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Sample records for auxin-induced cucumber adventitious

  1. The heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide system is involved in the auxin-induced cucumber adventitious rooting process.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Wei; Zhu, Fu-Yuan; Xu, Sheng; Huang, Ben-Kai; Ling, Teng-Fang; Qi, Ji-Yan; Ye, Mao-Bing; Shen, Wen-Biao

    2008-10-01

    Indole acetic acid (IAA) is an important regulator of adventitious rooting via the activation of complex signaling cascades. In animals, carbon monoxide (CO), mainly generated by heme oxygenases (HOs), is a significant modulator of inflammatory reactions, affecting cell proliferation and the production of growth factors. In this report, we show that treatment with the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid prevented auxin-mediated induction of adventitious rooting and also decreased the activity of HO and its by-product CO content. The application of IAA, HO-1 activator/CO donor hematin, or CO aqueous solution was able to alleviate the IAA depletion-induced inhibition of adventitious root formation. Meanwhile, IAA or hematin treatment rapidly activated HO activity or HO-1 protein expression, and CO content was also enhanced. The application of the HO-1-specific inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) could inhibit the above IAA and hematin responses. CO aqueous solution treatment was able to ameliorate the ZnPPIX-induced inhibition of adventitious rooting. Molecular evidence further showed that ZnPPIX mimicked the effects of naphthylphthalamic acid on the inhibition of adventitious rooting, the down-regulation of one DnaJ-like gene (CSDNAJ-1), and two calcium-dependent protein kinase genes (CSCDPK1 and CSCDPK5). Application of CO aqueous solution not only dose-dependently blocked IAA depletion-induced inhibition of adventitious rooting but also enhanced endogenous CO content and up-regulated CSDNAJ-1 and CSCDPK1/5 transcripts. Together, we provided pharmacological, physiological, and molecular evidence that auxin rapidly activates HO activity and that the product of HO action, CO, then triggers the signal transduction events that lead to the auxin responses of adventitious root formation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). PMID:18689445

  2. The Heme Oxygenase/Carbon Monoxide System Is Involved in the Auxin-Induced Cucumber Adventitious Rooting Process1

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Wei; Zhu, Fu-Yuan; Xu, Sheng; Huang, Ben-Kai; Ling, Teng-Fang; Qi, Ji-Yan; Ye, Mao-Bing; Shen, Wen-Biao

    2008-01-01

    Indole acetic acid (IAA) is an important regulator of adventitious rooting via the activation of complex signaling cascades. In animals, carbon monoxide (CO), mainly generated by heme oxygenases (HOs), is a significant modulator of inflammatory reactions, affecting cell proliferation and the production of growth factors. In this report, we show that treatment with the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid prevented auxin-mediated induction of adventitious rooting and also decreased the activity of HO and its by-product CO content. The application of IAA, HO-1 activator/CO donor hematin, or CO aqueous solution was able to alleviate the IAA depletion-induced inhibition of adventitious root formation. Meanwhile, IAA or hematin treatment rapidly activated HO activity or HO-1 protein expression, and CO content was also enhanced. The application of the HO-1-specific inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) could inhibit the above IAA and hematin responses. CO aqueous solution treatment was able to ameliorate the ZnPPIX-induced inhibition of adventitious rooting. Molecular evidence further showed that ZnPPIX mimicked the effects of naphthylphthalamic acid on the inhibition of adventitious rooting, the down-regulation of one DnaJ-like gene (CSDNAJ-1), and two calcium-dependent protein kinase genes (CSCDPK1 and CSCDPK5). Application of CO aqueous solution not only dose-dependently blocked IAA depletion-induced inhibition of adventitious rooting but also enhanced endogenous CO content and up-regulated CSDNAJ-1 and CSCDPK1/5 transcripts. Together, we provided pharmacological, physiological, and molecular evidence that auxin rapidly activates HO activity and that the product of HO action, CO, then triggers the signal transduction events that lead to the auxin responses of adventitious root formation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). PMID:18689445

  3. Nitric Oxide Triggers Phosphatidic Acid Accumulation via Phospholipase D during Auxin-Induced Adventitious Root Formation in Cucumber1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lanteri, María Luciana; Laxalt, Ana María; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Auxin and nitric oxide (NO) play fundamental roles throughout plant life. NO is a second messenger in auxin signal transduction leading to root developmental processes. The mechanisms triggered by auxin and NO that direct adventitious root (AR) formation are beginning to be unraveled. The goal of this work was to study phospholipid (PL) signaling during the auxin- and NO-induced AR formation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) explants. Explants were labeled with 32P-inorganic phosphate and treated with the auxins indole-3-acetic acid or 1-naphthylacetic acid, or the NO donor S-nitroso N-acetyl penicillamine, in the presence or absence of the specific NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide. PLs were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantified. We report that the signaling PLs phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylinositol phosphate, and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate accumulated within 1 min after auxin or NO treatment. Both auxin and NO evoked similar and transient time course responses, since signaling PLs returned to control levels after 20 or 30 min of treatment. The results indicate that auxin relies on NO in inducing PA, phosphatidylinositol phosphate, and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate accumulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that auxin and NO trigger PA formation via phospholipase D (PLD) activity. Explants treated for 10 min with auxin or NO displayed a 200% increase in AR number compared with control explants. In addition, PLD activity was required for the auxin- and NO-induced AR formation. Finally, exogenously applied PA increased up to 300% the number of ARs. Altogether, our data support the idea that PLD-derived PA is an early signaling event during AR formation induced by auxin and NO in cucumber explants. PMID:18375601

  4. Nitric oxide is involved in hemin-induced cucumber adventitious rooting process.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Wei; Xu, Sheng; Li, Meiyue; Han, Bin; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Yuting; Huang, Jingjing; Shen, Wenbiao; Cui, Jin

    2012-07-15

    Hemin, a heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inducer, was shown to exert numerous beneficial physiological functions in animals. Our previous study suggests that HO-1/carbon monoxide (CO) acts as a novel downstream signal system in the auxin-induced adventitious rooting. The objective of this study was to test whether nitric oxide (NO) is involved in hemin-induced cucumber adventitious rooting. Applications of hemin or CO aqueous solution to auxin-depleted cucumber explant induced up-regulation of cucumber HO-1 transcripts (CsHO1), NO production, and thereafter adventitious root formation, and some above responses were blocked by the combination treatment with two nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like enzyme inhibitors N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, a HO-1 specific inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX, and a specific NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt. However, these blocking responses were not observed using tungstate, an inhibitor of nitrate reductase, another NO producing enzyme in plants. Furthermore, the guanylate cyclase inhibitors 1H-(1,2,4)-oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one and 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione reduced root development induced by hemin, whereas the cell-permeable cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) derivative 8-Br-cGMP reversed this effect. Together, our results indicated that at least in our experimental conditions, NO might operate downstream of hemin promoting adventitious root formation probably in a cGMP-dependent manner. PMID:22579358

  5. Nitric oxide is required for hydrogen gas-induced adventitious root formation in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongchao; Liao, Weibiao; Wang, Meng; Niu, Lijuan; Xu, Qingqing; Jin, Xin

    2016-05-20

    Hydrogen gas (H2) is involved in plant development and stress responses. Cucumber explants were used to study whether nitric oxide (NO) is involved in H2-induced adventitious root development. The results revealed that 50% and 100% hydrogen-rich water (HRW) apparently promoted the development of adventitious root in cucumber. While, the responses of HRW-induced adventitious rooting were blocked by a specific NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO), NO synthase (NOS) enzyme inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methylester hydrochloride (l-NAME) and nitrate reductase (NR) inhibitor NaN3. HRW also increased NO content and NOS and NR activity both in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Moreover, molecular evidence showed that HRW up-regulated NR genes expression in explants. The results indicate the importance of NOS and NR enzymes, which might be responsible for NO production in explants during H2-induced root organogenesis. Additionally, peroxidase (POD) and indoleacetic acid oxidase (IAAO) activity was significantly decreased in the explants treated with HRW, while HRW treatment significantly increased polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. In addition, cPTIO, l-NAME and NaN3 inhibited the actions of HRW on the activity of these enzymes. Together, NO may be involved in H2-induced adventitious rooting, and NO may be acting downstream in plant H2 signaling cascade. PMID:27010347

  6. Light inhibits gravity-regulated peg formation and asymmetric mRNA accumulation of auxin-inducible CsIAA1 in the cortex of the transition zone in cucumber seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Nobuharu; Saito, Yuko; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    When cucumber seedlings are grown horizontally, a specialized protuberance, termed the peg, develops on the lower side of the transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root. Gravimorphogenesis regulates the lateral positioning of the peg in the transition zone and it has been suggested that auxin plays an important role in peg formation in cucumber seedlings. Here, we found that light inhibited auxin-regulated peg formation. In the transition zone of horizontally positioned cucumber seedlings grown in the dark, we detected an asymmetric accumulation of mRNA from the auxin-inducible gene CsIAA1 in the epidermis and cortex. However, in seedlings grown under illumination, this asymmetry was greatly reduced. In dark- and light-grown seedlings, application of 10 -3 M indole-3-acetic acid induced peg formation on both the lower and upper sides of the transition zone. These results suggest that light inhibits peg formation via modification of auxin distribution and/or levels in the transition zone of cucumber seedlings.

  7. Involvement of nitrate reductase in auxin-induced NO synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Erdei, L

    2008-01-01

    It is well known for a long time, that nitric oxide (NO) functions in variable physiological and developmental processes in plants, however the source of this signaling molecule in the diverse plant responses is very obscure.1 Although existance of nitric oxide sythase (NOS) in plants is still questionable, LNMMA (NG-monomethyl-L-arginine)-sensitive NO generation was observed in different plant species.2,3 In addition, nitrate reductase (NR) is confirmed to have a major role as source of NO.4,5 This multifaced molecule acts also in auxin-induced lateral root (LR) formation, since exogenous auxin enhanced NO levels in regions of Arabidopsis LR initiatives. Our results pointed out the involvement of nitrate reductase enzyme in auxin-induced NO formation. In this addendum, we speculate on auxin-induced NO production in lateral root primordial formation. PMID:19704423

  8. Involvement of nitrate reductase in auxin-induced NO synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Erdei, L

    2008-11-01

    It is well known for a long time, that nitric oxide (NO) functions in variable physiological and developmental processes in plants, however the source of this signaling molecule in the diverse plant responses is very obscure.1 Although existance of nitric oxide sythase (NOS) in plants is still questionable, LNMMA (N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine)-sensitive NO generation was observed in different plant species.2,3 In addition, nitrate reductase (NR) is confirmed to have a major role as source of NO.4,5 This multifaced molecule acts also in auxin-induced lateral root (LR) formation, since exogenous auxin enhanced NO levels in regions of Arabidopsis LR initiatives. Our results pointed out the involvement of nitrate reductase enzyme in auxin-induced NO formation. In this addendum, we speculate on auxin-induced NO production in lateral root primordial formation. PMID:19704423

  9. Galactose inhibits auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles by two mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, S. P.; Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Galactose inhibits auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles by at least two mechanisms. First, it inhibits auxin-induced H(+)-excretion needed for the initiation of rapid elongation. Galactose cannot be doing so by directly interfering with the ATPase since fusicoccin-induced H(+)-excretion is not affected. Secondly, galactose inhibits long-term auxin-induced growth, even in an acidic (pH 4.5) solution. This may be due to an inhibition of cell wall synthesis. However, galactose does not reduce the capacity of walls to be loosened by H+, given exogenously or excreted in response to fusicoccin.

  10. Improvement of adventitious root formation in flax using hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Takáč, Tomáš; Obert, Bohuš; Rolčík, Jakub; Šamaj, Jozef

    2016-09-25

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important crop for the production of oil and fiber. In vitro manipulations of flax are used for genetic improvement and breeding while improvements in adventitious root formation are important for biotechnological programs focused on regeneration and vegetative propagation of genetically valuable plant material. Additionally, flax hypocotyl segments possess outstanding morphogenetic capacity, thus providing a useful model for the investigation of flax developmental processes. Here, we investigated the crosstalk between hydrogen peroxide and auxin with respect to reprogramming flax hypocotyl cells for root morphogenetic development. Exogenous auxin induced the robust formation of adventitious roots from flax hypocotyl segments while the addition of hydrogen peroxide further enhanced this process. The levels of endogenous auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) were positively correlated with increased root formation in response to exogenous auxin (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid; NAA). Histochemical staining of the hypocotyl segments revealed that hydrogen peroxide and peroxidase, but not superoxide, were positively correlated with root formation. Measurements of antioxidant enzyme activities showed that endogenous levels of hydrogen peroxide were controlled by peroxidases during root formation from hypocotyl segments. In conclusion, hydrogen peroxide positively affected flax adventitious root formation by regulating the endogenous auxin levels. Consequently, this agent can be applied to increase flax regeneration capacity for biotechnological purposes such as improved plant rooting. PMID:26921706

  11. Evidence that auxin-induced growth of soybean hypocotyls involves proton excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Rayle, D.L.; Cleland, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    The role of H/sup +/ excretion in auxin-induced growth of soybean hypocotyl tissues has been investigated, using tissues whose cuticle was rendered permeable to protons or buffers by scarification (scrubbing). Indoleacetic acid induces both elongation and H/sup +/ excretion after a lag of 10 to 12 minutes. Cycloheximide inhibits growth and causes the tissues to remove protons from the medium. Neutral buffers (pH 7.0) inhibit auxin-induced growth of scrubbed but not intact sections; the inhibition increases as the buffers strength is increased. Both live and frozen-thawed sections, in the absence of auxin, extend in response to exogenously supplied protons. Fusicoccin induces both elongation and H/sup +/ excretion at rates greater than does auxin. These results indicate that H/sup +/ excretion is involved in the initiation of auxin-induced elongation in soybean hypocotyl tissue.

  12. A chemical pollen suppressant inhibits auxin-induced growth in maize coleoptile sections

    SciTech Connect

    Vesper, M.J. ); Cross, J.W. )

    1990-05-01

    Chemical inhibitors of pollen development having a phenylcinnoline carboxylate structure were found to inhibit IAA- and 1-NAA-induced growth in maize coleoptile sections. The inhibitor (100 {mu}M) used in these experiments caused approx. 35% reduction in auxin-induced growth over the auxin concentration range of 0.3 to 100 {mu}M. Growth inhibition was noted as a lengthening of the latent period and a decrease in the rate of an auxin-induced growth response. An acid growth response to pH 5 buffer in abraded sections was not impaired. The velocity of basipetal transport of ({sup 3}H)IAA through the coleoptile sections also was not inhibited by the compound, nor was uptake of ({sup 3}H)IAA. Similarly, the inhibitor does not appear to alter auxin-induced H{sup +} secretion. We suggest that the agent targets some other process necessary for auxin-dependent growth.

  13. A positive role for hydrogen gas in adventitious root development.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongchao; Liao, Weibiao

    2016-06-01

    Our recent study highlights the role of hydrogen gas (H2) in adventitious root development in cucumber. H2 is an effective gaseous signal molecule with the abilities to regulate plant growth and development and enhance plant resistance to environmental stimulus. In addition, the effect of H2 on fruit senescence and flowering time also has been reported. Adventitious root development is a critical step in plant vegetative propagation affected by a serious of signaling molecules, such as auxin, nitric oxide (NO), carbon oxide (CO), ethylene and Ca(2+). Observational evidence has shown that H2 can regulate adventitious root development in a dose-dependent manner. H2 may regulate HO-1/CO pathway through or not through NO pathway during adventitious rooting. Rooting-related enzymes, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, indoleacetic acid oxidase were required for H2-induced adventitious root. CsDNAJ-1, CsCPDK1/5, CsCDC6, CsAUX228-like, and CsAUX22D-like genes also were involved in this process. PMID:27171348

  14. Auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles involves two mechanisms with different pH optima

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Although rapid auxin-induced growth of coleoptile sections can persist for at least 18 hours, acid-induced growth lasts for a much shorter period of time. Three theories have been proposed to explain this difference in persistence. To distinguish between these theories, the pH dependence for auxin-induced growth of oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles has been determined early and late in the elongation process. Coleoptile sections from which the outer epidermis was removed to facilitate buffer entry were incubated, with or without 10 micromolar indoleacetic acid, in 20 millimolar buffers at pH 4.5 to 7.0 to maintain a fixed wall pH. During the first 1 to 2 hours after addition of auxin, elongation occurs by acid-induced extension (i.e. the pH optimum is <5 and the elongation varies inversely with the solution pH). Auxin causes no additional elongation because the buffers prevent further changes in wall pH. After 60 to 90 minutes, a second mechanism of auxin-induced growth, whose pH optimum is 5.5 to 6.0, predominates. It is proposed that rapid growth responses to changes in auxin concentration are mediated by auxin-induced changes in wall pH, whereas the prolonged, steady-state growth rate is controlled by a second, auxin-mediated process whose pH optimum is less acidic.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Indole-3-Butyric Acid-Induced Adventitious Root Formation in Nodal Cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Li-Yuan; Wu, Li-Yun; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Li, Hai-Lin; Tan, Li-Qiang; Cao, Hong-Li; Cheng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a popular world beverage, and propagation of tea plants chiefly depends on the formation of adventitious roots in cuttings. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in adventitious root formation, we performed transcriptome analysis of single nodal cuttings of C. sinensis treated with or without indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 42.5 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and these were assembled into 59,931 unigenes, with an average length of 732 bp and an N50 of 1292 bp. In addition, 1091 differentially expressed unigenes were identified in the tea cuttings treated with IBA compared to controls, including 656 up- and 435 down-regulated genes. Further real time RT-PCR analysis confirmed RNA-Seq data. Functional annotation analysis showed that many genes were involved in plant hormone signal transduction, secondary metabolism, cell wall organization and glutathione metabolism, indicating potential contributions to adventitious rooting. Our study presents a global view of transcriptome profiles of tea cuttings in response to IBA treatment and provides new insights into the fundamental mechanisms associated with auxin-induced adventitious rooting. Our data will be a valuable resource for genomic research about adventitious root formation in tea cuttings, which can be used to improve rooting for difficult-to-root varieties. PMID:25216187

  16. Transcriptome analysis of indole-3-butyric acid-induced adventitious root formation in nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.).

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Li-Yuan; Wu, Li-Yun; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Li, Hai-Lin; Tan, Li-Qiang; Cao, Hong-Li; Cheng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a popular world beverage, and propagation of tea plants chiefly depends on the formation of adventitious roots in cuttings. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in adventitious root formation, we performed transcriptome analysis of single nodal cuttings of C. sinensis treated with or without indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 42.5 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and these were assembled into 59,931 unigenes, with an average length of 732 bp and an N50 of 1292 bp. In addition, 1091 differentially expressed unigenes were identified in the tea cuttings treated with IBA compared to controls, including 656 up- and 435 down-regulated genes. Further real time RT-PCR analysis confirmed RNA-Seq data. Functional annotation analysis showed that many genes were involved in plant hormone signal transduction, secondary metabolism, cell wall organization and glutathione metabolism, indicating potential contributions to adventitious rooting. Our study presents a global view of transcriptome profiles of tea cuttings in response to IBA treatment and provides new insights into the fundamental mechanisms associated with auxin-induced adventitious rooting. Our data will be a valuable resource for genomic research about adventitious root formation in tea cuttings, which can be used to improve rooting for difficult-to-root varieties. PMID:25216187

  17. Cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans have consumed fermented cucumber products since before the dawn of civilization. Although cucumber fermentation remains largely a traditional process, it has proven to be a consistently safe process by which raw cucumbers are transformed into high quality pickles that have a long shelf-life ...

  18. Functional analysis of an auxin-inducible DNA-binding protein gene.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Any; Mangeon, Amanda; Almeida-Engler, Janice; Engler, Gilbert; Van Montagu, Marc; Sachetto-Martins, Gilberto; de Oliveira, Dulce Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, several studies indicate a correlation between the phytohormone auxin and cell division. The molecular players of this signaling pathway are now being uncovered. DNA Binding Protein1 from Arabidopsis (AtDBP1) is an auxin-inducible gene able to bind DNA non-specifically. In this work the tissue-expression pattern of this gene was investigated. Promoter-GUS analysis demonstrated that the AtDBP1 promoter is active in regions exhibiting intense cell division such as meristems and nematode feeding sites. Also, the promoter expression was modulated upon incubation with cell cycle blockers, indicating a potential role in cell division for this gene. Lastly, AtDBP1 antisense plants presented a higher insensitivity to auxin, and interfered negatively with auxin-induced callus formation and reduced apical dominance. PMID:25482757

  19. Regulated protein depletion by the auxin-inducible degradation system in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Trost, Martina; Blattner, Ariane C; Lehner, Christian F

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of consequences resulting after experimental elimination of gene function has been and will continue to be an extremely successful strategy in biological research. Mutational elimination of gene function has been widely used in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. RNA interference is used extensively as well. In the fly, exceptionally precise temporal and spatial control over elimination of gene function can be achieved in combination with sophisticated transgenic approaches and clonal analyses. However, the methods that act at the gene and transcript level cannot eliminate protein products which are already present at the time when mutant cells are generated or RNA interference is started. Targeted inducible protein degradation is therefore of considerable interest for controlled rapid elimination of gene function. To this end, a degradation system was developed in yeast exploiting TIR1, a plant F box protein, which can recruit proteins with an auxin-inducible degron to an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, but only in the presence of the phytohormone auxin. Here we demonstrate that the auxin-inducible degradation system functions efficiently also in Drosophila melanogaster. Neither auxin nor TIR1 expression have obvious toxic effects in this organism, and in combination they result in rapid degradation of a target protein fused to the auxin-inducible degron. PMID:27010248

  20. The Physiology of Adventitious Roots.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Bianka; Rasmussen, Amanda

    2016-02-01

    Adventitious roots are plant roots that form from any nonroot tissue and are produced both during normal development (crown roots on cereals and nodal roots on strawberry [Fragaria spp.]) and in response to stress conditions, such as flooding, nutrient deprivation, and wounding. They are important economically (for cuttings and food production), ecologically (environmental stress response), and for human existence (food production). To improve sustainable food production under environmentally extreme conditions, it is important to understand the adventitious root development of crops both in normal and stressed conditions. Therefore, understanding the regulation and physiology of adventitious root formation is critical for breeding programs. Recent work shows that different adventitious root types are regulated differently, and here, we propose clear definitions of these classes. We use three case studies to summarize the physiology of adventitious root development in response to flooding (case study 1), nutrient deficiency (case study 2), and wounding (case study 3). PMID:26697895

  1. Isolation of cucumber CsARF cDNAs and expression of the corresponding mRNAs during gravity-regulated morphogenesis of cucumber seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Yamasaki, S.; Fujii, N.; Hagen, G.; Guilfoyle, T.; Takahashi, H.

    Cucumber seedlings grown in a horizontal position develop a protuberance called peg on the lower side of the transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root. We have suggested that peg formation on the upper side of the gravistimulated transition zone is suppressed because cucumber seedlings grown in a vertical position or microgravity symmetrically develop two pegs on the transition zone. Plant hormone, auxin, is considered to play a crucial role in the gravity-regulated formation of peg. We have shown that the mRNAs of auxin-inducible genes (CsIAAs) isolated from cucumber accumulate more abundantly in the lower side of the transition zone than in the upper side when peg formation initiates. To reveal the mechanism of transcriptional regulation by auxin for peg formation, we isolated five cDNAs of Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) from cucumber and compared their mRNA accumulation with those of CsIAA1 and CsIAA2. The tissue specificity of mRNA accumulation of CsARF2 was similar to those of CsIAA1 and CsIAA2. The structural character of CsARF2 predicts it is transcriptional activator. These results suggest that CsARF2 may be involved in activation of the transcription of auxin-inducible genes including CsIAA1 for peg formation. Because mRNA accumulation of five CsARFs, including CsARF2, were affected by neither gravity nor auxin, transcriptional activity of CsARF2 may be regulated at post-transcriptional level to induce asymmetric mRNA accumulation of auxin-inducible genes in the transition zone.

