket. Taken together, we identified an OPA1 mutation in a family with ADOA by filling the missing CNGS data. We also showed that this mutation affects the structural intactness of OPA1. It provides molecular insights for clinical genetic diagnosis and treatment of optic atrophy. PMID:25374051

Zhang, Liping; Shi, Wei; Song, Liming; Zhang, Xiao; Cheng, Lulu; Wang, Yanfang; Ge, Xianglian; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Min, Qingjie; Jin, Zi-Bing; Qu, Jia; Gu, Feng

2014-01-01

176

Novel CACNA1S mutation causes autosomal dominant hypokalemic periodic paralysis in a South American family.  

PubMed

Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder, which is characterized by periodic attacks of muscle weakness associated with a decrease in the serum potassium level. A major disease-causing gene for HypoPP has been identified as CACNA1S, which encodes the skeletal muscle calcium channel alpha-subunit with four transmembrane domains (I-IV), each with six transmembrane segments (S1-S6). To date, all CACNA1S mutations identified in HypoPP patients are located within the voltage-sensor S4 segment. In this study we report a novel CACNA1S mutation in a new region of the protein, the S3 segment of domain III. We characterized a four-generation South American family with HypoPP. Genetic analysis identified a novel V876E mutation in all HypoPP patients in the family, but not in normal family members or 160 control people. Clinical analysis indicates that mutation V876E is associated with a severe outcome as characterized by a very early age of onset, complete penetrance and a severe prognosis including death. These results identify a new mutation in CACNA1S and expand the spectrum of CACNA1S mutations associated with HypoPP. PMID:19779499

Ke, Tie; Gomez, Cladelis Rubio; Mateus, Heidi Eliana; Castano, Juan Andres; Wang, Qing Kenneth

2009-11-01

177

Percutaneous Treatment of Pyocystis in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

SciTech Connect

The course of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is frequently complicated by infection of a cyst within a polycystic kidney, which is a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma damaging the clinical course of patients. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous drainage in management of infected cysts in ADPKD patients. Between May 2003 and December 2006, percutaneous drainage was performed in 16 infected renal cysts of four kidneys in three patients (two females, one male), with a mean age of 57.3 years. Cyst dimensions, total amount of drained cyst fluid, catheterization duration, isolated microorganisms, and follow-up duration were recorded. Technical, clinical success rates were 100%; the complication rate was 0%. Diameters of cysts ranged between 3 and 8 cm. Average volume of drained fluid and average duration of catheterization for one cyst were 226 ml and 9.8 days. No recurrence was encountered but one patient (no. 3), who had pyocystis in the right kidney and was treated with catheterization, referred with left flank pain due to pyocystis in her left kidney 3 months later. Follow-up durations were 35, 47, and 11 months for patients 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For patient 3, follow-up duration for the second procedure was 7 months. We conclude that percutaneous drainage with antibiotic therapy should be the initial method in management of infected cysts in ADPKD patients, with high success and low complication rates.

Akinci, Devrim, E-mail: akincid@yahoo.com; Turkbey, Baris, E-mail: bturkbey@yahoo.co [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Yilmaz, Rahmi [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Nephrology (Turkey); Akpinar, Erhan; Ozmen, Mustafa N.; Akhan, Okan [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2008-09-15

178

Antibody deficiency associated with an inherited autosomal dominant mutation in TWEAK  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the TNF family of proteins have been associated with inherited forms of immune deficiency. Using an array-based sequencing assay, we identified an autosomal-dominant deficiency in TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK; TNFSF12) in a kindred with recurrent infection and impaired antibody responses to protein and polysaccharide vaccines. This mutation occurs in the sixth exon of TWEAK and results in the amino acid substitution R145C within the conserved TNF-homology domain of the full-length protein. TWEAK mutant protein formed high molecular weight aggregates under nonreducing conditions, suggesting an increased propensity for intermolecular interactions. As a result, mutant TWEAK associated with B-cell–activating factor (BAFF) protein and down-regulated the BAFF-mediated activation of the noncanonical NF-?B pathway through inhibition of p100 processing to p52, resulting in inhibition of BAFF-dependent B-cell survival and proliferation. As BAFF mediates T-cell–independent isotype switching and B-cell survival, our data implicate TWEAK as a disease-susceptibility gene for a humoral immunodeficiency. PMID:23493554

Wang, Hong-Ying; Ma, Chi A.; Zhao, Yongge; Fan, Xiying; Zhou, Qing; Edmonds, Pamela; Uzel, Gulbu; Oliveira, Joao Bosco; Orange, Jordan; Jain, Ashish

2013-01-01

179

Autosomal dominant immune dysregulation syndrome in humans with CTLA4 mutations.  

PubMed

The protein cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is an essential negative regulator of immune responses, and its loss causes fatal autoimmunity in mice. We studied a large family in which five individuals presented with a complex, autosomal dominant immune dysregulation syndrome characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent infections and multiple autoimmune clinical features. We identified a heterozygous nonsense mutation in exon 1 of CTLA4. Screening of 71 unrelated patients with comparable clinical phenotypes identified five additional families (nine individuals) with previously undescribed splice site and missense mutations in CTLA4. Clinical penetrance was incomplete (eight adults of a total of 19 genetically proven CTLA4 mutation carriers were considered unaffected). However, CTLA-4 protein expression was decreased in regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in both patients and carriers with CTLA4 mutations. Whereas Treg cells were generally present at elevated numbers in these individuals, their suppressive function, CTLA-4 ligand binding and transendocytosis of CD80 were impaired. Mutations in CTLA4 were also associated with decreased circulating B cell numbers. Taken together, mutations in CTLA4 resulting in CTLA-4 haploinsufficiency or impaired ligand binding result in disrupted T and B cell homeostasis and a complex immune dysregulation syndrome. PMID:25329329

Schubert, Desirée; Bode, Claudia; Kenefeck, Rupert; Hou, Tie Zheng; Wing, James B; Kennedy, Alan; Bulashevska, Alla; Petersen, Britt-Sabina; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Grüning, Björn A; Unger, Susanne; Frede, Natalie; Baumann, Ulrich; Witte, Torsten; Schmidt, Reinhold E; Dueckers, Gregor; Niehues, Tim; Seneviratne, Suranjith; Kanariou, Maria; Speckmann, Carsten; Ehl, Stephan; Rensing-Ehl, Anne; Warnatz, Klaus; Rakhmanov, Mirzokhid; Thimme, Robert; Hasselblatt, Peter; Emmerich, Florian; Cathomen, Toni; Backofen, Rolf; Fisch, Paul; Seidl, Maximilian; May, Annette; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette; Ikemizu, Shinji; Salzer, Ulrich; Franke, Andre; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Walker, Lucy S K; Sansom, David M; Grimbacher, Bodo

2014-12-01

180

A recurrent deletion mutation in OPA1 causes autosomal dominant optic atrophy in a Chinese family  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) is the most frequent form of hereditary optic neuropathy and occurs due to the degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells. To identify the genetic defect in a family with putative ADOA, we performed capture next generation sequencing (CNGS) to screen known retinal disease genes. However, six exons failed to be sequenced by CNGS in optic atrophy 1 gene (OPA1). Sequencing of those exons identified a 4 bp deletion mutation (c.2983-1_2985del) in OPA1. Furthermore, we sequenced the transcripts of OPA1 from the patient skin fibroblasts and found there is six-nucleotide deletion (c.2984-c.2989, AGAAAG). Quantitative-PCR and Western blotting showed that OPA1 mRNA and its protein expression have no obvious difference between patient skin fibroblast and control. The analysis of protein structure by molecular modeling suggests that the mutation may change the structure of OPA1 by formation of an alpha helix protruding into an existing pocket. Taken together, we identified an OPA1 mutation in a family with ADOA by filling the missing CNGS data. We also showed that this mutation affects the structural intactness of OPA1. It provides molecular insights for clinical genetic diagnosis and treatment of optic atrophy.

Zhang, Liping; Shi, Wei; Song, Liming; Zhang, Xiao; Cheng, Lulu; Wang, Yanfang; Ge, Xianglian; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Min, Qingjie; Jin, Zi-Bing; Qu, Jia; Gu, Feng

2014-11-01

181

Increased left ventricular mass in children with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and borderline hypertension  

PubMed Central

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common hereditary condition that may be diagnosed in utero. Our goal was to evaluate symptoms of ADPKD in children, including left ventricular mass index (LVMI), renal volume, renal function and microalbuminuria in relation to systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Eighty-five children were stratified by blood pressure into three cohorts: hypertensive (95th percentile and over), borderline hypertensive (75–95th percentile) and normotensive (75th percentile and below). There were no differences in gender, age, height, renal function, or microalbuminuria between the groups. Both the hypertensive and borderline hypertensive children had a significantly higher LVMI than normotensive children, with no significant difference between hypertensive and borderline hypertensive groups. There was a significant correlation between renal volume and both systolic and diastolic blood pressures in all subjects. Renal volume in hypertensive children was significantly larger than in the borderline hypertensive group, with no significant difference between normotensive and borderline hypertensive groups. These findings show that an increase in LVMI may be detected earlier than an increase in renal volume in children with ADPKD and borderline hypertension, suggesting that close monitoring of cardiac status is indicated in these children. PMID:18716604

Cadnapaphornchai, Melissa A.; McFann, Kim; Strain, John D.; Masoumi, Amirali; Schrier, Robert W.

2008-01-01

182

Angiogenic growth factors correlate with disease severity in young patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Renal cysts, pain and hematuria are common presentations of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in children. Renal function, however, is typically preserved in these patients despite increased renal volume. Since angiogenesis has been implicated in promotion of renal cyst growth in ADPKD we measured the serum level of various angiogenic factors and early renal structural changes and cardiovascular parameters in 71 patients with ADPKD with a mean age of 16 years. Renal structure and left ventricular mass index were measured by magnetic resonance imaging or by echocardiogram. Renal function was assessed by creatinine clearance, and urinary protein excretion. Serum growth factor levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Because of skewed distributions, the various parameters are reported as log10. Serum Log10 vascular endothelial growth factor was positively correlated with renal and cardiac structure, but negatively correlated with creatinine clearance. Serum angiopoietin 1 levels significantly correlated with structural change in both the kidney and the heart and with urinary protein. Thus, the correlation between angiogenic growth factors with both renal and cardiac disease severity is compatible with a possible role for angiogenesis in the early progression of disease in ADPKD. PMID:20881939

Reed, Berenice; Masoumi, Amirali; Elhassan, Elwaleed; McFann, Kim; Cadnapaphornchai, Melissa; Maahs, David; Snell-Bergeon, Janet; Schrier, Robert W.

2013-01-01

183

Novel targets for the treatment of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Importance of the field Autosomal dominant (AD) polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is the most common life-threatening hereditary disorder. There is currently no therapy that slows or prevents cyst formation and kidney enlargement in humans. An increasing number of animal studies have advanced our understanding of molecular and cellular targets of PKD. Areas covered in the review The purpose of this review is to summarize the molecular and cellular targets involved in cystogenesis and to update on the promising therapies that are being developed and tested based on knowledge of these molecular and cellular targets. What the reader will gain Insight into the pathogenesis of PKD and how a better understanding of the pathogenesis of PKD has led to the development of potential therapies to inhibit cyst formation and/or growth and improve kidney function. Take home message The results of animal studies in PKD have led to the development of clinical trials testing potential new therapies to reduce cyst formation and/or growth. A vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, mTOR inhibitors, blockade of the renin–angiotensin system and statins that reduce cyst formation and improve renal function in animal models of PKD are being tested in interventional studies in humans. PMID:20141351

Belibi, Franck A; Edelstein, Charles L

2010-01-01

184

[Analysis of mutations in patients with suspected autosomal dominant form of the Parkinson disease].  

PubMed

The Parkinson disease (PD) is a severe neurological disorder. Diverse genetic systems and environmental factors are involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. However, despite extensive research into the disease, its causes are not fully elucidated, and the exact spectrum of genes and mutations involved in the development of hereditary forms of PD has not been fully clarified yet. The present work is devoted to the analysis of mutations that lead to the development of monogenic forms of PD in patients with suspected autosomal dominant form of PD using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA). We have identified several mutations (G2019S in LRRK2, heterozygous deletions of 2-3, 3-4 exons and heterozygous duplication of 2-4 exons in PARK2, deletion of 3 exon in PARK7) that lead to the development of PD in only 7 people out of 70 (18.4%), which suggests the need for further search of new mutations, for example, using exome sequencing. In the future it will help to develop the molecular genetic tests for early preclinical diagnosis and risk evaluation of the development of PD, and to understand better the causes and mechanisms of this disease. PMID:24757835

Filatova, E V; Alieva, A Kh; Shulskaya, M V; Fedotova, E Y; Illarioshkin, S N; Limborska, S A; Slominsky, P A

2014-01-01

185

Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Expression Is Associated with Hypertension in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Early occurrence of hypertension is the prominent feature of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphism in the clinical course of ADPKD is not well understood. However, data about the expression of these genes are lacking. Thus, we aimed to investigate the polymorphisms and expressions of both the ACE and eNOS genes that affect hypertension in ADPKD. Methods Whole blood samples were obtained from all participants. ACE and eNOS gene polymorphisms and their expressions were analyzed in 78 ADPKD patients and 30 controls. Gene expressions were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure monitoring was performed for the diagnosis of hypertension in all study participants. Results eNOS expression and the estimated glomerular filtration rate were found to be significantly higher in ADPKD patients without hypertension than in those with hypertension. Each unit of increase in eNOS expression led to a 0.88-fold decrease (95% CI: 0.80-0.96) in the risk of hypertension in multiple logistic regression analysis. Conclusions eNOS gene expression is independently predictive of hypertension in the ADPKD population. This study showed, for the first time, a novel link between eNOS gene expression and hypertension in ADPKD. PMID:25737691

Kocyigit, Ismail; Taheri, Serpil; Sener, Elif Funda; Unal, Aydin; Eroglu, Eray; Öztürk, Fahir; Korkmaz, Kezban; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Imamoglu, Hakan; Sipahioglu, Murat Hayri; Tokgoz, Bulent; Oymak, Oktay

2014-01-01

186

A Novel GJA8 Mutation (p.V44A) Causing Autosomal Dominant Congenital Cataract  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the mechanism by which a novel connexin 50 (Cx50) mutation, Cx50 V44A, in a Chinese family causes suture-sparing autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataracts. Methods Family history and clinical data were recorded and direct gene sequencing was used to identify the disease-causing mutation. The Cx50 gene was cloned from a human lens cDNA library. Connexin protein distributions were assessed by fluorescence microscopy. Hemichannel functions were analyzed by dye uptake assay. Formation of functional channels was assessed by dye transfer experiments. Results Direct sequencing of the candidate GJA8 gene revealed a novel c.131T>C transition in exon 2, which cosegregated with the disease in the family and resulted in the substitution of a valine residue with alanine at codon 44 (p. V44A) in the extracellular loop 1 of the Cx50 protein. Both Cx50 and Cx50V44A formed functional gap junctions, as shown by the neurobiotin transfer assay. However, unlike wild-type Cx50, Cx50V44A was unable to form open hemichannels in dye uptake experiments. Conclusion This work identified a unique congenital cataract in the Chinese population, caused by the novel mutation Cx50V44A, and it showed that the V44A mutation specifically impairs the gating of the hemichannels but not the gap junction channels. The dysfunctional hemichannels resulted in the development of human congenital cataracts. PMID:25517998

Zhu, Yanan; Yu, Hao; Wang, Wei; Gong, Xiaohua; Yao, Ke

2014-01-01

187

Novel role of ouabain as a cystogenic factor in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

The classic role of the Na-K-ATPase is that of a primary active transporter that utilizes cell energy to establish and maintain transmembrane Na+ and K+ gradients to preserve cell osmotic stability, support cell excitability, and drive secondary active transport. Recent studies have revealed that Na-K-ATPase located within cholesterol-containing lipid rafts serves as a receptor for cardiotonic steroids, including ouabain. Traditionally, ouabain was viewed as a toxin produced only in plants, and it was used in relatively high concentrations to experimentally block the pumping action of the Na-K-ATPase. However, the new and unexpected role of the Na-K-ATPase as a signal transducer revealed a novel facet for ouabain in the regulation of a myriad of cell functions, including cell proliferation, hypertrophy, apoptosis, mobility, and metabolism. The seminal discovery that ouabain is endogenously produced in mammals and circulates in plasma has fueled the interest in this endogenous molecule as a potentially important hormone in normal physiology and disease. In this article, we review the role of the Na-K-ATPase as an ion transporter in the kidney, the experimental evidence for ouabain as a circulating hormone, the function of the Na-K-ATPase as a signal transducer that mediates ouabain's effects, and novel results for ouabain-induced Na-K-ATPase signaling in cystogenesis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PMID:23761677

Wallace, Darren P.

2013-01-01

188

Characterization of an autosomal dominant bleeding disorder caused by a thrombomodulin mutation  

PubMed Central

We describe a family with an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by severe trauma- and surgery-related bleeding. The proband, who experienced life-threatening bleeding during a routine operation, had normal clotting times, but markedly reduced prothrombin consumption. Plasma levels of all coagulation factors and of the main coagulation inhibitors were normal. Thrombin generation at low triggers was severely impaired and mixing experiments suggested the presence of a coagulation inhibitor. Using whole exome sequencing, the underlying genetic defect was identified as the THBD c.1611C>A mutation (p.Cys537Stop), which predicts a truncated form of thrombomodulin that is shed from the vascular endothelium. The patient had decreased expression of endothelium-bound thrombomodulin, but extremely elevated levels of soluble thrombomodulin in plasma, impairing the propagation phase of coagulation via rapid activation of protein C and consequent inactivation of factors Va and VIIIa. The same thrombomodulin mutation has been recently described in an unrelated British family with strikingly similar features. PMID:25564403

Scoazec, Jean Yves; Wielders, Simone J. H.; Trzeciak, Christine; Hackeng, Tilman M.; Négrier, Claude; Hemker, H. Coenraad; Lindhout, Theo; Castoldi, Elisabetta

2015-01-01

189

Functional Connectivity in Autosomal Dominant and Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

Importance Autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) is caused by rare genetic mutations in three specific genes, in contrast to late-onset Alzheimer Disease (LOAD), which has a more polygenetic risk profile. Design, Setting, and Participants We analyzed functional connectivity in multiple brain resting state networks (RSNs) in a cross-sectional cohort of ADAD (N=79) and LOAD (N=444) human participants using resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) at multiple international academic sites. Main Outcomes and Measures For both types of AD, we quantified and compared functional connectivity changes in RSNs as a function of dementia severity as measured by clinical dementia rating (CDR). In ADAD, we qualitatively investigated functional connectivity changes with respect to estimated years from onset of symptoms within five RSNs. Results Functional connectivity decreases with increasing CDR were similar for both LOAD and ADAD in multiple RSNs. Ordinal logistic regression models constructed in each type of AD accurately predicted CDR stage in the other, further demonstrating similarity of functional connectivity loss in each disease type. Among ADAD participants, functional connectivity in multiple RSNs appeared qualitatively lower in asymptomatic mutation carriers near their anticipated age of symptom onset compared to asymptomatic mutation non-carriers. Conclusions and Relevance rs-fcMRI changes with progressing AD severity are similar between ADAD and LOAD. Rs-fcMRI may be a useful endpoint for LOAD and ADAD therapy trials. ADAD disease process may be an effective model for LOAD disease process. PMID:25069482

Thomas, Jewell B; Brier, Matthew R; Bateman, Randall J; Snyder, Abraham Z; Benzinger, Tammie L; Xiong, Chengjie; Raichle, Marcus; Holtzman, David M; Sperling, Reisa A; Mayeux, Richard; Ghetti, Bernardino; Ringman, John M; Salloway, Stephen; McDade, Eric; Rossor, Martin N; Ourselin, Sebastien; Schofield, Peter R; Masters, Colin L; Martins, Ralph N; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M; Fox, Nick C; Koeppe, Robert A; Jack, Clifford R; Mathis, Chester A; Oliver, Angela; Blazey, Tyler M; Moulder, Krista; Buckles, Virginia; Hornbeck, Russ; Chhatwal, Jasmeer; Schultz, Aaron P; Goate, Alison M; Fagan, Anne M; Cairns, Nigel J; Marcus, Daniel S; Morris, John C; Ances, Beau M

2014-01-01

190

Genotyping microarray: Mutation screening in Spanish families with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Purpose Presently, 22 genes have been described in association with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP); however, they explain only 50% of all cases, making genetic diagnosis of this disease difficult and costly. The aim of this study was to evaluate a specific genotyping microarray for its application to the molecular diagnosis of adRP in Spanish patients. Methods We analyzed 139 unrelated Spanish families with adRP. Samples were studied by using a genotyping microarray (adRP). All mutations found were further confirmed with automatic sequencing. Rhodopsin (RHO) sequencing was performed in all negative samples for the genotyping microarray. Results The adRP genotyping microarray detected the mutation associated with the disease in 20 of the 139 families with adRP. As in other populations, RHO was found to be the most frequently mutated gene in these families (7.9% of the microarray genotyped families). The rate of false positives (microarray results not confirmed with sequencing) and false negatives (mutations in RHO detected with sequencing but not with the genotyping microarray) were established, and high levels of analytical sensitivity (95%) and specificity (100%) were found. Diagnostic accuracy was 15.1%. Conclusions The adRP genotyping microarray is a quick, cost-efficient first step in the molecular diagnosis of Spanish patients with adRP. PMID:22736939

García-Hoyos, María; Cortón, Marta; Ávila-Fernández, Almudena; Riveiro-Álvarez, Rosa; Giménez, Ascensión; Hernan, Inma; Carballo, Miguel; Ayuso, Carmen

2012-01-01

191

Trends in the Management and Outcomes of Kidney Transplantation for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Background. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common genetic disorder leading to end-stage renal failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate a longitudinal experience of kidney transplantation for ADPKD. Methods. A single center retrospective review of patients undergoing kidney transplantation was conducted, with comparisons across two time periods: early (02/2000–04/2007, n = 66) and late (04/2007–08/2012, n = 67). Results. Over the 13.5-year study period, 133 patients underwent transplantation for ADPKD. Overall, no significant difference between the early and late group with regard to intraoperative complications, need for reoperation, readmissions within 30 days, delayed graft function, and mortality was noted. There was a trend towards increase in one-year graft survival (early 93.1% versus late 100%, P = 0.05). In the early group, 67% of recipients had undergone aneurysm screening, compared to 91% of recipients in the late group (P < 0.001). Conclusions. This study demonstrates consistent clinical care with a trend towards improved rates of one-year graft survival. Interestingly, we also note a significantly higher use of cerebral imaging over time, with the majority that were detected requiring surgical intervention which may justify the current practice of nonselective radiological screening until improved screening criteria are developed. PMID:25165573

Patel, Madhukar S.; Kandula, Praveen; Wojciechowski, David; Markmann, James F.; Vagefi, Parsia A.

2014-01-01

192

Identification of Gene Mutations in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease through Targeted Resequencing  

PubMed Central

Mutations in two large multi-exon genes, PKD1 and PKD2, cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The duplication of PKD1 exons 1–32 as six pseudogenes on chromosome 16, the high level of allelic heterogeneity, and the cost of Sanger sequencing complicate mutation analysis, which can aid diagnostics of ADPKD. We developed and validated a strategy to analyze both the PKD1 and PKD2 genes using next-generation sequencing by pooling long-range PCR amplicons and multiplexing bar-coded libraries. We used this approach to characterize a cohort of 230 patients with ADPKD. This process detected definitely and likely pathogenic variants in 115 (63%) of 183 patients with typical ADPKD. In addition, we identified atypical mutations, a gene conversion, and one missed mutation resulting from allele dropout, and we characterized the pattern of deep intronic variation for both genes. In summary, this strategy involving next-generation sequencing is a model for future genetic characterization of large ADPKD populations. PMID:22383692

Hopp, Katharina; Sikkink, Robert A.; Sundsbak, Jamie L.; Lee, Yean Kit; Kubly, Vickie; Eckloff, Bruce W.; Ward, Christopher J.; Winearls, Christopher G.; Torres, Vicente E.; Harris, Peter C.

2012-01-01

193

Molecular diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease using next-generation sequencing.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by mutations in PKD1 and PKD2. However, genetic analysis is complicated by six PKD1 pseudogenes, large gene sizes, and allelic heterogeneity. We developed a new clinical assay for PKD gene analysis using paired-end next-generation sequencing (NGS) by multiplexing individually bar-coded long-range PCR libraries and analyzing them in one Illumina MiSeq flow cell. The data analysis pipeline has been optimized and automated with Unix shell scripts to accommodate variant calls. This approach was validated using a cohort of 25 patients with ADPKD previously analyzed by Sanger sequencing. A total of 250 genetic variants were identified by NGS, spanning the entire exonic and adjacent intronic regions of PKD1 and PKD2, including all 16 pathogenic mutations. In addition, we identified three novel mutations in a mutation-negative cohort of 24 patients with ADPKD previously analyzed by Sanger sequencing. This NGS method achieved sensitivity of 99.2% (95% CI, 96.8%-99.9%) and specificity of 99.9% (95% CI, 99.7%-100.0%), with cost and turnaround time reduced by as much as 70%. Prospective NGS analysis of 25 patients with ADPKD demonstrated a detection rate comparable with Sanger standards. In conclusion, the NGS method was superior to Sanger sequencing for detecting PKD gene mutations, achieving high sensitivity and improved gene coverage. These characteristics suggest that NGS would be an appropriate new standard for clinical genetic testing of ADPKD. PMID:24374109

Tan, Adrian Y; Michaeel, Alber; Liu, Genyan; Elemento, Olivier; Blumenfeld, Jon; Donahue, Stephanie; Parker, Tom; Levine, Daniel; Rennert, Hanna

2014-03-01

194

Mutation of the PAX6 gene in patients with autosomal dominant keratitis  

SciTech Connect

Autosomal dominant keratitis (ADK) is an eye disorder chiefly characterized by corneal opacification and vascularization and by foveal hypoplasia. Aniridia (shown recently to result from mutations in the PAX6 gene) has overlapping clinical findings and a similar pattern of inheritance with ADK. On the basis of these similarities, we used a candidate-gene approach to investigate whether mutations in the PAX6 gene also result in ADK. Significant linkage was found between two polymorphic loci in the PAX6 region and ADK in a family with 15 affected members in four generations (peak LOD score = 4.45; {theta} = .00 with D11S914), consistent with PAX6 mutations being responsible for ADK. SSCP analysis and direct sequencing revealed a mutation in the PAX6 exon 11 splice-acceptor site. The predicted consequent incorrect splicing results in truncation of the PAX6 proline-serine-threonine activation domain. The Sey{sup Neu} mouse results from a mutation in the Pax-6 exon 10 splice-donor site that produces a PAX6 protein truncated from the same point as occurs in our family with ADK. Therefore, the Sey{sup Neu} mouse is an excellent animal model of ADK. The finding that mutations in PAX6 also underlie Peters anomaly implicates PAX6 broadly in human anterior segment malformations. 42 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Mirzayans, F.; Pearce, W.G.; MacDonald, I.M.; Walter, M.A. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)

1995-09-01

195

A recurrent deletion mutation in OPA1 causes autosomal dominant optic atrophy in a Chinese family.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) is the most frequent form of hereditary optic neuropathy and occurs due to the degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells. To identify the genetic defect in a family with putative ADOA, we performed capture next generation sequencing (CNGS) to screen known retinal disease genes. However, six exons failed to be sequenced by CNGS in optic atrophy 1 gene (OPA1). Sequencing of those exons identified a 4?bp deletion mutation (c.2983-1_2985del) in OPA1. Furthermore, we sequenced the transcripts of OPA1 from the patient skin fibroblasts and found there is six-nucleotide deletion (c.2984-c.2989, AGAAAG). Quantitative-PCR and Western blotting showed that OPA1 mRNA and its protein expression have no obvious difference between patient skin fibroblast and control. The analysis of protein structure by molecular modeling suggests that the mutation may change the structure of OPA1 by formation of an alpha helix protruding into an existing pocket. Taken together, we identified an OPA1 mutation in a family with ADOA by filling the missing CNGS data. We also showed that this mutation affects the structural intactness of OPA1. It provides molecular insights for clinical genetic diagnosis and treatment of optic atrophy. PMID:25374051

Zhang, Liping; Shi, Wei; Song, Liming; Zhang, Xiao; Cheng, Lulu; Wang, Yanfang; Ge, Xianglian; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Min, Qingjie; Jin, Zi-Bing; Qu, Jia; Gu, Feng

2014-01-01

196

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease caused by somatic and germline mosaicism.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a heterogeneous genetic disorder caused by loss of function mutations of PKD1 or PKD2 genes. Although PKD1 is highly polymorphic and the new mutation rate is relatively high, the role of mosaicism is incompletely defined. Herein, we describe the molecular analysis of ADPKD in a 19-year-old female proband and her father. The proband had a PKD1 truncation mutation c.10745dupC (p.Val3584ArgfsX43), which was absent in paternal peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). However, very low quantities of this mutation were detected in the father's sperm DNA, but not in DNA from his buccal cells or urine sediment. Next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis determined the level of this mutation in the father's PBL, buccal cells and sperm to be ?3%, 4.5% and 10%, respectively, consistent with somatic and germline mosaicism. The PKD1 mutation in ?10% of her father's sperm indicates that it probably occurred early in embryogenesis. In ADPKD cases where a de novo mutation is suspected because of negative PKD gene testing of PBL, additional evaluation with more sensitive methods (e.g. NGS) of the proband PBL and paternal sperm can enhance detection of mosaicism and facilitate genetic counseling. PMID:24641620

Tan, A Y; Blumenfeld, J; Michaeel, A; Donahue, S; Bobb, W; Parker, T; Levine, D; Rennert, H

2015-04-01

197

CAG repeat expansion in autosomal dominant familial spastic paraparesis: novel expansion in a subset of patients.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant familial spastic paraplegia (FSP) is a genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder displaying anticipation for which three loci have been mapped to the chromosomal positions 14q11.2-q24.3 (SPG3), 2p21-p24 (SPG4) and 15q11.1 (SPG6). The repeat expansion detection (RED) method has been used to demonstrate expanded CAG repeats in some FSP families that map to SPG4. We analyzed 20 FSP families, including four for which there is evidence for linkage to SPG4, and found that in most cases the repeat expansion detected by RED is due to non-pathogenic expansions of the chromosome 18q21.1 SEF2-1 or 17q21.3 ERDA1 locus. Polymorphic expansions at SEF2-1 and ERDA1 appear frequent and may confound RED studies in the search for genes causing disorders demonstrating anticipation. In six FSP families, however, CAG repeat expansion was detected in a subset of affected and at-risk individuals that did not result from expansion of the SEF2-1 and ERDA1 loci. Overall, 11 of 37 (30%) of the FSP patients with a CAG/CTG repeat expansion are unaccounted for by the SEF2-1 and ERDA1 loci, compared with two of 23 (9%) of the unaffected at-risk individuals and none of 19 controls. In the majority of cases these novel expansions were shorter than those previously reported. PMID:9736780

Benson, K F; Horwitz, M; Wolff, J; Friend, K; Thompson, E; White, S; Richards, R I; Raskind, W H; Bird, T D

1998-10-01

198

Mutations in a BTB-Kelch Protein, KLHL7, Cause Autosomal-Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) refers to a genetically heterogeneous group of progressive neurodegenerative diseases that result in dysfunction and/or death of rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina. So far, 18 genes have been identified for autosomal-dominant (ad) RP. Here, we describe an adRP locus (RP42) at chromosome 7p15 through linkage analysis in a six-generation Scandinavian family and identify a disease-causing mutation, c.449G?A (p.S150N), in exon 6 of the KLHL7 gene. Mutation screening of KLHL7 in 502 retinopathy probands has revealed three different missense mutations in six independent families. KLHL7 is widely expressed, including expression in rod photoreceptors, and encodes a 75 kDa protein of the BTB-Kelch subfamily within the BTB superfamily. BTB-Kelch proteins have been implicated in ubiquitination through Cullin E3 ligases. Notably, all three putative disease-causing KLHL7 mutations are within a conserved BACK domain; homology modeling suggests that mutant amino acid side chains can potentially fill the cleft between two helices, thereby affecting the ubiquitination complexes. Mutations in an identical region of another BTB-Kelch protein, gigaxonin, have previously been associated with giant axonal neuropathy. Our studies suggest an additional role of the ubiquitin-proteasome protein-degradation pathway in maintaining neuronal health and in disease. PMID:19520207

Friedman, James S.; Ray, Joseph W.; Waseem, Naushin; Johnson, Kory; Brooks, Matthew J.; Hugosson, Therése; Breuer, Debra; Branham, Kari E.; Krauth, Daniel S.; Bowne, Sara J.; Sullivan, Lori S.; Ponjavic, Vesna; Gränse, Lotta; Khanna, Ritu; Trager, Edward H.; Gieser, Linn M.; Hughbanks-Wheaton, Dianna; Cojocaru, Radu I.; Ghiasvand, Noor M.; Chakarova, Christina F.; Abrahamson, Magnus; Göring, Harald H.H.; Webster, Andrew R.; Birch, David G.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Fann, Yang; Bhattacharya, Shomi S.; Daiger, Stephen P.; Heckenlively, John R.; Andréasson, Sten; Swaroop, Anand

2009-01-01

199

Pathogenesis of Autosomal Dominant Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (SPG6) Revealed by a Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Abstract Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness in the lower extremities that result from length-dependent central to peripheral axonal degeneration. Mutations in the non-imprinted Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome locus 1 (NIPA1) transmembrane protein cause an autosomal dominant form of HSP (SPG6). Here, we report that transgenic (Tg) rats expressing a human NIPA1/SPG6 mutation in neurons (Thy1.2-hNIPA1G106R) show marked early onset behavioral and electrophysiologic abnormalities. Detailed morphologic analyses reveal unique histopathologic findings, including the accumulation of tubulovesicular organelles with endosomal features that start at axonal and dendritic terminals, followed by multifocal vacuolar degeneration in both the CNS and peripheral nerves. In addition, the NIPA1G106R mutation in the spinal cord from older Tg rats results in an increase in bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor expression, suggesting that its degradation is impaired. This Thy1.2-hNIPA1G106R Tg rat model may serve as a valuable tool for understanding endosomal trafficking in the pathogenesis of a subgroup of HSP with an abnormal interaction with bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor, as well as for developing potential therapeutic strategies for diseases with axonal degeneration and similar pathogenetic mechanisms. PMID:24128679

Watanabe, Fumihiro; Arnold, William D.; Hammer, Robert E.; Ghodsizadeh, Odelia; Moti, Harmeet; Schumer, Mackenzie; Hashmi, Ahmed; Hernandez, Anthony; Sneh, Amita; Sahenk, Zarife

2013-01-01

200

A novel OPA1 mutation in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant optic atrophy  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the characterization of a four-generation large Chinese family with ADOA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find a new heterozygous mutation c.C1198G in OPA1 gene which may be a novel pathogenic mutation in this pedigree. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We do not find any mitochondrial DNA mutations associated with optic atrophy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other factors may also contribute to the phenotypic variability of ADOA in this pedigree. -- Abstract: A large four-generation Chinese family with autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) was investigated in the present study. Eight of the family members were affected in this pedigree. The affected family members exhibited early-onset and progressive visual impairment, resulting in mild to profound loss of visual acuity. The average age-at-onset was 15.9 years. A new heterozygous mutation c.C1198G was identified by sequence analysis of the 12th exon of the OPA1 gene. This mutation resulted in a proline to alanine substitution at codon 400, which was located in an evolutionarily conserved region. This missense mutation in the GTPase domain was supposed to result in a loss of function for the encoded protein and act through a dominant negative effect. No other mutations associated with optic atrophy were found in our present study. The c.C1198G heterozygous mutation in the OPA1 gene may be a novel key pathogenic mutation in this pedigree with ADOA. Furthermore, additional nuclear modifier genes, environmental factors, and psychological factors may also contribute to the phenotypic variability of ADOA in this pedigree.

Zhang, Juanjuan; Yuan, Yimin; Lin, Bing; Feng, Hao; Li, Yan [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325027, Zhejiang (China)] [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325027, Zhejiang (China); Dai, Xianning; Zhou, Huihui [Attardi Institute of Mitochondrial Biomedicine and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035, Zhejiang (China)] [Attardi Institute of Mitochondrial Biomedicine and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035, Zhejiang (China); Dong, Xujie [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325027, Zhejiang (China)] [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325027, Zhejiang (China); Liu, Xiao-Ling, E-mail: lxl@mail.eye.ac.cn [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325027, Zhejiang (China)] [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325027, Zhejiang (China); Guan, Min-Xin, E-mail: min-xin.guan@cchmc.org [Attardi Institute of Mitochondrial Biomedicine and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035, Zhejiang (China) [Attardi Institute of Mitochondrial Biomedicine and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035, Zhejiang (China); Institute of Genetics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310012 (China); Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, OH 45229 (United States)

2012-03-23

201

A genome-wide search for genes predisposing to manic-depression, assuming autosomal dominant inheritance  

SciTech Connect

Manic-depressive illness (MDI), also known as [open quotes]bipolar affective disorder[close quotes], is a common and devastating neuropsychiatric illness. Although pivotal biochemical alterations underlying the disease are unknown, results of family, twin, and adoption studies consistently implicate genetic transmission in the pathogenesis of MDI. In order to carry out linkage analysis, the authors ascertained eight moderately sized pedigrees containing multiple cases of the disease. For a four-allele marker mapping at 5 cM from the disease gene, the pedigree sample has >97% power to detect a dominant allele under genetic homogeneity and has >73% power under 20% heterogeneity. To date, the eight pedigrees have been genotyped with 328 polymorphic DNA loci throughout the genome. When autosomal dominant inheritance was assumed, 273 DNA markers gave lod scores <[minus]2.0 at [theta] = .05, and 4 DNA marker loci yielded lod scores >1 (chromosome 5 -- D5S39, D5S43, and D5S62; chromosome 11 -- D11S85). Of the markers giving lod scores >1, only D5S62 continued to show evidence for linkage when the affected-pedigree-member method was used. The D5S62 locus maps to distal 5q, a region containing neurotransmitter-receptor genes for dopamine, norepinephrine, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid. Although additional work in this region may be warranted, the linkage results should be interpreted as preliminary data, as 68 unaffected individuals are not past the age of risk. 72 refs., 2 tabs.

