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Sample records for aux evenements meteorologiques

  1. Subthreshold Photofission of Even-Even Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S.G.; Rodionova, L.V.

    2005-09-01

    Within quantum-mechanical fission theory, the angular distributions of fragments originating from the subthreshold photofission of the even-even nuclei {sup 232}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 242}Pu are analyzed for photon energies below 7 MeV. Special features of various fission channels are assessed under the assumption that the fission barrier has a two-humped shape. It is shown that the maximum value of the relative orbital angular momentum L{sub m} of fission fragments can be found upon taking into account deviations from the predictions of A. Bohr's formula for the angular distributions of fission fragments. The result is L{sub m} {approx_equal} 30. The existence of an 'isomeric shelf' for the angular distributions of fragments from {sup 236}U and {sup 238}U photofission in the low-energy region is confirmed.

  2. Evening Primrose Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... U V W X Y Z Evening Primrose Oil Share: On This Page Introduction What the Science ... Key References © Steven Foster Common Names: evening primrose oil, EPO Latin Name: Oenothera biennis Introduction This fact ...

  3. Making rice even healthier!

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is a naturally healthy food, but what if it could be made even healthier? Would Americans eat more rice if it could be advertised to be a 'New and Improved' source of calcium to promote bone growth, or iron to prevent anemia? Grocery stores are full of foods that are vitamin enhanced to attract...

  4. Teaching Large Evening Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wambuguh, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    High enrollments, conflicting student work schedules, and the sheer convenience of once-a-week classes are pushing many colleges to schedule evening courses. Held from 6 to 9 pm or 7 to 10 pm, these classes are typically packed, sometimes with more than 150 students in a large lecture theater. How can faculty effectively teach, control, or even…

  5. Photostimulated even acoustoelectric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmelev, G. M.; Shon, N. Kh.; Tsurkan, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Photostimulated photogalvanic (PG) and acoustogalvanic (AG) currents in a semiconductor placed in the field of two linearly polarized electromagnetic waves with frequencies Omega sub 1 = 2Omega sub 2 are analyzed. These currents affect the probability of electron scattering and the HF acoustic flux field. Under specified double laser illumination the system comprising an electron gas and photons becomes noncentrosymmetric, which leads to the PG and AG effects. The AG effect represents a contribution to the acoustoelectric current that is linear according to intensity and even according to the acoustic wave vector.

  6. Even among the troubled.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Kath

    2013-03-01

    I received a phone-call recently with some sad news. A patient with a complex psychiatric history who I had been seeing over the preceding 6 months had attempted suicide and was in intensive care. She died later that day. My experience of working with this patient was of a life filled with pain and chaos. She regularly missed clinic appointments and would then present to the emergency department in the evening intoxicated and suicidal, be admitted and discharge herself the next morning. Psychiatric reviews and medication changes were unsuccessful: she seemed to be on a rollercoaster of distress and no one seemed able to help her get off. PMID:23641516

  7. Ti1-xAux Alloys: Hard Biocompatible Metals and Their Possible Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M. Fevzi; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke; Liang, Hong; Siegrist, Theo; Morosan, Emilia

    2015-03-01

    The search for new hard materials is often challenging from both theoretical and experimental points of view. Furthermore, using materials for biomedical applications calls for alloys with high biocompatibility which are even more sparse. The Ti1-xAux (0 . 22 <= x <= 0 . 8) exhibit extreme hardness and strength values, elevated melting temperatures (compared to those of constituent elements), reduced density compared to Au, high malleability, bulk metallicity, high biocompatibility, low wear, reduced friction, potentially high radio opacity, as well as osseointegration. All these properties render the Ti1-xAux alloys particularly useful for orthopedic, dental, and prosthetic applications, where they could be used as both permanent and temporary components. Additionally, the ability of Ti1-xAux alloys to adhere to ceramic parts could reduce the weight and cost of these components. The work at Rice was supported by NSF DMR 0847681 (E.M. and E.S.).

  8. L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    L'Anse aux Meadows is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, located in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960 by the Norwegians Helge and Anne Ingstad. The only authenticated Viking settlement in North America outside Greenland, it was the site of a multi-year archaeological dig that found dwellings, tools and implements that verified its time frame. The settlement, dating more than five hundred years before Christopher Columbus, contains the earliest European structures in North America. Named a World Heritage site by UNESCO, it is thought by many to be the semi-legendary 'Vinland' settlement of explorer Leif Ericson around AD 1000. The settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows consisted of at least eight buildings, including a forge and smelter, and a lumber yard that supported a shipyard. The largest house measured 28.8 by 15.6 m and consisted of several rooms. Sewing and knitting tools found at the site indicate women were present at L'Anse aux Meadows

    The image was acquired on September 14, 2007, covers an area of 14.2 x 14.6 km, and is located at 51.5 degrees north latitude, 55.6 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. The Evening/Morning Star.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Explains how Venus changes visibility regularly from morning to evening because of its quick orbit time during part of the year. Includes a brief history of observations of this phenomenon and provides a detailed account from the Australian Aborigines. (DDR)

  10. {alpha} decay of even-even superheavy elements

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, V. Yu.; Khudenko, A. A.

    2010-03-15

    The {alpha}-decay half-lives of even-even superheavy elements within the range of proton number 104<=Z<=126, which can be formed by possible cold and hot fusion reactions, are calculated in the framework of various approaches for {alpha}-decay half-life evaluation and by using the Q values of {alpha} transitions obtained within different approximations for atomic masses. The dependencies of {alpha}-decay half-lives of superheavy elements on model approaches for both the Q values and half-life calculations are discussed in detail.

  11. Theory of band comparison in even-even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, B.; Merchant, A. C.; Perez, S. M.

    2003-08-01

    We previously found that a cluster model reproduces satisfactorily the properties of normal deformed (ND) ground state and superdeformed (SD) excited bands in a wide range of even-even nuclei. We show here that the fractional change of the transition energies in two bands described by similar core-cluster configurations is closely related to the fractional change in the corresponding reduced masses. We compare our predictions to data on ground state ND bands for a series of light rare-earth and actinide isotopes, and on SD bands in the A˜150 and 190 regions. The model strongly suggests the existence of similar excited SD bands in 212Pb and 212Po, in addition to the observed α-cluster-like ND ground state bands of these nuclei.

  12. Photon strength distributions in stable even even molybdenum isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, A.; Beyer, R.; Erhard, M.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Klug, J.; Kosev, K.; Nair, C.; Nankov, N.; Rusev, G.; Schilling, K. D.; Schwengner, R.

    2008-01-01

    Electromagnetic dipole-strength distributions up to the particle separation energies are studied for the stable even even nuclides 92,94,96,98,100Mo in photon-scattering experiments at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The influence of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states has been corrected by a simulation of γ cascades using a statistical model. After corrections for branching ratios of ground-state transitions, the photon-scattering cross sections smoothly connect to data obtained from (γ, n) reactions. With the newly determined electromagnetic dipole response of nuclei well below the particle separation energies, the parametrization of the isovector giant dipole resonance is done with improved precision.

  13. Fission barriers for even-even superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kowal, M.; Sobiczewski, A.; Jachimowicz, P.

    2010-07-15

    A quantitative model for the evaluation of the heights of static fission barriers is formulated within the framework of the macroscopic-microscopic approach. In order to describe the main properties (at the ground state and at the saddle point) of superheavy nuclei, a high-dimensional deformation space is used. In the present paper we systematically calculate fission barrier heights B{sub f} for even-even heavy and superheavy nuclei in the range of proton numbers 92<=Z<=126 and neutron numbers 134<=N<=192. Comparisons with experimental data and different theoretical calculations are also shown. The dependence on B{sub f} of fully incorporated, nonaxiality, and reflection-asymmetric degrees of freedom is discussed.

  14. An Evening with Herb Luft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattei, Michael; Mattei, Janet A.

    1989-06-01

    Herbert A. Luft (1908 - 1988) contributed sunspot observations to the AAVSO Solar Division for over 50 years. He received the 1987 E. E. Barnard Observer's Award from the Western Astronomical Association, and he was a member of the AAVSO for 44 years. Sadly, Herb Luft passed away in October 1988 while on his way to the AAVSO annual meeting. It would be a fitting tribute to Herb's memory to share with you some of the fascinating memories of this astronomer's early development as he shared them with us at his home on the evening of November 21, 1987. For example, his 54mm refractor was one of the few personal possessions he carried with him when he fled from Germany in 1939. Without exaggeration, it can be said that Herbert Luft dedicated his life to solar astronomy. The reminiscences below are compiled from a video tape of that evening, now a permanent part of the AAVSO archives.

  15. Collaborateurs aux lignes directrices en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Kraut, Roni; Crawshay, Aven; Korownyk, Christina; Vandermeer, Ben; Kolber, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Déterminer la profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices, les variables associées aux différences de participation des collaborateurs et si oui ou non les lignes directrices en soins primaires fournissent un énoncé sur les conflits d’intérêts. Type d’étude Analyse rétrospective des lignes directrices en soins primaires affichées sur le site web de l’Association médicale canadienne. Deux extracteurs de données indépendants ont examiné les lignes directrices et ont extrait les données pertinentes. Contexte Canada Principaux paramètres à l’étude Commanditaires des lignes directrices, territoire (national ou provincial) visé par les lignes directrices, profession des collaborateurs scientifiques aux lignes directrices et énoncés de conflits d’intérêts rapportés dans les lignes directrices. Résultats Sur les 296 lignes directrices de pratique clinique trouvées dans la section de la médecine familiale de l’Infobanque AMC, 65 apparaissaient en double et 35 se rapportaient de façon limitée à la médecine familiale. Vingt ne fournissaient aucune information sur les collaborateurs scientifiques, ce qui laissait 176 lignes directrices propices à l’analyse. Au total, il y avait 2495 collaborateurs (auteurs et membres de comité) : 1343 (53,8 %) spécialistes autres que des médecins de famille, 423 (17,0 %) médecins de famille, 141 (5,7 %) infirmières, 75 (3,0 %) pharmaciens, 269 (10,8 %) autres cliniciens, 203 (8,1 %) scientifiques non cliniciens et 41 (1,6 %) collaborateurs de profession inconnue. La proportion des collaborateurs de ces professions différait significativement entre les lignes directrices nationales et provinciales, de même qu’entre les lignes directrices financées par l’industrie et celles qui ne l’étaient pas (p < 0,001 dans les 2 cas). Dans le cas des lignes directrices de pratique clinique provinciales, 30,8 % des collaborateurs étaient des médecins de

  16. Rotating for Even Sharper Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation portrays the movements that NASA's Mars Global Surveyor undergoes to acquire an enhanced-resolution image using a technique called compensated pitch and roll targeted observation. The camera team and spacecraft team developed the technique for increasing the resolution in images taken by the spacecraft's Mars Orbiter Camera. Controllers adjust the rotation rate of the spacecraft to match the ground speed under the camera while the orbiter passes over the target.

    Even without using this technique, the Mars Orbiter Camera acquires the highest-resolution images ever taken from a Mars orbiting spacecraft, revealing the martian surface with a typical pixel size of 1.5 meters by 1.5 meters (5 feet by 5 feet.) From the same camera, compensated pitch and roll targeted observations typically have a resolution of 1.5 meters (5 feet) per pixel in the cross-track (east-west) direction and just one-half meter (1.6 feet) in the down-track (north-south) direction.

    Mars Global Surveyor is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  17. Aux Vases Sandstone diagenesis: Implications for hydrocarbon recovery from southern Illinois reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Seyler, B.D.; Beaty, D.S.; Huff, B.G. )

    1991-03-01

    The Aux Vases Sandstone (Mississippian) is a problematic yet productive reservoir in the Illinois basin. The Aux Vases Formation was deposited in a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate offshore environment. Hydrocarbon reservoirs are dominantly elongate sandstone bodies interpreted as subtidal facies within a prograding tidally influenced deposystem. Oil saturated zones, in most cases, are composed of fine-grained, cross-bedded, friable, feldspathic quartz sandstone. Resistivity logs, even from productive wells, are typically characterized by unusually low resistivities (2-4 ohms) that lead to high calculated water saturations. X-ray diffraction, SEM/EDS, and thin section studies were used to analyze diagenetic processes that may affect hydrocarbon production in several Aux Vases reservoirs. Diagenetic processes common to the field studied include: (1) early calcite cementation occluding primary porosity and inhibiting compaction, (2) dissolution of feldspar grains to form authigenic clay, (3) dissolution of early calcite cement, (4) diagenesis of detrital clay minerals into new authigenic clay minerals, and (5) multiple stages of quartz overgrowths that reduce porosity. Commonly used drilling and completion practices may adversely affect reservoir quality by reacting with diagenetic products. Loosening of the fine mineral fraction that causes migration of fines and swelling of expandable clay minerals are examples of this type of damage. Knowledge of reservoir mineralogy and diagenesis may influence drilling and completion practices and affect selection of secondary and tertiary recovery methods.

  18. Soins Aux Brules Apres Un Accident Nucleaire

    PubMed Central

    Bargues, L.; Donat, N.; Jault, P.; Leclerc, T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Les lésions radiques sont dues le plus souvent à des radio-isotopes utilisés dans l’industrie. L’explosion d’un réacteur nucléaire, les armes nucléaires ou une attaque terroriste constituent un risque d’afflux massif de victimes brûlées. Les radiations ionisantes occasionnent des brûlures thermiques, des syndromes d’irradiation aiguë avec pancytopénie et des signes cutanés retardés. Après une période de latence, des symptômes cutanés apparaissent et leur profondeur est proportionnelle à la dose reçue. Les protocoles habituels de réanimation des brûlés s’appliquent ici. Les soins aux irradiés nécessitent aussi une mesure de l’irradiation et une décontamination par des personnels entraînés. En cas de catastrophe nucléaire, la priorité est d’optimiser les structures existantes et de préserver les moyens pour les patients ayant la plus forte probabilité de survie. Après un accident nucléaire isolé, les difficultés dans les centres de brûlés sont l’évaluation de la profondeur et les techniques chirurgicales de couverture cutanée. La préparation des moyens médicaux et des centres de brûlés est nécessaire pour faire face à la prise en charge de ces brûlures différentes et complexes. PMID:21991218

  19. Zolpidem-induced compulsive evening eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Ki; Kwon, Jun Tack; Baek, Jeehun; Park, Duck Su; Yang, Kwang Ik

    2013-01-01

    Zolpidem is associated with an amnestic sleep-related eating disorder, but not with compulsive eating behaviors. A 57-year-old woman receiving zolpidem for insomnia showed compulsive evening eating behavior under a wakeful state. Her compulsive evening eating behavior disappeared when zolpidem treatment was halted. Here, we report her case. PMID:24045611

  20. Measuring statistical evenness: A panoramic overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Sokolov, Igor M.

    2012-02-01

    Motivated by the question “how equal is the distribution of wealth within a given human population?” economics devised an impressive toolbox of quantitative measures of societal egalitarianism including the Lorenz curve and the following indices: Gini, Pietra, Hoover, Amato, Hirschman, Theil and Atkinson. These quantitative measures-considered in the broader context of general data-sets with positive values-are, in effect, general gauges of statistical evenness. While the application of Gini's index grew beyond economics and reached diverse fields of science, the aforementioned “evenness toolbox” has largely remained within the confines of the social sciences. The aim of this Paper is to expose this “evenness toolbox” to the physics community by presenting a comprehensive evenness-based approach to a fundamental problem in science-the measurement of statistical heterogeneity.

  1. Working Women Portrayed on Evening Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaniuga, Nancy; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Even television programs are thought to distort the real-life occupational distribution of women workers by favoring sex stereotypes and representing a narrow range of portrayed occupations for women. (Author)

  2. Energy Band Calculations for Maximally Even Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, Richard; Byrd, Jason

    2007-03-01

    Superlattices are multiple-well, semiconductor heterostructures that can be described by one-dimensional potential wells separated by potential barriers. We refer to a distribution of wells and barriers based on the theory of maximally even sets as a maximally even superlattice. The prototypical example of a maximally even set is the distribution of white and black keys on a piano keyboard. Black keys may represent wells and the white keys represent barriers. As the number of wells and barriers increase, efficient and stable methods of calculation are necessary to study these structures. We have implemented a finite-element method using the discrete variable representation (FE-DVR) to calculate E versus k for these superlattices. Use of the FE-DVR method greatly reduces the amount of calculation necessary for the eigenvalue problem.

  3. Evenly spacing in Detrended Fluctuation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almurad, Zainy M. H.; Delignières, Didier

    2016-06-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis is a widely used method, which aims at assessing the level of self-similarity in time series. This method analyzes the diffusion properties of the signal, by computing the linear regression slope in the diffusion plot, representing in log-log coordinates the relationship between the variability of the signal and the length of the intervals over which this variability is computed. We compare in this paper the results obtained with logarithmically spaced and evenly spaced diffusion plots. The study shows the substantial benefits of evenly spacing, especially in the reduction of the variability of estimation.

  4. Electrical Conduit Distributes Weld Gas Evenly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrisco, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    Purge-gas distributor, made from flexible electrical conduit by drilling small holes along its length, provides even gas flow for welding. Flexible conduit adjusts to accomodate almost any shape and is used for gas coverage in other applications that previously needed formed and drilled solid tubing.

  5. Network Evening News Coverage of Environmental Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Michael R.; And Others

    Focusing on ABC, NBC, and CBS's evening news broadcasts from January 1984 through February 1986, a study examined network news coverage of environmental risk--defined as manmade chemical, biological, and physical agents that create risk in the indoor, outdoor, and occupational environments. Using the Vanderbilt University "Television News Index…

  6. Journal Editors Celebrated at Editors' Evening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, Jeanette

    2014-02-01

    At the Fall Meeting, the premiere social event for AGU's many journal editors is the annual Editors' Evening, an opportunity for members to celebrate and to recognize the efforts of retiring editors. At the event, AGU president Carol Finn welcomed all those in attendance and thanked them for volunteering their time for the benefit of AGU and the wider research community.

  7. Interdire aux enfants et aux adolescents de moins de 18 ans l’accès aux établissements commerciaux de bronzage

    PubMed Central

    Taddeo, Danielle; Stanwick, Richard

    2012-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Le nombre de mélanomes cutanés malins a plus que triplé depuis 35 ans. Puisque les dommages sont cumulatifs, l’exposition aux rayonnements ultraviolets tôt dans la vie accroît le risque, qui augmente davantage avec l’utilisation de sources artificielles de rayonnements ultraviolets. Il peut falloir des années pour évaluer les répercussions et l’étendue complètes des dommages causés par le bronzage artificiel à longueur d’année, compte tenu de la longue période de latence de la plupart des cancers de la peau. Les adolescents fréquentent souvent les salons de bronzage, les filles s’y rendant davantage et de manière soutenue. L’industrie du bronzage conteste la classification de cancérigène physique de groupe 1 qu’attribuent au bronzage artificiel l’Organisation mondiale de la santé et le Centre international de recherche sur le cancer. Les salons de bronzage cherchent à établir et à maintenir une clientèle chez les adolescents. Par conséquent, la Société canadienne de pédiatrie s’ajoute à d’autres organismes de santé réputés pour appuyer l’interdiction des établissements commerciaux de bronzage aux enfants et adolescents de moins de 18 ans.

  8. Collective excitation spectra of transitional even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Quentin, P. Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay . Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse); Deloncle, I.; Libert, J. . Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse); Sauvage, J. . Inst. de Physique Nucleaire)

    1990-11-06

    This talk is dealing with the nuclear low energy collective motion as described in the context of microscopic versions of the Bohr Hamiltonian. Two different ways of building microscopically Bohr collective Hamiltonians will be sketched; one within the framework of the Generator Coordinate Method, the other using the Adiabatic Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock-Boholyubov approximation. A sample of recent results will be presented which pertains to the description of transitional even nuclei and to the newly revisited phenomenon of superdeformation at low spin.

  9. Calculation of the ground state properties of even-even Sn isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Aytekin, H. Baldik, R.; Tel, E.

    2010-06-15

    We investigate the ground-state properties of even-even Sn isotopes using the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) and Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov (SHFB) methods with SKM* and SLy4 force parameters. We focus on isotopes of even-even Sn because these isotopes are vital to the structural studies of unstable nuclei taking place at the electron radioactive-ion collider at RIKEN. In the present paper, we calculate the binding energies per particle, the rms nuclear charge radii, the rms nuclear proton density radii, and the rms nuclear neutron density radii, for even-even Sn isotopes, using the SHF and SHFB methods. We compare our results with experimental data and with the results of relativistic mean-field theory. Notably, we fit our calculated binding energies per particle to experimental results, using the aforementioned SHF methods with SKM* and SLy4 parameters

  10. Even-dimensional topological semimetals under disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. J.; Zhao, Y. X.; Wang, Z. D.

    A topological theory of even-dimensional, chiral symmetry-preserving topological semimetal, which is known as the counterpart of Weyl semimetal, is developed in this work. We show that, in presence of disorder, an anisotropic topological θ-term emerges in the action of effective non-linear sigma model, meanwhile, an anisotropic Chern character term in terms of U (1) gauge response theory, which gives the electromagnetic response, whose stability against disorders is ensured by the former topological ?-term, has also been derived. Moreover, it is found that this topological semimetal can be included in the family of topological quantum matter preserving chiral symmetry. The relations of this topological semimetal to odd-dimensional topological insulator and even-dimensional Dirac fermion are revealed in both effective non-linear sigma model and gauge theory. And importantly, above results can be applied to graphene if we set dimension d = 2 and thus reveal the topological character of this kind of 2-dimensional topological semimetal with two Dirac cones with opposite chiralities.

  11. Systematics of even-a polonium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W.; Cizewski, J.A.; Bernstein, L.A.

    1995-04-01

    Polonium nuclei, with two valence protons, provide fertile ground for the study of the onset of collectivity: from the textbook two-particle levels of {sup 210}Po to the phonon-like multiplets of {sup 196}Po. In their earlier work the authors described the low-lying structure of even-A Po nuclei down to {sup 196}Po as two protons interacting via a surface-{delta} interaction and adiabatically coupled to a vibrating core. However, this particle-core model (PCM) fails to adequately describe the recently measured level scheme of {sup 194}Po. Also because it assumes a pre-existing vibrational core, this model does not help to understand the single particle contributions to the collective motion. Therefore, the authors have also studied the Po systematics using a more microscopic model: the quasi-particle random phase approximation (QRPA). They will present a phenomenological analysis of the rapidity of the onset of collectivity for the Po isotopes as well as results of both PCM and QRPA calculations. The microscopic nature of the collectivity for the even-A Po isotopes will be discussed.

  12. Evening types are prone to depression.

    PubMed

    Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Tuuli; Kronholm, Erkki; Peltonen, Markku; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Salomaa, Veikko; Partonen, Timo

    2013-06-01

    Certain preferences for the timing of daily activities (chronotype) may predispose an individual to sleep problems and mood disorders. In this study, we have examined the link between chronotypes and depression. Participants (N = 6071) were recruited from a random sample of the general population aged 25 to 74 yrs living in defined geographical areas, as part of the National FINRISK Study in 2007 in Finland. Chronotype assessment was based on six items from the original Horne-Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Depression was assessed with four self-reported items, including two probes for a diagnosis of a major depressive episode, diagnosed or treated depression, and use of antidepressants. We also analyzed correlations between chronotype and several health indicators, such as systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, weight, and waist circumference. The odds ratios for a range of indicators of depression were higher for evening types (2.7- to 4.1-fold) and intermediate types (1.5- to 1.9-fold) than for morning types. Our results suggest that individuals having a preference for evening hours to carry out their daily activities are prone to depression. PMID:23688117

  13. National Evaluation of the Even Start Family Literacy Program: Report on Migrant Even Start Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Marjorie; Gamse, Beth; Swartz, Janet; Tao, Fumiyo; Tarr, Hope

    In fall 1994, 14 state Migrant Education Programs were receiving direct federal grants to administer Migrant Even Start projects. These projects provide migrant families with an integrated program of early childhood education, adult education, and parenting education. As part of the national evaluation of the Even Start Family Literacy Program,…

  14. Even-odd effects in the prompt fission emission of even Z actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudora, Anabella; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Giubega, Georgiana; Visan, Iuliana

    2016-03-01

    The investigation of even-odd effects in the prompt emission of even Z actinides showed a sawtooth shape of ν(Z) with staggering in the asymmetric fission region. Average prompt emission quantities as a function of A, e.g. ν(A), of even Z fragmentations are higher than those of odd Z fragmentations and they exhibit oscillations with a periodicity of about 5 mass units in the asymmetric fission region. This periodicity is not due to the Z even-odd effect in fragment distributions. The even-odd effect in <ν>(TKE) is increasing with increasing TKE and it decreases with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. The global even-odd effect in total average prompt emission quantities is decreasing with increasing mass of the fissioning nucleus. In the case of an even-odd fissioning nucleus, 234U(n,f), the global even-odd effect in prompt emission quantities exhibits a very slow variation with the incident neutron energy.

  15. Evening Transition Observations in Phoenix, Arizona.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazel, A. J.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Hunt, J. C. R.; Selover, N.; Hedquist, B. C.; Pardyjak, E.

    2005-01-01

    Past research has suggested that the evening transition in complex topography typically has several main features, such as (a) continued weak upslope flows persisting 3-5 h after sunset (if the sidewalls of the valley prevent Coriolis-induced turning of winds), thus signifying delayed transition; (b) unsteady local stagnation and vertical mixing within tens of meters above the surface; and (c) transition of stagnation fronts to downslope/downvalley gravity currents during the evening hours, especially at higher-elevation (steeper) slopes, and their arrival at adjoining low-elevation gentle slopes as `slope breezes.' This transition process typically occurs in locales such as Phoenix, Arizona, which has expansive exposure to plains in one direction (to the west and south) and is adjacent to abrupt change in the terrain in other directions (primarily to the north and east). An analysis of wind records from several automated weather stations and a radar wind profiler for selected characteristic periods representing all four seasons and data from a previous major field campaign in the greater Phoenix valley illustrate (i) the shallow nature of transition flows that develop on a year-round basis during frequent clear, calm nights in the desert Southwest and their seasonal sensitivity; (ii) a spatial variation of transition times relative to the only first-order National Weather Service station in the region (Sky Harbor International Airport); (iii) the dependence of transition time (and hence the delay of transition) on the exposure, the elevation, and the magnitude of slope; and (iv) a possible heat-island influence. These observations are quantified using theoretical estimates, and the results are placed in the context of multiscale flows in urban basins.