  2. Functional analysis of an auxin-inducible DNA-binding protein gene

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Any; Mangeon, Amanda; Almeida-Engler, Janice; Engler, Gilbert; Montagu, Marc Van; Sachetto-Martins, Gilberto; de Oliveira, Dulce Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, several studies indicate a correlation between the phytohormone auxin and cell division. The molecular players of this signaling pathway are now being uncovered. DNA Binding Protein1 from Arabidopsis (AtDBP1) is an auxin-inducible gene able to bind DNA non-specifically. In this work the tissue-expression pattern of this gene was investigated. Promoter-GUS analysis demonstrated that the AtDBP1 promoter is active in regions exhibiting intense cell division such as meristems and nematode feeding sites. Also, the promoter expression was modulated upon incubation with cell cycle blockers, indicating a potential role in cell division for this gene. Lastly, AtDBP1 antisense plants presented a higher insensitivity to auxin, and interfered negatively with auxin–induced callus formation and reduced apical dominance. PMID:25482757

  3. Rapid Protein Depletion in Human Cells by Auxin-Inducible Degron Tagging with Short Homology Donors.

    PubMed

    Natsume, Toyoaki; Kiyomitsu, Tomomi; Saga, Yumiko; Kanemaki, Masato T

    2016-04-01

    Studying the role of essential proteins is dependent upon a method for rapid inactivation, in order to study the immediate phenotypic consequences. Auxin-inducible degron (AID) technology allows rapid depletion of proteins in animal cells and fungi, but its application to human cells has been limited by the difficulties of tagging endogenous proteins. We have developed a simple and scalable CRISPR/Cas-based method to tag endogenous proteins in human HCT116 and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells by using donor constructs that harbor synthetic short homology arms. Using a combination of AID tagging with CRISPR/Cas, we have generated conditional alleles of essential nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in HCT116 cells, which can then be depleted very rapidly after the addition of auxin to the culture medium. This approach should greatly facilitate the functional analysis of essential proteins, particularly those of previously unknown function. PMID:27052166

  4. The epidermis coordinates auxin-induced stem growth in response to shade.

    PubMed

    Procko, Carl; Burko, Yogev; Jaillais, Yvon; Ljung, Karin; Long, Jeff A; Chory, Joanne

    2016-07-01

    Growth of a complex multicellular organism requires coordinated changes in diverse cell types. These cellular changes generate organs of the correct size, shape, and functionality. In plants, the growth hormone auxin induces stem elongation in response to shade; however, which cell types of the stem perceive the auxin signal and contribute to organ growth is poorly understood. Here, we blocked the transcriptional response to auxin within specific tissues to show that auxin signaling is required in many cell types for correct hypocotyl growth in shade, with a key role for the epidermis. Combining genetic manipulations in Arabidopsis thaliana with transcriptional profiling of the hypocotyl epidermis from Brassica rapa, we show that auxin acts in the epidermis in part by inducing activity of the locally acting, growth-promoting brassinosteroid pathway. Our findings clarify cell-specific auxin function in the hypocotyl and highlight the complexity of cell type interactions within a growing organ. PMID:27401556

  5. Changes in glycosidase activities during galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide inhibition of auxin induced growth.

    PubMed

    Bilisics, Ladislav; Vojtassák, Jozef; Capek, Peter; Kollárová, Karin; Lisková, Desana

    2004-07-01

    The inhibition of 2,4-D-induced elongation growth by galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMOs) in pea stem segments (Pisum sativum L. cv. Tyrkys) after 18 h of incubation results in changes of extracellular, intracellular and cell wall glycosidase activities (beta-D-glucosidase, beta-D-mannosidase, beta-D-galactosidase, beta-D-xylosidase, alpha-D-galactosidase, and alpha-L-arabinosidase). GGMOs lowered the glycosidase activities in the extracellular fraction, while in the cell wall fractions their activities were markedly increased. The intracellular enzyme alpha-d-galactosidase increased while the beta-d-galactosidase decreased in activity in response to the GGMO treatment. Extracellular enzymes showed low values of activities in comparison with intracellular and cell wall glycosidases. It is evident that GGMOs can alter auxin induced elongation and glycosidase activities in different compartments of the cell, however, the mode and site of their action remains unclear. PMID:15279996

  6. Two distinct signaling pathways participate in auxin-induced swelling of pea epidermal protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Yamagami, Mutsumi; Haga, Ken; Napier, Richard M; Iino, Moritoshi

    2004-02-01

    Protoplast swelling was used to investigate auxin signaling in the growth-limiting stem epidermis. The protoplasts of epidermal cells were isolated from elongating internodes of pea (Pisum sativum). These protoplasts swelled in response to auxin, providing the clearest evidence that the epidermis can directly perceive auxin. The swelling response to the natural auxin IAA showed a biphasic dose response curve but that to the synthetic auxin 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) showed a simple bell-shaped dose response curve. The responses to IAA and NAA were further analyzed using antibodies raised against ABP1 (auxin-binding protein 1), and their dependency on extracellular ions was investigated. Two signaling pathways were resolved for IAA, an ABP1-dependent pathway and an ABP1-independent pathway that is much more sensitive to IAA than the former. The response by the ABP1 pathway was eliminated by anti-ABP1 antibodies, had a higher sensitivity to NAA, and did not depend on extracellular Ca(2+). In contrast, the response by the non-ABP1 pathway was not affected by anti-ABP1 antibodies, had no sensitivity to NAA, and depended on extracellular Ca(2+). The swelling by either pathway required extracellular K(+) and Cl(-). The auxin-induced growth of pea internode segments showed similar response patterns, including the occurrence of two peaks in the dose response curve for IAA and the difference in Ca(2+) requirements. It is suggested that two signaling pathways participate in auxin-induced internode growth and that the non-ABP1 pathway is more likely to be involved in the control of growth by constitutive concentrations of endogenous auxin. PMID:14764902

  7. Further studies of auxin and ACC induced feminization in the cucumber plant using ethylene inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, H.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The present study was designed to establish the role of an essential hormone controlling sex expression in cucumber. A potent anti-ethylene agent, AgNO3, completely inhibited pistillate flower formation caused by IAA, ACC or ethephon. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, AVG and CoCl2 also suppressed feminization due to exogenous IAA or ACC. Though AVG also suppressed ethephon-induced feminization, this may be due to the second effect of AVG rather than the effect on ACC biosynthesis. These results confirm that ethylene is a major factor regulating feminization and that exogenous auxin induces pistillate flower formation through its stimulation of ethylene production, rather than ACC production.

  8. Role of chloride ions in the promotion of auxin-induced growth of maize coleoptile segments

    PubMed Central

    Burdach, Zbigniew; Kurtyka, Renata; Siemieniuk, Agnieszka; Karcz, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The mechanism of auxin action on ion transport in growing cells has not been determined in detail. In particular, little is known about the role of chloride in the auxin-induced growth of coleoptile cells. Moreover, the data that do exist in the literature are controversial. This study describes experiments that were carried out with maize (Zea mays) coleoptile segments, this being a classical model system for studies of plant cell elongation growth. Methods Growth kinetics or growth and pH changes were recorded in maize coleoptiles using two independent measuring systems. The growth rate of the segments was measured simultaneously with medium pH changes. Membrane potential changes in parenchymal cells of the segments were also determined for chosen variants. The question of whether anion transport is involved in auxin-induced growth of maize coleoptile segments was primarily studied using anion channel blockers [anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (A-9-C) and 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (DIDS)]. In addition, experiments in which KCl was replaced by KNO3 were also performed. Key Results Both anion channel blockers, added at 0·1 mm, diminished indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-induced elongation growth by ∼30 %. Medium pH changes measured simultaneously with growth indicated that while DIDS stopped IAA-induced proton extrusion, A-9-C diminished it by only 50 %. Addition of A-9-C to medium containing 1 mm KCl did not affect the characteristic kinetics of IAA-induced membrane potential changes, while in the presence of 10 mm KCl the channel blocker stopped IAA-induced membrane hyperpolarization. Replacement of KCl with KNO3 significantly decreased IAA-induced growth and inhibited proton extrusion. In contrast to the KCl concentration, the concentration of KNO3 did not affect the growth-stimulatory effect of IAA. For comparison, the effects of the cation channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA-Cl) on IAA-induced growth and

  9. Auxins Induce Tryptophan Decarboxylase Activity in Radicles of Catharanthus Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Rob J.; Alarco, Anne-Marie; De Luca, Vincenzo

    1992-01-01

    Germinating seedlings of Catharanthus roseus produce monoterpenoid indole alkaloids as a result of a transient increase of tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) activity. The influence of auxins on this transient rise of TDC activity was studied. External application of indolebutyric acid or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid at a concentration of 20 to 40 μm enhanced and prolonged the rise in TDC activity in developing seedlings. Auxin treatment also influenced the morphology of the seedlings; it induced a shortening and thickening of the hypocotyl and the radicle and promoted the initiation of lateral roots in the radicle. During development, the radicles of auxin-treated seedlings displayed a gradual increase in TDC activity that was absent in the radicles of untreated controls. Examination of immunoblots revealed anti-TDC reactive proteins in extracts from radicles of auxin-treated seedlings, but none in extracts from radicles of control seedlings. In contrast, TDC activity and immunoreactive protein levels in the aerial parts of controls and auxin-treated seedlings were comparable. Our results indicate that externally applied auxins induce both abnormal development and TDC activity in the radicles of Catharanthus seedlings. Although auxins slightly delayed the light-mediated induction of the cotyledon-specific last step in vindoline biosynthesis (i.e. acetylcoenzyme A: deacetylvindolin-O-acetyltransferase activity), seedlings still synthesized vindoline, one of the major alkaloid end products. Images Figure 2 PMID:16653009

  10. Auxin-induced nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins were involved in the gravitropism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Weiming; Hu, Liwei; Hu, Xiangyang; Cui, Dayong; Cai, Weiming

    Gravitropism is the asymmetric growth or curvature of plant organs in response to gravistimulation. There is a complex signal transduction cascade which involved in the differential growth of plants in response to changes in the gravity vector. The role of auxin in gravitropism has been demonstrated by many experiments, but little is known regarding the molecular details of such effects. In our studies before, mediation of the gravitropic bending of soybean roots and rice leaf sheath bases by nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins, are induced by auxin. The asymmetrical distribution of nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins resulted from the asymmetrical synthesis of them in bending sites. In soybean roots, inhibitions of NO and cGMP synthesis reduced differential NO and cGMP accumulation respectively, which both of these effects can lead to the reduction of gravitropic bending. Gibberellin-induced OsXET, OsEXPA4 and OsRWC3 were also found involved in the gravitropic bending. These data indicated that auxin-induced nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins were involved in the gravitropism. More experiments need to prove the more detailed mechanism of them.

  11. The auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system enables versatile conditional protein depletion in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangyu; Ward, Jordan D; Cheng, Ze; Dernburg, Abby F

    2015-12-15

    Experimental manipulation of protein abundance in living cells or organisms is an essential strategy for investigation of biological regulatory mechanisms. Whereas powerful techniques for protein expression have been developed in Caenorhabditis elegans, existing tools for conditional disruption of protein function are far more limited. To address this, we have adapted the auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system discovered in plants to enable conditional protein depletion in C. elegans. We report that expression of a modified Arabidopsis TIR1 F-box protein mediates robust auxin-dependent depletion of degron-tagged targets. We document the effectiveness of this system for depletion of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in diverse somatic and germline tissues throughout development. Target proteins were depleted in as little as 20-30 min, and their expression could be re-established upon auxin removal. We have engineered strains expressing TIR1 under the control of various promoter and 3' UTR sequences to drive tissue-specific or temporally regulated expression. The degron tag can be efficiently introduced by CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing. We have harnessed this system to explore the roles of dynamically expressed nuclear hormone receptors in molting, and to analyze meiosis-specific roles for proteins required for germ line proliferation. Together, our results demonstrate that the AID system provides a powerful new tool for spatiotemporal regulation and analysis of protein function in a metazoan model organism. PMID:26552885

  12. The auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system enables versatile conditional protein depletion in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liangyu; Ward, Jordan D.; Cheng, Ze; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental manipulation of protein abundance in living cells or organisms is an essential strategy for investigation of biological regulatory mechanisms. Whereas powerful techniques for protein expression have been developed in Caenorhabditis elegans, existing tools for conditional disruption of protein function are far more limited. To address this, we have adapted the auxin-inducible degradation (AID) system discovered in plants to enable conditional protein depletion in C. elegans. We report that expression of a modified Arabidopsis TIR1 F-box protein mediates robust auxin-dependent depletion of degron-tagged targets. We document the effectiveness of this system for depletion of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in diverse somatic and germline tissues throughout development. Target proteins were depleted in as little as 20-30 min, and their expression could be re-established upon auxin removal. We have engineered strains expressing TIR1 under the control of various promoter and 3′ UTR sequences to drive tissue-specific or temporally regulated expression. The degron tag can be efficiently introduced by CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing. We have harnessed this system to explore the roles of dynamically expressed nuclear hormone receptors in molting, and to analyze meiosis-specific roles for proteins required for germ line proliferation. Together, our results demonstrate that the AID system provides a powerful new tool for spatiotemporal regulation and analysis of protein function in a metazoan model organism. PMID:26552885

  13. Auxin-induced degradation dynamics set the pace for lateral root development.

    PubMed

    Guseman, Jessica M; Hellmuth, Antje; Lanctot, Amy; Feldman, Tamar P; Moss, Britney L; Klavins, Eric; Calderón Villalobos, Luz Irina A; Nemhauser, Jennifer L

    2015-03-01

    Auxin elicits diverse cell behaviors through a simple nuclear signaling pathway initiated by degradation of Aux/IAA co-repressors. Our previous work revealed that members of the large Arabidopsis Aux/IAA family exhibit a range of degradation rates in synthetic contexts. However, it remained an unresolved issue whether differences in Aux/IAA turnover rates played a significant role in plant responses to auxin. Here, we use the well-established model of lateral root development to directly test the hypothesis that the rate of auxin-induced Aux/IAA turnover sets the pace for auxin-regulated developmental events. We did this by generating transgenic plants expressing degradation rate variants of IAA14, a crucial determinant of lateral root initiation. Progression through the well-established stages of lateral root development was strongly correlated with the engineered rates of IAA14 turnover, leading to the conclusion that Aux/IAAs are auxin-initiated timers that synchronize developmental transitions. PMID:25633353

  14. Heme oxygenase is involved in nitric oxide- and auxin-induced lateral root formation in rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Hsuan; Chao, Yun-Yang; Hsu, Yun Yen; Hong, Chwan-Yang; Kao, Ching Huei

    2012-06-01

    Lateral root (LR) development performs the essential tasks of providing water, nutrients, and physical support to plants. Therefore, understanding the regulation of LR development is of agronomic importance. In this study, we examined the effect of nitric oxide (NO), auxin, and hemin (Hm) on LR formation in rice. Treatment with Hm [a highly effective heme oxygenase (HO) inducer], sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor), or indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, a naturally occurring auxin) induced LR formation and HO activity. LR formation and HO activity induced by SNP and IBA but not Hm was reduced by the specific NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide. As well, Hm, SNP, and IBA could induce OsHO1 mRNA expression. Zn protoporphyrin IX (the specific inhibitor of HO) and hemoglobin (the carbon monoxide/NO scavenger) reduced LR number and HO activity induced by Hm, SNP, and IBA. Our data suggest that HO is required for Hm-, auxin-, and NO-induced LR formation in rice. PMID:22262313

  15. Auxin-induced hydrogen sulfide generation is involved in lateral root formation in tomato.

    PubMed

    Fang, Tao; Cao, Zeyu; Li, Jiale; Shen, Wenbiao; Huang, Liqin

    2014-03-01

    Similar to auxin, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), mainly produced by l-cysteine desulfhydrase (DES; EC 4.4.1.1) in plants, could induce lateral root formation. The objective of this study was to test whether H2S is also involved in auxin-induced lateral root development in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings. We observed that auxin depletion-induced down-regulation of transcripts of SlDES1, decreased DES activity and endogenous H2S contents, and the inhibition of lateral root formation were rescued by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor). However, No additive effects were observed when naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was co-treated with NaHS (lower than 10 mM) in the induction of lateral root formation. Subsequent work revealed that a treatment with NAA or NaHS could simultaneously induce transcripts of SlDES1, DES activity and endogenous H2S contents, and thereafter the stimulation of lateral root formation. It was further confirmed that H2S or HS(-), not the other sulfur-containing components derived from NaHS, was attributed to the stimulative action. The inhibition of lateral root formation and decreased of H2S metabolism caused by an H2S scavenger hypotaurine (HT) were reversed by NaHS, but not NAA. Molecular evidence revealed that both NaHS- or NAA-induced modulation of some cell cycle regulatory genes, including the up-regulation of SlCDKA;1, SlCYCA2;1, together with simultaneous down-regulation of SlKRP2, were differentially reversed by HT pretreatment. To summarize, above results clearly suggested that H2S might, at least partially, act as a downstream component of auxin signaling to trigger lateral root formation. PMID:24463534

  16. Canopy shade causes a rapid and transient arrest in leaf development through auxin-induced cytokinin oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Carabelli, Monica; Possenti, Marco; Sessa, Giovanna; Ciolfi, Andrea; Sassi, Massimiliano; Morelli, Giorgio; Ruberti, Ida

    2007-08-01

    A plant grown under canopies perceives the reduction in the ratio of red (R) to far-red (FR) light as a warning of competition, and enhances elongation growth in an attempt to overgrow its neighbors. Here, we report that the same low R/FR signal that induces hypocotyl elongation also triggers a rapid arrest of leaf primordium growth, ensuring that plant resources are redirected into extension growth. The growth arrest induced by low R/FR depends on auxin-induced cytokinin breakdown in incipient vein cells of developing primordia, thus demonstrating the existence of a previously unrecognized regulatory circuit underlying plant response to canopy shade. PMID:17671088

  17. Canopy shade causes a rapid and transient arrest in leaf development through auxin-induced cytokinin oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Carabelli, Monica; Possenti, Marco; Sessa, Giovanna; Ciolfi, Andrea; Sassi, Massimiliano; Morelli, Giorgio; Ruberti, Ida

    2007-01-01

    A plant grown under canopies perceives the reduction in the ratio of red (R) to far-red (FR) light as a warning of competition, and enhances elongation growth in an attempt to overgrow its neighbors. Here, we report that the same low R/FR signal that induces hypocotyl elongation also triggers a rapid arrest of leaf primordium growth, ensuring that plant resources are redirected into extension growth. The growth arrest induced by low R/FR depends on auxin-induced cytokinin breakdown in incipient vein cells of developing primordia, thus demonstrating the existence of a previously unrecognized regulatory circuit underlying plant response to canopy shade. PMID:17671088

  18. A Rosa canina WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene, RcWOX1, is involved in auxin-induced rhizoid formation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bin; Wen, Chao; Fan, Lusheng; Kou, Yaping; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun

    2014-12-01

    Homeobox (HB) proteins are important transcription factors that regulate the developmental decisions of eukaryotes. WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) transcription factors, known as a plant-specific HB family, play a key role in plant developmental processes. Our previous work has indicated that rhizoids are induced by auxin in rose (Rosa spp.), which acts as critical part of an efficient plant regeneration system. However, the function of WOX genes in auxin-induced rhizoid formation remains unclear. Here, we isolated and characterized a WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene from Rosa canina, RcWOX1, containing a typical homeodomain with 65 amino acid residues. Real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that RcWOX1 was expressed in the whole process of callus formation and in the early stage of rhizoid formation. Moreover, its expression was induced by auxin treatment. In Arabidopsis transgenic lines expressing the RcWOX1pro::GUS and 35S::GFP-RcWOX1, RcWOX1 was specifically expressed in roots and localized to the nucleus. Overexpression of RcWOX1 in Arabidopsis increased lateral root density and induced upregulation of PIN1 and PIN7 genes. Therefore, we postulated that RcWOX1 is a functional transcription factor that plays an essential role in auxin-induced rhizoid formation. PMID:25301174

  19. Proteomic changes in the base of chrysanthemum cuttings during adventitious root formation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A lack of competence to form adventitious roots by cuttings of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) is an obstacle for the rapid fixation of elite genotypes. We performed a proteomic analysis of cutting bases of chrysanthemum cultivar ‘Jinba’ during adventitious root formation (ARF) in order to identify rooting ability associated protein and/or to get further insight into the molecular mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting. Results The protein profiles during ARF were analyzed by comparing the 2-DE gels between 0-day-old (just severed from the stock plant) and 5-day-old cutting bases of chrysanthemum. A total of 69 differentially accumulated protein spots (two-fold change; t-test: 95% significance) were excised and analyzed using MALDI-TOF/TOF, among which 42 protein spots (assigned as 24 types of proteins and 7 unknown proteins) were confidently identified using the NCBI database. The results demonstrated that 19% proteins were related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, 16% to photosynthesis, 10% to protein fate, 7% to plant defense, 6% to cell structure, 7% to hormone related, 3% to nitrate metabolism, 3% to lipid metabolism, 3% to ascorbate biosynthesis and 3% to RNA binding, 23% were unknown proteins. Twenty types of differentially accumulated proteins including ACC oxidase (CmACO) were further analyzed at the transcription level, most of which were in accordance with the results of 2-DE. Moreover, the protein abundance changes of CmACO are supported by western blot experiments. Ethylene evolution was higher during the ARF compared with day 0 after cutting, while silver nitrate, an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis, pretreatment delayed the ARF. It suggested that ACC oxidase plays an important role in ARF of chrysanthemum. Conclusions The proteomic analysis of cutting bases of chrysanthemum allowed us to identify proteins whose expression was related to ARF. We identified auxin-induced protein PCNT115 and ACC oxidase positively or

  20. Transcription of TIR1-Controlled Genes Can be Regulated within 10 Min by an Auxin-Induced Process. Can TIR1 be the Receptor?

    PubMed Central

    Labusch, Corinna; Effendi, Yunus; Fulda, Martin; Scherer, Günther F. E.