Coon, H.; Jensen, S.; Hoff, M.; Holik, J.; Plaetke, R.; Reimherr, F.; Wender, P.; Leppert, M.; Byerley, W. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States))

1993-06-01

202

Autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease in a family without polycystic kidney disease associated with a novel missense protein kinase C substrate 80K-H mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is characterized by the presence of multiple bile duct-derived epithelial cysts scattered in the liver parenchyma. PLD can manifest itself in patients with severe autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Isolated autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (ADPLD) is genetically distinct from PLD associated with ADPKD, although it may have similar pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. Recently, mutations

Ramón Peces; J. P. H. Drenth; R. H. M. te Morsche; P. Gonzalez; C. Peces

2005-01-01

203

The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is a focal epilepsy with attacks typically arising in the frontal lobe during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. It is characterized by clusters of complex and stereotyped hypermotor seizures, frequently accompanied by sudden arousals. Cognitive and psychiatric symptoms may be also observed. Approximately 12% of the ADNFLE families carry mutations on genes coding for subunits of the heteromeric neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). This is consistent with the widespread expression of these receptors, particularly the ?4?2* subtype, in the neocortex and thalamus. However, understanding how mutant nAChRs lead to partial frontal epilepsy is far from being straightforward because of the complexity of the cholinergic regulation in both developing and mature brains. The relation with the sleep-waking cycle must be also explained. We discuss some possible pathogenetic mechanisms in the light of recent advances about the nAChR role in prefrontal regions as well as the studies carried out in murine models of ADNFLE. Functional evidence points to alterations in prefrontal GABA release, and the synaptic unbalance probably arises during the cortical circuit maturation. Although most of the available functional evidence concerns mutations on nAChR subunit genes, other genes have been recently implicated in the disease, such as KCNT1 (coding for a Na+-dependent K+ channel), DEPD5 (Disheveled, Egl-10 and Pleckstrin Domain-containing protein 5), and CRH (Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone). Overall, the uncertainties about both the etiology and the pathogenesis of ADNFLE point to the current gaps in our knowledge the regulation of neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex. PMID:25717303

Becchetti, Andrea; Aracri, Patrizia; Meneghini, Simone; Brusco, Simone; Amadeo, Alida

2015-01-01

204

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in a family with mosaicism and hypomorphic allele  

PubMed Central

Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common form of inherited kidney disease that results in renal failure. ADPKD is a systemic disorder with cysts and connective tissue abnormalities involving many organs. ADPKD caused by mutations in PKD1 gene is significantly more severe than the cases caused by PKD2 gene mutations. The large intra-familial variability of ADPKD highlights a role for genetic background. Case presentation Here we report a case of ADPKD family initially appearing unlinked to the PKD1 or PKD2 loci and the influence of mosaicism and hypomorphic allele on the variability of the clinical course of the disease. A grandmother with the PKD1 gene mutation in mosaicism (p.Val1105ArgfsX4) and with mild clinical course of ADPKD (end stage renal failure at the age of 77) seemed to have ADPKD because of PKD2 gene mutation. On the other hand, her grandson had a severe clinical course (end stage renal disease at the age of 45) in spite of the early treatment of mild hypertension. There was found by mutational analysis of PKD genes that the severe clinical course was caused by PKD1 gene frameshifting mutation inherited from his father and mildly affected grandmother in combination with inherited hypomorphic PKD1 allele with described missense mutation (p.Thr2250Met) from his clinically healthy mother. The sister with two cysts and with PKD1 hypomorphic allele became the kidney donor to her severely affected brother. Conclusion We present the first case of ADPKD with the influence of mosaicism and hypomorphic allele of the PKD1 gene on clinical course of ADPKD in one family. Moreover, this report illustrates the role of molecular genetic testing in assessing young related kidney donors for patients with ADPKD. PMID:23496908

2013-01-01

205

Novel CACNA1S mutation causes autosomal dominant hypokalemic periodic paralysis in a Chinese family  

PubMed Central

Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder which is characterized by periodic attacks of muscle weakness associated with a decrease in the serum potassium level. The skeletal muscle calcium channel ?-subunit gene CACNA1S is a major disease-causing gene for HypoPP, however, only three specific HypoPP-causing mutations, Arg528His, Arg1,239His and Arg1,239Gly, have been identified in CACNA1S to date. In this study, we studied a four-generation Chinese family with HypoPP with 43 living members and 19 affected individuals. Linkage analysis showed that the causative mutation in the family is linked to the CACNA1S gene with a LOD score of 6.7. DNA sequence analysis revealed a heterozygous C to G transition at nucleotide 1,582, resulting in a novel 1,582C?G (Arg528Gly) mutation. The Arg528Gly mutation co-segregated with all affected individuals in the family, and was not present in 200 matched normal controls. The penetrance of the Arg528Gly mutation was complete in male mutation carriers, however, a reduced penetrance of 83% (10/12) was observed in female carriers. No differences were detected for age-at-onset and severity of the disease (frequency of symptomatic attacks per year) between male and female patients. Oral intake of KCl is effective in blocking the symptomatic attacks. This study identifies a novel Arg528Gly mutation in the CACNA1S gene that causes HypoPP in a Chinese family, expands the spectrum of mutations causing HypoPP, and demonstrates a gender difference in the penetrance of the disease. PMID:15726306

Wang, Qiufen; Liu, Mugen; Xu, Chunsheng; Tang, Zhaohui; Liao, Yuhua; Du, Rong; Li, Wei; Wu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xu; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Xianqin; Zhu, Jianfang; Ren, Xiang; Ke, Tie; Wang, Qing; Yang, Junguo

2006-01-01

206

Novel CACNA1S mutation causes autosomal dominant hypokalemic periodic paralysis in a Chinese family.  

PubMed

Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder which is characterized by periodic attacks of muscle weakness associated with a decrease in the serum potassium level. The skeletal muscle calcium channel alpha-subunit gene CACNA1S is a major disease-causing gene for HypoPP, however, only three specific HypoPP-causing mutations, Arg528His, Arg1,239His and Arg1,239Gly, have been identified in CACNA1S to date. In this study, we studied a four-generation Chinese family with HypoPP with 43 living members and 19 affected individuals. Linkage analysis showed that the causative mutation in the family is linked to the CACNA1S gene with a LOD score of 6.7. DNA sequence analysis revealed a heterozygous C to G transition at nucleotide 1,582, resulting in a novel 1,582C-->G (Arg528Gly) mutation. The Arg528Gly mutation co-segregated with all affected individuals in the family, and was not present in 200 matched normal controls. The penetrance of the Arg528Gly mutation was complete in male mutation carriers, however, a reduced penetrance of 83% (10/12) was observed in female carriers. No differences were detected for age-at-onset and severity of the disease (frequency of symptomatic attacks per year) between male and female patients. Oral intake of KCl is effective in blocking the symptomatic attacks. This study identifies a novel Arg528Gly mutation in the CACNA1S gene that causes HypoPP in a Chinese family, expands the spectrum of mutations causing HypoPP, and demonstrates a gender difference in the penetrance of the disease. PMID:15726306

Wang, Qiufen; Liu, Mugen; Xu, Chunsheng; Tang, Zhaohui; Liao, Yuhua; Du, Rong; Li, Wei; Wu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xu; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Xianqin; Zhu, Jianfang; Ren, Xiang; Ke, Tie; Wang, Qing; Yang, Junguo

2005-03-01

207

Berberine slows cell growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Berberine at appropriate doses slows cell proliferation in ADPKD cystic cells. •Reduction of cell growth by berberine occurs by inhibition of ERK and p70-S6 kinase. •Higher doses of berberine cause an overall cytotoxic effect. •Berberine overdose induces apoptotic bodies formation and DNA fragmentation. •Antiproliferative properties of this drug make it a new candidate for ADPKD therapy. -- Abstract: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary monogenic disorder characterized by development and enlargement of kidney cysts that lead to loss of renal function. It is caused by mutations in two genes (PKD1 and PKD2) encoding for polycystin-1 and polycystin-2 proteins which regulate different signals including cAMP, mTOR and EGFR pathways. Abnormal activation of these signals following PC1 or PC2 loss of function causes an increased cell proliferation which is a typical hallmark of this disease. Despite the promising findings obtained in animal models with targeted inhibitors able to reduce cystic cell growth, currently, no specific approved therapy for ADPKD is available. Therefore, the research of new more effective molecules could be crucial for the treatment of this severe pathology. In this regard, we have studied the effect of berberine, an isoquinoline quaternary alkaloid, on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human and mouse ADPKD cystic cell lines. Berberine treatment slows cell proliferation of ADPKD cystic cells in a dose-dependent manner and at high doses (100 ?g/mL) it induces cell death in cystic cells as well as in normal kidney tubule cells. However, at 10 ?g/mL, berberine reduces cell growth in ADPKD cystic cells only enhancing G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase of cell cycle and inhibiting ERK and p70-S6 kinases. Our results indicate that berberine shows a selected antiproliferative activity in cellular models for ADPKD, suggesting that this molecule and similar natural compounds could open new opportunities for the therapy of ADPKD patients.

Bonon, Anna; Mangolini, Alessandra [Department of Biomedical and Specialty Surgical Sciences, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara (Italy)] [Department of Biomedical and Specialty Surgical Sciences, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara (Italy); Pinton, Paolo [Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, Section of General Pathology, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara (Italy)] [Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, Section of General Pathology, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara (Italy); Senno, Laura del [Department of Biomedical and Specialty Surgical Sciences, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara (Italy)] [Department of Biomedical and Specialty Surgical Sciences, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara (Italy); Aguiari, Gianluca, E-mail: dsn@unife.it [Department of Biomedical and Specialty Surgical Sciences, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara (Italy)] [Department of Biomedical and Specialty Surgical Sciences, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara (Italy)

2013-11-22

208

Segmentation of Individual Renal Cysts from MR Images in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective To evaluate the performance of a semi-automated method for the segmentation of individual renal cysts from magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Design, setting, participants, & measurements This semi-automated method was based on a morphologic watershed technique with shape-detection level set for segmentation of renal cysts from MR images. T2-weighted MR image sets of 40 kidneys were selected from 20 patients with mild to moderate renal cyst burden (kidney volume < 1500 ml) in the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease (CRISP). The performance of the semi-automated method was assessed in terms of two reference metrics in each kidney: the total number of cysts measured by manual counting and the total volume of cysts measured with a region-based thresholding method. The proposed and reference measurements were compared using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis. Results Individual renal cysts were successfully segmented with the semi-automated method in all 20 cases. The total number of cysts in each kidney measured with the two methods correlated well (ICC, 0.99), with a very small relative bias (0.3% increase with the semi-automated method; limits of agreement, 15.2% reduction to 17.2% increase). The total volume of cysts measured using both methods also correlated well (ICC, 1.00), with a small relative bias of <10% (9.0% decrease in the semi-automated method; limits of agreement, 17.1% increase to 43.3% decrease). Conclusion This semi-automated method to segment individual renal cysts in ADPKD kidneys provides a quantitative indicator of severity in early and moderate stages of the disease. PMID:23520042

Bae, Kyungsoo; Park, Bumwoo; Sun, Hongliang; Wang, Jinhong; Tao, Cheng; Chapman, Arlene B.; Torres, Vicente E.; Grantham, Jared J.; Mrug, Michal; Bennett, William M.; Flessner, Michael F.; Landsittel, Doug P.

2013-01-01

209

Autosomal dominant eccentric core disease caused by a heterozygous mutation in the MYH7 gene  

PubMed Central

Background Autosomal dominant (AD) central core disease (CCD) is a congenital myopathy characterised by the presence of cores in the muscle fibres which correspond to broad areas of myofibrils disorganisation, Z-line streaming and lack of mitochondria. Heterozygous mutations in the RYR1 gene were observed in the large majority of AD-CCD families; however, this gene was excluded in some of AD-CCD families. Objective To enlarge the genetic spectrum of AD-CCD demonstrating mutations in an additional gene. Patients and methods Four affected AD family members over three generations, three of whom were alive and participate in the study: the mother and two of three siblings. The symptoms began during the early childhood with mild delayed motor development. Later they developed mainly tibialis anterior weakness, hypertrophy of calves and significant weakness (amyotrophic) of quadriceps. No cardiac or ocular involvement was noted. Results The muscle biopsies sections showed a particular pattern: eccentric cores in type 1 fibres, associated with type 1 predominance. Most cores have abrupt borders. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of both unstructured and structured cores. Exome sequencing analysis identified a novel heterozygous missense mutation p.Leu1723Pro in MYH7 segregating with the disease and affecting a conserved residue in the myosin tail domain. Conclusions We describe MYH7 as an additional causative gene for AD-CCD. These findings have important implications for diagnosis and future investigations of AD-congenital myopathies with cores, without cardiomyopathy, but presenting a particular involvement of distal and quadriceps muscles. PMID:24828896

Romero, Norma B; Xie, Ting; Malfatti, Edoardo; Schaeffer, Ursula; Böhm, Johann; Wu, Bin; Xu, Fengping; Boucebci, Samy; Mathis, Stéphane; Neau, Jean-Philippe; Monnier, Nicole; Fardeau, Michel; Laporte, Jocelyn

2014-01-01

210

A YAC contig encompassing the chromosome 7p locus for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa  

SciTech Connect

Retinitis pigmentosa is an inherited retinal degeneration characterized by night blindness and loss of peripheral vision, often leading to complete blindness. The autosomal dominant form (adRP) maps to at least six different loci, including the rhodopsin and peripherin/Rds genes and four loci identified only by linkage analysis on chromosomes 7p, 7q, 8cen and 19q. The 7p locus was reported by this laboratory in a large English family, with a lod score of 16.5. Several new genetic markers have been tested in the family and this locus has now been refined to an interval of approximately 1 cM between markers D7S795 and D7S484 in the 7p13-15 region. In order to clone the gene for adRP, we have used microsatellites and STSs from the region to identify over 80 YACs, from four different libraries, which map to this interval. End clones from key YACs were isolated for the generation of additional STSs. Eleven microsatellite markers between D7S435 (distal) and D7S484 (proximal) have been ordered by a combination of both physical and genetic mapping. In this way we have now obtained a YAC contig spanning approximately 3 megabases of chromosome 7p within which the adRP gene must lie. One gene (aquaporin) and one chromosome 7 brain EST have been placed on the contig but both map distal to the region of interest. Sixteen other ESTs and three further known 7p genes mapping in the region have been excluded. We are now attempting to build a cosmid contig in the defined interval and identify further expressed sequences from both YACs and cosmids to test as candidates for the adRP gene.

Inglehearn, C.F.; Keen, T.J.; Ratel, R. [Institute of Ophthalmology, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

1994-09-01

211

Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia type III: a review of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics  

PubMed Central

Autosomal Dominant Cerebellar Ataxia (ADCA) Type III is a type of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) classically characterized by pure cerebellar ataxia and occasionally by non-cerebellar signs such as pyramidal signs, ophthalmoplegia, and tremor. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in adulthood; however, a minority of patients develop clinical features in adolescence. The incidence of ADCA Type III is unknown. ADCA Type III consists of six subtypes, SCA5, SCA6, SCA11, SCA26, SCA30, and SCA31. The subtype SCA6 is the most common. These subtypes are associated with four causative genes and two loci. The severity of symptoms and age of onset can vary between each SCA subtype and even between families with the same subtype. SCA5 and SCA11 are caused by specific gene mutations such as missense, inframe deletions, and frameshift insertions or deletions. SCA6 is caused by trinucleotide CAG repeat expansions encoding large uninterrupted glutamine tracts. SCA31 is caused by repeat expansions that fall outside of the protein-coding region of the disease gene. Currently, there are no specific gene mutations associated with SCA26 or SCA30, though there is a confirmed locus for each subtype. This disease is mainly diagnosed via genetic testing; however, differential diagnoses include pure cerebellar ataxia and non-cerebellar features in addition to ataxia. Although not fatal, ADCA Type III may cause dysphagia and falls, which reduce the quality of life of the patients and may in turn shorten the lifespan. The therapy for ADCA Type III is supportive and includes occupational and speech modalities. There is no cure for ADCA Type III, but a number of recent studies have highlighted novel therapies, which bring hope for future curative treatments. PMID:23331413

2013-01-01

212

Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Assessment of Left Ventricular Mass in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is associated with a substantial cardiovascular disease burden including early onset hypertension, intracranial aneurysms, and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). A 41% prevalence of LVH has been reported in ADPKD, using echocardiographic assessment of LV mass (LVM). The HALT PKD study was designed to assess the effect of intensive angiotensin blockade on progression of total kidney volume and LVM. Measurements of LVM were performed using cardiac magnetic resonance (MR). Design, setting, participants, & measurements Five hundred forty-three hypertensive patients with GFR >60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 underwent MR assessment of LVM at baseline. LVM was adjusted for body surface area and expressed as LVM index (LVMI; g/m2). Results Baseline BP was 125.1 ± 14.5/79.3 ± 11.6 mmHg. Average duration of hypertension was 5.79 years. Prior use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers was present in 59.5% of patients. The prevalence of LVH assessed using nonindexed LVM (g) was 3.9% (n = 21, eight men and 13 women) and 0.93% (n = 5, one man and four women) using LVMI (g/m2). In exploratory analyses, the prevalence of LVH using LVM indexed to H2.7, and the allometric index ppLVmassHW, ranged from 0.74% to 2.23% (n = 4 to 12). Multivariate regression showed significant direct associations of LVMI with systolic BP, serum creatinine, and albuminuria; significant inverse associations with LVMI were found with age and female gender. Conclusions The prevalence of LVH in hypertensive ADPKD patients <50 years of age with short duration of hypertension, and prior use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers is low. Early BP intervention in ADPKD may have decreased LVH and may potentially decrease cardiovascular mortality. PMID:21903983

Abebe, Kaleab Z.; Schrier, Robert W.; Chapman, Arlene B.; Torres, Vicente E.; Bost, James; Kaya, Diana; Miskulin, Dana C.; Steinman, Theodore I.; Braun, William; Winklhofer, Franz T.; Hogan, Marie C.; Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic; Kelleher, Cass; Masoumi, Amirali; Glockner, James; Halin, Neil J.; Martin, Diego; Remer, Erick; Patel, Nayana; Pedrosa, Ivan; Wetzel, Louis H.; Thompson, Paul A.; Miller, J. Philip; Meyers, Catherine M.; Bae, K. Ty

2011-01-01

213

Presence of De Novo Mutations in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Patients Without Family History  

PubMed Central

Background At the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, approximately 10% of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) on detailed questioning gave no family history of ADPKD. There are several explanations for this observation including occurrence of a de novo pathogenic sequence variant or extreme phenotypic variability. In order to confirm de novo sequence variants we have undertaken a clinical and genetic screening of affected offspring and their parents. Study Design Case series. Setting and Participants Twenty-four patients with a well-documented ADPKD phenotype and no family history of PKD and both parents of each patients. Outcome Presence or absence of PKD1 or PKD2 pathogenic sequence variants in parents of affected offspring. Measurements Abdominal ultrasound of affected offspring and their parents for ADPKD diagnosis. Parentage testing by genotyping. Complete screening of PKD1 and PKD2 genes by using genomic DNA from affected offspring; analysis of genomic DNA from both parents to confirm absence or presence of all DNA variants found. Results A positive diagnosis of ADPKD by ultrasound or genetic screening was made in one parent of four patients (17%). No PKD1 or PKD2 pathogenic sequence variants were identified in 10 patients (42%) while possible pathological DNA variants were identified in 4 patients (17%) and one of their respective parents. Parentage was confirmed in the remaining 6 patients (25%) and de novo mutations sequence variants were documented. Limitations Size of patient group. No direct examination of RNA. Conclusion Causes other than de novo pathogenic sequence variants may explain the negative family history of ADPKD in certain families. PMID:18640754

Reed, Berenice; McFann, Kim; Kimberling, William J.; Pei, York; Gabow, Patricia A.; Christopher, Karen; Petersen, Eric; Kelleher, Catherine; Fain, Pamela R.; Johnson, Ann; Schrier, Robert W.

2008-01-01

214

Variation in Age at ESRD in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Heterogeneity manifest as more severe disease in successive generations has been attributed to genetic anticipation in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We evaluated variation in age at end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in ADPKD families for evidence of anticipation. Study Design Retrospective. Setting & Participants 413 families with ADPKD seen at our single center between 1985 and 2004 (including 95 families with documented polycystic disease type 1 [PKD1] and 213 ADPKD families with parents born before 1930). Predictor Generational status. Outcome Age at ESRD onset. Measurements Time to ESRD was evaluated by using survival analysis, Cox regression, and descriptive statistics. Unstable trinucleotide repeat expansion was evaluated by means of genotyping in 6 PKD1 families. Results We analyzed 413 ADPKD families (1,391 parent-offspring pairs) with known age at ESRD or last known age without ESRD (informative pairs). There was no difference in age at ESRD between parents and offspring by means of Cox regression after adjusting for correlations among family members and sex (hazard ratio, 1.019; 95% confidence interval, 0.919 to 1.13; P = 0.7). Similar analysis of PKD1 informative pairs and those with parents born before 1930 showed no differences in age at ESRD. Male ADPKD patients were 42% more likely to reach ESRD (P < 0.001), and male patients with documented PKD1 were 41% more likely to reach ESRD (P = 0.01) than female patients. Limitations Hypertension treatment unknown. Conclusions We found no evidence for anticipation of ESRD in patients with ADPKD; thus, the observed variation in age at ESRD may result from other genetic, sex, or environmental causes. PMID:18215695

Reed, Berenice Y.; McFann, Kim; Bekheirnia, M. Reza; Nobkhthaghighi, Niloofar; Masoumi, Amirali; Johnson, Ann M.; Shamshiraz, Alireza Abdollah; Kelleher, Catherine L.; Schrier, Robert W.

2009-01-01

215

The impact of type II diabetes mellitus in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Background The epidemic of obesity and diabetes is increasing within the USA and worldwide. We have previously shown that body mass index has increased significantly in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) subjects seen at our center in more recent years. However, the impact of Type II diabetes in ADPKD patients has not been well studied. Methods This retrospective cohort study compared clinical characteristics in 44 pre-renal transplant patients with ADPKD and diabetes and 88 age- and sex-matched non-diabetic patients with ADPKD who were seen at the University of Colorado between 1977 and 2008. The primary outcomes in this study were renal volume determined by renal ultrasonography, renal function assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate and time to onset of end-stage renal disease or death by Kaplan–Meier analyses. Results Diabetic patients had significantly larger kidney volumes than those with ADPKD alone [geometric mean (95% confidence interval (CI)]: 2456 (1510–3992) versus 1358 (1186–1556) cm3, P = 0.02. Among those whose age at hypertension diagnosis was known, the diabetic ADPKD patients had earlier median (95% CI) age at onset of hypertension compared to those with ADPKD alone: 32.5 (28–40) versus 38 (35–42) years, P = 0.04. Diabetic ADPKD patients tended to have an earlier median age of death than those with ADPKD alone. Conclusions Patients with ADPKD and type II diabetes have larger renal volumes, earlier age at diagnosis of hypertension and may die at a younger age compared to those patients with ADPKD alone. This study emphasizes the importance of diabetes risk management in ADPKD. PMID:22207329

Reed, Berenice; Helal, Imed; McFann, Kim; Wang, Wei; Yan, Xiang-Dong; Schrier, Robert W.

2012-01-01

216

Glomerular Hyperfiltration and Renal Progression in Children with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives The purpose of this study was to determine whether glomerular hyperfiltration (GH) occurring early in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is indicative of more rapid disease progression in children. Design, setting, participants, & measurements One hundred eighty children with ADPKD (ages 4 to 18 years) with normal renal function were examined by renal ultrasound. Renal volume was calculated using a standard formula for a modified ellipsoid. Creatinine clearance was calculated from serum creatinine and 24-hour urine creatinine. GH was defined as creatinine clearance ?140 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Results Thirty-two children had GH (mean age 11.4 ± 3.6 years) and 148 had normal renal function (mean age 10.8 ± 3.9 years). Patients with GH at baseline demonstrated an increased rate of total renal volume growth (?: rate of change = +19.3 ± 10.8 cm3/year) over 5 years compared with those without GH at baseline (? = ?4.3 ± 7.7 cm3/year), P = 0.008. Those with GH at baseline experienced a faster decline in creatinine clearance in subsequent years (? = ?5.0 ± 0.8 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year) compared with those without GH at baseline (? = +1.0 ± 0.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year), P < 0.0001. Conclusions This study revealed that occurrence of GH in ADPKD children is associated with a significantly faster decline in renal function and higher rate of kidney enlargement over time. GH combined with the increased renal volume may therefore be used as an early marker for a more severe progression of ADPKD in children. PMID:21903987

Helal, Imed; Reed, Berenice; McFann, Kim; Yan, Xiang-Dong; Fick-Brosnahan, Godela M.; Cadnapaphornchai, Melissa

2011-01-01

217

Kelch-like homologue 9 mutation is associated with an early onset autosomal dominant distal myopathy  

PubMed Central

Distal myopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by progressive weakness and muscular atrophy, beginning in distal limb muscles and affecting proximal limb muscles at a later stage. We studied a large German kindred with 10 affected members. Weakness and atrophy of the anterior tibial muscles started between the ages of 8 and 16 years, followed by atrophy of intrinsic hand muscles. Progression was slow, and patients retained the ability to walk until the seventh decade. Serum creatinine kinase levels were increased in the range of 150–1400?U/l. Muscle biopsies showed myopathic changes, whereas immunohistochemistry showed normal expression of marker proteins for muscular dystrophies. Patients had reduced sensation with stocking-glove distribution in the distal limbs in later life. Nerve conduction studies revealed no evidence of neuropathy. Genome-wide linkage analysis in this family revealed a new locus for distal myopathy at 9p21.2-p22.3 (multipoint logarithm of the odds ratio?=?4.21). By positional cloning we found a heterozygous mutation L95F in the Kelch-like homologue 9 gene, encoding a bric-a-brac Kelch protein. Molecular modelling indicated that the mutation may interfere with the interaction of the bric-a-brac domain with Cullin 3. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that the mutation reduces association with Cullin 3 in the Kelch-like homologue 9-Cullin 3–E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which is involved in ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation. We identified a unique form of early onset autosomal dominant distal myopathy which is associated with a Kelch-like homologue 9 mutation and interferes with normal skeletal muscle through a novel pathogenetic mechanism. PMID:20554658

von Deimling, Florian; Sachdev, Shrikesh; Errington, Wesley J.; Herrmann, Ralf; Bönnemann, Carsten; Brockmann, Knut; Hinderlich, Stephan; Lindner, Tom H.; Steinbrecher, Alice; Hoffmann, Katrin; Privé, Gilbert G.; Hannink, Mark; Nürnberg, Peter; Voit, Thomas

2010-01-01

218

Phenotypic Characterization of a Large Family With RP10 Autosomal-Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To evaluate the clinical features associated with the RP10 form of autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa in 11 affected members of various ages from one family with a defined IMPDH1 mutation (Asp226Asn). DESIGN Prospective, observational case series. METHODS Visual function assessment included visual acuity, color vision, visual field, dark adaptometry, full-field electroretinography (ffERG), and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Ophthalmologic examinations, fundus photography, and optical coherence tomographic scans were also performed. Blood samples were obtained to screen for basic immune function. RESULTS Visual acuity was slightly reduced in the teenage years and substantially reduced in association with cystoid macular edema (CME) at all ages. Color defects were observed in three patients (one teen, two adults). Dark-adapted thresholds were elevated. Visual fields were markedly constricted by age 40 (?20 degrees). Rod and cone a-wave and b-wave ffERG responses were small or nondetectable by age 20, with greater rod than cone loss at all ages. The normal to significantly delayed ffERG cone b-wave implicit times in different patients were explained by their mfERG implicit times from the central retina. The amplification factors (log S) and recovery kinetics derived from the full-field rod a-waves were normal. Optical coherence tomography revealed subretinal fluid accumulation in the majority of eyes. Cystoid macular edema was diagnosed in four patients. No unusual immunologic findings were noted. CONCLUSIONS The Asp226Asn mutation is associated with a severe, early-onset form of retinal degeneration in members of this family. PMID:16214101

KOZMA, PETRA; HUGHBANKS-WHEATON, DIANNA K.; LOCKE, KIRSTEN G.; FISH, GARRY E.; GIRE, ANISA I.; SPELLICY, CATHERINE J.; SULLIVAN, LORI S.; BOWNE, SARA J.; DAIGER, STEPHEN P.; BIRCH, DAVID G.

2008-01-01

219

A novel prophylactic effect of furosemide treatment on autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE).  

PubMed

The transgenic rat strain S284L-TG harbors the S284L mutant of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha4 subunit gene (CHRNA4), which is responsible for human autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE). S284L-TG rats have epileptic seizure phenotypes during slow-wave sleep, similar to those in NFLE. We previously demonstrated that ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic action of these rats was suppressed before the onset of ADNFLE seizures, and that glutamate release in the epileptic focus lesion was increased at the onset of epilepsy. Here, mRNA analysis revealed that Cl(-)-accumulating Na-K-2Cl cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) levels were increased and Cl(-)-extruding K-Cl cotransporter 1 and 2 (KCC1 and KCC2) levels were decreased at the onset of ADNFLE seizures in S284L-TG rat frontal cortexes, which perturbed the GABAergic inhibitory system. The reversal potentials (EGABA) of GABAA receptor-mediated currents in cortical layer V pyramidal neurons of S284L-TG rats also changed their polarity from hyperpolarization to depolarization, and S284L-TG miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), but not miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), significantly increased in both amplitude and frequency. Administration of 25mg/kg/day furosemide before, but not after, the onset of interictal discharges prevented idiopathic epileptic activity, reversed the depolarizing shift of EGABA and increased mEPSC amplitude to normal levels. These data indicate that early treatment with an agent that normalizes pathogenesis has a prophylactic effect on epilepsy. We propose a strategy for prophylactic medication against idiopathic epilepsy through the suppression of epileptogenesis and/or ictogenesis. PMID:24045013

Yamada, Junko; Zhu, Gang; Okada, Motohiro; Hirose, Shinichi; Yoshida, Shukuko; Shiba, Yuko; Migita, Keisuke; Mori, Fumiaki; Sugawara, Takayuki; Chen, Lei; Liu, Fang; Yoshida, Shuichi; Ueno, Shinya; Kaneko, Sunao

2013-11-01

220

The role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is a focal epilepsy with attacks typically arising in the frontal lobe during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. It is characterized by clusters of complex and stereotyped hypermotor seizures, frequently accompanied by sudden arousals. Cognitive and psychiatric symptoms may be also observed. Approximately 12% of the ADNFLE families carry mutations on genes coding for subunits of the heteromeric neuronal nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). This is consistent with the widespread expression of these receptors, particularly the ?4?2(*) subtype, in the neocortex and thalamus. However, understanding how mutant nAChRs lead to partial frontal epilepsy is far from being straightforward because of the complexity of the cholinergic regulation in both developing and mature brains. The relation with the sleep-waking cycle must be also explained. We discuss some possible pathogenetic mechanisms in the light of recent advances about the nAChR role in prefrontal regions as well as the studies carried out in murine models of ADNFLE. Functional evidence points to alterations in prefrontal GABA release, and the synaptic unbalance probably arises during the cortical circuit maturation. Although most of the available functional evidence concerns mutations on nAChR subunit genes, other genes have been recently implicated in the disease, such as KCNT1 (coding for a Na(+)-dependent K(+) channel), DEPD5 (Disheveled, Egl-10 and Pleckstrin Domain-containing protein 5), and CRH (Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone). Overall, the uncertainties about both the etiology and the pathogenesis of ADNFLE point to the current gaps in our knowledge the regulation of neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex. PMID:25717303

Becchetti, Andrea; Aracri, Patrizia; Meneghini, Simone; Brusco, Simone; Amadeo, Alida

2015-01-01

221

Radiologic and Clinical Bronchiectasis Associated with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Polycystin 1 and 2, the protein abnormalities associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), are also found in airway cilia and smooth muscle cells. There is evidence of increased radiologic bronchiectasis associated with ADPKD, though the clinical and functional implications of this association are unknown. We hypothesized an increased prevalence of both radiologic and clinical bronchiectasis is associated with APDKD as compared to non-ADPKD chronic kidney disease (CKD) controls. Materials and Methods A retrospective case-control study was performed at our institution involving consecutive ADPKD and non-ADPKD chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients seen over a 13 year period with both chest CT and PFT. CTs were independently reviewed by two blinded thoracic radiologists. Manually collected clinical data included symptoms, smoker status, transplant history, and PFT findings. Results Ninety-two ADPKD and 95 non-ADPKD CKD control patients were compared. Increased prevalence of radiologic bronchiectasis, predominantly mild lower lobe disease, was found in ADPKD patients compared to CKD control (19 vs. 9%, P?=?0.032, OR 2.49 (CI 1.1–5.8)). After adjustment for covariates, ADPKD was associated with increased risk of radiologic bronchiectasis (OR 2.78 (CI 1.16–7.12)). Symptomatic bronchiectasis occurred in approximately a third of ADPKD patients with radiologic disease. Smoking was associated with increased radiologic bronchiectasis in ADPKD patients (OR 3.59, CI 1.23–12.1). Conclusions Radiological bronchiectasis is increased in patients with ADPKD particularly those with smoking history as compared to non-ADPKD CKD controls. A third of such patients have symptomatic disease. Bronchiectasis should be considered in the differential in ADPKD patients with respiratory symptoms and smoking history. PMID:24747723

Moua, Teng; Zand, Ladan; Hartman, Robert P.; Hartman, Thomas E.; Qin, Dingxin; Peikert, Tobias; Qian, Qi

2014-01-01

222

A Novel Missense Mutation of Wilms' Tumor 1 Causes Autosomal Dominant FSGS.  

PubMed

FSGS is a clinical disorder characterized by focal scarring of the glomerular capillary tuft, podocyte injury, and nephrotic syndrome. Although idiopathic forms of FSGS predominate, recent insights into the molecular and genetic causes of FSGS have enhanced our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Here, we report a novel missense mutation of the transcriptional regulator Wilms' Tumor 1 (WT1) as the cause of nonsyndromic, autosomal dominant FSGS in two Northern European kindreds from the United States. We performed sequential genome-wide linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing to evaluate participants from family DUK6524. Subsequently, whole-exome sequencing and direct sequencing were performed on proband DNA from family DUK6975. We identified multiple suggestive loci on chromosomes 6, 11, and 13 in family DUK6524 and identified a segregating missense mutation (R458Q) in WT1 isoform D as the cause of FSGS in this family. The identical mutation was found in family DUK6975. The R458Q mutation was not found in 1600 control chromosomes and was predicted as damaging by in silico simulation. We depleted wt1a in zebrafish embryos and observed glomerular injury and filtration defects, both of which were rescued with wild-type but not mutant human WT1D mRNA. Finally, we explored the subcellular mechanism of the mutation in vitro. WT1(R458Q) overexpression significantly downregulated nephrin and synaptopodin expression, promoted apoptosis in HEK293 cells and impaired focal contact formation in podocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that the WT1(R458Q) mutation alters the regulation of podocyte homeostasis and causes nonsyndromic FSGS. PMID:25145932

Hall, Gentzon; Gbadegesin, Rasheed A; Lavin, Peter; Wu, Guanghong; Liu, Yangfan; Oh, Edwin C; Wang, Liming; Spurney, Robert F; Eckel, Jason; Lindsey, Thomas; Homstad, Alison; Malone, Andrew F; Phelan, Paul J; Shaw, Andrey; Howell, David N; Conlon, Peter J; Katsanis, Nicholas; Winn, Michelle P

2015-04-01

223

Clinical manifestations of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in patients older than 50 years.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to define manifestations of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in older patients with the disease. Fifty-seven subjects age 50 years or more, who were at risk for having inherited the gene for ADPKD, were evaluated for renal size, hypertension, back and abdominal pain, symptoms consistent with urinary tract infection (UTI), hematuria, end-stage renal failure, and liver cysts. The diagnosis of ADPKD was made in 32 of the 57 at-risk subjects (56%). At the time of study, only one patient with the disease was asymptomatic and normotensive and denied any previous symptoms suggestive of the disease. Clinical manifestations of ADPKD in the 31 symptomatic patients were hypertension (69%), a history of back and abdominal pain (47%), symptoms consistent with UTI (41%), hematuria (31%), and end-stage renal failure (47%). Liver cysts were found in 44% of patients. No statistically significant differences in the frequency of any manifestations of ADPKD between men and women were found, although the frequency of symptoms consistent with UTI tended to be higher in women (53%) than in men (27%). Most patients developed symptoms after the age of 40 years. Notably, 31% of the older patients with ADPKD had normal serum creatinine levels. Thus, older subjects with kidney cysts who are at risk to have inherited the gene for ADPKD, should be considered to have the disease even in the presence of well-preserved kidney function. This observation may play an important role in assessing the prognosis of older subjects at risk who have bilateral renal cysts and in genetic counseling of their relatives. PMID:2137671

Milutinovic, J; Fialkow, P J; Agodoa, L Y; Phillips, L A; Rudd, T G; Sutherland, S

1990-03-01

224

Anatomic and metabolic risk factors for nephrolithiasis in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

The prevalence of nephrolithiasis is considerably greater in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) than in the general population. We evaluated anatomic and metabolic factors that may be associated with an increased prevalence of nephrolithiasis in patients with ADPKD. We compared anatomic parameters among ADPKD patients with or without nephrolithiasis as diagnosed by ultrasonography, whereas metabolic factors were determined by 24-hour urinary chemical analysis. Patients with ADPKD and nephrolithiasis had more renal cysts (P < 0.05) and a larger predominant renal cyst size (P < 0.005) than patients without nephrolithiasis. Concurrently, individual stone-forming kidneys had a greater cyst number (P < 0.05) and a significantly larger predominant cyst size (P < 0.01) compared with kidneys without stones. Patients with ADPKD and nephrolithiasis had a significantly lower creatinine clearance than those without nephrolithiasis (68.7 +/- 8.6 versus 94.8 +/- 5.4 mL/min, respectively; P < 0.05). Twenty-four-hour urinary analysis showed that patients with ADPKD and nephrolithiasis had significantly lower urinary volumes (P < 0. 05), and levels of urinary phosphate (P < 0.05), magnesium (P < 0. 005), and potassium (P < 0.05). Although not statistically significant, patients with ADPKD with stones tended to have lower levels of urinary citrate, and both groups showed a high percentage (range, 49% to 60%) of patients with hypocitraturia. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that patients with ADPKD who develop nephrolithiasis do so because of increased intrarenal anatomic obstruction, as well as lower levels of such urinary inhibitors of stones as magnesium and citrate. PMID:10873872

Grampsas, S A; Chandhoke, P S; Fan, J; Glass, M A; Townsend, R; Johnson, A M; Gabow, P

2000-07-01

225

Mutational screening of splicing factor genes in cases with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Purpose Mutations in genes encoding proteins from the tri-snRNP complex of the spliceosome account for more than 12% of cases of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). Although the exact mechanism by which splicing factor defects trigger photoreceptor death is not completely clear, their role in retinitis pigmentosa has been demonstrated by several genetic and functional studies. To test for possible novel associations between splicing factors and adRP, we screened four tri-snRNP splicing factor genes (EFTUD2, PRPF4, NHP2L1, and AAR2) as candidate disease genes. Methods We screened up to 303 patients with adRP from Europe and North America who did not carry known RP mutations. Exon-PCR and Sanger methods were used to sequence the NHP2L1 and AAR2 genes, while the sequences of EFTUD2 and PRPF4 were obtained by using long-range PCRs spanning coding and non-coding regions followed by next-generation sequencing. Results We detected novel missense changes in individual patients in the sequence of the genes PRPF4 and EFTUD2, but the role of these changes in relationship to disease could not be verified. In one other patient we identified a novel nucleotide substitution in the 5? untranslated region (UTR) of NHP2L1, which did not segregate with the disease in the family. Conclusions The absence of clearly pathogenic mutations in the candidate genes screened in our cohort suggests that EFTUD2, PRPF4, NHP2L1, and AAR2 are either not involved in adRP or are associated with the disease in rare instances, at least as observed in this study in patients of European and North American origin. PMID:24959063

Benaglio, Paola; San Jose, Patricia Fernandez; Avila-Fernandez, Almudena; Ascari, Giulia; Harper, Shyana; Manes, Gaël; Ayuso, Carmen; Hamel, Christian; Berson, Eliot L.