  16. Even Shallower Exploration with Airborne Electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auken, E.; Christiansen, A. V.; Kirkegaard, C.; Nyboe, N. S.; Sørensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne electromagnetics (EM) is in many ways undergoing the same type rapid technological development as seen in the telecommunication industry. These developments are driven by a steadily increasing demand for exploration of minerals, groundwater and geotechnical targets. The latter two areas demand shallow and accurate resolution of the near surface geology in terms of both resistivity and spatial delineation of the sedimentary layers. Airborne EM systems measure the grounds electromagnetic response when subject to either a continuous discrete sinusoidal transmitter signal (frequency domain) or by measuring the decay of currents induced in the ground by rapid transmission of transient pulses (time domain). In the last decade almost all new developments of both instrument hardware and data processing techniques has focused around time domain systems. Here we present a concept for measuring the time domain response even before the transient transmitter current has been turned off. Our approach relies on a combination of new instrument hardware and novel modeling algorithms. The newly developed hardware allows for measuring the instruments complete transfer function which is convolved with the synthetic earth response in the inversion algorithm. The effect is that earth response data measured while the transmitter current is turned off can be included in the inversion, significantly increasing the amount of available information. We demonstrate the technique using both synthetic and field data. The synthetic examples provide insight on the physics during the turn off process and the field examples document the robustness of the method. Geological near surface structures can now be resolved to a degree that is unprecedented to the best of our knowledge, making airborne EM even more attractive and cost-effective for exploration of water and minerals that are crucial for the function of our societies.

  17. Even nanomechanical modes transduced by integrated photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westwood-Bachman, J. N.; Diao, Z.; Sauer, V. T. K.; Bachman, D.; Hiebert, W. K.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate the actuation and detection of even flexural vibrational modes of a doubly clamped nanomechanical resonator using an integrated photonics transduction scheme. The doubly clamped beam is formed by releasing a straight section of an optical racetrack resonator from the underlying silicon dioxide layer, and a step is fabricated in the substrate beneath the beam. The step causes uneven force and responsivity distribution along the device length, permitting excitation and detection of even modes of vibration. This is achieved while retaining transduction capability for odd modes. The devices are actuated via optical force applied with a pump laser. The displacement sensitivities of the first through third modes, as obtained from the thermomechanical noise floor, are 228 fm Hz-1/2, 153 fm Hz-1/2, and 112 fm Hz-1/2, respectively. The excitation efficiency for these modes is compared and modeled based on integration of the uneven forces over the mode shapes. While the excitation efficiency for the first three modes is approximately the same when the step occurs at about 38% of the beam length, the ability to tune the modal efficiency of transduction by choosing the step position is discussed. The overall optical force on each mode is approximately 0.4 pN μm-1 mW-1, for an applied optical power of 0.07 mW. We show a potential application that uses the resonant frequencies of the first two vibrational modes of a buckled beam to measure the stress in the silicon device layer, estimated to be 106 MPa. We anticipate that the observation of the second mode of vibration using our integrated photonics approach will be useful in future mass sensing experiments.

  18. Characterization of T-Even Bacteriophage Substructures

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Donald J.; Kusy, A. R.; Chapman, V. A.; DeLong, S. S.; Stone, K. R.

    1970-01-01

    T-even bacteriophages were grown and purified in bulk quantities. The protein coats were disrupted into their component substructures by treatment with 67% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Tail fibers and tubes were purified on glycerol-CsCl-D2O gradients and examined with respect to sedimentation properties, subunit molecular weights, amino acid composition, isoelectric points, and morphology. It was found that intact tail fibers had a sedimentation coefficient of 12 to 13S and that dissociated fibers consisted of three classes of proteins having molecular weights of 150 K ± 10, 42 K ± 4, and 28 K ± 3 daltons. A model was constructed in which the 150-K subunit folded back on itself twice to give a three-stranded rope. Each 150-K subunit then represented a half-fiber and it was proposed that the role of the 42- and 28-K subunits was to hold each half-fiber together as well as serve as a possible link with other substructures. Isoelectric point studies also indicated that there were three different proteins with pI values of 3.5, 5.7, and 8.0. Amino acid analyses indicated that fibers had a composition distinct from other phage substructures. In addition, a striking difference was noted in the content of tryptophan among the phages examined. T4B had three to five times more tryptophan than did T2L, T2H, T4D, and T6. Intact tail tubes had an S20,w of 31 to 38S and dissociated tubes consisted of three proteins of molecular weights 57 K ± 5, 38 K ± 4, and 25 K ± 3 daltons. Based on degradation studies with DMSO, it was proposed that these three proteins were arranged in a helical array yielding the tube structure. Isoelectric point studies indicated that there were three major proteins in the tube whose pI values were 5.1, 5.7, and 8.5. No significant differences were observed in the amino acid content of tubes obtained from all the T-even bacteriophages. Images PMID:5497900

  19. Maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret; Takaro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les facteurs de risque, la prise en charge et la prévention des maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques en pratique familiale. Sources des données Des articles originaux et de synthèse entre janvier 1998 et février 2012 ont été identifiés à l’aide de PubMed et des expressions de recherche en anglais water-related illness, recreational water illness et swimmer illness. Message principal Il y a un risque de 3 % à 8 % de maladies gastrointestinales (MGI) après la baignade. Les groupes à risque élevé de MGI sont les enfants de moins de 5 ans, surtout s’ils n’ont pas été vaccinés contre le rotavirus, les personnes âgées et les patients immunodéficients. Les enfants sont à plus grand risque parce qu’ils avalent plus d’eau quand ils nagent, restent dans l’eau plus longtemps et jouent dans l’eau peu profonde et le sable qui sont plus contaminés. Les adeptes des sports dans lesquels le contact avec l’eau est abondant comme le triathlon et le surf cerf-volant sont aussi à risque élevé et même ceux qui s’adonnent à des activités impliquant un contact partiel avec l’eau comme la navigation de plaisance et la pêche ont un risque de 40 % à 50 % fois plus grand de MGI par rapport à ceux qui ne pratiquent pas de sports aquatiques. Il y a lieu de faire une culture des selles quand on soupçonne une maladie reliée aux loisirs aquatiques et l’échelle clinique de la déshydratation est utile pour l’évaluation des besoins de traitement chez les enfants affectés. Conclusion Les maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques est la principale cause de MGI durant la saison des baignades. La reconnaissance que la baignade est une source importante de maladies peut aider à prévenir les cas récurrents et secondaires. On recommande fortement le vaccin contre le rotavirus chez les enfants qui se baignent souvent.

  20. The "Past Hypothesis": Not even false

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earman, John

    It has become something of a dogma in the philosophy of science that modern cosmology has completed Boltzmann's program for explaining the statistical validity of the Second Law of thermodynamics by providing the low entropy initial state needed to ground the asymmetry in entropic behavior that underwrites our inference about the past. This dogma is challenged on several grounds. In particular, it is argued that it is likely that the Boltzmann entropy of the initial state of the universe is an ill-defined or severely hobbled concept. It is also argued that even if the entropy of the initial state of the universe had a well-defined, low value, this would not suffice to explain why thermodynamics works as well as it does for the kinds of systems we care about. Because the role of Boltzmann entropy in our inferences to the past has been vastly overrated, the failure of the Boltzmann program does not pose a serious problem for our knowledge of the past. But it does call a different explanation of why thermodynamics works as well as it does. A suggestion is offered for a different approach.

  1. Universal bounds in even-spin CFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qualls, Joshua D.

    2015-12-01

    We prove using invariance under the modular S- and ST -transformations that every unitary two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) having only even-spin primary operators (with no extended chiral algebra and with right- and left-central charges c, tilde{c}>1 ) contains a primary operator with dimension Δ1 satisfying 0<{\\varDelta}_1

  2. "Towards an even healthier Mediterranean diet".

    PubMed

    Estruch, R; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2013-12-01

    Dietary guidelines to promote good health are usually based on foods, nutrients, and dietary patterns predictive of chronic disease risk in epidemiologic studies. However, sound nutritional recommendations for cardiovascular prevention should be based on the results of large randomized clinical trials with "hard" end-points as the main outcome. Such evidence has been obtained for the Mediterranean diet from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial and the Lyon Heart Study. The traditional Mediterranean diet was that found in olive growing areas of Crete, Greece, and Southern Italy in the late 1950s. Their major characteristics include: a) a high consumption of cereals, legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; b) a relatively high-fat consumption, mostly provided by olive oil; c) moderate to high fish consumption; d) poultry and dairy products consumed in moderate to small amounts; e) low consumption of red meats, and meat products; and f) moderate alcohol intake, usually in the form of red wine. However, these protective effects of the traditional Mediterranean diet may be even greater if we upgrade the health effects of this dietary pattern changing the common olive oil used for extra-virgin olive oil, increasing the consumption of nuts, fatty fish and whole grain cereals, reducing sodium intake, and maintaining a moderate consumption of wine with meals. PMID:24263037

  3. Alpha Decay Preformation Factors for Even-Even 280-316116 Superheavy Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsaif, Norah A. M.; Radiman, Shahidan; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Ahmed, Saad M. Saleh

    2016-06-01

    The success of the cluster formation model (CFM) in deriving an energy-dependent formula for the preformation factors of heavy nuclei has motivated us to expand this approach to the superheavy isotopes (SHI). In this paper, the alpha-cluster formation (preformation factor) behavior inside the parent nuclei of SHI with atomic number Z = 116 and neutron numbers 164 ≤ N ≤ 200 is determined using the alpha preformation formula contained within the CFM. The cluster formation energy of the alpha particles and the total energy of the parent nuclei are calculated on the basis of the various binding energies. Our results clearly show that the CFM remains valid for superheavy nuclei (SHN). In addition, our calculations reveal that the alpha clustering mechanism and formation probability in 280-316116 even-even SHI are similar to those of even-even heavy nuclei in a general sense.

  4. Microscopic investigation of structural evolution in even-even N = 60 isotones

    SciTech Connect

    Oudih, M. R.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N. H.; Benhamouda, N.

    2012-10-20

    The ground state properties of even-even N=60 isotones from the neutron-rich to the proton-rich side are investigated within the self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory in the triaxial landscape. Quantities such as binding energies and root-mean-square radii are investigated and compared with available experimental data. The evolution of the potential energy surfaces in the ({beta},{gamma}) deformation plane is presented and discussed.

  5. Spin-dependent γ softness or triaxiality in even-even 132-138Nd nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Qing-Zhen; Wang, Hua-Lei; Yang, Qiong; Liu, Min-Liang

    2015-02-01

    The properties of γ instability in rapidly rotating even-even 132-138Nd isotopes have been investigated using the pairing-deformation self-consistent total-Routhian-surface calculations in a deformation space of (β2, γ, β4). It is found that even-even 134-138Nd nuclei exhibit triaxiality in both ground and excited states, even up to high-spin states. The lightest isotope possesses a well-deformed prolate shape without a γ deformation component. The current numerical results are compared with previous calculations and available observables such as quadrupole deformation β2 and the feature of γ-band levels, showing basically a general agreement with the observed trend of γ correlations (e.g. the pattern of the odd-even energy staggering of the γ band). The existing differences between theory and experiment are analyzed and discussed briefly. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (10805040,11175217), Foundation and Advanced Technology Research Program of Henan Province(132300410125) and S & T Research Key Program of Henan Province Education Department (13A140667)

  6. Application de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebas, E.; Martin, G. H.

    2002-04-01

    La réduction des émissions d'oxydes d'azote sur turbines à gaz est obtenue par diminution de la température au sein de la chambre de combustion. Les techniques possibles comprennent l'injection d'eau ou de vapeur, la combustion pauvre et l'oxydation catalytique. Parmi celles-ci, la dernière est la plus prometteuse en terme de coûts et de performances, avec des émissions de NOx ramenées à un seul chiffre (typiquement inférieures à 3 ppm). L'IFP travaille depuis maintenant 10 ans sur l'adaptation de la combustion catalytique aux turbines à gaz. Les études ont été conduites au travers de projets européen tels que AGATA (Advance Gas Turbine for Automotive Application) et ULECAT (Ultra Low CATalytic combustor for dual fuel gas turbine). Le premier projet était destiné au développement de véhicules hybrides et le second à la combustion stationnaire de biogaz et de combustible Diesel. Les études en cours dans ce domaine portent sur le développement d'une unité de cogénération intégrant une microturbine à combustion catalytique. Les travaux menés à l'IFP concernent la mise au point de catalyseurs répondant aux exigences de la combustion catalytique en turbine à gaz et le développement de chambres de combustion permettant la mise en oeuvre de ces catalyseurs.

  7. Constitutive auxin response in Physcomitrella reveals complex interactions between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lavy, Meirav; Prigge, Michael J; Tao, Sibo; Shain, Stephanie; Kuo, April; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated action of the auxin-sensitive Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and ARF transcription factors produces complex gene-regulatory networks in plants. Despite their importance, our knowledge of these two protein families is largely based on analysis of stabilized forms of the Aux/IAAs, and studies of a subgroup of ARFs that function as transcriptional activators. To understand how auxin regulates gene expression we generated a Physcomitrella patens line that completely lacks Aux/IAAs. Loss of the repressors causes massive changes in transcription with misregulation of over a third of the annotated genes. Further, we find that the aux/iaa mutant is blind to auxin indicating that auxin regulation of transcription occurs exclusively through Aux/IAA function. We used the aux/iaa mutant as a simplified platform for studies of ARF function and demonstrate that repressing ARFs regulate auxin-induced genes and fine-tune their expression. Further the repressing ARFs coordinate gene induction jointly with activating ARFs and the Aux/IAAs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13325.001 PMID:27247276

  8. Constitutive auxin response in Physcomitrella reveals complex interactions between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins.

    PubMed

    Lavy, Meirav; Prigge, Michael J; Tao, Sibo; Shain, Stephanie; Kuo, April; Kirchsteiger, Kerstin; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The coordinated action of the auxin-sensitive Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors and ARF transcription factors produces complex gene-regulatory networks in plants. Despite their importance, our knowledge of these two protein families is largely based on analysis of stabilized forms of the Aux/IAAs, and studies of a subgroup of ARFs that function as transcriptional activators. To understand how auxin regulates gene expression we generated a Physcomitrella patens line that completely lacks Aux/IAAs. Loss of the repressors causes massive changes in transcription with misregulation of over a third of the annotated genes. Further, we find that the aux/iaa mutant is blind to auxin indicating that auxin regulation of transcription occurs exclusively through Aux/IAA function. We used the aux/iaa mutant as a simplified platform for studies of ARF function and demonstrate that repressing ARFs regulate auxin-induced genes and fine-tune their expression. Further the repressing ARFs coordinate gene induction jointly with activating ARFs and the Aux/IAAs. PMID:27247276

  9. Rotational energy term in the empirical formula for the yrast energies in even-even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Eunja; Hong, S. W.

    2009-03-15

    We show that part of the empirical formula describing the gross features of the measured yrast energies of the natural parity even multipole states for even-even nuclei can be related to the rotational energy of nuclei. When the first term of the empirical formula, {alpha}A{sup -{gamma}}, is regarded as the rotational energy, we can better understand the results of the previous analyses of the excitation energies. We show that the values of the parameters {alpha} and {gamma} newly obtained by considering the {alpha}A{sup -{gamma}} term as the rotational energy of a rigid rotor are remarkably consistent with those values extracted from the earlier 'modified'{chi}{sup 2} analyses, in which we use the logarithms of the excitation energies in defining the 'modified'{chi}{sup 2} values.

  10. The influence of intruder states in even-even Po isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    García-Ramos, J. E.; Heyde, K.

    2015-10-15

    We study the role of intruder states and shape coexistence in the even-even {sup 190–206}Po isotopes, through an interacting boson model with configuration mixing calculation. We analyzed the results in the light of known systematics on various observable in the Pb region, paying special attention to the unperturbed energy systematics and quadrupole deformation. We find that shape coexistence in the Po isotopes behaves in very much the same way as in the Pt isotopes, i.e., it is somehow hidden, contrary to the situation in the Pb and the Hg isotopes.

  11. Branching ratios of {alpha} decay to excited states of even-even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. Z.; Zhang, H. F.; Dong, J. M.; Royer, G.

    2009-01-15

    Branching ratios of {alpha} decay to members of the ground state rotational band and excited 0{sup +} states of even-even nuclei are calculated in the framework of the generalized liquid drop model (GLDM) by taking into account the angular momentum of the {alpha} particle and the excitation probability of the daughter nucleus. The calculation covers isotopic chains from Hg to Fm in the mass regions 180=}224. The calculated branching ratios of the {alpha} transitions are in good agreement with the experimental data and some useful predictions are provided for future experiments.

  12. Nevada Even Start Family Literacy Program = Programa de alfabetizacion familiar Even Start de Nevada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.

    Two pamphlets (one in English and one in Spanish) describe the Nevada Even Start (NEST) program, a home-based system designed to help parents become full partners in the education of their children and to help children and parents reach their full potential as learners. The pamphlets note that the program intends to break the cycle of…

  13. Modelisation de la diffusion sur les surfaces metalliques: De l'adatome aux processus de croissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Ghyslain

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude des processus de diffusion en surface dans le but ultime de comprendre, et de modeliser, la croissance d'une couche mince. L'importance de bien mai triser la croissance est primordiale compte tenu de son role dans la miniaturisation des circuits electroniques. Nous etudions ici les surface des metaux nobles et de ceux de la fin de la serie de transition. Dans un premier temps, nous nous interessons a la diffusion d'un simple adatome sur une surface metallique. Nous avons, entre autres, mis en evidence l'apparition d'une correlation entre evenements successifs lorsque la temperature est comparable a la barriere de diffusion, i.e., la diffusion ne peut pas etre associee a une marche aleatoire. Nous proposons un modele phenomenologique simple qui reproduit bien les resultats des simulations. Ces calculs nous ont aussi permis de montrer que la diffusion obeit a la loi de Meyer-Neldel. Cette loi stipule que, pour un processus active, le prefacteur augmente exponentiellement avec la barriere. En plus, ce travail permet de clarifier l'origine physique de cette loi. En comparant les resultats dynamiques aux resultats statiques, on se rend compte que la barriere extraite des calculs dynamiques est essentiellement la meme que celle obtenue par une approche statique, beaucoup plus simple. On peut donc obtenir cette barriere a l'aide de methodes plus precises, i.e., ab initio, comme la theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite, qui sont aussi malheureusement beaucoup plus lourdes. C'est ce que nous avons fait pour plusieurs systemes metalliques. Nos resultats avec cette derniere approche se comparent tres bien aux resultats experimentaux. Nous nous sommes attardes plus longuement a la surface (111) du platine. Cette surface regorge de particularites interessantes, comme la forme d'equilibre non-hexagonale des i lots et deux sites d'adsorption differents pour l'adatome. De plus, des calculs ab initio precedents n'ont pas reussi a confirmer la

  14. Binding energies of even-even superheavy nuclei in a semi-microscopic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, M.; Ellithi, A. Y.; Botros, M. M.; Adel, A.

    2010-10-15

    The structure of some even-even superheavy nuclei with the proton number Z = 98-120 is studied using a semi-microscopic but not self-consistent model. The macroscopic energy part is obtained from the Skyrme nucleon-nucleon interaction in the semi-classical extended Thomas-Fermi approach. A simple but accurate method is derived for calculating the direct part of the Coulomb energy. The microscopic shell plus pairing energy corrections are calculated from the traditional Strutinsky method. Within this semi-microscopic approach, the total energy curves with the quadrupole deformation of the studied superheavy nuclei were calculated. The same approach features the well known {sup 208}Pb or {sup 238}U nuclei. For each nucleus the model predictions for the binding energy, the deformation parameters, the half-density radii and comparison with other theoretical models are made. The calculated binding energies are in good agreement with the available experimental data.

  15. Characteristics of collectivity along the yrast line in even-even tungsten isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qiong; Wang, Hua-Lei; Liu, Min-Liang; Xu, Fu-Rong

    2016-08-01

    The collective nature of high-spin yrast states in even-even W-190160 isotopes was systematically investigated by means of pairing self-consistent Woods-Saxon-Strutinsky calculations using the total Routhian surface approach in (β2,γ ,β4) deformation space. The calculated ground-state deformations are consistent with previous calculations and available experimental data. The deformation energy curves are presented to show the shape and softness evolutions, in particular in the triaxial direction. The backbending or upbending behavior in moment of inertia is attributed to band crossing. It is found that the neutron rotation alignment is preferred for most of the W isotopes (e.g., in W-180164), while in other nuclei the competition between the neutron and proton alignments may occur, even the proton alignment is favored in the very neutron-deficient nucleus 160W. In addition, the evolution and transition between vibrational and rotational collective modes along the yrast line are investigated on the basis of the new centipedelike E-GOS (E-Gamma Over Spin) curves introduced by us, which to some extent explains the existing differences (e.g., in the moment of inertia) between theory and experiment.

  16. Protein-protein interaction and gene co-expression maps of ARFs and Aux/IAAs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Piya, Sarbottam; Shrestha, Sandesh K.; Binder, Brad; Stewart, C. Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Based on the current model in Arabidopsis thaliana, Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins repress auxin-inducible genes by inhibiting auxin response transcription factors (ARFs). Experimental evidence suggests that heterodimerization between Aux/IAA and ARF proteins are related to their unique biological functions. The objective of this study was to generate the Aux/IAA-ARF protein-protein interaction map using full length sequences and locate the interacting protein pairs to specific gene co-expression networks in order to define tissue-specific responses of the Aux/IAA-ARF interactome. Pairwise interactions between 19 ARFs and 29 Aux/IAAs resulted in the identification of 213 specific interactions of which 79 interactions were previously unknown. The incorporation of co-expression profiles with protein-protein interaction data revealed a strong correlation of gene co-expression for 70% of the ARF-Aux/IAA interacting pairs in at least one tissue/organ, indicative of the biological significance of these interactions. Importantly, ARF4-8 and 19, which were found to interact with almost all Aux-Aux/IAA showed broad co-expression relationships with Aux/IAA genes, thus, formed the central hubs of the co-expression network. Our analyses provide new insights into the biological significance of ARF-Aux/IAA associations in the morphogenesis and development of various plant tissues and organs. PMID:25566309

  17. Isotopic yield in cold binary fission of even-even 244-258Cf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Cyriac, Annu; Krishnan, Sreejith

    2016-05-01

    The cold binary fission of even-even 244-258Cf isotopes has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential. The favorable fragment combinations are obtained from the cold valley plot (plot of driving potential vs. mass number of fragments) and by calculating the yield for charge minimized fragments. It is found that for 244,246,248Cf isotopes highest yield is for the fragments with isotope of Pb (Z = 82) as one fragment, whereas for 250Cf and 252Cf isotopes the highest yield is for the fragments with isotope of Hg (Z = 80) as one fragment. In the case of 254,256,258Cf isotopes the highest yield is for the fragments with Sn (Z = 50) as one fragment. Thus, the fragment combinations with maximum yield reveal the role of doubly magic and near doubly magic nuclei in binary fission. It is found that asymmetric splitting is favored for Cf isotopes with mass number A ≤ 250 and symmetric splitting is favored for Cf isotopes with A > 252. In the case of Cf isotope with A = 252, there is an equal probability for asymmetric and symmetric splitting. The individual yields obtained for the cold fission of 252Cf isotope are compared with the experimental data taken from the γ- γ- γ coincidences technique using Gammasphere.

  18. Global properties of even-even superheavy nuclei in macroscopic-microscopic models

    SciTech Connect

    Baran, Andrzej; Lojewski, Zdzislaw; Sieja, Kamila; Kowal, Michal

    2005-10-01

    A systematic study of global properties of superheavy nuclei in the framework of macroscopic-microscopic method is performed. Equilibrium deformations, masses, quadrupole moments, radii, shell energies, fission barriers and half-lives are calculated using the following macroscopic models: Myers-Swiatecki liquid drop, droplet, Yukawa-plus-exponential, and Lublin-Strasbourg drop. Shell and pairing energies are calculated in Woods-Saxon potential with a universal set of parameters. The analysis covers a wide range of even-even superheavy nuclei from Z=100 to 122. Magic and semimagic numbers occurring in this region are indicated and their influence on the observables is discussed. The strongest shell effects appear at proton number Z=114 and at neutron number N=184. Deformed shell closures are found at N=152 and 162. Spontaneous fission half-lives are calculated in a dynamical approach where the full minimization of the action integral in a three-dimensional deformation space of {beta} deformations is performed. The fission half-lives obtained this way are two orders of magnitude smaller than the ones resulting from static calculations. The agreement of theoretical results and experimental data is satisfying.

  19. Fragmentation of mixed-symmetry excitations in stable even-even tellurium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Yates, S. W.

    2008-11-15

    The lowest six excited 2{sup +} levels of the even-even {sup 122-130}Te nuclei have been investigated using {gamma}-ray spectroscopy following inelastic neutron scattering. These levels have been identified and their decay properties have been characterized from {gamma}-ray excitation functions and {gamma}-ray angular distributions; additionally, lifetimes of these levels have been deduced using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. Electromagnetic transition rates and E2/M1 multipole mixing ratios from the 2{sub x}{sup +}[x=2-6]{yields}2{sub 1}{sup +} transitions have been examined to identify the lowest mixed-symmetry states in these nuclei. In each nucleus, the mixed-symmetry strength appears to be fragmented between more than one level. The summed M1 strength from the 2{sub x}{sup +}[x=2-6] states to the 2{sub 1}{sup +} level agrees rather well with neutron-proton interacting boson model predictions in the U(5) or O(6) limits for these Te nuclei.