    2016-01-01

    ABP1 and TIR1/AFBs are known as auxin receptors. ABP1 is linked to auxin responses several of which are faster than 10 min. TIR1 regulates auxin-induced transcription of early auxin genes also within minutes. We use transcription of such TIR1-dependent genes as indicator of TIR1 activity to show the rapid regulation of TIR1 by exogenous auxin. To this end, we used quantification of transcription of a set of fifteen early auxin-induced reporter genes at t = 10 and t = 30 min to measure this as a TIR1-dependent auxin response. We conducted this study in 22 mutants of auxin transporters (pin5, abcb1, abcb19, and aux1/lax3), protein kinases and phosphatases (ibr5, npr1, cpk3, CPK3-OX, d6pk1, d6pkl1-1, d6pkl3-2, d6pkl1-1/d6pkl2-2, and d6pkl1-1/d6pkl3-2), of fatty acid metabolism (fad2-1, fad6-1, ssi2, lacs4, lacs9, and lacs4/lacs9) and receptors (tir1, tir1/afb2, and tir1/afb3) and compared them to the wild type. After 10 min auxin application, in 18 out of 22 mutants mis-regulated expression of at least one reporter was found, and in 15 mutants transcription of two-to-three out of five selected auxin reporter genes was mis-regulated. After 30 min of auxin application to mutant plants, mis-regulation of reporter genes ranged from one to 13 out of 15 tested reporter genes. Those genes chosen as mutants were themselves not regulated in their expression by auxin for at least 1 h, excluding an influence of TIR1/AFBs on their transcription. The expression of TIR1/AFB genes was also not modulated by auxin for up to 3 h. Together, this excludes a feedback or feedforward of these mutant genes/proteins on TIR1/AFBs output of transcription in this auxin-induced response. However, an auxin-induced response needed an as yet unknown auxin receptor. We suggest that the auxin receptor necessary for the fast auxin-induced transcription modulation could be, instead, ABP1. The alternative hypothesis would be that auxin-induced expression of a protein, initiated by TIR1/AFBs receptors

  1. Gene expression profile of zeitlupe/lov kelch protein1 T-DNA insertion mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana: Downregulation of auxin-inducible genes in hypocotyls

    PubMed Central

    Saitoh, Aya; Takase, Tomoyuki; Kitaki, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Yuji; Kiyosue, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Elongation of hypocotyl cells has been studied as a model for elucidating the contribution of cellular expansion to plant organ growth. ZEITLUPE (ZTL) or LOV KELCH PROTEIN1 (LKP1) is a positive regulator of warmth-induced hypocotyl elongation under white light in Arabidopsis, although the molecular mechanisms by which it promotes hypocotyl cell elongation remain unknown. Microarray analysis showed that 134 genes were upregulated and 204 genes including 15 auxin-inducible genes were downregulated in the seedlings of 2 ztl T-DNA insertion mutants grown under warm conditions with continuous white light. Application of a polar auxin transport inhibitor, an auxin antagonist or an auxin biosynthesis inhibitor inhibited hypocotyl elongation of control seedlings to the level observed with the ztl mutant. Our data suggest the involvement of auxin and auxin-inducible genes in ZTL-mediated hypocotyl elongation. PMID:26237185

  2. Characterization of the auxin-inducible SAUR-AC1 gene for use as a molecular genetic tool in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Gil, P; Liu, Y; Orbović, V; Verkamp, E; Poff, K L; Green, P J

    1994-01-01

    The small auxin up RNA (SAUR) genes were originally characterized in soybean, where they encode a set of unstable transcripts that are rapidly induced by auxin. In this report, the isolation of a SAUR gene, designated SAUR-AC1, from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ecotype Columbia is described. The promoter of the SAUR-AC1 gene contains putative regulatory motifs conserved among soybean SAUR promoters, as well as sequences implicated in the regulation of other genes in response to auxin. The transcribed region is approximately 500 bp in length and contains no introns. Highly conserved sequences located within the SAUR-AC1 transcript include the central portion of the coding region and a putative mRNA instability sequence (DST) located in the 3' untranslated region. Accumulation of SAUR-AC1 mRNA is readily induced by natural and synthetic auxins and by the translational inhibitor cycloheximide. Moreover, several auxin- and gravity-response mutants of Arabidopsis exhibit decreased accumulation of the SAUR-AC1 mRNA in elongating etiolated seedlings. In particular, in the axr2-1 mutant the SAUR-AC1 transcript accumulates to less than 5% of wild-type levels. These studies indicate that SAUR-AC1 will be a useful probe of auxin-induced gene expression in Arabidopsis and will facilitate the functional analysis of both transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory elements. PMID:8159792

  3. Strigolactones suppress adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis and pea.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Mason, Michael Glenn; De Cuyper, Carolien; Brewer, Philip B; Herold, Silvia; Agusti, Javier; Geelen, Danny; Greb, Thomas; Goormachtig, Sofie; Beeckman, Tom; Beveridge, Christine Anne

    2012-04-01

    Adventitious root formation is essential for the propagation of many commercially important plant species and involves the formation of roots from nonroot tissues such as stems or leaves. Here, we demonstrate that the plant hormone strigolactone suppresses adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and pea (Pisum sativum). Strigolactone-deficient and response mutants of both species have enhanced adventitious rooting. CYCLIN B1 expression, an early marker for the initiation of adventitious root primordia in Arabidopsis, is enhanced in more axillary growth2 (max2), a strigolactone response mutant, suggesting that strigolactones restrain the number of adventitious roots by inhibiting the very first formative divisions of the founder cells. Strigolactones and cytokinins appear to act independently to suppress adventitious rooting, as cytokinin mutants are strigolactone responsive and strigolactone mutants are cytokinin responsive. In contrast, the interaction between the strigolactone and auxin signaling pathways in regulating adventitious rooting appears to be more complex. Strigolactone can at least partially revert the stimulatory effect of auxin on adventitious rooting, and auxin can further increase the number of adventitious roots in max mutants. We present a model depicting the interaction of strigolactones, cytokinins, and auxin in regulating adventitious root formation. PMID:22323776

  4. Cystic Adventitial Disease in Former Athlete.

    PubMed

    Fatic, Nikola; Nikolic, Aleksandar; Maras, Dejan; Bulatovic, Nikola

    2015-09-15

    In this paper we present a 39-year old former athlete complaining with pain in his legs during long walk resembling to intermittent claudication. Color duplex scan described a popliteal artery with 10 mm in diameter with mural thrombus that caused stenosis 75% of lumen. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a stenosis of right popliteal artery. The suspicion for Cystic adventitial disease was set. The patient was operated on by posterior direct approach. After incision, a yellowish viscous material was observed in adventitia. Partial resection of the affected popliteal artery and replacement by an autogenous great saphenous vein graft was performed. Patient was dismissed on the seventh postoperative day, in good condition and without any complication. Cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intermittent claudication, especially in former sportsmen patients. Partial resection of the affected popliteal artery and replacement by an autogenous great saphenous vain graft produces excellent results. PMID:27275264

  5. Cystic Adventitial Disease in Former Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Fatic, Nikola; Nikolic, Aleksandar; Maras, Dejan; Bulatovic, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a 39-year old former athlete complaining with pain in his legs during long walk resembling to intermittent claudication. Color duplex scan described a popliteal artery with 10 mm in diameter with mural thrombus that caused stenosis 75% of lumen. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a stenosis of right popliteal artery. The suspicion for Cystic adventitial disease was set. The patient was operated on by posterior direct approach. After incision, a yellowish viscous material was observed in adventitia. Partial resection of the affected popliteal artery and replacement by an autogenous great saphenous vein graft was performed. Patient was dismissed on the seventh postoperative day, in good condition and without any complication. Cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intermittent claudication, especially in former sportsmen patients. Partial resection of the affected popliteal artery and replacement by an autogenous great saphenous vain graft produces excellent results.

  6. Adventitial cystic disease of common femoral vein

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Bo-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Adventitial cystic disease (ACD) of venous system is an extremely rare condition. Very few reports of ACD in venous system have been described. In this report we discuss two cases of common femoral vein ACD that presented with a swollen leg by the obstruction of the vein. Ultrasound imaging showed the typical hypoechoic fluid filled cyst with a posterior acoustic window. Computed tomography scan and ascending venogram showed a stenosis to flow in the common femoral vein caused by an extrinsic mass. Trans-adventitial evacuation of cyst with removal of vein wall was performed for both cases. During operation we found the gelatinous material in the cysts arising in the wall of the common femoral vein and compressing the lumen. The patients were released after short hospitalization and have remained symptom free with no recurrence. PMID:22066091

  7. Gravity-induced modification of auxin transport and distribution for peg formation in cucumber seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, M.; Fujii, N.; Higashitani, A.; Takahashi, H.

    Cucumber seedlings grown in microgravity developed a peg on each side of the transition zone between hypocotyl and root, whereas seedlings grown in a horizontal position on the ground developed a peg on the concave (lower) side of the gravitropically bending transition zone. Using an auxin-inducible gene, CS-IAA1, we showed that upon gravistimulation the auxin concentration on the upper side of the horizontally placed transition zone is reduced to a level below the threshold necessary for peg formation. In this study, to elucidate the role of auxin in the lateral placement of peg formation, we measured the contents of endogenous auxin in the transition zone. The content of free IAA was lower and conjugated IAA was more abundant on the upper side of the transition zone of the gravistimulated seedlings compared with the lower side. These results support the idea that a decrease in auxin level due to a modification of auxin transport or metabolism causes the suppression of peg formation on the upper side of the transition zone in a horizontal position. Cucumber seedlings treated with auxin transport inhibitors exhibited agravitropic growth and developed a peg on each side of the transition zone. Application of auxin transport inhibitors caused an increase in CS-IAA1 mRNA (an auxin-inducible gene) at the transition zone. To analyze auxin transport system for peg formation, we isolated auxin influx carrier, CS-AUX1, and auxin efflux carrier, CS-PIN1, from cucumber plants. The accumulation of CS-AUX1 and CS-PIN1 mRNAs was observed at vascular tissue and epidermis in the transition zone. The level of CS-AUX1 mRNA was lower on the upper side of the transition zone in a horizontal position. The results suggest that the transition zone is an additional source of auxin, and that both influx and efflux of auxin in the cells of the transition zone control cytoplasmic concentration of auxin for peg formation.

  8. Adventitial inflammation and its interaction with intimal atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Akhavanpoor, Mohammadreza; Wangler, Susanne; Gleissner, Christian A; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Katus, Hugo A; Erbel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The presence of adventitial inflammation in correlation with atherosclerotic lesions has been recognized for decades. In the last years, several studies have investigated the relevance and impact of adventitial inflammation on atherogenesis. In the abdominal aorta of elderly Apoe(-/-) mice, adventitial inflammatory structures were characterized as organized ectopic lymphoid tissue, and therefore termed adventitial tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs). These ATLOs possess similarities in development, structure and function to secondary lymphoid organs. A crosstalk between intimal atherosclerotic lesions and ATLOs has been suggested, and several studies could demonstrate a potential role for medial vascular smooth muscle cells in this process. We here review the development, phenotypic characteristics, and function of ATLOs in atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we discuss the possible role of medial vascular smooth muscle cells and their interaction between plaque and ATLOs. PMID:25152736

  9. Adventitial inflammation and its interaction with intimal atherosclerotic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Akhavanpoor, Mohammadreza; Wangler, Susanne; Gleissner, Christian A.; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Katus, Hugo A.; Erbel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The presence of adventitial inflammation in correlation with atherosclerotic lesions has been recognized for decades. In the last years, several studies have investigated the relevance and impact of adventitial inflammation on atherogenesis. In the abdominal aorta of elderly Apoe−/− mice, adventitial inflammatory structures were characterized as organized ectopic lymphoid tissue, and therefore termed adventitial tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs). These ATLOs possess similarities in development, structure and function to secondary lymphoid organs. A crosstalk between intimal atherosclerotic lesions and ATLOs has been suggested, and several studies could demonstrate a potential role for medial vascular smooth muscle cells in this process. We here review the development, phenotypic characteristics, and function of ATLOs in atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we discuss the possible role of medial vascular smooth muscle cells and their interaction between plaque and ATLOs. PMID:25152736

  10. An Integrated Strategy to Identify Key Genes in Almond Adventitious Shoot Regeneration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant genetic transformation usually depends on efficient adventitious regeneration systems. In almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), regeneration of transgenic adventitious shoots was achieved but with low efficiency. Histological studies identified two main stages of organogenesis in almond explants that ...

  11. iAID: an improved auxin-inducible degron system for the construction of a 'tight' conditional mutant in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Seiji; Miyazawa-Onami, Mayumi; Iida, Tetsushi; Araki, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    Isolation of a 'tight' conditional mutant of a gene of interest is an effective way of studying the functions of essential genes. Strategies that use ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation to eliminate the product of a gene of interest, such as heat-inducible degron (td) and auxin-inducible degron (AID), are powerful methods for constructing conditional mutants. However, these methods do not work with some genes. Here, we describe an improved AID system (iAID) for isolating tight conditional mutants in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this method, transcriptional repression by the 'Tet-OFF' promoter is combined with proteolytic elimination of the target protein by the AID system. To provide examples, we describe the construction of tight mutants of the replication factors Dpb11 and Mcm10, dpb11-iAID, and mcm10-iAID. Because Dpb11 and Mcm10 are required for the initiation of DNA replication, their tight mutants are unable to enter S phase. This is the case for dpb11-iAID and mcm10-iAID cells after the addition of tetracycline and auxin. Both the 'Tet-OFF' promoter and the AID system have been shown to work in model eukaryotes other than budding yeast. Therefore, the iAID system is not only useful in budding yeast, but also can be applied to other model systems to isolate tight conditional mutants. PMID:26081484

  12. Transcriptome profiling and comparative analysis of Panax ginseng adventitious roots

    PubMed Central

    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Lee, Sang-Choon; Park, Hyun-Seung; Jang, Woojong; Lee, Yun Sun; Choi, Beom-Soon; Nah, Gyoung Ju; Kim, Do-Soon; Natesan, Senthil; Sun, Chao; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background Panax ginseng Meyer is a traditional medicinal plant famous for its strong therapeutic effects and serves as an important herbal medicine. To understand and manipulate genes involved in secondary metabolic pathways including ginsenosides, transcriptome profiling of P. ginseng is essential. Methods RNA-seq analysis of adventitious roots of two P. ginseng cultivars, Chunpoong (CP) and Cheongsun (CS), was performed using the Illumina HiSeq platform. After transcripts were assembled, expression profiling was performed. Results Assemblies were generated from ∼85 million and ∼77 million high-quality reads from CP and CS cultivars, respectively. A total of 35,527 and 27,716 transcripts were obtained from the CP and CS assemblies, respectively. Annotation of the transcriptomes showed that approximately 90% of the transcripts had significant matches in public databases. We identified several candidate genes involved in ginsenoside biosynthesis. In addition, a large number of transcripts (17%) with different gene ontology designations were uniquely detected in adventitious roots compared to normal ginseng roots. Conclusion This study will provide a comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of ginseng adventitious roots, and a way for successful transcriptome analysis and profiling of resource plants with less genomic information. The transcriptome profiling data generated in this study are available in our newly created adventitious root transcriptome database (http://im-crop.snu.ac.kr/transdb/index.php) for public use. PMID:25379008

  13. FDA post-approval expectations for adventitious virus contamination prevention.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    CONFERENCE PROCEEDING Proceedings of the PDA/FDA Adventitious Viruses in Biologics: Detection and Mitigation Strategies Workshop in Bethesda, MD, USA; December 1-3, 2010 Guest Editors: Arifa Khan (Bethesda, MD), Patricia Hughes (Bethesda, MD) and Michael Wiebe (San Francisco, CA). PMID:22294604

  14. Adventitious shoot regeneration of pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adventitious shoot regeneration of twenty-four pear clones was compared in a common in vitro shoot induction and development protocol. This study also compared cultures newly established from scionwood with cultures that have been in long-term cold storage. In vitro cultures of 13 Pyrus clones and...

  15. [Effect of bagging on greenhouse cucumber].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijie; Zhang, Shulian; Liang, Yinli; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Fuli; Quan, Qingzhuan

    2004-07-01

    The study showed that culturing cucumber with film bag increased cucumber yield by 12.3% - 15.1%, reduced abnormal cucumber by 65.3% - 72.8%, and the shape of cucumber was straight and smooth. The keeping-fresh period of the cucumber prolonged to 20 - 25 days, its vitamin C increased 21.9%, and total sugar increased to 5.1%. Paper bagging increased cucumber yield by 7.2% - 10.1%, and reduced abnormal cucumber by 52.2% - 57.7%. Bag body could efficiently prevent the cucumber from the direct pollution of chemicals spray. The survival pesticides in film and paper bags was 0.760 mg x kg(-1) and 1.2208 mg x kg(-1), reduced by 83.3% and 73.2%, respectively, compared to non-bagging. PMID:15506119

  16. Strigolactones Suppress Adventitious Rooting in Arabidopsis and Pea1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Mason, Michael Glenn; De Cuyper, Carolien; Brewer, Philip B.; Herold, Silvia; Agusti, Javier; Geelen, Danny; Greb, Thomas; Goormachtig, Sofie; Beeckman, Tom; Beveridge, Christine Anne

    2012-01-01

    Adventitious root formation is essential for the propagation of many commercially important plant species and involves the formation of roots from nonroot tissues such as stems or leaves. Here, we demonstrate that the plant hormone strigolactone suppresses adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and pea (Pisum sativum). Strigolactone-deficient and response mutants of both species have enhanced adventitious rooting. CYCLIN B1 expression, an early marker for the initiation of adventitious root primordia in Arabidopsis, is enhanced in more axillary growth2 (max2), a strigolactone response mutant, suggesting that strigolactones restrain the number of adventitious roots by inhibiting the very first formative divisions of the founder cells. Strigolactones and cytokinins appear to act independently to suppress adventitious rooting, as cytokinin mutants are strigolactone responsive and strigolactone mutants are cytokinin responsive. In contrast, the interaction between the strigolactone and auxin signaling pathways in regulating adventitious rooting appears to be more complex. Strigolactone can at least partially revert the stimulatory effect of auxin on adventitious rooting, and auxin can further increase the number of adventitious roots in max mutants. We present a model depicting the interaction of strigolactones, cytokinins, and auxin in regulating adventitious root formation. PMID:22323776

  17. Nitric oxide is required for the auxin-induced activation of NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase and protein denitrosylation during root growth responses in arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Aragunde, Natalia; Cejudo, Francisco J.; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Auxin is the main phytohormone controlling root development in plants. This study uses pharmacological and genetic approaches to examine the role of auxin and nitric oxide (NO) in the activation of NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR), and the effect that this activity has on root growth responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Methods Arabidopsis seedlings were treated with auxin with or without the NTR inhibitors auranofin (ANF) and 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB). NTR activity, lateral root (LR) formation and S-nitrosothiol content were measured in roots. Protein S-nitrosylation was analysed by the biotin switch method in wild-type arabidopsis and in the double mutant ntra ntrb. Key Results The auxin-mediated induction of NTR activity is inhibited by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (CPTIO), suggesting that NO is downstream of auxin in this regulatory pathway. The NTR inhibitors ANF and DNCB prevent auxin-mediated activation of NTR and LR formation. Moreover, ANF and DNCB also inhibit auxin-induced DR5 : : GUS and BA3 : : GUS gene expression, suggesting that the auxin signalling pathway is compromised without full NTR activity. Treatment of roots with ANF and DNCB increases total nitrosothiols (SNO) content and protein S-nitrosylation, suggesting a role of the NTR-thioredoxin (Trx)-redox system in protein denitrosylation. In agreement with these results, the level of S-nitrosylated proteins is increased in the arabidopsis double mutant ntra ntrb as compared with the wild-type. Conclusions The results support for the idea that NTR is involved in protein denitrosylation during auxin-mediated root development. The fact that a high NO concentration induces NTR activity suggests that a feedback mechanism to control massive and unregulated protein S-nitrosylation could be operating in plant cells. PMID:26229066

  18. Metabolic analysis of the increased adventitious rooting mutant of Artemisia annua reveals a role for the plant monoterpene borneol in adventitious root formation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Na; Liu, Shuoqian; Li, Juan; Xu, Wenwen; Yuan, Lin; Huang, Jianan; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-08-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is a critical process for plant clonal propagation. The role of plant secondary metabolites in AR formation is still poorly understood. Chemical and physical mutagenesis in combination with somatic variation were performed on Artemisia annua in order to obtain a mutant with changes in adventitious rooting and composition of plant secondary metabolites. Metabolic and morphological analyses of the iar (increased adventitious rooting) mutant coupled with in vitro assays were used to elucidate the relationship between plant secondary metabolites and AR formation. The only detected differences between the iar mutant and wild-type were rooting capacity and borneol/camphor content. Consistent with this, treatment with borneol in vitro promoted adventitious rooting in wild-type. The enhanced rooting did not continue upon removal of borneol. The iar mutant displayed no significant differences in AR formation upon treatment with camphor. Together, our results suggest that borneol promotes adventitious rooting whereas camphor has no effect on AR formation. PMID:24329606

  19. Adventitious roots, leaf abscission and nutrient status of flooded Gmelina and Tectona seedlings.

    PubMed

    Osundina, M A; Osonubi, O

    1989-12-01

    When flooded, seedlings of Gmelina arborea Roxb. produced more adventitious roots, had lower foliar Mn concentrations and lost fewer leaves than seedlings of Tectona grandis L.f. Severing the adventitious roots produced by flooded Gmelina seedlings increased leaf Mn concentration and leaf abscission and reduced whole-plant dry matter production. Flooded Gmelina cuttings, which do not produce adventitious roots, abscised few leaves until foliar concentrations of Mn and Fe had risen substantially above those of unflooded cuttings, at which time most leaves were shed. The results indicate that the development of adventitious roots in flooded seedlings of Gmelina suppressed uptake of Mn thereby minimizing leaf abscission. PMID:14972970

  20. Adventitious Root Formation of Forest Trees and Horticultural Plants - From Genes to Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adventitious root formation is a key step in the clonal propagation of forest trees and horticultural crops. Difficulties in forming adventitious roots (ARs) on stem cuttings and plants produced in vitro hinders the propagation of elite trees and efficient production of many horticultural plant spec...

  1. Hypocotyl adventitious root organogenesis differs from lateral root development

    PubMed Central

    Verstraeten, Inge; Schotte, Sébastien; Geelen, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Wound-induced adventitious root (AR) formation is a requirement for plant survival upon root damage inflicted by pathogen attack, but also during the regeneration of plant stem cuttings for clonal propagation of elite plant varieties. Yet, adventitious rooting also takes place without wounding. This happens for example in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls, in which AR initiate upon de-etiolation or in tomato seedlings, in which AR initiate upon flooding or high water availability. In the hypocotyl AR originate from a cell layer reminiscent to the pericycle in the primary root (PR) and the initiated AR share histological and developmental characteristics with lateral roots (LRs). In contrast to the PR however, the hypocotyl is a determinate structure with an established final number of cells. This points to differences between the induction of hypocotyl AR and LR on the PR, as the latter grows indeterminately. The induction of AR on the hypocotyl takes place in environmental conditions that differ from those that control LR formation. Hence, AR formation depends on differentially regulated gene products. Similarly to AR induction in stem cuttings, the capacity to induce hypocotyl AR is genotype-dependent and the plant growth regulator auxin is a key regulator controlling the rooting response. The hormones cytokinins, ethylene, jasmonic acid, and strigolactones in general reduce the root-inducing capacity. The involvement of this many regulators indicates that a tight control and fine-tuning of the initiation and emergence of AR exists. Recently, several genetic factors, specific to hypocotyl adventitious rooting in A. thaliana, have been uncovered. These factors reveal a dedicated signaling network that drives AR formation in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Here we provide an overview of the environmental and genetic factors controlling hypocotyl-born AR and we summarize how AR formation and the regulating factors of this organogenesis are distinct from LR

  2. Hypoperfusion of the Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Develops an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Sano, Masaki; Yamamoto, Naoto; Saito, Takaaki; Inuzuka, Kazunori; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Sugiura, Yuki; Sato, Kohji; Kugo, Hirona; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Konno, Hiroyuki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Unno, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The aortic wall is perfused by the adventitial vasa vasorum (VV). Tissue hypoxia has previously been observed as a manifestation of enlarged abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). We sought to determine whether hypoperfusion of the adventitial VV could develop AAAs. We created a novel animal model of adventitial VV hypoperfusion with a combination of a polyurethane catheter insertion and a suture ligation of the infrarenal abdominal aorta in rats. VV hypoperfusion caused tissue hypoxia and developed infrarenal AAA, which had similar morphological and pathological characteristics to human AAA. In human AAA tissue, the adventitial VV were stenotic in both small AAAs (30–49 mm in diameter) and in large AAAs (> 50 mm in diameter), with the sac tissue in these AAAs being ischemic and hypoxic. These results indicate that hypoperfusion of adventitial VV has critical effects on the development of infrarenal AAA. PMID:26308526

  3. Microbial interactions associated with secondary cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To evaluate the interaction between selected yeasts and bacteria and associate their metabolic activity with secondary cucumber fermentation. Methods and Results: Selected yeast and bacteria, isolated from cucumber secondary fermentations, were inoculated as single and mixed cultures in a cucu...

  4. 2008 Public Sector Cucumber Research Priority Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In December 2008, a national wide survey was conducted to identify priorities for cucumber research in the public sector. The questions in the survey were in four categories: diseases, insects, abiotic stresses and other issues. The survey was sent to cucumber-related researchers in the public insti...