2014-01-01

226

Hypokalemic periodic paralysis: an autosomal dominant muscle disorder caused by mutations in a voltage-gated calcium channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by acute attacks of muscle weakness concomitant to a drop in blood potassium levels. Recent molecular work has shown that hypoPP is due to mutations in a skeletal muscle voltage-gated calcium channel: the dihydropyridine receptor (DHP receptor). Mutations affect segments S4 of domains II and IV, changing an arginine in

Pascale Lapie; Philippe Lory; Bertrand Fontaine

1997-01-01

227

Autosomal Dominant Familial Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate Deposition Disease Is Caused by Mutation in the Transmembrane Protein ANKH  

PubMed Central

Familial autosomal dominant calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) chondrocalcinosis has previously been mapped to chromosome 5p15. We have identified a mutation in the ANKH gene that segregates with the disease in a family with this condition. ANKH encodes a putative transmembrane inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) transport channel. We postulate that loss of function of ANKH causes elevated extracellular PPi levels, predisposing to CPPD crystal deposition. PMID:12297989

Williams, Charlene J.; Zhang, Yun; Timms, Andrew; Bonavita, Gina; Caeiro, Francisco; Broxholme, John; Cuthbertson, Jonathan; Jones, Yvonne; Marchegiani, Raul; Reginato, Antonio; Russell, R. Graham G.; Wordsworth, B. Paul; Carr, Andrew J.; Brown, Matthew A.

2002-01-01

228

DFNA8\\/12 caused by TECTA mutations is the most identified subtype of nonsyndromic autosomal dominant hearing loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of DFNA8\\/DFNA12 (DFNA8\\/12), a type of autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL), is unknown as comprehensive population-based genetic screening has not been conducted. We therefore completed unbiased screening for TECTA mutations in a Spanish cohort of 372 probands from ADNSHL families. Three additional families (Spanish, Belgian, and English) known to be linked to DFNA8\\/12 were also included in

M. S. Hildebrand; M. Morin; N. C. Meyer; F. Mayo; S. Modamio-Hoybjor; A. Mencia; L. Olavarrieta; C. Morales-Angulo; C. J. Nishimura; H. Workman; A. P. DeLuca; I. del Castillo; K. R. Taylor; B. Tompkins; C. W. Goodman; I. Schrauwen; M. V. Wesemael; K. Lachlan; A. E. Shearer; T. A. Braun; P. L. M. Huygen; J. M. J. Kremer; G. van Camp; F. Moreno; T. L. Casavant; R. J. Smith; M. A. Moreno-Pelayo

2011-01-01

229

Polymorphisms at 13 expressed human sequences containing CAG\\/CTG repeats and analysis in autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA) patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic anticipation – increasing severity and a decrease in the age of onset with successive generations of a pedigree –\\u000a is clearly present in autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA). Anticipation is correlated with expansion of the CAG\\/CTG\\u000a repeat sequence to sizes above those in the normal range through the generations of a pedigree. Genetic heterogeneity has\\u000a been demonstrated for ADCA,

Miguel Angel Pujana; Monica Gratacós; Jordi Corral; Isabel Banchs; Aurora Sánchez; David Genís; Carlos Cervera; Víctor Volpini; Xavier Estivill

1997-01-01

230

A novel frameshift mutation of POU4F3 gene associated with autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss  

SciTech Connect

Autosomal dominant mutations in the transcription factor POU4F3 gene are associated with non-syndromic hearing loss in humans; however, there have been few reports of mutations in this gene worldwide. We performed a mutation analysis of the POU4F3 gene in 42 unrelated Koreans with autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss, identifying a novel 14-bp deletion mutation in exon 2 (c.662del14) in one patient. Audiometric examination revealed severe bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in this patient. The novel mutation led to a truncated protein that lacked both functional POU domains. We further investigated the functional distinction between wild-type and mutant POU4F3 proteins using in vitro assays. The wild-type protein was completely localized in the nucleus, while the truncation of protein seriously affected its nuclear localization. In addition, the mutant failed to activate reporter gene expression. This is the first report of a POU4F3 mutation in Asia, and moreover our data suggest that further investigation will need to delineate ethnicity-specific genetic background for autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss within Asian populations.

Lee, Hee Keun [Department of Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hong-Joon [Soree Ear Clinic, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Soree Ear Clinic, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyu-Yup [Vestibulocochlear Research Center, College of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)] [Vestibulocochlear Research Center, College of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Rekil, E-mail: rkpark@wku.ac.kr [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Un-Kyung, E-mail: kimuk@knu.ac.kr [Department of Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2010-06-04

231

Serum uric acid, kidney volume and progression in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Background Hyperuricemia has been implicated in the development and progression of chronic kidney disease, both in animal experiments and in clinical studies. As a potentially modifiable risk factor, we examined whether serum uric acid levels correlate with early hypertension, kidney volume and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Methods Retrospective analysis of a prospective observational study of the natural history of ADPKD, conducted at the University of Colorado between 1985 and 2005. Included are 680 ADPKD adults who provided data on blood pressure, renal volume, renal function, uric acid, age at the onset of ESRD or last known age without ESRD. Serum uric acid levels were examined as a continuous variable and as gender-specific quartiles. The main outcome of interest was age at the onset of ESRD; secondary outcomes were hypertension onset before age 30 years and total kidney volume (TKV) at the study visit. Results Subjects with early-onset hypertension had higher age-adjusted serum uric acid levels than those with no or late-onset hypertension despite similar creatinine clearance. After adjusting for age, gender and creatinine clearance, there was a 5.8% increase in TKV and 4.1% increase in TKV/body surface area for every 1 mg/dL increase in uric acid (P = 0.007). The multivariate-adjusted Cox regression demonstrated a greater hazard ratio for ESRD for subjects in the 4th and 3rd quartiles of uric acid compared with the 1st [4.8 (2.6–8.9; P < 0.001) and 2.9 (1.6–5.3; P < 0.001)]. Conclusions Higher serum uric acid levels are associated with earlier onset of hypertension, larger kidney volume and increased hazard for ESRD in ADPKD independent of gender, body mass index and renal function at the study visit. Randomized interventional studies will be necessary to examine whether treating hyperuricemia has a protective role in ADPKD. PMID:23222419

Helal, Imed; McFann, Kim; Reed, Berenice; Yan, Xiang-Dong; Schrier, Robert W.; Fick-Brosnahan, Godela M.

2013-01-01

232

COL4A4 gene study of a European population: description of new mutations causing autosomal dominant Alport syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: Autosomal forms of Alport syndrome represent 20% of all patients (15% recessive and 5% dominant). They are caused by mutations in the COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes, which encode a-3 and a-4 collagen IV chains of the glomerular basement membrane, cochlea and eye. Thin basement membrane nephropathy may affect up to 1% of the population. The pattern of inheritance in the 40% of cases is the same as autosomal dominant Alport syndrome: heterozygous mutations in these genes. The aim of this study is to detect new pathogenic mutations in the COL4A4 gene in the patients previously diagnosed with autosomal Alport syndrome and thin basement membrane nephropathy in our hospital. Methods: We conducted a clinical and genetic study in eleven patients belonging to six unrelated families with aforementioned clinical symptoms and a negative study of COL4A3 gene. The molecular study was made by conformation of sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) and direct sequencing of the fragments that show an altered electrophoretic migration pattern. Results: We found two pathogenic mutations, not yet described: IVS3 + 1G > C is a replacement of Guanine to Cytosine in position +1 of intron 3, in the splicing region, which leads to a pathogenic mutation. c.4267C > T; p.P1423S is a missense mutation, also considered pathogenic. We also found seven new polymorphisms. Conclusions: We describe two new pathogenic mutations, responsible for autosomal dominant Alport syndrome. The other families of the study were undiagnosed owing to problems in the method employed and the possibility of mutations in other genes, giving rise to other diseases with similar symptoms.

Rosado, Consolación; Bueno, Elena; Felipe, Carmen; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio

2014-01-01

233

Magnetic resonance measurements of renal blood flow as a marker of disease severity in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance measurements of renal blood flow as a marker of disease severity in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.?BackgroundAutosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited disorder characterized by renal cyst growth, early development of hypertension, and late occurrence of renal insufficiency. Despite evidence for the importance of nephroangiosclerosis in the progression of renal insufficiency in ADPKD, evaluation of renal blood

Bernard F. King; Vicente E. Torres; Marijn E. Brummer; Arlene B. Chapman; Kyongtae T. Bae; James F. Glockner; KRAISTHITH ARYA; Joel P. Felmlee; Jared J. Grantham; Lisa M. Guay-Woodford; William M. Bennett; SAULO KLAHR; Gladys H. Hirschman; Paul L. Kimmel; Paul A. Thompson; J. Phillip Miller

2003-01-01

234

Early structural anomalies observed by high-resolution imaging in two related cases of autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa.  

PubMed

The authors report the use of adaptive-optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) to investigate RHO, D190N autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa in two siblings (11 and 16 years old, respectively). Each patient exhibited distinct hyperautofluorescence patterns in which the outer borders corresponded to inner segment ellipsoid band disruption. Areas within the hyperautofluorescence patterns exhibited normal photoreceptor outer segments and retinal pigment epithelium. However, AO-SLO imaging revealed noticeable spacing irregularities in the cone mosaic. AO-SLO allows researchers to characterize retinal structural abnormalities with precision so that early structural changes in retinitis pigmentosa can be identified and reconciled with genetic findings. PMID:25215869

Park, Sung Pyo; Lee, Winston; Bae, Eun Jin; Greenstein, Vivianne; Sin, Bum Ho; Chang, Stanley; Tsang, Stephen H

2014-01-01

235

Mutations in extracellular matrix genes NID1 and LAMC1 cause autosomal dominant Dandy-Walker malformation and occipital cephaloceles  

PubMed Central

We performed whole-exome sequencing of a family with autosomal dominant Dandy-Walker malformation and occipital cephaloceles (ADDWOC) and detected a mutation in the extracellular matrix protein encoding gene NID1. In a second family, protein interaction network analysis identified a mutation in LAMC1, which encodes a NID1 binding partner. Structural modeling the NID1-LAMC1 complex demonstrated that each mutation disrupts the interaction. These findings implicate the extracellular matrix in the pathogenesis of Dandy-Walker spectrum disorders. PMID:23674478

Darbro, Benjamin W.; Mahajan, Vinit B.; Gakhar, Lokesh; Skeie, Jessica M.; Campbell, Elizabeth; Wu, Shu; Bing, Xinyu; Millen, Kathleen J.; Dobyns, William B.; Kessler, John A.; Jalali, Ali; Cremer, James; Segre, Alberto; Manak, J. Robert; Aldinger, Kimerbly A.; Suzuki, Satoshi; Natsume, Nagato; Ono, Maya; Hai, Huynh Dai; Viet, Le Thi; Loddo, Sara; Valente, Enza M.; Bernardini, Laura; Ghonge, Nitin; Ferguson, Polly J.; Bassuk, Alexander G.

2013-01-01

236

Mutations in extracellular matrix genes NID1 and LAMC1 cause autosomal dominant Dandy-Walker malformation and occipital cephaloceles.  

PubMed

We performed whole-exome sequencing of a family with autosomal dominant Dandy-Walker malformation and occipital cephaloceles and detected a mutation in the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein-encoding gene NID1. In a second family, protein interaction network analysis identified a mutation in LAMC1, which encodes a NID1-binding partner. Structural modeling of the NID1-LAMC1 complex demonstrated that each mutation disrupts the interaction. These findings implicate the ECM in the pathogenesis of Dandy-Walker spectrum disorders. PMID:23674478

Darbro, Benjamin W; Mahajan, Vinit B; Gakhar, Lokesh; Skeie, Jessica M; Campbell, Elizabeth; Wu, Shu; Bing, Xinyu; Millen, Kathleen J; Dobyns, William B; Kessler, John A; Jalali, Ali; Cremer, James; Segre, Alberto; Manak, J Robert; Aldinger, Kimerbly A; Suzuki, Satoshi; Natsume, Nagato; Ono, Maya; Hai, Huynh Dai; Viet, Le Thi; Loddo, Sara; Valente, Enza M; Bernardini, Laura; Ghonge, Nitin; Ferguson, Polly J; Bassuk, Alexander G

2013-08-01

237

Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa: Absence of the rhodopsin proline?histidine substitution (codon 23) in pedigrees from Europe  

PubMed Central

In exon 1 at codon 23 of the rhodopsin gene, a mutation resulting in a proline-to-histidine substitution has previously been observed in approximately 12% of American autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) patients. The region around the site of this mutation in the rhodopsin gene has been amplified and analyzed in affected individuals from 91 European ADRP pedigrees. The codon 23 mutation has been found to be absent in all cases, including a large Irish pedigree in which the disease gene has previously been shown to be closely linked to the rhodopsin locus. This indicates the presence of either allelic or nonallelic heterogeneity in ADRP. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:2239971

Farrar, G. J.; Kenna, P.; Redmond, R.; McWilliam, P.; Bradley, D. G.; Humphries, M. M.; Sharp, E. M.; Inglehearn, C. F.; Bashir, R.; Jay, M.; Watty, A.; Ludwig, M.; Schinzel, A.; Samanns, C.; Gal, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Humphries, P.

1990-01-01

238

Pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease: an association yet to be reported.  

PubMed

Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited renal cystic disease. It is characterised by the development of renal parenchymal cysts and a variety of other extrarenal manifestations. Pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) obstruction has not been described in association with ADPKD in the literature. We present a case of a 23-year-old man presenting with bilateral flank pain. On evaluation he was diagnosed to have ADPKD with bilateral renal calculi and left-sided PUJ obstruction. He underwent successful right percutaneous nephrolithotomy and left laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty with simultaneous stone removal. PMID:22778470

Goyal, Neeraj Kumar; Goel, Apul; Yadav, Rahul; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan

2012-01-01

239

A 5-base insertion in the ?C-crystallin gene is associated with autosomal dominant variable zonular pulverulent cataract  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seven-generation family with 30 members affected by highly variable autosomal dominant zonular pulverulent cataracts has been previously described. We have localized the cataracts to a 19-cM interval on chromosome 2q33-q35 including the %-crystallin gene cluster. Maximum lod scores are 4.56 (Š=0.02) with D2S157, 3.66 (Š=0.12) with D2S72, and 3.57 (Š=0.052) with CRYG. Sequencing and allele-specific oligonucleotide analysis of the

Zhaoxia Ren; Anren Li; Barker S. Shastry; Tirunilai Padma; Radha Ayyagari; Mark H. Scott; Marshall M. Parks; Muriel I. Kaiser-Kupfer; J. Fielding Hejtmancik

2000-01-01

240

Early Structural Anomalies Observed by High-Resolution Imaging in Two Related Cases of Autosomal-Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

The authors report the use of adaptive-optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) to investigate RHO, D190N autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa in two siblings (11 and 16 years old, respectively). Each patient exhibited distinct hyperautofluorescence patterns in which the outer borders corresponded to inner segment ellipsoid band disruption. Areas within the hyperautofluorescence patterns exhibited normal photoreceptor outer segments and retinal pigment epithelium. However, AO-SLO imaging revealed noticeable spacing irregularities in the cone mosaic. AO-SLO allows researchers to characterize retinal structural abnormalities with precision so that early structural changes in retinitis pigmentosa can be identified and reconciled with genetic findings. PMID:25215869

Park, Sung Pyo; Lee, Winston; Bae, Eun Jin; Greenstein, Vivianne; Sin, Bum Ho; Chang, Stanley; Tsang, Stephen H.

2015-01-01

241

Somatotroph pituitary adenoma with acromegaly and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: SSTR5 polymorphism and PKD1 mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 39-year-old woman with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) presented with acromegaly and a pituitary macroadenoma.\\u000a There was a family history of this renal disorder. She had undergone surgery for pituitary adenoma 6 years prior. Physical\\u000a examination disclosed bitemporal hemianopsia and elevation of both basal growth hormone (GH) 106 ng\\/mL (normal 0–5) and insulin-like\\u000a growth factor (IGF-1) 811 ng\\/mL (normal 48–255) blood

Luis V. Syro; Jamie L. Sundsbak; Bernd W. Scheithauer; Rodrigo A. Toledo; Mauricio Camargo; Christina M. Heyer; Tomoko Sekiya; Humberto Uribe; Jorge I. Escobar; Martin Vasquez; Fabio Rotondo; Sergio P. A. Toledo; Kalman Kovacs; Eva Horvath; Dusica Babovic-Vuksanovic; Peter C. Harris

242

Spectrum and Frequency of Mutations in IMPDH1 Associated with Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa and Leber Congenital Amaurosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and spectrum of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase type I (IMPDH1) mutations associated with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP), to determine whether mutations in IMPDH1 cause other forms of inherited retinal degeneration, and to analyze IMPDH1 mutations for alterations in enzyme activity and nucleic acid binding. Methods The coding sequence and flanking intron/exon junctions of IMPDH1 were analyzed in 203 patients with autosomal dominant RP (adRP), 55 patients with autosomal recessive RP (arRP), 7 patients with isolated RP, 17 patients with macular degeneration (MD), and 24 patients with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). DNA samples were tested for mutations by sequencing only or by a combination of single-stranded conformational analysis and by sequencing. Production of fluorescent reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) was used to measure enzymatic activity of mutant IMPDH1 proteins. The affinity and the specificity of mutant IMPDH1 proteins for single-stranded nucleic acids were determined by filter-binding assays. Results Five different IMPDH1 variants, Thr116Met, Asp226Asn, Val268Ile, Gly324Asp, and His 372Pro, were identified in eight autosomal dominant RP families. Two additional IMPDH1 variants, Arg105Trp and Asn198Lys, were found in two patients with isolated LCA. None of the novel IMPDH1 mutants identified in this study altered the enzymatic activity of the corresponding proteins. In contrast, the affinity and/or the specificity of single-stranded nucleic acid binding were altered for each IMPDH1 mutant except the Gly324Asp variant. Conclusions Mutations in IMPDH1 account for approximately 2% of families with adRP, and de novo IMPDH1 mutations are also rare causes of isolated LCA. This analysis of the novel IMPDH1 mutants substantiates previous reports that IMPDH1 mutations do not alter enzyme activity and demonstrates that these mutants alter the recently identified single-stranded nucleic acid binding property of IMPDH. Studies are needed to further characterize the functional significance of IMPDH1 nucleic acid binding and its potential relationship to retinal degeneration. PMID:16384941

Bowne, Sara J.; Sullivan, Lori S.; Mortimer, Sarah E.; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Zhu, Jingya; Spellicy, Catherine J.; Gire, Anisa I.; Hughbanks-Wheaton, Dianna; Birch, David G.; Lewis, Richard A.; Heckenlively, John R.; Daiger, Stephen P.

2008-01-01

243

Autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus caused by a novel mutation in arginine-vasopressin gene in a Brazilian family.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (adFNDI) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by polyuria and polydipsia due to deficiency of arginine vasopressin (AVP). More than 50 mutations causing adFNDI have been already reported in the AVP gene. The aim of the present study is to analyze the AVP gene in four generations of one Brazilian kindred with adFNDI. The proband was a 31-year old female with huge hypotonic polyuria (10 L/day) dated from childhood. Molecular analysis included amplification of all exons and exon-intron regions of the AVP gene by PCR and direct sequencing. Sequencing analysis showed a novel point mutation in heterozygous: G88V (GGC>GTC). All affected patients presented the same mutation also in heterozygous, while it was absent in four normal members. We expand the repertoire of mutations in AVP describing the novel G88V mutation in one Brazilian kindred with adFNDI. PMID:19169480

Melo, Maria Edna de; Marui, Suemi; Brito, Vinícius Nahime de; Mancini, Marcio Corrêa; Mendonca, Berenice B; Knoepfelmacher, Mirta

2008-11-01

244

T-Cell Factor/?-Catenin Activity is Suppressed Normally in Two Independent Models of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

During murine kidney development, canonical WNT signalling is highly active in the renal tubules until about embryonic day E16-E18 when ?-catenin transcriptional activity becomes progressively restricted to the nephrogenic zone. Several in vitro studies have found a link between cilial signalling and ?-catenin regulation. The cilial protein genes PKD1 and PKD2 are known to be mutated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and previous studies proposed that these mutations could lead to a failure to suppress canonical WNT signalling activity; aberrant activity might then contribute to the cystic phenotype. However, in this study, we show that suppression of canonical WNT activity, defined by a TCF/?-catenin-lacZ reporter, is normal in two independent models of polycystic kidney disease. We crossed a TCF/?-catenin-lacZ reporter mouse with mice Pkd1 or Pkd2 mutations and found that there was no ?-galactosidase staining in cells lining the renal cysts. This suggests that excessive ?-catenin transcriptional activity may not contribute to cystogenesis in these models of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PMID:21389971

Miller, Michelle M.; Iglesias, Diana M.; Zhang, Zhao; Corsini, Rachel; Chu, LeeLee; Murawski, Inga; Gupta, Indra; Somlo, Stefan; Germino, Gregory G.; Goodyer, Paul R.

2013-01-01

245

Unbiased next generation sequencing analysis confirms the existence of autosomal dominant Alport syndrome in a relevant fraction of cases.  

PubMed

The mode of inheritance of Alport syndrome (ATS) has long been controversial. In 1927, the disease was hypothesized as a dominant condition in which males were more severely affected than females. In 1990, it was considered an X-linked (XL) semidominant condition, due to COL4A5 mutations. Later on, a rare autosomal recessive (AR) form due to COL4A3/COL4A4 mutations was identified. An autosomal dominant (AD) form was testified more recently by the description of some large pedigrees but the real existence of this form is still questioned by many and its exact prevalence is unknown. The introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) allowed us to perform an unbiased simultaneous COL4A3-COL4A4-COL4A5 analysis in 87 Italian families (273 individuals) with clinical suspicion of ATS. In 48 of them (55%), a mutation in one of the three genes was identified: the inheritance was XL semidominant in 65%, recessive in 4% and most interestingly AD in 31% (15 families). The AD form must therefore be seriously taken into account in all pedigrees with affected individuals in each generation. Furthermore, a high frequency of mutations (>50%) was shown in patients with only 1 or 2 clinical criteria, suggesting NGS as first-level analysis in cases with a clinical suspicion of ATS. PMID:24033287

Fallerini, C; Dosa, L; Tita, R; Del Prete, D; Feriozzi, S; Gai, G; Clementi, M; La Manna, A; Miglietti, N; Mancini, R; Mandrile, G; Ghiggeri, G M; Piaggio, G; Brancati, F; Diano, L; Frate, E; Pinciaroli, A R; Giani, M; Castorina, P; Bresin, E; Giachino, D; De Marchi, M; Mari, F; Bruttini, M; Renieri, A; Ariani, F

2014-09-01

246

Mutations in BICD2, which Encodes a Golgin and Important Motor Adaptor, Cause Congenital Autosomal-Dominant Spinal Muscular Atrophy  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a heterogeneous group of neuromuscular disorders caused by degeneration of lower motor neurons. Although functional loss of SMN1 is associated with autosomal-recessive childhood SMA, the genetic cause for most families affected by dominantly inherited SMA is unknown. Here, we identified pathogenic variants in bicaudal D homolog 2 (Drosophila) (BICD2) in three families afflicted with autosomal-dominant SMA. Affected individuals displayed congenital slowly progressive muscle weakness mainly of the lower limbs and congenital contractures. In a large Dutch family, linkage analysis identified a 9q22.3 locus in which exome sequencing uncovered c.320C>T (p.Ser107Leu) in BICD2. Sequencing of 23 additional families affected by dominant SMA led to the identification of pathogenic variants in one family from Canada (c.2108C>T [p.Thr703Met]) and one from the Netherlands (c.563A>C [p.Asn188Thr]). BICD2 is a golgin and motor-adaptor protein involved in Golgi dynamics and vesicular and mRNA transport. Transient transfection of HeLa cells with all three mutant BICD2 cDNAs caused massive Golgi fragmentation. This observation was even more prominent in primary fibroblasts from an individual harboring c.2108C>T (p.Thr703Met) (affecting the C-terminal coiled-coil domain) and slightly less evident in individuals with c.563A>C (p.Asn188Thr) (affecting the N-terminal coiled-coil domain). Furthermore, BICD2 levels were reduced in affected individuals and trapped within the fragmented Golgi. Previous studies have shown that Drosophila mutant BicD causes reduced larvae locomotion by impaired clathrin-mediated synaptic endocytosis in neuromuscular junctions. These data emphasize the relevance of BICD2 in synaptic-vesicle recycling and support the conclusion that BICD2 mutations cause congenital slowly progressive dominant SMA. PMID:23664116

Neveling, Kornelia; Martinez-Carrera, Lilian A.; Hölker, Irmgard; Heister, Angelien; Verrips, Aad; Hosseini-Barkooie, Seyyed Mohsen; Gilissen, Christian; Vermeer, Sascha; Pennings, Maartje; Meijer, Rowdy; te Riele, Margot; Frijns, Catharina J.M.; Suchowersky, Oksana; MacLaren, Linda; Rudnik-Schöneborn, Sabine; Sinke, Richard J.; Zerres, Klaus; Lowry, R. Brian; Lemmink, Henny H.; Garbes, Lutz; Veltman, Joris A.; Schelhaas, Helenius J.; Scheffer, Hans; Wirth, Brunhilde

2013-01-01

247

Indian hedgehog mutations causing brachydactyly type A1 impair Hedgehog signal transduction at multiple levels.  

PubMed

Brachydactyly type A1 (BDA1), the first recorded Mendelian autosomal dominant disorder in humans, is characterized by a shortening or absence of the middle phalanges. Heterozygous missense mutations in the Indian Hedgehog (IHH) gene have been identified as a cause of BDA1; however, the biochemical consequences of these mutations are unclear. In this paper, we analyzed three BDA1 mutations (E95K, D100E, and E131K) in the N-terminal fragment of Indian Hedgehog (IhhN). Structural analysis showed that the E95K mutation changes a negatively charged area to a positively charged area in a calcium-binding groove, and that the D100E mutation changes the local tertiary structure. Furthermore, we showed that the E95K and D100E mutations led to a temperature-sensitive and calcium-dependent instability of IhhN, which might contribute to an enhanced intracellular degradation of the mutant proteins via the lysosome. Notably, all three mutations affected Hh binding to the receptor Patched1 (PTC1), reducing its capacity to induce cellular differentiation. We propose that these are common features of the mutations that cause BDA1, affecting the Hh tertiary structure, intracellular fate, binding to the receptor/partners, and binding to extracellular components. The combination of these features alters signaling capacity and range, but the impact is likely to be variable and mutation-dependent. The potential variation in the signaling range is characterized by an enhanced interaction with heparan sulfate for IHH with the E95K mutation, but not the E131K mutation. Taken together, our results suggest that these IHH mutations affect Hh signaling at multiple levels, causing abnormal bone development and abnormal digit formation. PMID:21537345

Ma, Gang; Yu, Jiang; Xiao, Yue; Chan, Danny; Gao, Bo; Hu, Jianxin; He, Yongxing; Guo, Shengzhen; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Lingling; Gao, Linghan; Zhang, Wenjuan; Kang, Yan; Cheah, Kathryn S E; Feng, Guoyin; Guo, Xizhi; Wang, Yujiong; Zhou, Cong-zhao; He, Lin

2011-09-01

248

Clinical and molecular analysis of the enamelin gene ENAM in Colombian families with autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta  

PubMed Central

In this study, we analyzed the phenotype, clinical characteristics and presence of mutations in the enamelin gene ENAM in five Colombian families with autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta (ADAI). 22 individuals (15 affected and seven unaffected) belonging to five Colombian families with ADAI and eight individuals (three affected and five unaffected) belonging to three Colombian families with autosomal recessive amelogenesis imperfecta (ARAI) that served as controls for molecular alterations and inheritance patterns were studied. Clinical, radiographic and genetic evaluations were done in all individuals. Eight exons and three intron-exon boundaries were sequenced for mutation analysis. Two of the five families with ADAI had the hypoplasic phenotype, two had the hypocalcified phenotype and one had the hypomaturative phenotype. Anterior open bite and mandibular retrognathism were the most frequent skeletal abnormalities in the families with ADAI. No mutations were found. These findings suggest that ADAI in these Colombian families was unrelated to previously described mutations in the ENAM gene. These results also indicate that other regions not included in this investigation, such as the promoter region, introns and other genes should be considered as potential ADAI candidates. PMID:23055792

Gutiérrez, Sandra; Torres, Diana; Briceño, Ignacio; Gómez, Ana Maria; Baquero, Eliana

2012-01-01

249

A novel COL4A1 gene mutation results in autosomal dominant non-syndromic congenital cataract in a Chinese family  

PubMed Central

Background Almost one-third of congenital cataracts are primarily autosomal dominant disorders, which are also called autosomal dominant congenital cataract, resulting in blindness and clouding of the lens. The purpose of this study was to identify the disease-causing mutation in a Chinese family affected by bilateral, autosomal dominant congenital cataract. Methods The detection of candidate gene mutation and the linkage analysis of microsatellite markers were performed for the known candidate genes. Molecular mapping and cloning of candidate genes were used in all affected family members to screen for potential genetic mutations and the mutation was confirmed by single enzyme digestion. Results The proband was diagnosed with isolated, congenital cataract without the typical clinical manifestations of cataract, which include diabetes, porencephaly, sporadic intracerebral hemorrhage, and glomerulopathy. A novel mutation, c.2345 G?>?C (Gly782Ala), in exon 31 of the collagen type IV ?lpha1 (COL4A1) gene, which encodes the collagen alpha-1(IV) chain, was found to be associated with autosomal dominant congenital cataract in a Chinese family. This mutation was not found in unaffected family members or in 200 unrelated controls. Sequence analysis confirmed that the Gly782 amino acid residue is highly conserved. Conclusions The novel mutation (c.2345 G?>?C) of the COL4A1 gene is the first report of a non-syndromic, autosomal dominant congenital cataract, thereby highlighting the important role of type IV collagen in the physiological and optical properties of the lens. PMID:25124159

2014-01-01

250

Genetic linkage of autosomal dominant juvenile glaucoma to 1q21-q31 in three affected pedigrees  

SciTech Connect

Glaucoma is a common disorder that results in irreversible damage to the optic nerve, causing absolute blindness. In most cases, the optic nerve is damaged by an elevation of the intraocular pressure that is the result of an abnormality in the normal drainage function of the trabecular meshwork. A family history of glaucoma is an important risk factor for the disease, suggesting that genetic defects predisposing to this condition are likely. Three pedigrees segregating an autosomal dominant juvenile glaucoma demonstrated significant linkage to a group of closely spaced markers on chromosome 1. These results confirm the initial mapping of this disease and suggest that this region on chromosome 1 contains an important locus for juvenile glaucoma. The authors describe recombination events that improve the localization of the responsible gene, reducing the size of the candidate region from 30 to 12 cM. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Wiggs, J.L.; Paglinauan, C.; Fine, A.; Sporn, C.; Lou, D. (Tufts Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)); Haines, J.L. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States))

1994-05-15

251

Emergent early markers of renal progression in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease patients: implications for prevention and treatment.  

PubMed

Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common single cause of end-stage renal disease after diabetes, hypertension and glomerulonephritis. The clinical course of ADPKD is highly variable. Even with optimal care and therapy monitoring, currently the progression of ADPKD is slowed but not stopped. Newer treatments will no doubt become available in the future, but their side effect profiles will always need to be considered. Therefore, markers to distinguish ADPKD patients with a poor versus a good prognosis will be helpful. Several risk factors influencing kidney disease progression in ADPKD have been identified in the current era. The present review will discuss the spectrum of early markers of ADPKD renal disease progression. Specifically, the volume of total kidney, hypertension, glomerular hyperfiltration, renal blood flow, microalbuminuria, uric acid, and urinary molecular markers will be discussed. On this background, implications for the prevention and treatment of kidney disease progression in ADPKD are also discussed. PMID:22846584

Helal, Imed; Reed, Berenice; Schrier, Robert W

2012-01-01

252

Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa in Pregnancy: A Case Report of the Autosomal Dominant Subtype and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of inherited blistering skin diseases that vary widely in their pathogenesis and severity. There are three main categories of EB: simplex, junctional, and dystrophic. This classification is based on the level of tissue separation within the basement membrane zone and this is attributed to abnormalities of individual or several anchoring proteins that form the interlocking network spanning from the epidermis to the dermis underneath. Dystrophic EB results from mutations in COL7A1 gene coding for type VII collagen leading to blister formation within the dermis. Diagnosis ultimately depends on the patient's specific genetic mutation, but initial diagnosis can be made from careful examination and history taking. We present a pregnant patient known to have autosomal dominant dystrophic EB and discuss the obstetrical and neonatal outcome. The paper also reviews the current English literature on this rare skin disorder. PMID:24864146

Herrell, Howard

2014-01-01

253

Mapping of a gene for autosomal dominant juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma to chromosome 1 q  

SciTech Connect

A large Caucasian family is presented, in which a juvenile-onset form of open-angle glaucoma is transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. Sixteen affected family members were identified from 31 at-risk individuals descended from the affected founder. Affected patients developed high intraocular pressures (sometimes >40 mm Hg) within the first 2 decades of life. Linkage analysis between the disease phenotype and 12 microsatellite repeat markers located on chromosome 1 q gave a maximum lod score of 8.38 at a recombination fraction of zero for marker D1S210. Analysis of recombinant haplotypes suggests a total inclusion region of about 14 cM between markers D1S194 and D1S218 at 1q21-q31. This represents the second juvenile-glaucoma family, in which the disease has been mapped to the long arm of chromosome 1. 57 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Richards, J.E.; Lichter, P.R.; Torrez, D.; Wong, D.; Johnson, A.T.; Boehnke, M.; Uro, J.L.A. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

1994-01-01

254

Linkage analysis excludes the glaucoma locus on 1q from involvement in autosomal dominant glaucoma with iris hypoplasia  

SciTech Connect

Genetic factors have been implicated in a variety of types of glaucoma including primary open-angle glaucoma, infantile glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma, and juvenile open-angle glaucoma. We previously mapped the disease-causing gene for one type of juvenile open angle glaucoma to chromosome 1q21-31. Weatherill and Hart (1969) and Pearce (1983) each noted the association of iris hypoplasia and early-onset autosomal dominant glaucoma. We recently had the opportunity to study a large family (12 affected members) with this phenotype. Affected individuals developed glaucoma at an average age of 30 years. These patients also have a strikingly underdeveloped iris stroma which causes a peculiar eye color. Linkage analysis was able to completely exclude the 1q glaucoma locus from involvement in the disorder that affects this family. A complete clinical description of the family and linkage results at additional candidate loci will be presented.

Heon, E.; Sheth, B.P.; Kalenak, J.W. [and others

1994-09-01

255

High-resolution cytogenetic analysis of the peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

High-resolution cytogenetic analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes of 11 patients (seven women and four men, range 24-56 years) with proven autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). A total of 449 metaphases (an average of 41 per patient) were analyzed. In two of the women changes in the karyotype were found in a single cell: del(3), (q21) in one of them and Int.del(6), (q11q21) in the other. Analysis of the remaining patients, including those in which ADPKD was combined with oligophrenia, did not reveal any deviations from the normal karyotype. Therefore, the established chromosome changes are non-specific and of little importance in diagnosing ADPKD. PMID:7927052

Dimitrakov, D

1993-01-01

256

Mutation in the novel nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein CHCHD10 in a family with autosomal dominant mitochondrial myopathy.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial myopathies belong to a larger group of systemic diseases caused by morphological or biochemical abnormalities of mitochondria. Mitochondrial disorders can be caused by mutations in either the mitochondrial or nuclear genome. Only 5% of all mitochondrial disorders are autosomal dominant. We analyzed DNA from members of the previously reported Puerto Rican kindred with an autosomal dominant mitochondrial myopathy (Heimann-Patterson et al. 1997). Linkage analysis suggested a putative locus on the pericentric region of the long arm of chromosome 22 (22q11). Using the tools of integrative genomics, we established chromosome 22 open reading frame 16 (C22orf16) (later designated as CHCHD10) as the only high-scoring mitochondrial candidate gene in our minimal candidate region. Sequence analysis revealed a double-missense mutation (R15S and G58R) in cis in CHCHD10 which encodes a coiled coil-helix-coiled coil-helix protein of unknown function. These two mutations completely co-segregated with the disease phenotype and were absent in 1,481 Caucasian and 80 Hispanic (including 32 Puerto Rican) controls. Expression profiling showed that CHCHD10 is enriched in skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial localization of the CHCHD10 protein was confirmed using immunofluorescence in cells expressing either wild-type or mutant CHCHD10. We found that the expression of the G58R, but not the R15S, mutation induced mitochondrial fragmentation. Our findings identify a novel gene causing mitochondrial myopathy, thereby expanding the spectrum of mitochondrial myopathies caused by nuclear genes. Our findings also suggest a role for CHCHD10 in the morphologic remodeling of the mitochondria. PMID:25193783

Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Fecto, Faisal; Ajroud, Kaouther; Lalani, Irfan; Calvo, Sarah E; Mootha, Vamsi K; Deng, Han-Xiang; Siddique, Nailah; Tahmoush, Albert J; Heiman-Patterson, Terry D; Siddique, Teepu

2015-01-01

257

Linkage and clinical characterization of families with the RP10 (chromosome 7q) form of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa  

SciTech Connect

Retinitis pigmentosa is a set of degenerative retinal diseases characterized by night blindness and loss of peripheral vision, often followed by loss of central vision. Genetically heterogeneous, retinitis pigmentosa has been found in autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive and X-linked forms. For autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP), 6 loci have been mapped: rhodopsin on chromosome 3q, peripherin/RDS on 6p, RP9 on 7p, RP10 on 7q, RP1 on 8q, and RP11 on 19q. Jordan et al. first reported linkage to 7q in a Spanish family with early onset disease. Recently, McGuire et al. reported the existence of a second, unrelated family of American descent with adRP that maps to the same region of 7q. The second family also has classical, diffuse retinitis pigmentosa though with later onset. The finding of two unrelated families that map to this region suggests that RP10 may account for a significant fraction of retinitis pigmentosa cases. Combining data from both families localizes the disease gene to 7q31.1-q35. In the Spanish family a Z{sub max} of 7.2 at 0% recombination was found with the marker D7S480 and affected individuals recombinant for D7S486 and D7S650 flank the disease. The American family showed a Z{sub max} of 5.3 at 0% recombination wtih the marker D7S514 and there are affected individuals recombinant for the markers D7S522, D7S677 and D7S486, and one affected individual recombinant for D7S530. Together, these data place the disease locus between D7S522 and D7S650. In addition, blue cone pigment, which maps to 7q31.3-q32, was excluded as a candidate gene in both families by linkage testing using intragenic polymorphisms and mutation screening.