  20. Symetries et integrabilite des equations aux differences finies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafortune, Stephane

    2000-09-01

    La présente thèse porte sur l'étude des symétries et des propriétés d'intégrabilité des équations aux différences finies. Dans le chapitre 1, le groupe de symétrie ponctuelle d'un système couplé à deux équations différentielles aux différences est étudié. On montre que dans certains cas, la dimension du groupe peut être infinie. Les équations peuvent décrire l'interaction de deux longues chaînes moléculaires, chacune étant composée d'atomes d'un même type. Dans le chapitre 2, une classe de théories de champs avec interaction exponentielle est introduite. L'interaction dépend de deux matrices de ``couplage'' et est suffisamment générale pour inclure toutes les théories de champs de Toda existant dans la littérature. Les symétries de Lie ponctuelles sont obtenues pour les cas où l'on a un nombre fini, infini ou semi-infini de champs. Une attention spéciale est accordée à la présence de l'invariance conforme. Dans le chapitre 3, nous procédons à la classification et à l'étude d'équations linéarisables. Nous examinons tout d'abord l'équation de Gambier continue qui contient, comme réductions, toutes les équations de deuxième ordre intégrables par linéarisation. Nous introduisons par la suite la forme discrète de cette équation et obtenons les conditions d'intégrabilité à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Nous étudions aussi les différentes réductions du cas discret. De plus, nous obtenons des transformations de Schlesinger pour les équations de Gambier discrète et continue. Dans la dernière partie du chapitre, nous étudions une famille d'équations discrètes du deuxième ordre incluant des équations résolubles par linéarisation. Plusieurs cas intégrables sont obtenus. Dans le cas discret, l'étude de l'intégrabilité est faite à l'aide du confinement des singularités. Dans le chapitre 4, nous étudions un autre critère d'intégrabilité: l'entropie algébrique. Nous montrons que les r

  1. Probing the structures of gold-aluminum alloy clusters AuxAly-: a joint experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khetrapal, Navneet Singh; Jian, Tian; Pal, Rhitankar; Lopez, Gary V.; Pande, Seema; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Besides the size and structure, compositions can also dramatically affect the properties of alloy nanoclusters. Due to the added degrees of freedom, determination of the global minimum structures for multi-component nanoclusters poses even greater challenges, both experimentally and theoretically. Here we report a systematic and joint experimental/theoretical study of a series of gold-aluminum alloy clusters, AuxAly- (x + y = 7,8), with various compositions (x = 1-3 y = 4-7). Well-resolved photoelectron spectra have been obtained for these clusters at different photon energies. Basin-hopping global searches, coupled with density functional theory calculations, are used to identify low-lying structures of the bimetallic clusters. By comparing computed electronic densities of states of the low-lying isomers with the experimental photoelectron spectra, the global minima are determined. It is found that for y >= 6 there is a strong tendency to form the magic-number square bi-pyramid motif of Al6- in the AuxAly- clusters, suggesting that the Al-Al interaction dominates the Au-Au interaction in the mixed clusters. A closely related trend is that for x > 1, the gold atoms tend to be separated by Al atoms unless only the magic-number Al6- square bi-pyramid motif is present, suggesting that in the small-sized mixed clusters, Al and Au components do not completely mix with one another. Overall, the Al component appears to play a more dominant role due to the high robustness of the magic-number Al6- square bi-pyramid motif, whereas the Au component tends to be either ``adsorbed'' onto the Al6- square bi-pyramid motif if y >= 6, or stays away from one another if x < y < 6.Besides the size and structure, compositions can also dramatically affect the properties of alloy nanoclusters. Due to the added degrees of freedom, determination of the global minimum structures for multi-component nanoclusters poses even greater challenges, both experimentally and theoretically. Here we

  2. Probing the structures of gold-aluminum alloy clusters AuxAly(-): a joint experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Khetrapal, Navneet Singh; Jian, Tian; Pal, Rhitankar; Lopez, Gary V; Pande, Seema; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Besides the size and structure, compositions can also dramatically affect the properties of alloy nanoclusters. Due to the added degrees of freedom, determination of the global minimum structures for multi-component nanoclusters poses even greater challenges, both experimentally and theoretically. Here we report a systematic and joint experimental/theoretical study of a series of gold-aluminum alloy clusters, AuxAly(-) (x + y = 7,8), with various compositions (x = 1-3; y = 4-7). Well-resolved photoelectron spectra have been obtained for these clusters at different photon energies. Basin-hopping global searches, coupled with density functional theory calculations, are used to identify low-lying structures of the bimetallic clusters. By comparing computed electronic densities of states of the low-lying isomers with the experimental photoelectron spectra, the global minima are determined. It is found that for y ≥ 6 there is a strong tendency to form the magic-number square bi-pyramid motif of Al6(-) in the AuxAly(-) clusters, suggesting that the Al-Al interaction dominates the Au-Au interaction in the mixed clusters. A closely related trend is that for x > 1, the gold atoms tend to be separated by Al atoms unless only the magic-number Al6(-) square bi-pyramid motif is present, suggesting that in the small-sized mixed clusters, Al and Au components do not completely mix with one another. Overall, the Al component appears to play a more dominant role due to the high robustness of the magic-number Al6(-) square bi-pyramid motif, whereas the Au component tends to be either "adsorbed" onto the Al6(-) square bi-pyramid motif if y ≥ 6, or stays away from one another if x < y < 6. PMID:27119726

  3. Nucleon-pair states of even-even Sn isotopes based on realistic effective interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y. Y.; Qi, C.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we study yrast states of 128,126,124Sn and 104,106,108Sn by using the monopole-optimized realistic interactions in terms of both the shell model (SM) and the nucleon-pair approximation (NPA). For yrast states of 128,126Sn and 104,106Sn, we calculate the overlaps between the wave functions obtained in the full SM space and those obtained in the truncated NPA space, and find that most of these overlaps are very close to 1. Very interestingly, for most of these states with positive parity and even spin or with negative parity and odd spin, the SM wave function is found to be well represented by one nucleon-pair basis state, viz., a simple picture of "nucleon-pair states" (nucleon-pair configuration without mixings) emerges. In 128,126Sn, the positive-parity (or negative-parity) yrast states with spin J >10 (or J >7 ) are found to be well described by breaking one or two S pairs in the 101+ (or 71-) state, i.e., the yrast state of seniority-two, spin-maximum, and positive-parity (or negative-parity), into non-S pair(s). Similar regularity is also pointed out for 104,106Sn. The evolution of E 2 transition rates between low-lying states in 128,126,124Sn is discussed in terms of the seniority scheme.

  4. Study of Even-Even/Odd-Even/Odd-Odd Nuclei in Zn-Ga-Ge Region in the Proton-Neutron IBM/IBFM/IBFFM

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, N.; Brant, S.; Zuffi, L.

    2009-08-26

    We study the even-even, odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the region including Zn-Ga-Ge in the proton-neutron IBM and the models derived from it: IBM2, IBFM2, IBFFM2. We describe {sup 67}Ga, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 68}Ga by coupling odd particles to a boson core {sup 66}Zn. We also calculate the beta{sup +}-decay rates among {sup 68}Ge, {sup 68}Ga and {sup 68}Zn.

  5. Precise AuxPt1-x Alloy Nanoparticle Array of Tunable Composition for Catalytic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Sarah; Lechner, Sebastian J.; Freichels, Helene; Möller, Martin; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-02-01

    A 3-dimensional Block Copolymer Micellar nanoLithography (BCML) process was used to prepare AuxPt1-x alloy nanoparticles (NPs) monodisperse in size and composition, strongly anchored onto SiO2-particles (0.2 wt.% AuxPt1-x/SiO2). The particles possess a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and their size could be varied from 3-12 nm. We demonstrate the uniformity of the Au/Pt composition by analyzing individual NPs by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The strongly bound AuxPt1-x NPs catalyzed the oxidation of CO with high activity. Thermal ageing experiments in pure CO2 as well as in ambient atmosphere demonstrated stability of the size distribution for times as long as 22 h.

  6. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed. PMID:24344286

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA—BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA—AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  8. Genome-Wide Analysis and Characterization of Aux/IAA Family Genes in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Paul, Parameswari; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Sivanandhan, Ganesan; Choi, Su Ryun; Pang, Wenxing; Im, Subin; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Auxins are the key players in plant growth development involving leaf formation, phototropism, root, fruit and embryo development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) are early auxin response genes noted as transcriptional repressors in plant auxin signaling. However, many studies focus on Aux/ARF gene families and much less is known about the Aux/IAA gene family in Brassica rapa (B. rapa). Here we performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identified 55 Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa using four conserved motifs of Aux/IAA family (PF02309). Chromosomal mapping of the B. rapa Aux/IAA (BrIAA) genes facilitated understanding cluster rearrangement of the crucifer building blocks in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of BrIAA with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays identified 51 sister pairs including 15 same species (BrIAA-BrIAA) and 36 cross species (BrIAA-AtIAA) IAA genes. Among the 55 BrIAA genes, expression of 43 and 45 genes were verified using Genebank B. rapa ESTs and in home developed microarray data from mature leaves of Chiifu and RcBr lines. Despite their huge morphological difference, tissue specific expression analysis of BrIAA genes between the parental lines Chiifu and RcBr showed that the genes followed a similar pattern of expression during leaf development and a different pattern during bud, flower and siliqua development stages. The response of the BrIAA genes to abiotic and auxin stress at different time intervals revealed their involvement in stress response. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms between IAA genes of reference genome Chiifu and RcBr were focused and identified. Our study examines the scope of conservation and divergence of Aux/IAA genes and their structures in B. rapa. Analyzing the expression and structural variation between two parental lines will significantly contribute to functional genomics of Brassica crops and we belive our study would provide a foundation in understanding the Aux/IAA genes in B. rapa. PMID

  9. Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision Study of college players raises concerns about repetitive ... Repeated blows to the head can cause near vision to blur slightly, even if the individual impacts ...

  10. Even Start Projects Serving Migrant Families: Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Miriam; Goldstein, David; Stief, Elizabeth; Fiester, Leila; Weiner, Lisa; Waiters, Katrina

    Even Start was created by federal legislation to address poverty and illiteracy among low-income families by integrating early childhood education, adult literacy or adult basic education, and parenting education into a unified family literacy program. Migrant Education Even Start (MEES) projects resemble other Even Start projects but are affected…

  11. 24 CFR 904.108 - Break-even amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Break-even amount. 904.108 Section... LOW RENT HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Turnkey III Program Description § 904.108 Break-even amount. (a) Definition. The term “break-even amount” as used herein means the minimum average...

  12. 24 CFR 904.108 - Break-even amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Break-even amount. 904.108 Section... LOW RENT HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Turnkey III Program Description § 904.108 Break-even amount. (a) Definition. The term “break-even amount” as used herein means the minimum average...

  13. 24 CFR 904.108 - Break-even amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Break-even amount. 904.108 Section... LOW RENT HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Turnkey III Program Description § 904.108 Break-even amount. (a) Definition. The term “break-even amount” as used herein means the minimum average...

  14. 24 CFR 904.108 - Break-even amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Break-even amount. 904.108 Section... LOW RENT HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Turnkey III Program Description § 904.108 Break-even amount. (a) Definition. The term “break-even amount” as used herein means the minimum average...

  15. 24 CFR 904.108 - Break-even amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Break-even amount. 904.108 Section... LOW RENT HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Turnkey III Program Description § 904.108 Break-even amount. (a) Definition. The term “break-even amount” as used herein means the minimum average...

  16. Organic agriculture promotes evenness and natural pest control.

    PubMed

    Crowder, David W; Northfield, Tobin D; Strand, Michael R; Snyder, William E

    2010-07-01

    Human activity can degrade ecosystem function by reducing species number (richness) and by skewing the relative abundance of species (evenness). Conservation efforts often focus on restoring or maintaining species number, reflecting the well-known impacts of richness on many ecological processes. In contrast, the ecological effects of disrupted evenness have received far less attention, and developing strategies for restoring evenness remains a conceptual challenge. In farmlands, agricultural pest-management practices often lead to altered food web structure and communities dominated by a few common species, which together contribute to pest outbreaks. Here we show that organic farming methods mitigate this ecological damage by promoting evenness among natural enemies. In field enclosures, very even communities of predator and pathogen biological control agents, typical of organic farms, exerted the strongest pest control and yielded the largest plants. In contrast, pest densities were high and plant biomass was low when enemy evenness was disrupted, as is typical under conventional management. Our results were independent of the numerically dominant predator or pathogen species, and so resulted from evenness itself. Moreover, evenness effects among natural enemy groups were independent and complementary. Our results strengthen the argument that rejuvenation of ecosystem function requires restoration of species evenness, rather than just richness. Organic farming potentially offers a means of returning functional evenness to ecosystems. PMID:20596021

  17. Cloning and expression analysis of novel Aux/IAA family genes in Gossypium hirsutum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family encode proteins to mediate the responses of auxin gene expression and to regulate various aspects of plant morphological development. In this paper, we report the identification of nine cDNAs that contain complete open reading frame (OR...

  18. Oligomerization of SCFTIR1 Is Essential for Aux/IAA Degradation and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dezfulian, Mohammad H; Jalili, Espanta; Roberto, Don Karl A; Moss, Britney L; Khoo, Kerry; Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Crosby, William L

    2016-09-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-regulated degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors. Despite the importance of auxin signaling, little is known about the functional regulation of the TIR1/AFB receptor family. Here we show that TIR1 can oligomerize in planta via a set of spatially clustered amino acid residues. While none of the residues identified reside in the interaction interface of the TIR1-Aux/IAA degron, they nonetheless regulate the binding of TIR1 to Aux/IAA substrate proteins and their subsequent degradation in vivo as an essential aspect of auxin signaling. We propose oligomerization of TIR1 as a novel regulatory mechanism in the regulation of auxin-mediated plant patterning and development. PMID:27618443

  19. The Acquisition of Aux. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypriotaki, Lyn

    This report examines the question of whether grammatical rules are globally learned and applied. It also attempts to determine the underlying word order in English as well as the developmental sequence of the acquisition of Aux. A sentence-repetition test using positive statements, positive questions, and negative questions was administered to 30…

  20. Tables of E2 transition probabilities from the first 2+ states in even-even nuclei [B(E2) evaluation for 0+1 → 2+1 transitions in even-even nuclei

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pritychenko, B.; Birch, M.; Singh, B.; Horoi, M.

    2015-11-03

    A complete B(E2)↑ evaluation and compilation for even-even nuclei has been presented. The present paper is a continuation of P.H. Stelson and L. Grodzins, and S. Raman et al. nuclear data evaluations and was motivated by a large number of new measurements. It extends the list of evaluated nuclides from 328 to 452, includes an extended list of nuclear reaction kinematics parameters and comprehensive shell model analysis. Evaluation policies for analysis of experimental data have been discussed and conclusions are given. Moreover, future plans for B(E2)↑ systematics and experimental technique analyses of even-even nuclei are outlined.

  1. Colorado Even Start. 2004-2005 Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Beckie

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of Even Start, as outlined in federal legislation, is to help break the intergenerational cycle of poverty and low literacy by providing a unified family literacy program for low-income families. Even Start has three related goals: (1) to help parents improve their literacy or basic education skills; (2) to help parents become full…

  2. Colorado Even Start. 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Beckie

    Even Start programs integrate early childhood education, adult literacy or basic education, parenting education and support, and parent and child time to help break the cycle of poverty and illiteracy. This report describes the Even Start program in Colorado, and includes evaluation questions and methods. The report presents evaluation findings…

  3. Colorado Even Start. 1997-1998 Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Beckie

    Even Start programs integrate early childhood education, adult literacy or basic education, parenting education and support, and parent and child time together to help break the cycle of poverty and illiteracy. This report describes the Even Start program in Colorado, including evaluation questions and methods. The report also presents evaluation…

  4. Interest in Evening Courses: Survey Analysis. SAIR Conference Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottomley, Wayne N.; And Others

    Student interest in increased evening courses at Daytona Beach Campus of Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) was investigated. The proportion of students employed while attending ERAU and student attitudes concerning evening or Saturday courses were also determined. Of the 3,312 students preregistered for fall 1982, 862 completed a…

  5. Inattentive Symptoms of ADHD Are Related to Evening Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caci, Herve; Bouchez, Jacques; Bayle, Franck J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Morningness is a stable characteristic of individuals, related to impulsivity and novelty seeking. The evening orientation is a risk factor for psychiatric conditions such as depression and personality disorders. The authors hypothesized that adults suspected of having ADHD are more evening oriented than adults without ADHD. Method:…

  6. New Plans for Evening and Correspondence School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebedev, I.I.

    A general discussion is given concerning revisions in hours and schedules for evening and correspondence school students engaged in higher technical education. The teaching plan for the evening system consists of two parts: one for instruction in the first three years, and the other for the next three. The plan for correspondence study provides…

  7. 26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, cableway tower, power line and derrick. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158807.html Even Mild Football Head Hits Can Harm Vision Study of college players raises concerns about repetitive non-concussive impacts To use the sharing features on ...

  9. Even Gardening or Dancing Might Cut Alzheimer's Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... 157731.html Even Gardening or Dancing Might Cut Alzheimer's Risk Any regular physical activity is linked to ... physical activity, including gardening or dancing, may cut Alzheimer's risk by as much as 50 percent, a ...

  10. Exercise Is Good for You, Even in Polluted Cities: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158686.html Exercise Is Good for You, Even in Polluted Cities: ... the same time as supporting physical activity." Regular exercise reduces the risk of heart disease, diabetes and ...

  11. Food, Even Water Can Spoil When the Power Goes Out

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160552.html Food, Even Water Can Spoil When the Power Goes Out A ... They can cause problems with your food and water that could put your family's health at risk. ...

  12. 27. Evening view of downstream face of Pleasant Dam under ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Evening view of downstream face of Pleasant Dam under construction. Part of construction camp housing is visible in foreground. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. Even a Little Exercise May Help Younger Women's Hearts

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160054.html Even a Little Exercise May Help Younger Women's Hearts Those active about ... July 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Younger women who exercise just 2.5 hours a week may cut ...

  14. Exercise Is Good for You, Even in Polluted Cities: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158686.html Exercise Is Good for You, Even in Polluted Cities: ... the same time as supporting physical activity." Regular exercise reduces the risk of heart disease, diabetes and ...

  15. EVEN MORE INCLUSIVE GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, AND THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EVEN MORE INCLUSIVE GENERAL VIEW OF THE GARDEN, AND THE DISTANT HOUSE AND OUTBUILDINGS, FROM THE BOTANIC GARDEN'S SOUTHEAST SIDE - John Bartram House & Garden, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Fiber Coupled Laser Diodes with Even Illumination Pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An optical fiber for evenly illuminating a target. The optical fiber is coupled to a laser emitting diode and receives laser light. The la ser light travels through the fiber optic and exits at an exit end. T he exit end has a diffractive optical pattern formed thereon via etch ing, molding or cutting, to reduce the Gaussian profile present in co nventional fiber optic cables The reduction of the Gaussian provides an even illumination from the fiber optic cable.

  17. AGU Publications Volunteers Feted At Elegant Editors' Evening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 Fall Meeting Editors' Evening, held at the City Club of San Francisco, was hosted by the Publications Committee and is the premier social event for editors and associate editors attending the Fall Meeting. The evening commenced with a welcome from Carol Finn, incoming AGU president, in which she expressed her thanks to the editors and associate editors for volunteering their time to benefit AGU.

  18. The Aux/IAA, Sl-IAA17 regulates quality parameters over tomato fruit development

    PubMed Central

    Su, LY; Audran, C; Bouzayen, M; Roustan, JP; Chervin, C

    2015-01-01

    Auxin is known to be involved in all the stages of fruit development. Aux/IAAs are regulators of the auxin signaling at the transcription level. In a recent study, using RNAi strategy to limit the expression Sl-IAA17, it was shown that this tomato AuxIAA regulates fruit size mainly through altering the ploidy level of pericarp cells. Indeed, Sl-IAA17 down-regulated lines showed fruit with larger diameter, bigger volume and heavier weight than wild-type. The increase in fruit size was associated with thicker pericarp rather than larger locular spaces. The thicker pericarp was linked to larger cells harboring higher ploidy level, probably due to more active endoreduplication at the beginning of fruit development. The present report describes some additional phenotypes, not described in the initial article, among which are soluble solid content, juice pH, firmness, seed weight and fruit morphology. PMID:26317283

  19. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA and ARF gene families in Populus trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Kalluri, Udaya C; DiFazio, Stephen P; Brunner, A.; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) and Auxin Response Factor (ARF) transcription factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. A total of 35 Aux/IAA and 39 ARF genes were identified in the Populus genome. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subgroups PoptrARF2, 6, 9 and 16 and PoptrIAA3, 16, 27 and 29 have differentially expanded in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Activator ARFs were found to be two fold-overrepresented in the Populus genome. PoptrIAA and PoptrARF gene families appear to have expanded due to high segmental and low tandem duplication events. Furthermore, expression studies showed that genes in the expanded PoptrIAA3 subgroup display differential expression. The gene-family analysis reported here will be useful in conducting future functional genomics studies to understand how the molecular roles of these large gene families translate into a diversity of biologically meaningful auxin effects.

  20. Genome-wide survey and comprehensive expression profiling of Aux/IAA gene family in chickpea and soybean

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vikash K.; Jain, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Auxin plays a central role in many aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) genes cooperate with several other components in the perception and signaling of plant hormone auxin. An investigation of chickpea and soybean genomes revealed 22 and 63 putative Aux/IAA genes, respectively. These genes were classified into six subfamilies on the basis of phylogenetic analysis. Among 63 soybean Aux/IAA genes, 57 (90.5%) were found to be duplicated via whole genome duplication (WGD)/segmental events. Transposed duplication played a significant role in tandem arrangements between the members of different subfamilies. Analysis of Ka/Ks ratio of duplicated Aux/IAA genes revealed purifying selection pressure with restricted functional divergence. Promoter sequence analysis revealed several cis-regulatory elements related to auxin, abscisic acid, desiccation, salt, seed, and endosperm, indicating their role in development and stress responses. Expression analysis of chickpea and soybean Aux/IAA genes in various tissues and stages of development demonstrated tissue/stage specific differential expression. In soybean, at least 16 paralog pairs, duplicated via WGD/segmental events, showed almost indistinguishable expression pattern, but eight pairs exhibited significantly diverse expression patterns. Under abiotic stress conditions, such as desiccation, salinity and/or cold, many Aux/IAA genes of chickpea and soybean revealed differential expression. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the differential expression patterns of selected Aux/IAA genes in chickpea. The analyses presented here provide insights on putative roles of chickpea and soybean Aux/IAA genes and will facilitate elucidation of their precise functions during development and abiotic stress responses. PMID:26579165

  1. Decommissioning of the nuclear licensed facilities at the Fontenay aux Roses CEA center

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanjacques, Michel; Piketty, Laurence; Letuhaire, Nathalie; Mandard, Lionel; Meden, Igor; Estivie, David; Boissonneau, Jean Francois; Fouquereau, Alain; Pichereau, Eric; Binet, Cedric

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) center at Fontenay aux Roses (CEN-FAR) is the Commission's oldest center is located in the southern suburbs of Paris. It was opened on 26 March 1946 to host the first French nuclear reactor ZOE that went critical on 12 December 1946. The first laboratories were installed in existing buildings on the site. (authors)

  2. Ultra-high Q even eigenmode resonance in terahertz metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Naib, Ibraheem Dignam, Marc M.; Yang, Yuping; Zhang, Weili; Singh, Ranjan

    2015-01-05

    We report the simultaneous excitation of the odd and the even eigenmode resonances in a periodic array of square split-ring resonators, with four resonators per unit cell. When the electric field is parallel to their gaps, only the two well-studied odd eigenmodes are excited. As the resonators are rotated relative to one another, we observe the emergence and excitation of an extremely sharp even eigenmode. In uncoupled split-ring resonators, this even eigenmode is typically radiative in nature with a broad resonance linewidth and low Q-factor. However, in our coupled system, for specific range of rotation angles, our simulations revealed a remarkably high quality factor (Q ∼ 100) for this eigenmode, which has sub-radiant characteristics. This type of quad-supercell metamaterial offers the advantage of enabling access to all the three distinct resonance features of the split-ring resonator, which consists of two odd eigenmodes in addition to the high-Q even eigenmode, which could be exploited for high performance multiband filters and absorbers. The high Q even eigenmode could find applications in designing label free bio-sensors and for studying the enhanced light matter interaction effects.

  3. BTZ-like black holes in even dimensional Lovelock theories

    SciTech Connect

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Alex

    2010-07-15

    In the present paper, a new class of black hole solutions is constructed in even dimensional Lovelock Born-Infeld theory. These solutions are interesting since, in some respects, they are closer to black hole solutions of an odd dimensional Lovelock Chern-Simons theory than to the more usual black hole solutions in even dimensions. This hybrid behavior arises when non-Einstein base manifolds are considered. The entropies of these solutions have been analyzed using Wald formalism. These metrics exhibit a quite nontrivial behavior. Their entropies can change sign and can even be identically zero depending on the geometry of the corresponding base manifolds. Therefore, the request of thermodynamical stability constrains the geometry of the non-Einstein base manifolds. It will be shown that some of these solutions can support nonvanishing torsion. Eventually, the possibility to define a sort of topological charge associated with torsion will be discussed.

  4. Trajectories of Evening Fatigue in Oncology Outpatients Receiving Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Fay; Melkus, Gail D’Eramo; Hammer, Marilyn; Schmidt, Brian L.; Knobf, M. Tish; Paul, Steven M.; Cartwright, Frances; Mastick, Judy; Cooper, Bruce A.; Chen, Lee-May; Melisko, Michelle; Levine, Jon D.; Kober, Kord; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Context Fatigue is a distressing, persistent sense of physical tiredness that is not proportional to a person’s recent activity. Fatigue impacts patients’ treatment decisions and can limit their self-care activities. While significant interindividual variability in fatigue severity has been noted, little is known about predictors of interindividual variability in initial levels and trajectories of evening fatigue severity in oncology patients receiving chemotherapy (CTX). Objectives To determine whether demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics were associated with initial levels as well as the trajectories of evening fatigue. Methods A sample of outpatients with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, and lung cancer (N=586) completed demographic and symptom questionnaires a total of six times over two cycles of CTX. Fatigue severity was evaluated using the Lee Fatigue Scale. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to answer the study objectives. Results A large amount of interindividual variability was found in the evening fatigue trajectories. A piecewise model fit the data best. Patients who were White, diagnosed with breast, gynecological, or lung cancer, and who had more years of education, child care responsibilities, lower functional status, and higher levels of sleep disturbance and depression reported higher levels of evening fatigue at enrollment. Conclusion This study identified both non-modifiable (e.g., ethnicity) and modifiable (e.g., child care responsibilities, depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance) risk factors for more severe evening fatigue. Using this information, clinicians can identify patients at higher risk for more severe evening fatigue, provide individualized patient education, and tailor interventions to address the modifiable risk factors. PMID:25828560

  5. Generation of even harmonics in coupled quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Shifang; Duan Suqing; Yang Ning; Chu Weidong; Zhang Wei

    2011-07-15

    Using the spatial-temporal symmetry principle we developed recently, we propose an effective scheme for even-harmonics generation in coupled quantum dots. The relative intensity of odd and even harmonic components in the emission spectrum can be controlled by tuning the dipole couplings among the dots, which can be realized in experiments by careful design of the nanostructures. In particular, pure 2nth harmonics and (2n+1)th harmonics (where n is an integer) can be generated simultaneously with polarizations in two mutual perpendicular directions in our systems. An experimental design of the coupled dots system is presented.

  6. Atmospheric boundary layer evening transitions over West Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A systemic analysis of the atmospheric boundary layer behavior during some evening transitions over West Texas was done using the data from an extensive array of instruments which included small and large aperture scintillometers, net radiometers, and meteorological stations. The analysis also comp...