  5. Expressed sequence tag analysis of functional genes associated with adventitious rooting in Liriodendron hybrids.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Y D; Sun, X Y; Liu, E Y; Li, Y Q; Gao, Z; Yu, F X

    2016-01-01

    Liriodendron hybrids (Liriodendron chinense x L. tulipifera) are important landscaping and afforestation hardwood trees. To date, little genomic research on adventitious rooting has been reported in these hybrids, as well as in the genus Liriodendron. In the present study, we used adventitious roots to construct the first cDNA library for Liriodendron hybrids. A total of 5176 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated and clustered into 2921 unigenes. Among these unigenes, 2547 had significant homology to the non-redundant protein database representing a wide variety of putative functions. Homologs of these genes regulated many aspects of adventitious rooting, including those for auxin signal transduction and root hair development. Results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that AUX1, IRE, and FB1 were highly expressed in adventitious roots and the expression of AUX1, ARF1, NAC1, RHD1, and IRE increased during the development of adventitious roots. Additionally, 181 simple sequence repeats were identified from 166 ESTs and more than 91.16% of these were dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats. To the best of our knowledge, the present study reports the identification of the genes associated with adventitious rooting in the genus Liriodendron for the first time and provides a valuable resource for future genomic studies. Expression analysis of selected genes could allow us to identify regulatory genes that may be essential for adventitious rooting. PMID:27420958

  6. Yiqihuoxuejiedu Formula Inhibits Vascular Remodeling by Reducing Proliferation and Secretion of Adventitial Fibroblast after Balloon Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ming-Jing; Wang, Jie; Gao, Yong-Hong; Liu, Hui-Min; Lv, Xi-Ying; Lei, Huan; Sun, Qing-Qin; Xu, Ying; He, Ying-Kun; Wang, Shuo-Ren

    2014-01-01

    Vascular remodeling occurs in atherosclerosis, hypertension, and restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. Adventitial remodeling may be a potential therapeutic target. Yiqihuoxuejiedu formula uses therapeutic principles from Chinese medicine to supplement Qi, activate blood circulation, and resolve toxin and it has been shown to inhibit vascular stenosis. To investigate effects and mechanisms of the formula on inhibiting vascular remodeling, especially adventitial remodeling, rats with a balloon injury to their common carotid artery were used and were treated for 7 or 28 days after injury. The adventitial area and α-SMA expression increased at 7 days after injury, which indicated activation and proliferation of adventitial fibroblasts. Yiqihuoxuejiedu formula reduced the adventitial areas at 7 days, attenuated the neointima and vessel wall area, stenosis percent, and α-SMA expression in the neointima, and reduced collagen content and type I/III collagen ratio in the adventitia at 28 days. Yiqihuoxuejiedu formula had more positive effects than Captopril in reducing intimal proliferation and diminishing stenosis, although Captopril lowered neointimal α-SMA expression and reduced the collagen content at 28 days. Yiqihuoxuejiedu formula has inhibitory effects on positive and negative remodeling by reducing adventitial and neointimal proliferation, reducing content, and elevating adventitial compliance. PMID:24987435

  7. Factors influencing axillary shoot proliferation and adventitious budding in cedar.

    PubMed

    Renau-Morata, Begoña; Ollero, Javier; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2005-04-01

    We developed procedures for in vitro cloning of Cedrus atlantica Manetti and C. libani A. Rich explants from juvenile and mature plants. Explant size was one determinant of the frequency of axillary bud break in both species. Shoot tips and nodal explants mainly developed calli, whereas bud sprouting occurred in defoliated microcuttings cultured on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium without growth regulators. Isolation and continuous subculture of sprouted buds on the same medium allowed cloning of microcuttings from C. atlantica and C. libani seedlings and bicentennial C. libani trees, thus providing a desirable alternative for multiplying mature trees that have demonstrated superior characteristics. We also report adventitious bud differentiation from isolated embryos of C. atlantica. Neither auxin treatments nor other methods tested, including infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, were effective in inducing root initiation. PMID:15687096

  8. Adventitious Carbon on Primary Sample Containment Metal Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calaway, M. J.; Fries, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Future missions that return astromaterials with trace carbonaceous signatures will require strict protocols for reducing and controlling terrestrial carbon contamination. Adventitious carbon (AC) on primary sample containers and related hardware is an important source of that contamination. AC is a thin film layer or heterogeneously dispersed carbonaceous material that naturally accrues from the environment on the surface of atmospheric exposed metal parts. To test basic cleaning techniques for AC control, metal surfaces commonly used for flight hardware and curating astromaterials at JSC were cleaned using a basic cleaning protocol and characterized for AC residue. Two electropolished stainless steel 316L (SS- 316L) and two Al 6061 (Al-6061) test coupons (2.5 cm diameter by 0.3 cm thick) were subjected to precision cleaning in the JSC Genesis ISO class 4 cleanroom Precision Cleaning Laboratory. Afterwards, the samples were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  9. Adventitious Reinforcement of Maladaptive Stimulus Control Interferes with Learning.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Kathryn J; Hine, Kathleen; Hayashi, Yusuke; Williams, Dean C

    2016-09-01

    Persistent error patterns sometimes develop when teaching new discriminations. These patterns can be adventitiously reinforced, especially during long periods of chance-level responding (including baseline). Such behaviors can interfere with learning a new discrimination. They can also disrupt already learned discriminations, if they re-emerge during teaching procedures that generate errors. We present an example of this process. Our goal was to teach a boy with intellectual disabilities to touch one of two shapes on a computer screen (in technical terms, a simple simultaneous discrimination). We used a size-fading procedure. The correct stimulus was at full size, and the incorrect-stimulus size increased in increments of 10 %. Performance was nearly error free up to and including 60 % of full size. In a probe session with the incorrect stimulus at full size, however, accuracy plummeted. Also, a pattern of switching between choices, which apparently had been established in classroom instruction, re-emerged. The switching pattern interfered with already-learned discriminations. Despite having previously mastered a fading step with the incorrect stimulus up to 60 %, we were unable to maintain consistently high accuracy beyond 20 % of full size. We refined the teaching program such that fading was done in smaller steps (5 %), and decisions to "step back" to a smaller incorrect stimulus were made after every 5-instead of 20-trials. Errors were rare, switching behavior stopped, and he mastered the discrimination. This is a practical example of the importance of designing instruction that prevents adventitious reinforcement of maladaptive discriminated response patterns by reducing errors during acquisition. PMID:27622128

  10. Adventitial fibroblasts are activated in the early stages of atherosclerosis in the apolipoprotein E knockout mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Fang; Ji Jian; Li Li; Chen Rong; Hu Weicheng . E-mail: huweicheng@sdu.edu.cn

    2007-01-19

    The role of the adventitia in vascular function and vascular lesion formation has been largely ignored. This study observed the activation of the adventitia and specifically the fibroblasts in the development of atherosclerosis in the apoE(-/-) mouse. The results showed a gradual increase in expression of collagen types I and III after 2, 4, and 8 weeks of hyperlipidic diet. The earliest expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) protein and mRNA was detected in the adventitial fibroblast before the formation of intimal lesions. Proliferation, too, was first found in the adventitial fibroblasts. We hypothesize that the adventitial fibroblast is activated in the early stage of atherosclerosis. Adventitial inflammation may be an early event in the development of atherosclerotic lesions.

  11. [Cucumber diseases diagnosis using multispectral imaging technique].

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Liao, Ning-Fang; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Yong-Dao; Li, Bao-Ju

    2009-02-01

    For a reliable diagnosis of plant diseases and insect pests, spectroscopy analysis technique and mutispectral imaging technique are proposed to diagnose five cucumber diseases, namely Trichothecium roseum, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, Corynespora cassiicola and Pseudoperonospora cubensis. In the experiment, the cucumbers' multispectral images of 14 visible lights channels, near infrared channel and panchromatic channel were captured using narrow-band multispectral imaging system under standard observation environment. And the 5 cucumber diseases, healthy leaves and reference white were classified using their multispectral information, the distance, angle and relativity. The discrimination of Trichothecium roseum, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, and reference white was 100%, and that of Pseudoperonospora cubensis and healthy leaves was 80% and 93.33% respectively. The mean correct discrimination of diseases was 81.90% when the distance and relativity were used together. The result shows that the method realized good accuracy in the cucumber diseases diagnosis. PMID:19445229

  12. Adventitious root induction in Arabidopsis thaliana as a model for in vitro root organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Verstraeten, Inge; Beeckman, Tom; Geelen, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Adventitious root formation, the development of roots on non-root tissue (e.g. leaves, hypocotyls and stems) is a critical step during micropropagation. Although root induction treatments are routinely used for a large number of species micropropagated in vitro as well as for in vivo cuttings, the mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting are still poorly understood. Researchers attempt to gain better insight into the molecular aspects by studying adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana. The existing assay involves etiolation of seedlings and measurements of de novo formed roots on the elongated hypocotyl. The etiolated hypocotyls express a novel auxin-controlled signal transduction pathway in which auxin response factors (ARFs), microRNAs and environmental conditions that drive adventitious rooting are integrated. An alternative assay makes use of so-called thin cell layers (TCL), excised strips of cells from the inflorescence stem of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, both the etiolated seedling system and the TCL assay are only distantly related to industrial rooting processes in which roots are induced on adult stem tissue. Here, we describe an adventitious root induction system that uses segments of the inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana, which have a histological structure similar to cuttings or in vitro micropropagated shoots. The system allows multiple treatments with chemicals as well as the evaluation of different environmental conditions on a large number of explants. It is therefore suitable for high throughput chemical screenings and experiments that require numerous data points for statistical analysis. Using this assay, the adventitious root induction capacity of classical auxins was evaluated and a differential response to the different auxins could be demonstrated. NAA, IBA and IAA stimulated adventitious rooting on the stem segment, whereas 2,4-D and picloram did not. Light conditions profoundly influenced the root induction capacity

  13. Phytochemical and therapeutic potential of cucumber.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Nema, Neelesh K; Maity, Niladri; Sarkar, Birendra K

    2013-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family like melon, squash and pumpkins. It is a popular vegetable crop used in Indian traditional medicine since ancient times. This vegetable is very high in water content and very low in calories. It has potential antidiabetic, lipid lowering and antioxidant activity. Cucumber has a cleansing action within the body by removing accumulated pockets of old waste materials and chemical toxins. Fresh fruit juice is used for nourishing the skin. It gives a soothing effect against skin irritations and reduces swelling. Cucumber also has the power to relax and alleviate the sunburn's pain. The fruit is refrigerant, haemostatic, tonic and useful in hyperdipsia, thermoplegia etc. The seeds also have a cooling effect on the body and they are used to prevent constipation. Several bioactive compounds have been isolated from cucumber including cucurbitacins, cucumegastigmanes I and II, cucumerin A and B, vitexin, orientin, isoscoparin 2″-O-(6‴-(E)-p-coumaroyl) glucoside, apigenin 7-O-(6″-O-p-coumaroylglucoside) etc. Despite huge exploration of cucumber in agricultural field, comparatively very few studies have been published about its chemical profile and its therapeutic potential. This article reviews the therapeutic application, pharmacological and phytochemical profile of different parts of C. sativus. In this review we have explored the current phytochemical and pharmacological knowledge available with this well known plant and several promising aspects for research on cucumber. PMID:23098877

  14. First report of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus infecting greenhouse cucumber in Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), in the genus Tobamovirus and family Virgaviridae, is a seed-borne pathogen on cucurbits. In early 2013, serious viral disease outbreaks on greenhouse cucumber crops were experienced by greenhouse vegetable growers in Alberta, Canada. CGMMV was detected i...

  15. Cucumber applied genomics: where we are five years after release of cucumber draft genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first cucumber draft genome (North China fresh market type inbred line 9930) was released in 2009 (Version 1.0). Since then, due to the use of next generation sequencing technologies, seven high-density SSR- or SNP-based cucumber genetic maps have been constructed with mapped loci ranging from 7...

  16. Significant parent-of-origin effects in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is a useful plant to study organellar effects because chloroplasts are maternally and mitochondria paternally transmitted. We produced doubled haploids (DH) from divergent cucumber populations, generated reciprocal crosses in a diallel mating scheme, measured weights of plants approximately...

  17. Studies on in vitro culture of cucumber microspores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) microspores are unique because they possess relatively few, large mitochondria and these mitochondria are paternally transmitted to progenies. We are working to develop microspore embryogenesis of cucumber microspores as possible targets for mitochondrial transformation...

  18. Lipopolysaccharide promotes lipid accumulation in human adventitial fibroblasts via TLR4-NF-κB pathway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic degenerative disease of the arteries and is thought to be one of the most common causes of death globally. In recent years, the functions of adventitial fibroblasts in the development of atherosclerosis and tissue repair have gained increased interests. LPS can increase the morbidity and mortality of atherosclerosis-associated cardiovascular disease. Although LPS increases neointimal via TLR4 activation has been reported, how LPS augments atherogenesis through acting on adventitial fibroblasts is still unknown. Here we explored lipid deposition within adventitial fibroblasts mediated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to imitate inflammatory conditions. Results In our study, LPS enhanced lipid deposition by the up-regulated expression of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) as the silencing of ADRP abrogated lipid deposition in LPS-activated adventitial fibroblasts. In addition, pre-treatment with anti-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antibody diminished the LPS-induced lipid deposition and ADRP expression. Moreover, LPS induced translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which could markedly up-regulate lipid deposition as pre-treatment with the NF-κB inhibitor, PDTC, significantly reduced lipid droplets. In addition, the lowering lipid accumulation was accompanied with the decreased ADRP expression. Furthermore, LPS-induced adventitial fibroblasts secreted more monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), compared with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that LPS promotes lipid accumulation via the up-regulation of ADRP expression through TLR4 activated downstream of NF-κB in adventitial fibroblasts. Increased levels of MCP-1 released from LPS-activated adventitial fibroblasts and lipid accumulation may accelerate monocytes recruitment and lipid-laden macrophage foam cells formation. Here, our study provides a new explanation as to how bacterial infection contributes to

  19. Adventitious rooting declines with the vegetative to reproductive switch and involves a changed auxin homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Hosseini, Seyed Abdollah; Hajirezaei, Mohammed-Reza; Druege, Uwe; Geelen, Danny

    2015-03-01

    Adventitious rooting, whereby roots form from non-root tissues, is critical to the forestry and horticultural industries that depend on propagating plants from cuttings. A major problem is that age of the tissue affects the ability of the cutting to form adventitious roots. Here, a model system has been developed using Pisum sativum to differentiate between different interpretations of ageing. It is shown that the decline in adventitious rooting is linked to the ontogenetic switch from vegetative to floral and is mainly attributed to the cutting base. Using rms mutants it is demonstrated that the decline is not a result of increased strigolactones inhibiting adventitious root formation. Monitoring endogenous levels of a range of other hormones including a range of cytokinins in the rooting zone revealed that a peak in jasmonic acid is delayed in cuttings from floral plants. Additionally, there is an early peak in indole-3-acetic acid levels 6h post excision in cuttings from vegetative plants, which is absent in cuttings from floral plants. These results were confirmed using DR5:GUS expression. Exogenous supplementation of young cuttings with either jasmonic acid or indole-3-acetic acid promoted adventitious rooting, but neither of these hormones was able to promote adventitious rooting in mature cuttings. DR5:GUS expression was observed to increase in juvenile cuttings with increasing auxin treatment but not in the mature cuttings. Therefore, it seems the vegetative to floral ontogenetic switch involves an alteration in the tissue's auxin homeostasis that significantly reduces the indole-3-acetic acid pool and ultimately results in a decline in adventitious root formation. PMID:25540438

  20. Adventitious rooting declines with the vegetative to reproductive switch and involves a changed auxin homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Hosseini, Seyed Abdollah; Hajirezaei, Mohammed-Reza; Druege, Uwe; Geelen, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Adventitious rooting, whereby roots form from non-root tissues, is critical to the forestry and horticultural industries that depend on propagating plants from cuttings. A major problem is that age of the tissue affects the ability of the cutting to form adventitious roots. Here, a model system has been developed using Pisum sativum to differentiate between different interpretations of ageing. It is shown that the decline in adventitious rooting is linked to the ontogenetic switch from vegetative to floral and is mainly attributed to the cutting base. Using rms mutants it is demonstrated that the decline is not a result of increased strigolactones inhibiting adventitious root formation. Monitoring endogenous levels of a range of other hormones including a range of cytokinins in the rooting zone revealed that a peak in jasmonic acid is delayed in cuttings from floral plants. Additionally, there is an early peak in indole-3-acetic acid levels 6h post excision in cuttings from vegetative plants, which is absent in cuttings from floral plants. These results were confirmed using DR5:GUS expression. Exogenous supplementation of young cuttings with either jasmonic acid or indole-3-acetic acid promoted adventitious rooting, but neither of these hormones was able to promote adventitious rooting in mature cuttings. DR5:GUS expression was observed to increase in juvenile cuttings with increasing auxin treatment but not in the mature cuttings. Therefore, it seems the vegetative to floral ontogenetic switch involves an alteration in the tissue’s auxin homeostasis that significantly reduces the indole-3-acetic acid pool and ultimately results in a decline in adventitious root formation. PMID:25540438

  1. Role of adventitious roots in water relations of tamarack (Larix laricina) seedlings exposed to flooding

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Flooding reduces supply of oxygen to the roots affecting plant water uptake. Some flooding-tolerant tree species including tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) produce adventitious roots in response to flooding. These roots were reported to have higher hydraulic conductivity under flooding conditions compared with non-adventitious roots. In the present study, we examined structural and functional modifications in adventitious roots of tamarack seedlings to explain their flooding tolerance. Results Seedlings were subjected to the flooding treatment for six months, which resulted in an almost complete disintegration of the existing root system and its replacement with adventitious roots. We compared gas exchange parameters and water relations of flooded plants with the plants growing in well-drained soil and examined the root structures and root water transport properties. Although flooded seedlings had lower needle chlorophyll concentrations, their stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rates and shoot water potentials were similar to non-flooded plants, indicative of flooding tolerance. Flooded adventitious roots had higher activation energy and a higher ratio of apoplastic to cell-to-cell water flow compared with non-flooded control roots as determined with the 1-hydroxypirene 3,6,8-trisulfonic acid apoplastic tracer dye. The adventitious roots in flooded plants also exhibited retarded xylem and endodermal development and accumulated numerous starch grains in the cortex. Microscopic examination of root sections treated with the PIP1 and PIP2 antibodies revealed high immunoreactivity in the cortex of non-flooded roots, as compared with flooded roots. Conclusions Structural modifications of adventitious roots suggest increased contribution of apoplastic bypass to water flow. The reduced dependence of roots on the hypoxia-sensitive aquaporin-mediated water transport is likely among the main mechanisms allowing tamarack seedlings to maintain water

  2. Hormonal interplay during adventitious root formation in flooded tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Vidoz, Maria Laura; Loreti, Elena; Mensuali, Anna; Alpi, Amedeo; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2010-08-01

    Soil flooding, which results in a decline in the availability of oxygen to submerged organs, negatively affects the growth and productivity of most crops. Although tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is known for its sensitivity to waterlogging, its ability to produce adventitious roots (ARs) increases plant survival when the level of oxygen is decreased in the root zone. Ethylene entrapment by water may represent the first warning signal to the plant indicating waterlogging. We found that treatment with the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and the auxin transport inhibitor 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) resulted in a reduction of AR formation in waterlogged plants. We observed that ethylene, perceived by the Never Ripe receptor, stimulated auxin transport. In a process requiring the Diageotropica gene, auxin accumulation in the stem triggered additional ethylene synthesis, which further stimulated a flux of auxin towards to the flooded parts of the plant. Auxin accumulation in the base of the plant induces growth of pre-formed root initials. This response of tomato plants results in a new root system that is capable of replacing the original one when it has been damaged by submergence. PMID:20497380

  3. Dissecting the contribution of microtubule behaviour in adventitious root induction

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Abied, Mohamad; Rogovoy (Stelmakh), Oksana; Mordehaev, Inna; Grumberg, Marina; Elbaum, Rivka; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O.; Sadot, Einat

    2015-01-01

    Induction of adventitious roots (ARs) in recalcitrant plants often culminates in cell division and callus formation rather than root differentiation. Evidence is provided here to suggest that microtubules (MTs) play a role in the shift from cell division to cell differentiation during AR induction. First, it was found that fewer ARs form in the temperature-sensitive mutant mor1-1, in which the MT-associated protein MOR1 is mutated, and in bot1-1, in which the MT-severing protein katanin is mutated. In the two latter mutants, MT dynamics and form are perturbed. By contrast, the number of ARs increased in RIC1-OX3 plants, in which MT bundling is enhanced and katanin is activated. In addition, any1 plants in which cell walls are perturbed made more ARs than wild-type plants. MT perturbations during AR induction in mor1-1 or in wild-type hypocotyls treated with oryzalin led to the formation of amorphous clusters of cells reminiscent of callus. In these cells a specific pattern of polarized light retardation by the cell walls was lost. PIN1 polarization and auxin maxima were hampered and differentiation of the epidermis was inhibited. It is concluded that a fine-tuned crosstalk between MTs, cell walls, and auxin transport is required for proper AR induction. PMID:25788735

  4. Recurrence of cystic adventitial disease in an interposed vein graft.

    PubMed

    Ohta, T; Kato, R; Sugimoto, I; Kondo, M; Tsuchioka, H

    1994-09-01

    A case of cystic adventitial disease (CAD) of the popliteal artery with intermittent claudication in the left calf is reported. This patient was first treated by total excision of the cyst and the involved artery followed by graft interposition with an autogenous saphenous vein. Recurrence of CAD in the interposed vein graft was noted after 6 months, and excision of the cyst with the involved graft and graft interposition with an autogenous saphenous vein was again required. We consider that the definitive evidence from early recurrence in the interposed vein graft shown in this case will close the discussion of the cause of CAD. The cystic lesion is thought by some to originate from the adventitia; traumatic, embryologic, or systemic abnormality theories were proposed. We assume that the mucin-secreting synovial cells originating from the neighboring joint capsule, tendon sheath, or, in some cases, from the ganglion itself, directly invade the adventitia through any rough or injured crack caused by trauma to the adventitia or simply attach to and encircle the adventitia. Total resection of the lesion with grafting is the recommended treatment for CAD because of the excellent results. However, as shown in our case, complete removal of the synovial cells even by resection technique may be difficult; therefore intensive follow-up is fundamentally necessary in this disease. PMID:8079189

  5. Development of applied genomics tools for cucumber breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The past three years have witnessed rapid accumulation of whole genome sequences and other genomics resources in cucumber. So far, draft genomes of three cucumber inbred lines have been released; many cucumber lines are being re-sequenced using next-generation sequencing technologies; nearly three m...

  6. Molecularly tagged genes and quantitative trait loci in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the release of the cucumber draft genome, significant progress has been made in molecular mapping, tagging or cloning of horticulturally important genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in cucumber, which provides the foundation for practicing marker-assisted selection in cucumber breeding. ...

  7. Cucumber Phylogeny, Genetics and Genomics as of 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. In the past two years significant progress has been made in cucumber genetics and genomics research. The whole genomes of three cucumber genotypes have been sequenced and assembled. Nearly three million ESTs from different tissue...

  8. Quantification of Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Vascularization in Double-injury Restenotic Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Meng; Zhang, Bai-Gen; Zhang, Lan; Xie, Hui; Zhang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates a potential role of adventitial vasa vasorum (VV) dysfunction in the pathophysiology of restenosis. However, characterization of VV vascularization in restenotic arteries with primary lesions is still missing. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the response of adventitial VV to vascular injury resulting from balloon angioplasty in diseased arteries. Methods: Primary atherosclerotic-like lesions were induced by the placement of an absorbable thread surrounding the carotid artery of New Zealand rabbits. Four weeks following double-injury induced that was induced by secondary balloon dilation, three-dimensional patterns of adventitial VV were reconstructed; the number, density, and endothelial surface of VV were quantified using micro-computed tomography. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed in order to examine the development of intimal hyperplasia. Results: Results from our study suggest that double injured arteries have a greater number of VV, increased luminal surface, and an elevation in the intima/media ratio (I/M), along with an accumulation of macrophages and smooth muscle cells in the intima, as compared to sham or single injury arteries. I/M and the number of VV were positively correlated (R2 = 0.82, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Extensive adventitial VV neovascularization occurs in injured arteries after balloon angioplasty, which is associated with intimal hyperplasia. Quantitative assessment of adventitial VV response may provide insight into the basic biological process of postangioplasty restenosis. PMID:26228224

  9. Identification of new adventitious rooting mutants amongst suppressors of the Arabidopsis thaliana superroot2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Pacurar, Daniel Ioan; Pacurar, Monica Lacramioara; Bussell, John Desmond; Schwambach, Joseli; Pop, Tiberia Ioana; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Gutierrez, Laurent; Cavel, Emilie; Chaabouni, Salma; Ljung, Karin; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano; Pamfil, Doru; Bellini, Catherine

    2014-04-01

    The plant hormone auxin plays a central role in adventitious rooting and is routinely used with many economically important, vegetatively propagated plant species to promote adventitious root initiation and development on cuttings. Nevertheless the molecular mechanisms through which it acts are only starting to emerge. The Arabidopsis superroot2-1 (sur2-1) mutant overproduces auxin and, as a consequence, develops excessive adventitious roots in the hypocotyl. In order to increase the knowledge of adventitious rooting and of auxin signalling pathways and crosstalk, this study performed a screen for suppressors of superroot2-1 phenotype. These suppressors provide a new resource for discovery of genetic players involved in auxin signalling pathways or at the crosstalk of auxin and other hormones or environmental signals. This study reports the identification and characterization of 26 sur2-1 suppressor mutants, several of which were identified as mutations in candidate genes involved in either auxin biosynthesis or signalling. In addition to confirming the role of auxin as a central regulator of adventitious rooting, superroot2 suppressors indicated possible crosstalk with ethylene signalling in this process. PMID:24596172

  10. Cortical Aerenchyma Formation in Hypocotyl and Adventitious Roots of Luffa cylindrica Subjected to Soil Flooding

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Satoshi; Yoshida, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Toshihiro

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Aerenchyma formation is thought to be one of the important morphological adaptations to hypoxic stress. Although sponge gourd is an annual vegetable upland crop, in response to flooding the hypocotyl and newly formed adventitious roots create aerenchyma that is neither schizogenous nor lysigenous, but is produced by radial elongation of cortical cells. The aim of this study is to characterize the morphological changes in flooded tissues and the pattern of cortical aerenchyma formation, and to analyse the relative amount of aerenchyma formed. Method Plants were harvested at 16 d after the flooding treatment was initiated. The root system was observed, and sections of fresh materials (hypocotyl, tap root and adventitious root) were viewed with a light or fluorescence microscope. Distributions of porosity along adventitious roots were estimated by a pycnometer method. Key Results Under flooded conditions, a considerable part of the root system consisted of new adventitious roots which soon emerged and grew quickly over the soil surface. The outer cortical cells of these roots and those of the hypocotyl elongated radially and contributed to the development of large intercellular spaces. The elongated cortical cells of adventitious roots were clearly T-shaped, and occurred regularly in mesh-like lacunate structures. In these positions, slits were formed in the epidermis. In the roots, the enlargement of the gas space system began close to the apex in the cortical cell layers immediately beneath the epidermis. The porosity along these roots was 11–45 %. In non-flooded plants, adventitious roots were not formed and no aerenchyma developed in the hypocotyl or tap root. Conclusions Sponge gourd aerenchyma is produced by the unique radial elongation of cells that make the expansigeny. These morphological changes seem to enhance flooding tolerance by promoting tissue gas exchange, and sponge gourd might thereby adapt to flooding stress. PMID:17921518

  11. Mathematical modelling of cucumber (cucumis sativus) drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahari, N.; Hussein, S. M.; Nursabrina, M.; Hibberd, S.