Jordan, S.A.; Humphries, P. [Trinity, College, Dublin (United Kingdom); McGuire, R.E. [Univ. of Texas HSC, Houston, TX (United States)

1994-09-01

258

Synaptotagmin 2 Mutations Cause an Autosomal-Dominant Form of Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome and Nonprogressive Motor Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Synaptotagmin 2 is a synaptic vesicle protein that functions as a calcium sensor for neurotransmission but has not been previously associated with human disease. Via whole-exome sequencing, we identified heterozygous missense mutations in the C2B calcium-binding domain of the gene encoding Synaptotagmin 2 in two multigenerational families presenting with peripheral motor neuron syndromes. An essential calcium-binding aspartate residue, Asp307Ala, was disrupted by a c.920A>C change in one family that presented with an autosomal-dominant presynaptic neuromuscular junction disorder resembling Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. A c.923C>T variant affecting an adjacent residue (p.Pro308Leu) produced a presynaptic neuromuscular junction defect and a dominant hereditary motor neuropathy in a second family. Characterization of the mutation homologous to the human c.920A>C variant in Drosophila Synaptotagmin revealed a dominant disruption of synaptic vesicle exocytosis using this transgenic model. These findings indicate that Synaptotagmin 2 regulates neurotransmitter release at human peripheral motor nerve terminals. In addition, mutations in the Synaptotagmin 2 C2B domain represent an important cause of presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndromes and link them with hereditary motor axonopathies. PMID:25192047

Herrmann, David N.; Horvath, Rita; Sowden, Janet E.; Gonzales, Michael; Sanchez-Mejias, Avencia; Guan, Zhuo; Whittaker, Roger G.; Almodovar, Jorge L.; Lane, Maria; Bansagi, Boglarka; Pyle, Angela; Boczonadi, Veronika; Lochmüller, Hanns; Griffin, Helen; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Lloyd, Thomas E.; Littleton, J. Troy; Zuchner, Stephan

2014-01-01

259

Synaptotagmin 2 mutations cause an autosomal-dominant form of lambert-eaton myasthenic syndrome and nonprogressive motor neuropathy.  

PubMed

Synaptotagmin 2 is a synaptic vesicle protein that functions as a calcium sensor for neurotransmission but has not been previously associated with human disease. Via whole-exome sequencing, we identified heterozygous missense mutations in the C2B calcium-binding domain of the gene encoding Synaptotagmin 2 in two multigenerational families presenting with peripheral motor neuron syndromes. An essential calcium-binding aspartate residue, Asp307Ala, was disrupted by a c.920A>C change in one family that presented with an autosomal-dominant presynaptic neuromuscular junction disorder resembling Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. A c.923C>T variant affecting an adjacent residue (p.Pro308Leu) produced a presynaptic neuromuscular junction defect and a dominant hereditary motor neuropathy in a second family. Characterization of the mutation homologous to the human c.920A>C variant in Drosophila Synaptotagmin revealed a dominant disruption of synaptic vesicle exocytosis using this transgenic model. These findings indicate that Synaptotagmin 2 regulates neurotransmitter release at human peripheral motor nerve terminals. In addition, mutations in the Synaptotagmin 2 C2B domain represent an important cause of presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndromes and link them with hereditary motor axonopathies. PMID:25192047

Herrmann, David N; Horvath, Rita; Sowden, Janet E; Gonzalez, Michael; Gonzales, Michael; Sanchez-Mejias, Avencia; Guan, Zhuo; Whittaker, Roger G; Almodovar, Jorge L; Lane, Maria; Bansagi, Boglarka; Pyle, Angela; Boczonadi, Veronika; Lochmüller, Hanns; Griffin, Helen; Chinnery, Patrick F; Lloyd, Thomas E; Littleton, J Troy; Zuchner, Stephan

2014-09-01

260

Murine model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa generated by targeted deletion at codon 307 of the rds-peripherin gene.  

PubMed

We introduced a targeted single base deletion at codon 307 of the rds-peripherin gene in mice, similar mutations being known to cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in man. Histopathological and electroretinographic analysis indicate that the retinopathy in mice homozygous for the codon 307 mutation appears more rapid than that in the naturally occurring null mutant, the rds(-/-) mouse, suggesting that the rds-307 mutation displays a dominant negative phenotype in combination with that due to haplosufficiency. RP is the most prevalent cause of registered visual handicap in those of working age in developed countries, the 50 or so mutations so far identified within the RDS-peripherin gene accounting for up to 10% of dominant cases of the disease. Given the sequence homologies that exist between the murine rds-peripherin and the human RDS-peripherin gene, this disease model, the first to be generated for peripherin-based RP using gene targeting techniques, should in principle be of value in the work-up in mice of therapeutics capable of targeting transcripts derived from the human gene. PMID:11978760

McNally, Niamh; Kenna, Paul F; Rancourt, Derrick; Ahmed, Tanweer; Stitt, Alan; Colledge, William H; Lloyd, David G; Palfi, Arpad; O'Neill, Brian; Humphries, Marian M; Humphries, Peter; Farrar, G Jane

2002-05-01

261

Bethlem myopathy: An autosomal dominant myopathy with flexion contractures, keloids, and follicular hyperkeratosis  

PubMed Central

Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy form a spectrum of collagenopathies caused by genetic mutations encoding for any of the three subunits of collagen VI. Bethlem phenotype is relatively benign and is characterized by proximal dominant myopathy, keloids, contractures, distal hyperextensibility, and follicular hyperkeratosis. Three patients from a single family were diagnosed to have Bethlem myopathy based on European Neuromuscular Centre Bethlem Consortium criteria. Affected father and his both sons had slowly progressive proximal dominant weakness and recurrent falls from the first decade. Both children aged 18 and 20 years were ambulant at presentation. All had flexion contractures, keloids, and follicular hyperkeratosis without muscle hypertrophy. Creatinine kinase was mildly elevated and electromyography revealed myopathic features. Muscle imaging revealed severe involvement of glutei and vasti with “central shadow” in rectus femoris. Muscle biopsy in the father showed dystrophic changes with normal immmunostaining for collagen VI, sarcoglycans, and dysferlin. PMID:24339618

Saroja, Aralikatte Onkarappa; Naik, Karkal Ravishankar; Nalini, Atcharayam; Gayathri, Narayanappa

2013-01-01

262

An autosomal dominant major gene confers predisposition to pulmonary tuberculosis in adults  

PubMed Central

The molecular basis of genetic predisposition to pulmonary tuberculosis in adults remains largely elusive. Few candidate genes have consistently been implicated in tuberculosis susceptibility, and no conclusive linkage was found in two previous genome-wide screens. We report here a genome-wide linkage study in a total sample of 96 Moroccan multiplex families, including 227 siblings with microbiologically and radiologically proven pulmonary tuberculosis. A genome-wide scan conducted in half the sample (48 families) identified five regions providing suggestive evidence (logarithm of the odds [LOD] score >1.17; P < 0.01) for linkage. These regions were then fine-mapped in the total sample of 96 families. A single region of chromosome 8q12-q13 was significantly linked to tuberculosis (LOD score = 3.49; P = 3 × 10?5), indicating the presence of a major tuberculosis susceptibility gene. Linkage was stronger (LOD score = 3.94; P = 10?5) in the subsample of 39 families in which one parent was also affected by tuberculosis, whereas it was much lower (LOD score = 0.79) in the 57 remaining families without affected parents, supporting a dominant mode of inheritance of the major susceptibility locus. These results provide direct molecular evidence that human pulmonary tuberculosis has a strong genetic basis, and indicate that the genetic component involves at least one major locus with a dominant susceptibility allele. PMID:16801399

Baghdadi, Jamila El; Orlova, Marianna; Alter, Andrea; Ranque, Brigitte; Chentoufi, Mohamed; Lazrak, Faouzia; Archane, Moulay Idriss; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Benslimane, Abdellah; Schurr, Erwin; Abel, Laurent

2006-01-01

263

Two pedigrees of autosomal dominant atrioventricular canal defect (AVCD): Exclusion from the critical region on 8p  

SciTech Connect

Atrioventricular canal defects (AVCD) constitute the predominant congenital heart defect in Down`s syndrome. For this reason, a candidate gene involved in atrioventricular canal development was previously searched and excluded in dominant pedigrees of AVCD, using linkage analysis of polymorphisms from chromosome 21. Because of the striking association between 8p deletion and AVCD, a search for an AVCD gene was carried out in two pedigrees of individuals with autosomal dominant AVCD using a set of DNA markers of the 8pter{r_arrow}q12 region. These two families include affected individuals and subjects who have transmitted the defect but are not clinically affected. Two-point lod scores were significantly negative for all markers at penetrance levels of 90% and 50%. Multipoint analysis excluded the region covered by the markers LPL-D8S262 and 30 cM to either side of this area. This result corroborates heterogeneity of this heart defect and indicates that the genetic basis of familial AVCD is different from AVCD associated to either trisomy 21 or 8p deletion. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Amati, F.; Mari, A.; Mingarelli, R. [Universita Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy)] [and others

1995-07-03

264

Mutant ELOVL4 That Causes Autosomal Dominant Stargardt-3 Macular Dystrophy Is Misrouted to Rod Outer Segment Disks  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Autosomal dominant Stargardt macular dystrophy caused by mutations in the Elongation of Very Long Chain fatty acids (ELOVL4) gene results in macular degeneration, leading to early childhood blindness. Transgenic mice and pigs expressing mutant ELOVL4 develop progressive photoreceptor degeneration. The mechanism by which these mutations cause macular degeneration remains unclear, but have been hypothesized to involve the loss of an ER-retention dilysine motif located in the extreme C-terminus. Dominant negative mechanisms and reduction in retinal polyunsaturated fatty acids also have been suggested. To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in disease progression in vivo, we addressed the hypothesis that the disease-linked C-terminal truncation mutant of ELOVL4 exerts a dominant negative effect on wild-type (WT) ELOVL4, altering its subcellular localization and function, which subsequently induces retinal degeneration and loss of vision. Methods. We generated transgenic Xenopus laevis that overexpress HA-tagged murine ELOVL4 variants in rod photoreceptors. Results. Tagged or untagged WT ELOVL4 localized primarily to inner segments. However, the mutant protein lacking the dilysine motif was mislocalized to post-Golgi compartments and outer segment disks. Coexpression of mutant and WT ELOVL4 in rods did not result in mislocalization of the WT protein to outer segments or in the formation of aggregates. Full-length HA-tagged ELOVL4 lacking the dilysine motif (K308R/K310R) necessary for targeting the WT ELOVL4 protein to the endoplasmic reticulum was similarly mislocalized to outer segments. Conclusions. We propose that expression and outer segment mislocalization of the disease-linked 5–base-pair deletion mutant ELOVL4 protein alters photoreceptor structure and function, which subsequently results in retinal degeneration, and suggest three possible mechanisms by which mutant ELOVL4 may induce retinal degeneration in STGD3. PMID:24833735

Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Tam, Beatrice M.; Wong, Jenny S.; Yang, Lee Ling; Anderson, Robert E.; Moritz, Orson L.

2014-01-01

265

A Missense Mutation in PRPF6 Causes Impairment of pre-mRNA Splicing and Autosomal-Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited form of retinal degeneration that leads to progressive visual-field constriction and blindness. Although the disease manifests only in the retina, mutations in ubiquitously expressed genes associated with the tri-snRNP complex of the spliceosome have been identified in patients with dominantly inherited RP. We screened for mutations in PRPF6 (NM_012469.3), a gene on chromosome 20q13.33 encoding an essential protein for tri-snRNP assembly and stability, in 188 unrelated patients with autosomal-dominant RP and identified a missense mutation, c.2185C>T (p.Arg729Trp). This change affected a residue that is conserved from humans to yeast and cosegregated with the disease in the family in which it was identified. Lymphoblasts derived from patients with this mutation showed abnormal localization of endogenous PRPF6 within the nucleus. Specifically, this protein accumulated in the Cajal bodies, indicating a possible impairment in the tri-snRNP assembly or recycling. Expression of GFP-tagged PRPF6 in HeLa cells showed that this phenomenon depended exclusively on the mutated form of the protein. Furthermore, analysis of endogenous transcripts in cells from patients revealed intron retention for pre-mRNA bearing specific splicing signals, according to the same pattern displayed by lymphoblasts with mutations in other PRPF genes. Our results identify PRPF6 as the sixth gene involved in pre-mRNA splicing and dominant RP, corroborating the hypothesis that deficiencies in the spliceosome play an important role in the molecular pathology of this disease. PMID:21549338

Tanackovic, Goranka; Ransijn, Adriana; Ayuso, Carmen; Harper, Shyana; Berson, Eliot L.; Rivolta, Carlo

2011-01-01

266

Autosomal-Dominant Woolly Hair Resulting from Disruption of Keratin 74 (KRT74), a Potential Determinant of Human Hair Texture  

PubMed Central

Autosomal-dominant woolly hair (ADWH) is a rare disorder characterized by tightly curled hair. The molecular basis of ADWH has not previously been reported. In this study, we identified a Pakistani family with ADWH. The family showed linkage to chromosome 12q12-q14.1, containing the type II keratin gene cluster. We discovered a heterozygous mutation, p.Asn148Lys, within the helix initiation motif of the keratin 74 (KRT74) gene in all affected family members. KRT74 encodes the inner root sheath (IRS)-specific epithelial (soft) keratin 74. We demonstrate that the mutant K74 protein results in disruption of keratin intermediate filament formation in cultured cells, most likely in a dominant-negative manner. Furthermore, we sequenced the mouse Krt71-74 genes in the dominant Caracul-like 4 (Cal4) allele, which is characterized by a wavy-coat phenotype and maps to the same region of mouse chromosome 15 as the Caracul (Ca) and Reduced coat (Rco) alleles. We identified a heterozygous mutation, p.Glu440Lys, not in Krt74 but in the neighboring gene, Krt71. Krt71 was previously reported to harbor Ca and Rco mutations, as well as a coding SNP that is associated with curly-coated dogs. In this study, we define the ADWH phenotype resulting from a mutation in a hair-follicle-specific epithelial keratin in humans. Our findings not only further underscore the crucial roles of the IRS-specific epithelial keratin genes Krt71-74 in hair disorders but also open the possibility that these genes might function as genetic determinants of normal variation in hair texture across mammalian species. PMID:20346438

Shimomura, Yutaka; Wajid, Muhammad; Petukhova, Lynn; Kurban, Mazen; Christiano, Angela M.

2010-01-01

267

Autosomal Dominant Hypercalciuria in a Mouse Model Due to a Mutation of the Epithelial Calcium Channel, TRPV5  

PubMed Central

Hypercalciuria is a major cause of nephrolithiasis, and is a common and complex disorder involving genetic and environmental factors. Identification of genetic factors for monogenic forms of hypercalciuria is hampered by the limited availability of large families, and to facilitate such studies, we screened for hypercalciuria in mice from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis programme. We identified a mouse with autosomal dominant hypercalciuria (HCALC1). Linkage studies mapped the Hcalc1 locus to a 11.94 Mb region on chromosome 6 containing the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, members 5 (Trpv5) and 6 (Trpv6) genes. DNA sequence analysis of coding regions, intron-exon boundaries and promoters of Trpv5 and Trpv6 identified a novel T to C transition in codon 682 of TRPV5, mutating a conserved serine to a proline (S682P). Compared to wild-type littermates, heterozygous (Trpv5682P/+) and homozygous (Trpv5682P/682P) mutant mice had hypercalciuria, polyuria, hyperphosphaturia and a more acidic urine, and ?10% of males developed tubulointerstitial nephritis. Trpv5682P/682P mice also had normal plasma parathyroid hormone but increased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations without increased bone resorption, consistent with a renal defect for the hypercalciuria. Expression of the S682P mutation in human embryonic kidney cells revealed that TRPV5-S682P-expressing cells had a lower baseline intracellular calcium concentration than wild-type TRPV5-expressing cells, suggesting an altered calcium permeability. Immunohistological studies revealed a selective decrease in TRPV5-expression from the renal distal convoluted tubules of Trpv5682P/+ and Trpv5682P/682P mice consistent with a trafficking defect. In addition, Trpv5682P/682P mice had a reduction in renal expression of the intracellular calcium-binding protein, calbindin-D28K, consistent with a specific defect in TRPV5-mediated renal calcium reabsorption. Thus, our findings indicate that the TRPV5 S682P mutant is functionally significant and study of HCALC1, a novel model for autosomal dominant hypercalciuria, may help further our understanding of renal calcium reabsorption and hypercalciuria. PMID:23383183

Loh, Nellie Y.; Verkaart, Sjoerd; Tammaro, Paolo; Gorvin, Caroline M.; Stechman, Michael J.; Ahmad, Bushra N.; Hannan, Fadil M.; Piret, Sian E.; Evans, Holly; Bellantuono, Ilaria; Hough, Tertius A.; Fraser, William D.; Hoenderop, Joost G. J.; Ashcroft, Frances M.; Brown, Steve D. M.; Bindels, René J. M.; Cox, Roger D.; Thakker, Rajesh V.

2013-01-01

268

Epiphyseal dysplasia of the femoral head, mild vertebral abnormality, myopia, and sensorineural deafness: report of a pedigree with autosomal dominant inheritance.  

PubMed Central

A family is presented with short stature, femoral epiphyseal dysplasia, mild vertebral changes, and sensorineural deafness inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Myopia and retinal detachment presenting in adult life were also present in some affected members. We suggest that this disorder may be a distinct entity within the spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia group of disorders. Images PMID:3681905

MacDermot, K D; Roth, S C; Hall, C; Winter, R M

1987-01-01

269

Diastolic Function in Several Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Tissue Doppler Imaging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study evaluates the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction (DD) in several stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Methods: 107 ADPKD patients performed echocardiographic and Doppler studies and a tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) study. Patients were divided in three groups: group 1, 57 patients with CKD stage I, group 2, 37

Edgar A. F. de Almeida; Eduardo I. de Oliveira; José António Lopes; Ana G. Almeida; Mário G. Lopes; M. Martins Prata

2007-01-01

270

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, MIM 173900, PKD1 and PKD2 genes, protein products known as polycystin-1 and polycystin-2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common inherited nephropathy affecting over 1:1000 of the worldwide population. It is a systemic condition with frequent hepatic and cardiovascular manifestations in addition to the progressive development of renal cysts that eventually result in loss of renal function in the majority of affected individuals. The diagnosis of ADPKD is typically made using

Catherine Boucher; Richard Sandford

2004-01-01

271

No Effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism on Disease Progression and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) shows a variable clinical course suggesting that genetic modifiers might play a role. There are conflicting results about the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism on the progression of renal failure in ADPKD. Also, the association between ACE gene polymorphism and the occurrence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has not been investigated

Tevfik Ecder; Kimberly K. McFann; Mary V. Raynolds; Robert W. Schrier

2003-01-01

272

A gene for autosomal dominant juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ( ALS4? ) localizes to a 500-kb interval on chromosome 9q34  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) denotes a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders affecting upper and lower motor neurons. ALS4 is a juvenile-onset, autosomal dominant form of ALS that is characterized by slow progression, distal limb weakness and amyotrophy, and pyramidal signs associated with severe loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. The ALS4 locus was recently mapped by

Ian P. Blair; Craig L. Bennett; Annette Abel; Bruce A. Rabin; John W. Griffin; Kenneth H. Fischbeck; David R. Cornblath; Phillip F. Chance

2000-01-01

273

Variability of isolated autosomal dominant GH deficiency (IGHD II): impact of the P89L GH mutation on clinical follow-up and GH secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Four distinct familial types of isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) are classified, of which type II, IGHD II, is the autosomal dominant inherited form. Based on clinical data, it became evident that there is a wide variability in phenotype among the various GH-1 gene alterations leading to the dis- order. As subjects suffering from IGHD II caused by the specific

Souzan Salemi; Shida Yousefi; Kurt Baltensperger; Iain C A F Robinson; Andree Eble; Dominique Simon; Paul Czernichow; Gerhard Binder; Emmanuel Sonnet; Primus E Mullis

2005-01-01

274

Polycystic liver: clinical characteristics of patients with isolated polycystic liver disease compared with patients with polycystic liver and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: The goal of this study was to compare the clinical features of patients with isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) with those of patients with polycystic liver and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). METHODS: Cases were identified from clinical records at the University of Colorado Hospital in Denver (USA) and at the Radboud University Hospital in Nijmegen (the Netherlands)

I. A. Hoevenaren; R. Wester; R. W. Schrier; K. McFann; R. B; J. P. H. Drenth; G. T. Everson

2008-01-01

275

Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy with chronic cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux: clinical features in two families linked to chromosome 3p22-p24  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy (HSN I) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, and in some families it is due to mutations in the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPTLC1) gene. We have characterized two families with HSN I associated with cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR). From a large Australian family, 27 individuals and from a smaller family, 11 individuals

Penelope J. Spring; Cindy Kok; Garth A. Nicholson; Alvin J. Ing; Judith M. Spies; Mark L. Bassett; John Cameron; Paul Kerlin; Simon Bowler; Roger Tuck; John D. Pollard

2005-01-01

276

Autosomal dominant nemaline myopathy with intranuclear rods due to mutation of the skeletal muscle ACTA1 gene: Clinical and pathological variability within a kindred  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nemaline Myopathy with Intranuclear Rods is a rare variant of nemaline myopathy, due in almost all instances to mutation of ACTA1, the gene encoding skeletal muscle ?-actin. We describe the novel autosomal dominant occurrence in a three-generation kindred, and review previously reported cases. Onset of myopathic symptoms in our kindred was in infancy or early childhood. Beyond infancy, limb muscle

David O. Hutchinson; Amanda Charlton; Nigel G. Laing; Biljana Ilkovski; Kathryn N. North

2006-01-01

277

A Novel PRPF31 Mutation in a Large Chinese Family with Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa and Macular Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was intended to identify the disease causing genes in a large Chinese family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration. Methods A genome scan analysis was conducted in this family for disease gene preliminary mapping. Snapshot analysis of selected SNPs for two-point LOD score analysis for candidate gene filter. Candidate gene PRPF31 whole exons' sequencing was executed to identify mutations. Results A novel nonsense mutation caused by an insertion was found in PRPF31 gene. All the 19 RP patients in 1085 family are carrying this heterozygous nonsense mutation. The nonsense mutation is in PRPF31 gene exon9 at chr19:54629961-54629961, inserting nucleotide “A” that generates the coding protein frame shift from p.307 and early termination at p.322 in the snoRNA binding domain (NOP domain). Conclusion This report is the first to associate PRPF31 gene's nonsense mutation and adRP and JMD. Our findings revealed that PRPF31 can lead to different clinical phenotypes in the same family, resulting either in adRP or syndrome of adRP and JMD. We believe our identification of the novel “A” insertion mutation in exon9 at chr19:54629961-54629961 in PRPF31 can provide further genetic evidence for clinical test for adRP and JMD. PMID:24244300

Zheng, Hong; Liu, Xiaoqi; Yang, Jiyun; Shi, Yi; Lin, Ying; Gong, Bo; Zhu, Xianjun; Ma, Shi; Qiao, Lifeng; Lin, He; Cheng, Jing; Yang, Zhenglin

2013-01-01

278

Identification of I411K, a novel missense EYA4 mutation causing autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss  

PubMed Central

Hearing loss is the most common sensory deficit in humans and gaining a better understanding of the underlying causes is necessary to improve counseling and rehabilitation. In the present study, a genetic analysis of a Chinese family with autosomal dominant non-syndromic progressive hearing impairment was conducted and assessed. Whole-exome sequencing in combination with a co-segregation analysis identified a novel missense mutation in EYA4 exon 15 (c.T1301A; p.I411K). The mutation segregated with the hearing loss of the family. This mutation was not identified in the databases of 1000 Genome Project, dbSNP 130, HapMap and YH project or in matched controls. Bioinformatic analysis confirmed the pathogenic effects of this mutation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to provide a description of a missense mutation in the EYA4 gene resulting in non-syndromic hearing loss. Our results provide additional molecular and clinical information in order to gain improved understanding of the pathogenesis of EYA4 mutations and the genotype-phenotype correlations of DFNA10 hearing loss. PMID:25242383

TAN, MINXING; SHEN, XIAOFEI; YAO, JUN; WEI, QINJUN; LU, YAJIE; CAO, XIN; XING, GUANGQIAN

2014-01-01

279

AAV delivery of wild-type rhodopsin preserves retinal function in a mouse model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) is frequently caused by mutations in RHO, the gene for rod photoreceptor opsin. Earlier, a study on mice carrying mutated rhodopsin transgenes on either RHO?+?/?+? or RHO?+?/- backgrounds suggested that the amount of wild-type rhodopsin affected survival of photoreceptors. Therefore, we treated P23H RHO transgenic mice with adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) expressing a cDNA clone of the rhodopsin gene (RHO301) that expressed normal opsin from the mouse opsin promoter. Analysis of the electroretinogram (ERG) demonstrated that increased expression of RHO301 slowed the rate of retinal degeneration in P23H mice: at 6 months, a-wave amplitudes were increased by 100% and b-wave amplitudes by 79%. In contrast, nontransgenic mice injected with AAV5 RHO301 demonstrated a decrease in the ERG, confirming the damaging effect of rhodopsin overproduction in normal photoreceptors. In P23H mice, the increase in the ERG amplitudes was correlated with improvement of retinal structure: the thickness of the outer nuclear layer in RHO301-treated eyes was increased by 80% compared with control eyes. These findings suggest that the wild-type RHO gene can be delivered to rescue retinal degeneration in mice carrying a RHO mutation and that increased production of normal rhodopsin can suppress the effect of the mutated protein. These findings make it possible to treat ADRP caused by different mutations of RHO with the expression of wild-type RHO. PMID:21126223

Mao, Haoyu; James, Thomas; Schwein, Alison; Shabashvili, Arseniy E; Hauswirth, William W; Gorbatyuk, Marina S; Lewin, Alfred S

2011-05-01

280

A novel locus for autosomal-dominant dilated cardiomyopathy maps to chromosome 7q22.3-31.1.  

PubMed

Inherited dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a genetically and phenotypically very heterogeneous disease. DCM is caused by mutations in multiple genes encoding proteins that are involved in force generation, force transmission, energy production and several signalling pathways. Thus, the pathophysiology of heart failure is complex and not yet fully understood. Familial forms of DCM let the way to identify new key proteins by positional cloning and to study respective pathomechanisms that are critical for normal cardiac function, but may not have been correlated with heart disease before. Here we report a three-generation pedigree including 16 individuals affected by dilated cardiomyopathy without additional phenotypes. The pedigree is consistent with autosomal-dominant inheritance and age-related penetrance. A genome-wide linkage analysis excluded linkage to all known DCM genes and loci, whereas several close markers on chromosome 7q22.3-31.1 segregated with the disease (maximum logarithm of odds score, 4.20 at D7S471 and D7S501). The disease causing mutation lies in a 9.73 Mb interval between markers D7S2545 and D7S2554 that contains no known cytoskeletal genes. Coding exons of the candidate genes LAMB1, LAMB4 and PIK3CG were screened but no mutations were identified. PMID:16228230

Schönberger, Jost; Kühler, Leif; Martins, Elisabete; Lindner, Tom H; Silva-Cardoso, Jose; Zimmer, Michael

2005-12-01

281

AAV Delivery of Wild-Type Rhodopsin Preserves Retinal Function in a Mouse Model of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Abstract Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) is frequently caused by mutations in RHO, the gene for rod photoreceptor opsin. Earlier, a study on mice carrying mutated rhodopsin transgenes on either RHO?+?/?+? or RHO?+?/– backgrounds suggested that the amount of wild-type rhodopsin affected survival of photoreceptors. Therefore, we treated P23H RHO transgenic mice with adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) expressing a cDNA clone of the rhodopsin gene (RHO301) that expressed normal opsin from the mouse opsin promoter. Analysis of the electroretinogram (ERG) demonstrated that increased expression of RHO301 slowed the rate of retinal degeneration in P23H mice: at 6 months, a-wave amplitudes were increased by 100% and b-wave amplitudes by 79%. In contrast, nontransgenic mice injected with AAV5 RHO301 demonstrated a decrease in the ERG, confirming the damaging effect of rhodopsin overproduction in normal photoreceptors. In P23H mice, the increase in the ERG amplitudes was correlated with improvement of retinal structure: the thickness of the outer nuclear layer in RHO301-treated eyes was increased by 80% compared with control eyes. These findings suggest that the wild-type RHO gene can be delivered to rescue retinal degeneration in mice carrying a RHO mutation and that increased production of normal rhodopsin can suppress the effect of the mutated protein. These findings make it possible to treat ADRP caused by different mutations of RHO with the expression of wild-type RHO. PMID:21126223

Mao, Haoyu; James, Thomas; Schwein, Alison; Shabashvili, Arseniy E.; Hauswirth, William W.; Gorbatyuk, Marina S.

2011-01-01

282

Mutation Spectrum in the Large GTPase Dynamin 2, and Genotype–Phenotype Correlation in Autosomal Dominant Centronuclear Myopathy  

PubMed Central

Centronuclear myopathy (CNM) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder associated with general skeletal muscle weakness, type I fiber predominance and atrophy, and abnormally centralized nuclei. Autosomal dominant CNM is due to mutations in the large GTPase dynamin 2 (DNM2), a mechanochemical enzyme regulating cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking in cells. To date, 40 families with CNM-related DNM2 mutations have been described, and here we report 60 additional families encompassing a broad genotypic and phenotypic spectrum. In total, 18 different mutations are reported in 100 families and our cohort harbors nine known and four new mutations, including the first splice-site mutation. Genotype–phenotype correlation hypotheses are drawn from the published and new data, and allow an efficient screening strategy for molecular diagnosis. In addition to CNM, dissimilar DNM2 mutations are associated with Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) peripheral neuropathy (CMTD1B and CMT2M), suggesting a tissue-specific impact of the mutations. In this study, we discuss the possible clinical overlap of CNM and CMT, and the biological significance of the respective mutations based on the known functions of dynamin 2 and its protein structure. Defects in membrane trafficking due to DNM2 mutations potentially represent a common pathological mechanism in CNM and CMT. PMID:22396310

Böhm, Johann; Biancalana, Valérie; DeChene, Elizabeth T.; Bitoun, Marc; Pierson, Christopher R.; Schaefer, Elise; Karasoy, Hatice; Dempsey, Melissa A.; Klein, Fabrice; Dondaine, Nicolas; Kretz, Christine; Haumesser, Nicolas; Poirson, Claire; Toussaint, Anne; Greenleaf, Rebecca S.; Barger, Melissa A.; Mahoney, Lane J.; Kang, Peter B.; Zanoteli, Edmar; Vissing, John; Witting, Nanna; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Dowling, James; Merlini, Luciano; Oldfors, Anders; Ousager, Lilian Bomme; Melki, Judith; Krause, Amanda; Jern, Christina; Oliveira, Acary S. B.; Petit, Florence; Jacquette, Aurélia; Chaussenot, Annabelle; Mowat, David; Leheup, Bruno; Cristofano, Michele; Aldea, Juan José Poza; Michel, Fabrice; Furby, Alain; Llona, Jose E. Barcena; Van Coster, Rudy; Bertini, Enrico; Urtizberea, Jon Andoni; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Béroud, Christophe; Prudhon, Bernard; Bedford, Melanie; Mathews, Katherine; Erby, Lori A. H.; Smith, Stephen A.; Roggenbuck, Jennifer; Crowe, Carol A.; Spitale, Allison Brennan; Johal, Sheila C.; Amato, Anthony A.; Demmer, Laurie A.; Jonas, Jessica; Darras, Basil T.; Bird, Thomas D.; Laurino, Mercy; Welt, Selman I.; Trotter, Cynthia; Guicheney, Pascale; Das, Soma; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Beggs, Alan H.; Laporte, Jocelyn

2012-01-01

283

The structure and composition of deciduous enamel affected by local hypoplastic autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta resulting from an ENAM mutation.  

PubMed

In a group of families in northern Sweden, a mutation in the ENAM gene (predicted to produce a highly truncated protein) results in the local hypoplastic form of autosomal dominant amelogenesis imperfecta. In this study, sections of deciduous teeth from members of 3 of these families were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the enamel mineral was analysed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The sections were also probed with antibodies raised to a conserved sequence of the enamelin protein. Selected intact teeth were first analysed by digital imaging and ascribed with an 'Enamel Defects Index' (EDI) score. SEM of tooth sections revealed disrupted prism morphology and the prisms had a glass-like appearance in some areas. These areas of dysplasia were sometimes irregular but formed regular arrays in others. Comparison of EDI scores with SEM indicated that in one tooth the surface had no measurable defects but significant defects were present in the underlying enamel microstructure. SEM immunohistochemistry with the antibody raised to a fragment of the enamelin protein produced positive, but light, labelling throughout normal enamel. In dysplastic areas, however, the labelling intensity appeared to be reduced. The results indicate that the presence of functional enamelin in the correct amounts is necessary for correct prism morphogenesis. In addition, a combination of EDI and structural analysis indicate that defects in enamel microstructure are not necessarily visible as defects on the surface of the tooth, suggesting the possibility, at least, that some instances of under-diagnosis may occur. PMID:19923784

Shore, R C; Bäckman, B; Elcock, C; Brook, A H; Brookes, S J; Kirkham, J

2010-01-01

284

Application of next-generation sequencing to identify genes and mutations causing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP).  

PubMed

The goal of our research is to identify genes and mutations causing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). For this purpose we established a cohort of more than 250 independently ascertained families with adRP in the Houston Laboratory for Molecular Diagnosis of Inherited Eye Diseases. Affected members of each family were screened for disease-causing mutations in genes and gene regions that are commonly associated with adRP. By this approach, we detected mutations in 65?% of the families, leaving 85 families that are likely to harbor mutations outside of the "common" regions or in novel genes. Of these, 32 families were tested by several types of next-generation sequencing (NGS), including (a) targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) NGS, (b) whole exome NGS, and (c) targeted retinal-capture NGS. We detected mutations in 11 of these families (31?%) bringing the total detected in the adRP cohort to 70?%. Several large families have also been tested for linkage using Afymetrix single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. PMID:24664689

Daiger, Stephen P; Bowne, Sara J; Sullivan, Lori S; Blanton, Susan H; Weinstock, George M; Koboldt, Daniel C; Fulton, Robert S; Larsen, David; Humphries, Peter; Humphries, Marian M; Pierce, Eric A; Chen, Rui; Li, Yumei

2014-01-01

285

Diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease using efficient PKD1 and PKD2 targeted next-generation sequencing  

PubMed Central

Molecular diagnostics of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) relies on mutation screening of PKD1 and PKD2, which is complicated by extensive allelic heterogeneity and the presence of six highly homologous sequences of PKD1. To date, specific sequencing of PKD1 requires laborious long-range amplifications. The high cost and long turnaround time of PKD1 and PKD2 mutation analysis using conventional techniques limits its widespread application in clinical settings. We performed targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of PKD1 and PKD2. Pooled barcoded DNA patient libraries were enriched by in-solution hybridization with PKD1 and PKD2 capture probes. Bioinformatics analysis was performed using an in-house developed pipeline. We validated the assay in a cohort of 36 patients with previously known PKD1 and PKD2 mutations and five control individuals. Then, we used the same assay and bioinformatics analysis in a discovery cohort of 12 uncharacterized patients. We detected 35 out of 36 known definitely, highly likely, and likely pathogenic mutations in the validation cohort, including two large deletions. In the discovery cohort, we detected 11 different pathogenic mutations in 10 out of 12 patients. This study demonstrates that laborious long-range PCRs of the repeated PKD1 region can be avoided by in-solution enrichment of PKD1 and PKD2 and NGS. This strategy significantly reduces the cost and time for simultaneous PKD1 and PKD2 sequence analysis, facilitating routine genetic diagnostics of ADPKD. PMID:25333066

Trujillano, Daniel; Bullich, Gemma; Ossowski, Stephan; Ballarín, José; Torra, Roser; Estivill, Xavier; Ars, Elisabet

2014-01-01

286

Whole-exome sequencing identifies OR2W3 mutation as a cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.  

PubMed

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a heterogeneous group of inherited ocular diseases, is a genetic condition that causes retinal degeneration and eventual vision loss. Though some genes have been identified to be associated with RP, still a large part of the clinical cases could not be explained. Here we reported a four-generation Chinese family with RP, during which 6 from 9 members of the second generation affected the disease. To identify the genetic defect in this family, whole-exome sequencing together with validation analysis by Sanger sequencing were performed to find possible pathogenic mutations. After a pipeline of database filtering, including public databases and in-house databases, a novel missense mutation, c. 424 C > T transition (p.R142W) in OR2W3 gene, was identified as a potentially causative mutation for autosomal dominant RP. The mutation co-segregated with the disease phenotype over four generations. This mutation was validated in another independent three-generation family. RT-PCR analysis also identified that OR2W3 gene was expressed in HESC-RPE cell line. The results will not only enhance our current understanding of the genetic basis of RP, but also provide helpful clues for designing future studies to further investigate genetic factors for familial RP. PMID:25783483

Ma, Xiangyu; Guan, Liping; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Yao; Zheng, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Long, Jirong; Wu, Na; Wu, Long; Xiang, Ying; Xu, Bin; Shen, Miaozhong; Chen, Yanhua; Wang, Yuewen; Yin, Ye; Li, Yingrui; Xu, Haiwei; Xu, Xun; Li, Yafei

2015-01-01

287

Mutation spectrum in the large GTPase dynamin 2, and genotype-phenotype correlation in autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy.  