  7. Even Wars Have Laws: Upholding an American Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adhihetty, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    Since the founding of this nation, Americans have lived by the belief that wars have laws. Even in the most morally-challenging times, the principles of international humanitarian law (IHL)--which provide basic protections for the vulnerable, such as civilians, prisoners of war, and sick and injured combatants--have been championed by leaders like…

  8. Pascal's Triangle: 100% of the Numbers Are Even!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhindi, Nayan; McMenamin, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Pascal's triangle is an arrangement of the binomial coefficients in a triangle. Each number inside Pascal's triangle is calculated by adding the two numbers above it. When all the odd integers in Pascal's triangle are highlighted (black) and the remaining evens are left blank (white), one of many patterns in Pascal's triangle is displayed. By…

  9. Even Poorer Nations Not Immune to High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160306.html Even Poorer Nations Not Immune to High Blood Pressure Researchers cite aging populations, diet, inactivity and lack ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For the first time ever, high blood pressure rates are higher in low- and middle-income ...

  10. Under the Law: Vouchers Multiply Even without Public Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Public funding of private K-12 schooling through vouchers continues to be a contentious issue across the U.S., even though a solid majority of Americans continues to oppose them. The voucher plans run the risk of legal challenge for how they handle the rights of students with disabilities and whether they violate state constitutional provisions…

  11. How to Keep Even Your Best Friend from Getting Tenure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Luehrsen, Sandra

    1990-01-01

    Provides hints on composing letters of recommendation gleaned from a study of supporting letters submitted to the tenure and promotion committee at a large public university. To keep even their best friends from getting tenure, letter writers should emphasize debatable points, slip in cryptic statements about competency, and wax eloquent on…

  12. Feeding styles and evening family meals among recent immigrants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protective effect of family meals on unhealthy weight gain and diet has been shown across multiple age groups; however, it is unknown whether a similar effect is present among diverse immigrant populations. In addition, little research has focused on factors associated with the frequency of even...

  13. 1. Dyea Dock looking south. Note faint evenly spaced circular ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Dyea Dock looking south. Note faint evenly spaced circular dark pieces of grass up through the middle of the picture indicating posts making up the pier. Photograph made from park service cherry picker. - Dyea Dock & Association (Ruins), Skagway, Skagway, AK

  14. Break-Even Point for a Proof Slip Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James F.

    1972-01-01

    Break-even analysis is applied to determine what magnitude of titles added per year is sufficient to utilize economically Library of Congress proof slips and a Xerox 914 copying machine in the cataloging operation of a library. A formula is derived, and an example of its use is given. (1 reference) (Author/SJ)

  15. A Study of Odd- and Even-Number Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Japanese prefer odd numbers, whereas Westerners emphasize even numbers, an observation that is clear from the distribution of number-related words in Japanese and English dictionaries. In this article, the author explains why these two cultures differ by surveying the history of numbers, including yin-yang thought from ancient China, ancient Greek…

  16. Even High-Fat Mediterranean Diet Good for You: Review

    MedlinePlus

    ... fats to saturated fats (for example, more olive oil and less animal fats); high intake of fruits and vegetables; high intake of legumes (such as ... is start using only olive oil or canola oil in my kitchen," Bloomfield said. ... salads and even meat with fruits. Next, add some beans to meat dishes or ...

  17. Contributions to δVpn for Even-Even ra Isotopes Based on the Covariant Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Li, Z. P.; Zhang, S. Q.

    The δVpn for even-even 208-228Ra are investigated in the covariant density functional theory and the quadrupole-octupole collective Hamiltonian method. It is shown that the successive introduction of static deformation and collective fluctuation are crucial ingredients for the reproduction of data, especially for N = 132 - 136. The properties of the nuclei associated with δVpn at N = 132 are analyzed in detail. Microscopically, near the Fermi surfaces in the single-particle level spectrums, levels with similar energies above the gaps N = 132 and Z = 88 can be found for 220Ra.

  18. Loi constitutive chimioplastique pour le beton expose aux hautes temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammoud, Rabah

    Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. Even though it has been used for several centuries, its behavior to high temperature remains to be understood. In the light of recent extreme events, including accidents, and arson, special attention has been focused on the performance of concrete in the fire safety assessment of buildings and tunnels. Fire represents one of the most severe conditions encountered during the life-time of a structure. Concrete exposed to high temperature can significantly jeopardize the structural integrity and load bearing capacity of the structure. Spalling of concrete remains one of the main issues to be addressed in the case of fire in buildings and tunnels. Successful modeling of this phenomenon depends not only on the accurate prediction of the temperature distribution through structural concrete but also on its mechanical response to the heating and boundaries restrains conditions and the migration of moisture and associated pore pressures. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable formulation of concrete with all required information to understand its behavior during and after exposure to elevated temperature. It is also necessary to properly assess the effects of thermal degradation in order to develop predictive tools and validate design codes. Many structural problems can be adequately worthy by an elastoplastic model. The ultimate goal of this study is the development of a new constitutive model under a chemoplastic framework. To do this, an experimental program is carried out. The purpose of this program is twofold. First, it is essential to calibrate the proposed constitutive law that will be developed, and, second, for defining an inverse a problem. Usually, uniaxial and triaxial tests, conducted with confining pressure varied between 1.3 and 24 MPa and a temperature up to 700°C, allow us to identify the constitutive law parameters. This law reproduces the reduced field strength due to

  19. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission. PMID:25982744

  20. Nonlinear Acceleration Methods for Even-Parity Neutron Transport

    SciTech Connect

    W. J. Martin; C. R. E. De Oliveira; H. Park

    2010-05-01

    Convergence acceleration methods for even-parity transport were developed that have the potential to speed up transport calculations and provide a natural avenue for an implicitly coupled multiphysics code. An investigation was performed into the acceleration properties of the introduction of a nonlinear quasi-diffusion-like tensor in linear and nonlinear solution schemes. Using the tensor reduced matrix as a preconditioner for the conjugate gradients method proves highly efficient and effective. The results for the linear and nonlinear case serve as the basis for further research into the application in a full three-dimensional spherical-harmonics even-parity transport code. Once moved into the nonlinear solution scheme, the implicit coupling of the convergence accelerated transport method into codes for other physics can be done seamlessly, providing an efficient, fully implicitly coupled multiphysics code with high order transport.

  1. Even Illumination from Fiber-Optic-Coupled Laser Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    A method of equipping fiber-optic-coupled laser diodes to evenly illuminate specified fields of view has been proposed. The essence of the method is to shape the tips of the optical fibers into suitably designed diffractive optical elements. One of the main benefits afforded by the method would be more nearly complete utilization of the available light. Diffractive optics is a relatively new field of optics in which laser beams are shaped by use of diffraction instead of refraction.

  2. Even-odd effect in short antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machens, A.; Konstantinidis, N. P.; Waldmann, O.; Schneider, I.; Eggert, S.

    2013-04-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on chemically synthesized magnetic molecular chains, we investigate the lowest-lying energy band of short spin-s antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains focusing on effects of open boundaries. By numerical diagonalization we find that the Landé pattern in the energy levels, i.e., E(S)∝S(S+1) for total spin S, known from, e.g., ring-shaped nanomagnets, can be recovered in odd-membered chains, while strong deviations are found for the lowest excitations in chains with an even number of sites. This particular even-odd effect in the short Heisenberg chains cannot be explained by simple effective Hamiltonians and symmetry arguments. We go beyond these approaches, taking into account quantum fluctuations by means of a path-integral description and the valence bond basis, but the resulting quantum edge-spin picture which is known to work well for long chains does not agree with the numerical results for short chains and cannot explain the even-odd effect. Instead, by analyzing also the classical chain model, we show that spatial fluctuations dominate the physical behavior in short chains, with length N≲eπs, for any spin s. Such short chains are found to display a unique behavior, which is not related to the thermodynamic limit and cannot be described well by theories developed for this regime.

  3. Complementation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumor-inducing aux mutants by genes from the TR-region of the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    PubMed Central

    Offringa, I. A.; Melchers, L. S.; Regensburg-Tuink, A. J. G.; Costantino, P.; Schilperoort, R. A.; Hooykaas, P. J. J.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper we provide information indicating that the agropine-type root-inducing (Ri) plasmid pRi1855 of Agrobacterium rhizogenes contains functional genes for auxin production (aux) in the right transferred DNA (T-DNA) region (TR-region). These genes were cloned and introduced into the T-region of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmids of mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying an aux mutation. Depending on the Ri aux gene present, the oncogenicity of the Ti aux-1 and/or aux-2 mutations was restored, showing that the Ri aux genes are able to complement the Ti aux genes. Agrobacterium strains with an agropine-type Ri plasmid not only cause hairy root on certain plant species, but they also induce tumors on other plant species. In this paper it is shown that a mutation in either of the aux genes in the Ri plasmid leads to a total loss of tumorigenicity and a strongly diminished rhizogenicity of the host bacterium, revealing that the aux genes are important for tumor and root induction. Agrobacterium strains containing the TR-region but not the TL (left)-region of the Ri plasmid are still tumorigenic on certain plant species but are no longer capable of hairy-root induction. Images PMID:16593762

  4. Neutron-Proton pairing effect on the thermodynamical quantities of even-even proton-rich nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belabbas, M.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N. H.; Ami, I.

    2012-02-01

    Expressions of the thermodynamical quantities, i.e. the energy E, the entropy S and the heat capacity C are established by including the isovector neutron-proton (np) pairing effect. They are deduced using temperature-dependent gap equations . E, S and C are numerically studied as a function of the temperature for some even-even proton-rich nuclei. The single-particle energies used are those of a Woods-Saxon deformed mean field. It is shown that the isovector pairing effect on E, S and C is non-negligible, not only in the 0 <= T <= Tcnp region (Tcnp being the critical temperature beyond which the np pairing vanishes), but also in the Tcnp <= T <= Tcn region (Tcn being the neutron-system critical temperature).

  5. Systematic study of α decay half-lives for even-even nuclei within a two-potential approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Dong; Guo, Ping; Li, Xiao-Hua

    2016-03-01

    α decay is a common and important process of natural radioactivity of heavy and superheavy nuclei. The α decay half-lives for even-even nuclei from Z =62 to Z =118 are systematically studied based on the two-potential approach with a quasistationary state approximation. As for the nuclear potential, the isospin effect is considered, which slightly improves the results by 6.8%. To reduce the deviations between experimental half-lives and calculated results due to the nuclear shell structure, the analytic expression of hindrance factors is employed. Our results can reproduce the experimental half-lives as good as using the density-dependent cluster model and the generalized liquid drop model.

  6. Computer program for the relativistic mean field description of the ground state properties of even-even axially deformed nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, P.; Gambhir, Y. K.; Lalazissis, G. A.

    1997-09-01

    We present a Fortran program for the calculation of the ground state properties of axially deformed even-even nuclei in the framework of Relativistic Mean Field Theory (RMF). In this approach a set of coupled partial differentials has to be solved self-consistently: the Dirac equation for the nucleons moving in self-consistent fields and the Klein-Gordon equations for the meson fields and the electromagnetic field, whose sources are scalar and vector densities determined of the nucleons. For this purpose the Dirac spinors as well as the meson fields are expanded in terms of anisotropic oscillator wave functions in cylindrical coordinates. This requires a matrix diagonalization for the solution of the Dirac equations and the solution of an inhomogeneous matrix equation for the meson fields. For the determination of the Coulomb field the Greens function method is used.

  7. NpNn dependence of empirical formula for the lowest excitation energy of the 2+ states in even even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Guanghao; Yoon, Jin-Hee; Cha, Dongwoo

    2008-03-01

    We examine the effects of the additional term of the type {\\sim} e^{- \\lambda^{\\prime} N_pN_n} on the recently proposed empirical formula for the lowest excitation energy of the 2+ states in even-even nuclei. This study is motivated by the fact that this term carries the favorable dependence of the valence nucleon numbers dictated by the NpNn scheme. We show explicitly that there is not any improvement in reproducing Ex(2+1) by including the extra NpNn term. However, our study also reveals that the excitation energies Ex(2+1), when calculated by the NpNn term alone (with the mass number A dependent term), are quite comparable to those calculated by the original empirical formula.

  8. Fine structure in α decay of even-even nuclei using a finite-range nucleon-nucleon interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, A.; Alharbi, T.

    2015-07-01

    A systematic study on α -decay fine structure is presented for even-even nuclei in the range 78 ≤Z ≤102 . The penetration probability is obtained from the WKB approximation in combination with the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. The potential barrier is numerically constructed in the well-established double-folding model for both Coulomb and nuclear potentials. A realistic M3Y interaction, based on the G -matrix elements of the Paris N N potential, has been used in the folding calculation. The local approximation for the nondiagonal one-body density matrix in the calculation of the exchange potential was included by using the harmonic oscillator representation of the nondiagonal density matrix of the α particle. The computed partial half-lives and branching ratios are compared with the recent experimental data and they are in good agreement.

  9. Simulating Dispersion in the Evening-Transition Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Alexander C.; Beare, Robert J.; Thomson, David J.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate dispersion in the evening-transition boundary layer using large-eddy simulation (LES). In the LES, a particle model traces pollutant paths using a combination of the resolved flow velocities and a random displacement model to represent subgrid-scale motions. The LES is forced with both a sudden switch-off of the surface heat flux and also a more gradual observed evolution. The LES shows `lofting' of plumes from near-surface releases in the pre-transition convective boundary layer; it also shows the subsequent `trapping' of releases in the post-transition near-surface stable boundary layer and residual layer above. Given the paucity of observations for pollution dispersion in evening transitions, the LES proves a useful reference. We then use the LES to test and improve a one-dimensional Lagrangian Stochastic Model (LSM) such as is often used in practical dispersion studies. The LSM used here includes both time-varying and skewed turbulence statistics. It is forced with the vertical velocity variance, skewness and dissipation from the LES for particle releases at various heights and times in the evening transition. The LSM plume spreads are significantly larger than those from the LES in the post-transition stable boundary-layer trapping regime. The forcing from the LES was thus insufficient to constrain the plume evolution, and inclusion of the significant stratification effects was required. In the so-called modified LSM, a correction to the vertical velocity variance was included to represent the effect of stable stratification and the consequent presence of wave-like motions. The modified LSM shows improved trapping of particles in the post-transition stable boundary layer.

  10. Complete absence of evening melatonin increase in tetraplegics.

    PubMed

    Verheggen, Rebecca J H M; Jones, Helen; Nyakayiru, Jean; Thompson, Andrew; Groothuis, Jan T; Atkinson, Greg; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2012-07-01

    Individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI), especially with tetraplegia, experience poor sleep quality, and this may be related to impaired control of circadian rhythmicity. Here, we examined the evening onset of melatonin secretion, an important hormone for the initiation of sleep, in people with a complete cervical (tetraplegia) and thoracic (paraplegia) SCI, and age- and sex-matched able-bodied control participants. Multiple samples of salivary melatonin were obtained during the evening hours and analyzed by ELISA methods in 10 control partcipants, 9 individuals with paraplegia, and 6 individuals with tetraplegia. Sleep quality was assessed using questionnaires. Interactive effects of group and time were found for melatonin levels (P=0.022). In the control and paraplegia groups, the mean melatonin level increased significantly from 2.59 ± 1.04 and 4.28 ± 3.28 pg/ml at 7 PM to 10.62 ± 4.59 and 13.10 ± 7.39 pg/ml at 11 PM, respectively (P<0.001). In the tetraplegia group, melatonin level was 5.25 ± 3.72 at 7 PM but only 2.41 ± 1.25 pg/ml at 11 PM (P>0.05). Decreased sleep quality was more prevalent in individuals with tetraplegia (83%) and paraplegia (75%) compared with controls (20%; P=0.02). Unlike in the control and paraplegia groups, the evening increase in melatonin concentration was completely absent in the tetraplegia group. This provides biological insight into sleep regulation in humans and provides better understanding of the poor sleep quality in people with tetraplegia. PMID:22474242

  11. Improving Immunizations in Children: A Clinical Break-even Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kyle Bradford; Spain, Chad; Wright, Hannah; Gren, Lisa H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Immunizing the population is a vital public health priority. This article describes a resident-led continuous quality improvement project to improve the immunization rates of children under 3 years of age at two urban family medicine residency clinics in Salt Lake City, Utah, as well as a break-even cost analysis to the clinics for the intervention. Methods Immunization records were distributed to provider-medical assistant teamlets daily for each pediatric patient scheduled in clinic to decrease missed opportunities. An outreach intervention by letter, followed by telephone call reminders, was conducted to reach children under 3 years of age who were behind on recommended immunizations for age (total n=457; those behind on immunizations n=101). Immunization rates were monitored at 3 months following start of intervention. A break-even analysis to the clinics for the outreach intervention was performed. Results Immunizations were improved from a baseline of 75.1% (n=133) and 79.6% (n=223) at the two clinics to 92.1% (n=163) and 89.6% (n=251), respectively, at 3 months following the start of intervention (P<0.01). The average revenue per immunization given was $81.57. The financial break-even point required 36 immunizations to be administered. Conclusion Significant improvement in the immunization rate of patients under 3 years of age at two family medicine residency training clinics was achieved through decreasing missed opportunities for immunization in clinic, and with outreach through letters and follow-up phone calls. The intervention showed positive revenue to both clinics. PMID:25380614

  12. Chemical composition and geologic history of saline waters in Aux Vases and Cypress Formations, Illinois Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demir, I.; Seyler, B.

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-six samples of formation waters were collected from oil wells producing from the Aux Vases or Cypress Formations in the Illinois Basin. Forty core samples of the reservoir rocks were also collected from the two formations. Analyses of the samples indicated that the total dissolved solids content (TDS) of the waters ranged from 43,300 to 151,400 mg/L, far exceeding the 35,400 mg/mL of TDS found in typical seawater. Cl-Br relations suggested that high salinities in the Aux Vases and Cypress formation waters resulted from the evaporation of original seawater and subsequent mixing of the evaporated seawater with concentrated halite solutions. Mixing with the halite solutions increased Na and Cl concentrations and diluted the concentration of other ions in the formation waters. The elemental concentrations were influenced further by diagenetic reactions with silicate and carbonate minerals. Diagenetic signatures revealed by fluid chemistry and rock mineralogy delineated the water-rock interactions that took place in the Aux Vases and Cypress sandstones. Dissolution of K-feldspar released K into the solution, leading to the formation of authigenic illite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Some Mg was removed from the solution by the formation of authigenic chlorite and dolomite. Dolomitization, calcite recrystallization, and contribution from clay minerals raised Sr levels significantly in the formation waters. The trend of increasing TDS of the saline formation waters with depth can be explained with density stratification. But, it is difficult to explain the combination of the increasing TDS and increasing Ca/Na ratio with depth without invoking the controversial 'ion filtration' mechanism.

  13. Even harmonic generation in isotropic media of dissociating homonuclear molecules

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R. E. F.; Rivière, P.; Morales, F.; Smirnova, O.; Ivanov, M.; Martín, F.

    2016-01-01

    Isotropic gases irradiated by long pulses of intense IR light can generate very high harmonics of the incident field. It is generally accepted that, due to the symmetry of the generating medium, be it an atomic or an isotropic molecular gas, only odd harmonics of the driving field can be produced. Here we show how the interplay of electronic and nuclear dynamics can lead to a marked breakdown of this standard picture: a substantial part of the harmonic spectrum can consist of even rather than odd harmonics. We demonstrate the effect using ab-initio solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for and its isotopes in full dimensionality. By means of a simple analytical model, we identify its physical origin, which is the appearance of a permanent dipole moment in dissociating homonuclear molecules, caused by light-induced localization of the electric charge during dissociation. The effect arises for sufficiently long laser pulses and the region of the spectrum where even harmonics are produced is controlled by pulse duration. Our results (i) show how the interplay of femtosecond nuclear and attosecond electronic dynamics, which affects the charge flow inside the dissociating molecule, is reflected in the nonlinear response, and (ii) force one to augment standard selection rules found in nonlinear optics textbooks by considering light-induced modifications of the medium during the generation process. PMID:27596609

  14. APPROXIMATING SYMMETRIC POSITIVE SEMIDEFINITE TENSORS OF EVEN ORDER*

    PubMed Central

    BARMPOUTIS, ANGELOS; JEFFREY, HO; VEMURI, BABA C.

    2012-01-01

    Tensors of various orders can be used for modeling physical quantities such as strain and diffusion as well as curvature and other quantities of geometric origin. Depending on the physical properties of the modeled quantity, the estimated tensors are often required to satisfy the positivity constraint, which can be satisfied only with tensors of even order. Although the space P02m of 2mth-order symmetric positive semi-definite tensors is known to be a convex cone, enforcing positivity constraint directly on P02m is usually not straightforward computationally because there is no known analytic description of P02m for m > 1. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for enforcing the positivity constraint on even-order tensors by approximating the cone P02m for the cases 0 < m < 3, and presenting an explicit characterization of the approximation Σ2m ⊂ Ω2m for m ≥ 1, using the subset Ω2m⊂P02m of semi-definite tensors that can be written as a sum of squares of tensors of order m. Furthermore, we show that this approximation leads to a non-negative linear least-squares (NNLS) optimization problem with the complexity that equals the number of generators in Σ2m. Finally, we experimentally validate the proposed approach and we present an application for computing 2mth-order diffusion tensors from Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images. PMID:23285313

  15. Even harmonic generation in isotropic media of dissociating homonuclear molecules.

    PubMed

    Silva, R E F; Rivière, P; Morales, F; Smirnova, O; Ivanov, M; Martín, F

    2016-01-01

    Isotropic gases irradiated by long pulses of intense IR light can generate very high harmonics of the incident field. It is generally accepted that, due to the symmetry of the generating medium, be it an atomic or an isotropic molecular gas, only odd harmonics of the driving field can be produced. Here we show how the interplay of electronic and nuclear dynamics can lead to a marked breakdown of this standard picture: a substantial part of the harmonic spectrum can consist of even rather than odd harmonics. We demonstrate the effect using ab-initio solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for and its isotopes in full dimensionality. By means of a simple analytical model, we identify its physical origin, which is the appearance of a permanent dipole moment in dissociating homonuclear molecules, caused by light-induced localization of the electric charge during dissociation. The effect arises for sufficiently long laser pulses and the region of the spectrum where even harmonics are produced is controlled by pulse duration. Our results (i) show how the interplay of femtosecond nuclear and attosecond electronic dynamics, which affects the charge flow inside the dissociating molecule, is reflected in the nonlinear response, and (ii) force one to augment standard selection rules found in nonlinear optics textbooks by considering light-induced modifications of the medium during the generation process. PMID:27596609

  16. The evening tea break ritual--a case study.

    PubMed

    Lee, D S

    1999-03-01

    Many nursing scholars, such as Carter (1990), Ford and Walsh (1994), Huey (1986), James (1990), Thomlinson (1990), Larson (1987), Rush et al (1990), Spiller (1992), Street (1990a,b; 1992a,b,c,d), Lawrence (1996), Walker (1967), Walsh and Ford (1989 a,b,c,d; 1991 a,b), have examined the effects of rituals in nursing practice, and have argued for a need to scrutinise these ritual practices because of their negative effect on patients. Other scholars, such as Holland (1993) and Biley and Wright (1997), have argued that these rituals have meanings for nurses. Street (1992c) has argued that rituals are resilient in nursing practice. In order to identify the factors that contribute to rituals' resilience, there is a need to understand their meanings and effects on nurses, and how nurses keep them alive. This study has explored the meanings of the 'evening tea break' ritual to a group of nurses in a medical ward. The study has employed an ethnographic approach, and has found that the evening tea break ritual had affective effects on the participating nurses. It provides the time, space, the process and the environment for nurses to ventilate their feelings, to gain support from each other. PMID:10514600

  17. Precise AuxPt1−x Alloy Nanoparticle Array of Tunable Composition for Catalytic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Sarah; Lechner, Sebastian J.; Freichels, Helene; Möller, Martin; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-dimensional Block Copolymer Micellar nanoLithography (BCML) process was used to prepare AuxPt1−x alloy nanoparticles (NPs) monodisperse in size and composition, strongly anchored onto SiO2-particles (0.2 wt.% AuxPt1−x/SiO2). The particles possess a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and their size could be varied from 3–12 nm. We demonstrate the uniformity of the Au/Pt composition by analyzing individual NPs by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The strongly bound AuxPt1−x NPs catalyzed the oxidation of CO with high activity. Thermal ageing experiments in pure CO2 as well as in ambient atmosphere demonstrated stability of the size distribution for times as long as 22 h. PMID:26856888

  18. The reduced transition probabilities for excited states of rare-earths and actinide even-even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ghumman, S. S.

    2015-08-28

    The theoretical B(E2) ratios have been calculated on DF, DR and Krutov models. A simple method based on the work of Arima and Iachello is used to calculate the reduced transition probabilities within SU(3) limit of IBA-I framework. The reduced E2 transition probabilities from second excited states of rare-earths and actinide even–even nuclei calculated from experimental energies and intensities from recent data, have been found to compare better with those calculated on the Krutov model and the SU(3) limit of IBA than the DR and DF models.

  19. Hard times can happen to anyone--even a dentist.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Sally

    2011-11-01

    The BDA Benevolent Fund has been helping needy dentists and their families for 130 years, while the Dentist Health Support Trust, founded in 1986, offers support specifically on addiction and other mental health issues. The Ben Fund offers a lifeline to those struggling with poverty arising from illness, accidents, bereavement, addiction, mental health issues, and many other difficulties. It may be that someone needs financial help to deal with a short-term problem before they get themselves back on track, and the Fund can do this with a one-off grant or perhaps an interest-free loan, to be repaid when their life is on an even keel again. Other people may face long-term uncertainty and need regular support. PMID:22075905

  20. Chaos in the Mixed Even-Spin Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Kuo

    2014-06-01

    We consider a disordered system obtained by coupling two mixed even-spin models together. The chaos problem is concerned with the behavior of the coupled system when the external parameters in the two models, such as, temperature, disorder, or external field, are slightly different. It is conjectured that the overlap between two independently sampled spin configurations from, respectively, the Gibbs measures of the two models is essentially concentrated around a constant under the coupled Gibbs measure. Using the extended Guerra replica symmetry breaking bound together with a recent development of controlling the overlap using the Ghirlanda-Guerra identities as well as a new family of identities, we present rigorous results on chaos in temperature. In addition, chaos in disorder and in external field are addressed.