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of using an experiment based mathematical model (empirical model) and a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage to describe the drying curve of cucumis sativus (cucumber). Drying experiments were conducted using conventional air drying and data obtained from these experiments were fitted to seven empirical models using non-linear least square regression based on the Levenberg Marquardt algorithm. The empirical models were compared according to their root mean square error (RMSE), sum of square error (SSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). A logarithmic model was found to be the best empirical model to describe the drying curve of cucumber. The numerical result of a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage was also compared with experiment data for cucumber drying. A good agreement was obtained between the model predictions and the experimental data.

  12. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of southern highbush blueberry cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protocols were developed to optimize adventitious shoot regeneration from four southern highbush blueberry cultivars. Leaf explants from six-week-old shoots of the four cultivars were excised and cultured on ten WPM (woody plant medium)-based regeneration media each containing thidiazuron (TDZ) (4.5...

  13. Early steps of adventitious rooting: morphology, hormonal profiling and carbohydrate turnover in carnation stem cuttings.

    PubMed

    Agulló-Antón, María Ángeles; Ferrández-Ayela, Almudena; Fernández-García, Nieves; Nicolás, Carlos; Albacete, Alfonso; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Sánchez-Bravo, José; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Acosta, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. A detailed analysis of the morphological changes occurring in the basal region of cultivated carnation cuttings during the early stages of adventitious rooting was carried out and the physiological modifications induced by exogenous auxin application were studied. To this end, the endogenous concentrations of five major classes of plant hormones [auxin, cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid] and the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid were analyzed at the base of stem cuttings and at different stages of adventitious root formation. We found that the stimulus triggering the initiation of adventitious root formation occurred during the first hours after their excision from the donor plant, due to the breakdown of the vascular continuum that induces auxin accumulation near the wounding. Although this stimulus was independent of exogenously applied auxin, it was observed that the auxin treatment accelerated cell division in the cambium and increased the sucrolytic activities at the base of the stem, both of which contributed to the establishment of the new root primordia at the stem base. Further, several genes involved in auxin transport were upregulated in the stem base either with or without auxin application, while endogenous CK and SA concentrations were specially affected by exogenous auxin application. Taken together our results indicate significant crosstalk between auxin levels, stress hormone homeostasis and sugar availability in the base of the stem cuttings in carnation during the initial steps of adventitious rooting. PMID:24117983

  14. Distinct effects of auxin and light on adventitious root development in Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Fett-Neto, A G; Fett, J P; Veira Goulart, L W; Pasquali, G; Termignoni, R R; Ferreira, A G

    2001-05-01

    Adventitious rooting is essential for vegetative propagation of woody species. We studied the effects of auxin and light on the development of adventitious roots in cuttings obtained from seedlings of Eucalyptus saligna Smith and E. globulus Labill in an attempt to characterize the adventitious rooting process and identify factors controlling rhizogenesis. Root development was scored as rooting percentage, root density (roots per rooted cutting), mean rooting time and root length. In both species, rooting time was reduced in the presence of auxin. Cuttings from 2-month-old E. saligna seedlings were responsive to lower auxin concentrations than comparable cuttings from E. globulus seedlings. Cuttings from 3-month-old E. saligna seedlings rooted promptly and rooting was not significantly affected by light conditions. In contrast, rooting of cuttings from 3-month-old E. globulus seedlings exhibited recalcitrant behavior and no roots were formed if illuminated during the root formation phase. Effective root regeneration of E. globulus cuttings was obtained by a 4-day exposure to 10 mg l(-1) IBA and culture in darkness during the root formation step. Loss of rooting capacity with seedling age was more pronounced in E. globulus than in E. saligna. The possibility of switching adventitious rooting off and on by manipulating light regime and exogenous auxin supply in E. globulus, and the constitutive nature of rooting in E. saligna may provide useful models for examining the rooting process at the biochemical and molecular levels in Eucalyptus. PMID:11340046

  15. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  16. The Unique Mitochondrial Genetics of Cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant cells typically contain two organelles, plastids and mitochondria. For the vast majority of plants, both of these organelles are maternally transmitted. Cucumber and melon are exceptions to this rule because the mitochondria are paternally transmitted. These two plants also possess mitochon...

  17. Genetic basis of mitochondrial sorting in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regeneration of cucumber from cell cultures produces plants with distinct mosaic (MSC) phenotypes, misshapen cotyledons and leaves, reduced fertility, and low seed germination. The MSC phenotypes are paternally transmitted and associated with deletions or under-representations of specific regions of...

  18. Genetic basis of mitochondrial sorting in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regeneration of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) from cell cultures produces plants with distinct mosaic (MSC) phenotypes, misshapen cotyledons and leaves, reduced fertility, and low seed germination. The MSC phenotypes are paternally transmitted and associated with deletions or under-representations of s...

  19. Bacteriophage ecology in a commercial cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To reduce high-salt waste from cucumber fermentations, low-salt fermentations are under development. These fermentations may require the use of starter cultures to ensure normal fermentations. Because potential phage infection can cause starter culture failure, it is important to understand phage ec...

  20. In vitro culture of cucumber microspores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our aim was to develop protocol for embryogenesis of cucumber microspores as possible targets for mitochondrial transformation. Protocols for successful isolation and viability testing of cultured microspores were identified. Mean percentage of viable microspores from in vitro cultured plants was lo...

  1. Mapping of Mitochondrial Sorting Locus in Cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In plants, DNA is located in three different places, the chloroplast, mitochondrion, and nucleus. Most angiosperms transmitted their organellar DNA through the egg (mitochondrial DNA), and through the egg and/ or pollen (chloroplast DNA). Transmission of the organellar DNA in cucumber is unique beca...

  2. Marker-Assisted Selection in Cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though the short life cycle (3 months), low chromosome number (2n=2x=14) and small genomic size (~880 Mega base pairs, 750-1000 cM) of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) makes it an attractive model crop species for genomic analysis, its narrow genetic base (3-8% polymorphism) is an impediment for t...

  3. Pure human urine is a good fertiliser for cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Sjöblom, Annalena; Fabritius, Helena; Karinen, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    Human urine obtained from separating toilets was tested as a fertiliser for cultivation of outdoor cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a Nordic climate. The urine used contained high amounts of nitrogen with some phosphorus and potassium, but numbers of enteric microorganisms were low even though urine had not been preserved before sampling. The cucumber yield after urine fertilisation was similar or slightly better than the yield obtained from control rows fertilised with commercial mineral fertiliser. None of the cucumbers contained any enteric microorganisms (coliforms, enterococci, coliphages and clostridia). In the taste assessment, 11 out of 20 persons could recognise which cucumber of three cucumbers was different but they did not prefer one over the other cucumber samples, since all of them were assessed as equally good. PMID:16413181

  4. Tyrosinase inhibitory activity of cucumber compounds: enzymes responsible for browning in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; Jiménez, Mercedes; Cabanes, Juana; García-Carmona, Francisco; Escribano, Josefa

    2003-12-17

    The inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase by cucumber extracts was evaluated. The inhibitory effect was measured by both polarographic and spectrophotometric methods. The commercial aldehyde, trans,cis-2,6-nonadienal, described as a major volatile compound of cucumber, was characterized as a noncompetitive inhibitor against 4-tert-butylcatechol oxidation by mushroom tyrosinase. The K(I) obtained was 3.4 mM. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was not detected in cucumber skin extracts. However, the presence of PPO was revealed by Western blot; a single band was found with a M(r) of 53 kDa. These results support the assumption that the enzyme PPO is present in the cucumber skin, but its activity is inhibited. Peroxidase (PO) was also found in cucumber skin extracts. This enzyme was detected in the soluble fraction but not in the membrane fraction. The kinetic characterization of PO was carried out. Native isoelectric focusing revealed several acidic PO isoenzymes with a pI in the range between 5 and 6, a basic isoenzyme, and one principal neutral isoenzyme of pI = 7.2. PMID:14664542

  5. Life cycle stage and water depth affect flooding-induced adventitious root formation in the terrestrial species Solanum dulcamara

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Visser, Eric J. W.; de Kroon, Hans; Huber, Heidrun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Flooding can occur at any stage of the life cycle of a plant, but often adaptive responses of plants are only studied at a single developmental stage. It may be anticipated that juvenile plants may respond differently from mature plants, as the amount of stored resources may differ and morphological changes can be constrained. Moreover, different water depths may require different strategies to cope with the flooding stress, the expression of which may also depend on developmental stage. This study investigated whether flooding-induced adventitious root formation and plant growth were affected by flooding depth in Solanum dulcamara plants at different developmental stages. Methods Juvenile plants without pre-formed adventitious root primordia and mature plants with primordia were subjected to shallow flooding or deep flooding for 5 weeks. Plant growth and the timing of adventitious root formation were monitored during the flooding treatments. Key Results Adventitious root formation in response to shallow flooding was significantly constrained in juvenile S. dulcamara plants compared with mature plants, and was delayed by deep flooding compared with shallow flooding. Complete submergence suppressed adventitious root formation until up to 2 weeks after shoots restored contact with the atmosphere. Independent of developmental stage, a strong positive correlation was found between adventitious root formation and total biomass accumulation during shallow flooding. Conclusions The potential to deploy an escape strategy (i.e. adventitious root formation) may change throughout a plant’s life cycle, and is largely dependent on flooding depth. Adaptive responses at a given stage of the life cycle thus do not necessarily predict how the plant responds to flooding in another growth stage. As variation in adventitious root formation also correlates with finally attained biomass, this variation may form the basis for variation in resistance to shallow

  6. Characterization of siRNAs derived from cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in infected cucumber plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongqiang; Deng, Congliang; Shang, Qiaoxia; Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Xingliang; Zhou, Qi

    2016-02-01

    Virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), a member of the genus Tobamovirus, were characterised in cucumber plants by deep sequencing. CGMMV vsiRNAs of 21-22 nt in length predominated, suggesting that there might be a conserved mechanism of DCL2 and DCL4 involvement in the biogenesis of vsiRNAs, as well as a common RNA silencing pathway in CGMMV-infected cucumber plants. The 5'-terminal base of vsiRNAs was biased towards C/A/U, suggesting that CGMMV vsiRNAs might be loaded into diverse AGO-containing RISCs to disturb the gene expression of host plants. Possible targets for some of the vsiRNAs were also predicted. PMID:26586331

  7. Influences of polar auxin transport on polarity of adventitious bud formation in hybrid populas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Myung Won ); Hackett, W. )

    1989-04-01

    The role of auxin and cytokinin distribution of polar regeneration of adventitious bud has been investigated. Explants from leaf midvein were labelled with {sup 14}C-NAA and {sup 14}C-BA and the radioactivity in proximal, mid, and distal portions was counted after 24h and 48h. Explants showing polar regeneration of buds on the proximal end showed a clear polar distribution of {sup 14}CNAA. Auxin transport inhibitors (NPA, TIBA) eliminated polar distribution of auxin and reduced polarity of bud formation and the total number of buds formed, but did not reduce callus formation. Increased concentration of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} decreased polarity of bud formation and increased the number of buds formed but did not affect the distribution of auxin of cytokinin. Some factor in addition to polar distribution of auxin or cytokinin-auxin ratio appears to influence the polarity of adventitious bud formation.

  8. Doppler ultrasonography and exercise testing in diagnosing a popliteal artery adventitial cyst.

    PubMed

    Taurino, Maurizio; Rizzo, Luigi; Stella, Nazzareno; Mastroddi, Massimo; Conteduca, Fabio; Maggiore, Claudia; Faraglia, Vittorio

    2009-01-01

    We describe popliteal arterial adventitial cystic disease which causes intermittent claudication in a young athletic man, with atypical manifestation, without loss of foot pulses on knee flexion nor murmur in the popliteal fossa. The findings obtained from Magnetic Resonance Imaging were non-diagnostic. The diagnosis resulted from Echo-Doppler ultrasonography along with peak exercise testing. Ultrasonography also provided useful physiopathological informations suggesting that a popliteal artery adventitial cyst can become symptomatic if muscle exertion increases fluid pressure within the cyst, enough to cause hemodynamically significant endoluminal stenosis. Rapid diagnosis is essential to prevent progressive claudication threatening limb viability. To guarantee this professional sportsman a reliable and durable outcome, instead of less aggressive management, we resected the involved arterial segment and interposed an autologous saphenous-vein graft. PMID:19473494

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Adventitious Root Growth Phenotypes in Carnation Stem Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Birlanga, Virginia; Villanova, Joan; Cano, Antonio; Cano, Emilio A.; Acosta, Manuel; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Carnation is one of the most important species on the worldwide market of cut flowers. Commercial carnation cultivars are vegetatively propagated from terminal stem cuttings that undergo a rooting and acclimation process. For some of the new cultivars that are being developed by ornamental breeders, poor adventitious root (AR) formation limits its commercial scaling-up, due to a significant increase in the production costs. We have initiated a genetical-genomics approach to determine the molecular basis of the differences found between carnation cultivars during adventitious rooting. The detailed characterization of AR formation in several carnation cultivars differing in their rooting losses has been performed (i) during commercial production at a breeders’ rooting station and (ii) on a defined media in a controlled environment. Our study reveals the phenotypic signatures that distinguishes the bad-rooting cultivars and provides the appropriate set-up for the molecular identification of the genes involved in AR development in this species. PMID:26230608

  10. The quiescent center and the stem cell niche in the adventitious roots of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Della Rovere, Federica; Fattorini, Laura; Ronzan, Marilena; Falasca, Giuseppina; Altamura, Maria Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adventitious rooting is essential for the survival of numerous species from vascular cryptogams to monocots, and is required for successful micropropagation. The tissues involved in AR initiation may differ in planta and in in vitro systems. For example, in Arabidopsis thaliana, ARs originate from the hypocotyl pericycle in planta and the stem endodermis in in vitro cultured thin cell layers. The formation of adventitious roots (ARs) depends on numerous factors, among which the hormones, auxin, in particular. In both primary and lateral roots, growth depends on a functional stem cell niche in the apex, maintained by an active quiescent center (QC), and involving the expression of genes controlled by auxin and cytokinin. This review summarizes current knowledge about auxin and cytokinin control on genes involved in the definition and maintenance of QC, and stem cell niche, in the apex of Arabidopsis ARs in planta and in longitudinal thin cell layers. PMID:27089118

  11. The quiescent center and the stem cell niche in the adventitious roots of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Rovere, Federica Della; Fattorini, Laura; Ronzan, Marilena; Falasca, Giuseppina; Altamura, Maria Maddalena

    2016-05-01

    Adventitious rooting is essential for the survival of numerous species from vascular cryptogams to monocots, and is required for successful micropropagation. The tissues involved in AR initiation may differ in planta and in in vitro systems. For example, in Arabidopsis thaliana, ARs originate from the hypocotyl pericycle in planta and the stem endodermis in in vitro cultured thin cell layers. The formation of adventitious roots (ARs) depends on numerous factors, among which the hormones, auxin, in particular. In both primary and lateral roots, growth depends on a functional stem cell niche in the apex, maintained by an active quiescent center (QC), and involving the expression of genes controlled by auxin and cytokinin. This review summarizes current knowledge about auxin and cytokinin control on genes involved in the definition and maintenance of QC, and stem cell niche, in the apex of Arabidopsis ARs in planta and in longitudinal thin cell layers. PMID:27089118

  12. Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein presenting as deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Chun, Ho Jong; Hwang, Jeong Kye; Kim, Ji Il; Kim, Sang Dong; Park, Sun-Cheol; Moon, In Sung

    2016-07-01

    Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein is a rare condition. We herein report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with painless swelling in her left lower leg that resembled deep vein thrombosis. She underwent femoral exploration and excision of the cystic wall. The presentation, investigation, treatment, and pathology of this condition are discussed with a literature review. PMID:23978427

  13. Gibberellins inhibit adventitious rooting in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis by affecting auxin transport.

    PubMed

    Mauriat, Mélanie; Petterle, Anna; Bellini, Catherine; Moritz, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of processes involved in adventitious rooting is important to improve both fundamental understanding of plant physiology and the propagation of numerous plants. Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloïdes) plants overexpressing a key gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis gene (AtGA20ox1) grow rapidly but have poor rooting efficiency, which restricts their clonal propagation. Therefore, we investigated the molecular basis of adventitious rooting in Populus and the model plant Arabidopsis. The production of adventitious roots (ARs) in tree cuttings is initiated from the basal stem region, and involves the interplay of several endogenous and exogenous factors. The roles of several hormones in this process have been characterized, but the effects of GAs have not been fully investigated. Here, we show that a GA treatment negatively affects the numbers of ARs produced by wild-type hybrid aspen cuttings. Furthermore, both hybrid aspen plants and intact Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing AtGA20ox1, PttGID1.1 or PttGID1.3 genes (with a 35S promoter) produce few ARs, although ARs develop from the basal stem region of hybrid aspen and the hypocotyl of Arabidopsis. In Arabidopsis, auxin and strigolactones are known to affect AR formation. Our data show that the inhibitory effect of GA treatment on adventitious rooting is not mediated by perturbation of the auxin signalling pathway, or of the strigolactone biosynthetic and signalling pathways. Instead, GAs appear to act by perturbing polar auxin transport, in particular auxin efflux in hybrid aspen, and both efflux and influx in Arabidopsis. PMID:24547703

  14. The role of strigolactones in photomorphogenesis of pea is limited to adventitious rooting.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Shelley; Foo, Eloise; Reid, James B

    2015-03-01

    The recently discovered group of plant hormones, the strigolactones, have been implicated in regulating photomorphogenesis. We examined this extensively in our strigolactone synthesis and response mutants and could find no evidence to support a major role for strigolactone signaling in classic seedling photomorphogenesis (e.g. elongation and leaf expansion) in pea (Pisum sativum), consistent with two recent independent reports in Arabidopsis. However, we did find a novel effect of strigolactones on adventitious rooting in darkness. Strigolactone-deficient mutants, Psccd8 and Psccd7, produced significantly fewer adventitious roots than comparable wild-type seedlings when grown in the dark, but not when grown in the light. This observation in dark-grown plants did not appear to be due to indirect effects of other factors (e.g. humidity) as the constitutively de-etiolated mutant, lip1, also displayed reduced rooting in the dark. This role for strigolactones did not involve the MAX2 F-Box strigolactone response pathway as Psmax2 f-box mutants did not show a reduction in adventitious rooting in the dark compared with wild-type plants. The auxin-deficient mutant bushy also reduced adventitious rooting in the dark, as did decapitation of wild-type plants. Rooting was restored by the application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to decapitated plants, suggesting a role for auxin in the rooting response. However, auxin measurements showed no accumulation of IAA in the epicotyls of wild-type plants compared with the strigolactone synthesis mutant Psccd8, suggesting that changes in the gross auxin level in the epicotyl are not mediating this response to strigolactone deficiency. PMID:24962787

  15. Cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery: an infrequent cause of intermittent claudication

    PubMed Central

    Kauffman, Paulo; Kuzniec, Sergio; Sacilotto, Roberto; Teivelis, Marcelo Passos; Wolosker, Nelson; Tachibana, Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent claudication is frequently associated with atherosclerotic disease, but differential diagnosis must be sought in patients with no traditional risk factors. Cystic adventitial disease, of unknown etiology, most frequently affects the popliteal artery, and occasionally presents as intermittent claudication. We report a case of this disease and the surgical treatment, and discuss some aspects related to etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this condition. PMID:25167336

  16. An Integrated Genetic and Cytogenetic Map of the Cucumber Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cucurbitaceae includes important crops as cucumber, melon, watermelon, and squash and pumpkin. However, few genetic and genomic resources are available for plant improvement. Some cucurbit species such as cucumber have a narrow genetic base, which impedes construction of saturated molecular li...

  17. Genetic diversity among cucumis metuliferus populations revealed by cucumber microsatellites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumis metuliferus E. Mey. ex Naud (African horned cucumber, AHC) is native to Africa and is a relative of cultivated cucumber (C. sativus L.) and melon (C. melo L.). AHC is being promoted as a specialty fruit crop in a number of countries. In addition, several traits in C. metuliferus such as high...

  18. Exploring Weighty Matters with "Cucumber Soup": An Interdisciplinary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columba, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Children's literature can play a significant role in integrating math and science concepts into real-world applications. One particularly delightful selection is "Cucumber Soup" (Krudwig, 1998). This book can create a context--making cucumber soup--for weighing and for a real-life on adding fractions. This kind of learning context takes children…

  19. Detection of defect in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to damage due to adverse growth condition, improper harvest timing, and inappropriate harvesting and postharvest handling operations. There are typically five to 10 percentages of harvested pickling cucumbers that are not suitable for pickling and hence should be r...

  20. Imaging technique for detection of internal defects of pickling cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to damage during harvest and postharvest handling and processing. While it is easier to detect external defects, it is difficult to detect internal defects such as bruises and hollow or split cucumbers. Hyperspectral imaging technique under transmittance mode was i...

  1. Hyperspectral Imaging for Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews the recent progress on hyperspectral imaging technology for defect inspection of pickling cucumbers. The chapter first describes near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for the detection of bruises on pickling cucumbers. The technique showed good detection...

  2. Genetic diversity and population structure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding genetic variation in germplasm collection is essential for the conservation and their efficient use in plant breeding. Cucumber is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Previous studies revealed a low genetic diversity in cucumber, but detailed insights into the crop’s genetic structu...

  3. Large Scale Culture of Ginseng Adventitious Roots for Production of Ginsenosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paek, Kee-Yoeup; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Hahn, Eun-Joo; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) is one of the most famous oriental medicinal plants used as crude drugs in Asian countries, and now it is being used worldwide for preventive and therapeutic purposes. Among diverse constituents of ginseng, saponins (ginsenosides) have been found to be major components responsible for their biological and pharmacological actions. On the other hand, difficulties in the supply of pure ginsenosides in quantity prevent the development of ginseng for clinical medicines. Cultivation of ginseng in fields takes a long time, generally 5-7 years, and needs extensive effort regarding quality control since growth is susceptible to many environmental factors including soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. To solve the problems, cell and tissue cultures have been widely explored for more rapid and efficient production of ginseng biomass and ginsenosides. Recently, cell and adventitious root cultures of P. ginseng have been established in large scale bioreactors with a view to commercial application. Various physiological and engineering parameters affecting the biomass production and ginsenoside accumulation have been investigated. Advances in adventitious root cultures including factors for process scale-up are reviewed in this chapter. In addition, biosafety analyses of ginseng adventitious roots are also discussed for real application.

  4. Proper gibberellin localization in vascular tissue is required to regulate adventitious root development in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shihui; Li, Zhexin; Yuan, Huwei; Fang, Pan; Chen, Xiaoyang; Li, Wei

    2013-08-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) are involved in many developmental aspects of the life cycle of plants, acting either directly or through interaction with other hormones. Accumulating evidence suggests that GAs have an important effect on root growth; however, there is currently little information on the specific regulatory mechanism of GAs during adventitious root development. A study was conducted on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants for altered rates of biosynthesis, catabolism, and GA signalling constitutively or in specific tissues using a transgenic approach. In the present study, PtGA20ox, PtGA2ox1, and PtGAI were overexpressed under the control of the 35S promoter, vascular cambium-specific promoter (LMX5), or root meristem-specific promoter (TobRB7), respectively. Evidence is provided that the precise localization of bioactive GA in the stem but not in the roots is required to regulate adventitious root development in tobacco. High levels of GA negatively regulate the early initiation step of root formation through interactions with auxin, while a proper and mobile GA signal is required for the emergence and subsequent long-term elongation of established primordia. The results demonstrated that GAs have an inhibitory effect on adventitious root formation but a stimulatory effect on root elongation. PMID:23918971

  5. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2015-11-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  6. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  7. Diagnosis method of cucumber downy mildew with NIR hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Youwen; Li, Tianlai; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2011-11-01

    This study was carried out to develop a hyperspectral imaging system in the near infrared (NIR) region (900-1700 nm) to diagnose cucumber downy mildew. Hyperspectral images were acquired from each diseased cucumber leaf samples with downy mildew and then their spectral data were extracted. Spectral data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the high dimensionality of the data and for selecting some important wavelengths. Out of 256 wavelengths, only two wavelengths (1426 and 1626nm) of first PC were selected as the optimum wavelengths for the diagnosis of cucumber downy mildew. The data analysis showed that it is possible to diagnose cucumber downy mildew with few numbers of wavelengths on the basis of their statistical image features and histogram features. The results revealed the potentiality of NIR hyperspectral imaging as an objective and non-destructive method for the authentication and diagnosis of cucumber downy mildew.