PubMed

Centronuclear myopathy (CNM) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder associated with general skeletal muscle weakness, type I fiber predominance and atrophy, and abnormally centralized nuclei. Autosomal dominant CNM is due to mutations in the large GTPase dynamin 2 (DNM2), a mechanochemical enzyme regulating cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking in cells. To date, 40 families with CNM-related DNM2 mutations have been described, and here we report 60 additional families encompassing a broad genotypic and phenotypic spectrum. In total, 18 different mutations are reported in 100 families and our cohort harbors nine known and four new mutations, including the first splice-site mutation. Genotype-phenotype correlation hypotheses are drawn from the published and new data, and allow an efficient screening strategy for molecular diagnosis. In addition to CNM, dissimilar DNM2 mutations are associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) peripheral neuropathy (CMTD1B and CMT2M), suggesting a tissue-specific impact of the mutations. In this study, we discuss the possible clinical overlap of CNM and CMT, and the biological significance of the respective mutations based on the known functions of dynamin 2 and its protein structure. Defects in membrane trafficking due to DNM2 mutations potentially represent a common pathological mechanism in CNM and CMT. PMID:22396310

Böhm, Johann; Biancalana, Valérie; Dechene, Elizabeth T; Bitoun, Marc; Pierson, Christopher R; Schaefer, Elise; Karasoy, Hatice; Dempsey, Melissa A; Klein, Fabrice; Dondaine, Nicolas; Kretz, Christine; Haumesser, Nicolas; Poirson, Claire; Toussaint, Anne; Greenleaf, Rebecca S; Barger, Melissa A; Mahoney, Lane J; Kang, Peter B; Zanoteli, Edmar; Vissing, John; Witting, Nanna; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Dowling, James; Merlini, Luciano; Oldfors, Anders; Bomme Ousager, Lilian; Melki, Judith; Krause, Amanda; Jern, Christina; Oliveira, Acary S B; Petit, Florence; Jacquette, Aurélia; Chaussenot, Annabelle; Mowat, David; Leheup, Bruno; Cristofano, Michele; Poza Aldea, Juan José; Michel, Fabrice; Furby, Alain; Llona, Jose E Barcena; Van Coster, Rudy; Bertini, Enrico; Urtizberea, Jon Andoni; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Béroud, Christophe; Prudhon, Bernard; Bedford, Melanie; Mathews, Katherine; Erby, Lori A H; Smith, Stephen A; Roggenbuck, Jennifer; Crowe, Carol A; Brennan Spitale, Allison; Johal, Sheila C; Amato, Anthony A; Demmer, Laurie A; Jonas, Jessica; Darras, Basil T; Bird, Thomas D; Laurino, Mercy; Welt, Selman I; Trotter, Cynthia; Guicheney, Pascale; Das, Soma; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Beggs, Alan H; Laporte, Jocelyn

2012-06-01

288

Analysis of LMNB1 Duplications in Autosomal Dominant Leukodystrophy Provides Insights into Duplication Mechanisms and Allele-Specific Expression  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD) is an adult onset demyelinating disorder that is caused by duplications of the lamin B1 (LMNB1) gene. However, as only a few cases have been analyzed in detail, the mechanisms underlying LMNB1 duplications are unclear. We report the detailed molecular analysis of the largest collection of ADLD families studied, to date. We have identified the minimal duplicated region necessary for the disease, defined all the duplication junctions at the nucleotide level and identified the first inverted LMNB1 duplication. We have demonstrated that the duplications are not recurrent; patients with identical duplications share the same haplotype, likely inherited from a common founder and that the duplications originated from intrachromosomal events. The duplication junction sequences indicated that nonhomologous end joining or replication-based mechanisms such fork stalling and template switching or microhomology-mediated break induced repair are likely to be involved. LMNB1 expression was increased in patients’ fibroblasts both at mRNA and protein levels and the three LMNB1 alleles in ADLD patients show equal expression, suggesting that regulatory regions are maintained within the rearranged segment. These results have allowed us to elucidate duplication mechanisms and provide insights into allele-specific LMNB1 expression levels. PMID:23649844

Giorgio, Elisa; Rolyan, Harshvardhan; Kropp, Laura; Chakka, Anish Baswanth; Yatsenko, Svetlana; Gregorio, Eleonora Di; Lacerenza, Daniela; Vaula, Giovanna; Talarico, Flavia; Mandich, Paola; Toro, Camilo; Pierre, Eleonore Eymard; Labauge, Pierre; Capellari, Sabina; Cortelli, Pietro; Vairo, Filippo Pinto; Miguel, Diego; Stubbolo, Danielle; Marques, Lourenco Charles; Gahl, William; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile; Melberg, Atle; Hassin-Baer, Sharon; Cohen, Oren S; Pjontek, Rastislav; Grau, Armin; Klopstock, Thomas; Fogel, Brent; Meijer, Inge; Rouleau, Guy; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre L; Ganapathiraju, Madhavi; Vanderver, Adeline; Dahl, Niklas; Hobson, Grace; Brusco, Alfredo; Brussino, Alessandro; Padiath, Quasar Saleem

2013-01-01

289

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: Is it Different from Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Normal Kidney?  

PubMed Central

Objectives Nephrolithiasis has been reported in 20-28% of patients, of whom 50% are symptomatic for stone disease and 20% require definite urologic intervention. The management of nephrolithiasis includes oral alkali dissolution therapy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and surgical treatment. In such patients, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) as a method of stone treatment has been reported in few cases with limited experience. The aim of this study is to present our experience of PNL in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and assessing the outcome results. Material and Methods From 2002 to 2011, 22 patients (26 renal units) suffering from ADPKD with stone were managed by PNL. Demographic characteristics, operative parameters and postoperative complications were recorded and analysed. Result The overall success rate of PNL was 82.1% and PNL with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for clinically significant residual fragments was 92.85% respectively. The hematuria required blood transfusion (n = 9), postoperative fever due to cyst infection (n = 4) and paralytic ileus (n = 3) were recorded. Conclusion The PNL in ADPKD PNL is safe and effective but have more postoperative complications such as bleeding requiring transfusions, fever due to cyst infection and paralytic ileus. PMID:24917749

Singh, Vishwajeet; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Gupta, Dheeraj Kumar

2013-01-01

290

Signal Peptide Variants that Impair Secretion of Pancreatic Secretory Trypsin Inhibitor (SPINK1) Cause Autosomal Dominant Hereditary Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Variants of the SPINK1 gene encoding pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor have been described in association with chronic pancreatitis. These alterations are believed to cause a loss of function by either impairing the trypsin inhibitory activity or reducing expression. Here we report two novel SPINK1 variants in exon 1 that affect the secretory signal peptide. The disease-associated c.41T>G (p.L14R) alteration was found in two European families with autosomal dominant hereditary pancreatitis, whereas the c.36G>C (p.L12F) variant was identified as a frequent alteration in subjects of African descent. The functional effects of both alterations and the previously reported c.41T>C (p.L14P) variant were characterized by activity assays and Western blots of wild-type and mutant SPINK1 expressed in human embryonic kidney 293T and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Alterations p.L14R and p.L14P destined the inhibitor for rapid intracellular degradation and thereby abolished SPINK1 secretion, whereas the p.L12F variant showed no detrimental effect. The results provide the first clear experimental demonstration that alterations which markedly reduce SPINK1 expression are associated with classic hereditary pancreatitis. Therefore, these variants should be classified as severe and regarded as disease-causing rather than disease-modifiers. PMID:17274009

Király, Orsolya; Boulling, Arnaud; Witt, Heiko; Maréchal, Cédric Le; Chen, Jian-Min; Rosendahl, Jonas; Battaggia, Cinzia; Wartmann, Thomas; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Férec, Claude

2009-01-01

291

Varying occurrence of vocal cord paralysis in a family with autosomal dominant hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy.  

PubMed

A white British family with the axonal form of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN, type II) contained one member who developed a recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy at the age of 41 years, in addition to 4 years of symptomatic polyneuropathy and an abducens nerve palsy. Neither of the other family members (the mother and sister) with electrophysiologically confirmed polyneuropathy had any neuropathic symptoms in the limbs or laryngeal or respiratory muscle involvement. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance is likely. This is a second report of this rare form of HMSN (type IIC) in which there is associated laryngeal or respiratory muscle weakness. This family differs from the two previously reported pedigrees in which laryngeal or diaphragm weakness had commenced within the first two decades. The discovery of asymptomatic family members attests to the diagnostic value of clinical and electrophysiological study of first-degree relatives when laryngeal or bulbar symptoms develop in the context of chronic axonal polyneuropathy. HMSN type IIC should be distinguished from the more common forms of HMSN - type IIA, in which axonal polyneuropathy is restricted to the limbs, and type IIB, which is of early onset and associated with foot ulceration. PMID:10463355

Donaghy, M; Kennett, R

1999-07-01

292

Clinical and Genetic Description of a Family With a High Prevalence of Autosomal Dominant Restless Legs Syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To conduct clinical and molecular genetic analyses of the members of an extended family in Central Indiana with a high prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS). PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: From February 1, 2006, through August 31, 2008, we collected data from members of this family, which is of English descent. Genealogical methods were used to expand the family tree, and family members were screened with an RLS questionnaire. Telephone interviews and personal examinations were performed at Mayo Clinic and during a field trip to Central Indiana. Blood samples were collected for molecular genetic analysis. A follow-up telephone interview was conducted 1 year later. RESULTS: The family tree spans 7 generations with 88 living members, 30 of whom meet the criteria for diagnosis of RLS established by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Three affected family members also have Parkinson disease or essential tremor. The mode of RLS inheritance is compatible with an autosomal dominant pattern. The affected family members do not exhibit linkage to the 5 known RLS loci or mutations in the RLS susceptibility genes MEIS1 and BTBD9. CONCLUSION: Of 88 members of this single extended family in Central Indiana, 30 were diagnosed as having RLS. Because our analysis shows that the disease is not linked to any of the known RLS loci or risk-associated genes, we postulate that members of this family may carry a gene mutation in a novel genetic locus. PMID:19181647

Young, Jessica E.; Vilariño-Güell, Carles; Lin, Siong-Chi; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Farrer, Matthew J.

2009-01-01

293

Whole-exome sequencing identifies OR2W3 mutation as a cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a heterogeneous group of inherited ocular diseases, is a genetic condition that causes retinal degeneration and eventual vision loss. Though some genes have been identified to be associated with RP, still a large part of the clinical cases could not be explained. Here we reported a four-generation Chinese family with RP, during which 6 from 9 members of the second generation affected the disease. To identify the genetic defect in this family, whole-exome sequencing together with validation analysis by Sanger sequencing were performed to find possible pathogenic mutations. After a pipeline of database filtering, including public databases and in-house databases, a novel missense mutation, c. 424 C > T transition (p.R142W) in OR2W3 gene, was identified as a potentially causative mutation for autosomal dominant RP. The mutation co-segregated with the disease phenotype over four generations. This mutation was validated in another independent three-generation family. RT-PCR analysis also identified that OR2W3 gene was expressed in HESC-RPE cell line. The results will not only enhance our current understanding of the genetic basis of RP, but also provide helpful clues for designing future studies to further investigate genetic factors for familial RP. PMID:25783483

Ma, Xiangyu; Guan, Liping; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Yao; Zheng, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Long, Jirong; Wu, Na; Wu, Long; Xiang, Ying; Xu, Bin; Shen, Miaozhong; Chen, Yanhua; Wang, Yuewen; Yin, Ye; Li, Yingrui; Xu, Haiwei; Xu, Xun; Li, Yafei

2015-01-01

294

Gene Delivery of Wild-Type Rhodopsin Rescues Retinal Function in an Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) is frequently caused by mutations within the gene for the opsin of rod photoreceptor cells. Studies on transgenic mice, carrying mutated rhodopsin (RHO) transgene on different genetic backgrounds suggested that that an increased amount of wild-type RHO in ADRP photoreceptors attenuated the impact of the mutant transgene. Therefore, we employed a gene therapy approach with a help of Adeno-associated virus (AAV) to treat mice expressing a P23H mutant human RHO transgene. Knowing that AAV5 primarily transduces photoreceptor cells, we designed “hardened” form of the rhodopsin gene (RHO301) that expressed normal rhodopsin and was specifically resistant to degradation by the previously tested siRNA301. AAV5 RHO301 was subretinaly injected into the right eyes of P23H RHO mice at post-natal day 15. Animals were analyzed monthly by electroretinography (ERG) for 6 months. Analysis of the full field scotopic electroretinogram (ERG) demonstrated that increased expression of opsin slowed the rate of retinal degeneration in P23H mice with increased amplitudes in both a-wave and b-wave amplitudes compared to control eyes. An increase in the ERG amplitudes was correlated with improvement of retinal structure. The thickness of the outer nuclear layer in AAV-RHO301 injected eyes was increased by 80% compared to control eyes. This finding indicates that wild -type RHO could rescue the retinal degeneration in transgenic mice carrying a dominant RHO mutation and that increased production of normal rhodopsin could suppress the effect of the mutant protein. These findings suggest that wild-type RHO can used as a therapeutic agent to retard retinal degeneration in ADRP caused by different mutations of RHO via increased production of normal rhodopsin protein. PMID:22183334

Mao, Haoyu; Gorbatyuk, Marina S.; Hauswirth, William W.; Lewin, Alfred S.

2012-01-01

295

Exon Sequencing of PKD1 Gene in an Iranian Patient with Autosomal-Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common genetic kidney disorders with the incidence of 1 in 1,000 births. ADPKD is genetically heterogeneous with two genes identified: PKD1 (16p13.3, 46 exons) and PKD2 (4q21, 15 exons). Eighty five percent of the patients with ADPKD have at least one mutation in the PKD1 gene. Genetic studies have demonstrated an important allelic variability among patients, but very few data are known about the genetic variation among Iranian populations. Methods: In this study, exon direct sequencing of PKD1 was performed in a seven-year old boy with ADPKD and in his parents. The patient’s father was ADPKD who was affected without any kidney dysfunction, and the patient’s mother was congenitally missing one kidney. Results: Molecular genetic testing found a mutation in all three members of this family. It was a missense mutation GTG>ATG at position 3057 in exon 25 of PKD1. On the other hand, two novel missense mutations were reported just in the 7-year-old boy: ACA>GCA found in exon 15 at codon 2241 and CAC>AAC found in exon 38 at codon 3710. For checking the pathogenicity of these mutations, exons 15, 25, and 38 of 50 unrelated normal cases were sequenced. Conclusion: our findings suggested that GTG>ATG is a polymorphism with high frequency (60%) as well as ACA>GCA and CAC>AAC are polymorphisms with frequencies of 14% and 22%, respectively in the population of Southwest Iran. PMID:24842140

Hafizi, Atousa; Khatami, Saeid Reza; Galehdari, Hamid; Shariati, Gholamreza; Saberi, Ali Hossein; Hamid, Mohammad

2014-01-01

296

The Severe Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa Rhodopsin Mutant Ter349Glu Mislocalizes and Induces Rapid Rod Cell Death*  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the rhodopsin gene cause approximately one-tenth of retinitis pigmentosa cases worldwide, and most result in endoplasmic reticulum retention and apoptosis. Other rhodopsin mutations cause receptor mislocalization, diminished/constitutive activity, or faulty protein-protein interactions. The purpose of this study was to test for mechanisms by which the autosomal dominant rhodopsin mutation Ter349Glu causes an early, rapid retinal degeneration in patients. The mutation adds an additional 51 amino acids to the C terminus of the protein. Folding and ligand interaction of Ter349Glu rhodopsin were tested by ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrophotometry. The ability of the mutant to initiate phototransduction was tested using a radioactive filter binding assay. Photoreceptor localization was assessed both in vitro and in vivo utilizing fluorescent immunochemistry on transfected cells, transgenic Xenopus laevis, and knock-in mice. Photoreceptor ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Spectrally, Ter349Glu rhodopsin behaves similarly to wild-type rhodopsin, absorbing maximally at 500 nm. The mutant protein also displays in vitro G protein activation similar to that of WT. In cultured cells, mislocalization was observed at high expression levels whereas ciliary localization occurred at low expression levels. Similarly, transgenic X. laevis expressing Ter349Glu rhodopsin exhibited partial mislocalization. Analysis of the Ter349Glu rhodopsin knock-in mouse showed a rapid, early onset degeneration in homozygotes with a loss of proper rod outer segment development and improper disc formation. Together, the data show that both mislocalization and rod outer segment morphogenesis are likely associated with the human phenotype. PMID:23940033

Hollingsworth, T. J.; Gross, Alecia K.

2013-01-01

297

Ouabain activates the Na-K-ATPase signalosome to induce autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

The Na-K-ATPase is part of a cell signaling complex, the Na-K-ATPase signalosome, which upon activation by the hormone ouabain regulates the function of different cell types. We previously showed that ouabain induces proliferation of epithelial cells derived from renal cysts of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD cells). Here, we investigated the signaling pathways responsible for mediating the effects of ouabain in these cells. Incubation of ADPKD cells with ouabain, in concentrations similar to those found in blood, stimulated phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and promoted its association to the Na-K-ATPase. In addition, ouabain activated the kinase Src, but not the related kinase Fyn. Tyrphostin AG1478 and PP2, inhibitors of EGFR and Src, respectively, blocked ouabain-dependent ADPKD cell proliferation. Treatment of ADPKD cells with ouabain also caused phosphorylation of the caveolar protein caveolin-1, and disruption of cell caveolae with methyl-?-cyclodextrin prevented Na-K-ATPase-EGFR interaction and ouabain-induced proliferation of the cells. Downstream effects of ouabain in ADPKD cells included activation of B-Raf and MEK and phosphorylation of the extracellular regulated kinase ERK, which translocated into the ADPKD cell nuclei. Finally, ouabain reduced expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, which are suppressors of cell proliferation. Different from ADPKD cells, ouabain showed no significant effect on B-Raf, p21, and p27 in normal human kidney epithelial cells. Altogether, these results identify intracellular pathways of ouabain-dependent Na-K-ATPase-mediated signaling in ADPKD cells, including EGFR-Src-B-Raf-MEK/ERK, and establish novel mechanisms involved in ADPKD cell proliferation. PMID:21697238

Nguyen, Anh-Nguyet T.; Jansson, Kyle; Sánchez, Gladis; Sharma, Madhulika; Reif, Gail A.; Wallace, Darren P.

2011-01-01

298

Imaging classification of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a simple model for selecting patients for clinical trials.  

PubMed

The rate of renal disease progression varies widely among patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), necessitating optimal patient selection for enrollment into clinical trials. Patients from the Mayo Clinic Translational PKD Center with ADPKD (n=590) with computed tomography/magnetic resonance images and three or more eGFR measurements over ?6 months were classified radiologically as typical (n=538) or atypical (n=52). Total kidney volume (TKV) was measured using stereology (TKVs) and ellipsoid equation (TKVe). Typical patients were randomly partitioned into development and internal validation sets and subclassified according to height-adjusted TKV (HtTKV) ranges for age (1A-1E, in increasing order). Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Study of PKD (CRISP) participants (n=173) were used for external validation. TKVe correlated strongly with TKVs, without systematic underestimation or overestimation. A longitudinal mixed regression model to predict eGFR decline showed that log2HtTKV and age significantly interacted with time in typical patients, but not in atypical patients. When 1A-1E classifications were used instead of log2HtTKV, eGFR slopes were significantly different among subclasses and, except for 1A, different from those in healthy kidney donors. The equation derived from the development set predicted eGFR in both validation sets. The frequency of ESRD at 10 years increased from subclass 1A (2.4%) to 1E (66.9%) in the Mayo cohort and from 1C (2.2%) to 1E (22.3%) in the younger CRISP cohort. Class and subclass designations were stable. An easily applied classification of ADPKD based on HtTKV and age should optimize patient selection for enrollment into clinical trials and for treatment when one becomes available. PMID:24904092

Irazabal, María V; Rangel, Laureano J; Bergstralh, Eric J; Osborn, Sara L; Harmon, Amber J; Sundsbak, Jamie L; Bae, Kyongtae T; Chapman, Arlene B; Grantham, Jared J; Mrug, Michal; Hogan, Marie C; El-Zoghby, Ziad M; Harris, Peter C; Erickson, Bradley J; King, Bernard F; Torres, Vicente E

2015-01-01

299

Identification of two novel mutations in FAM136A and DTNA genes in autosomal-dominant familial Meniere's disease.  

PubMed

Meniere's disease (MD) is a chronic disorder of the inner ear defined by sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus and episodic vertigo, and familial MD is observed in 5-15% of sporadic cases. Although its pathophysiology is largely unknown, studies in human temporal bones have found an accumulation of endolymph in the scala media of the cochlea. By whole-exome sequencing, we have identified two novel heterozygous single-nucleotide variants in FAM136A and DTNA genes, both in a Spanish family with three affected cases in consecutive generations, highly suggestive of autosomal-dominant inheritance. The nonsense mutation in the FAM136A gene leads to a stop codon that disrupts the FAM136A protein product. Sequencing revealed two mRNA transcripts of FAM136A in lymphoblasts from patients, which were confirmed by immunoblotting. Carriers of the FAM136A mutation showed a significant decrease in the expression level of both transcripts in lymphoblastoid cell lines. The missense mutation in the DTNA gene produces a novel splice site which skips exon 21 and leads to a shorter alternative transcript. We also demonstrated that FAM136A and DTNA proteins are expressed in the neurosensorial epithelium of the crista ampullaris of the rat by immunohistochemistry. While FAM136A encodes a mitochondrial protein with unknown function, DTNA encodes a cytoskeleton-interacting membrane protein involved in the formation and stability of synapses with a crucial role in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Neither of these genes has been described in patients with hearing loss, FAM136A and DTNA being candidate gene for familiar MD. PMID:25305078

Requena, Teresa; Cabrera, Sonia; Martín-Sierra, Carmen; Price, Steven D; Lysakowski, Anna; Lopez-Escamez, José A

2015-02-15

300

Calcified renal stones and cyst calcifications in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: clinical and CT study in 84 patients.  

PubMed

Although renal calculi and cyst calcifications occur commonly in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), their true frequency is unknown because it is difficult to distinguish between the two with excretory urography and sonography. A detailed analysis of renal calcifications in ADPKD based on CT findings has not been performed. Accordingly, we retrospectively evaluated clinical and CT findings in 84 patients with ADPKD to determine the frequency of calculi and cyst calcifications, the relationship of these abnormalities to symptoms, and possible factors in their pathogenesis. Of the 84 patients, 53 had both IV contrast-enhanced and unenhanced CT scans and 31 had unenhanced scans only. We examined unenhanced CT scans of all 84 patients for renal calcifications. However, we classified renal calcifications into stones and cyst calcifications in only the 53 patients, because it is often difficult to distinguish between the two when only unenhanced scans are available. Of 84 patients, 18 (21%) had passed renal calculi or had stones treated surgically and 42 (50%) had renal calcifications on CT. Of the 53 patients who had both enhanced and unenhanced CT scans, 19 (36%) had renal calculi on CT. Patients with stones had significantly higher frequencies of previous flank pain (68% vs 35%) and of urinary tract infections (63% vs 18%) than did those without calculi. Cyst calcifications occurred in 13 (25%) of 53 patients and were probably a consequence of cyst hemorrhage. Cyst calcifications were found significantly more often in older patients with larger kidneys and worse renal function. We conclude that renal stones have a high rate of occurrence among patients with ADPKD and are a significant cause of morbidity in this disorder. Cyst calcification is also common in patients with ADPKD, particularly those with more advanced cystic disease. PMID:1609726

Levine, E; Grantham, J J

1992-07-01

301

Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa: exclusion of the gene from the short arm of chromosome 1 including the region surrounding the rhesus locus.  

PubMed Central

Members of a large Irish pedigree exhibiting early-onset autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) were typed for the rhesus blood group and nine DNA markers on chromosome 1. Close linkage between the ADRP locus and any of the marker loci was excluded using two-point analysis. With use of the sex-averaged maps of Dracopoli et al. and Donis-Keller et al. and a strategy of rolling multipoint analyses, support was gained for the exclusion of ADRP from a 224-cM region of the chromosome, including almost the entire short arm. The disease locus was significantly excluded from within at least 50 cM of the rhesus locus and, as a loose linkage between these two genes has been suggested by other studies, this result may support the possibility of genetic heterogeneity within the autosomal dominant subgroup of retinitis pigmentosa. PMID:2564733

Bradley, D G; Farrar, G J; Sharp, E M; Kenna, P; Humphries, M M; McConnell, D J; Daiger, S P; McWilliam, P; Humphries, P

1989-01-01

302

Uncloned expanded CAG\\/CTG repeat sequences in autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA) detected by the repeat expansion detection (RED) method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some neurodegenerative diseases, genetic anticipation correlates with expansions of the CAG\\/CTG repeat sequence above the normal range through the generations of a pedigree. Among these neurodegenerative diseases are late onset autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA). ADCA are genetically heterogeneous disorders with different cloned genes for spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), type 2 (SCA2), type 3 or Machado-Joseph disease (SCA3\\/MJD),

M A Pujana; V Volpini; M Gratacós; J Corral; I Banchs; A Sánchez; D Genís; C Cervera; X Estivill

1998-01-01

303

Influence of ACE I\\/D gene polymorphism in the progression of renal failure in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a renal disease characterized by an important variability in clinical course, which cannot be fully explained by the genetic heterogeneity of the disease. Although the role for the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion\\/deletion (I\\/D) polymorphism as a modifier factor in ADPKD renal deterioration has been suggested, direct evidence from genetic association studies

Tiago Veiga Pereira; Ane Claudia; Fernandes Nunes; Martina Rudnicki; Ricardo Magistroni; Alberto Albertazzi; Alexandre Costa Pereira; JoseEduardo Krieger

2006-01-01

304

Opa1 deficiency in a mouse model of autosomal dominant optic atrophy impairs mitochondrial morphology, optic nerve structure and visual function  

Microsoft Academic Search

OPA1 is a ubiquitously expressed, nuclear dynamin-related GTPase, targeted to the inner mitochondrial membrane, which plays a role in mitochondrial fusion. Mutations in the OPA1 gene on chromosome 3q28-qter are associated with autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA), the most common inherited optic neuropathy, in which retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are lost and visual acuity is impaired from an early age.

Vanessa J. Davies; Andrew J. Hollins; Malgorzata J. Piechota; Wanfen Yip; Jennifer R. Davies; Kathryn E. White; Phillip P. Nicols; Michael E. Boulton; Marcela Votruba

2007-01-01

305

Identification of a New Thyrotropin Receptor Germline Mutation (Leu629Phe) in a Family with Neonatal Onset of Autosomal Dominant Nonautoimmune Hyperthyroidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constitutively activating germline mutations in the TSH receptor (TSHR) gene have been identified as a cause of autosomal dominant nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism and sporadic congenital hyperthy- roidism. We report a 10-yr-old boy and his 31-yr-old mother, both presenting with a history of recurring toxic thyroid hyperplasia and no evidence for autoimmune thyroid disease. In the boy, onset of hyperthyroidism and goiter

DAGMAR FUHRER; PETER WONEROW; HELMUT WILLGERODT; RALF PASCHKE

306

End-Stage Renal Disease From Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease in the United States, 2001-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is amenable to early detection and specialty care. Thus, while important to patients with the condition, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from ADPKD may also be an indicator of the overall state of nephrology care. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of temporal trends in renal replacement therapy (RRT)-requiring ESRD from ADPKD and pre-RRT nephrologist care, 2001-2010 (n = 23,772). Setting & Participants US patients who initiated maintenance RRT between 2001 and 2010 (n = 1,069,343), from United States Renal Data System data. Predictor RRT-requiring ESRD from ADPKD. Outcomes Death, wait-listing for renal transplant, renal transplant. Measurements US census data were used as population denominators. The Poisson distribution was used to compute incidence rates. Incidence ratios were standardized to rates in 2001-2002 for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Patients with and without ADPKD were matched to compare clinical outcomes. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rates and adjusted hazards ratios for clinical events after inception of RRT. Results General population incidence ratios in 2009-2010 were unchanged from 2001-2002 (incidence ratio 1.02). Of patients with ADPKD, 48.1% received > 12 months of nephrology care before RRT; preemptive transplant was the initial RRT in 14.3% and fistula the initial hemodialysis access in 35.8%. Over 4.9 years of follow-up, patients with ADPKD were more likely to be listed for transplant (11.7 [95% CI 11.5-12.0] per 100 person-years vs. 8.4 [8.2-8.7]) and to undergo transplant (9.8 [9.5-10.0] vs. 4.8 [4.7-5.0]), and less likely to die (5.6 [5.4-5.7] vs. 15.5 [15.3-15.8]) than matched controls without ADPKD. Limitations Retrospective, nonexperimental, registry-based study of associations; cause-and-effect relationships cannot be determined. Conclusions While outcomes on dialysis are better for ADPKD than for non-ADPKD patients, access to predialysis nephrology care and non-declining ESRD rates may be a cause for concern. PMID:25134777

Reule, Scott; Sexton, Donal J.; Solid, Craig A.; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Collins, Allan J.; Foley, Robert N.

2015-01-01

307

Sirolimus ameliorates the enhanced expression of metalloproteinases in a rat model of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Remodelling of matrix and tubular basement membranes (TBM) is a characteristic of polycystic kid- ney disease. We hypothesized that matrix and TBM degra- dation by metalloproteinases (MMPs) could promote cyst formation. We therefore investigated the renal expression of MMPs in the Han:SPRD rat model of autosomal domi- nant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and examined the effect of sirolimus treatment

C. Berthier; Patricia R. Wahl; M ichel Le Hir; Hans-Peter Marti; Ulrich Wagner; Hubert Rehrauer; Andreas L. Serra

2008-01-01

308

Evaluation of the Contribution of the EYA4 and GRHL2 Genes in Korean Patients with Autosomal Dominant Non-Syndromic Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

EYA4 and GRHL2 encode transcription factors that play an important role in regulating many developmental stages. Since EYA4 and GRHL2 were identified as the transcription factors for the DFNA10 and DFNA28, 8 EYA4 mutations and 2 GRHL2 mutations have been reported worldwide. However, these genes have been reported in few studies of the Korean population. In this study, we performed a genetic analysis of EYA4 and GRHL2 in 87 unrelated Korean patients with autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL). A total of 4 genetic variants in the EYA4 gene were identified, including the 2 nonsense mutations p.S288X and p.Q393X. The novel mutation p.Q393X (c.1177C>T) resulted in a change in the codon at amino acid position 393 from a glutamine to a stop codon. The p.Q393X allele was predicted to encode a truncated protein lacking the entire C-terminal Eya homolog region (Eya HR), which is essential for the interaction with the transcription factor SIX3. The p.S288X (c.863C>A) mutation was found in a Korean family from a previous study. We analyzed p.S288X-linked microsatellite markers and determined that p.S288X might be a founder mutation and a hotspot mutation in Koreans. In GRHL2, a total of 4 genetic variants were identified, but none were associated with hearing loss in Korean patients. This suggests that GRHL2 may not be a main causal gene for autosomal dominant NSHL in Korean patients. In conclusion, our data provide fundamental information to predict the genotypes of Korean patients diagnosed with autosomal dominant NSHL. PMID:25781927

Sagong, Borum; Bae, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Hyung-Jong; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Kim, Un-Kyung

2015-01-01

309

A new mutation in the COL4A3 gene responsible for autosomal dominant Alport syndrome, which only generates hearing loss in some carriers.  

PubMed

Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss is a characteristic feature of Alport syndrome, which is always linked to renal manifestations so they have a parallel evolution and prognosis, and deafness helps to identify the renal disease. We report a family that suffers an autosomal dominant Alport syndrome caused by a previously undescribed mutation in the COL4A3 gene, in which several members have hearing impairment as the only clinical manifestation, suggesting that in this family deafness can occur independent of renal disease. This mutation is also present in a patient with anterior lenticonus, an observation only found in families with recessive and sex-linked Alport disease. PMID:25450602

Rosado, Consolación; Bueno, Elena; Fraile, Pilar; García-Cosmes, Pedro; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio

2015-01-01

310

Autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus caused by a mutation in the arginine-vasopressin II gene in four generations of a Korean family  

PubMed Central

Autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is a rare form of central diabetes insipidus that is caused by mutations in the vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NPII) gene. It is characterized by persistent polydipsia and polyuria induced by deficient or absent secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP). Here we report a case of familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus in four generations of a Korean family, caused by heterozygous missense mutation in exon 2 of the AVP-NPII gene (c.286G>T). This is the first report of such a case in Korea. PMID:25654069

Kim, Myo-Jing; Kim, Young-Eun; Ki, Chang-Seok

2014-01-01

311

Successfully Treated Escherichia coli-Induced Emphysematous Cyst Infection with Combination of Intravenous Antibiotics and Intracystic Antibiotics Irrigation in a Patient with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

A 62-yr-old woman with an autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) was admitted to our hospital for further evaluation of intermittent fever, nausea and left flank discomfort. The computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a gas-forming, infectious cyst of approximately 8.1 cm in size in left kidney lower pole. Escherichia coli was identified from the cyst fluid culture examination. Her symptoms improved only after the concomitant use of intravenous ciprofloxacin and an intracystic irrigation of ciprofloxacin through a percutaneous cystostomy drainage. Our case presents the successfully treated emphysematous cyst infection with combination of intravenous antibiotics and intracystic antibiotic therapy instead of surgical management. PMID:23772165

Kim, Hyunsuk; Cho Park, Hayne; Lee, Sunhwa; Lee, Jungsil; Cho, Chungyun; Kim, Dong Ki; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Oh, Kook-Hwan

2013-01-01

312

Missense Mutations in the Homeodomain of HOXD13 Are Associated with Brachydactyly Types D and E  

PubMed Central

HOXD13, the most 5? gene of the HOXD cluster, encodes a homeodomain transcription factor with important functions in limb patterning and growth. Heterozygous mutations of human HOXD13, encoding polyalanine expansions or frameshifts, are believed to act by dominant negative or haploinsufficiency mechanisms and are predominantly associated with synpolydactyly phenotypes. Here, we describe two mutations of HOXD13 (923C?G encoding Ser308Cys and 940A?C encoding Ile314Leu) that cause missense substitutions within the homeodomain. Both are associated with distinctive limb phenotypes in which brachydactyly of specific metacarpals, metatarsals, and phalangeal bones is the most constant feature, exhibiting overlap with brachydactyly types D and E. We investigated the binding of synthetic mutant proteins to double-stranded DNA targets in vitro. No consistent differences were found for the Ser308Cys mutation compared with the wild type, but the Ile314Leu mutation (which resides at the 47th position of the homeodomain) exhibited increased affinity for a target containing the core recognition sequence 5?-TTAC-3? but decreased affinity for a 5?-TTAT-3? target. Molecular modeling of the Ile314Leu mutation indicates that this mixed gain and loss of affinity may be accounted for by the relative positions of methyl groups in the amino acid side chain and target base. PMID:12649808

Johnson, David; Kan, Shih-hsin; Oldridge, Michael; Trembath, Richard C.; Roche, Philippe; Esnouf, Robert M.; Giele, Henk; Wilkie, Andrew O. M.

2003-01-01

313

The PROM1 Mutation p.R373C Causes an Autosomal Dominant Bull's Eye Maculopathy Associated with Rod, Rod–Cone, and Macular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To characterize in detail the phenotype of five unrelated families with autosomal dominant bull's eye maculopathy (BEM) due to the R373C mutation in the PROM1 gene. Methods. Forty-one individuals of five families of Caribbean (family A), British (families B, D, E), and Italian (family C) origin, segregating the R373C mutation in PROM1, were ascertained. Electrophysiological assessment, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed in available subjects. Mutation screening of PROM1 was performed. Results. The R373C mutant was present heterozygously in all affected patients. The age at onset was variable and ranged between 9 and 58 years, with most of the individuals presenting with reading difficulties. Subjects commonly had a mild to moderate reduction in visual acuity except for members of family C who experienced markedly reduced central vision. The retinal phenotype was characterized by macular dystrophy, with retinal pigment epithelial mottling in younger subjects, progressing to typical BEM over time, with the development of macular atrophy in older patients. In addition, all members of family C had typical features of RP. The electrophysiological findings were variable both within and between families. Conclusions. Mutations in PROM1 have been described to cause a severe form of autosomal recessive RP in two families of Indian and Pakistani descent. The results of this study have demonstrated that a distinct redundant PROM1 mutation (R373C) can also produce an autosomal dominant, fully penetrant retinopathy, characterized by BEM with little inter- and intrafamilial variability, and retinal dystrophy with variable rod or rod–cone dysfunction and marked intra- and interfamilial variability, ranging from isolated maculopathy without generalized photoreceptor dysfunction to maculopathy associated with very severe rod–cone dysfunction. PMID:20393116

Michaelides, Michel; Gaillard, Marie-Claire; Escher, Pascal; Tiab, Leila; Bedell, Matthew; Borruat, François-Xavier; Barthelmes, Daniel; Carmona, Ruben; Zhang, Kang; White, Edward; McClements, Michelle; Robson, Anthony G.; Holder, Graham E.; Bradshaw, Keith; Hunt, David M.; Webster, Andrew R.; Moore, Anthony T.; Schorderet, Daniel F.; Munier, Francis L.

2010-01-01

314

Linkage to chromosome 2q36.1 in autosomal dominant Dandy-Walker malformation with occipital cephalocele and evidence for genetic heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

We previously reported a Vietnamese-American family with isolated autosomal dominant occipital cephalocele. Upon further neuroimaging studies, we have recharacterized this condition as autosomal dominant Dandy-Walker with occipital cephalocele (ADDWOC). A similar ADDWOC family from Brazil was also recently described. To determine the genetic etiology of ADDWOC, we performed genome-wide linkage analysis on members of the Vietnamese-American and Brazilian pedigrees. Linkage analysis of the Vietnamese-American family identified the ADDWOC causative locus on chromosome 2q36.1 with a multipoint parametric LOD score of 3.3, while haplotype analysis refined the locus to 1.1 Mb. Sequencing of the five known genes in this locus did not identify any protein-altering mutations. However, a terminal deletion of chromosome 2 in a patient with an isolated case of Dandy-Walker malformation also encompassed the 2q36.1 chromosomal region. The Brazilian pedigree did not show linkage to this 2q36.1 region. Taken together, these results demonstrate a locus for ADDWOC on 2q36.1 and also suggest locus heterogeneity for ADDWOC. PMID:18204864

Jalali, Ali; Aldinger, Kimberly A.; Chary, Ajit; Mclone, David G.; Bowman, Robin M.; Le, Luan Cong; Jardine, Phillip; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Mallick, Andrew; Jafari, Nadereh; Russell, Eric J.; Curran, John; Nguyen, Pam; Ouahchi, Karim; Lee, Charles; Dobyns, William B.; Millen, Kathleen J.; Pina-Neto, Joao M.; Kessler, John A.; Bassuk, Alexander G.

2010-01-01

315

Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 16 interacts with ?-tectorin and is mutated in autosomal dominant hearing loss (DFNA4)  

PubMed Central

We report on a secreted protein found in mammalian cochlear outer hair cells (OHC) that is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family of adhesion proteins. Ceacam16 mRNA is expressed in OHC, and its protein product localizes to the tips of the tallest stereocilia and the tectorial membrane (TM). This specific localization suggests a role in maintaining the integrity of the TM as well as in the connection between the OHC stereocilia and TM, a linkage essential for mechanical amplification. In agreement with this role, CEACAM16 colocalizes and coimmunoprecipitates with the TM protein ?-tectorin. In addition, we show that mutation of CEACAM16 leads to autosomal dominant nonsyndromic deafness (ADNSHL) at the autosomal dominant hearing loss (DFNA4) locus. In aggregate, these data identify CEACAM16 as an ?-tectorin–interacting protein that concentrates at the point of attachment of the TM to the stereocilia and, when mutated, results in ADNSHL at the DFNA4 locus. PMID:21368133

Zheng, Jing; Miller, Katharine K.; Yang, Tao; Hildebrand, Michael S.; Shearer, A. Eliot; DeLuca, Adam P.; Scheetz, Todd E.; Drummond, Jennifer; Scherer, Steve E.; Legan, P. Kevin; Richardson, Guy P.; Cheatham, Mary Ann; Smith, Richard J.; Dallos, Peter

2011-01-01

316

c.G2114A MYH9 mutation (DFNA17) causes non-syndromic autosomal dominant hearing loss in a Brazilian family  

PubMed Central

We studied a family presenting 10 individuals affected by autosomal dominant deafness in all frequencies and three individuals affected by high frequency hearing loss. Genomic scanning using the 50k Affymetrix microarray technology yielded a Lod Score of 2.1 in chromosome 14 and a Lod Score of 1.9 in chromosome 22. Mapping refinement using microsatellites placed the chromosome 14 candidate region between markers D14S288 and D14S276 (8.85 cM) and the chromosome 22 near marker D22S283. Exome sequencing identified two candidate variants to explain hearing loss in chromosome 14 [PTGDR – c.G894A:p.R298R and PTGER2 – c.T247G:p.C83G], and one in chromosome 22 [MYH9, c.G2114A:p.R705H]. Pedigree segregation analysis allowed exclusion of the PTGDR and PTGER2 variants as the cause of deafness. However, the MYH9 variant segregated with the phenotype in all affected members, except the three individuals with different phenotype. This gene has been previously described as mutated in autosomal dominant hereditary hearing loss and corresponds to DFNA17. The mutation identified in our study is the same described in the prior report. Thus, although linkage studies suggested a candidate gene in chromosome 14, we concluded that the mutation in chromosome 22 better explains the hearing loss phenotype in the Brazilian family. PMID:25505834

Dantas, Vitor G.L.; Lezirovitz, Karina; Yamamoto, Guilherme L.; Moura de Souza, Carolina Fischinger; Ferreira, Simone Gomes; Mingroni-Netto, Regina C.