  1. Distribution of auroral surges in the evening sector

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, S.R.; Rostoker, G. )

    1991-04-01

    Over the past dacades a large statistical data base has been gathered consisting of both ground-based magnetometer and all-sky camera records from which researchers have inferred the distribution of substorm expansive phase events across the nighttime sector. Almost without exception, the activity distribution has been based on single station data acquired over periods of years. However, to truly establish the occurrence frequency of substorm expansive phase events, it is necessary to view the entire nighttime sector instantaneously in the light of evidence which shows that more than one expansive phase disturbance can be in progress across the broad expanse of the evening sector. In this paper, the authors study the distribution of regions of localized auroral luminosity in the poleward portion of the evening sectorauroral oval using images in the ultraviolet portion of the auroral spectrum acquired by the Viking satellite over 9 months in 1986. They find that auroral surge activity peaks in the hour before local magnetic midnight, with the probability of detecting a surge steadily decreasing to 10% of the probability of finding a surge in the hour prior to midnight as one moves westward towards 1,900 MLT. They show that their conclusion is not dependent on the threshold chosen for surge identification over a reasonable portion of the intensity range covered by the Viking imager. They further show that for the interval of several months near sunspot minimum in 1986 there is better than a 90% chance that no surge will be detected in a 1-hour range of magnetic local time if one were to sample that segment of the auroral oval at any arbitrary time.

  2. Brief communication: Orphaned Male Chimpanzees die young even after weaning.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Michio; Hayaki, Hitoshige; Hosaka, Kazuhiko; Itoh, Noriko; Zamma, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    If a social-living animal has a long life span, permitting different generations to co-exist within a social group, as is the case in many primate species, it can be beneficial for a parent to continue to support its weaned offspring to increase the latter's survival and/or reproductive success. Chimpanzees have an even longer period of dependence on their mothers' milk than do humans, and consequently, offspring younger than 4.5-5 years old cannot survive if the mother dies. Most direct maternal investments, such as maternal transportation of infants and sharing of night shelters (beds or nests), end with nutritional weaning. Thus, it had been assumed that a mother's death was no longer critical to the survival of weaned offspring, in contrast to human children, who continue to depend on parental care long after weaning. However, in theory at least, maternal investment in a chimpanzee son after weaning could be beneficial because in chimpanzees' male-philopatric society, mother and son co-exist for a long time after the offspring's weaning. Using long-term demographic data for a wild chimpanzee population in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania, we show the first empirical evidence that orphaned chimpanzee sons die younger than expected even if they lose their mothers after weaning. This suggests that long-lasting, but indirect, maternal investment in sons continues several years after weaning and is vital to the survival of the sons. The maternal influence on males in the male-philopatric societies of hominids may be greater than previously believed. PMID:24318948

  3. Diversity of Stability, Localization, Interaction and Control of Downstream Gene Activity in the Maize Aux/IAA Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Yvonne; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Xu, Changzheng; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-01-01

    AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) proteins are central regulators of auxin signal transduction. They control many aspects of plant development, share a conserved domain structure and are localized in the nucleus. In the present study, five maize Aux/IAA proteins (ZmIAA2, ZmIAA11, ZmIAA15, ZmIAA20 and ZmIAA33) representing the evolutionary, phylogenetic and expression diversity of this gene family were characterized. Subcellular localization studies revealed that ZmIAA2, ZmIAA11 and ZmIAA15 are confined to the nucleus while ZmIAA20 and ZmIAA33 are localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Introduction of specific point mutations in the degron sequence (VGWPPV) of domain II by substituting the first proline by serine or the second proline by leucine stabilized the Aux/IAA proteins. While protein half-life times between ∼11 min (ZmIAA2) to ∼120 min (ZmIAA15) were observed in wild-type proteins, the mutated forms of all five proteins were almost as stable as GFP control proteins. Moreover, all five maize Aux/IAA proteins repressed downstream gene expression in luciferase assays to different degrees. In addition, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analyses demonstrated interaction of all five Aux/IAA proteins with RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1, ZmIAA10) while only ZmIAA15 and ZmIAA33 interacted with the RUM1 paralog RUL1 (RUM-LIKE 1, ZmIAA29). Moreover, ZmIAA11, ZmIAA15 ZmIAA33 displayed homotypic interaction. Hence, despite their conserved domain structure, maize Aux/IAA proteins display a significant variability in their molecular characteristics which is likely associated with the wide spectrum of their developmental functions. PMID:25203637

  4. Influence of the Isovector Pairing Effect on Nuclear Statistical Quantities in N ≈ Z Even-Even Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belabbas, M.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N. H.; Benhamouda, N.; Ami, I.; Oudih, M. R.

    The influence of the isovector neutron-proton (np) pairing effect on nuclear statistical quantities is studied in N ≈ Z even-even systems. Expressions of the energy, the entropy, and the heat capacity are established using a recently proposed temperature-dependent isovector pairing gap equations. They generalize the conventional finite temperature BCS (FTBCS) ones. The model is first numerically tested using the schematic one-level model. As a second step, realistic cases are considered using the single-particle energies of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean-field. It is shown that: (i) the gap parameter Δnp(T) behaves like Δtt(T), t = n, p, in the conventional FTBCS model and the critical temperature value Tcnp is such as Tcnp

  5. Octupole deformation in the ground states of even-even nuclei: A global analysis within the covariant density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbemava, S. E.; Afanasjev, A. V.; Ring, P.

    2016-04-01

    A systematic investigation of octupole-deformed nuclei is presented for even-even systems with Z ≤106 located between the two-proton and two-neutron driplines. For this study we use five most-up-to-date covariant energy density functionals of different types, with a nonlinear meson coupling, with density-dependent meson couplings, and with density-dependent zero-range interactions. Pairing correlations are treated within relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory based on an effective separable particle-particle interaction of finite range. This allows us to assess theoretical uncertainties within the present covariant models for the prediction of physical observables relevant for octupole-deformed nuclei. In addition, a detailed comparison with the predictions of nonrelativistic models is performed. A new region of octupole deformation, centered around Z ˜98 ,N ˜196 is predicted for the first time. In terms of its size in the (Z ,N ) plane and the impact of octupole deformation on binding energies this region is similar to the best known region of octupole-deformed nuclei centered at Z ˜90 ,N ˜136 . For the later island of octupole-deformed nuclei, the calculations suggest substantial increase of its size as compared with available experimental data.

  6. Finite temperature behavior of the CPT-even and parity-even electrodynamics of the standard model extension

    SciTech Connect

    Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M. Jr; Rodrigues, Josberg S.; Silva, Madson R. O.

    2009-10-15

    In this work, we examine the finite temperature properties of the CPT-even and Lorentz-invariance-violating (LIV) electrodynamics of the standard model extension, represented by the term W{sub {alpha}}{sub {nu}}{sub {rho}}{sub {phi}}F{sup {alpha}}{sup {nu}}F{sup {rho}}{sup {phi}}. We begin analyzing the Hamiltonian structure following the Dirac's procedure for constrained systems and construct a well-defined and gauge invariant partition function in the functional integral formalism. Next, we specialize for the nonbirefringent coefficients of the tensor W{sub {alpha}}{sub {nu}}{sub {rho}}{sub {phi}}. In the sequel, the partition function is explicitly carried out for the parity-even sector of the tensor W{sub {alpha}}{sub {nu}}{sub {rho}}{sub {phi}}. The modified partition function is a power of the Maxwell's partition function. It is observed that the LIV coefficients induce an anisotropy in the black body angular energy density distribution. The Planck's radiation law, however, retains its frequency dependence and the Stefan-Boltzmann law keeps the usual form, except for a change in the Stefan-Boltzmann constant by a factor containing the LIV contributions.

  7. Deformation effects in the alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of even-even 244-260Cf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Krishnan, Sreejith

    2016-04-01

    Within the unified ternary fission model (UTFM), the alpha accompanied ternary fission of even-even 244-260Cf isotopes has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential. For the alpha accompanied ternary fission of the 244Cf isotope, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combination 108Ru + 4He + 132Te, which contains the near doubly magic nucleus 132Te ( N = 80, Z = 52). In the case of 246Cf and 248Cf isotopes, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combinations with the near doubly magic nucleus 134Te ( N = 82, Z = 52) as the heaviest fragment. The highest yield obtained for 250Cf, 252Cf, 254Cf, 256Cf, 258Cf and 260Cf isotopes is for the fragment combination with the doubly magic nucleus 132Sn ( N = 82), Z = 50 as the heaviest fragment. We have included the effect of deformation and orientation of fragments and this has revealed that in addition to the closed shell effect, ground-state deformation also plays an important role in the calculation of the relative yield of favorable fragment combinations. The computed isotopic yields for the alpha accompanied ternary fission of the 252Cf isotope are found to be in agreement with the experimental data. The emission probability and kinetic energy of the long-range alpha particle is calculated for the various isotopes of Cf and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  8. Measuring g factors of 41+ and 61+ states in even-even nuclei with 80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Diego; Benczer-Koller, N.; Kumbartzki, G.; Gürdal, G.; Sharon, Y. Y.; Zamick, L.; Speidel, K.-H.; Ilie, G.; Heinz, A.; Ahn, T.; Werner, V.; Robinson, S. J. Q.

    2011-10-01

    The measurement of g factors of the low lying excited states in even-even nuclei with lifetimes of the order of 1 to 50 picoseconds presents challenging questions for both theory and experiment. The experimental determination of accurate g factor values uses the transient field technique in inverse kinematics and requires an understanding of the reaction mechanism used to populate the final states. So far, the main method of excitation has been Coulomb excitation. More recently, alpha transfer from a 12C target to selected beams made it possible to populate states in nuclei not available as stable beams. This method has been successful for lighter nuclei up to A ~70. A comparison between Coulomb excitation and alpha transfer reactions will be presented. The experiments used the Tandem at the Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory at Yale University. Preliminary results for the 100Pd, 96Ru and 86Sr nuclei will be presented. Experimental challenges for future experiments will be discussed. Supported in part by the DOE and the NSF.

  9. Electro-Magnetic Dipole Properties of The Even-Even {sup 160}Gd Nucleus in The Spectroscopic Region

    SciTech Connect

    Ertugral, Filiz; Kuliev, Ali; Guliyev, Ekber

    2008-11-11

    In this study result of calculations using rotational, translational and Galilean invariant quasiparticle random-phase approximation is presented for the low lying dipole excitations in the even-even {sup 60}Gd nucleus. To make detail structure analysis for electric and magnetic dipole states, calculations carried out for both {delta}K = 1 and {delta}K = 0 branches. The analysis shows that almost all transitions with {delta}K = 1 are magnetic character in 2.4 divide 4 MeV energy interval. However, the calculations indicate the presence of a few prominent negative parity K{sup {pi}} = 1 states in the investigated energy interval, one of them with rather high E1 strength B(E1) = 7.1{center_dot}10{sup -3} e{sup 2} fm{sup 2} at energy 3.2 MeV. Calculated M1 dipole strength of the scissors mode K{sup {pi}} = 1{sup +} excitations clustered in two groups around 2.7 and 3.3 MeV. A similar situation arises for the experimentally obtained states two bumps around {omega}{sub i} = 2.7 MeV and {omega}{sub i} = 3.3 MeV. It has been shown that main part of spin-1 states, observed at energy 2.4 divide 4 MeV in {sup 160}Gd may be attributed to have M1 character and may be interpreted as main fragments of the scissors mode. However, it is apparent that the experimental data exceeds the calculation results for the summed B(M1) by a factor of 1.13 for M1 transitions.

  10. Research Projects, Collaborations and Career Aspects: Evening Discussion Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, G.

    2006-04-01

    Do I need to be a genius to become a good scientist? How can I collect the experience I need to do research? What do I do if I made a mistake? How can I find a useful research project? How do I know that it is of good international scientific standard? How can I judge that it can be realistically carried out? How can I structure it? Should I collaborate? Who should I collaborate with? Who do I better avoid? How far can I be guided by others? How do I know whose opinions to trust? When should I be sceptical about what other scientists say? How can I plan my career? Can I plan it at all? What do I need to take into account if I am determined to work as an astronomer for the rest of my life? All these questions (and more) are of concern for the young scientist trying to find her/his place in the astronomical community. While there is no standard solution for any of these problems, I would like to present some basic helpful ideas and concepts that were mentioned during this evening discussion.

  11. Systematical behavior of even-A polonium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W.; Cizewski, J.A.

    1997-03-01

    The energy systematics of even-A, neutron-deficient polonium isotopes have been previously observed down to A=194. The low-lying states display a gradual approach to the equal spacings of a harmonic vibrator, exceeding this limit for the first time in {sup 194}Po. We have successfully modeled these energy systematics using the particle-core model and have applied the quasiparticle random phase approximation to extract microscopic wave functions for the collective 2{sub 1}{sup +} states and predict B(E2;2{sub 1}{sup +}{r_arrow}0{sub 1}{sup +}) values. We are able to explain the Po trends in terms of the overlaps of the wave functions of valence particles, overlaps which are enhanced when particles occupy the high-j proton 1h{sub 9/2} and neutron 1i{sub 13/2} orbitals. We find little evidence for particle-hole excitations across the Z=82 shell gap. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Succinate esters: odd-even effects in melting points.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sumy; Sathishkumar, Ranganathan

    2014-10-01

    Dialkyl succinates show a pattern of alternating behavior in their melting points, as the number of C atoms in the alkane side chain increases, unlike in the dialkyl oxalates [Joseph et al. (2011). Acta Cryst. B67, 525-534]. Dialkyl succinates with odd numbers of C atoms in the alkyl side chain show higher melting points than the immediately adjacent analogues with even numbers. The crystal structures and their molecular packing have been analyzed for a series of dialkyl succinates with 1-4 C atoms in the alkyl side chain. The energy difference (ΔE) between the optimized and observed molecular conformations, density, Kitaigorodskii packing index (KPI) and C-H...O interactions are considered to rationalize this behavior. In contrast to the dialkyl oxalates where a larger number of moderately strong C-H...O interactions were characteristic of oxalates with elevated melting points, here the molecular packing and the density play a major role in raising the melting point. On moving from oxalate to succinate esters the introduction of the C2 spacer adds two activated H atoms to the asymmetric unit, resulting in the formation of stronger C-H...O hydrogen bonds in all succinates. As a result the crystallinity of long-chain alkyl substituted esters improves enormously in the presence of hydrogen bonds from activated donors. PMID:25274517

  13. Odd-even staggering in neutron drip line nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changizi, S. A.; Qi, Chong

    2016-07-01

    We have done systematic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations in coordinate space on the one-quasi-particle energies and binding energy odd-even staggering (OES) in semi-magic nuclei with the zero-range volume, mixed and surface pairing forces in order to explore the influence of their density dependence. The odd-N isotopes are calculated within the blocking scheme. The strengths for the pairing forces are determined in two schemes by fitting locally to reproduce pairing gap in 120Sn and globally to all available data on the OES of semi-magic nuclei with Z ≥ 8. In the former calculations, there is a noticeable difference between the neutron mean gaps in neutron-rich O, Ca, Ni and Sn isotopes calculated with the surface pairing and those with the mixed and volume pairing. The difference gets much smaller if the globally optimized pairing strengths are employed. The heavier Pb isotopes show the opposite trend. Moreover, large differences between the mean gap and the OES may be expected in both calculations when one goes towards the neutron drip line.

  14. Walking facilitates positive affect (even when expecting the opposite).

    PubMed

    Miller, Jeffrey Conrath; Krizan, Zlatan

    2016-08-01

    Across 3 experiments, we rely on theoretical advancements that connect movement, embodiment, and reward-seeking behavior to test the proposal that walking incidental to routine activity (heretofore referred to as "incidental ambulation")-not specifically "exercise"-is a robust facilitator of positive affect. Experiment 1 reveals that ambulation facilitates positive affect even when participants are blind to the purpose of this activity. Experiment 2 further demonstrates the robustness of this effect of incidental ambulation by documenting its operation under conditions of low interest, as well as its power to override expectations of mood worsening. Experiment 3 replicates the main finding while eliminating the possibility that posture, ambient events, or experimenter bias account for the results. Taken together, the experiments demonstrate that incidental ambulation systematically promotes positive affect regardless of the focus on such movement, and that it can override the effects of other emotionally relevant events such as boredom and dread. The findings hold key implications for understanding the role of movement in shaping affect as well as for clarifying the embodied nature of emotion. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27100368

  15. Evening primrose oil and borage oil in rheumatologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Belch, J J; Hill, A

    2000-01-01

    Diets rich in arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) lead to the formation of 2-series prostaglandins (PGs) and 4-series leukotrienes (LTs), with proinflammatory effects. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs are used in rheumatoid arthritis to inhibit cyclooxygenase (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase), thereby decreasing production of 2-series PGs. Lipoxygenase activity remains intact, however, allowing LT production (eg, synthesis of LTB(4), a potent inflammatory mediator) to continue. Altering the essential fatty acid (EFA) content of the diet can modify some of these effects. Ingestion of a diet rich in evening primrose oil elevates concentrations of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3n-6), which results in the production of 1-series PGs, eg, PGE(1). DGLA itself cannot be converted to LTs but can form a 15-hydroxyl derivative that blocks the transformation of arachidonic acid to LTs. Increasing DGLA intake may allow DGLA to act as a competitive inhibitor of 2-series PGs and 4-series LTs and thus suppress inflammation. The results of in vitro and animal work evaluating EFAs in inflammatory situations are encouraging, which has stimulated clinical workers to evaluate these compounds in rheumatoid arthritis. Several well-controlled, randomized clinical studies have now been completed in which various EFAs were evaluated as treatments. The results of most of these studies suggest some clinical benefit to these treatments; these data are reviewed here. PMID:10617996

  16. Vehicle engines produce exhaust nanoparticles even when not fueled.

    PubMed

    Rönkkö, Topi; Pirjola, Liisa; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Heikkilä, Juha; Karjalainen, Panu; Hillamo, Risto; Keskinen, Jorma

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle engines produce submicrometer exhaust particles affecting air quality, especially in urban environments. In on-road exhaust studies with a heavy duty diesel vehicle and in laboratory studies with two gasoline-fueled passenger cars, we found that as much as 20-30% of the number of exhaust particles larger than 3 nm may be formed during engine braking conditions-that is, during decelerations and downhill driving while the engine is not fueled. Particles appeared at size ranges extending even below 7 nm and at high number concentrations. Their small size and nonvolatility, coupled with the observation that these particles contain lube-oil-derived metals zinc, phosphorus, and calcium, are suggestive of health risks at least similar to those of exhaust particles observed before. The particles' characteristics indicate that their emissions can be reduced using exhaust after-treatment devices, although these devices have not been mandated for all relevant vehicle types. Altogether, our findings enhance the understanding of the formation vehicle emissions and allow for improved protection of human health in proximity to traffic. PMID:24397401

  17. Features of the Active Evening Plasma Sheet from MMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Avanov, L. A.; Burch, J. L.; Coffey, V. N.; Ergun, R. E.; Fuselier, S. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Giles, B. L.; Lavraud, B.; MacDonald, E.; Mauk, B.; Mukai, T.; Nakamura, R.; Pollock, C. J.; Russell, C. T.; Saito, Y.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Torbert, R. B.; Yokota, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, consisting of four identical plasmas and fields observatories, was launched into a 12 RE elliptical equatorial orbit in March 2015 and was in the process of being commissioned through August 2015. During commissioning, the orbit apogee rotated from near midnight through the evening toward the dusk sector and occasionally captured new observations of the plasma sheet, its boundary layers, and the magnetospheric tail lobes. On 22-23 June, an especially active plasma sheet was involved in a major geospace storm that developed a ring current with 200 nT DST. We report on the ion kinetic and flow features of this active plasma sheet, comparing them with familiar observations from earlier missions, as an exercise in validating the MMS observations and assessing their capabilities to provide higher time resolution in multi-point views of thin, fast-moving structures. The observed features include but are not limited to cold lobal wind streams in the lobes, tailward flowing auroral beams and conics, hot earthward field-aligned flows and counter-flows, fast cross-field convection of some flows toward the neutral sheet, and the hot isotropic plasma sheet proper. Relationships between these features, the ionosphere, and the reconnecting magnetotail will be explored and discussed, seeking preliminary conclusions.

  18. Hybridization can facilitate species invasions, even without enhancing local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Mesgaran, Mohsen B; Lewis, Mark A; Ades, Peter K; Donohue, Kathleen; Ohadi, Sara; Li, Chengjun; Cousens, Roger D

    2016-09-01

    The founding population in most new species introductions, or at the leading edge of an ongoing invasion, is likely to be small. Severe Allee effects-reductions in individual fitness at low population density-may then result in a failure of the species to colonize, even if the habitat could support a much larger population. Using a simulation model for plant populations that incorporates demography, mating systems, quantitative genetics, and pollinators, we show that Allee effects can potentially be overcome by transient hybridization with a resident species or an earlier colonizer. This mechanism does not require the invocation of adaptive changes usually attributed to invasions following hybridization. We verify our result in a case study of sequential invasions by two plant species where the outcrosser Cakile maritima has replaced an earlier, inbreeding, colonizer Cakile edentula (Brassicaceae). Observed historical rates of replacement are consistent with model predictions from hybrid-alleviated Allee effects in outcrossers, although other causes cannot be ruled out. PMID:27601582

  19. Size of Dominant Diatom Species Can Alter Their Evenness

    PubMed Central

    Sugie, Koji; Suzuki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, biodiversity has often been estimated on the basis of abundance partly due to the need for complicated measurements of biomass. Here, we conducted robust measurements of the community composition and of the size structure of diatoms in the North Pacific to evaluate the importance of biomass on the biodiversity. We found that the two most useful evenness indices increased in most cases where small species were numerically dominant when calculations were based on biomass compared with those on abundance. Size-abundance spectra of diatoms revealed that numerically dominant small species rarely dominated in terms of biomass. On the other hand, intermediate to large diatom species generally played a dominant role in terms of biomass in diatom community. The results suggest that the size of the dominant species is a crucial factor in determining the role of diatoms in the ecosystem functioning. Because such size variability can also be observed in other organisms, we need to pay attention to the effect of size structures on biodiversity. PMID:26098838

  20. The Problem with Probability: Why rare hazards feel even rarer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Even as scientists improve the accuracy of their forecasts for large-scale events like natural hazards and climate change, a gap remains between the confidence the scientific community has in those estimates, and the skepticism with which the lay public tends to view statements of uncertainty. Beyond the challenges of helping the public to understand probabilistic forecasts lies yet another barrier to effective communication: the fact that even when humans can estimate or state the correct probability of a rare event, we tend to distort that probability in our minds, acting as if the likelihood is higher or lower than we know it to be. A half century of empirical research in psychology and economics leaves us with a clear view of the ways that people interpret stated, or described probabilities--e.g., "There is a 6% chance of a Northridge-sized earthquake occurring in your area in the next 10 years." In the past decade, the focus of cognitive scientists has turned to the other method humans use to learn probabilities: intuitively estimating the chances of a rare event by assessing our personal experience with various outcomes. While it is well understood that described probabilities are over-weighted when they are small (e.g., a 5% chance might be treated more like a 10% or 12% chance), it appears that in many cases, experienced rare probabilities are in fact under-weighted. This distortion is not an under-estimation, and therefore cannot be prevented by reminding people of the described probability. This paper discusses the mechanisms and effects of this difference in the way probability is used when a number is provided, as opposed to when the frequency of a rare event is intuited. In addition to recommendations based on the current state of research on the way people appear to make decisions from experience, suggestions are made for how to present probabilistic information to best take advantage of people's tendencies to either amplify risk or ignore it, as well

  1. Evening and nighttime features of equatorial ionospheric F2 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyekola, Oyedemi S.

    2016-07-01

    We have used ionosonde observations recorded at Ibadan (7.4 degree North, 3.9 degree East) during the International Geophysical year (1957-58) to investigate evening and nighttime characteristic features of equatorial ionosphere during high solar flux and quiet magnetic conditions. We have also used International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-2012) data. Our results show that the base of the ionosphere descends at a rate of -27.5 km/hr between 2000 LT and 0400 LT, whereas the observed bottomside peak of the ionosphere move down at a rate of -29.3 km/hr between 1900 and 0500 LT, while IRI2012 bottomside peak show -29.8 km/hr between 2000 LT and 0500 LT. The downward flow rate of plasma concentration between 1900 LT and 0500 LT and between 1800 LT and 0400 LT is approximately 0.040 electron per cubic metre per hour and 0.081 electron per cubic metre per hour, respectively for observed and for modeled NmF2. Month-by-month averaged altitudes (h'F, hmF2, and modeled hmF2) indicate significant local time variation. In addition, the month-by month variation indicates nighttime double crest of averaged peak height (hmF2) in the ionosonde measurements and in the IRI-2012 empirical model with a trough in June-August for data and In July for model. The monthly mean downward vertical drift velocities derived from local time variation of h'F and hmF2 together with global drift model essential demonstrate much fluctuations. We found a "domed shape" in modeled drift velocity, indicating equatorward plasma between April and September.

  2. Hadronic D decays involving even-parity light mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.-Y.; Chiang, C.-W.

    2010-04-01

    We study the hadronic D meson decays into a pseudoscalar meson P and an even-parity meson M, where M represents a scalar meson S, an axial-vector meson A, or a tensor meson T. These decays are first analyzed in the flavor-diagram approach. Fits to the SP modes with S being a nonstrange scalar meson show that neither the simple qq picture nor the q{sup 2}q{sup 2} scheme is favored by data. Current measurements on the AP decays are insufficient for a meaningful analysis. Some TP data are inconsistent with the others. In certain cases, the W-annihilation diagrams indicated by the data are unexpectedly large. As a comparison, we also compute their decay rates in the factorization approach using form factors extracted from the covariant light-front model. We find that factorization works well for Cabibbo-allowed D{sup +{yields}}SP, AP decays free of the weak annihilation contributions (W-exchange or W-annihilation). For the other SP and AP modes, it is necessary to include weak annihilation contributions to account for the data. However, factorization fails for D{yields}TP decays for some unknown reason; the predicted rates are in general too small by at least 2 orders of magnitude compared to experiment. We also examine the finite-width effects of resonances. Some decay modes which are kinematically forbidden become physically allowed due to the finite width of the resonance. We show that the branching fraction of D{sup +{yields}{sigma}{pi}+} extracted from three-body decays is enhanced by a factor of 2, whereas B(D{sup 0{yields}}f{sub 2}(1270)K{sup 0}) is reduced by a factor of 4 by finite-width effects.

  3. Decay out of the yrast and excited highly-deformed bands in the even-even nucleus {sup 134}Nd

    SciTech Connect

    Petrache, C.M.; Bazzacco, D.; Lunardi, S.