  8. Adventitious Embryogenesis and the in vitro culture of Apple Seed Parts.

    PubMed

    James, D J; Passey, A J; Charles Deeming, D

    1984-07-01

    Immature apple seeds from four scion cultivars, Bramley, Cox, Greensleeves and Spartan, and four rootstocks, M.9, M.25, M.26 and M.27 (Malus púmila Mill.), were collected at 30 and 50 days post-anthesis, dissected into nucellus, endosperm and zygotic embryo and cultured in vitro. The basal media of Linsmaier and Skoog (LS) and Murashige and Tucker (MT) were compared with hormone-containing media for their effects on adventitious embryogenesis, nucellus and endosperm callus formation and zygotic embryo development. Nucellar tissues from 30-day-old seeds formed callus only in the presence of an auxin, 2,4-D or NAA, and a cytokinin, BA. Concentrations of 4.4 × 10(-6)M and 2.2 × 10(-5) M were effective. Adventitious embryos arose from the micropylar ends of the nucellus or endosperm in 50-day-old seeds at a frequency of 0-23 % depending on the cultivar. The number of adventitious embryos varied from 1 to 9 per seed. Generally the inclusion of growth regulators had no beneficial effects and the inclusion of malt extract at 500 mg · l(-1) to the basal media was inhibitory. Embryos could be induced to undergo shoot proliferation for subsequent plantlet production. Endosperm callus growth was obtained on both basal and hormone-supplemented media in excised 50-day-old seeds. The frequency of callus formation was cultivar and media dependent and ranged from 0-80%. Growth on LS media was prolific and the hormone-autotrophic nature of this callus has persisted after more than a year in culture. Excised zygotic embryos from 50-day-old seeds could be stimulated to produce multiple shoots from single embryo shoot apices on media containing 4.4 × 10(-6)M and 2.2 × 10(-5) M BA. This effect was reduced by the inclusion of 500 mg·1(-1) casein hydrolysate. Secondary adventitious embryogenesis could also be induced on the cotyledon surface of both adventitious and zygotic embryos at specific combinations of NAA and BA. On basal media zygotic embryos developed into seedlings in

  9. [Effects of elicitors on growth of adventitious roots and contents of secondary metabolites in Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Lei; Cui, Lei; Lei, Jiamin; Zhang, Xing

    2015-05-01

    To study the effects of the extract of fungal elicitor, AgNO3, MeJA and yeast on the growth and content of secondary metabolites of adventitious roots in Tripterygium wilfordii. The above elicitors were supplemented to the medium, the growth and the content of secondary metabolites were measured. When the medium was supplemented with the elicitor Glomerella cingulata or Collectotrichum gloeosporioides, the content of triptolide was increased by 2.24 and 1.93-fold, the alkaloids content was increased by 2.02 and 2.07-fold, respectively. The optimal concentration of G. cingulata was 50 μg/mL for accumulation of triptolide, alkaloids and for the growth of adventitious roots. AgNO3 inhibited the growth of adventitious roots and the accumulation of the alkaloids, whereas it (at 25 μmol/L) increased the accumulation of triptolide by 1.71-fold compared to the control. The growth of adventitious roots, the contents of triptolide and alkaloids were increased 1.04, 1.64 and 2.12-folds, respectively when MeJA was at 50 μmol/L. When the concentration of yeast reached 2 g/L, the content of triptolide increased 1.48-folds. This research demonstrated that supplementation of AgNO3 and yeast enhanced the biosynthesis of triptolide in adventitious roots and the synergism of G. cingulata and MeJA could promote the biosynthesis of both triptolide and alkaloids. PMID:26571694

  10. Growth and anatomical parameters of adventitious roots formed on mung bean hypocotyls are correlated with galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides structure.

    PubMed

    Kollárová, K; Zelko, I; Henselová, M; Capek, P; Lišková, D

    2012-01-01

    The effect of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMOs) compared with chemically modified oligosaccharides, GGMOs-g (with reduced number of D-galactose side chains) and GGMOs-r (with reduced reducing ends) on mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) adventitious roots formation, elongation, and anatomical structure have been studied. All types of oligosaccharides influenced adventitious root formation in the same way: stimulation in the absence of exogenous auxin and inhibition in the presence of exogenous auxin. Both reactions are probably related with the presence/content of endogenous auxin in plant cuttings. However, the adventitious root length was inhibited by GGMOs both in the absence as well as in the presence of auxin (IBA or NAA), while GGMOs-g inhibition was significantly weaker compared with GGMOs. GGMOs-r were without significant difference on both processes, compared with GGMOs. GGMOs affected not only the adventitious root length but also their anatomy in dependence on the combination with certain type of auxin. The oligosaccharides influenced cortical cells division, which was reflected in the cortex area and in the root diameter. All processes followed were dependent on oligosaccharides chemical structure. The results suggest also that GGM-derived oligosaccharides may play an important role in adventitious roots elongation but not in their formation. PMID:22666154

  11. Adventitial Cells and Perictyes Support Chondrogenesis Through Different Mechanisms in 3-Dimensional Cultures With or Without Nanoscaffolds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Ba, Kai; Wu, Ling; Lee, Siyong; Peault, Bruno; Petrigliano, Frank A; McAllister, David R; Adams, John S; Evseenko, Denis; Lin, Yunfeng

    2015-10-01

    In previous studies, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow and fat tissues were shown to increase proliferation and matrix production of chondrocytes (CH) in co-culture. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of pericytes (CD31(neg)CD45(neg)CD146+CD34(neg)) and adventitial cells (CD31(neg)CD45(neg)CD146(neg)CD34+) sub-populations of MSCs in supporting proliferation and matrix deposition of CH. The MSCs were derived from synovial membrane and attaching fat tissue. Then, the pericytes and adventitial cells were sorted from total MSCs and co-cultured with articular CH respectively. In pellet co-culture model, the pericytes showed more prominent effects on glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) production and Collagen II synthesis than the adventitial cells which had stronger effects on promoting CH proliferation. In addition, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to examine the expression of a group of secreted growth factors and co-culture performed on electrospun scaffolds based on Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB4HB), to verify the trophic effects of different MSC sub-populations in 3-Dimensional (3D) environment. In conclusion, it was found that the pericytes and adventitial cells support CH in different ways; the adventitial cells more supporting the proliferation of CH, while pericytes are better in stimulating GAGs and collagen production of CH. PMID:26502642

  12. The entry of cucumber mosaic virus into cucumber xylem is facilitated by co-infection with zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Nobuhara, Shinya; Nishimura, Miho; Ryang, Bo-Song; Naoe, Masaki; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Kosaka, Yoshitaka; Ohki, Satoshi T

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the synergistic effects of co-infection by zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on viral distribution in the vascular tissues of cucumber. Immunohistochemical observations indicated that ZYMV was present in both the phloem and xylem tissues. ZYMV-RNA was detected in both the xylem wash and guttation fluid of ZYMV-inoculated cucumber. Steam treatment at a stem internode indicated that ZYMV enters the xylem vessels and moves through them but does not cause systemic infection in the plant. CMV distribution in singly infected cucumbers was restricted to phloem tissue. By contrast, CMV was detected in the xylem tissue of cotyledons in plants co-infected with CMV and ZYMV. Although both ZYMV-RNA and CMV-RNA were detected in the xylem wash and upper internodes of steam-treated, co-infected cucumbers grown at 24 °C, neither virus was detected in the upper leaves using an ELISA assay. Genetically modified CMV harboring the ZYMV HC-Pro gene was distributed in the xylem and phloem tissues of singly inoculated cucumber cotyledons. These results indicate that the ZYMV HC-Pro gene facilitates CMV entry into the xylem vessels of co-infected cucumbers. PMID:27400992

  13. Aquatic adventitious root development in partially and completely submerged wetland plants Cotula coronopifolia and Meionectes brownii

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Sarah Meghan; Ludwig, Martha; Colmer, Timothy David

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims A common response of wetland plants to flooding is the formation of aquatic adventitious roots. Observations of aquatic root growth are widespread; however, controlled studies of aquatic roots of terrestrial herbaceous species are scarce. Submergence tolerance and aquatic root growth and physiology were evaluated in two herbaceous, perennial wetland species Cotula coronopifolia and Meionectes brownii. Methods Plants were raised in large pots with ‘sediment’ roots in nutrient solution and then placed into individual tanks and shoots were left in air or submerged (completely or partially). The effects on growth of aquatic root removal, and of light availability to submerged plant organs, were evaluated. Responses of aquatic root porosity, chlorophyll and underwater photosynthesis, were studied. Key Results Both species tolerated 4 weeks of complete or partial submergence. Extensive, photosynthetically active, aquatic adventitious roots grew from submerged stems and contributed up to 90 % of the total root dry mass. When aquatic roots were pruned, completely submerged plants grew less and had lower stem and leaf chlorophyll a, as compared with controls with intact roots. Roots exposed to the lowest PAR (daily mean 4·7 ± 2·4 µmol m−2 s−1) under water contained less chlorophyll, but there was no difference in aquatic root biomass after 4 weeks, regardless of light availability in the water column (high PAR was available to all emergent shoots). Conclusions Both M. brownii and C. coronopifolia responded to submergence with growth of aquatic adventitious roots, which essentially replaced the existing sediment root system. These aquatic roots contained chlorophyll and were photosynthetically active. Removal of aquatic roots had negative effects on plant growth during partial and complete submergence. PMID:22419759

  14. Cucumber disease diagnosis using multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jie; Li, Hongning; Shi, Junsheng; Yang, Weiping; Liao, Ningfang

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, multispectral imaging technique for plant diseases diagnosis is presented. Firstly, multispectral imaging system is designed. This system utilizes 15 narrow-band filters, a panchromatic band, a monochrome CCD camera, and standard illumination observing environment. The spectral reflectance and color of 8 Macbeth color patches are reproduced between 400nm and 700nm in the process. In addition, spectral reflectance angle and color difference is obtained through measurements and analysis of color patches using spectrometer and multispectral imaging system. The result shows that 16 narrow-bands multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in spectral reflectance and color reproduction. Secondly, a horticultural plant, cucumber' familiar disease are the researching objects. 210 multispectral samples are obtained by multispectral and are classified by BP artificial neural network. The classification accuracies of Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Corynespora cassiicola, Pseudoperonospora cubensis are 100%. Trichothecium roseum and Cladosporium cucumerinum are 96.67% and 90.00%. It is confirmed that the multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in the cucumber diseases diagnosis.

  15. Anticancer Activity of Sea Cucumber Triterpene Glycosides

    PubMed Central

    Aminin, Dmitry L.; Menchinskaya, Ekaterina S.; Pisliagin, Evgeny A.; Silchenko, Alexandra S.; Avilov, Sergey A.; Kalinin, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata). They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The anticancer molecular mechanisms include the induction of tumor cell apoptosis through the activation of intracellular caspase cell death pathways, arrest of the cell cycle at S or G2/M phases, influence on nuclear factors, NF-κB, and up-down regulation of certain cellular receptors and enzymes participating in cancerogenesis, such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), Akt (protein kinase B), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases), FAK (focal adhesion kinase), MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) and others. Administration of some glycosides leads to a reduction of cancer cell adhesion, suppression of cell migration and tube formation in those cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor invasion. As a result, marked growth inhibition of tumors occurs in vitro and in vivo. Some holothurian triterpene glycosides have the potential to be used as P-gp mediated MDR reversal agents in combined therapy with standard cytostatics. PMID:25756523

  16. Development of a candidate reference material for adventitious virus detection in vaccine and biologicals manufacturing by deep sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mee, Edward T.; Preston, Mark D.; Minor, Philip D.; Schepelmann, Silke; Huang, Xuening; Nguyen, Jenny; Wall, David; Hargrove, Stacey; Fu, Thomas; Xu, George; Li, Li; Cote, Colette; Delwart, Eric; Li, Linlin; Hewlett, Indira; Simonyan, Vahan; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Alin, Voskanian-Kordi; Mermod, Nicolas; Hill, Christiane; Ottenwälder, Birgit; Richter, Daniel C.; Tehrani, Arman; Jacqueline, Weber-Lehmann; Cassart, Jean-Pol; Letellier, Carine; Vandeputte, Olivier; Ruelle, Jean-Louis; Deyati, Avisek; La Neve, Fabio; Modena, Chiara; Mee, Edward; Schepelmann, Silke; Preston, Mark; Minor, Philip; Eloit, Marc; Muth, Erika; Lamamy, Arnaud; Jagorel, Florence; Cheval, Justine; Anscombe, Catherine; Misra, Raju; Wooldridge, David; Gharbia, Saheer; Rose, Graham; Ng, Siemon H.S.; Charlebois, Robert L.; Gisonni-Lex, Lucy; Mallet, Laurent; Dorange, Fabien; Chiu, Charles; Naccache, Samia; Kellam, Paul; van der Hoek, Lia; Cotten, Matt; Mitchell, Christine; Baier, Brian S.; Sun, Wenping; Malicki, Heather D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unbiased deep sequencing offers the potential for improved adventitious virus screening in vaccines and biotherapeutics. Successful implementation of such assays will require appropriate control materials to confirm assay performance and sensitivity. Methods A common reference material containing 25 target viruses was produced and 16 laboratories were invited to process it using their preferred adventitious virus detection assay. Results Fifteen laboratories returned results, obtained using a wide range of wet-lab and informatics methods. Six of 25 target viruses were detected by all laboratories, with the remaining viruses detected by 4–14 laboratories. Six non-target viruses were detected by three or more laboratories. Conclusion The study demonstrated that a wide range of methods are currently used for adventitious virus detection screening in biological products by deep sequencing and that they can yield significantly different results. This underscores the need for common reference materials to ensure satisfactory assay performance and enable comparisons between laboratories. PMID:26709640

  17. Panax ginseng Adventitious Root Suspension Culture: Protocol for Biomass Production and Analysis of Ginsenosides by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Paek, Kee Yoeup

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Korean ginseng) is a popular herbal medicine. It has been used in Chinese and Oriental medicines since thousands of years. Ginseng products are generally used as a tonic and an adaptogen to resist the adverse influence of a wide range of physical, chemical and biological factors, and to restore homeostasis. Ginsenosides or ginseng saponins are the principal active ingredients of ginseng. Since ginseng cultivation process is very slow and needs specific environment for field cultivation, cell and tissue cultures are sought as alternatives for the production of ginseng biomass and bioactive compounds. In this chapter, we focus on methods of induction of adventitious roots from ginseng roots, establishment of adventitious root suspension cultures using bioreactors, procedures for processing of adventitious roots, and analysis of ginsenosides by high pressure liquid chromatography. PMID:27108314

  18. A Case of Cystic Adventitial Degeneration of the Left Popliteal Artery Diagnosed by Intravascular Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Niizeki, Takeshi; Ishino, Mitsunori; Kitahara, Tatsuro; Yamauchi, So; Ikeno, Eiichiro; Kubota, Isao

    2016-01-01

    An 87-year-old male was admitted with intermittent claudication of the left calf. We performed lower extremity angiography, which revealed stenosis of the left popliteal artery. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) image correctly identified the cystic appearance of visualized extravascular hypodensity, causing extrinsic compression of the lumen. We diagnosed the condition as cystic adventitial degeneration (CAD) of the popliteal artery. We operated a resection of a cyst with the artery and replaced the autovein graft (saphenous vein). After surgery, the patient was free of symptoms. CAD is a rare disease; thus, our IVUS findings may provide unique diagnostic clues in patients with CAD. PMID:26949345

  19. Hydrogen Peroxide Is a Second Messenger in the Salicylic Acid-Triggered Adventitious Rooting Process in Mung Bean Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Xiaoling; Li, Guijun; Gan, Lijun; Ng, Denny; Xia, Kai

    2013-01-01

    In plants, salicylic acid (SA) is a signaling molecule that regulates disease resistance responses, such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and hypertensive response (HR). SA has been implicated as participating in various biotic and abiotic stresses. This study was conducted to investigate the role of SA in adventitious root formation (ARF) in mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L) hypocotyl cuttings. We observed that hypocotyl treatment with SA could significantly promote the adventitious root formation, and its effects were dose and time dependent. Explants treated with SA displayed a 130% increase in adventitious root number compared with control seedlings. The role of SA in mung bean hypocotyl ARF as well as its interaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were also elucidated. Pretreatment of mung bean explants with N, N’-dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a scavenger for H2O2, resulted in a significant reduction of SA-induced ARF. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a specific inhibitor of membrane-linked NADPH oxidase, also inhibited the effect of adventitious rooting triggered by SA treatment. The determination of the endogenous H2O2 level indicated that the seedlings treated with SA could induce H2O2 accumulation compared with the control treatment. Our results revealed a distinctive role of SA in the promotion of adventitious rooting via the process of H2O2 accumulation. This conclusion was further supported by antioxidant enzyme activity assays. Based on these results, we conclude that the accumulation of free H2O2 might be a downstream event in response to SA-triggered adventitious root formation in mung bean seedlings. PMID:24386397

  20. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference.

    PubMed

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  1. Reducing whiteflies on cucumber using intercropping with less preferred vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of four less preferred vegetables – celery, asparagus lettuce, Malabar spinach, and edible amaranth – were investigated for suppression of two biotypes of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae). Int...

  2. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference

    PubMed Central

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  3. REFUSE OF FERMENTATION BRINES IN THE CUCUMBER PICKLING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project evaluated on a commercial scale the technological and economic feasibility of recycling spent cucumber fermentation brine. Two brine treatment procedures, heat treatment and chemical treatment, were used. The results showed that brine recycling was practical on a comm...

  4. Sea Cucumbers Metabolites as Potent Anti-Cancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Mohammed, Altaf; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2015-05-01

    Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Many areas of the world use sea cucumbers in traditional foods and folk medicine. Though the actual components and their specific functions still remain to be investigated, most sea cucumber extracts are being studied for their anti-inflammatory functions, immunostimulatory properties, and for cancer prevention and treatment. There is large scope for the discovery of additional bioactive, valuable compounds from this natural source. Sea cucumber extracts contain unique components, such as modified triterpene glycosides, sulfated polysaccharides, glycosphingolipids, and esterified phospholipids. Frondanol A5, an isopropyl alcohol/water extract of the enzymatically hydrolyzed epithelia of the edible North Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, contains monosulfated triterpenoid glycoside Frondoside A, the disulfated glycoside Frondoside B, the trisulfated glycoside Frondoside C, 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. We have extensively studied the efficacy of this extract in preventing colon cancer in rodent models. In this review, we discuss the anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and anti-tumor properties of sea cucumber extracts. PMID:25984989

  5. Sea Cucumbers Metabolites as Potent Anti-Cancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Janakiram, Naveena B.; Mohammed, Altaf; Rao, Chinthalapally V.

    2015-01-01

    Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Many areas of the world use sea cucumbers in traditional foods and folk medicine. Though the actual components and their specific functions still remain to be investigated, most sea cucumber extracts are being studied for their anti-inflammatory functions, immunostimulatory properties, and for cancer prevention and treatment. There is large scope for the discovery of additional bioactive, valuable compounds from this natural source. Sea cucumber extracts contain unique components, such as modified triterpene glycosides, sulfated polysaccharides, glycosphingolipids, and esterified phospholipids. Frondanol A5, an isopropyl alcohol/water extract of the enzymatically hydrolyzed epithelia of the edible North Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, contains monosulfated triterpenoid glycoside Frondoside A, the disulfated glycoside Frondoside B, the trisulfated glycoside Frondoside C, 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. We have extensively studied the efficacy of this extract in preventing colon cancer in rodent models. In this review, we discuss the anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and anti-tumor properties of sea cucumber extracts. PMID:25984989

  6. Adventitious match probability for autosomal profiles when primer binding site mutation is possible.

    PubMed

    Pope, Susan; Evett, Ian; Puch-Solis, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    This paper considers the situation where two DNA systems with differing primers have been used to produce DNA profiles for loading and searching of a DNA Database. With any profiling system there exists the possibility of a "primer binding site mutation" (PBSM). When such a mutation occurs at one of the loci in a profile, it has the effect that the associated allele is not visible in the profile. In the case where a person has two different alleles at a given locus (heterozygous) the effect of a PBSM would be that the profile would appear to be that of an individual with only one allele at that locus (homozygous). The paper investigates the potential for an adventitious match as a result of a PBSM when, for example, a crime profile and person profile that have originated from two different individuals are found to be the same as a result of a PBSM in one of the profiles. It is demonstrated, both by theory and using simulations, that the effect of PBSMs is to slightly decrease the adventitious match probability from what it would had the same DNA system been used. PMID:27420391

  7. A Methodology for Concomitant Isolation of Intimal and Adventitial Endothelial Cells from the Human Thoracic Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, Anne; Veillat, Véronique; Loriot, Sandrine; Spuul, Pirjo; Madonna, Francesco; Roques, Xavier; Génot, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Aortic diseases are diverse and involve a multiplicity of biological systems in the vascular wall. Aortic dissection, which is usually preceded by aortic aneurysm, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in modern societies. Although the endothelium is now known to play an important role in vascular diseases, its contribution to aneurysmal aortic lesions remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to define a reliable methodology for the isolation of aortic intimal and adventitial endothelial cells in order to throw light on issues relevant to endothelial cell biology in aneurysmal diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings We set up protocols to isolate endothelial cells from both the intima and the adventitia of human aneurysmal aortic vessel segments. Throughout the procedure, analysis of cell morphology and endothelial markers allowed us to select an endothelial fraction which after two rounds of expansion yielded a population of >90% pure endothelial cells. These cells have the features and functionalities of freshly isolated cells and can be used for biochemical studies. The technique was successfully used for aortic vessel segments of 20 patients and 3 healthy donors. Conclusions/Significance This simple and highly reproducible method allows the simultaneous preparation of reasonably pure primary cultures of intimal and adventitial human endothelial cells, thus providing a reliable source for investigating their biology and involvement in both thoracic aneurysms and other aortic diseases. PMID:26599408

  8. Cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery. A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pannone, Alfonso; Di Cesare, Fabio; Bartolucci, Roberto; Maritati, Gabriele; Lucchetti, Giuseppe; Rabitti, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Cystic adventitial disease is a rare form of non-atherosclerotic stenosis and one of the main causes of claudication in young and middle-aged men. Approximately 200 case reports are available in the literature to date. It is generally located in the popliteal artery, although it may be found in other arteries and even in veins. The aetiology is still unclear: most authors believe that the cyst may originate from a synovial ganglion close to the adjacent hip joint capsule. Patients affected by adventitial cystic degeneration are often young male non-smokers with intermittent calf claudication. The treatment of choice is surgical removal of the cyst or reconstruction with autologous vein or synthetic graft interposition. Percutaneous US-guided cystic aspiration is a recent easy and safe alternative method for treating the disease but may result in local recurrence. We report the case of a 51-year-old male patient with clinically intermittent claudication of the right leg. The arteriogram showed complete occlusion of the right proximal popliteal artery and no evidence of atherosclerotic disease in other vessels. The diagnosis was made at the time of surgery. Surgical exploration revealed a gelatinous material involving the popliteal artery. It was excised and evacuated and a segment of greater saphenous vein interposed. Ultrasound examination 12 months later showed graft patency and absence of local recurrence. PMID:18389761

  9. Role of housing modalities on management and surveillance strategies for adventitious agents of rodents.

    PubMed

    Shek, William R

    2008-01-01

    Specific pathogen-free (SPF) rodents for modern biomedical research need to be free of pathogens and other infectious agents that may not produce disease but nevertheless cause research interference. To meet this need, rodents have been rederived to eliminate adventitious agents and then housed in room- to cage-level barrier systems to exclude microbial contaminants. Because barriers can and do fail, routine health monitoring (HM) is necessary to verify the SPF status of colonies. Testing without strict adherence to biosecurity practices, however, can lead to the inadvertent transfer of unrecognized, inapparent agents among institutions and colonies. Microisolation caging systems have become popular for housing SPF rodents because they are versatile and provide a highly effective cage-level barrier to the entry and spread of adventitious agents. But when a microisolation-caged colony is contaminated, the cage-level barrier impedes the spread of infection and so the prevalence of infection is often low, which increases the chance of missing a contamination and complicates the corroboration of unexpected positive findings. The expanding production of genetically engineered mutant (GEM) rodent strains at research institutions, where biosecurity practices vary and the risk of microbial contamination can be high, underscores the importance of accurate HM results in mitigating the risk of the introduction and spread of microbial contaminants with the exchange of mutant rodent strains among investigators and institutions. PMID:18506065

  10. Diallel crossing among doubled haploids of cucumber reveals significant reciprocal-cross differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is an excellent plant for studying organellar effects on phenotypes because chloroplasts show maternal and mitochondria paternal transmission. We produced doubled haploids (DH) from divergent cucumber populations, generated reciprocal crosses in a diallel mating scheme, measured fresh and d...