2014-01-01

317

The polymorphism of the ACE gene affects left ventricular hypertrophy and causes disturbances in left ventricular systolic/diastolic function in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most frequently occurring autosomal diseases inherited in the dominant manner. Due to this, lesions in the cardiovascular system of ADPKD patients have caught the attention of clinical investigators worldwide. The aim of the study was to analyse cardiovascular complications in ADPKD patients with a focus on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and selected components of its systolic/diastolic function based on echocardiography. The study was conducted on 55 patients with ADPKD (24 males, 31 females), subdivided into three groups according to the stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The patient group with ADPKD and ESRD (group C) manifested an increased incidence of the D allele as compared to group A and group B (?(2) = 4.217, P = 0.04). In all ADPKD patients with the DD genotype, left ventricular mass (LVM), posterior wall thickness (PWT), and interventricular septal thickness (IVS) were significantly higher compared to patients possessing the II and ID genotypes (P < 0.02, P < 0.003, and P < 0.009, resp.). The DD genotype exists more frequently in ADPKD patients with ESRD and is associated with a higher occurrence of LVH and disturbances in systolic-diastolic function when compared to ADPKD ESRD patients with the II and ID genotypes. PMID:24672357

Wanic-Kossowska, Maria; Posnik, Bartlomiej; Kobelski, Mikolaj; Pawliczak, Elzbieta; Pawlaczyk, Krzysztof; Hoppe, Krzysztof; Schwermer, Krzysztof; Sikorska, Dorota

2014-01-01

318

Targeted High-Throughput Sequencing Identifies Pathogenic Mutations in KCNQ4 in Two Large Chinese Families with Autosomal Dominant Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL) is highly heterogeneous, among them, KCNQ4 is one of the most frequent disease-causing genes. More than twenty KCNQ4 mutations have been reported, but none of them were detected in Chinese mainland families. In this study, we identified a novel KCNQ4 mutation in a five generation Chinese family with 84 members and a known KCNQ4 mutation in a six generation Chinese family with 66 members. Mutation screening of 30 genes for ADNSHL was performed in the probands from thirty large Chinese families with ADNSHL by targeted region capture and high-throughput sequencing. The candidate variants and the co-segregation of the phenotype were verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and Sanger sequencing in all ascertained family members. Then we identified a novel KCNQ4 mutation p.W275R in exon 5 and a known KCNQ4 mutation p.G285S in exon 6 in two large Chinese ADNSHL families segregating with post-lingual high frequency-involved and progressive sensorineural hearing loss. This is the first report of KCNQ4 mutation in Chinese mainland families. KCNQ4, a member of voltage-gated potassium channel family, is likely to be a common gene in Chinese patients with ADNSHL. The results also support that the combination of targeted enrichment and high-throughput sequencing is a valuable molecular diagnostic tool for autosomal dominant hereditary deafness. PMID:25116015

Gao, Yun; Liu, Qiong; Wang, Dayong; Li, Qian; Lan, Lan; Li, Na; Guan, Jing; Yin, Zifang; Han, Bing; Zhao, Feifan; Zong, Liang; Xiong, Wenping; Yu, Lan; Song, Lijie; Yi, Xin; Yang, Ling; Petit, Christine; Wang, Qiuju

2014-01-01

319

Exome sequencing reveals a heterozygous DLX5 mutation in a Chinese family with autosomal-dominant split-hand/foot malformation.  

PubMed

Split-hand/foot malformation (SHFM) is a congenital limb deformity due to the absence or dysplasia of central rays of the autopod. Six SHFM loci have already been identified. Here we describe a Chinese family with autosomal-dominant SHFM1 that has previously been mapped to 7q21.2-21.3. The two affected family members, mother and son, showed deep median clefts between toes, ectrodactyly and syndactyly; the mother also showed triphalangeal thumbs. Exome sequencing and variant screening of candidate genes in the six loci known to be responsible for SHFM revealed a novel heterozygous mutation, c.558G>T (p.(Gln186His)), in distal-less homeobox 5 (DLX5). As DLX5 encodes a transcription factor capable of transactivating MYC, we also tested whether the mutation could affect DLX5 transcription acitivity. Results from luciferase reporter assay revealed that a mutation in DLX5 compromised its transcriptional activity. This is the first report of a mutation in DLX5 leading to autosomal-dominant SHFM1. PMID:24496061

Wang, Xue; Xin, Qian; Li, Lin; Li, Jiangxia; Zhang, Changwu; Qiu, Rongfang; Qian, Chenmin; Zhao, Hailing; Liu, Yongchao; Shan, Shan; Dang, Jie; Bian, Xianli; Shao, Changshun; Gong, Yaoqin; Liu, Qiji

2014-09-01

320

A Complex Phenotype of Peripheral Neuropathy, Myopathy, Hoarseness and Hearing Loss is Linked to an Autosomal Dominant Mutation in MYH14  

PubMed Central

Both peripheral neuropathy and distal myopathy are well-established inherited neuromuscular disorders characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy of the distal limb muscles. A complex phenotype of peripheral neuropathy, myopathy, hoarseness and hearing loss was diagnosed in a large autosomal dominant Korean family. A high density SNP-based linkage study mapped the underlying gene to a region on chromosome 19q13.3. The maximum multipoint LOD score was 3.794. Sequencing of 34 positional candidate genes in the segregating haplotype revealed a novel c.2822G>T (p.Arg941Leu) mutation in the gene MYH14, which encodes the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain 14. Clinically we observed a sequential pattern of the onset of muscle weakness starting from the anterior to the posterior leg muscle compartments followed by involvement of intrinsic hand and proximal muscles. The hearing loss and hoarseness followed the onset of distal muscle weakness. Histopathologic and electrodiagnostic studies revealed both chronic neuropathic and myopathic features in the affected patients. While mutations in MYH14 have been shown to cause nonsyndromic autosomal dominant hearing loss (DFNA4), the peripheral neuropathy, myopathy, and hoarseness have not been associated with MYH14. Therefore, we suggest that the identified mutation in MYH14 significantly expands the phenotypic spectrum of this gene. PMID:21480433

Choi, Byung-Ok; Kang, Sung Hee; Hyun, Young Se; Kanwal, Sumaria; Park, Sun Wha; Koo, Heasoo; Kim, Sang-Beom; Choi, Young-Chul; Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Jong-Won; Park, Kee Duk; Choi, Kyoung-Gyu; Kim, Song Ja; Züchner, Stephan; Chung, Ki Wha

2011-01-01

321

Brachydactyly E: isolated or as a feature of a syndrome  

PubMed Central

Brachydactyly (BD) refers to the shortening of the hands, feet or both. There are different types of BD; among them, type E (BDE) is a rare type that can present as an isolated feature or as part of more complex syndromes, such as: pseudohypopthyroidism (PHP), hypertension with BD or Bilginturan BD (HTNB), BD with mental retardation (BDMR) or BDE with short stature, PTHLH type. Each syndrome has characteristic patterns of skeletal involvement. However, brachydactyly is not a constant feature and shows a high degree of phenotypic variability. In addition, there are other syndromes that can be misdiagnosed as brachydactyly type E, some of which will also be discussed. The objective of this review is to describe some of the syndromes in which BDE is present, focusing on clinical, biochemical and genetic characteristics as features of differential diagnoses, with the aim of establishing an algorithm for their differential diagnosis. As in our experience many of these patients are recruited at Endocrinology and/or Pediatric Endocrinology Services due to their short stature, we have focused the algorithm in those steps that could mainly help these professionals. PMID:24028571

2013-01-01

322

Clinical variability of the cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy phenotype in two siblings of a large family showing the same mutation  

PubMed Central

A 44-year-old Albanian male was consulted and diagnosed with dementia. His magnetic resonance imaging suggested diffuse white matter changes. The suspicion of cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) was raised, and a genetic analysis confirmed such a suspicion through uncovering a pathogenic mutation at the level of exon 4 (c.475C>T) of chromosome 19. The patient came from a large family of 13 children, all of whom underwent clinical, genetic, and imaging examination. The pathogenic mutation was found present only in his eldest sister (50 years old), and she presented also very suggestive signs of CADASIL in her respective imaging study, but without any clinically significant counterpart. All other siblings were free from clinical and radiological signs of the disorder. Our opinion was that we were dealing with a mutation showing a very low level of penetrance, with only two siblings affected in a large Albanian family with 13 children. PMID:24124395

Vyshka, Gentian; Kruja, Jera

2013-01-01

323

Splicing defects caused by exonic mutations in PKD1 as a new mechanism of pathogenesis in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

The correct splicing of precursor-mRNA depends on the actual splice sites plus exonic and intronic regulatory elements recognized by the splicing machinery. Surprisingly, an increasing number of examples reveal that exonic mutations disrupt the binding of splicing factors to these sequences or generate new splice sites or regulatory elements, causing disease. This contradicts the general assumption that missense mutations disrupt protein function and that synonymous mutations are merely polymorphisms. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common inherited disorder caused mainly by mutations in the PKD1 gene. Recently, we analyzed a substantial number of PKD1 missense or synonymous mutations to further characterize their consequences on pre-mRNA splicing. Our results showed that one missense and 2 synonymous mutations induce significant defects in pre-mRNA splicing. Thus, it appears that aberrant splicing as a result of exonic mutations is a previously unrecognized cause of ADPKD. PMID:25757501

Claverie-Martin, Felix; Gonzalez-Paredes, Francisco J; Ramos-Trujillo, Elena

2015-04-01

324

Exome Sequencing and Systems Biology Converge to Identify Novel Mutations in the L-Type Calcium Channel, CACNA1C, Linked to Autosomal Dominant Long QT Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is the most common cardiac channelopathy with 15 elucidated LQTS-susceptibility genes. Approximately 20% of LQTS cases remain genetically elusive. Methods and Results We combined whole exome sequencing (WES) and bioinformatic/systems biology to identify the pathogenic substrate responsible for non-syndromic, genotype-negative, autosomal dominant LQTS in a multigenerational pedigree and established the spectrum and prevalence of variants in the elucidated gene among a cohort of 102 unrelated patients with “genotype-negative/phenotype-positive” LQTS. WES was utilized on three members within a genotype-negative/phenotype-positive family. Genomic triangulation combined with bioinformatic tools and ranking algorithms led to the identification of a CACNA1C mutation. This mutation, Pro857Arg-CACNA1C, co-segregated with the disease within the pedigree, was ranked by three disease-network algorithms as the most probable LQTS-susceptibility gene, and involves a conserved residue localizing to the PEST domain in the II–III linker. Functional studies reveal that Pro857Arg-CACNA1C leads to a gain-of-function with increased ICa,L and increased surface membrane expression of the channel compared to wildtype. Subsequent mutational analysis identified 3 additional variants within CACNA1C in our cohort of 102 unrelated cases of genotype-negative/phenotype-positive LQTS. Two of these variants also involve conserved residues within Cav1.2’s PEST domain. Conclusions This study provides evidence that coupling WES and bioinformatic/systems biology is an effective strategy for the identification of potential disease causing genes/mutations. The identification of a functional CACNA1C mutation co-segregating with disease in a single pedigree suggests that CACNA1C perturbations may underlie autosomal dominant LQTS in the absence of Timothy syndrome. PMID:23677916

Boczek, Nicole J.; Best, Jabe M.; Tester, David J.; Giudicessi, John R.; Middha, Sumit; Evans, Jared M.; Kamp, Timothy J.; Ackerman, Michael J.

2013-01-01

325

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, genetic homogeneity, and mapping of the locus within a 2-cM interval  

SciTech Connect

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a recently identified autosomal dominant cerebral arteriopathy characterized by the recurrence of subcortical infarcts leading to dementia. A genetic linkage analysis conducted in two large families recently allowed us to map the affected gene on chromosome 19 in a 12-cM interval bracketed by D19S221 and D19S215. In the present study, these first 2 families and 13 additional ones, including a total of 199 potentially informative meiosis, have been genotyped with eight polymorphic markers located between D19S221 and D19S215. All families were linked to chromosome 19. The highest combined lod score (Z{sub max} = 37.24 at {theta} = .01) was obtained with marker D19S841, a new CA{sub n} microsatellite marker that we isolated from chromosome 19 cosmids. The recombinant events observed within these families were used to refine the genetic mapping of CADASIL within a 2-cM interval that is now bracketed by D19S226 and D19S199 on 19p13.1. These data strongly suggest the genetic homogeneity of this recently identified condition and establish the value of its clinical and neuroimaging diagnostic criteria. Besides their importance for the ongoing positional cloning of the CADASIL gene, these data help to refine the genetic mapping of CADASIL relative to familial hemiplegic migraine and hereditary paroxysmal cerebellar ataxia, conditions that we both mapped within the same chromosome 19 region. 35 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Ducros, A.; Alamowitch, S.; Nagy, T. [INSERM U25, Paris (France)] [and others

1996-01-01

326

Autosomal dominant Kufs` disease: Clinical heterogeneity in nine families, and exclusion of linkage to CLN1 and CLN3 markers in a large American kindred  

SciTech Connect

Most forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) are autosomal recessive, and three genes have already been mapped: the infantile form (CLN 1); the juvenile form (CLN 3); and the early juvenile variant (CLN 5) on chromosomes 1, 16 and 13, respectively. Kufs` disease or adolescent-adult onset NCL is usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, and presents as three distinct clinical syndromes: progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) with onset in the early teens or around age 30; and onset of dementia with motor disability in the 30s. We have studied three families originating from different parts of the USA manifesting dominantly inherited Kufs` disease. Granular osmophilic deposits (GROD) were found in brain, but storage in skin was not an obligatory feature. Six dominantly inherited PME families have been ascertained from three different regions of Spain. No storage was found in skin or muscle in any of these families. The mean age of onset in the American families is earlier, the clinical manifestations more severe, and the progression much more rapid that in the Spanish families. These findings would suggest the possibility of genetic heterogeneity involving two or more loci, or different mutations at the same gene locus. Genetic linkage studies have been carried out in a six-generation New Jersey family in an attempt to characterize the gene(s) responsible for this disorder. The infantile NCL locus on chromosome 1p (CLN1) and the juvenile NCL locus on chromosome 16p (CLN 3) have been excluded in this family. Further clinical, pathological and molecular genetic studies should lead to the clarification of the diagnostic approaches in this disorder.

Andermann, F.; Andermann, E.; Carpenter, S. [and others

1994-09-01

327

Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy with chronic cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux: clinical features in two families linked to chromosome 3p22-p24.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy (HSN I) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, and in some families it is due to mutations in the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPTLC1) gene. We have characterized two families with HSN I associated with cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR). From a large Australian family, 27 individuals and from a smaller family, 11 individuals provided clinical information and blood for genetic analysis. Affected individuals had an adult onset of paroxysmal cough, GOR and distal sensory loss. Cough could be triggered by noxious odours or by pressure in the external auditory canal (Arnold's ear-cough reflex). Other features included throat clearing, hoarse voice, cough syncope and sensorineural hearing loss. Neurophysiological and pathological studies demonstrated a sensory axonal neuropathy. Gastric emptying studies were normal, and autonomic function and sweat tests were either normal or showed distal hypohidrosis. Cough was likely to be due to a combination of denervation hypersensitivity of the upper airways and oesophagus, and prominent GOR. Most affected individuals were shown on 24 h ambulatory oesophageal pH monitoring to have multiple episodes of GOR, closely temporally associated with coughing. Hoarse voice was probably attributable to acid-induced laryngeal damage, and there was no evidence of vocal cord palsy. No other cause for cough was found on most respiratory or otorhinological studies. Linkage to chromosome 3p22-p24 has been found in both families, with no evidence of linkage to loci for known HSN I, autosomal dominant hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, hereditary GOR or triple A syndrome. These families represent a genetically novel variant of HSN I, with a distinctive cough owing to involvement of the upper aerodigestive tract. PMID:16311270

Spring, Penelope J; Kok, Cindy; Nicholson, Garth A; Ing, Alvin J; Spies, Judith M; Bassett, Mark L; Cameron, John; Kerlin, Paul; Bowler, Simon; Tuck, Roger; Pollard, John D

2005-12-01

328

Autosomal dominant external ophthalmoplegia and bipolar affective disorder associated with a mutation in the ANT1 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report on a family with dominantly inherited progressive external ophthalmoplegia and a diagnostic and statistical manual (fourth revised edition) diagnosis of bipolar psychiatric disorder in several members. Skeletal muscle biopsy from the proposita showed decreased cytochrome c oxidase staining, several ragged-red fibers, and multiple mtDNA deletions. The authors identified a missense mutation (leucine 98?proline) in the adenine nucleotide

G. Siciliano; A. Tessa; S. Petrini; M. Mancuso; C. Bruno; G. S. Grieco; A. Malandrini; L. DeFlorio; B. Martini; A. Federico; G. Nappi; F. M. Santorelli; L. Murri

2003-01-01

329

Two different 5? splice site mutations in the growth hormone gene causing autosomal dominant growth hormone deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four distinct types of isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) have been described to date. Of these IGHD type II has been\\u000a defined as having a dominant mode of inheritance. We performed a molecular genetic analysis of two patients clinically characterized\\u000a as IGHD type II. One of the patients and her father shared a heterozygous G–A transition in the first 5?

Claudio Missarelli; Luisa Herrera; Veronica Mericq; Pilar Carvallo

1997-01-01

330

Combined Liver and Kidney Transplant in a Patient with Budd-Chiari Syndrome Secondary to Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Associated with Polycystic Liver Disease: Report of a Case with a 9-Year Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is a hereditary disease inherited by autosomal dominant trait that occurs as a frequent extrarenal manifestation of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We report a case of a 59-year-old woman diagnosed with ADPKD associated with PLD. End-stage chronic renal failure with a secondary Budd-Chiari syndrome developed during the patient's clinical course. She underwent combined liver and kidney transplantation, with a successful response over a 9-year follow-up period. PMID:24987537

Ramírez de la Piscina, Patricia; Duca, Ileana; Estrada, Silvia; Calderón, Rosario; Ganchegui, Idoia; Campos, Amaia; Spicakova, Katerina; Salvador, Marta; Delgado, Elvira; Bengoa, Raquel; García-Campos, Francisco

2014-01-01

331

A novel GCAP1(N104K) mutation in EF hand 3 (EF3) linked to autosomal dominant cone dystrophy  

PubMed Central

The GUCA1A gene encodes a guanylate cyclase-activating protein (GCAP1) that is involved in regulation of phototransduction in the vertebrate retina. We discovered a novel C312A transversion in exon 2 of the human GUCA1A gene, replacing Asn-104 (N104) in GCAP1 with Lys (K), in two affected members of a family with dominant cone dystrophy. The mutation N104K is located in the third EF hand motif (EF3) shown previously to be instrumental in converting Ca2+-free GCAP1 to a GC inhibitor in the Ca2+-bound form. In one patient, rod ERGs were fairly stable over a 12-year-period whereas 30 Hz flicker ERG and single-flash cone ERGs declined. In both patients, double flash ERGs showed that rod recovery from an intense test flash was significantly delayed. The EC50 for GC stimulation shifted from ~250 nM in wild-type GCAP1 to ~800 nM in the GCAP1(N104K) mutant suggesting inability of the mutant to assume an inactive form under physiological conditions. The replacement of N104 by K in GCAP1 is the first naturally occurring mutation identified in the EF3 loop. The rod recovery delays observed in double-flash ERG of affected patients suggest a novel dominant-negative effect that slows GC stimulation. PMID:18706439

Jiang, Li; Wheaton, Dianna; Bereta, Greg; Zhang, Kang; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Birch, David G.; Baehr, Wolfgang

2008-01-01

332

SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 Mutations in Autosomal Recessive or Dominant Canine Cystinuria: A New Classification System  

PubMed Central

Background Cystinuria, one of the first recognized inborn errors of metabolism, has been reported in many dog breeds. Hypothesis/Objectives To determine urinary cystine concentrations, inheritance and mutations in the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes associated with cystinuria in 3 breeds. Animals Mixed and purebred Labrador Retrievers (n=6), Australian Cattle Dogs (6), Miniature Pinschers (4) and 1 mixed breed dog with cystine urolithiasis, relatives and control dogs. Methods Urinary cystinuria and aminoaciduria was assessed and exons of the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes were sequenced from genomic DNA. Results In each breed, male and female dogs, independent of neuter status, were found to form calculi. A frameshift mutation in SLC3A1 (c.350delG) resulting in a premature stop codon was identified in autosomal-recessive (AR) cystinuria in Labrador Retrievers and mixed breed dogs. A 6 bp deletion (c.1095_1100del) removing 2 threonines in SLC3A1 was found in autosomal-dominant (AD) cystinuria with a more severe phenotype in homozygous than in heterozygous Australian Cattle Dogs. A missense mutation in SLC7A9 (c.964G>A) was discovered in AD cystinuria in Miniature Pinschers with only heterozygous affected dogs observed to date. Breed specific DNA tests were developed, but the prevalence of each mutation remains unknown. Conclusions and clinical importance These studies describe the first AD inheritance and the first putative SLC7A9 mutation to cause cystinuria in dogs and expand our understanding of this phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous disease, leading to a new classification system for canine cystinuria and better therapeutic management and genetic control in these breeds. PMID:24001348

Brons, A.-K.; Henthorn, P. S.; Raj, K.; Fitzgerald, C. A.; Liu, J.; Sewell, A. C.; Giger, U.

2013-01-01

333

Autosomal Recessive Transmission of a Rare KRT74 Variant Causes Hair and Nail Ectodermal Dysplasia: Allelism with Dominant Woolly Hair/Hypotrichosis  

PubMed Central

Pure hair and nail ectodermal dysplasia (PHNED) comprises a heterogeneous group of rare heritable disorders characterized by brittle hair, hypotrichosis, onychodystrophy and micronychia. Autosomal recessive (AR) PHNED has previously been associated with mutations in either KRT85 or HOXC13 on chromosome 12p11.1-q14.3. We investigated a consanguineous Pakistani family with AR PHNED linked to the keratin gene cluster on 12p11.1 but without detectable mutations in KRT85 and HOXC13. Whole exome sequencing of affected individuals revealed homozygosity for a rare c.821T>C variant (p.Phe274Ser) in the KRT74 gene that segregates AR PHNED in the family. The transition alters the highly conserved Phe274 residue in the coil 1B domain required for long-range dimerization of keratins, suggesting that the mutation compromises the stability of intermediate filaments. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses confirmed a strong keratin-74 expression in the nail matrix, the nail bed and the hyponychium of mouse distal digits, as well as in normal human hair follicles. Furthermore, hair follicles and epidermis of an affected family member stained negative for Keratin-74 suggesting a loss of function mechanism mediated by the Phe274Ser substitution. Our observations show for the first time that homozygosity for a KRT74 missense variant may be associated with AR PHNED. Heterozygous KRT74 mutations have previously been associated with autosomal dominant woolly hair/hypotrichosis simplex (ADWH). Thus, our findings expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with KRT74 mutations and imply that a subtype of AR PHNED is allelic with ADWH. PMID:24714551

Raykova, Doroteya; Klar, Joakim; Azhar, Aysha; Khan, Tahir Naeem; Malik, Naveed Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad; Tariq, Muhammad; Baig, Shahid Mahmood; Dahl, Niklas

2014-01-01

334

Haploinsufficiency of HDAC4 causes brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome, with brachydactyly type E, developmental delays, and behavioral problems.  

PubMed

Brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome (BDMR) is associated with a deletion involving chromosome 2q37. BDMR presents with a range of features, including intellectual disabilities, developmental delays, behavioral abnormalities, sleep disturbance, craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities (including brachydactyly type E), and autism spectrum disorder. To date, only large deletions of 2q37 have been reported, making delineation of a critical region and subsequent identification of candidate genes difficult. We present clinical and molecular analysis of six individuals with overlapping deletions involving 2q37.3 that refine the critical region, reducing the candidate genes from >20 to a single gene, histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). Driven by the distinct hand and foot anomalies and similar cognitive features, we identified other cases with clinical findings consistent with BDMR but without a 2q37 deletion, and sequencing of HDAC4 identified de novo mutations, including one intragenic deletion probably disrupting normal splicing and one intragenic insertion that results in a frameshift and premature stop codon. HDAC4 is a histone deacetylase that regulates genes important in bone, muscle, neurological, and cardiac development. Reportedly, Hdac4(-/-) mice have severe bone malformations resulting from premature ossification of developing bones. Data presented here show that deletion or mutation of HDAC4 results in reduced expression of RAI1, which causes Smith-Magenis syndrome when haploinsufficient, providing a link to the overlapping findings in these disorders. Considering the known molecular function of HDAC4 and the mouse knockout phenotype, taken together with deletion or mutation of HDAC4 in multiple subjects with BDMR, we conclude that haploinsufficiency of HDAC4 results in brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome. PMID:20691407

Williams, Stephen R; Aldred, Micheala A; Der Kaloustian, Vazken M; Halal, Fahed; Gowans, Gordon; McLeod, D Ross; Zondag, Sara; Toriello, Helga V; Magenis, R Ellen; Elsea, Sarah H

2010-08-13

335

Twinkle mutations associated with autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia lead to impaired helicase function and in vivo mtDNA replication stalling  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the mitochondrial helicase Twinkle underlie autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), as well as recessively inherited infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia and rare forms of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome. Familial PEO is typically associated with the occurrence of multiple mtDNA deletions, but the mechanism by which Twinkle dysfunction induces deletion formation has been under debate. Here we looked at the effects of Twinkle adPEO mutations in human cell culture and studied the mtDNA replication in the Deletor mouse model, which expresses a dominant PEO mutation in Twinkle and accumulates multiple mtDNA deletions during life. We show that expression of dominant Twinkle mutations results in the accumulation of mtDNA replication intermediates in cell culture. This indicated severe replication pausing or stalling and caused mtDNA depletion. A strongly enhanced accumulation of replication intermediates was evident also in six-week-old Deletor mice compared with wild-type littermates, even though mtDNA deletions accumulate in a late-onset fashion in this model. In addition, our results in cell culture pointed to a problem of transcription that preceded the mtDNA depletion phenotype and might be of relevance in adPEO pathophysiology. Finally, in vitro assays showed functional defects in the various Twinkle mutants and broadly agreed with the cell culture phenotypes such as the level of mtDNA depletion and the level of accumulation of replication intermediates. On the basis of our results we suggest that mtDNA replication pausing or stalling is the common consequence of Twinkle PEO mutations that predisposes to multiple deletion formation. PMID:18971204

Goffart, Steffi; Cooper, Helen M.; Tyynismaa, Henna; Wanrooij, Sjoerd; Suomalainen, Anu; Spelbrink, Johannes N.

2009-01-01

336

Twinkle mutations associated with autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia lead to impaired helicase function and in vivo mtDNA replication stalling.  

PubMed

Mutations in the mitochondrial helicase Twinkle underlie autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), as well as recessively inherited infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia and rare forms of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome. Familial PEO is typically associated with the occurrence of multiple mtDNA deletions, but the mechanism by which Twinkle dysfunction induces deletion formation has been under debate. Here we looked at the effects of Twinkle adPEO mutations in human cell culture and studied the mtDNA replication in the Deletor mouse model, which expresses a dominant PEO mutation in Twinkle and accumulates multiple mtDNA deletions during life. We show that expression of dominant Twinkle mutations results in the accumulation of mtDNA replication intermediates in cell culture. This indicated severe replication pausing or stalling and caused mtDNA depletion. A strongly enhanced accumulation of replication intermediates was evident also in six-week-old Deletor mice compared with wild-type littermates, even though mtDNA deletions accumulate in a late-onset fashion in this model. In addition, our results in cell culture pointed to a problem of transcription that preceded the mtDNA depletion phenotype and might be of relevance in adPEO pathophysiology. Finally, in vitro assays showed functional defects in the various Twinkle mutants and broadly agreed with the cell culture phenotypes such as the level of mtDNA depletion and the level of accumulation of replication intermediates. On the basis of our results we suggest that mtDNA replication pausing or stalling is the common consequence of Twinkle PEO mutations that predisposes to multiple deletion formation. PMID:18971204

Goffart, Steffi; Cooper, Helen M; Tyynismaa, Henna; Wanrooij, Sjoerd; Suomalainen, Anu; Spelbrink, Johannes N

2009-01-15

337

Associations Between Biomarkers and Age in the Presenilin 1 E280A Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer Disease Kindred A Cross-sectional Study  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Age-associated changes in brain imaging and fluid biomarkers are characterized and compared in presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation carriers and noncarriers from the world’s largest known autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (AD) kindred. OBJECTIVE To characterize and compare age-associated changes in brain imaging and fluid biomarkers in PSEN1 E280A mutation carriers and noncarriers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional measures of 18F-florbetapir positron emission tomography, 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, structural magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and plasma biomarkers of AD were assessed from 54 PSEN1 E280A kindred members (age range, 20-59 years). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We used brain mapping algorithms to compare regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose and gray matter volumes in cognitively unimpaired mutation carriers and noncarriers. We used regression analyses to characterize associations between age and the mean cortical to pontine 18F-florbetapir standard uptake value ratios, precuneus cerebral metabolic rates for glucose, hippocampal gray matter volume, CSF A?1-42, total tau and phosphorylated tau181, and plasma A? measurements. Age at onset of progressive biomarker changes that distinguish carriers from noncarriers was estimated using best-fitting regression models. RESULTS Compared with noncarriers, cognitively unimpaired mutation carriers had significantly lower precuneus cerebral metabolic rates for glucose, smaller hippocampal volume, lower CSF A?1-42, higher CSF total tau and phosphorylated tau181, and higher plasma A?1-42 measurements. Sequential changes in biomarkers were seen at age 20 years (95% CI, 14-24 years) for CSF A?1-42, age 16 years (95% CI, 11-24 years) for the mean cortical 18F-florbetapir standard uptake value ratio, age 15 years (95% CI, 10-24 years) for precuneus cerebral metabolic rate for glucose, age 15 years (95% CI, 7-20 years) for CSF total tau, age 13 years (95% CI, 8-19 years) for phosphorylated tau181, and age 6 years (95% CI, 1-10 years) for hippocampal volume, with cognitive decline up to 6 years before the kindred’s estimated median age of 44 years (95% CI, 43-45 years) at mild cognitive impairment diagnosis. No age-associated findings were seen in plasma A?1-42 or A?1-40. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This cross-sectional study provides additional information about the course of different AD biomarkers in the preclinical and clinical stages of autosomal dominant AD. PMID:25580592

Fleisher, Adam S.; Chen, Kewei; Quiroz, Yakeel T.; Jakimovich, Laura J.; Gomez, Madelyn Gutierrez; Langois, Carolyn M.; Langbaum, Jessica B. S.; Roontiva, Auttawut; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Lee, Wendy; Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Lopez, Liliana; Moreno, Sonia; Muñoz, Claudia; Tirado, Victoria; Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Fagan, Anne M.; Giraldo, Margarita; Garcia, Gloria; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Tariot, Pierre N.; Lopera, Francisco; Reiman, Eric M.

2015-01-01

338

A novel point mutation in the translation initiation codon of the pre-pro-vasopressin-neurophysin II gene: Cosegregation with morphological abnormalities and clinical symptoms in autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (ADNDI) is a rare variant of idiopathic central diabetes insipidus. Several different mutations in the human vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NP II) gene have been described. We studied nine family members from three generations of an ADNDI pedigree at the clinical, morphological, and molecular levels. AVP concentrations were measured during diagnostic fluid restriction tests. Coronal and sagittal

J. Rutishauser; M. Boeni-Schnetzler; E. R. Froesch; W. Wichmann; T. Huisman

1996-01-01

339

A new locus on 3p23–p25 for an autosomal-dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, LGMD1H  

PubMed Central

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of neuromuscular disorders with a selective or predominant involvement of shoulder and pelvic girdles. We clinically examined 19 members in a four-generation Italian family with autosomal-dominant LGMD. A total of 11 subjects were affected. Clinical findings showed variable expressivity in terms of age at onset and disease severity. Five subjects presented with a slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness, in both upper and lower limbs, with onset during the fourth–fifth decade of life, which fulfilled the consensus diagnostic criteria for LGMD. Earlier onset of the disease was observed in a group of patients presenting with muscle weakness and/or calf hypertrophy, and/or occasionally high CK and lactate serum levels. Two muscle biopsies showed morphological findings compatible with MD associated with subsarcolemmal accumulation of mitochondria and the presence of multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions. A genome-wide scan performed using microsatellite markers mapped the disease on chromosome 3p23–p25.1 locus in a 25-cM region between markers D3S1263 and D3S3685. The highest two-point LOD score was 3.26 (?=0) at marker D3S1286 and D3S3613, whereas non-parametric analysis reached a P-value=0.0004. Four candidate genes within the refined region were analysed but did not reveal any mutations. Our findings further expand the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of LGMDs. PMID:20068593

Bisceglia, Luigi; Zoccolella, Stefano; Torraco, Alessandra; Piemontese, Maria Rosaria; Dell'Aglio, Rosa; Amati, Angela; De Bonis, Patrizia; Artuso, Lucia; Copetti, Massimiliano; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Serlenga, Luigi; Zelante, Leopoldo; Bertini, Enrico; Petruzzella, Vittoria

2010-01-01

340

Probing Mechanisms of Photoreceptor Degeneration in a New Mouse Model of the Common Form of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa due to P23H Opsin Mutations*?  

PubMed Central

Rhodopsin, the visual pigment mediating vision under dim light, is composed of the apoprotein opsin and the chromophore ligand 11-cis-retinal. A P23H mutation in the opsin gene is one of the most prevalent causes of the human blinding disease, autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Although P23H cultured cell and transgenic animal models have been developed, there remains controversy over whether they fully mimic the human phenotype; and the exact mechanism by which this mutation leads to photoreceptor cell degeneration remains unknown. By generating P23H opsin knock-in mice, we found that the P23H protein was inadequately glycosylated with levels 1–10% that of wild type opsin. Moreover, the P23H protein failed to accumulate in rod photoreceptor cell endoplasmic reticulum but instead disrupted rod photoreceptor disks. Genetically engineered P23H mice lacking the chromophore showed accelerated photoreceptor cell degeneration. These results indicate that most synthesized P23H protein is degraded, and its retinal cytotoxicity is enhanced by lack of the 11-cis-retinal chromophore during rod outer segment development. PMID:21224384

Sakami, Sanae; Maeda, Tadao; Bereta, Grzegorz; Okano, Kiichiro; Golczak, Marcin; Sumaroka, Alexander; Roman, Alejandro J.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

2011-01-01

341

Probing mechanisms of photoreceptor degeneration in a new mouse model of the common form of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa due to P23H opsin mutations.  

PubMed

Rhodopsin, the visual pigment mediating vision under dim light, is composed of the apoprotein opsin and the chromophore ligand 11-cis-retinal. A P23H mutation in the opsin gene is one of the most prevalent causes of the human blinding disease, autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Although P23H cultured cell and transgenic animal models have been developed, there remains controversy over whether they fully mimic the human phenotype; and the exact mechanism by which this mutation leads to photoreceptor cell degeneration remains unknown. By generating P23H opsin knock-in mice, we found that the P23H protein was inadequately glycosylated with levels 1-10% that of wild type opsin. Moreover, the P23H protein failed to accumulate in rod photoreceptor cell endoplasmic reticulum but instead disrupted rod photoreceptor disks. Genetically engineered P23H mice lacking the chromophore showed accelerated photoreceptor cell degeneration. These results indicate that most synthesized P23H protein is degraded, and its retinal cytotoxicity is enhanced by lack of the 11-cis-retinal chromophore during rod outer segment development. PMID:21224384

Sakami, Sanae; Maeda, Tadao; Bereta, Grzegorz; Okano, Kiichiro; Golczak, Marcin; Sumaroka, Alexander; Roman, Alejandro J; Cideciyan, Artur V; Jacobson, Samuel G; Palczewski, Krzysztof

2011-03-25

342

A novel mutation (ASn244Lys) in the peripherin/RDS gene causing autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa associated with bull's eye maculopathy detected by nonradioisotopic SSCP  

SciTech Connect

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is characterized by night blindness, an eventual loss of visual field, a diminished response on the electroretinogram, and pigmentary retinal degeneration. These features are primarily explained by the degeneration of photoreceptors. The recent development of the molecular genetic approach has enabled the identification of genes responsible for parts of autosomal dominant RP (ADRP). Rhodopsin and peripherin/RDS genes, in particular, have been successfully shown to cosegregate with ADRP. The authors, therefore, screened 42 unrelated Japanese patients with ADRP to search for mutations in the peripherin/RDS gene. The method we employed for screening was a nonradioisotopic modification of single-strand conformation polymorphism. Among 42 unrelated patients with ADRP, the DNA from one patient (SY) showed an abnormal pattern in exon 2 on SSCP. The DNA fragments were then amplified from affected and nonaffected members of the same family as SY. The alteration in the DNA sequence that was commonly found in the affected members of the family was identified as a heterozygous transversional change of C to A at the third nucleotide in codon 244, resulting in the amino acid replacement of asparagine residue with lysine residue. None of unaffected family members or 30 normal control individuals had this alteration.

Kikawa, Emi; Nakazawa, Mitsuru; Chida, Yasushi; Shiono, Takashi; Tamai, Makota (Tohoku Univ. of School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan))

1994-03-01

343

A Pkd1-Fbn1 Genetic Interaction Implicates TGF-? Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Vascular Complications in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common cause of renal failure that is due to mutations in two genes, PKD1 and PKD2. Vascular complications, including aneurysms, are a well recognized feature of ADPKD, and a subgroup of families exhibits traits reminiscent of Marfan syndrome (MFS). MFS is caused by mutations in fibrillin-1 (FBN1), which encodes an extracellular matrix protein with homology to latent TGF-? binding proteins. It was recently demonstrated that fibrillin-1 deficiency is associated with upregulation of TGF-? signaling. We investigated the overlap between ADPKD and MFS by breeding mice with targeted mutations in Pkd1 and Fbn1. Double heterozygotes displayed an exacerbation of the typical Fbn1 heterozygous aortic phenotype. We show that the basis of this genetic interaction results from further upregulation of TGF-? signaling caused by Pkd1 haploinsufficiency. In addition, we demonstrate that loss of PKD1 alone is sufficient to induce a heightened responsiveness to TGF-?. Our data link the interaction of two important diseases to a fundamental signaling pathway. PMID:24071006

Liu, Dongyan; Wang, Connie J.; Judge, Daniel P.; Halushka, Marc K.; Ni, Jie; Habashi, Jennifer P.; Moslehi, Javid; Bedja, Djahida; Gabrielson, Kathleen L.; Xu, Hangxue; Qian, Feng; Huso, David; Dietz, Harry C.; Germino, Gregory G.