    1996-12-31

    The resolving power achieved by the new generation of {gamma}-ray detector arrays allows now to observe transitions with intensities of the order of {approximately}10{sup {minus}3} of the population of the final residual nucleus, making therefore feasible the study of the very weakly populated excited bands built on the superdeformed (SD) minimum or of the decay out of the SD bands. As a matter of fact, numerous excited SD bands have been observed in the different regions of superdeformation, which led to a deeper understanding of the single-particle excitation in the second minimum. The first experimental breakthrough in the study of the decay out process has been achieved in the odd-even {sup 133,135}Nd nuclei of the A=130 mass region. There, the observation of the discrete linking transitions has been favored by the relatively higher intensity of the highly-deformed (HD) bands ({approximately}10%), as well as by the small excitation energy with respect to the yrast line in the decay-out region ({approximately}1 MeV). No discrete linking transitions have been so far observed in the A=80, 150 mass regions. The present results suggest that the decay out of the HD bands in {sup 134}Nd is triggered by the crossing with the N=4 [402]5/2{sup +} Nilsson orbital, that has a smaller deformation than the corresponding N=6 intruder configuration. The crossing favours the mixing with the ND rotational bands strongly enhancing the decay-out process and weakening the in-band transition strength. The HD band becomes fragmented and looses part of its character. The intensity of the decay-out transitions increases when the spin of the HD state decreases, indicating enhanced ND amplitude in the wavefunction when going down the band. Lifetime measurements of the HD bands are crucial to further elucidate the decay-out process.

  4. How Different are SMOS Morning and Evening Observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlandson, T. L.; Hornbuckle, B. K.

    2010-12-01

    Midwest, specifically where agriculture is a dominant land use. It is important that relative humidity data utilized from a source outside of an agricultural field is representative of the conditions occurring within the crop canopy, which is generally higher. SMOS pixels were chosen for regions where > 75% of the land area was comprised of agriculture. Days were chosen where there was a satellite pass both at 6am and 6pm, on days when no rainfall occurred. As such, changes in soil moisture would be minimal. The brightness temperatures obtained were normalized using the polarization index, which uses both v-pol and h-pol outputs to remove the influence of changes in surface temperature on the brightness temperature. As such, changes in the brightness temperature can be attributed to changes in the water content of the crop canopy or the presence of dew. Identifying changes in the signal between morning and evening passes will aid in determining if the presence of dew on crop canopy is an important source of error in soil moisture measurements at L-band, and more importantly, if 6pm measurements appear to be viable for soil moisture retrieval.

  5. Fiche pratique: La peche aux mots; Faire parler les BD; Rubrique evenement; Les droits de l'homme (Practical Ideas: Fishing for Words; Making Comic Strips Talk; Events Report; The Rights of Man).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timbal-Doclaux, Louis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Four activities for classroom French instruction are described: a board game for children's vocabulary development; a sentence and dialogue construction exercise using comic strips (existing or student-made); a discussion of the treatment of the notion of "event" in different journalistic contexts; and an exercise in debating skills and language.…

  6. Soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, William F.; Berg, Joseph M.; Bradley, Elspeth; Cheetham, Tom; Denton, Richard; Heng, John; Hennen, Brian; Joyce, David; Kelly, Maureen; Korossy, Marika; Lunsky, Yona; McMillan, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Mettre à jour les lignes directrices canadiennes de 2006 sur les soins primaires aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) et présenter des recommandations pratiques fondées sur les connaissances actuelles pour traiter des problèmes de santé particuliers chez des adultes ayant une DD. Qualité des preuves Des professionnels de la santé expérimentés participant à un colloque et un groupe de travail subséquent ont discuté et convenu des révisions aux lignes directrices de 2006 en se fondant sur une recherche documentaire exhaustive, la rétroaction obtenue des utilisateurs du guide de pratique et les expériences cliniques personnelles. La plupart des preuves disponibles dans ce domaine viennent de l’opinion d’experts ou de déclarations consensuelles publiées (niveau III). Message principal Les adultes ayant une DD ont des problèmes de santé complexes, dont plusieurs diffèrent de ceux de la population en général. De bons soins primaires permettent d’identifier les problèmes de santé particuliers dont souffrent les adultes ayant une DD pour améliorer leur qualité de vie et leur accès aux soins de santé et prévenir la morbidité et le décès prématuré. Ces lignes directrices résument les problèmes de santé générale, physique, comportementale et mentale des adultes ayant une DD que devraient connaître les professionnels des soins primaires et présentent des recommandations pour le dépistage et la prise en charge en se basant sur les connaissances actuelles que les cliniciens peuvent mettre en pratique. En raison de l’interaction des facteurs biologiques, psychoaffectifs et sociaux qui contribuent à la santé et au bien-être des adultes ayant une DD, ces lignes directrices insistent sur la participation des aidants, l’adaptation des interventions, au besoin, et la consultation auprès de divers professionnels de la santé quand ils sont accessibles. Elles mettent aussi en évidence la

  7. Des furoncles résistants aux antibiotiques: penser à la myiase !!

    PubMed Central

    Ajili, Faida; Abid, Rim; Bousseta, Najeh; Mrabet, Ali; Karoui, Ghazi; Louzir, Bassem; Battikh, Riadh; Othmani, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Les myiases sont des infections parasitaires par des larves de mouches. La localisation cutanée doit être évoquée de retour d'un pays tropical devant une évolution inhabituelle de lésions cutanées. Nous rapportons une observation d'un militaire tunisien, ayant séjourné en République Démocratique du Congo. Il était atteint de myiase cutanée simulatrice d'une furonculose résistante aux antibiotiques. L'intérêt de cette observation est de souligner l'importance d’évoquer la myiase dont le traitement est simple et rapide chez un patient de retour de zone d'endémie. PMID:24106569

  8. Ammonium inhibition of Arabidopsis root growth can be reversed by potassium and by auxin resistance mutations aux1, axr1, and axr2.

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Y; Glass, A D; Crawford, N M

    1993-01-01

    A novel effect of ammonium ions on root growth was investigated to understand how environmental signals affect organ development. Ammonium ions (3-12 mM) were found to dramatically inhibit Arabidopsis thaliana seedling root growth in the absence of potassium even if nitrate was present. This inhibition could be reversed by including in the growth medium low levels (20-100 microM) of potassium or alkali ions Rb+ and Cs+ but not alkali ions Na+ and Li+. The protective effect of low concentrations of potassium is not due to an inhibition of ammonium uptake. Ammonium inhibition is reversible, because root growth was restored in ammonium-treated seedlings if they were subsequently transferred to medium containing potassium. It is known that plant hormones can inhibit root growth. We found that mutants of Arabidopsis resistant to high levels of auxin and other hormones (aux1, axr1, and axr2) are also resistant to the ammonium inhibition and produce roots in the absence of potassium. Thus, the mechanisms that mediate the ammonium inhibition of root development are linked to hormone metabolic or signaling pathways. These findings have important implications for understanding how environmental signals, especially mineral nutrients, affect plant root development. PMID:8278539

  9. Conséquences comportementales de la violence faite aux enfants

    PubMed Central

    Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Discuter des répercussions de la violence sur le développement comportemental durant l’enfance, mettre en évidence certains signes comportementaux susceptibles d’alerter les médecins à la présence d’une maltraitance continue d’un enfant et explorer le rôle précis du médecin de famille dans une telle situation clinique. Sources des données Une recension systématique a servi à examiner la recherche pertinente, les articles de révision clinique et les sites web des organismes de protection de la jeunesse. Message principal Le comportement d’un enfant est une manifestation extériorisée de sa stabilité et de sa sécurité intérieures. C’est une lentille au travers de laquelle le médecin de famille peut observer le développement de l’enfant pendant toute sa vie. Tous les genres de violence sont dommageables pour les enfants, qu’elle soit physique, affective ou psychologique, et peuvent causer des problèmes à long terme dans le développement du comportement et de la santé mentale. Les médecins de famille doivent connaître les indices de maltraitance et de négligence envers les enfants et être aux aguets de ces derniers afin d’entreprendre les interventions appropriées et améliorer les résultats pour ces enfants. Conclusion La violence faite aux enfants peut causer un développement psychologique désordonné et des problèmes de comportement. Les médecins de famille exercent un rôle important dans la reconnaissance des signes comportementaux laissant présager une maltraitance, ainsi que pour offrir de l’aide afin de protéger les enfants.

  10. Isolation of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 from etiolated pea epicotyls and their expression on a three-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    We isolated novel cDNAs containing the complete open reading frames of a putative auxin influx carrier, PsAUX1, and a putative auxin efflux carrier, PsPIN2, from etiolated pea epicotyls. High levels of homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (Accession No. AY222857) and AtPINs. Phylogenetic analyses based on deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 and AtPIN7, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1. The results were similar for PsAUX1 and AtAUX1, where PsAUX1 belongs to the same subclade as AtAUX1 and CS-AUX1. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in pea epicotyl segments was promoted upon incubation of the segments with auxin (indole-3-acetic acid). In 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings, relatively high expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 was observed in the hook region, growing epicotyls and root tips as compared with those in mature regions of epicotyls and roots. Expression of PsPIN2 in roots was less than that in shoots. Simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat remarkably increased gene expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the hook and the internodes of pea epicotyls, but the increase in PsPIN2 was less. In contrast, polar auxin transport of pea epicotyls was substantially suppressed under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3D clinostat, similar to data from a space experiment on STS-95. These results suggest that PsPINs and PsAUX1 are auxin-inducible genes, and that the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 genes is sensitive to gravistimulation.

  11. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4](-) (X = F, CI, Br, I, At, Uus)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Congqiao; Wang, Xue B.; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Li, Jun

    2015-12-07

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity and electronic structures of trivalent-gold halides using gold tetrahalides [AuX4]⁻ anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4]⁻ (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were produced in gas phase and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, which exhibited rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. We calculated the adiabatic as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional methods with scalar and spin-orbit coupling relativistic effects. The simulated photoelectron spectra based on these calculations are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) is preferred when the halides become heavier along the Period Table. This trend reveals that the oxidation state of metals in complexes can be manipulated through ligand design

  12. Phloem-specific expression of a melon Aux/IAA in tomato plants alters auxin sensitivity and plant development

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Guy; Betzer, Rotem; Wolf, Shmuel

    2013-01-01

    Phloem sap contains a large repertoire of macromolecules in addition to sugars, amino acids, growth substances and ions. The transcription profile of melon phloem sap contains over 1000 mRNA molecules, most of them associated with signal transduction, transcriptional control, and stress and defense responses. Heterografting experiments have established the long-distance trafficking of numerous mRNA molecules. Interestingly, several trafficking transcripts are involved in the auxin response, including two molecules coding for auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA). To further explore the biological role of the melon Aux/IAA transcript CmF-308 in the vascular tissue, a cassette containing the coding sequence of this gene under a phloem-specific promoter was introduced into tomato plants. The number of lateral roots was significantly higher in transgenic plants expressing CmF-308 under the AtSUC2 promoter than in controls. A similar effect on root development was obtained after transient expression of CmF-308 in source leaves of N. benthamiana plants. An auxin-response assay showed that CmF-308-transgenic roots are more sensitive to auxin than control roots. In addition to the altered root development, phloem-specific expression of CmF-308 resulted in shorter plants, a higher number of lateral shoots and delayed flowering, a phenotype resembling reduced apical dominance. In contrast to the root response, cotyledons of the transgenic plants were less sensitive to auxin than control cotyledons. The reduced auxin sensitivity in the shoot tissue was confirmed by lower relative expression of several Aux/IAA genes in leaves and an increase in the relative expression of a cytokinin-response regulator, TRR8/9b. The accumulated data suggest that expression of Aux/IAA in the phloem modifies auxin sensitivity in a tissue-specific manner, thereby altering plant development. PMID:23986770

  13. The Tomato Aux/IAA Transcription Factor IAA9 Is Involved in Fruit Development and Leaf MorphogenesisW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Jones, Brian; Li, Zhengguo; Frasse, Pierre; Delalande, Corinne; Regad, Farid; Chaabouni, Salma; Latché, Alain; Pech, Jean-Claude; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2005-01-01

    Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins are transcriptional regulators that mediate many aspects of plant responses to auxin. While functions of most Aux/IAAs have been defined mainly by gain-of-function mutant alleles in Arabidopsis thaliana, phenotypes associated with loss-of-function mutations have been scarce and subtle. We report here that the downregulation of IAA9, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene from a distinct subfamily of Aux/IAA genes, results in a pleiotropic phenotype, consistent with its ubiquitous expression pattern. IAA9-inhibited lines have simple leaves instead of wild-type compound leaves, and fruit development is triggered before fertilization, giving rise to parthenocarpy. This indicates that IAA9 is a key mediator of leaf morphogenesis and fruit set. In addition, antisense plants displayed auxin-related growth alterations, including enhanced hypocotyl/stem elongation, increased leaf vascularization, and reduced apical dominance. Auxin dose–response assays revealed that IAA9 downregulated lines were hypersensitive to auxin, although the only early auxin-responsive gene that was found to be upregulated in the antisense lines was IAA3. The activity of the IAA3 promoter was stimulated in the IAA9 antisense genetic background, indicating that IAA9 acts in planta as a transcriptional repressor of auxin signaling. While no mutation in any member of subfamily IV has been reported to date, the phenotypes associated with the downregulation of IAA9 reveal distinct and novel roles for members of the Aux/IAA gene family. PMID:16126837

  14. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4]- (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus).

    PubMed

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Cong-Qiao; Wang, Xue-Bin; Vorpagel, Erich; Li, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity, electronic structures, and bonding of gold halides using tetrahalide [AuX4](-) anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4](-) (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were experimentally produced in the gas phase, and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, exhibiting rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. As expected, Au-X bonds in such series contain generally increasing covalency when halogen ligands become heavier. We calculated the adiabatic electron detachment energies as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional theory methods with scalar relativistic and spin-orbit coupling effects. The computationally simulated photoelectron spectra are in good agreement with the experimental ones. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) tends to be preferred when the halides become heavier along the Periodic Table. This series of molecules provides an example for manipulating the oxidation state of metals in complexes through ligand design. PMID:26550845

  15. Canalization of auxin flow by Aux/IAA-ARF-dependent feedback regulation of PIN polarity.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Michael; Balla, Jozef; Luschnig, Christian; Wisniewska, Justyna; Reinöhl, Vilém; Friml, Jirí; Benková, Eva

    2006-10-15

    Plant development is characterized by a profound ability to regenerate and form tissues with new axes of polarity. An unsolved question concerns how the position within a tissue and cues from neighboring cells are integrated to specify the polarity of individual cells. The canalization hypothesis proposes a feedback effect of the phytohormone auxin on the directionality of intercellular auxin flow as a means to polarize tissues. Here we identify a cellular and molecular mechanism for canalization. Local auxin application, wounding, or auxin accumulation during de novo organ formation lead to rearrangements in the subcellular polar localization of PIN auxin transport components. This auxin effect on PIN polarity is cell-specific, does not depend on PIN transcription, and involves the Aux/IAA-ARF (indole-3-acetic acid-auxin response factor) signaling pathway. Our data suggest that auxin acts as polarizing cue, which links individual cell polarity with tissue and organ polarity through control of PIN polar targeting. This feedback regulation provides a conceptual framework for polarization during multiple regenerative and patterning processes in plants. PMID:17043314

  16. {beta} decay of the even-even {sup 124}Ba nucleus: A test for the interacting boson-fermion-fermion model

    SciTech Connect

    Brant, S.; Yoshida, N.; Zuffi, L.

    2006-08-15

    The interacting boson-fermion-fermion model approach to {beta} decay is applied to the decay from the even-even {sup 124}Ba to the odd-odd {sup 124}Cs nucleus. The theoretical results for energy levels, electromagnetic properties and {beta} decay rates are compared with experimental data for {sup 124}Cs. The calculated {beta}-decay rates demonstrate that the interacting boson approximation can be applied in the description of {beta} decays from even-even to odd-odd nuclei.

  17. Tectonic conditions of hydrothermal polymetallic vein-type mineralization, Sainte Marie-aux-Mines, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeznia, Y.; Bourlange, S.; Ohnenstetter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines (SMM) mines host one of the most famous and oldest silver deposits in Europe. The SMM district is located in the central part of the Vosges mountains, France, within gneiss and granites of the Moldanubian zone. The SMM district includes the Neuenberg E-W vein-type Cu-Ag-As/Pb-Zn deposit and the Altenberg N-S vein-type Pb-Zn-Ag deposit. Deposition of the SMM hydrothermal mineralization occurred under a brittle tectonic regime that might be connected to neo-Variscan and/or post-Variscan tectonics, in a similar way as the polymetallic vein deposits of the Black Forest, Germany. A structural study was done in the Neuenberg area, in the vicinity of the Saint-Jacques vein, and within the Gabe Gottes mine, considering the orientation, extent, chronology and density of faults as well as the nature of the infilling minerals. In the Gabe-Gottes mine, the Saint-Jacques vein comprises multiple successive, sub-parallel subvertical veinlets with gangue minerals, mostly carbonates and quartz, and metal-bearing phases, sulfides and sulfosalts. The veinlets are 2 to 50 cm thick and strike N80° to N110°, the earlier veins slightly dipping towards the north, and the latest one, to the south. Seven systems of faults were identified, which may be classified into three major groups formed respectively before, during and after the main stage of ore deposition: a) Pre-mineralization faults - These consist of sinistral NE-SW strike-slip faults, and NW-SE and NE-SW steeply dipping normal faults. These could be related to Carboniferous events considering their relationships with the granitoid intrusives present in the mine area (Brézouard leucogranite ~329 Ma), and the extensional tectonics developed during exhumation processes. b) Faults associated with the main ore-deposition - These faults could be related to late-Hercynian processes from compressional to extensional tectonic regimes. Mineralization controlling faults consist of dextral and sinistral E

  18. Réactions immunoallergiques graves aux antibacillaires: à propos de 10 cas

    PubMed Central

    Alami, Sabah El Machichi; Hammi, Sanae; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    L'hypersensibilité aux antituberculeux est l'un des effets secondaires imprévisibles qui apparait chez 4 à 5 % de la population exposée et s’élève à 25% chez les sujets VIH positifs. Dans notre étude parmi 39 patients ayant présenté des réactions immunoallergiques, 10 avaient des formes graves. Le délai moyen d'apparition des signes était de 23 jours. Les réactions immunoallergiques observées étaient 5 cas de toxidermie généralisée fébrile, un cas de Dress syndrome, un cas de neutropénie, un cas de pancitopénie et 2 cas de thrombopénie. Tous nos patients avaient bien évolué cliniquement et bactériologiquement après l'adoption d'un régime thérapeutique excluant le ou les médicaments incriminés. En pratique, si l'effet indésirable imputé à un antituberculeux est grave, il est impératif de l'arrêter, de traiter l'incident et d'associer une autre molécule chez certains cas. Notre étude a montré une fréquence significative des complications graves probablement sous-estimée, surtout dans les pays fortement touchés par l'infection HIV.

  19. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-03-01

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. PMID:26869512

  20. Evaluating auxin distribution in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) through an analysis of the PIN and AUX/LAX gene families.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Richard J; Catalá, Carmen

    2012-05-01

    The temporal and spatial control of auxin distribution has a key role in the regulation of plant growth and development, and much has been learnt about the mechanisms that influence auxin pools and gradients in vegetative tissues, particularly in Arabidopsis. For example polar auxin transport, mediated by PIN and AUX/LAX proteins, is central to the control of auxin distribution. In contrast, very little information is known about the dynamics of auxin distribution and the molecular basis of its transport within and between fruit tissues, despite the fact that auxin regulates many aspects of fruit development, which include fruit formation, expansion, ripening and abscission. In addition, functional information regarding the key regulators of auxin fluxes during both vegetative and reproductive development in species other than Arabidopsis is scarce. To address these issues, we have investigated the spatiotemporal distribution of auxin during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit development and the function of the PIN and AUX/LAX gene families. Differential concentrations of auxin become apparent during early fruit growth, with auxin levels being higher in internal tissues than in the fruit pericarp and the pattern of auxin accumulation depended on polar transport. Ten tomato PIN (SlPIN1 to 10) and five AUX/LAX (SlLAX1 to 5) genes were identified and found to display heterogeneous expression patterns, with tissue and developmental-stage specificity. RNAi-mediated co-silencing of SlPIN4 and SlPIN3 did not affect fruit development, which suggested functional redundancy of PIN proteins, but did lead to a vegetative phenotype, and revealed a role for these genes in the regulation of tomato shoot architecture. PMID:22211518

  1. Associations among evening snacking, screen time, weight status, and overall diet quality in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, Jillian; Woodruff, Sarah J; Fryer, Katherine; Campbell, Ty; Cole, Mary

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the associations among evening snacking (food choices, portion sizes), afterschool-evening screen time, overall diet quality, and weight status. Participants consisted of 1008 young adolescents (secondary analyses, n = 651) from schools in Windsor-Essex, Ontario. The Web-based Food Behaviour Questionnaire, including a 24-h diet recall, was used to assess eating and screen time behaviours (television and video and computer games), as well as nutrient intake; height and weight for BMI were measured using a stadiometer. Results indicated that the majority of participants (62%) consumed an evening snack that contributed approximately 11% of their daily caloric intake. Evening snacking was associated with an overall good diet quality compared with that of non-evening snackers (p < 0.001). Increased afterschool-evening screen time was associated with fewer evening snack servings of vegetables and fruit (p < 0.05) and an overall increase in evening snack food portion sizes (p < 0.001). After accounting for other evening snacking factors, participants with greater than 6 h of afterschool-evening screen time were less likely to have a good overall diet quality compared with those with less than 1 h of afterschool-evening screen time. Therefore, increased screen time, because it is associated with greater evening snack portion sizes and overall poor diet quality, is of great concern regarding young adolescents' evening behaviour. PMID:23980738

  2. Lowest bound of energies for random interactions and the origin of spin-zero ground state dominance in even-even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, N.; Arima, A.; Zhao, Y. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we study the origin of spin-zero ground-state dominance for even-even nuclei in the presence of random two-body interactions. We evaluate the ground-state energy in terms of the energy centroid and the width of the random Hamiltonian. For both fermions and bosons in a single orbital, we obtain excellent agreement between the spin-I ground state probabilities predicted by using our formula and those obtained by diagonalizing the random Hamiltonian.

  3. Even Non-Obese Report Better Mood, Sex Drive After Dieting

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158604.html Even Non-Obese Report Better Mood, Sex Drive After Dieting Calorie cutters said their sleep ... News) -- Dieting might help improve your health, mood, sex drive and stress levels even if you're ...

  4. Evening Activities as a Potential Confound in Research on the Adrenocortical System in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertes, Darlene A.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2004-01-01

    The relation among children's evening activities, behavioral characteristics, and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis was assessed in normally developing children ages 7 to 10 years. Salivary cortisol at bedtime was compared on evenings when children had structured activities outside of the home with unstructured evenings at…

  5. 25 CFR 36.85 - Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings? 36... SITUATIONS Homeliving Programs Staffing § 36.85 Is a nurse required to be available in the evenings? No, a program is not required to make a nurse (LPN or RN) available in the evenings. However, this is...

  6. Preliminary Study of Counseling Services for Evening Students at Tallahassee Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Laurence L.

    To identify characteristics of Tallahassee Community College evening students and to ascertain their attitudes toward and perceptions of counseling services, questionnaires were administered to 16 evening classes. A total of 276 valid questionnaires were obtained. The results of analysis of the questionnaire data showed that TCC evening students…

  7. Preliminary paleogeographic reconstruction of the Illinois basin during deposition of the Mississippian Aux Vases Formation: Implications for hydrocarbon recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Extensive outcrop investigation and selective subsurface study allow definition of Illinois basin paleogeography during deposition of the Mississippian (Valmeyeran-Meramecian) Aux Vases Formation. The results incorporate an integrated approach utilizing field observations and petrographic analysis, wireline logs, subsurface maps, and cores. The Aux Vases Formation depositional system has been determined to be composed of subtidal to intertidal facies. Depositional facies in outcrop are based on rock body geometries, sedimentary structure assemblages, paleocurrent analysis, paleontology of body and trace fossils, facies relationships, and petrography. Depositional facies determined from subsurface data are based on correlation of lithologic interpretations from wireline logs, sand body geometries form isopach maps, and petrography. Specific depositional facies observed in outcrop and core and inferred from wireline logs and isopach maps are offshore bars and tidal channel complexes, extensive subtidal to lower intertidal, ripple-laminated, fine-grained quartzose sandstone. Carbonate facies occur as subtidal grainstones at or near the base of a sequence, or as high energy deposits which have been tidally reworked. This depositional system produces reservoir heterogeneities that complicate efficient hydrocarbon recovery. This diverse facies architecture is modified by tectonic and diagenetic overprinting, further segregating potential producing zones. To significantly improve recovery efficiency, predictions regarding compartmentalization can be used prior to designing a drilling program, an infill drilling program, or an application of enhanced recovery techniques.

  8. Approche aux soins en milieu communautaire à des adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Osmun, W.E.; Chan, Nelson; Solomon, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les obligations d’ordre médical, éthique et juridique dans les soins aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) qui vivent dans la communauté. Sources des données Des recherches ont été faites dans Google et MEDLINE à l’aide des mots disabled, disability, vulnerable et community. Les lois pertinentes ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Message principal Le traitement d’un patient ayant une DD varie en fonction de facteurs comme la pathogenèse du problème actuel du patient, ses affections concomitantes, la gravité de ses déficiences et ses soutiens sociaux habituels. Bien que l’on s’entende sur les bienfaits du transfert des soins institutionnels vers des soins communautaires pour les patients ayant une DD, il s’est révélé difficile de leur dispenser des soins de grande qualité en milieu communautaire. Par ailleurs, il existe peu de travaux de recherche sur les façons d’offrir efficacement des soins aux adultes ayant une DD. En tant que professionnels des soins primaires, les médecins de famille sont souvent le premier point de contact pour les patients et sont à la fois responsables de la coordination et de la continuité des soins. Compte tenu de l’importance accrue accordée aux soins préventifs et à la détection précoce des maladies, la participation active du patient revêt aussi une grande importance. Les valeurs et les objectifs du patient sont des éléments essentiels à prendre en compte, même s’ils vont à l’encontre de la bonne santé du patient ou des propres valeurs du clinicien. Les lois s’appliquant aux personnes vulnérables varient d’une province à l’autre. Par conséquent, l’obligation de signaler des mauvais traitements suspectés pourrait différer selon que la personne vulnérable habite dans un centre de soins ou la communauté, que la personne qui soupçonne le comportement abusif est un fournisseur de services ou un professionnel de la santé ou

  9. Diurnal Variation in Oral Glucose Tolerance: Blood Sugar and Plasma Insulin Levels Morning, Afternoon, and Evening

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, R. J.; Baker, I. A.; Keen, H.; Oakley, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects received three oral glucose tolerance tests, in the morning, afternoon, and evening of separate days. The mean blood sugar levels in the afternoon and evening tests were similar, and they were both significantly higher than those in the morning test. Plasma immunoreactive insulin levels, however, were highest in the morning test. The pattern of insulin levels during the afternoon and evening tests resembled that described as typical of maturity-onset diabetes. PMID:5058728

  10. Tables of E2 transition probabilities from the first 2+ states in even-even nuclei [B(E2) evaluation for 0+1 → 2+1 transitions in even-even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Birch, M.; Singh, B.; Horoi, M.