  11. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  12. Fine mapping of short hypocotyl locus in semi-wild Xishuangbanna cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cucumber, hypocotyl length is a useful trait in establishing strong seedlings before transplanting or grafting. The semi-wild Xishuangbanna cucumber (XIS) exhibits very short hypocotyl as compared with most cultivated cucumbers. In this study, we investigated the inheritance of short hypocotyl wi...

  13. Development of automated inspection technology for quality grading of pickling cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to external and internal damage during growth, harvest, transport, and postharvest handling. It is estimated that approximately 5-10% of harvested pickling cucumbers fall into the defect category. Pickling cucumber quality defect can occur in the form of soft or wa...

  14. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of a red colored spoilage in cucumber pickle products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in fermented cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the cucumbers. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from two outbreaks of this spoilage which occurred a...

  15. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generation of waste water containing sodium chloride from cucumber fermentation tank yards could be eliminated if cucumbers were fermented in brines that did not contain this salt. To determine if this is feasible, cucumbers were fermented in brines that contained only calcium chloride to maintain f...

  16. De novo assembly of a draft genome for Cucumis hystrix, the closest relative of cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumis hystrix (2n = 2x = 24, HH) is the only known species that is cross-compatible with cucumber and has a great potential for cucumber improvement, To facilitate introgression of C. hystrix chromatins into cucumber genetic background through development of introgression library, we sequenced two...

  17. Potential Role of Axonal Chemorepellent Slit2 in Modulating Adventitial Inflammation in a Rat Carotid Artery Balloon Injury Model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Xiao, Yan; Subramanian, Romesh R; Okamoto, Ei-Ichi; Wilcox, Josiah N; Anderson, Leonard; De Leon, Hector

    2016-05-01

    Leukocyte infiltration of adventitial and perivascular tissues is an early event in the development of vascular remodeling after injury. We investigated whether Slit/Robo-an axonal chemorepellent system in vertebrate and invertebrate development-is activated during the inflammatory phase that follows endothelial denudation. Using the rat carotid artery model of angioplasty, we conducted a time course analysis of mRNAs encoding Slit ligands (Slit2 and Slit3) and Robo receptors (Robo1, Robo2, and Robo4), as well as proinflammatory cell adhesion molecule (CAM) genes. Adventitial inflammatory cells were counted in immunostained arterial sections. E-selectin, vascular CAM-1, and intercellular CAM-1 were upregulated 2-3 hours after injury, followed by infiltration of neutrophils and monocytes as evidenced by real-time polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. Slit2, Slit3, and Robo genes exhibited no expression changes at 3 hours; however, they were markedly upregulated 1 day after angioplasty. Intercellular CAM-1 expression was reduced by 50%, and the number of adventitial neutrophils decreased by >75% 1 day after angioplasty. Slit2 has been shown to be a potent chemorepelent of leukocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. Thus, we decided to further investigate the localization of Slit2 in injured vessels. Immunohistochemical stainings revealed the presence of Slit2 within the vessel wall and in the perivascular vasa vasorum of naive and injured arteries. Double immunohistochemical analyses showed that infiltrating monocytes expressed Slit2 in the perivascular and adventitial tissues of injured arteries 1 and 3 days postangioplasty. In addition, recombinant full-length Slit2 and Slit2-N/1118, an N-terminal fragment of Slit2, inhibited stromal cell-derived factor 1-mediated migration of circulating rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In summary, adventitial activation of CAM genes and neutrophil infiltration preceded

  18. Adventitious Root Production and Plastic Resource Allocation to Biomass Determine Burial Tolerance in Woody Plants from Central Canadian Coastal Dunes

    PubMed Central

    DECH, JEFFERY P.; MAUN, M. ANWAR

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Burial is a recurrent stress imposed upon plants of coastal dunes. Woody plants are buried on open coastal dunes and in forested areas behind active blowouts; however, little is known about the burial responses and adaptive traits of these species. The objectives of this study were: (a) to determine the growth and morphological responses to burial in sand of seven woody plant species native to central Canadian coastal dunes; and (b) to identify traits that determine burial tolerance in these species. • Methods Field experiments were conducted to determine the responses of each species to burial. Saplings were exposed to burial treatments of 0, 10, 25, 50 and 75 % of their height. Burial responses were evaluated based on regressions of total biomass, height, adventitious root production and percentage allocation to shoot, root and adventitious root biomass on percentage burial. • Key Results Pinus strobus and Picea glauca lacked burial tolerance. In response to the burial gradient, these species showed a strong linear decline in total biomass, minimal adventitious root production that peaked at moderate levels (25–50 % burial) and no change in allocation to shoots vs. roots. The tolerant species Juniperus virginiana, Thuja occidentalis and Picea mariana showed a quadratic response to burial, with little change in biomass up to 50 % burial, but a large decline at 75 %. These species produced abundant adventitious roots up to 50 % burial, but did not alter allocation patterns over the range of burial levels. Populus balsamifera and Salix cordata were stimulated by burial. These species showed linear increases in biomass with increasing burial, produced copious adventitious roots across the gradient and showed a clear shift in allocation to vertical shoot growth and adventitious root production at the expense of the original roots under high burial conditions. • Conclusions Adventitious root production and plastic resource

  19. Chromosome rearrangements during domestication of cucumber as revealed from high-density genetic mapping and draft genome assembly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is an economically important vegetable crop, but available genetic and genomics resources for cucumber are limited that hinders progress in cucumber breeding. In this study, we made significant contributions to the cucumber research community by developing a high-density genetic map for cul...

  20. Evidence to support that adventitial cysts, analogous to intraneural ganglion cysts, are also joint-connected.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Robert J; Desy, Nicholas M; Agarwal, Gautum; Pawlina, Wojciech; Kalra, Manju; Amrami, Kimberly K

    2013-03-01

    Cystic adventitial disease (CAD) is a rare condition in which cyst is found within a vessel, typically producing symptoms of vascular compromise. Most commonly located in the popliteal artery near the knee, it has been reported in arteries and veins throughout the body. Its pathogenesis has been poorly understood and various surgical approaches have been recommended. We extrapolated some recent information about a similar condition, intraneural ganglion cyst affecting the deep fibular (peroneal) nerve, to the prototype, CAD of the popliteal artery. In intraneural ganglion cysts affecting the deep fibular nerve we have shown that an articular (neural) branch is the conduit between the superior tibiofibular joint and the main parent nerve for which epineurial dissection of joint fluid can occur. We hypothesized that the same principles would apply to CAD and that an articular (vascular) branch would be the conduit from the knee joint leading to dissection to the main parent vessel. We reviewed five patients with CAD of the popliteal artery in whom MRIs were available: two treated by the primary author well familiar with the proposed articular theory, and three treated by others at our institution, less familiar with it. We then reviewed the literature critically to assess for additional evidence to support our articular (synovial) theory and an anatomic explanation. In the two cases treated by the primary author a joint connection was identified on high resolution MRI prospectively and intraoperatively through the middle genicular artery (MGA); postoperatively in these cases there was no recurrence. In the other three cases, a joint connection was not identified on imaging or at operation. Reinterpretation of these cases revealed a joint connection through the MGA in the one patient who had preoperative imaging and subclinical persistence/recurrence in the two patients who underwent postoperative MRIs done for other reasons. Our review of the literature and imaging

  1. A review of the immune molecules in the sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhuang; Li, Hui; Wang, Xiuli; Li, Xia; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jing; Liu, Cenjie

    2015-05-01

    It is very important to identify and characterize the immune-related genes that respond to pathogens. Until recently, only some of the immune-related genes in sea cucumbers had been characterized. Their expression patterns after pathogen challenges have been analyzed via expressed sequence tag libraries, microarray studies and proteomic approaches. These genes include lectins, antimicrobial peptides, lysozyme, enzymes, clotting protein, pattern recognition proteins, Toll receptors, complement C3 and other humoral factors that might participate in the innate immune system of sea cucumbers. Although the participation of some of these immune molecules in the sea cucumber's innate immune defense against invading pathogens has been demonstrated, the functions of many of the molecules remain unclear. This review focuses on the discovery and functional characterization of the immune-related molecules from the sea cucumber for the first time and provides new insights into the immune mechanisms of the sea cucumber, which opens new possibilities for developing drugs for novel anti-bacterial and antiviral applications in fisheries. PMID:25655326

  2. Three-dimensional segmentation of luminal and adventitial borders in serial intravascular ultrasound images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shekhar, R.; Cothren, R. M.; Vince, D. G.; Chandra, S.; Thomas, J. D.; Cornhill, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) provides exact anatomy of arteries, allowing accurate quantitative analysis. Automated segmentation of IVUS images is a prerequisite for routine quantitative analyses. We present a new three-dimensional (3D) segmentation technique, called active surface segmentation, which detects luminal and adventitial borders in IVUS pullback examinations of coronary arteries. The technique was validated against expert tracings by computing correlation coefficients (range 0.83-0.97) and William's index values (range 0.37-0.66). The technique was statistically accurate, robust to image artifacts, and capable of segmenting a large number of images rapidly. Active surface segmentation enabled geometrically accurate 3D reconstruction and visualization of coronary arteries and volumetric measurements.

  3. Surgical Treatment of Cystic Adventitial Disease of the Popliteal Artery: Five Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Igari, Kimihiro; Kudo, Toshifumi; Toyofuku, Takahiro; Inoue, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Cystic adventitial disease (CAD) is a rare cause of intermittent claudication and nonatherosclerotic conditions in middle-aged men without cardiovascular risk factors. The etiology of CAD is unclear; however, the direct communication between a cyst and a joint is presumed to be a cause. We herein report a case series of CAD of the popliteal artery (CADPA), in which patients were treated with surgical resection and vascular reconstruction. Although less invasive treatment modalities, including percutaneous cyst aspiration and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, have been the subject of recent reports, these treatments have had a higher recurrence rate. Therefore, all of the CAPDA cases in the present series were treated surgically, which lead to good outcomes. PMID:26339520

  4. Cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery: report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    VERALDI, G.F.; SCUDO, G.; SCORSONE, L.; MEZZETTO, L.; CASTELLANI, R.L.

    2014-01-01

    Cystic adventitial disease (CAD) is a rare vascular disease that causes a localized stenosis or occlusion in absence of alterations of blood vessels in other sites of the body. CAD is predominantly located to the popliteal artery, although cases have been described involving other arteries. Typically it affects young men with minimal cardiovascular risk factors, presenting a short history of progressive claudication. Imaging is based on US, CTA and MRA. Suspected diagnosis is confirmed at the time of the surgery. We report two cases of CAD involving the popliteal artery. In the first case a 59 year-old man was treated by resection of the popliteal artery and a reversed saphenous vein was used to restore circulation. In the second case a 53 year-old man was treated by resection of the popliteal artery and a cryo-preserved arterial graft was used to restore circulation. We also made a review of the literature on this subject. PMID:25419589

  5. Adventitious Shoot Regeneration from Leaf Explant of Dwarf Hygro (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson)

    PubMed Central

    Karataş, Mehmet; Aasim, Muhammad; Çınar, Ayşegül; Dogan, Muhammet

    2013-01-01

    Dwarf hygro (Hygrophila polysperma) is an ornamental aquatic plant that changes its leaf colours to pinkish in high light. It is listed as a medicinal plant in medicinal plant lists of Indian states of West Bengal and Karnataka. It is also used as a screening tool for toxicities and a bioindicator to detect and control algae. The study reported in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants cultured on MS medium containing 0.10–1.60 mg/L Kin/TDZ with or without 0.10 mg/L IBA and 500 mg/L Amoklavin to eradicate endogenic bacterial contamination. Direct adventitious shoot regeneration started within one week from both culture mediums followed by late callus induction which was more prominent on TDZ containing media compared to Kin containing media. Addition of 0.10 mg/L IBA with both Kin and TDZ increased shoot regeneration frequency, mean number of shoots per explant, and mean shoot length. Maximum number of 16.33 and 20.55 shoots per explant was obtained on MS medium containing 0.80 + 0.10 mg/L Kin-IBA and 0.10 + 0.10 mg/L TDZ-IBA, respectively. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.20–1.00 mg/L IBA followed by successfull acclimatization in aquariums. Regenerated plantlets were also tested in jars containing distilled water that showed the pH 6–9 for the best plant growth and development. PMID:23853539

  6. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explant of dwarf hygro (Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anderson).

    PubMed

    Karataş, Mehmet; Aasim, Muhammad; Çınar, Ayşegül; Dogan, Muhammet

    2013-01-01

    Dwarf hygro (Hygrophila polysperma) is an ornamental aquatic plant that changes its leaf colours to pinkish in high light. It is listed as a medicinal plant in medicinal plant lists of Indian states of West Bengal and Karnataka. It is also used as a screening tool for toxicities and a bioindicator to detect and control algae. The study reported in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants cultured on MS medium containing 0.10-1.60 mg/L Kin/TDZ with or without 0.10 mg/L IBA and 500 mg/L Amoklavin to eradicate endogenic bacterial contamination. Direct adventitious shoot regeneration started within one week from both culture mediums followed by late callus induction which was more prominent on TDZ containing media compared to Kin containing media. Addition of 0.10 mg/L IBA with both Kin and TDZ increased shoot regeneration frequency, mean number of shoots per explant, and mean shoot length. Maximum number of 16.33 and 20.55 shoots per explant was obtained on MS medium containing 0.80 + 0.10 mg/L Kin-IBA and 0.10 + 0.10 mg/L TDZ-IBA, respectively. Regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 0.20-1.00 mg/L IBA followed by successfull acclimatization in aquariums. Regenerated plantlets were also tested in jars containing distilled water that showed the pH 6-9 for the best plant growth and development. PMID:23853539

  7. Foliar application of glyphosate affects molecular mechanisms in underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and alters their vegetative growth patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term control of leafy spurge with glyphosate requires multiple applications because the plant reproduces vegetatively from abundant underground adventitious buds (UABs). Determining the molecular mechanisms involved in controlling vegetative reproduction in leafy spurge following foliar glyphos...

  8. Plant science. Biosynthesis, regulation, and domestication of bitterness in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yi; Ma, Yongshuo; Zhou, Yuan; Zhang, Huimin; Duan, Lixin; Chen, Huiming; Zeng, Jianguo; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Shenhao; Gu, Wenjia; Liu, Min; Ren, Jinwei; Gu, Xingfang; Zhang, Shengping; Wang, Ye; Yasukawa, Ken; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Qi, Xiaoquan; Zhang, Zhonghua; Lucas, William J; Huang, Sanwen

    2014-11-28

    Cucurbitacins are triterpenoids that confer a bitter taste in cucurbits such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. These compounds discourage most pests on the plant and have also been shown to have antitumor properties. With genomics and biochemistry, we identified nine cucumber genes in the pathway for biosynthesis of cucurbitacin C and elucidated four catalytic steps. We discovered transcription factors Bl (Bitter leaf) and Bt (Bitter fruit) that regulate this pathway in leaves and fruits, respectively. Traces in genomic signatures indicated that selection imposed on Bt during domestication led to derivation of nonbitter cucurbits from their bitter ancestors. PMID:25430763

  9. Chemical characterization and prebiotic activity of fructo-oligosaccharides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) roots and in vitro adventitious root cultures.

    PubMed

    Sanches Lopes, Sheila Mara; Francisco, Mariane Grigio; Higashi, Bruna; de Almeida, Rafaela Takako Ribeiro; Krausová, Gabriela; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; Gonçalves, José Eduardo; Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia; Oliveira, Arildo José Braz de

    2016-11-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) is widely studied because of its foliar steviol glycosides. Fructan-type polysaccharides were recently isolated from its roots. Fructans are reserve carbohydrates that have important positive health effects and technological applications in the food industry. The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize fructo-oligosaccharides (FOSs) from S. rebaudiana roots and in vitro adventitious root cultures and evaluate the potential prebiotic effect of these molecules. The in vitro adventitious root cultures were obtained using a roller bottle system. Chemical analyses (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, and off-line electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) revealed similar chemical properties of FOSs that were obtained from the different sources. The potential prebiotic effects of FOSs that were isolated from S. rebaudiana roots enhanced the growth of both bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, with strains specificity in their fermentation ability. PMID:27516323

  10. The effects of pruning and nodal adventitious roots on polychlorinated biphenyl uptake by Cucurbita pepo grown in field conditions.

    PubMed

    Low, Jennifer E; Åslund, Melissa L Whitfield; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2011-03-01

    Two cultivation techniques (i-pruning and ii-nodal adventitious root encouragement) were investigated for their ability to increase PCB phytoextraction by Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo cv. Howden (pumpkin) plants in situ at a contaminated industrial site in Ontario (Aroclor 1248, mean soil [PCB] = 5.6 μg g(-1)). Pruning was implemented to increase plant biomass close to the root where PCB concentration is known to be highest. This treatment was found to have no effect on final shoot biomass or PCB concentration. However, material pruned from the plant is not included in the final shoot biomass. The encouragement of nodal adventitious roots at stem nodes did significantly increase the PCB concentration in the primary stem, while not affecting shoot biomass. Both techniques are easily applied cultivation practices that may be implemented to decrease phytoextraction treatment time. PMID:21168941

  11. Phenotypic transformation of intimal and adventitial lymphatics in atherosclerosis: a regulatory role for soluble VEGF receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Taher, Mahdi; Nakao, Shintaro; Zandi, Souska; Melhorn, Mark I; Hayes, K C; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali

    2016-07-01

    The role of lymphatics in atherosclerosis is not yet understood. Here, we investigate lymphatic growth dynamics and marker expression in atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice. The prolymphangiogenic growth factor, VEGF-C, was elevated in atherosclerotic aortic walls. Despite increased VEGF-C, we found that adventitial lymphatics regress during the course of formation of atherosclerosis (P < 0.01). Similar to lymphatic regression, the number of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1(+)) macrophages decreased in the aortic adventitia of apoE(-/-) mice with atherosclerosis (P < 0.01). Intimal lymphatics in the atherosclerotic lesions exhibited an atypical phenotype, with the expression of podoplanin and VEGF receptor 3 (VEGFR-3) but not of LYVE-1 and prospero homeobox protein 1. In the aortas of atherosclerotic animals, we found markedly increased soluble VEGFR-2. We hypothesized that the elevated soluble VEGFR-2 that was found in the aortas of apoE(-/-) mice with atherosclerosis binds to and diminishes the activity of VEGF-C. This trapping mechanism explains, despite increased VEGF-C in the atherosclerotic aortas, how adventitial lymphatics regress. Lymphatic regression impedes the drainage of lipids, growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, and immune cells. Insufficient lymphatic drainage could thus exacerbate atherosclerosis formation. Our study contributes new insights to previously unknown dynamic changes of adventitial lymphatics. Targeting soluble VEGFR-2 in atherosclerosis may provide a new strategy for the liberation of endogenous VEGF-C and the prevention of lymphatic regression.-Taher, M., Nakao, S., Zandi, S., Melhorn, M. I., Hayes, K. C., Hafezi-Moghadam, A. Phenotypic transformation of intimal and adventitial lymphatics in atherosclerosis: a regulatory role for soluble VEGF receptor 2. PMID:27006449

  12. Pilot-scale culture of Hypericum perforatum L. adventitious roots in airlift bioreactors for the production of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xi-Hua; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2014-09-01

    Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's Wort) is an important medicinal plant which is widely used in the treatment for depression and irritable bowel syndrome. It is also used as a dietary supplement. Major bioactive phytochemicals of H. perforatum are phenolics and flavonoids. Quality of these phytochemicals is dramatically influenced by environmental and biological factors in the field grown plants. As an alternative, we have developed adventitious root cultures in large-scale bioreactors for the production of useful phytochemicals. Adventitious roots of H. perforatum were cultured in 500 l pilot-scale airlift bioreactors using half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with an ammonium and nitrate ratio of 5:25 mM and supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) indole butyric acid, 0.1 mg l(-1) kinetin, and 3 % sucrose for the production of bioactive phenolics and flavonoids. Then 4.6 and 6.3 kg dry biomass were realized in the 500 l each of drum-type and balloon-type bioreactors, respectively. Accumulation of 66.9 mg g(-1) DW of total phenolics, 48.6 mg g(-1) DW of total flavonoids, 1.3 mg g(-1) DW of chlorogenic acid, 0.01 mg g(-1) DW of hyperin, 0.04 mg g(-1) DW of hypericin, and 0.01 mg g(-1) DW of quercetin could be achieved with adventitious roots cultured in 500 l balloon-type airlift bioreactors. Our findings demonstrate the possibilities of using H. perforatum adventitious root cultures for the production of useful phytochemicals to meet the demand of pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:25096393

  13. Efficient Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation at Neutral and High pH by Adventitious Nickel at Nanomolar Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Roger, Isolda; Symes, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    Electrolytic water oxidation using earth-abundant elements is a key challenge in the quest to develop cheap, large surface area arrays for solar-to-hydrogen conversion. There have been numerous studies in this area in recent years, but there remains an imperative to demonstrate that the current densities reported are indeed due to the species under consideration and not due to the presence of adventitious (yet possibly highly active) contaminants at low levels. Herein, we show that adventitious nickel at concentrations as low as 17 nM can act as a water oxidation catalyst in mildly basic aqueous solutions, achieving stable (tens of hours) current densities of 1 mA cm(-2) at overpotentials as low as 540 mV at pH 9.2 and 400 mV at pH 13. This nickel was not added to the electrolysis baths deliberately, but it was found to be present in the electrolytes as an impurity by ICP-MS. The presence of nickel on anodes from extended-time bulk electrolysis experiments was confirmed by XPS. In showing that such low levels of nickel can perform water oxidation at overpotentials comparable to many recently reported water oxidation catalysts, this work serves to raise the burden of proof required of new materials in this field: contamination by adventitious metal ions at trace loadings must be excluded as a possible cause of any observed water oxidation activity. PMID:26477432

  14. BMSCs Interactions with Adventitial Fibroblasts Display Smooth Muscle Cell Lineage Potential in Differentiation and Migration That Contributes to Neointimal Formation.

    PubMed

    Wendan, Y; Changzhu, J; Xuhong, S; Hongjing, C; Hong, S; Dongxia, Y; Fang, X

    2016-01-01

    In this study a model of simulated vascular injury in vitro was used to study the characterization of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) morphology and to investigate the differentiation and migration of BMSCs in the presence of adventitial fibroblasts. BMSCs from rats were indirectly cocultured with adventitial fibroblasts in a transwell chamber apparatus for 7 days, and clonogenic assays demonstrated that BMSCs could be differentiated into smooth muscle-like cells with this process, including smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) expression by immunofluorescence staining. Cell morphology of BMSCs was assessed by inverted microscope, while cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay. The expressions of TGF-β1, MMP-1, and NF-κB were detected by immunofluorescence staining and Smad3 mRNA was measured by reverse transcription PCR. Migration ability of BMSCs with DAPI-labeled nuclei was measured by laser confocal microscopy. Our results demonstrate that indirect interactions with adventitial fibroblasts can induce proliferation, differentiation, and migration of BMSCs that can actively participate in neointimal formation. Our results indicate that the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling might perform via TGF-β1/Smad3 signal transduction pathways. PMID:26880952

  15. Identification of pectin methylesterase 3 as a basic pectin methylesterase isoform involved in adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Guénin, Stéphanie; Mareck, Alain; Rayon, Catherine; Lamour, Romain; Assoumou Ndong, Yves; Domon, Jean-Marc; Sénéchal, Fabien; Fournet, Françoise; Jamet, Elisabeth; Canut, Hervé; Percoco, Giuseppe; Mouille, Grégory; Rolland, Aurélia; Rustérucci, Christine; Guerineau, François; Van Wuytswinkel, Olivier; Gillet, Françoise; Driouich, Azeddine; Lerouge, Patrice; Gutierrez, Laurent; Pelloux, Jérôme

    2011-10-01

    • Here, we focused on the biochemical characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana pectin methylesterase 3 gene (AtPME3; At3g14310) and its role in plant development. • A combination of biochemical, gene expression, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy and reverse genetics approaches were used. • We showed that AtPME3 is ubiquitously expressed in A. thaliana, particularly in vascular tissues. In cell wall-enriched fractions, only the mature part of the protein was identified, suggesting that it is processed before targeting the cell wall. In all the organs tested, PME activity was reduced in the atpme3-1 mutant compared with the wild type. This was related to the disappearance of an activity band corresponding to a pI of 9.6 revealed by a zymogram. Analysis of the cell wall composition showed that the degree of methylesterification (DM) of galacturonic acids was affected in the atpme3-1 mutant. A change in the number of adventitious roots was found in the mutant, which correlated with the expression of the gene in adventitious root primordia. • Our results enable the characterization of AtPME3 as a major basic PME isoform in A. thaliana and highlight its role in adventitious rooting. PMID:21692803

  16. BMSCs Interactions with Adventitial Fibroblasts Display Smooth Muscle Cell Lineage Potential in Differentiation and Migration That Contributes to Neointimal Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wendan, Y.; Changzhu, J.; Xuhong, S.; Hongjing, C.; Hong, S.; Dongxia, Y.; Fang, X.