2014-01-01

344

A Pkd1-Fbn1 genetic interaction implicates TGF-? signaling in the pathogenesis of vascular complications in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common cause of renal failure that is due to mutations in two genes, PKD1 and PKD2. Vascular complications, including aneurysms, are a well recognized feature of ADPKD, and a subgroup of families exhibits traits reminiscent of Marfan syndrome (MFS). MFS is caused by mutations in fibrillin-1 (FBN1), which encodes an extracellular matrix protein with homology to latent TGF-? binding proteins. It was recently demonstrated that fibrillin-1 deficiency is associated with upregulation of TGF-? signaling. We investigated the overlap between ADPKD and MFS by breeding mice with targeted mutations in Pkd1 and Fbn1. Double heterozygotes displayed an exacerbation of the typical Fbn1 heterozygous aortic phenotype. We show that the basis of this genetic interaction results from further upregulation of TGF-? signaling caused by Pkd1 haploinsufficiency. In addition, we demonstrate that loss of PKD1 alone is sufficient to induce a heightened responsiveness to TGF-?. Our data link the interaction of two important diseases to a fundamental signaling pathway. PMID:24071006

Liu, Dongyan; Wang, Connie J; Judge, Daniel P; Halushka, Marc K; Ni, Jie; Habashi, Jennifer P; Moslehi, Javid; Bedja, Djahida; Gabrielson, Kathleen L; Xu, Hangxue; Qian, Feng; Huso, David; Dietz, Harry C; Germino, Gregory G; Watnick, Terry

2014-01-01

345

Ocular findings in a family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa and a frameshift mutation altering the carboxyl terminal sequence of rhodopsin.  

PubMed Central

A family is described in which an 8 base pair deletion (nucleotides 5252-5259, codons 341-343) of the rhodopsin gene cosegregates with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). The deletion results in a shift in the reading frame, causing a rhodopsin molecule extended by one residue and substantially altered at the carboxyl terminus. Phenotypic expression is relatively mild. In affected members, night blindness did not occur before the age of 16, and late onset of visual field loss was consistently reported. Even older individuals (59 and 76 years) had preserved central islands in the visual field; a younger female patient had normal visual fields until the age of 34. ERG and psychophysical tests showed well preserved cone function at stages of virtually abolished rod function. Phenotypic differences and similarities between this form of adRP and others associated with mutations at the carboxyl terminus of the rhodopsin molecule are discussed. The cause of RP by mutations in this region remains to be clarified. Images PMID:8025047

Apfelstedt-Sylla, E; Kunisch, M; Horn, M; Rüther, K; Gerding, H; Gal, A; Zrenner, E

1993-01-01

346

Phenotypic variability in a seven-generation Swedish family segregating autosomal dominant hearing impairment due to a novel EYA4 frameshift mutation.  

PubMed

Linkage to an interval overlapping the DFNA10 locus on chromosome 6q22-23 was found through genome wide linkage analysis in a seven-generation Swedish family segregating postlingual, autosomal dominant nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing impairment. A novel heterozygous frame-shift mutation (c.579_580insTACC, p.(Asp194Tyrfs*52)) in EYA4 was identified that truncates the so-called variable region of the protein. The mutation is predicted to result in haploinsufficiency of the EYA4 product. No evidence for dilated cardiomyopathy was found in the family, contrasting to a previous family with a deletion resulting in a similar truncation in the variable region. A highly variable age of onset was seen in the mutation carriers. For assessment of the aetiology of this variability, clinical and audiometric data analyses were performed. The affected family members all had similar cross-sectional and longitudinal deterioration of pure tone average (PTA) once the process of hearing deterioration had started, and no gender, parent-of-origin or family branch differences on PTA could be found. Age at onset varied between the family branches. In summary, this is the ninth published genetically verified DFNA10 family. The results imply that unidentified factors, genetic or environmental, other than the EYA4 mutation, are of importance for the age at onset of DFNA10, and that mutation early in the variable region of the EYA4 protein can occur in the absence of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:25681523

Frykholm, Carina; Klar, Joakim; Arnesson, Hanna; Rehnman, Anna-Carin; Lodahl, Marianne; Wedén, Ulla; Dahl, Niklas; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Rendtorff, Nanna D

2015-05-25

347

Identification and Functional Study of a New Missense Mutation in the Motor Head Domain of Myosin VIIA in a Family with Autosomal Dominant Hearing Impairment (DFNA11)  

PubMed Central

The MYO7A encodes a protein classified as an unconventional myosin. Here, we present a family with non-syndromic autosomal dominant hearing impairment that clinically resembles other previously published DFNA11 families. Affected members of the family present with an ascending audiogram affecting low and middle frequencies at young ages and then affecting all frequencies with increasing age. Genome-wide linkage analysis using Illumina Cyto-12 Chip mapped the disease locus to the DFNA11 interval in the family. A c.2003G?A (p.R668H) mutation of the MYO7A, is heterozygous in all affected family members and absent in 100 healthy individuals. Arg668His is located in a region of the myosin VIIA motor domain that is highly conserved among different species. Molecular modeling predicts that the conserved R668 residue plays important structural role in linking different lobes of motor domain together. In the actin-activated ATPase activity assay, the rate of NADH oxidation was higher in the wild-type myosin VIIA, indicating that the ATPase activity in the p.R668H mutant myosin VIIA was significantly destroyed. PMID:23383098

Feng, Ruizhi; Fei, Xiang; Ma, Duan; Xing, Qinghe; Li, Qiaoli; Zhao, Xinzhi; Jin, Li; He, Lin; Li, Huawei; Wang, Lei

2013-01-01

348

Rationale and design of the RESOLVE trial: lanreotide as a volume reducing treatment for polycystic livers in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Background A large proportion of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) suffers from polycystic liver disease. Symptoms arise when liver volume increases. The somatostatin analogue lanreotide has proven to reduce liver volume in patients with polycystic liver disease. However, this study also included patients with isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD). The RESOLVE trial aims to assess the efficacy of lanreotide treatment in ADPKD patients with symptomatic polycystic livers. In this study we present the design of the RESOLVE trial. Methods/design This open-label clinical trial evaluates the effect of 6 months of lanreotide in ADPKD patients with symptomatic polycystic livers. Primary outcome is change in liver volume determined by computerised tomography-volumetry. Secondary outcomes are changes in total kidney volume, kidney intermediate volume and renal function. Furthermore, urinary (NGAL, ?1-microglobulin, KIM-1, H-FABP, MCP-1) and serum (fibroblast growth factor 23) biomarkers associated with ADPKD disease severity are assessed to investigate whether these biomarkers predict treatment responses to lanreotide. Moreover, safety and tolerability of the drug in ADPKD patients will be assessed. Discussion We anticipate that lanreotide is an effective therapeutic option for ADPKD patients with symptomatic polycystic livers and that this trial aids in the identification of patient related factors that predict treatment response. Trial registration number Clinical trials.gov NCT01354405 PMID:22475206

2012-01-01

349

RHO Mutations (p.W126L and p.A346P) in Two Japanese Families with Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To investigate genetic and clinical features of patients with rhodopsin (RHO) mutations in two Japanese families with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). Methods. Whole-exome sequence analysis was performed in ten adRP families. Identified RHO mutations for the cosegregation analysis were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Ophthalmic examinations were performed to evaluate the RP phenotypes. The impact of the RHO mutation on the rhodopsin conformation was examined by molecular modeling analysis. Results. In two adRP families, we identified two RHO mutations (c.377G>T (p.W126L) and c.1036G>C (p.A346P)), one of which was novel. Complete cosegregation was confirmed for each mutation exhibiting the RP phenotype in both families. Molecular modeling predicted that the novel mutation (p.W126L) might impair rhodopsin function by affecting its conformational transition in the light-adapted form. Clinical phenotypes showed that patients with p.W126L exhibited sector RP, whereas patients with p.A346P exhibited classic RP. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrated that the novel mutation (p.W126L) may be associated with the phenotype of sector RP. Identification of RHO mutations is a very useful tool for predicting disease severity and providing precise genetic counseling. PMID:25485142

Akahori, Masakazu; Itabashi, Takeshi; Nishino, Jo; Yoshitake, Kazutoshi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

350

Inhibition of MiR-199a-5p Reduced Cell Proliferation in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease through Targeting CDKN1C  

PubMed Central

Background With a prevalence of about 1:500 to 1:1,000, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) often causes renal failure, with many serious complications. However, there is no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved therapy available. Material/Methods MiR-199a-5p level in ADPKD patient samples, rat model, and cell lines were determined with Realtime PCR assay. After miR-199a-5p inhibitor was transfected, we detected the cell proliferation and apoptosis using an MTT assay and an Annexin V-FITC staining kit, respectively. Finally, TargetScan version 5.1 was used to predict the miRNA target and the target gene of miR-199a-5p was proved by a Luciferase assay. Results We identified a dramatically up-regulated microRNA, miR-199a-5p, in ADPKD tissues and cell lines. Our data show that inhibition of miR-199a-5p suppressed cyst cells proliferation and induced cell apoptosis. We found that miR-199a-5p might exert this effect through targeting CDKN1C/p57. Conclusions Up-regulation of miR-199a-5p in ADPKD tissues might promote cell proliferation through suppressing CDKN1C, suggesting miR-199a-5p as a novel target for ADPKD treatment. PMID:25588980

Sun, Lijun; Zhu, Jiaqi; Wu, Ming; Sun, Haipeng; Zhou, Chenchen; Fu, Lili; Xu, Chenggang; Mei, Changlin

2015-01-01

351

A comprehensive search for mutations in the PKD1 and PKD2 in Japanese subjects with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

To elucidate the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in Japanese populations, we performed a comprehensive search for mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 in 180 Japanese ADPKD patients from 161 unrelated families. We identified 112 (89 PKD1 and 23 PKD2) mutations within 135 families. Patients with PKD2 mutations account for 23.6% of all Japanese ADPKD families in this study. Seventy-five out of the 112 mutations have not been reported previously. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline was significantly faster in patients with PKD1 mutations than in those with PKD2 mutations (-3.25 and -2.08 ml?min(-1) ?year(-1) for PKD1 and PKD2, respectively, p?

Kurashige, M; Hanaoka, K; Imamura, M; Udagawa, T; Kawaguchi, Y; Hasegawa, T; Hosoya, T; Yokoo, T; Maeda, S

2015-03-01

352

Fine mapping of the autosomal dominant split hand/split foot locus on chromosome 7, band q21. 3-q. 22. 1  

SciTech Connect

Split hand/split foot (SHFD) is a human developmental defect characterized by missing digits, fusion of remaining digits, and a deep median cleft in the hands and feet. Cytogenetic studies of deletions and translocations associated with this disorder have indicated that an autosomal dominant split hand/split foot locus (gene SHFD1) maps to 7q21-q22. To characterize the SHFD1 locus, somatic cell hybrid lines were constructed from cytogenetically abnormal individuals with SHFD. Molecular analysis resulted in the localization of 93 DNA markers to one of 10 intervals surrounding the SHFD1 locus. The translocation breakpoints in four SHFD patients were encompassed by the smallest region of overlap among the SHFD-associated deletions. The order of DNA markers in the SHFD1 critical region has been defined as PON-D7S812-SHFD1-D7S811-ASNS. One DNA marker, D7S811, detected altered restriction enzyme fragments in three patients with translocations when examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). These data map SHFD1, a gene that is crucial for human limb differentiation, to a small interval in the q21.3-q.22.1 region of human chromosome 7. 54 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Scherer, S.W.; Tsui, L.C. (Univ. of Toronto (Canada)); Allen, T.; Kim, J.; Soder, S. (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)); Poorkaj, P.; Geshuri, D.; Nunes, M.; Stephens, K.; Pagon, R.A. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)) (and others)

1994-07-01

353

Refining the localization of the PKD2 locus on chromosome 4q by linkage analysis in Spanish families with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease type 2  

SciTech Connect

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. At least two distinct forms of ADPKD are now well defined. In {approximately}86% of affected European families, a gene defect localized to 16p13.3 was responsible for ADPKD, while a second locus has been recently localized to 4q13-q23 as candidate for the disease in the remaining families. We present confirmation of linkage to microsatellite markers on chromosome 4q in eight Spanish families with ADPKD, in which the disease was not linked to 16p13.3. By linkage analysis with marker D4S423, a maximum lod score of 9.03 at a recombination fraction of .00 was obtained. Multipoint linkage analysis, as well as a study of recombinant haplotypes, placed the PKD2 locus between D4S1542 and D4S1563, thereby defining a genetic interval of {approximately}1 cM. The refined map will serve as a genetic framework for additional genetic and physical mapping of the region and will improve the accuracy of presymptomatic diagnosis of PKD2. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

San Millan, J.L.; Viribay, M.; Peral, B.; Moreno, F. [Unidad de Genetica Molecular, Madrid (Spain); Martinez, I. [Hospital de Galdacano (Spain); Weissenbach, J. [Genethon, Evry (France)

1995-01-01

354

Autosomal dominant Marfan-like connective-tissue disorder with aortic dilation and skeletal anomaslies not linked to the Fibrillin genes  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a large family with a connective-tissue disorder that exhibits some of the skeletal and cardiovascular features seen in Marfan syndrome. However, none of the 19 affected individuals displayed ocular abnormalities and therefore did not comply with recognized criteria for this disease. These patients could alternatively be diagnosed as MASS (mitral valve, aorta, skeleton, and skin) phenotype patients or represent a distinct clinical entity, i.e., a new autosomal dominant connective-tissue disorder. The fibrillin genes located on chromosomes 15 and 5 are clearly involved in the classic form of Marfan syndrome and a clinically related disorder (congenital contractural arachnodactyly), respectively. To test whether one of these genes was also implicated in this French family, the authors performed genetic analyses. Blood samples were obtained for 56 family members, and four polymorphic fibrillin gene markers, located on chromosomes 15 (Fib15) and 5 (Fib5), respectively, were tested. Linkage between the disease allele and the markers of these two genes was excluded with lod scores of [minus]11.39 (for Fib15) and [minus]13.34 (for Fib5), at 0 = .001, indicating that the mutation is at a different locus. This phenotype thus represents a new connective-tissue disorder, overlapping but different from classic Marfan syndrome. 33 refs., 1 fig. 2 tabs.

Boileau, C.; Coulon, M.; Alexandre, J.-A.; Junien, C. (Laboratorie Central de Biochimie et de Genetique Moleculaire (France)); Jondeau, G.; Delorme, G.; Dubourg, O.; Bourdarias, J.-P. (CHU Ambroise Pare, Boulogne (France)); Babron, M.-C.; Bonaieti-Pellie, C. (INSERM, Chateau de Longchamp, Paris (France)); Sakai, L. (Shriners' Hospital for Crippled Children, Portland, OR (United States)); Melki, J. (Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France))

1993-07-01

355

Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (autosomal dominant congenital external ophthalmoplegia): Genetic homogeneity, linkage refinement, and physical mapping on chromosome 12  

SciTech Connect

Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) is an autosomal dominant syndrome of congenital external ophthalmoplegia and bilateral ptosis. We previously reported linkage of this disorder in two unrelated families to an 8-cM region near the centromere of human chromosome 12. We now present refinement of linkage in the original two families, linkage analysis of five additional families, and a physical map of the critical region for the CFEOM gene. In each of the seven families the disease gene is linked to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 12. D12S345, D12S59, D12S331, and D12S1048 do not recombine with the disease gene and have combined lod scores of 35.7, 35.6, 16.0, and 31.4, respectively. AFM136xf6 and AFMb320wd9 flank the CFEOM locus, defining a critical region of 3 cM spanning the centromere of chromosome 12. These data support the concept that this may be a genetically homogeneous disorder. We also describe the generation of a YAC contig encompassing the critical region of the CFEOM locus. This interval has been assigned cytogenetically to 12p11.2-q12 and spans the centromere of chromosome 12. These results provide the basis for further molecular analyses of the structure and organization of the CFEOM locus and will help in the identification of candidate genes. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Engle, E.C.; Beggs, A.H. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Marondel, I. [and others

1995-11-01

356

Mutations in the small nuclear riboprotein 200 kDa gene (SNRNP200) cause 1.6% of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this project was to determine the spectrum and frequency of mutations in the small nuclear riboprotein 200 kDa gene (SNRNP200) that cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). Methods A well-characterized adRP cohort of 251 families was tested for mutations in the exons and intron/exon junctions of SNRNP200 using fluorescent dideoxy sequencing. An additional 21 adRP families from the eyeGENE® Network were tested for possible mutations. Bioinformatic and segregation analysis was performed on novel variants. Results SNRNP200 mutations were identified in seven of the families tested. Two previously reported mutations, p.Arg681Cys and p.Ser1087Leu, were found in two families each. One family had the previously reported p.Arg681His mutation. Two novel SNRNP200 variants, p.Pro682Ser and p.Ala542Val, were also identified in one family each. Bioinformatic and segregation analyses suggested that these novel variants are likely to be pathogenic. Clinical examination of patients with SNRNP200 mutations showed a wide range of clinical symptoms and severity, including one instance of non-penetrance. Conclusions Mutations in SNRNP200 caused 1.6% of disease in our adRP cohort. Pathogenic mutations were found primarily in exons 16 and 25, but the novel p.Ala542Val mutation in exon 13 suggests that variation in other genetic regions is also responsible for causing dominant disease. SNRNP200 mutations were associated with a wide range of clinical symptoms similar to those of individuals with other splice-factor gene mutations. PMID:24319334

Sullivan, Lori S.; Avery, Cheryl E.; Sasser, Elizabeth M.; Roorda, Austin; Duncan, Jacque L.; Wheaton, Dianna H.; Birch, David G.; Branham, Kari E.; Heckenlively, John R.; Sieving, Paul A.; Daiger, Stephen P.

2013-01-01

357

A heterozygous truncating mutation in RRM2B causes autosomal-dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia with multiple mtDNA deletions.  

PubMed

Autosomal-dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) is a mitochondrial disorder that is characterized by accumulation of multiple mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions in postmitotic tissues. The disorder is heterogeneous, with five known nuclear disease genes that encode the proteins ANT1, Twinkle, POLG, POLG2, and OPA1. Defects in these proteins affect mtDNA maintenance, probably leading to stalled replication forks, consequent mtDNA deletion formation, and progressive respiratory chain deficiency. Here we present a large adPEO family with multiple mtDNA deletions, whose disease was not explained by mutations in any of the known adPEO loci. We mapped the disease locus in this family to chromosome 8q22.1-q23.3. The critical linkage region contained the RRM2B gene, which encodes the small subunit of the ribonucleotide reductase p53R2, which has previously been shown to be essential for the maintenance of mtDNA copy number. Mutation screening of RRM2B revealed a heterozygous nonsense mutation in exon 9 (c.979C-->T [p.R327X]) in all affected individuals that was absent in 380 control chromosomes. The same mutation was found to segregate in another adPEO family. The mutant mRNA escaped nonsense-mediated decay and resulted in a protein with truncation of 25 highly conserved C-terminal amino acids essential for the interaction with the ribonucleotide reductase subunit R1. We conclude that dominant-negative or gain-of-function mutations in RRM2B are a cause of multiple mtDNA deletions and adPEO. PMID:19664747

Tyynismaa, Henna; Ylikallio, Emil; Patel, Mehul; Molnar, Maria J; Haller, Ronald G; Suomalainen, Anu

2009-08-01

358

A Heterozygous Truncating Mutation in RRM2B Causes Autosomal-Dominant Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia with Multiple mtDNA Deletions  

PubMed Central

Autosomal-dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) is a mitochondrial disorder that is characterized by accumulation of multiple mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions in postmitotic tissues. The disorder is heterogeneous, with five known nuclear disease genes that encode the proteins ANT1, Twinkle, POLG, POLG2, and OPA1. Defects in these proteins affect mtDNA maintenance, probably leading to stalled replication forks, consequent mtDNA deletion formation, and progressive respiratory chain deficiency. Here we present a large adPEO family with multiple mtDNA deletions, whose disease was not explained by mutations in any of the known adPEO loci. We mapped the disease locus in this family to chromosome 8q22.1-q23.3. The critical linkage region contained the RRM2B gene, which encodes the small subunit of the ribonucleotide reductase p53R2, which has previously been shown to be essential for the maintenance of mtDNA copy number. Mutation screening of RRM2B revealed a heterozygous nonsense mutation in exon 9 (c.979C?T [p.R327X]) in all affected individuals that was absent in 380 control chromosomes. The same mutation was found to segregate in another adPEO family. The mutant mRNA escaped nonsense-mediated decay and resulted in a protein with truncation of 25 highly conserved C-terminal amino acids essential for the interaction with the ribonucleotide reductase subunit R1. We conclude that dominant-negative or gain-of-function mutations in RRM2B are a cause of multiple mtDNA deletions and adPEO. PMID:19664747

Tyynismaa, Henna; Ylikallio, Emil; Patel, Mehul; Molnar, Maria J.; Haller, Ronald G.; Suomalainen, Anu

2009-01-01

359

Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Shortly after being elbowed in the flank during a pickup basketball game, a 35-year-old healthy man has severe, colicky abdominal pain followed by gross hematuria. He is hospitalized, and a renal ultrasound scan reveals bilateral polycystic kidneys and liver cysts, previously unknown to the patient. The blood pressure is 160/100 mm Hg. The serum creatinine concentration is 0.9 mg per deciliter (80 ?mol per liter). The pain subsides in 2 days with analgesics, rest, and fluids; the gross hematuria resolves in 4 days, although microscopic hematuria persists. How should his case be further evaluated and managed? PMID:20009161

Grantham, Jared J.

2010-01-01

360

Defective pre-mRNA splicing in PKD1 due to presumed missense and synonymous mutations causing autosomal dominant polycystic disease.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most common human monogenic disorder and is caused by mutations in the PKD1 or PKD2 genes. Most patients with the disease present mutations in PKD1, and a considerable number of these alterations are single base substitutions within the coding sequence that are usually predicted to lead to missense or synonymous mutations. There is growing evidence that some of these mutations can be detrimental by affecting the pre-mRNA splicing process. The aim of our study was to test PKD1 mutations, described as missense or synonymous in the literature or databases, for their effects on exon inclusion. Bioinformatics tools were used to select mutations with a potential effect on pre-mRNA splicing. Mutations were experimentally tested using minigene assays. Exons and adjacent intronic sequences were PCR-amplified and cloned in the splicing reporter minigene, and selected mutations were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis. Minigenes were transfected into kidney derived cell lines. RNA from cultured cells was analyzed by RT-PCR and DNA sequencing. Analysis of thirty-three PKD1 exonic mutations revealed three mutations that induce splicing defects. The substitution c.11156G>A, previously predicted as missense mutation p.R3719Q, abolished the donor splice site of intron 38 and resulted in the incorporation of exon 38 with 117bp of intron 38 and skipping of exon 39. Two synonymous variants, c.327A>T (p.G109G) and c.11257C>A (p.R3753R), generated strong donor splice sites within exons 3 and 39 respectively, resulting in incorporation of incomplete exons. These three nucleotide substitutions represent the first PKD1 exonic mutations that induce aberrant mRNAs. Our results strengthen the importance to evaluate the consequences of presumed missense and synonymous mutations at the mRNA level. PMID:24907393

Gonzalez-Paredes, Francisco J; Ramos-Trujillo, Elena; Claverie-Martin, Felix

2014-08-10

361

Aortic dissection in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: A series of two cases and a review of the Literature.  

PubMed

Aortic dissection (AD) is the most common life-threatening disease involving the aorta. It is rarely associated with systemic disorders such as Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD), a genetic syndrome characterized by cystic degeneration of kidneys, possible presence of cysts in other organs and extra-renal manifestations, including cardiovascular disorders. We performed a systematic literature search focused on the occurrence of AD associated with ADPKD (25 cases identified), and reported two cases from our experience. We selected data on sex, age, family history of ADPKD and/or AD, habitus, hypertension, renal function, presence of hepatic/pancreatic/splenic cysts, clinical presentation of AD, AD type according to the Stanford classification, treatment and outcome. Furthermore we compared this dataset with the data of the overall population with AD from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD). Stanford A type AD was documented in 62% of patients. As expected, the initial manifestation of AD was most commonly chest and back pain (80%). The mean age of AD occurrence appears significantly reduced in ADPKD patients compared to the general population with AD (49?±?12 vs 62?±?14, P?

Silverio, Angelo; Prota, Costantina; Di Maio, Marco; Polito, Maria Vincenza; Cogliani, Francesco Maria; Citro, Rodolfo; Gigantino, Alberto; Iesu, Severino; Piscione, Federico

2015-04-01

362

A Novel GCAP1 Missense Mutation (L151F) in a Large Family with Autosomal Dominant Cone-Rod Dystrophy (adCORD)  

PubMed Central

Purpose To elucidate the phenotypic and biochemical characteristics of a novel mutation associated with autosomal dominant cone–rod dystrophy (adCORD). Methods Twenty-three family members of a CORD pedigree underwent clinical examinations, including visual acuity tests, standardized full-field ERG, and fundus photography. Genomic DNA was screened for mutations in GCAP1 exons using DNA sequencing and single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Function and stability of recombinant GCAP1-L151F were tested as a function of [Ca2+], and its structure was probed by molecular dynamics. Results Affected family members experienced dyschromatopsia, hemeralopia, and reduced visual acuity by the second to third decade of life. Electrophysiology revealed a nonrecordable photopic response with later attenuation of the scotopic response. Affected family members harbored a C?T transition in exon 4 of the GCAP1 gene, resulting in an L151F missense mutation affecting the EF hand motif 4 (EF4). This change was absent in 11 unaffected family members and in 100 unrelated normal subjects. GCAP1-L151F stimulation of photoreceptor guanylate cyclase was not completely inhibited at high physiological [Ca2+], consistent with a lowered affinity for Ca2+-binding to EF4. Conclusions A novel L151F mutation in the EF4 hand domain of GCAP1 is associated with adCORD. The clinical phenotype is characterized by early cone dysfunction and a progressive loss of rod function. The biochemical phenotype is best described as persistent stimulation of photoreceptor guanylate cyclase, representing a gain of function of mutant GCAP1. Although a conservative substitution, molecular dynamics suggests a significant change in Ca2+-binding to EF4 and EF2 and changes in the shape of L151F-GCAP1. PMID:15790869

Sokal, Izabela; Dupps, William J.; Grassi, Michael A.; Brown, Jeremiah; Affatigato, Louisa M.; Roychowdhury, Nirmalya; Yang, Lili; Filipek, Slawomir; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Stone, Edwin M.; Baehr, Wolfgang

2005-01-01

363

Medical resource utilization and costs associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the USA: a retrospective matched cohort analysis of private insurer data  

PubMed Central

Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) results in kidney cyst development and enlargement, resulting in chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to renal failure. This study sought to determine if ADPKD patients in the early stages of CKD contribute to a sizable economic burden for the US health care system. Methods This was a retrospective, matched cohort study, reviewing medical resource utilization (MRU) and costs for adults in a US private-payer claims database with a diagnosis code of ADPKD (ICD-9-CM 753.13). ADPKD patients were matched by age grouping (0–17, 18–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64, and 65+ years) and sex to controls to understand the burden of ADPKD. Descriptive statistics on 6-month MRU and costs were assessed by CKD stages, dialysis use, or previous renal transplant. Results The analysis included ADPKD patients in CKD stages 1–5 (n=316 to n=860), dialysis (n=586), and post-transplant (n=615). Mean ages did not differ across CKD stages (range 43–56 years). Men were the majority in the later stages but the minority in the early stages. The proportion of patients with at least one hospitalization increased with CKD stage, (12% to >40% CKD stage 2 to stage 5, dialysis or post-transplant). The majority had at least one hospital outpatient visit and at least one pharmacy claim. Total 6-month per-patient costs were greater among ADPKD patients than in age-matched and sex-matched healthy non-ADPKD controls (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion ADPKD patients with normal kidney function are associated with a significant economic burden to the health care system relative to the general population. Any treatments that delay progression to later stages of CKD may provide potential health care cost offsets.

Knight, Tyler; Schaefer, Caroline; Krasa, Holly; Oberdhan, Dorothee; Chapman, Arlene; Perrone, Ronald D

2015-01-01

364

Localization of a gene (CMT2A) for autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 to chromosome 1p and evidence of genetic heterogeneity  

SciTech Connect

Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 2 (CMT2) is an inherited peripheral neuropathy characterized by variable age of onset and normal or slightly diminished nerve conduction velocity. CMT2 is pathologically and genetically distinct from CMT type 1 (CMT1). While CMT1 has been shown to be genetically heterogeneous, no chromosomal localization has been established for CMT2. The authors have performed pedigree linkage analysis in six large autosomal dominant CMT2 families and have demonstrated linkage and heterogeneity to a series of microsatellites (D1S160, D1S170, D1S244, D1S228 and D1S199) in the distal region of the short arm of chromosome 1. Significant evidence for heterogeneity was found using admixture analyses and the two-point lod scores. Admixture analyses using the multipoint results for the markers D1S244, D1S228, and D1S199 supported the two-point findings. Three families, DUK662, DUK1241, and 1523 gave posterior probabilities of 1.0, 0.98, and 0.88 of being of the linked type. Multipoint analysis examining the [open quotes]linked[close quotes] families showed that the most favored location for the CMT2A gene is within the interval flanked by D1S244 and D1S228 (odds approximately 70:1 of lying within versus outside that interval). These findings suggest that the CMT2 phenotype is secondary to at least two different genes and demonstrate further heterogeneity in the CMT phenotype.

Othmane, K.B.; Loprest, L.J.; Wilkinson, K.M. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)); Middleton, L.T. (Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Nicosia (Cyprus)) (and others)

1993-08-01

365

Autosomal Dominant STAT3 Deficiency and Hyper-IgE Syndrome Molecular, Cellular, and Clinical Features From a French National Survey  

PubMed Central

Autosomal dominant deficiency of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is the main genetic etiology of hyper-immunoglobulin (Ig) E syndrome. We documented the molecular, cellular, and clinical features of 60 patients with heterozygous STAT3 mutations from 47 kindreds followed in France. We identified 11 known and 13 new mutations of STAT3. Low levels of interleukin (IL)-6-dependent phosphorylation and nuclear translocation (or accumulation) of STAT3 were observed in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes (EBV-B cells) from all STAT3-deficient patients tested. The immunologic phenotype was characterized by high serum IgE levels (96% of the patients), memory B-cell lymphopenia (94.5%), and hypereosinophilia (80%). A low proportion of IL-17A-producing circulating T cells was found in 14 of the 15 patients tested. Mucocutaneous infections were the most frequent, typically caused by Staphylococcus aureus (all patients) and Candida albicans (85%). Up to 90% of the patients had pneumonia, mostly caused by Staph. aureus (31%) or Streptococcus pneumoniae (30%). Recurrent pneumonia was associated with secondary bronchiectasis and pneumatocele (67%), as well as secondary aspergillosis (22%). Up to 92% of the patients had dermatitis and connective tissue abnormalities, with facial dysmorphism (95%), retention of decidual teeth (65%), osteopenia (50%), and hyperextensibility (50%). Four patients developed non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The clinical outcome was favorable, with 56 patients, including 43 adults, still alive at the end of study (mean age, 21 yr; range, 1 mo to 46 yr). Only 4 patients died, 3 from severe bacterial infection (aged 1, 15, and 29 yr, respectively). Antibiotic prophylaxis (90% of patients), antifungal prophylaxis (50%), and IgG infusions (53%) improved patient health, as demonstrated by the large decrease in pneumonia recurrence. Overall, the prognosis of STAT3 deficiency may be considered good, provided that multiple prophylactic measures, including IgG infusions, are implemented. PMID:22751495

Chandesris, Marie-Olivia; Melki, Isabelle; Natividad, Angels; Puel, Anne; Fieschi, Claire; Yun, Ling; Thumerelle, Caroline; Oksenhendler, Eric; Boutboul, David; Thomas, Caroline; Hoarau, Cyrille; Lebranchu, Yvon; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Cazorla, Celine; Aladjidi, Nathalie; Micheau, Marguerite; Tron, Fran[cedil]cois; Baruchel, Andre; Barlogis, Vincent; Palenzuela, Gilles; Mathey, Catherine; Dominique, Stephane; Body, Gerard; Munzer, Martine; Fouyssac, Fanny; Jaussaud, Rolland; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Blanche, Stephane; Debre, Marianne; Le Bourgeois, Muriel; Gandemer, Virginie; Lambert, Nathalie; Grandin, Virginie; Ndaga, Stephanie; Jacques, Corinne; Harre, Chantal; Forveille, Monique; Alyanakian, Marie-Alexandra; Durandy, Anne; Bodemer, Christine; Suarez, Felipe; Hermine, Olivier; Lortholary, Olivier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Fischer, Alain; Picard, Capucine

2013-01-01

366

Calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclases mediate AVP-dependent cAMP production and Cl? secretion by human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney cells  

PubMed Central

In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), binding of AVP to the V2 receptor (V2R) increases cAMP and accelerates cyst growth by stimulating cell proliferation and Cl?-dependent fluid secretion. Basal cAMP is elevated in human ADPKD cells compared with normal human kidney (NHK) cells. V2R mRNA levels are elevated in ADPKD cells; however, AVP caused a greater increase in global cAMP in NHK cells, suggesting an intrinsic difference in cAMP regulation. Expression, regulatory properties, and receptor coupling of specific adenylyl cyclases (ACs) provide temporal and spatial regulation of the cAMP signal. ADPKD and NHK cells express mRNAs for all nine ACs. Ca2+-inhibited ACs 5 and 6 are increased in ADPKD cells, while Ca2+/CaM-stimulated ACs 1 and 3 are downregulated. ACs 1, 3, 5, and 6 were detected in cyst cells in situ, and codistribution with aquaporin-2 suggests that these cysts were derived from collecting ducts. To determine the contribution of CaM-sensitive ACs to AVP signaling, cells were treated with W-7, a CaM inhibitor. W-7 decreased AVP-induced cAMP production and Cl? secretion by ADPKD cells. CaMKII inhibition increased AVP-induced cAMP, suggesting that cAMP synthesis is mediated by AC3. In contrast, CaM and CaMKII inhibition in NHK cells did not affect AVP-induced cAMP production. Restriction of intracellular Ca2+ switched the response in NHK cells, such that CaM inhibition decreased AVP-induced cAMP production. We suggest that a compensatory response to decreased Ca2+ in ADPKD cells switches V2R coupling from Ca2+-inhibited ACs 5/6 to Ca2+/CaM-stimulated AC3, to mitigate high cAMP levels in response to continuous AVP stimulation. PMID:22952279

Pinto, Cibele S.; Reif, Gail A.; Nivens, Emily; White, Corey

2012-01-01

367

End-stage renal disease in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a comparison of dialysis-related utilization and costs with other chronic kidney diseases  

PubMed Central

Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the leading inheritable cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and one of the leading causes of ESRD overall. ADPKD patients differ from the overall dialysis population; however, there is little published data regarding health care costs for ADPKD patients on dialysis. Methods This retrospective observational cohort study was designed to quantify health care utilization and costs for ADPKD patients with ESRD who received initial services at a single large dialysis organization between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2009. Parallel results and baseline patient characteristics for control patients with ESRD etiologies other than ADPKD were performed for reference. Dialysis-related utilization and health care costs for patients with ADPKD in ESRD overall and during time horizons that correspond to Medicare-eligibility benchmarks were analyzed. Baseline patient characteristics were described for all patients and included demographics, comorbid illnesses, and clinical characteristics. Dialysis-related utilization, hospitalization rates, and health care costs were considered longitudinally. Results Total health care costs for ADPKD patients were high at US$51,048 per patient-year based on the overall analysis. Total health care costs were lower for ADPKD patients than for control patients on dialysis. Patients with ADPKD were generally younger, had a lower Charlson Comorbidity Index, and had lower rates of comorbid conditions, which may have contributed to the lower overall costs seen for patients with ADPKD. Conclusion Health care resource utilization and costs for patients with ADPKD in ESRD requiring dialysis were high, and therapeutic interventions that can prevent or delay the progression to ESRD may increase dialysis-free life for patients with ADPKD. PMID:25609987

Brunelli, Steven M; Blanchette, Christopher M; Claxton, Ami J; Roy, Debosree; Rossetti, Sandro; Gutierrez, Benjamin

2015-01-01

368

Erythropoietin production in renal cell carcinoma and renal cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in a chronic dialysis patient with polycythemia: A case report.  

PubMed

In patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD), erythropoietin (EPO) production from the kidney generally decreases and renal anemia develops. Patients without anemia, but with high serum EPO (sEPO) levels are rare among HD patients. The current study presents the case of a 67-year-old female HD patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC), manifesting polycythemia with elevated sEPO levels. A radical nephrectomy was performed, which diminished the polycythemia, but the sEPO levels remained high. To determine the origin of the EPO production, immunohistochemistry was performed to detect EPO in the RCC and the renal cysts of the surgically resected kidney. In addition, the sEPO and EPO levels in a renal cyst were determined by enzyme immunoassay. EPO expression was demonstrated in RCC and cyst epithelial cells using immunohistochemistry, revealing extremely high EPO levels in the cyst fluid. Due to the remission of polycythemia following the nephrectomy, EPO production from the resected kidney appeared to have been the cause of the polycythemia. Positive EPO staining of the renal cysts in the resected polycystic kidney and sustained sEPO elevation following nephrectomy led to the hypothesis of EPO production in the renal cysts of the contralateral polycystic kidney. Although the postoperative EPO level was higher than the normal range, the hematocrit (Hct) level gradually decreased and recombinant human EPO was required again three months following the nephrectomy. Eight months after the nephrectomy, the Hct level was 30.2% with the use of rHuEPO. In conclusion, EPO production from RCC and renal cysts in ADPKD appeared to cause polycythemia in the HD patient. PMID:25295086

Ito, Keiichi; Asano, Takako; Tominaga, Susumu; Yoshii, Hidehiko; Sawazaki, Harutake; Asano, Tomohiko

2014-11-01

369

Analysis of opa1 isoforms expression and apoptosis regulation in autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) patients with mutations in the opa1 gene.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) is a hereditary optic neuropathy characterized by bilateral symmetrical visual loss, decrease in retinal ganglion cells and a loss of myelin within the optic nerve. ADOA is associated to mutations in Optic atrophy 1 gene (OPA1), which encodes a mitochondrial protein involved in cristae remodeling, maintenance of mitochondrial membrane integrity, mitochondrial fusion and apoptosis regulation. We thus evaluated the rate of apoptosis and the expression levels of OPA1 isoforms in ADOA and control cells. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from eight patients with OPA1 mutation and age matched controls were cultivated both in basal conditions or with 2-deoxy-D-ribose, a reducing sugar that induces apoptosis through oxidative stress. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry, phosphatidylserine translocation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization and caspase 3 activation. We also analyzed the expression levels of OPA1 isoforms in ADOA and control cells cultured with and without 2-deoxy-D-ribose. We showed an increased percentage of apoptotic cells in ADOA patients compared to controls, both in basal culture conditions and after 2-deoxy-D-ribose treatment. This suggested a great susceptibility of ADOA cells to oxidative stress and a strong correlation between OPA1 protein dysfunctions and morphological-functional alterations to mitochondria. Moreover OPA1 protein expression was significantly decreased in lymphocytes from the ADOA patients after 2-deoxy-D-ribose treatment, implying a great sensitivity of the mutated protein to free radical damage. Concluding, we could confirm that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis may play a key role in the pathophysiological process bringing to retinal ganglion cells degeneration in ADOA. PMID:25796301

Formichi, Patrizia; Radi, Elena; Giorgi, Eleonora; Gallus, Gian Nicola; Brunetti, Jlenia; Battisti, Carla; Rufa, Alessandra; Dotti, Maria Teresa; Franceschini, Rossella; Bracci, Luisa; Federico, Antonio

2015-04-15

370

DFNA8/12 Caused by TECTA Mutations is the Most Identified Subtype of Non-syndromic Autosomal Dominant Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of DFNA8/DFNA12 (DFNA8/12), a type of autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL), is unknown as comprehensive population-based genetic screening has not been conducted. We therefore completed unbiased screening for TECTA mutations in a Spanish cohort of 372 probands from ADNSHL families. Three additional families (Spanish, Belgian and English) known to be linked to DFNA8/12 were also included in the screening. In an additional cohort of 835 American ADNSHL families, we preselected 73 probands for TECTA screening based on audiometric data. In aggregate, we identified 23 TECTA mutations in this process. Remarkably 20 of these mutations are novel, more than doubling the number of reported TECTA ADNSHL mutations from 13 to 33. Mutations lie in all domains of the ?-tectorin protein, including those for the first time identified in the entactin domain, the vWFD1, vWFD2 and vWFD3 repeats, and the D1-D2 and TIL2 connectors. While the majority are private mutations, four of them – p.Cys1036Tyr, p.Cys1837Gly, p.Thr1866Met and p.Arg1890Cys – were observed in more than one unrelated family. For two of these mutations founder effects were also confirmed. Our data validate previously observed genotype-phenotype correlations in DFNA8/12 and introduce new correlations. Specifically, mutations in the N-terminal region of ?-tectorin (entactin domain, vWFD1 and vWFD2) lead to mid frequency NSHL, a phenotype previously associated only with mutations in the ZP domain. Collectively, our results indicate that DFNA8/12 hearing loss is a frequent type of ADNSHL. PMID:21520338

Hildebrand, Michael S.; Morín, Matías; Meyer, Nicole C.; Mayo, Fernando; Modamio-Hoybjor, Silvia; Mencía, Angeles; Olavarrieta, Leticia; Morales-Angulo, Carmelo; Nishimura, Carla J.; Workman, Heather; DeLuca, Adam P.; del Castillo, Ignacio; Taylor, Kyle R.; Tompkins, Bruce; Goodman, Corey W.; Schrauwen, Isabelle; Van Wesemael, Maarten; Lachlan, K.; Shearer, A. Eliot; Braun, Terry A.; Huygen, Patrick L.M.; Kremer, Hannie; Van Camp, Guy; Moreno, Felipe; Casavant, Thomas L.; Smith, Richard J.H.; Moreno-Pelayo, Miguel A.