    2015-11-03

    A complete B(E2)↑ evaluation and compilation for even-even nuclei has been presented. The present paper is a continuation of P.H. Stelson and L. Grodzins, and S. Raman et al. nuclear data evaluations and was motivated by a large number of new measurements. It extends the list of evaluated nuclides from 328 to 452, includes an extended list of nuclear reaction kinematics parameters and comprehensive shell model analysis. Evaluation policies for analysis of experimental data have been discussed and conclusions are given. Moreover, future plans for B(E2)↑ systematics and experimental technique analyses of even-even nuclei are outlined.

  11. Conserving and promoting evenness: organic farming and fire-based wildland management as case studies.

    PubMed

    Crowder, David W; Northfield, Tobin D; Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Snyderi, William E

    2012-09-01

    Healthy ecosystems include many species (high richness) with similar abundances (high evenness). Thus, both aspects of biodiversity are worthy of conservation. Simultaneously conserving richness and evenness might be difficult, however, if, for example, the restoration of previously absent species to low densities brings a cost in reduced evenness. Using meta-analysis, we searched for benefits to biodiversity following adoption of two common land-management schemes: the implementation of organic practices by farmers and of controlled burning by natural-land managers. We used rarefaction to eliminate sampling bias in all of our estimates of richness and evenness. Both conservation practices significantly increased evenness and overall abundance across taxonomic classifications (arthropods, birds, non-bird vertebrates, plants, soil organisms). Evenness and richness varied independently, leading to no richness-evenness correlation and no significant overall change in richness. Demonstrating the importance of rarefaction, analyses of raw data that did not receive rarefaction indicated misleadingly strong benefits of organic agriculture and burning for richness while underestimating true gains in evenness. Both organic farming and burning favored species that were not numerically dominant, re-balancing communities as uncommon species gained individuals. Our results support the assertion that richness and evenness capture separate facets of biodiversity, each needing individual attention during conservation. PMID:23094371

  12. Particle-rotor model analysis of low-spin identical bands in neighboring odd-[ital A] and even-even nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, A.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Sarkar, M.S.; Sen, S. )

    1994-10-01

    A conventional particle-rotor model calculation has been performed for a number of odd-[ital A] rare earth nuclei in the mass region [ital A][congruent]160--190. A detailed analysis of the results of the calculation has been made. It shows that the positive parity bands which exhibit identical dynamical moments of inertia with their even-([ital A][minus]1) neighbors are not at all perturbed by the Coriolis interaction. On the other hand, the positive parity bands which are appreciably perturbed by the Coriolis interaction show normal'' behavior. This feature essentially points out that the core is not polarized in presence of the unpaired valence proton. In case of the negative parity bands, an interesting feature is observed. For most of them, which show identical band behavior, agreement with experimental spectra can be achieved with reasonable values of Coriolis attenuation factor only if their neighboring ([ital A]+1) even nuclei are used as cores.

  13. Work All Day, Study at Night: The Interactive Evening Lecture to Invigorate Working Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Gerard Stone was asked to present the evening lecture in a first-year undergraduate accounting subject. The aim of the subject matter was to provide students with an understanding of fundamental accounting issues and concepts. The subject coordinator advised Stone that, from past experience, most students who attend the evening lecture would be…

  14. Journalistic Impartiality on the Eve of Revolution: the "Boston Evening Post," 1770-1775.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, James L.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the impartiality of Thomas Fleet, Sr.'s "Boston Evening Post" during the years leading up to the Revolutionary War, a period during which patriots put pressure on newspapers take their side. Reviews data illustrating the paper's even-handed dealing with issues concerning Patriots and Loyalists. (TB)

  15. Parenting: Supporting Parents within a Family Literacy Perspective. Even Start Project Manager's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Douglas R.

    A significant portion of Even Start's efforts are directed toward helping families support their young children's education. The quality of the home environment contributes to children's success in school. To improve the quality of this environment, Even Start concentrates on five major aspects of family life which can affect children's school…

  16. From Vision to Action: Solving Problems through Inquiry at Boston Day and Evening Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunst, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    On a mid-week day in mid-December 2008, Boston Day and Evening Academy's room 209, usually used for board meetings, student assessments, awards dinners, and other occasions requiring an intimate atmosphere, smelled like Chinese food. These second-trimester students at Boston Day and Evening Academy (BDEA) were having a reunion after just a few…

  17. A Study of Classroom Literacy Interventions and Outcomes in Even Start. NCEE 2008-4028

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judkins, David; St. Pierre, Robert; Gutmann, Babette; Goodson, Barbara; von Glatz, Adrienne; Hamilton, Jennifer; Webber, Ann; Troppe, Patricia; Rimdzius, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    The Even Start Family Literacy Program was established in 1989 to help break the cycle of poverty and illiteracy for low-income families, by improving the literacy skills of parents and their young children. Even Start projects offer family literacy services, defined as four integrated instructional components: (1) Childhood Education (ECE); (2)…

  18. Third National Even Start Evaluation: Program Impacts and Implications for Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Robert; Ricciuti, Anne; Tao, Fumiyo; Creps, Cindy; Swartz, Janet; Lee, Wang; Parsad, Amanda; Rimdzius, Tracy

    The Even Start Literacy Program, established in 1989, aims to simultaneously improve the literacy of children and their parents through (1) early childhood education; (2) parenting education; (3) adult education; and (4) parent-child joint literacy activities. The report details findings from the third national Even Start evaluation. The…

  19. Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

    2009-12-01

    Grid parity--or break-even cost--for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that local incentives rather than ?technical? parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

  20. 37 CFR 10.111 - Avoiding even the appearance of impropriety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Avoiding even the appearance of impropriety. 10.111 Section 10.111 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Patent and Trademark Office Code of Professional Responsibility § 10.111 Avoiding even the appearance...

  1. 37 CFR 10.111 - Avoiding even the appearance of impropriety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Avoiding even the appearance of impropriety. 10.111 Section 10.111 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Patent and Trademark Office Code of Professional Responsibility § 10.111 Avoiding even the appearance...

  2. A New Measure of Functional Evenness and Some of Its Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ricotta, Carlo; Bacaro, Giovanni; Moretti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Functional evenness is increasingly considered an important facet of functional diversity that sheds light on the complex relationships between community assembly and ecosystem functioning. Nonetheless, in spite of its relevant role for ecosystem functioning, only a few measures of functional evenness have been proposed. In this paper we introduce a new measure of functional evenness that reflects the regularity in the distribution of species abundances, together with the evenness in their pairwise functional dissimilarities. To show how the proposed measure works, we focus on changes in functional evenness calculated from Grime’s classification of plant strategies as competitors (C), stress-tolerators (S) and ruderals (R) along a post-fire successional gradient in temperate chestnut forests of southern Switzerland. PMID:25105659

  3. An improved technique for modeling initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions: Applications in Illinois (USA) aux vases oil reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udegbunam, E.; Amaefule, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to as the flow zone indicator (FZI). FZI is derived from porosity and permeability data. In the FUSOI approach, capillary pressure parameters, S(wir), P(d), and ??, derived from the Brooks and Corey (1966) model [Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1966. Hydraulic properties of porous media, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, No. 3, March.], are correlated to the FZI. Subsequent applications of these parameters then permit the computation of improved hydrocarbon saturations as functions of FZI and height above the free water level (FWL). This technique has been successfully applied in the Mississippian Aux Vases Sandstone reservoirs of the Illinois Basin (USA). The Aux Vases Zeigler field (Franklin County, IL, USA) was selected for a field-wide validation of this FUSOI approach because of the availability of published studies. With the initial oil saturations determined on a depth-by-depth basis in cored wells, it was possible to geostatistically determine the three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of initial oil saturations in the Zeigler field. The original oil-in-place (OOIP), computed from the detailed initialization of the 3-D reservoir simulation model of the Zeigler field, was found to be within 5.6% of the result from a rigorous material balance method.An improved technique for modeling the initial reservoir hydrocarbon saturation distributions is presented. In contrast to the Leverett J-function approach, this methodology (hereby termed flow-unit-derived initial oil saturation or FUSOI) determines the distributions of the initial oil saturations from a measure of the mean hydraulic radius, referred to

  4. The auxin transporter, OsAUX1, is involved in primary root and root hair elongation and in Cd stress responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Yu, ChenLiang; Sun, ChenDong; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Suikang; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yan; Chen, YunLong; Li, Chuanyou; Qian, Qian; Aryal, Bibek; Geisler, Markus; Jiang, De An; Qi, YanHua

    2015-09-01

    Auxin and cadmium (Cd) stress play critical roles during root development. There are only a few reports on the mechanisms by which Cd stress influences auxin homeostasis and affects primary root (PR) and lateral root (LR) development, and almost nothing is known about how auxin and Cd interfere with root hair (RH) development. Here, we characterize rice osaux1 mutants that have a longer PR and shorter RHs in hydroponic culture, and that are more sensitive to Cd stress compared to wild-type (Dongjin). OsAUX1 expression in root hair cells is different from that of its paralogous gene, AtAUX1, which is expressed in non-hair cells. However, OsAUX1, like AtAUX1, localizes at the plasma membrane and appears to function as an auxin tranporter. Decreased auxin distribution and contents in the osaux1 mutant result in reduction of OsCyCB1;1 expression and shortened PRs, LRs and RHs under Cd stress, but may be rescued by treatment with the membrane-permeable auxin 1-naphthalene acetic acid. Treatment with the auxin transport inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acid and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid increased the Cd sensitivity of WT rice. Cd contents in the osaux1 mutant were not altered, but reactive oxygen species-mediated damage was enhanced, further increasing the sensitivity of the osaux1 mutant to Cd stress. Taken together, our results indicate that OsAUX1 plays an important role in root development and in responses to Cd stress. PMID:26140668

  5. Diversification and Expression of the PIN, AUX/LAX, and ABCB Families of Putative Auxin Transporters in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Carraro, Nicola; Tisdale-Orr, Tracy Eizabeth; Clouse, Ronald Matthew; Knöller, Anne Sophie; Spicer, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular transport of the plant hormone auxin is mediated by three families of membrane-bound protein carriers, with the PIN and ABCB families coding primarily for efflux proteins and the AUX/LAX family coding for influx proteins. In the last decade our understanding of gene and protein function for these transporters in Arabidopsis has expanded rapidly but very little is known about their role in woody plant development. Here we present a comprehensive account of all three families in the model woody species Populus, including chromosome distribution, protein structure, quantitative gene expression, and evolutionary relationships. The PIN and AUX/LAX gene families in Populus comprise 16 and 8 members respectively and show evidence for the retention of paralogs following a relatively recent whole genome duplication. There is also differential expression across tissues within many gene pairs. The ABCB family is previously undescribed in Populus and includes 20 members, showing a much deeper evolutionary history, including both tandem and whole genome duplication as well as probable gene loss. A striking number of these transporters are expressed in developing Populus stems and we suggest that evolutionary and structural relationships with known auxin transporters in Arabidopsis can point toward candidate genes for further study in Populus. This is especially important for the ABCBs, which is a large family and includes members in Arabidopsis that are able to transport other substrates in addition to auxin. Protein modeling, sequence alignment and expression data all point to ABCB1.1 as a likely auxin transport protein in Populus. Given that basipetal auxin flow through the cambial zone shapes the development of woody stems, it is important that we identify the full complement of genes involved in this process. This work should lay the foundation for studies targeting specific proteins for functional characterization and in situ localization. PMID:22645571

  6. Experimental and Ecological Implications of Evening Bird Surveys in Stream-Riparian Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, S. Mažeika P.; Vierling, Kerri T.

    2009-10-01

    Stream-riparian ecosystems are dynamic and complex entities that can support high levels of bird assemblage abundance and diversity. The myriad patches (e.g., aquatic, floodplain, riparian) found in the riverscape habitat mosaic attract a unique mixture of aquatic, semiaquatic, riparian, and upland birds, each uniquely utilizing the river corridor. Whereas standard morning bird surveys are widely used across ecosystems, the variety of bird guilds and the temporal habitat partitioning that likely occur in stream-riparian ecosystems argue for the inclusion of evening surveys. At 41 stream reaches in Vermont and Idaho, USA, we surveyed bird assemblages using a combination of morning and evening fixed-width transect counts. Student’s paired t-tests showed that while bird abundance was not significantly different between morning and evening surveys, bird assemblage diversity (as measured by species richness, Shannon-Weiner’s index, and Simpson’s index) was significantly higher in the morning than in the evening. NMS ordinations of bird species and time (i.e., morning, evening) indicated that the structure of morning bird assemblages was different from that of evening assemblages. NMS further showed that a set of species was only found in evening surveys. The inclusion of evening counts in surveying bird assemblages in stream-riparian ecosystems has important experimental and ecological implications. Experimentally, the sole use of morning bird surveys may significantly underestimate the diversity and misrepresent the community composition of bird assemblages in these ecosystems. Ecologically, many of the birds detected in evening surveys were water-associated species that occupy high trophic levels and aerial insectivores that represent unique aquatic-terrestrial energy transfers.

  7. Even and odd coherent states of supersymmetric harmonic oscillators and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar, Davood; Motamedinasab, Amin; Anbaraki, Azam; Jafarpour, Mojtaba

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we have constructed even and odd superpositions of supercoherent states, similar to the standard even and odd coherent states of the harmonic oscillator. Then, their nonclassical properties, that is, squeezing and entanglement have been studied. We have observed that even supercoherent states show squeezing behavior for some values of parameters involved, while odd supercoherent states do not show squeezing at all. Also sub-Poissonian statistics have been observed for some ranges of the parameters in both states. We have also shown that these states may be considered as logical qubits which reduce to the Bell states at a limit, with concurrence equal to 1.

  8. Moment of inertia of even-even proton-rich nuclei using a particle-number conserving approach in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammache, Faiza; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Oudih, M. R.

    2016-05-01

    An expression of the particle-number projected nuclear moment of inertia (MOI) has been established in the neutron-proton (np) isovector pairing case within the cranking model. It generalizes the one obtained in the like-particles pairing case. The formalism has been, as a first step, applied to the picket-fence model. As a second step, it has been applied to deformed even-even nuclei such as (N ‑ Z) = 0, 2, 4, and of which the experimentally deduced values of the pairing gap parameters Δtt‧, t,t‧ = n,p, are known. The single-particle energies and eigenstates used are those of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean-field. It was shown, in both models, that the np pairing effect and the projection one are non-negligible. In realistic cases, it also appears that the np pairing effect strongly depends on (N ‑ Z), whereas the projection effect is practically independent from the same quantity.

  9. A differential equation for the transition probability B(E2)↑ and the resulting recursion relations connecting even-even nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattnaik, S.; Nayak, R. C.

    2014-04-01

    We obtain here a new relation for the reduced electric quadrupole transition probability B(E2)↑ of a given nucleus in terms of its derivatives with respect to neutron and proton numbers based on a similar local energy relation in the Infinite Nuclear Matter (INM) model of atomic nuclei, which is essentially built on the foundation of the Hugenholtz-Van Hove (HVH) theorem of many-body theory. Obviously, such a relation in the form of a differential equation is expected to be more powerful than the usual algebraic difference equations. Although the relation for B(E2)↑ has been perceived simply on the basis of a corresponding differential equation for the local energy in the INM model, its theoretical foundation otherwise has been clearly demonstrated. We further exploit the differential equation in using the very definitions of the derivatives to obtain two different recursion relations for B(E2)↑, connecting in each case three neighboring even-even nuclei from lower to higher mass numbers and vice versa. We demonstrate their numerical validity using available data throughout the nuclear chart and also explore their possible utility in predicting B(E2)↑ values.

  10. Low-lying spectroscopy of a few even-even silicon isotopes investigated with the multiparticle-multihole Gogny energy density functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillet, N.; Zelevinsky, V. G.; Dupuis, M.; Berger, J.-F.; Daugas, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    A multiconfiguration microscopic method has been applied with the Gogny effective interaction to the calculation of low-lying positive-parity states in even-even 26-32Si isotopes. The aim of the study is to compare the results of this approach with those of a standard method of generator coordinate method (GCM) type and to get insight into the predictive power of multiconfiguration methods employed with effective nucleon-nucleon force tailored to mean-field calculations. It is found that the multiconfiguration approach leads to an excellent description of the low-lying spectroscopy of 26Si, 28Si, and 32Si, but gives a systematic energy shift in 30Si. A careful analysis of this phenomenon shows that this discrepancy originates from too large proton-neutron matrix elements supplied by the Gogny interaction at the level of the approximate resolution of the multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing method done in the present study. These proton-neutron matrix elements enter in the definition of both single-particle orbital energies and coupling matrix elements. Finally, a statistical analysis of highly excited configurations in 28Si is performed, revealing exponential convergence in agreement with previous work in the context of the shell model approach. This latter result provides strong arguments toward an implicit treatment of highly excited configurations.

  11. Why even almost perfect number should not be divisible by 3? A non - almost perfect criterion for even positive integers n≠2k

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antalan, John Rafael M.

    2014-06-01

    Two of the oldest open problems in elementary number theory are (1) to find a quasi-perfect number and (2) to show that only numbers of the form 2k, k∈Z+ are almost perfect. A positive integer n is quasi perfect if the sum of its positive divisors σ(n) is equal to 2n + 1 where as n is almost perfect if σ(n) is equal to2n - 1. In 1951, Cattaneo showed that quasi perfect numbers cannot be even. Recently, Antalan (2013) showed that almost perfect numbers not of the form 2k must be of the form 2xb2 where x ∈ Z≥0 and b is an odd composite positive integer. Here we give sufficient non - almost perfect criterion for even positive integers ne of the form 2xb2. Particularly we show that ne is automatically not an almost perfect number if it is divisible by 2x and a prime p ≤ 2x+1 - 1. Lastly we state a problem on almost perfect numbers related to what Cattaneo did on quasi perfect number.

  12. Odd versus even: a scientific study of the ‘rules’ of plating

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Charles; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of a series of large-scale computer-based preference tests (conducted at The Science Museum in London and online) that evaluated the widely-held belief that food should be plated in odd rather than even numbers of elements in order to maximize the visual appeal of a dish. Participants were presented with pairs of plates of food showing odd versus even number of seared scallops (3 vs. 4; 1–6 in Experiment 7), arranged in a line, as a polygon or randomly, on either a round or square white plate. No consistent evidence for a preference for odd or even numbers of food items was found, thus questioning the oft-made assertion that odd number of items on a plate looks better than an even number. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26839741

  13. Odd-even dependence of rectifying behavior in carbon chains modified diphenyl-dimethyl molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiu-Hua; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Hai-Ying; Liu, De-Sheng; Chen, Gang

    2014-06-01

    Using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we investigate the effects of asymmetric nonequi-length carbon chains on the electron transport properties of diphenyl-dimethyl molecule. The results show significant odd-even dependence: the rectification appears only in the hybrid nanostructure with odd carbon chain on one side and even carbon chain on the other side, while it is negligible in those with odd/even carbon chain on both sides. The mechanism for the odd-even dependence of rectification is analyzed by the bias-dependent transmission spectra, evolution of molecular orbital levels, their spatial distributions, and projected density of states with the applied bias.

  14. Arabidopsis SHR and SCR transcription factors and AUX1 auxin influx carrier control the switch between adventitious rooting and xylogenesis in planta and in in vitro cultured thin cell layers

    PubMed Central

    Della Rovere, F.; Fattorini, L.; D’Angeli, S.; Veloccia, A.; Del Duca, S.; Cai, G.; Falasca, G.; Altamura, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Adventitious roots (ARs) are essential for vegetative propagation. The Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors SHORT ROOT (SHR) and SCARECROW (SCR) affect primary/lateral root development, but their involvement in AR formation is uncertain. LAX3 and AUX1 auxin influx carriers contribute to primary/lateral root development. LAX3 expression is regulated by SHR, and LAX3 contributes to AR tip auxin maximum. In contrast, AUX1 involvement in AR development is unknown. Xylogenesis is induced by auxin plus cytokinin as is AR formation, but the genes involved are largely unknown. Stem thin cell layers (TCLs) form ARs and undergo xylogenesis under the same auxin plus cytokinin input. The aim of this research was to investigate SHR, SCR, AUX1 and LAX3 involvement in AR formation and xylogenesis in intact hypocotyls and stem TCLs in arabidopsis. Methods Hypocotyls of scr-1, shr-1, lax3, aux1-21 and lax3/aux1-21 Arabidopsis thaliana null mutant seedlings grown with or without auxin plus cytokinin were examined histologically, as were stem TCLs cultured with auxin plus cytokinin. SCR and AUX1 expression was monitored using pSCR::GFP and AUX1::GUS lines, and LAX3 expression and auxin localization during xylogenesis were monitored by using LAX3::GUS and DR5::GUS lines. Key Results AR formation was inhibited in all mutants, except lax3. SCR was expressed in pericycle anticlinally derived AR-forming cells of intact hypocotyls, and in cell clumps forming AR meristemoids of TCLs. The apex was anomalous in shr and scr ARs. In all mutant hypocotyls, the pericycle divided periclinally to produce xylogenesis. Xylary element maturation was favoured by auxin plus cytokinin in shr and aux1-21. Xylogenesis was enhanced in TCLs, and in aux1-21 and shr in particular. AUX1 was expressed before LAX3, i.e. in the early derivatives leading to either ARs or xylogenesis. Conclusions AR formation and xylogenesis are developmental programmes that are inversely related, but they

  15. Morning and evening physical exercise differentially regulate the autonomic nervous system during nocturnal sleep in humans.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Yujiro; Hashimoto, Satoko; Takasu, Nana N; Tanahashi, Yusuke; Nishide, Shin-Ya; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-Ichi

    2015-11-01

    Effects of daily physical exercise in the morning or in the evening were examined on circadian rhythms in plasma melatonin and core body temperature of healthy young males who stayed in an experimental facility for 7 days under dim light conditions (<10 lux). Sleep polysomnogram (PSG) and heart rate variability (HRV) were also measured. Subjects performed 2-h intermittent physical exercise with a bicycle ergometer at ZT3 or at ZT10 for four consecutive days, where zeitgeber time 0 (ZT0) was the time of wake-up. The rising phase of plasma melatonin rhythm was delayed by 1.1 h without exercise. Phase-delay shifts of a similar extent were detected by morning and evening exercise. But the falling phase shifted only after evening exercise by 1.0 h. The sleep PSG did not change after morning exercise, while Stage 1+2 sleep significantly decreased by 13.0% without exercise, and RE sleep decreased by 10.5% after evening exercise. The nocturnal decline of rectal temperature was attenuated by evening exercise, but not by morning exercise. HRV during sleep changed differentially. Very low frequency (VLF) waves increased without exercise. VLF, low frequency (LF), and high frequency (HF) waves increased after morning exercise, whereas HR increased after evening exercise. Morning exercise eventually enhanced the parasympathetic activity, as indicated by HRV, while evening exercise activated the sympathetic activity, as indicated by increase in heart rate in the following nocturnal sleep. These findings indicated differential effects of morning and evening exercise on the circadian melatonin rhythm, PSG, and HRV. PMID:26333783

  16. Persist or Produce: A Community Trade-Off Tuned by Species Evenness.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Rudolf P; Saavedra, Serguei; Peralta, Guadalupe; Frost, Carol M; Bersier, Louis-Félix; Bascompte, Jordi; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the effects of biodiversity on community persistence and productivity is key to managing both natural and production systems. Because rare species face greater danger of extinction, species evenness, a measure of how similar abundances are across species in a community, is seen as a key component of biodiversity. However, previous studies have failed to find a consistent association of species evenness with species survival and biomass production. Here we provide a theoretical framework for the relationship among these three elements. We demonstrate that the lack of consistent outcomes is not an idiosyncratic artifact of different studies but can be unified under one common framework. Applying a niche theory approach, we confirm that under demographic stochasticity evenness is a general indicator of the risk of future species extinctions in a community, in accordance with the majority of empirical studies. In contrast, evenness cannot be used as a direct indicator of the level of biomass production in a community. When a single species dominates, as expressed by the constraints imposed by the population dynamics, biomass production depends on the niche position of the dominating species and can increase or decrease with evenness. We demonstrate that high species evenness and an intermediate level of biomass production is the configuration that maximizes the average species survival probability in response to demographic stochasticity. PMID:27622875

  17. IBA for novice experimentalists. I. Introduction to IBA: mostly symmetries. II. Tests in even-even nuclei: mostly transitional systems. III. Supersymmetries: theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cizewski, J.A.

    1982-08-01

    The report contains the notes from a series of lectures on the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA) model. The lectures were presented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on July 28, 30 and August 1, 1982 by Jolie A. Cizewski from Yale University. The IBA was developed by F. Iachello and A. Arima starting about seven years ago to understand collective quadrupole excitations in medium and heavy mass nuclei away from closed shells. Since then the formalism has been extended to odd-mass nuclei and considerable work has gone into understanding the microscopic construction of the bosons in this model. The IBA has been applied to nuclei as light as Zn and Ge and as heavy as U and Pu; to nuclei near closed shells, such as Mo and Hg; to stable nuclei and nuclei far from stability. The present lectures were designed to give the experimentalist an introduction to the IBA and to give specific examples of how it could be applied to understand the structure of heavy even and odd mass nuclei. Much of the emphasis was on the symmetries (and supersymmetries) of the model and how the use of symmetries enabled the relatively straightforward understanding of empirical systems as deviations from these symmetries. The richness of possible applications of the IBA to understanding collective phenomena in nuclei was not fully explored, but rather a few illustrative examples were selected and described in detail. The references, accumulated at the end of this report, provide a more comprehensive, although not complete, list of tests of the IBA in even mass nuclei and the new symmetries in odd mass nuclei. The references also list the main theoretical papers which provide the details of the IBA formalism.

  18. Evening typology and morning tiredness associates with low leisure time physical activity and high sitting.

    PubMed

    Wennman, Heini; Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Peltonen, Markku; Vasankari, Tommi; Borodulin, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Circadian typology is a latent trait that is usually assessed with scoring on a series of questions thought to represent the construct. But, in the classification, most people fall into the intermediate type, i.e. neither a definite morning nor an evening type, but still showing stronger preference towards either end of the continuum. Our aim was to operationalize chronotype using latent class analysis (LCA) for a 6-item scale derived from the original Horne-Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire to compare and understand characteristics of chronotype in a population-based sample of adults in Finland. A total of 4904 men and women aged 25-74 years were included. We also analyzed the associations of chronotypes with physical activity (PA) and sitting. We found five latent chronotype groups including "rested more-evening type" (28%), "rested more-morning type" (24%), "morning type" (23%), "tired more-evening type" (17%) and "evening type" (8%) groups. Operationalization of chronotype by LCA suggests that morning alertness is an important feature differentiating chronotypes. Further, the "evening type" and the "tired, more-evening type" had higher odds for none to very low as well as low PA, as compared to "morning type". In addition, "evening type" was associated with higher odds for more time spent sitting, as compared to "morning type". Our findings indicate that it is important to assess sleep schedules and morning tiredness, which then could be targeted as a potential mediating factor for health behaviors, in particular, PA and health status. PMID:26317556

  19. Extinction of conditioned fear is better learned and recalled in the morning than in the evening.

    PubMed

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C; Vijayakumar, Shilpa; Ahmed, Nafis A K; Verga, Patrick W; Orr, Scott P; Pitman, Roger K; Milad, Mohammed R

    2013-11-01

    Sleep helps emotional memories consolidate and may promote generalization of fear extinction memory. We examined whether extinction learning and memory might differ in the morning and evening due, potentially, to circadian and/or sleep-homeostatic factors. Healthy men (N = 109) in 6 groups completed a 2-session protocol. In Session 1, fear conditioning was followed by extinction learning. Partial reinforcement with mild electric shock produced conditioned skin conductance responses (SCRs) to 2 differently colored lamps (CS+), but not a third color (CS-), within the computer image of a room (conditioning context). One CS+ (CS + E) but not the other (CS + U) was immediately extinguished by un-reinforced presentations in a different room (extinction context). Delay durations of 3 h (within AM or PM), 12 h (morning-to-evening or evening-to-morning) or 24 h (morning-to-morning or evening-to-evening) followed. In Session 2, extinction recall and contextual fear renewal were tested. We observed no significant effects of the delay interval on extinction memory but did observe an effect of time-of-day. Fear extinction was significantly better if learned in the morning (p = .002). Collapsing across CS + type, there was smaller morning differential SCR at both extinction recall (p = .003) and fear renewal (p = .005). Morning extinction recall showed better generalization from the CS + E to CS + U with the response to the CS + U significantly larger than to the CS + E only in the evening (p = .028). Thus, extinction is learned faster and its memory is better generalized in the morning. Cortisol and testosterone showed the expected greater salivary levels in the morning when higher testosterone/cortisol ratio also predicted better extinction learning. Circadian factors may promote morning extinction. Alternatively, evening homeostatic sleep pressure may impede extinction and favor recall of conditioned fear. PMID:23992769

  20. Extinction of Conditioned Fear is Better Learned and Recalled in the Morning than in the Evening

    PubMed Central

    Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Spencer, Rebecca M.C.; Vijayakumar, Shilpa; Ahmed, Nafis; Verga, Patrick W.; Orr, Scott P.; Pitman, Roger K.; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep helps emotional memories consolidate and may promote generalization of fear extinction memory. We examined whether extinction learning and memory might differ in the morning and evening due, potentially, to circadian and/or sleep-homeostatic factors. Healthy men (N=109) in 6 groups completed a 2-session protocol. In Session 1, fear conditioning was followed by extinction learning. Partial reinforcement with mild electric shock produced conditioned skin conductance responses (SCR) to 2 differently colored lamps (CS+), but not a third color (CS−), within the computer image of a room (conditioning context). One CS+ (CS+E) but not the other (CS+U) was immediately extinguished by un-reinforced presentations in a different room (extinction context). Delay durations of 3 hr (within AM or PM), 12 hr (morning-to-evening or evening-to-morning) or 24 hr (morning-to-morning or evening-to-evening) followed. In Session 2, extinction recall and contextual fear renewal were tested. We observed no significant effects of the delay interval on extinction memory but did observe an effect of time-of-day. Fear extinction was significantly better if learned in the morning (p=.002). Collapsing across CS+ type, there was smaller morning differential SCR at both extinction recall (p=.003) and fear renewal (p=.005). Morning extinction recall showed better generalization from the CS+E to CS+U with the response to the CS+U significantly larger than to the CS+E only in the evening (p=.028). Thus, extinction is learned faster and its memory is better generalized in the morning. Cortisol and testosterone showed the expected greater salivary levels in the morning when higher testosterone/cortisol ratio also predicting better extinction learning. Circadian factors may promote morning extinction. Alternatively, evening homeostatic sleep pressure may impede extinction and favor recall of conditioned fear. PMID:23992769

  1. Species richness effects on ecosystem multifunctionality depend on evenness, composition and spatial pattern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maestre, F.T.; Castillo-Monroy, A. P.; Bowker, M.A.; Ochoa-Hueso, R.

    2012-01-01

    1. Recent studies have suggested that the simultaneous maintenance of multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality) is positively supported by species richness. However, little is known regarding the relative importance of other community attributes (e.g. spatial pattern, species evenness) as drivers of multifunctionality. 2. We conducted two microcosm experiments using model biological soil crust communities dominated by lichens to: (i) evaluate the joint effects and relative importance of changes in species composition, spatial pattern (clumped and random distribution of lichens), evenness (maximal and low evenness) and richness (from two to eight species) on soil functions related to nutrient cycling (β-glucosidase, urease and acid phosphatase enzymes, in situ N availability, total N, organic C, and N fixation), and (ii) assess how these community attributes affect multifunctionality. 3. Species richness, composition and spatial pattern affected multiple ecosystem functions (e.g. organic C, total N, N availability, β-glucosidase activity), albeit the magnitude and direction of their effects varied with the particular function, experiment and soil depth considered. Changes in species composition had effects on organic C, total N and the activity of β-glucosidase. Significant species richness × evenness and spatial pattern × evenness interactions were found when analysing functions such as organic C, total N and the activity of phosphatase. 4. The probability of sustaining multiple ecosystem functions increased with species richness, but this effect was largely modulated by attributes such as species evenness, composition and spatial pattern. Overall, we found that model communities with high species richness, random spatial pattern and low evenness increased multifunctionality. 5. Synthesis. Our results illustrate how different community attributes have a diverse impact on ecosystem functions related to nutrient cycling, and provide new

  2. Shape phase transition in odd-even nuclei: From spherical to deformed gamma-unstable shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Boeyuekata, M.; Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2010-07-15

    Shape phase transitions in odd-A nuclei are investigated within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The case of a single j=9/2 fermion coupled to an even-even boson core is considered. This boson core transits from spherical to gamma-unstable shapes depending on the value of a control parameter in the boson Hamiltonian. The effect of the coupling of the odd particle to this core along the shape transition and, in particular, at the critical point is discussed. For that purpose, the ground-state energy surface in terms of the beta and gamma shape variables for the even core and odd-even energy surfaces for the different K states coming from j=9/2 are constructed. The evolution of each individual coupled state along the transition from the spherical [U(5)] to the gamma-unstable [O(6)] situation is investigated. One finds that the core-fermion coupling gives rise to a smoother transition than in the even-core case.

  3. Properties of nano-graphite ribbons with zigzag edges - Difference between odd and even legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, H.; Higashibata, S.

    2009-02-01

    Persistent currents and transport properties are investigated for the nano-graphite ribbons with zigzag shaped edges with paying attention to system length L dependence. It is found that both the persistent current in the isolated ring and the conductance of the system connected to the perfect leads show the remarkable L dependences. In addition, the dependences for the systems with odd legs and those with even legs are different from each other. On the persistent current, the amplitude for the cases with odd legs shows power-low behavior as L-N with N being the number of legs, whereas the maximum of it decreases exponentially for the cases with even legs. The conductance per one spin normalized by e2/h behaves as follows. In the even legs cases, it decays as L-2, whereas it reaches to unity for L→∞ in the odd legs cases. Thus, the material is shown to have a remarkable property that there is the qualitative difference between the systems with odd legs and those with even legs even in the absence of the electron-electron interaction.

  4. Even-odd staggering of the spectroscopic factor as new evidence for α clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delion, D. S.; Dumitrescu, A.; Baran, V. V.

    2016-04-01

    We evidence a staggering effect of the experimental spectroscopic factors corresponding to even-even and odd-mass (odd-mass and odd-odd) α emitters. The comparison to the theoretical estimate within the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) approach reveals a similar staggering, but with a different behavior. It turns out that the ratio between corresponding experimental and theoretical spectroscopic factors is proportional to the experimental reduced decay width. A similar dependence was found in a previous work between the strength of the quadrupole-quadrupole α -core interaction, describing the α -decay fine structure and the reduced width. Thus, the even-odd staggering effect in the spectroscopic factor is a new evidence of the α -clustering phenomenon in medium and heavy nuclei.

  5. Late-seasonal activity and diet of the evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis) in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geluso, K.; Damm, J.P.; Valdez, E.W.

    2008-01-01

    In North America, Nebraska represents part of the northwestern edge of the distribution for the evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis). To date, little information on this bat's natural history has been published from the state or from other parts of the Great Plains. Here we report on aspects of its natural history in Nebraska from 2 localities. In late summer and early autumn of 2006, we documented individuals farther west in Nebraska (Harlan County) than previously reported and determined that individuals fed mainly on Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. In 2006, evening bats appeared to migrate from Nebraska during late September-early October, and individuals were extremely fat, about 15 g, prior to migration. Evening bats likely are more widespread and common in south central Nebraska than previously documented. On 6 October 2005, we reported on an individual from eastern Nebraska (Douglas County), which represents the latest seasonal record of N. humeralis from the state.

  6. Even and Odd Charge Coherent States: Higher-Order Nonclassical Properties and Generation Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Truong Minh; Dinh, Dang Huu; Dat, Tran Quang

    2016-06-01

    We examine the higher-order nonclassical properties of the even and odd charge coherent states as well as proposing a scheme to generate these states whose modes can freely travel in open space. We show that the even and odd charge coherent states exhibit both higher-order antibunching and higher-order squeezing. While the two-mode higher-order antibunching occurs in any order and essentially depends on the charge number, the two-mode higher-order squeezing appears only in the even orders. We also prove that these states are genuinely entangled, and they can be generated by means of cross-Kerr media, beam splitters, phase shifts and threshold detectors. We find that the fidelity and the corresponding success probability to generate these states are dependent on the correlative parameters.

  7. Self-collimated electromagnetic jets from magnetized accretion disks - The even-symmetry case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. C. L.; Sulkanen, M. E.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper extends the previous treatment (Lovelace et al., 1987) of the origin of self-collimated EM jets to the case of even field symmetry, where the magnetic flux function Psi(r, z) is an even function of z. A viscous resistive accretion disk is assumed to surround a black hole with a force-free plasma outside of the disk. Inside the disk, the induction equation is solved for Psi(r, z) and the toroidal magnetic field. Outside the disk, previous results are used to study the formation of self-collimated EM jets. In contrast with the odd-symmetry case, for even symmetry the toroidal magnetic field acts to vertically compress the disk; a comparatively large toroidal magnetic field can exist inside the disk; and an appreciable fraction (possibly all) of the available accretion power can go into the jets.

  8. The French Tsunami warning center for the Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic (CENtre d'ALerte aux Tsunamis, CENALT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelé, F.; Bossu, R.; Alabrune, N.; Arnoul, P.; Duperray, P.; Gailler, A.; Guilbert, J.; Hébert, H.; Hernandez, B.; Loevenbruck, A.; Roudil, P.

    2012-04-01

    The CENALT (CENtre d'Alerte aux Tsunamis) is responsible for the French NTWC (National Tsunami Warning Center). This center was established through a project that was requested by the French Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Sustainable Development. It is implemented by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), the French Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (SHOM) and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), and is based in Bruyères-le-Châtel (30 km from Paris). This center is based on three main components: seismic network data, sea level network data, dissemination system and processing and analyzing softwares and is operating on a 24/7 basis. The CENALT has established scientific cooperation with 8 institutions and implemented and funded private leased lines to exchange data with institutions from 5 different European countries (Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia). The seismic data are processed with the Seiscomp 3 software. SHOM is working on making all French tide-gauge stations operated and available in real-time in 2012, and they installed 5 new tide gage stations. The tide gage data will be processed with a customized version of the Guitar (Gempa) software allowing the detection of tsunami signals, complemented by other softwares developed by the CEA. Historical tsunami databases (sources and observations) and earthquake databases, mostly based on available international databases, have been synthetized by CEA to produce information maps in real time, used to guide operators of permanence. Precomputed tsunami scenarios are implemented to build in real time maps of the highest tsunami impact expected in deep water. Along with an optimized tsunami modeling tool, these softwares help to define the areas where the tsunami may be observed and cause damage. The CENALT has been operating since early January 2012 as a pre-operational service and will be fully operational in July 2012. It is also

  9. Characteristics of Insomniacs with Self-Reported Morning and Evening Chronotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Jason C.; Huang, Jennifer S.; Kuo, Tracy F.; Manber, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study examines the relevance of self-reported morning and evening chronotypes in treatment-seeking insomniacs presenting to a tertiary sleep clinic setting. Design: Using a cross-sectional design, patients were categorized as morning, intermediate, and evening chronotypes based upon scores on the Morningness-Eveningness Composite Scale (MECS). Group comparisons were made on self-report measures of nocturnal sleep, sleep period variability, and waking correlates and consequences of insomnia. Setting: Sleep disorders clinic Patients: The sample consisted of 312 patients who presented to a group cognitive-behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) at the sleep clinic. Measurements and Results: Participants completed the MECS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale (DBAS), and one week of sleep diary prior to treatment. Even after adjusting for total wake time as an index of insomnia severity, differences between the three chronotypes were present on several measures. Compared to the morning and intermediate types, evening types reported more total sleep time, more time in bed, greater variability in the time out of bed, and higher levels of distress on the DBAS and BDI. Conclusions: These results indicate that insomniacs presenting to a sleep specialist who endorse an evening chronotype report sleep/wake irregularities and waking distress greater than expected in association with the level of insomnia severity. These factors may serve to perpetuate the insomnia disorder and might be particularly important to consider when treating this subgroup of insomniacs. Citations: Ong J; Huang J; Kuo T et al. Characteristics of insomniacs with self-reported morning and evening chronotypes. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(3):289–294 PMID:17561599

  10. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia versus stimulus-dichotomy synaesthesia: Odd, even or something else?

    PubMed Central

    White, Rebekah C.; Plassart, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In stimulus-parity synaesthesia, a range of stimuli—for example, letters, numbers, weekdays, months, and colours (the inducers)—elicit an automatic feeling of oddness or evenness (the concurrent). This phenomenon was first described by Théodore Flournoy in 1893, and has only recently been “rediscovered.” Here, we describe an individual who experiences a comparable phenomenon, but uses the labels negative and positive rather than odd and even. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia may be broader than first supposed, and it is important that assessments are sensitive to this breadth. PMID:26034572

  11. A semiclassical formulation of the chiral magnetic effect and chiral anomaly in even d + 1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayi, Ömer F.; Elbistan, Mahmut

    2016-05-01

    In terms of the matrix valued Berry gauge field strength for the Weyl Hamiltonian in any even space-time dimensions a symplectic form whose elements are matrices in spin indices is introduced. Definition of the volume form is modified appropriately. A simple method of finding the path integral measure and the chiral current in the presence of external electromagnetic fields is presented. It is shown that within this new approach the chiral magnetic effect as well as the chiral anomaly in even d + 1 dimensions are accomplished straightforwardly.

  12. Valley-valve effect and even-odd chain parity in p-n graphene junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresti, Alessandro; Grosso, Giuseppe; Parravicini, Giuseppe Pastori

    2008-06-01

    We address the current blocking by a p-n junction in a zigzag graphene ribbon by means of numerical and analytic investigations. Ribbons with superimposed gate potentials perfectly block the current in the energy range, where a single energy band is active in both the n and the p regions, if the number of carbon chains is even. In the same conditions, an odd number of chains allows current transmission. We interpret this even-odd valley-valve effect in terms of the underlying honeycomb topology and crystal structure symmetry.

  13. Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of fragments emitted at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, I.; Lanzalone, G.; Agodi, C.; Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A.; Han, J.; Maiolino, C.; Auditore, L.; Loria, D.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Berceanu, I.; Cardella, G.; De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Cavallaro, S.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.

    2011-08-15

    Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of light fragments emitted at forward angles in nuclear collisions {sup 40}Ca + {sup 40}Ca, {sup 40}Ca + {sup 48}Ca, and {sup 48}Ca + {sup 48}Ca at 25 MeV/nucleon and identified in charge and mass with the Chimera multidetector have been analyzed. The amplitude of even-odd staggering effects seems to be related to the neutron to proton ratio N/Z of the entrance channels. A qualitative explanation of this effect, taking into account the deexcitation phase of primary excited fragments, is discussed.

  14. Q, Break-even and the n{tau{sub E}} Diagram for Transient Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dale M. Meade

    1998-04-01

    Q, break-even and the Lawson diagram are well defined and understood for steady-state fusion plasma conditions. Since many fusion experiments are transient, it is necessary to clarify the definitions for instantaneous Q values and break-even so that the Lawson diagram can be interpreted for transient plasma conditions. This discussion shows that there are two mathematically correct methods to describe the Lawson diagram for a transient plasma: the Lawson/TFTR method and the JET/JT-60 method. These methods are discussed in detail in this paper.

  15. Atopic eczema unresponsive to evening primrose oil (linoleic and gamma-linolenic acids).

    PubMed

    Bamford, J T; Gibson, R W; Renier, C M

    1985-12-01

    This study was designed to look at the effect of evening primrose oil (linoleic and gamma-linolenic acids) as an oral supplement for patients with atopic eczema. We used a double-blind, blocked crossover design with random assignment of patients to treatment groups. We used Wilcoxon's signed-ranks method of comparing changes during the trial. We observed no significant effect on erythema, scale, excoriation, lichenification, or overall severity in 123 patients with atopic eczema of average severity while they took oral doses of evening primrose oil (2 or 4 gm in children, 6 or 8 gm in adults). PMID:3908514

  16. Time to Talk: What You Should Know about 5 Popular Herbs (Evening Primrose Oil, St. John's Wort, Fenugreek, Echinacea, ....

    MedlinePlus

    ... brought people to our site are evening primrose oil , St. John’s wort , fenugreek , echinacea , and aloe vera . ... tips about these popular herbal supplements: Evening Primrose Oil. Although evening primrose oil has been used as ...

  17. Angels of the Night: Evening and Night Patrols for Homebound Elders in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg, Bo; Ernsth, Marie; Larsson, Birgitta; Zarit, Steven H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the work of evening and night home care patrols in Swedish old-age care by examining how staff members view their work and the specific work content. Design and Methods: The authors developed two questionnaires: one that was to be answered jointly by the patrol teams, and one to be completed by…

  18. The Relationship between Phytoplankton Evenness and Copepod Abundance in Lake Nansihu, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wang; Zhang, Huayong; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Xiang; Huang, Hai

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. Previous studies have shown that producer diversity can impact the consumer community via predator-prey interactions. However, direct observations of this relationship remain rare, in particular for aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between phytoplankton diversity (species richness and evenness) and the abundance of copepods was analyzed in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic lake in China. The results showed that copepods abundance was significantly decreased with increasing phytoplankton evenness throughout the year. However, both species richness and phytoplankton biomass showed no significant relationship with the abundance of copepods. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that phytoplankton evenness was negatively correlated with Thermocyclops kawamurai, Cyclops vicinus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Sinocalanus tenellus, Sinocalanus dorrii, Copepods nauplius, but positively correlated with many Cyanophyta species (Chroococcus minutus, Dactylococcopsis acicularis, Microcystis incerta, Merismopedia tenuissima, Merismopedia sinica and Lyngbya limnetica). Based on our results, phytoplankton evenness was a better predictor of copepods abundance in meso-eutrophic lakes. These results provide new insights into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27589782

  19. The numerology of gender: gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, James E B; Bodenhausen, Galen V

    2015-01-01

    Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012) examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315), we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts. PMID:26113839

  20. The Effectiveness Of The Manchester Even Start Program In Improving Literacy Outcomes for Preschool Latino Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Andrew M.

    2005-01-01

    Although widely implemented, the effectiveness of the Even Start program and other programs involving home-visiting and bilingual education in improving preschool literacy outcomes, particularly among Latino students, is uncertain. This study used a non-equivalent groups design to compare preschool literacy outcomes (measured by the PALS-PreK…

  1. Attempting to Answer a Meaningful Question Enhances Subsequent Learning Even When Feedback Is Delayed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornell, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Attempting to retrieve information from memory enhances subsequent learning even if the retrieval attempt is unsuccessful. Recent evidence suggests that this benefit materializes only if subsequent study occurs immediately after the retrieval attempt. Previous studies have prompted retrieval using a cue (e.g., "whale-???") that has no…

  2. Analysis of a rural family-practice-based evening clinic staffed by a PA.

    PubMed

    Martin, E; Sophocles, A M

    1984-02-01

    A family practice in rural Breckenridge, Colorado began an evening clinic during the winter months of 1981-82 to serve the extra 1,000 to 2,000 residents that that community accommodated each year during the ski season. The clinic was staffed by a PA, who was aided by an office assistant, on weekdays from 5 P.M. to 10 P.M.; after 10 P.M., the PA took calls at home until the office again opened at 9 A.M. The pilot program was successful enough to warrant continuation. This article analyzes the Breckenridge Medical Center's experience during that first year with a PA-staffed evening clinic, in terms of morbidity profile of the after-hours cases, the amount of physician involvement required, the economic aspects of maintaining evening hours, and the ratio of day to evening patients that can be expected. The authors conclude that their extended office hours have proven to be an effective, affordable solution to their practice's after-hours medical care problem. PMID:10314588

  3. A Comparative Study of Characteristics of Evening Division Students Enrolled at Los Angeles Pierce College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Pierce Coll., Woodland Hills, CA.

    The responses of the 81% of the Fall 1968 night students completing a student-characteristics questionnaire are presented in charts and graphs, and compared with responses to similar questionnaires from previous semesters. Increases were found in the numbers of (1) full-time students taking evening classes, (2) single students, (3) students…

  4. Survey of Evening Credit Class Students: Valencia Community College, Winter 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Louis M.

    A sample of 791 adult students enrolled in evening credit classes at Valencia Community College was surveyed to determine their demographic characteristics and reasons for enrollment, and to compare this data with other studies to assess the representativeness of Valencia students. Questionnaire results indicated that the average Valencia evening…

  5. A SURVEY OF "SPECIAL" EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR ADULT WOMEN IN UNIVERSITY EXTENSION DIVISIONS AND EVENING COLLEGES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LORING, ROSALIND KOLAN

    TO DISCOVER TRENDS AND INNOVATIONS IN SPECIAL PROGRAMS FOR MATURE WOMEN OFFERED BY UNIVERSITY EXTENSION DIVISIONS AND EVENING COLLEGES, QUESTIONNAIRES WERE SENT TO 216 INSTITUTIONS (157 RESPONDED) AND AN INTERVIEW SCHEDULE WAS USED IN PERSONAL VISITS TO FIVE INSTITUTIONS. OF THE 157 SCHOOLS, 93 SCHEDULED PROGRAMS FOR ADULT WOMEN RANGING FROM…

  6. Back to School: An Examination of the Evening University and the Caribbean's Nontraditional Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pragg, Karima

    2015-01-01

    The Evening University (EU) programme at the University of the West Indies offers an opportunity for working adults and nontraditional students to earn undergraduate degrees. A qualitative framework was used to explore the reasons those enrolled in this programme sought tertiary education and to identify any challenges they faced throughout their…

  7. Break-Even Income Analysis of Pharmacy Graduates Compared to High School and College Graduates.

    PubMed

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To project the net cumulative income break-even point between practicing pharmacists and those who enter the workforce directly after high school graduation or after obtaining a bachelor's degree. Methods. Markov modeling and break-even analysis were conducted. Estimated costs of education were used in calculating net early career earnings of high school graduates, bachelor's degree holders, pharmacists without residency training, and pharmacists with residency training. Results. Models indicate that over the first 10 years of a pharmacist's career, they accumulate net earnings of $716 345 to $1 064 840, depending on cost of obtaining the PharmD degree and career path followed. In the break-even analysis, all pharmacy career tracks surpassed net cumulative earnings of high school graduates by age 33 and bachelor's degree holders by age 34. Conclusion. Regardless of the chosen pharmacy career track and the typical cost of obtaining a PharmD degree, the model under study assumptions demonstrates that pharmacy education has a positive financial return on investment, with a projected break-even point of less than 10 years upon career entry. PMID:27170815

  8. Literacy Engagement and Parental Development through Even Start Family Literacy Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Petra A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how parental participation in Even Start programs contributes to family literacy engagement and parental development. More specifically, its primary aim was to develop an understanding of how parental participation in the program influences their reading behaviors and other literacy practices as well as to highlight observed…

  9. Dietary fish and evening primrose oil with vitamin E effects on semen variables in cockerels.

    PubMed

    Cerolini, S; Surai, P F; Speake, B K; Sparks, N H C

    2005-04-01

    Our aim was to determine the effect of n-3 (2%, wt/wt, fish oil rich diet) and n-6 (2%, wt/wt, evening primrose oil rich diet) fatty acid dietary supplementation and their combination with two concentrations of vitamin E (40 vs 200 mg/kg) on semen variables and on fatty acid and vitamin E profiles of spermatozoa in broiler breeders at 32, 42 and 52 weeks of age. The inclusion of fish oil in the cockerel diets increased the docosahexaenoic acid proportion in the sperm phospholipid fraction, which was almost threefold higher compared to the other two groups irrespective of vitamin E supplementation. In contrast, an increase in the proportion of total n-6 polyunsaturates, mainly 22:4n-6, was observed in the evening primrose oil group compared to the control only when the dietary content of vitamin E was increased to 200 mg/kg. Sperm concentration was decreased in the fish and evening primrose oil groups if vitamin E was 40 mg/kg, but such an effect was prevented in the fish, not the evening primrose oil group, by increasing the vitamin E to 200 mg. The proportion of motile spermatozoa was improved by the increased supplementation of vitamin E in all oil treatments. PMID:15957443

  10. Evaluation of the Even Start--Padres y Progreso Program in the Houston Independent School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Carla J.; And Others

    The Even Start-Padres y Progreso program is a nationally funded program designed to prepare young children to enter school by not only offering early childhood education, but also assisting their families with adult literacy and English as a Second Language (ESL), parenting-skills training, and employment-skills training. An evaluation of the…