2012-01-01

371

Autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus in a Swiss family, caused by a novel mutation (C59Delta\\/A60W) in the neurophysin moiety of prepro-vasopressin-neurophysin II (AVP-NP II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study clinical, morphological and molecular characteristics in a Swiss family with autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (adFNDI). Participants and methods: A 15-month-old girl presenting with symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria was investigated by water deprivation test. Evaluation of the family revealed three further family members with symptomatic vasopressin-deficient diabetes insipidus. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the posterior

Christa E Fluck; Johnny Deladoey; Sujatha Nayak; Oliver Zeller; Peter Kopp; Primus E Mullis

2001-01-01

372

Mutations in SPECC1L, encoding sperm antigen with calponin homology and coiled-coil domains 1-like, are found in some cases of autosomal dominant Opitz G/BBB syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Opitz G/BBB syndrome is a heterogeneous disorder characterised by variable expression of midline defects including cleft lip and palate, hypertelorism, laryngealtracheoesophageal anomalies, congenital heart defects, and hypospadias. The X-linked form of the condition has been associated with mutations in the MID1 gene on Xp22. The autosomal dominant form has been linked to chromosome 22q11.2, although the causative gene has yet to be elucidated. Methods and results In this study, we performed whole exome sequencing on DNA samples from a three-generation family with characteristics of Opitz G/BBB syndrome with negative MID1 sequencing. We identified a heterozygous missense mutation c.1189A>C (p.Thr397Pro) in SPECC1L, located at chromosome 22q11.23. Mutation screening of an additional 19 patients with features of autosomal dominant Opitz G/BBB syndrome identified a c.3247G>A ( p.Gly1083Ser) mutation segregating with the phenotype in another three-generation family. Conclusions Previously, SPECC1L was shown to be required for proper facial morphogenesis with disruptions identified in two patients with oblique facial clefts. Collectively, these data demonstrate that SPECC1L mutations can cause syndromic forms of facial clefting including some cases of autosomal dominant Opitz G/BBB syndrome and support the original linkage to chromosome 22q11.2. PMID:25412741

Kruszka, Paul; Li, Dong; Harr, Margaret H; Wilson, Nathan R; Swarr, Daniel; McCormick, Elizabeth M; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Li, Mindy; Martinez, Ariel F; Hart, Rachel A; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Deardorff, Matthew A; Falk, Marni J; Allanson, Judith E; Hudson, Cindy; Johnson, John P; Saadi, Irfan; Hakonarson, Hakon; Muenke, Maximilian; Zackai, Elaine H

2015-01-01

373

Cyst infection in hospital-admitted autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients is predominantly multifocal and associated with kidney and liver volume  

PubMed Central

Positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has improved cyst infection (CI) management in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The determinants of kidney and/or liver involvement, however, remain uncertain. In this study, we evaluated clinical and imaging factors associated with CI in kidney (KCI) and liver (LCI) in ADPKD. A retrospective cohort study was performed in hospital-admitted ADPKD patients with suspected CI. Clinical, imaging and surgical data were analyzed. Features of infected cysts were evaluated by PET/CT. Total kidney (TKV) and liver (TLV) volumes were measured by CT-derived multiplanar reconstruction. CI was detected in 18 patients who experienced 24 episodes during an interval of 30 months (LCI in 12, KCI in 10 and concomitant infection in 2). Sensitivities of CT, magnetic resonance imaging and PET/CT were 25.0, 71.4, and 95.0%. Dysuria (P<0.05), positive urine culture (P<0.01), and previous hematuria (P<0.05) were associated with KCI. Weight loss (P<0.01) and increased C-reactive protein levels (P<0.05) were associated with LCI. PET/CT revealed that three or more infected cysts were present in 70% of the episodes. TKV was higher in kidney-affected than in LCI patients (AUC=0.91, P<0.05), with a cut-off of 2502 mL (72.7% sensitivity, 100.0% specificity). TLV was higher in liver-affected than in KCI patients (AUC=0.89, P<0.01) with a cut-off of 2815 mL (80.0% sensitivity, 87.5% specificity). A greater need for invasive procedures was observed in LCI (P<0.01), and the overall mortality was 20.8%. This study supports PET/CT as the most sensitive imaging method for diagnosis of cyst infection, confirms the multifocal nature of most hospital-admitted episodes, and reveals an association of kidney and liver volumes with this complication. PMID:24919173

Balbo, B.E.P.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ono, C.R.; Jayanthi, S.K.; Dettoni, J.B.; Castro, I.; Onuchic, L.F.

2014-01-01

374

Urine MicroRNA as Potential Biomarkers of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Progression: Description of miRNA Profiles at Baseline  

PubMed Central

Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is clinically heterogenic. Biomarkers are needed to predict prognosis and guide management. We aimed to profile microRNA (miRNA) in ADPKD to gain molecular insight and evaluate biomarker potential. Methods Small-RNA libraries were generated from urine specimens of ADPKD patients (N?=?20) and patients with chronic kidney disease of other etiologies (CKD, N?=?20). In this report, we describe the miRNA profiles and baseline characteristics. For reference, we also examined the miRNA transcriptome in primary cultures of ADPKD cyst epithelia (N?=?10), normal adult tubule (N?=?8) and fetal tubule (N?=?7) epithelia. Results In primary cultures of ADPKD kidney cells, miRNA cistrons mir-143(2) (9.2-fold), let-7i(1) (2.3-fold) and mir-3619(1) (12.1-fold) were significantly elevated compared to normal tubule epithelia, whereas mir-1(4) members (19.7-fold), mir-133b(2) (21.1-fold) and mir-205(1) (3.0-fold) were downregulated (P<0.01). Expression of the dysregulated miRNA in fetal tubule epithelia resembled ADPKD better than normal adult cells, except let-7i, which was lower in fetal cells. In patient biofluid specimens, mir-143(2) members were 2.9-fold higher in urine cells from ADPKD compared to other CKD patients, while expression levels of mir-133b(2) (4.9-fold) and mir-1(4) (4.4-fold) were lower in ADPKD. We also noted increased abundance mir-223(1) (5.6-fold), mir-199a(3) (1.4-fold) and mir-199b(1) (1.8-fold) (P<0.01) in ADPKD urine cells. In ADPKD urine microvesicles, miR-1(2) (7.2-fold) and miR-133a(2) (11.8-fold) were less abundant compared to other CKD patients (P<0.01). Conclusions We found that in ADPKD urine specimens, miRNA previously implicated as kidney tumor suppressors (miR-1 and miR-133), as well as miRNA of presumed inflammatory and fibroblast cell origin (miR-223/miR-199), are dysregulated when compared to other CKD patients. Concordant with findings in the primary tubule epithelial cell model, this suggests roles for dysregulated miRNA in ADPKD pathogenesis and potential use as biomarkers. We intend to assess prognostic potential of miRNA in a followup analysis. PMID:24489795

Ben-Dov, Iddo Z.; Tan, Ying-Cai; Morozov, Pavel; Wilson, Patricia D.; Rennert, Hanna; Blumenfeld, Jon D.; Tuschl, Thomas

2014-01-01

375

Novel and recurrent PITX3 mutations in Belgian families with autosomal dominant congenital cataract and anterior segment dysgenesis have similar phenotypic and functional characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital cataracts are clinically and genetically heterogeneous with more than 45 known loci and 38 identified genes. They can occur as isolated defects or in association with anterior segment developmental anomalies. One of the disease genes for congenital cataract with or without anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) is PITX3, encoding a transcription factor with a crucial role in lens and anterior segment development. Only five unique PITX3 mutations have been described, of which the 17-bp duplication c.640_656dup, p.(Gly220Profs*95), is the most common one and the only one known to cause cataract with ASD. The aim of this study was to perform a genetic study of the PITX3 gene in five probands with autosomal dominant congenital cataract (ADCC) and ASD, to compare their clinical presentations to previously reported PITX3-associated phenotypes and to functionally evaluate the PITX3 mutations found. Methods Sanger sequencing of the coding region and targeted exons of PITX3 was performed in probands and family members respectively. Transactivation, DNA-binding and subcellular localization assays were performed for the PITX3 mutations found. Ophthalmological examinations included visual acuity measurement, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, tonometry and fundoscopy. Results In four Belgian families with ADCC and ASD the recurrent 17-bp duplication c.640_656dup, p.(Gly220Profs*95), was found in a heterozygous state. A novel PITX3 mutation c.573del, p.(Ser192Alafs*117), was identified in heterozygous state in a Belgo-Romanian family with a similar phenotype. Functional assays showed that this novel mutation retains its nuclear localization but results in decreased DNA-binding and transactivation activity, similar to the recurrent duplication. Conclusions Our study identified a second PITX3 mutation leading to congenital cataract with ASD. The similarity in phenotypic expression was substantiated by our in vitro functional studies which demonstrated comparable molecular consequences for the novel p.(Ser192Alafs*117) and the recurrent p.(Gly220Profs*95) mutations. PMID:24555714

2014-01-01

376

Rationale and Design of the DIPAK 1 Study: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Assessing the Efficacy of Lanreotide to Halt Disease Progression in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Background There are limited therapeutic options to slow the progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Recent clinical studies indicate that somatostatin analogues are promising for treating polycystic liver disease and potentially also for the kidney phenotype. We report on the design of the DIPAK 1 (Developing Interventions to Halt Progression of ADPKD 1) Study, which will examine the efficacy of the somatostatin analogue lanreotide on preservation of kidney function in ADPKD. Study Design The DIPAK 1 Study is an investigator-driven, randomized, multicenter, controlled, clinical trial. Setting & Participants We plan to enroll 300 individuals with ADPKD and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 who are aged 18-60 years. Intervention Patients will be randomly assigned (1:1) to standard care or lanreotide, 120 mg, subcutaneously every 28 days for 120 weeks, in addition to standard care. Outcomes Main study outcome is the slope through serial eGFR measurements starting at week 12 until end of treatment for lanreotide versus standard care. Secondary outcome parameters include change in eGFR from pretreatment versus 12 weeks after treatment cessation, change in kidney volume, change in liver volume, and change in quality of life. Measurements Blood and urine will be collected and questionnaires will be filled in following a fixed scheme. Magnetic resonance imaging will be performed for assessment of kidney and liver volume. Results Assuming an average change in eGFR of 5.2 ± 4.3 (SD) mL/min/1.73 m2 per year in untreated patients, 150 patients are needed in each group to detect a 30% reduction in the rate of kidney function loss between treatment groups with 80% power, 2-sided ? = 0.05, and 20% protocol violators and/or dropouts. Limitations The design is an open randomized controlled trial and measurement of our primary end point does not begin at randomization. Conclusions The DIPAK 1 Study will show whether subcutaneous administration of lanreotide every 4 weeks attenuates disease progression in patients with ADPKD. PMID:24342522

Meijer, Esther; Drenth, Joost P.H.; d’Agnolo, Hedwig; Casteleijn, Niek F.; de Fijter, Johan W.; Gevers, Tom J.; Kappert, Peter; Peters, Dorien J.M.; Salih, Mahdi; Soonawala, Darius; Spithoven, Edwin M.; Torres, Vicente E.; Visser, Folkert W.; Wetzels, Jack F.M.; Zietse, Robert; Gansevoort, Ron T.

2014-01-01

377

Autosomal recessive  

MedlinePLUS

... and the other gene comes from the father. Recessive inheritance means both genes in a pair must be abnormal to cause ... born to parents who carry the same autosomal recessive change ... abnormal gene from both parents and developing the disease. You ...

378

A misplaced lncRNA causes brachydactyly in humans  

PubMed Central

Translocations are chromosomal rearrangements that are frequently associated with a variety of disease states and developmental disorders. We identified 2 families with brachydactyly type E (BDE) resulting from different translocations affecting chromosome 12p. Both translocations caused downregulation of the parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) gene by disrupting the cis-regulatory landscape. Using chromosome conformation capturing, we identified a regulator on chromosome 12q that interacts in cis with PTHLH over a 24.4-megabase distance and in trans with the sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) gene on chromosome 17q. The element also harbored a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). Silencing of the lncRNA, PTHLH, or SOX9 revealed a feedback mechanism involving an expression-dependent network in humans. In the BDE patients, the human lncRNA was upregulated by the disrupted chromosomal association. Moreover, the lncRNA occupancy at the PTHLH locus was reduced. Our results document what we believe to be a novel in cis– and in trans–acting DNA and lncRNA regulatory feedback element that is reciprocally regulated by coding genes. Furthermore, our findings provide a systematic and combinatorial view of how enhancers encoding lncRNAs may affect gene expression in normal development. PMID:23093776

Maass, Philipp G.; Rump, Andreas; Schulz, Herbert; Stricker, Sigmar; Schulze, Lisanne; Platzer, Konrad; Aydin, Atakan; Tinschert, Sigrid; Goldring, Mary B.; Luft, Friedrich C.; Bähring, Sylvia

2012-01-01

379

An autosomal dominant gene regulates the extent of 9-O-acetylation of murine erythrocyte sialic acids. A probable explanation for the variation in capacity to activate the human alternate complement pathway  

PubMed Central

Nydegger et al. (4) have reported that the difference in susceptibility of erythrocytes from different inbred murine strains to lysis by the human alternate complement pathway is determined by an autosomal locus. We have found a good correlation between the degree of O-acetylation of the erythrocyte sialic acid residues and the susceptibility to complement lysis, whereas there was no correlation between total erythrocyte sialic acid content and complement sensitivity. The major O- acetylated species in all the murine strains is 9-O-acetyl-N- acetylneuraminic acid. We propose that the autosomal dominant locus, which determines complement sensitivity, acts by influencing the extent of 9-O-acetylation of the erythrocyte sialic acid residues. By using recombinant inbred strains, we determined that this genetic locus is probably located on chromosome 9. The nature of the gene product remains unknown. PMID:7411019

1980-01-01

380

Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease and CKD Stages 1–4: A Cross-sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background In people with early autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) average total kidney volume (TKV) is three times normal and increases by an average of 5% per year despite seemingly normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We hypothesized that increased TKV would be a source of morbidity and diminished quality of life that would be worse in subjects with more advanced disease. Study Design Cross-sectional. Setting & Participants 1043 subjects with ADPKD, hypertension and a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >20 mL/min/1.73 m2. Predictors 1) eGFR 2) height-adjusted TKV (htTKV) in subjects with eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Outcomes 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Wisconsin Brief Pain Survey. Measurements Questionnaires were self- administered. eGFR was estimated from serum creatinine using the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) equation. The htTKV was measured by MRI. Results Back pain was reported by 50% of subjects and 20% experienced it ‘often, usually, or always’. In subjects with early disease (eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m2) there was no association between pain and htTKV, except in patients with large kidneys (htTKV >1000 mL/m). Comparing across eGFR levels and including patients with eGFR <60 mL/min/ 1.73 m2, patients with eGFR 20–44 mL/min/1.73 m2 were significantly more likely to report that pain impacted on their daily lives and had lower SF-36 scores than patients with eGFR 45–60 and ?60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Symptoms relating to abdominal fullness were reported by 20% of patients, and were significantly related with lower eGFR in women but not men. Limitations TKV and liver volume were not measured in subjects with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The number of patients with eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 is small. Causal inferences are limited by cross-sectional design. Conclusions Pain is a common early symptom in the course of ADPKD, although it is not related to kidney size in early disease (eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m2), except in individuals with large kidneys (htTKV >1000 mL/m). Symptoms relating to abdominal fullness and pain are greater in patients with more advanced (eGFR 20–45 mL/min/ 1.73 m2) disease and may be due to organ enlargement, especially in women. More research about the role of TKV in quality of life and outcomes of ADPKD patients is warranted. PMID:24183837

Miskulin, Dana C.; Abebe, Kaleab Z.; Chapman, Arlene B.; Perrone, Ronald D.; Steinman, Theodore I.; Torres, Vicente E.; Bae, K. Ty; Braun, William; Winklhofer, Franz T.; Hogan, Marie C.; Rahbari-Oskoui, Fred; Moore, Charity G.; Flessner, Michael F.; Schrier, Robert W.

2014-01-01

381

Autosomal dominant Best disease with an unusual electrooculographic light rise and risk of angle-closure glaucoma: a clinical and molecular genetic study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of two families with autosomal dominant Best disease and atypical electrooculography (EOG). Methods Four affected individuals from two families were ascertained. Detailed ophthalmic examinations, refraction, and biometry (anterior chamber depth [ACD] and axial length [AL]), gonioscopy, optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment and retina, retinal imaging, and electrophysiological assessment were performed. Arden ratios from EOG testing were calculated by direct measurement of the light peak to dark trough amplitudes. Mutations in bestrophin 1 (BEST1) were identified by bidirectional Sanger sequencing. In family 1, segregation of BEST1 alleles was performed by assaying four microsatellite markers (D11S935, D11S4102, D11S987, and D11S4162) that flank BEST1. Results The proband from family 1 (three of four siblings affected with Best disease) was 42 years old with bilateral macular vitelliform lesions, advanced angle closure glaucoma (ACG), a normal electroretinogram, and no EOG light rise. Her 44-year-old brother had similar fundus appearances and an EOG light rise of 170%. Their 48-year-old sister had a normal left fundus, whereas the right fundus showed a vitelliform lesion and subretinal thickening. There was no EOG light rise detectable from either eye. Mutation analysis of BEST1 showed all affected siblings to be heterozygous for a missense mutation, c.914T>C, p.Phe305Ser. Their unaffected sister had an EOG light rise of 200%, a normal fundus appearance, and did not harbor the BEST1 mutation. Haplotype analysis of family 1 showed that the affected brother with the 170% EOG light rise had inherited the same nondiseased parental BEST1 allele as his unaffected sister. The other two affected sisters with undetectable EOG light rises shared a different nondiseased parental BEST1 allele. An unrelated 53-year-old female carrying the same c.914T>C, p.Phe305Ser mutation showed typical features of Best disease and an EOG light rise of 180%. All four siblings from family 1 had shorter axial biometry (ACD range 2.06–2.74 mm; AL range 20.46–22.60 mm) than the normal population, contributing to their risk of ACG development. Proband 2 had deeper ACDs (2.83 mm OD and 2.85 mm OS), but similar ALs (21.52 mm OD and 21.42 mm OS) compared to family 1. She had no gonioscopic evidence of angle closure. Conclusions A near normal EOG light rise is uncommon in molecularly confirmed Best disease, and in the present report is associated with the same mutation in two families, suggesting a specific role for this amino acid in the retinal pigment epithelium dysfunction associated with this disorder. Haplotype analysis in family 1 was consistent with an effect of the nondisease allele in mediating the presence of an EOG light rise. Clinical assessment of ACG risk is recommended for BEST1 mutation carriers and their first degree relatives. PMID:21921978

Davidson, Alice E.; Holder, Graham E.; Hogg, Chris R.; Bhattacharya, Shomi S.; Black, Graeme C.; Foster, Paul J.; Webster, Andrew R.

2011-01-01

382

Sex-linked dominant  

MedlinePLUS

Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... type of chromosome that is affected (autosomal or sex chromosome). It also depends on whether the trait ...

383

Refinement of the OPA1 gene locus on chromosome 3q28-q29 to a region of 2-8 cM, in one Cuban pedigree with autosomal dominant optic atrophy type Kjer  

SciTech Connect

Kjer type autosomal dominant optic atrophy was reported to have a prevalence of 1:50,000 and is therefore the most common form of familial optic atrophy. Age at onset and chronic progressive course were used as subclassification criteria by Kjer, Jaeger, and Smith, stating that almost all cases manifested subacutely before 8 years of age. Typically, tritan color defects and small paracentral scotomas are found together with both variable reduction of visual acuity, of approximately 0.3/0.1, and a temporal pallor on fundoscopy. Pathologically the retinal ganglion cells are affected, resulting in a progressive degeneration of the optic nerve. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Lunkes, A.; Hartung, U.; Auburger, G. [Univ. Hospital Duesseldorf (Germany)] [and others

1995-10-01

384

Nuclear gene causing multiple mtDNA deletions in autosomal dominant ophthalmoplegia maps to a distinct chromosomal region - involvement of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in a single disorder  

SciTech Connect

Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) is a mitochondrial disease characterized by muscle weakness, most prominent in ocular muscles. The symptoms are caused by accumulation of multiple large deletions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the tissues of the patient, especially in those tissues that are most dependent on oxidative metabolism: brain, skeletal muscle and heart. However, the disorder shows autosomal dominant way of transmission, suggesting a primary defect in a nuclear encoded protein, which only secondarily results in mtDNA deletions. The candidate genes could be those actively participating in the mtDNA replication, or those associated with oxidative metabolism and e.g. via overproduction or inefficient elimination of fire oxygen radicals fragmenting mtDNA. We applied random mapping approach to localize the autosomal adPEO gene locus in a large Finnish family. The affected subjects were identified by detection of multiple mtDNA deletions in the Southern blot analysis of DNA extracted from the muscle biopsy specimens. All the family members underwent muscle biopsy. After analysis of 248 highly polymorphic dinucleotide repeat markets dispersed throughout the genome we were able to assign the adPEO gene locus to a distinct chromosomal region with the maximum pairwise lod score of 4.52, recombination fraction 0.0. This is the first evidence that a mutation in a nuclear gene may interfere mtDNA. The pathogenesis of adPEO involves both the genomes: the primary nuclear gene defect leads to secondary mtDNA mutations that cause the symptoms of the patients.

Suomalainen, A.; Kaukonen, J.; Timonen, R. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

1994-09-01

385

A novel locus for autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss, DFNA31, maps to chromosome 6p21.3  

PubMed Central

Objective:To investigate the genes involved in a Dutch family with NSSHL. Methods:Linkage analysis in a large Dutch pedigree with progressive bilateral loss of the mid and high frequencies, in which a novel dominant locus for postlingual NSSHL (DFNA31) has been identified. Results:DFNA31 was found to be located in a 7.5 cM region of chromosome 6p21.3 between D6S276 (telomeric) and D6S273 (centromeric), with a maximum two point LOD score of 5.99 for D6S1624. DNA sequencing of coding regions and exon/intron boundaries of two candidate genes (POU5F1, GABBR1) in this interval did not reveal disease causing mutations. Conclusions:Haplotype analysis indicated that the genetic defect in this family does not overlap the DFNA13 and DFNA21 regions that are also located on 6p. Identification of the disease gene will be of major importance in understanding the pathophysiology of hearing impairment. PMID:14729819

Snoeckx, R; Kremer, H; Ensink, R; Flothmann, K; de Brouwer, A; Smith, R; Cremers, C; Van Camp, G

2004-01-01

386

Molecular Genetic Diagnosis of a Bethlem Myopathy Family with an Autosomal-Dominant COL6A1 Mutation, as Evidenced by Exome Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background We describe herein the application of whole exome sequencing (WES) for the molecular genetic diagnosis of a large Korean family with dominantly inherited myopathy. Case Report The affected individuals presented with slowly progressive proximal weakness and ankle contracture. They were initially diagnosed with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) based on clinical and pathologic features. However, WES and subsequent capillary sequencing identified a pathogenic splicing-site mutation (c.1056+1G>A) in COL6A1, which was previously reported to be an underlying cause of Bethlem myopathy. After identification of the genetic cause of the disease, careful neurologic examination revealed subtle contracture of the interphalangeal joint in the affected members, which is a characteristic sign of Bethlem myopathy. Therefore, we revised the original diagnosis from LGMD to Bethlem myopathy. Conclusions This is the first report of identification of COL6A1-mediated Bethlem myopathy in Korea, and indicates the utility of WES for the diagnosis of muscular dystrophy.

Park, Hyung Jun; Choi, Young-Chul; Kim, Seung Min; Kim, Se Hoon; Hong, Young Bin; Yoon, Bo Ram

2015-01-01

387

New autosomal recessive faciodigitogenital syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Most pedigrees of Aarskog's faciodigitogenital syndrome have suggested X linked inheritance. However, sex influenced autosomal dominant inheritance is also a possibility in some families. We describe an Arab family of normal consanguineous parents with five children (three males and two females) with some features of Aarskog syndrome in addition to some unusual hair changes. The possibility that this family represents a distinct previously unrecognised faciodigitogenital syndrome with short stature and hair abnormalities is suggested and discussed. Images PMID:3398008

Teebi, A S; Naguib, K K; Al-Awadi, S; Al-Saleh, Q A

1988-01-01

388

Dissociation of Pupillary Post-Illumination Responses from Visual Function in Confirmed OPA1 c.983A?>?G and c.2708_2711delTTAG Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To test whether the melanopsin-containing, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), as evaluated by examination of the pupillary light reflex (PLR), are preserved in genetically confirmed autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA). Method: Twenty-nine patients with either the c.983A?>?G (n?=?14) or the c.2708_ 2711delTTAG mutation (n?=?15) were examined with monochromatic pupillometry, using isoluminant (300?cd/m2), red (660?nm) or blue (470?nm) light, optical coherence tomography, automated visual field analysis, and with determination of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Since we examined two different mutations, initially we compared all outcome variables between the two, and finding no statistically significant difference, pooled them. Results: Despite a poor BCVA (56 letters, ETDRS) in the ADOA patients, their post-illuminatory pupil responses did not differ significantly from those of healthy controls (blue, p?=?0.45, red, p?=?0.49, t-test), and no statistically significant effect was noted of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness, or age. Conclusion: The PLR to blue light of high luminance (300?cd/m2) was preserved in both c.983A?>?G and c.2708_2711delTTAG ADOA despite severe visual loss and optic nerve atrophy. The study confirms, in a large sample of two genetically homogenous groups, that the ipRGCs are spared in ADOA. PMID:25699009

Nissen, Claus; Rönnbäck, Cecilia; Sander, Birgit; Herbst, Kristina; Milea, Dan; Larsen, Michael; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

2015-01-01

389

Complete Heart Block with Diastolic Heart Failure and Pulmonary Edema Secondary to Enlarging Previously Diagnosed Thrombosed Aneurysm of Sinus of Valsalva in a Patient with History of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is associated with vascular aneurysms that can affect any part of the vascular tree, like ascending aorta or coronary arteries. Sinus of Valsalva is known as an anatomical dilation at the root of aorta above the aortic valve and very few cases show aneurysm at that site in patients with ADPKD. Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm (SVA) can present with rupture and acute heart failure and infective endocarditis or could be asymptomatic accidentally discovered during cardiac catheterization. We report a case of a 76-year-old male with a unique constellation of cardiovascular anomalies associated with ADPKD. Patient was previously diagnosed with aneurysms affecting ascending aorta, sinus of Valsalva, and coronary arteries. Several years later, he came with complete heart block which was discovered later to be secondary to enlargement of his previously diagnosed thrombosed SVA. His case was complicated with acute heart failure and pulmonary edema. Conclusion. Patients with ADPKD can present with extrarenal manifestations. In our case, aneurysm at sinus of Valsalva was progressively enlarging and presented with complete heart block.

Eltawansy, Sherif Ali; Thomas, Maria Joana; Daniels, Jeffrey

2015-01-01

390

The gene for autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCAI) maps centromeric to D6S89 and shows no recombination, in nine large kindreds, with a dinucleotide repeat at the AM10 locus  

SciTech Connect

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is an autosomal dominant disorder which is genetically linked to the short arm of chromosome 6, telomeric to the human major histocompatibility complex (HLA) and very close to D6S89. Previous multipoint linkage analysis using HLA, D6S89, and SCA1 suggested that SCA1 maps centromeric to D5S89. Data from this study using nine large kindreds indicate a maximum lod score between SCA1 and D6S89 of 67.58 at a maximum recombination fraction of .004. To localize SCA1 more precisely, the authors identified five dinucleotide polymorphisms near D6S89. Genotypic analyses at these polymorphic loci were carried out in nine multigeneration SCA1 kindreds and in the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain reference families. A new marker, AM10GA, demonstrates no recombination with SCA1. The maximum lod score for AM10GA linkage to SCA1 is 42.14 at a recombination fraction of 0. Linkage analysis and analysis of recombination events confirm that SCA1 maps centromeric to D6S89 and establish the following order: CEN-D6S109-AM10GA/SCA1-D6S89-LR40-D6S202-TEL. 20 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Kwiatkowski, T.J. Jr.; Zoghbi, H.Y.; Beaudet, A.L.; Banfi, S.; McCall, A.E. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Orr, H.T.; Duvick, L.A.; Ranum, L.P.W. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States)); Jodice, C.; Persichetti, F.; Novelletto, A.; Terrenato, L. (Tor Vergata Univ., Rome (United Kingdom)); LeBorgne-DeMarquoy, F. (Genethon, Paris (France)); Subramony, S.H. (Univ. of Mississippi School of Medicine, Jackson (United States))

1993-08-01

391

Congenital anonychia and brachydactyly of the left foot - Cooks syndrome variant: Case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Cooks syndrome is characterized by familial congenital anonychia or onychodystrophy, hypoplasia or absence of distal phalanges of the hands and feet with brachydactyly of the fifth finger and digitalization of the thumb (triphalangism). It is listed as a “rare disease” by the Office of Rare Diseases of the National Institutes of Health. Here, we report a case of congenital anonychia and brachydactyly of the left foot, which possibly is a variant of Cooks syndrome with a positive family history of similar deformity. PMID:25400355

Chatterjee, Daipayan

2014-01-01

392

Genetics Home Reference: Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia  

MedlinePLUS

... Affected individuals can have an imbalance of other molecules in the blood as well, including too much ... the blood. Abnormal levels of calcium and other molecules in the body can lead to a variety ...

393

Genetics Home Reference: Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy  

MedlinePLUS

... clear how these versions of bestrophin affect chloride ion transport or lead to the eye abnormalities characteristic of ... ion ; choroid ; cornea ; epithelium ; gene ; glaucoma ; inherited ; ions ; ion transport ; pigment ; prevalence ; protein ; retina ; tissue You may find ...

394

Recurrence risks for Mendelian traits Autosomal Dominant  

E-print Network

) X 2 #12;#12;· Adoption Studies ­ Twins raised apart · Shared genetics but different environments;· Definition ­ Multifactorial Trait · Trait determined by multiple genetic and environmental factors, which by genetic and environmental factors #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;HIV Environmental exposure Mutated CCR5 receptor

Dellaire, Graham

395

Familial symptomatic sinus bradycardia: Autosomal dominant inheritance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symptomatic sinus bradycardia, due to either sick sinus syndrome or vagotonia, can be familial, affecting several members of a family. We report an 18-year-old male patient with palpitations and limited exercise capacity who was noted to have severe sinus bradycardia. His resting heart rate was 40\\/min, with normal PR and corrected QT intervals, and sinus pauses up to 6 seconds

A. V. Mehta; B. Chidambaram; A. Garrett

1995-01-01

396

Genetics Home Reference: Spondyloperipheral dysplasia  

MedlinePLUS

... lordosis), and an inward- and upward-turning foot (clubfoot). Additionally, some affected individuals have nearsightedness (myopia), hearing ... spondyloperipheral dysplasia? autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; brachydactyly ; cartilage ; ... disability ; dysplasia ; gene ; inherited ; lordosis ; myopia ; nearsightedness ; ...

397

Autosomal dominant transmission of a Goldenhar-like syndrome: Description of a family and report of a sporadic case with a de novo 4p16;8q24.11 translocation  

SciTech Connect

We report vertical transmission of a Goldenhar-like syndrome, including a father and 5 offspring, with male-to-male transmission and variable features that include hearing loss, ear anomalies (microtia, ear tags/pits), branchial cysts, ocular/periocular dermoids, micrognathia and seizures. We also report an individual with an apparently balanced de novo reciprocal translocation with breakpoints at 4p16 and 8q24.11. This individual has unilateral microtia, an epibulbar dermoid cyst, facial asymmetry with a small chin, and seizures. In addition to these features resembling those seen in the family above, she has multiple exostoses, supraventricular tachycardia, hypoglycemia and mild developmental delays. Based on the overlap in physical findings between this family and the individual with the de novo reciprocal translocation, linkage studies on the family were intiated. Preliminary results exclude linkage to HOX 7 at 4p16.1 but not to 8q. The brancho-oto-renal syndrome has previously been localized to 8q11-8q13, but linkage to this region appears unlikely. Although most cases of Goldenhar syndrome appear to be sporadic, there are a few reports of autosomal dominant inheritance (MIM No. 164210). One such family showed vertical transmission of dermoids, ear anomalies, hearing loss, micrognathia and vertebral anomalies, but no branchial cysts. Another family showed sensorineural deafness, preauricular pits, and branchial fistulae, and other families reveal ear anomalies, branchial fistulas, and hearing loss. These latter families appear to lack ocular/periocular dermoids, and appear to be affected by a different disorder (MIM No. 125100). Further clinical delineation of such families, combined with genetic linkage analysis, should help to sort out this heterogeneity.

Graganm H.N. Jr.; Hixon, H.; Bacino, C.A. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

398

Analysis of data from the ERA-EDTA Registry indicates that conventional treatments for chronic kidney disease do not reduce the need for renal replacement therapy in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a major cause of end-stage kidney failure, but is often identified early and therefore amenable to timely treatment. Interventions known to postpone the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in non-ADPKD patients have also been tested in ADPKD patients, but with inconclusive results. To help resolve this we determined changes in RRT incidence rates as an indicator for increasing effective renoprotection over time in ADPKD. We analyzed data from the European Renal Association-European Dialyses and Transplant Association Registry on 315,444 patients starting RRT in 12 European countries between 1991 and 2010, grouped into four 5-year periods. Of them, 20,596 were due to ADPKD. Between the first and last period the mean age at onset of RRT increased from 56.6 to 58.0 years. The age- and gender-adjusted incidence rate of RRT for ADPKD increased slightly over the four periods from 7.6 to 8.3 per million population. No change over time was found in the incidence of RRT for ADPKD up to age 50, whereas in recent time periods the incidence in patients above the age of 70 clearly increased. Among countries there was a significant positive association between RRT take-on rates for non-ADPKD kidney disease and ADPKD. Thus, the increased age at onset of RRT is most likely due to an increased access for elderly ADPKD patients or lower competing risk prior to the start of RRT rather than the consequence of effective emerging renoprotective treatments for ADPKD. PMID:24827775

Spithoven, Edwin M; Kramer, Anneke; Meijer, Esther; Orskov, Bjarne; Wanner, Christoph; Caskey, Fergus; Collart, Frederic; Finne, Patrik; Fogarty, Damian G; Groothoff, Jaap W; Hoitsma, Andries; Nogier, Marie-Béatrice; Postorino, Maurizio; Ravani, Pietro; Zurriaga, Oscar; Jager, Kitty J; Gansevoort, Ron T

2014-12-01

399

Multi-electrode array study of neuronal cultures expressing nicotinic ?2-V287L subunits, linked to autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. An in vitro model of spontaneous epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is a partial sleep-related epilepsy which can be caused by mutant neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We applied multi-electrode array (MEA) recording methods to study the spontaneous firing activity of neocortical cultures obtained from mice expressing or not (WT) an ADNFLE-linked nAChR subunit (?2-V287L). More than 100,000 up-states were recorded during experiments sampling from several thousand neurons. Data were analyzed by using a fast sliding-window procedure which computes histograms of the up-state durations. Differently from the WT, cultures expressing ?2-V287L displayed long (10–32 s) synaptic-induced up-state firing events. The occurrence of such long up-states was prevented by both negative (gabazine, penicillin G) and positive (benzodiazepines) modulators of GABAA receptors. Carbamazepine (CBZ), a drug of choice in ADNFLE patients, also inhibited the long up-states at micromolar concentrations. In cultures expressing ?2-V287L, no significant effect was observed on the action potential waveform either in the absence or in the presence of pharmacological treatment. Our results show that some aspects of the spontaneous hyperexcitability displayed by a murine model of a human channelopathy can be reproduced in neuronal cultures. In particular, our cultures represent an in vitro chronic model of spontaneous epileptiform activity, i.e., not requiring pre-treatment with convulsants. This opens the way to the study in vitro of the role of ?2-V287L on synaptic formation. Moreover, our neocortical cultures on MEA platforms allow to determine the effects of prolonged pharmacological treatment on spontaneous network hyperexcitability (which is impossible in the short-living brain slices). Methods such as the one we illustrate in the present paper should also considerably facilitate the preliminary screening of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), thereby reducing the number of in vivo experiments. PMID:25104926

Gullo, Francesca; Manfredi, Irene; Lecchi, Marzia; Casari, Giorgio; Wanke, Enzo; Becchetti, Andrea

2014-01-01

400

Syndrome of Ichthyosis congenita, Neurosensory Deafness, Oligophrenia, Dental Aplasia, Brachydactyly, Clinodactyly, Accessory Cervical Ribs and Carcinoma of the Thyroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a 15-year-old girl with an uneventful family history. Her skin condition was clinically, histologically and ultrastructurally compatible with the diagnosis of ichthyosis congenita. She suffered from neurosensory deafness and oligophrenia. Further findings included dental aplasia, brachydactyly, clinodactyly and accessory cervical ribs. At the age of 14, a thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed. Therapy with a retinoid

Thomas Ruzicka; Günter Goerz; Ingrun Anton-Lamprecht

1981-01-01