    2016-01-01

    In this study a model of simulated vascular injury in vitro was used to study the characterization of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) morphology and to investigate the differentiation and migration of BMSCs in the presence of adventitial fibroblasts. BMSCs from rats were indirectly cocultured with adventitial fibroblasts in a transwell chamber apparatus for 7 days, and clonogenic assays demonstrated that BMSCs could be differentiated into smooth muscle-like cells with this process, including smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) expression by immunofluorescence staining. Cell morphology of BMSCs was assessed by inverted microscope, while cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay. The expressions of TGF-β1, MMP-1, and NF-κB were detected by immunofluorescence staining and Smad3 mRNA was measured by reverse transcription PCR. Migration ability of BMSCs with DAPI-labeled nuclei was measured by laser confocal microscopy. Our results demonstrate that indirect interactions with adventitial fibroblasts can induce proliferation, differentiation, and migration of BMSCs that can actively participate in neointimal formation. Our results indicate that the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling might perform via TGF-β1/Smad3 signal transduction pathways. PMID:26880952

  17. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the MTN gene during adventitious root development in IBA-induced tetraploid black locust.

    PubMed

    Quan, Jine; Zhang, Chunxia; Zhang, Sheng; Meng, Sen; Zhao, Zhong; Xu, Xuexuan

    2014-12-15

    5'-Methylthioadenosine (MTA) nucleosidase (MTN) plays a key role in the methionine (Met) recycling pathway of plants. Here, we report the isolation of the 1158 bp full-length, cDNA sequence encoding tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) MTN (TrbMTN), which contains an open reading frame of 810 bp that encodes a 269 amino acid protein. The amino acid sequence of TrbMTN has more than 88% sequence identity to the MTNs from other plants, with a closer phylogenetic relationship to MTNs from legumes than to MTNs from other plants. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the TrbMTN gene localizes mainly to the cell membrane and cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-treated cuttings showed higher TrbMTN transcript levels than untreated control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. TrbMTN and key Met cycle genes showed differential expression in shoots, leaves, stems, and roots, with the highest expression observed in stems. IBA-treated cuttings also showed higher TrbMTN activity than control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. These results indicate that TrbMTN gene might play an important role in the regulation of IBA-induced adventitious root development in tetraploid black locust cuttings. PMID:25305345

  18. Production of biomass and useful compounds from adventitious roots of high-value added medicinal plants using bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Baque, Md Abdullahil; Moh, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Jung; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2012-01-01

    The increasing global demand for biomass of medicinal plant resources reflects the issues and crisis created by diminishing renewable resources and increasing consumer populations. Moreover, diverse usage of plants and reduced land for cultivation in the world accelerated the deficiency of plant resources. In addition, the preparation of safety of plant based medicine whips up demand for biomass of valuable medicinal plants. As one of alternative approach to upswing the productivity of plant-based pharmaceutical compounds, automation of adventitious root culture system in air-lift bioreactor was adopted to produce cosmic amount of root biomass along with enriched diverse bioactive molecules. In this review, various physiological, engineering parameters, and selection of proper cultivation strategy (fed-batch, two-stage etc.) affecting the biomass production and secondary metabolite accumulation have been discussed. In addition, advances in adventitious root cultures including factors for process scale-up as well as recent research aimed at maximizing automation of the bioreactor production processes are also highlighted. Examples of the scale-up of cultures of adventitious roots of Morinda citrifolia, Echinacea purpurea and angustifolia, Hypericum perforatum and Panax ginseng by applying 20 L to 10,000 L bioreactors in our lab were demonstrated with a view of commercial application. PMID:22123438

  19. Biotransformation of ceria nanoparticles in cucumber plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Ma, Yuhui; Zhang, Zhiyong; He, Xiao; Zhang, Jing; Guo, Zhi; Tai, Renzhong; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2012-11-27

    Biotransformation is a critical factor that may modify the toxicity, behavior, and fate of engineered nanoparticles in the environment. CeO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) are generally recognized as stable under environmental and biological conditions. The present study aims to investigate the biotransformation of CeO(2) NPs in plant systems. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show needlelike clusters on the epidermis and in the intercellular spaces of cucumber roots after a treatment with 2000 mg/L CeO(2) NPs for 21 days. By using a soft X-ray scanning transmission microscopy (STXM) technique, the needlelike clusters were verified to be CePO(4). Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XANES) spectra show that Ce presented in the roots as CeO(2) and CePO(4) while in the shoots as CeO(2) and cerium carboxylates. Simulated studies indicate that reducing substances (e.g., ascorbic acids) played a key role in the transformation process and organic acids (e.g., citric acids) can promote particle dissolution. We speculate that CeO(2) NPs were first absorbed on the root surfaces and partially dissolved with the assistance of the organic acids and reducing substances excreted by the roots. The released Ce(III) ions were precipitated on the root surfaces and in intercellular spaces with phosphate, or form complexes with carboxyl compounds during translocation to the shoots. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report confirming the biotransformation and in-depth exploring the translocation process of CeO(2) NPs in plants. PMID:23098040

  20. Effects of wounding on cytokinin activity in cucumber cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Crane, K E; Ross, C W

    1986-12-01

    Three known physiological responses to exogenous cytokinins were measured in wounded and nonwounded cotyledons from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Marketer) seedlings grown in darkness. Enhanced cell division, chlorophyll formation, and cotyledon expansion were detected in wounded cotyledons. The data suggest that wounding enhances endogenous cytokinin activity. PMID:16665151

  1. Suppression of cucurbit scab on cucumber leaves by photodynamic dyes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to test the ability of the photodynamic dyes bengal rose, toluidine blue, and methylene blue, to protect systemically cucumber plants from cucurbit scab. At the stage of one true leaf, water or aqueous solutions of the dyes were applied to the leaf as droplets. When the se...

  2. Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (Psm) in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and recombination among these repeats produces rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phen...

  3. Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (psm) in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and undergoes recombination among repeats to produce rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC...

  4. Neiella marinum gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from sea cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel strain, designated J221**T, was isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, collected from earthen ponds in Qingdao, China. The strain is Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, aerobic, and rod-shaped cell. Growth of strain J221T was observed at temperatures between 10...

  5. The Genome of the Cucumber, Cucumis Sativus L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA sequen...

  6. A sequencing-based linkage map of cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic maps are important tools for molecular breeding, gene cloning, and study of meiotic recombination. In cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), the marker density, resolution and genome coverage of previously developed genetic maps using PCR-based molecular markers are relatively low. In this study we ...

  7. Characteristics of spoilage-associated secondary cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological util...

  8. In vitro flowering and pollen viability of cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowers were produced on sterile cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants grown in vitro from seed or from micropropagated shoots from stem fragments. Highest numbers of flowers on plants from both sources were produced on hormone-free MS medium as well as with 6 µM of kinetin (MSK). Plants cultured on ...

  9. Resistance of sweetpotato genotypes to spotted and banded cucumber beetles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay techniques were developed for evaluating the resistance of sweetpotato germplasm to larvae and adults of the banded and spotted cucumber beetles. For the adult bioassay, individual beetles were placed on pieces of sweetpotato peel (periderm and cortex with stele removed) that was embedded ...

  10. Genome Wide Characterization of Simple Sequence Repeats in Cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The whole genome sequence of the cucumber cultivar Gy14 was recently sequenced at 15× coverage with the Roche 454 Titanium technology. The microsatellite DNA sequences (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) in the assembled scaffolds were computationally explored and characterized. A total of 112,073 SSRs ...

  11. Integration of genetic, genomic and transcriptomic information identifies putative regulators of adventitious root formation in Populus

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ribeiro, Cintia L.; Silva, Cynthia M.; Drost, Derek R.; Novaes, Evandro; Novaes, Carolina R. D. B.; Dervinis, Christopher; Kirst, Matias

    2016-03-16

    In this study, adventitious roots (AR) develop from tissues other than the primary root, in a process physiologically regulated by phytohormones. Adventitious roots provide structural support and contribute to water and nutrient absorption, and are critical for commercial vegetative propagation of several crops. Here we quantified the number of AR, root architectural traits and root biomass in cuttings from a pseudo-backcross population of Populus deltoides and Populus trichocarpa. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and whole-transcriptome analysis of individuals with alternative QTL alleles for AR number were used to identify putative regulators of AR development. As a result, parental individuals andmore » progeny showed extensive segregation for AR developmental traits. Quantitative trait loci for number of AR mapped consistently in the same interval of linkage group (LG) II and LG XIV, explaining 7–10 % of the phenotypic variation. A time series transcriptome analysis identified 26,121 genes differentially expressed during AR development, particularly during the first 24 h after cuttings were harvested. Of those, 1929 genes were differentially regulated between individuals carrying alternative alleles for the two QTL for number of AR, in one or more time point. Eighty-one of these genes were physically located within the QTL intervals for number of AR, including putative homologs of the Arabidopsis genes SUPERROOT2 (SUR2) and TRYPTOPHAN SYNTHASE ALPHA CHAIN (TSA1), both of which are involved in the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis pathway. In conclusion, this study suggests the involvement of two genes of the tryptophan-dependent auxin biosynthesis pathway, SUR2 and TSA1, in the regulation of a critical trait for the clonal propagation of woody species. A possible model for this regulation is that poplar individuals that have poor AR formation synthesize auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) primarily through the tryptophan (Trp) pathway. Much of

  12. Sequencing Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) Chloroplast Genomes Identifies Differences Between Chilling-Tolerant and-Susceptible Cucumber Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete sequencing of cucumber chloroplast (cp)DNA was facilitated by the development of 414 consensus chloroplast sequencing primers (CCSPs) from conserved cpDNA sequences of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cpDNAs, using deg...

  13. Coronary adventitial cells are linked to perivascular cardiac fibrosis via TGFβ1 signaling in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Hays, Aislinn L.; Janebodin, Kajohnkiart; Mahoney, William M.; Duffield, Jeremy S.; Majesky, Mark W.; Reyes, Morayma

    2013-01-01

    In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), progressive accumulation of cardiac fibrosis promotes heart failure. While the cellular origins of fibrosis in DMD hearts remain enigmatic, fibrotic tissue conspicuously forms near the coronary adventitia. Therefore, we sought to characterize the role of coronary adventitial cells in the formation of perivascular fibrosis. Utilizing the mdx model of DMD, we have identified a population of Sca1+, PDGFRα+, CD31−, CD45− coronary adventitial cells responsible for perivascular fibrosis. Histopathology of dystrophic hearts revealed Sca1+ cells extend from the adventitia and occupy regions of perivascular fibrosis. The number of Sca1+ adventitial cells increased two-fold in fibrotic mdx hearts vs. age matched wild-type hearts. Moreover, relative to Sca1−, PDGFRα+, CD31−, CD45− cells and endothelial cells, Sca1+ adventitial cells FACS-sorted from mdx hearts expressed the highest level of Collagen1α1 and 3α1, Connective tissue growth factor, and Tgfβr1 transcripts. Surprisingly, mdx endothelial cells expressed the greatest level of the Tgfβ1 ligand. Utilizing Collagen1α1-GFP reporter mice, we confirmed that the majority of Sca1+ adventitial cells expressed type I collagen, an abundant component of cardiac fibrosis, in both wt (71% ±4.1) and mdx (77% ±3.5) hearts. In contrast, GFP+ interstitial fibroblasts were PDGFRα+ but negative for Sca1. Treatment of cultured Collagen1α1-GFP+ adventitial cells with TGFβ1 resulted in increased collagen synthesis, whereas pharmacological inhibition of TGFβR1 signaling reduced the fibrotic response. Therefore, perivascular cardiac fibrosis by coronary adventitial cells may be mediated by TGFβ1 signaling. Our results implicate coronary endothelial cells in mediating cardiac fibrosis via transmural TGFβ signaling, and suggest that the coronary adventitia is a promising target for developing novel anti-fibrotic therapies. PMID:23911435

  14. Sea cucumber species identification of family Caudinidae from Surabaya based on morphological and mitochondrial DNA evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Muhammad Hilman Fu'adil; Pidada, Ida Bagus Rai; Sugiharto, Widyatmoko, Johan Nuari; Irawan, Bambang

    2016-03-01

    Species identification and taxonomy of sea cucumber remains a challenge problem in some taxa. Caudinidae family of sea cucumber was comerciallized in Surabaya, and it was used as sea cucumber chips. Members of Caudinid sea cucumber have similiar morphology, so it is hard to identify this sea cucumber only from morphological appearance. DNA barcoding is useful method to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to determine Caudinid specimen of sea cucumber in East Java by morphological and molecular approach. Sample was collected from east coast of Surabaya, then preserved in absolute ethanol. After DNA isolation, Cytochrome Oxydase I (COI) gene amplification was performed using Echinoderm universal primer and PCR product was sequenced. Sequencing result was analyzed and identified in NCBI database using BLAST. Results showed that Caudinid specimen in have closely related to Acaudina molpadioides sequence in GenBank with 86% identity. Morphological data, especially based on ossicle, also showed that the specimen is Acaudina molpadioides.

  15. [Effects of rotation and intercropping on bacterial communities in rhizosphere soil of cucumber].

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng-zhi; Wang, Shu; Yang, Yang

    2008-12-01

    By the method of PCR-DGGE, this paper studied the effects of rotation with wheat, soybean, villose vetch, clover, and alfalfa and intercropping with onion and garlic on the bacterial communities in rhizosphere soil of cucumber. The results showed that rotation and intercropping with test plants increased the diversity and evenness indices of bacterial communities in cucumber rhizosphere soil, and also, cucumber yield. The sequencing of DGGE bands indicated that most of the bands had high homology with uncultured bacterial species, and were of Sphingobacterium and Proteobacteria. High bacterium G+C was only detected when cucumber was intercropped with onion. The diversity of soil bacterial communities varied with the growth stages of cucumber, being the highest at vigorous fruiting stage. It was suggested that intercropping with onion and rotation with wheat were the best cultivation modes of cucumber. PMID:19288729

  16. Study on the Methods of Detecting Cucumber Downy Mildew Using Hyperspectral Imaging Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Youwen; Zhang, Lin

    Hyperspectral imaging technology, which can integrate the advantages of spectral detection and image detection, meets the need of detecting the cucumber diseases fast and nondestructively. In this paper, hyperspectral imaging technology is adopted to detect the cucumber downy mildew fast and nondestructively. Firstly, hyperspectral images of cucumber leaves infected downy mildew are acquired by the hyperspectral image acquisition system. And optimum wavelengths are collected by the principal component analysis to get the featured images. Then the image fusion technology is adopted to combine collected images with the featured images to form new images by pixel-level image fusion. Finally, the methods of the image enhancement, binarization, corrosion and dilatation treatments are carried out, so the cucumber downy mildew is detected. The result shows that the accuracy rate of the algorithm for detecting cucumber disease can reach nearly 90%. Studies have shown that hyperspectral imaging technology can be used to detect cucumber downy mildew.

  17. Vibrotactile stimulation for the adventitiously deaf: an alternative to cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Leder, S B; Spitzer, J B; Milner, P; Flevaris-Phillips, C; Richardson, F

    1986-10-01

    Acoustic correlates of the prosodic features identifying English contrastive stress, ie, fundamental frequency (Fo), duration and intensity, and listener perceptions were investigated in a profoundly adventitiously deaf subject (D) pre/postvibrotactile stimulation, and in an age-peer normally-hearing person as a control (N). Stimuli were a group of general American English words in which a change of function from noun to verb was associated with a shift of stress from initial to final syllable, eg, CON'test vs conTEST'. Prior to vibrotactile stimulation, D was unable to produce contrastive stress correctly. Only final syllable intensity differences were noted, but proved to be inadequate cues for contrastive stress. Vibrotactile stimulation resulted in changes, specifically significantly higher Fo for initial stressed vs unstressed syllables, significantly louder intensity for final stressed vs unstressed syllables, and significantly longer duration for final stressed vs unstressed syllables. Perceptually, listeners judged D's contrastive stress placement as always occurring on the final syllable previbrotactile stimulation and as 78% correct postvibrotactile stimulation. N's contrastive stress placement was always correct. It was concluded that use of vibrotactile stimulation enhanced D's production and resulted in listeners' perceptions of correct prosody. PMID:3767627

  18. [Impact of TDZ and NAA on adventitious bud induction and cluster bud multiplication in Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Fang; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Yang, He-Tong; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Xu, Hong-jian; Ma, Hong-Jian; Zhao, Gui-Hua

    2014-08-01

    To explore the method of explants directly induced bud and establish the tissue culture system of mutiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis, core bud and daughter bulbs (the top of bud stem expanded to form daughter bulb) of T. edulis were used as explants and treated with thidiazuron (TDZ) and 1-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). The results showed that the optimal medium for bud inducted form core bud and daughter bulb were MS + TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 4.0 mg x L(-1) and MS +TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 2.0 mg x L(-1) respectively, both of them had a bud induction rate of 72.92%, 79.22%. The optimal medium for cluster buds multiplication was MS + TDZ 0.2 mg x L(-1) + NAA 0.2 mg x L(-1), and proliferation coefficient was 2.23. After proliferation, cluster buds rooting occurred on MS medium with IBA 1.0 mg x L(-1) and the rooting rate was 52.6%, three to five seedlings in each plant. Using core bud and daughter bulb of T. edulis, the optimum medium for adventitious bud directly inducted from daughter bulb, core bud and cluster bud multiplication were screened out and the tissue culture system of multiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis was established. PMID:25509282

  19. Amide-conjugated indole-3-acetic acid and adventitious root formation in mung bean cuttings

    SciTech Connect

    Norcini, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate further the relationship between amide-conjugated auxin and adventitious root formation. Indoleacetylaspartic acid (IAA-aspartate) was positively identified as the predominant conjugate isolated from mung bean cuttings after the cuttings has been treated with 10/sup -3/ M IAA. In cuttings treated with (1-/sup 14/C)IAA immediately after excision (0 hr), the percent of extractable /sup 14/C in IAA-aspartate in the hypocotyl sharply increased until 36 hr, then steadily declined. (/sup 14/C)IAA was completely metabolized between 12 and 24 hr. The rooting activities of IAA-L-aspartate, IAA-L-alanine, and IAA-glycine were determined at various stages of root formation; some cuttings were pretreated with 10/sup -3/ M IAA at 0 hr. Pretreated cuttings that were treated with IAA-glycine at 12, 24, 36 hr exhibited the greatest consistency between replications, the greatest number of long roots, and the longest roots. The conjugates did not stimulate rooting as effectively as IAA, yet like IAA, generally enhanced rooting the greatest when applied before the first cell division (24 hr).

  20. An adventitious interaction of filamin A with RhoGDI2(Tyr153Glu).

    PubMed

    Song, Mia; He, Qianjing; Berk, Benjamin-Andreas; Hartwig, John H; Stossel, Thomas P; Nakamura, Fumihiko

    2016-01-15

    Filamin A (FLNA) is an actin filament crosslinking protein with multiple intracellular binding partners. Mechanical force exposes cryptic FLNA binding sites for some of these ligands. To identify new force-dependent binding interactions, we used a fusion construct composed of two FLNA domains, one of which was previously identified as containing a force-dependent binding site as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid system and identified the Rho dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2) as a potential interacting partner. A RhoGDI2 truncate with 81 N-terminal amino acid residues and a phosphomimetic mutant, RhoGDI(Tyr153Glu) interacted with the FLNA construct. However, neither wild-type or full-length RhoGDI2 phosphorylated at Y153 interacted with FLNA. Our interpretation of these contradictions is that truncation and/or mutation of RhoGDI2 perturbs its conformation to expose a site that adventitiously binds FLNA and is not a bona-fide interaction. Therefore, previous studies reporting that a RhoGDI(Y153E) mutant suppresses the metastasis of human bladder cancer cells must be reinvestigated in light of artificial interaction of this point mutant with FLNA. PMID:26707877

  1. Excessive Adventitial Remodeling Leads to Early Aortic Maladaptation in Angiotensin-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bersi, Matthew R; Bellini, Chiara; Wu, Jing; Montaniel, Kim R C; Harrison, David G; Humphrey, Jay D

    2016-05-01

    The primary function of central arteries is to store elastic energy during systole and to use it to sustain blood flow during diastole. Arterial stiffening compromises this normal mechanical function and adversely affects end organs, such as the brain, heart, and kidneys. Using an angiotensin II infusion model of hypertension in wild-type mice, we show that the thoracic aorta exhibits a dramatic loss of energy storage within 2 weeks that persists for at least 4 weeks. This diminished mechanical functionality results from increased structural stiffening as a result of an excessive accumulation of adventitial collagen, not a change in the intrinsic stiffness of the wall. A detailed analysis of the transmural biaxial wall stress suggests that the exuberant production of collagen results more from an inflammatory response than from a mechano-adaptation, hence reinforcing the need to control inflammation, not just blood pressure. Although most clinical assessments of arterial stiffening focus on intimal-medial thickening, these results suggest a need to measure and control the highly active and important adventitia. PMID:27001298

  2. A Co-Opted Hormonal Cascade Activates Dormant Adventitious Root Primordia upon Flooding in Solanum dulcamara.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Thikra; Yang, Xinping; Visser, Eric J W; Te Beek, Tim A H; Kensche, Philip R; Cristescu, Simona M; Lee, Sangseok; Floková, Kristýna; Nguyen, Duy; Mariani, Celestina; Rieu, Ivo

    2016-04-01

    Soil flooding is a common stress factor affecting plants. To sustain root function in the hypoxic environment, flooding-tolerant plants may form new, aerenchymatous adventitious roots (ARs), originating from preformed, dormant primordia on the stem. We investigated the signaling pathway behind AR primordium reactivation in the dicot species Solanum dulcamara Transcriptome analysis indicated that flooding imposes a state of quiescence on the stem tissue, while increasing cellular activity in the AR primordia. Flooding led to ethylene accumulation in the lower stem region and subsequently to a drop in abscisic acid (ABA) level in both stem and AR primordia tissue. Whereas ABA treatment prevented activation of AR primordia by flooding, inhibition of ABA synthesis was sufficient to activate them in absence of flooding. Together, this reveals that there is a highly tissue-specific response to reduced ABA levels. The central role for ABA in the response differentiates the pathway identified here from the AR emergence pathway known from rice (Oryza sativa). Flooding and ethylene treatment also induced expression of the polar auxin transporter PIN2, and silencing of this gene or chemical inhibition of auxin transport inhibited primordium activation, even though ABA levels were reduced. Auxin treatment, however, was not sufficient for AR emergence, indicating that the auxin pathway acts in parallel with the requirement for ABA reduction. In conclusion, adaptation of S. dulcamara to wet habitats involved co-option of a hormonal signaling cascade well known to regulate shoot growth responses, to direct a root developmental program upon soil flooding. PMID:26850278

  3. Bioreactor with Ipomoea hederifolia adventitious roots and its endophyte Cladosporium cladosporioides for textile dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Swapnil M; Chandanshive, Vishal V; Rane, Niraj R; Khandare, Rahul V; Watharkar, Anuprita D; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2016-04-01

    In vitro grown untransformed adventitious roots (AR) culture of Ipomoea hederifolia and its endophytic fungus (EF) Cladosporium cladosporioides decolorized Navy Blue HE2R (NB-HE2R) at a concentration of 20 ppm up to 83.3 and 65%, respectively within 96h. Whereas the AR-EF consortium decolorized the dye more efficiently and gave 97% removal within 36h. Significant inductions in the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and laccase were observed in roots, while enzymes like tyrosinase, laccase and riboflavin reductase activities were induced in EF. Metabolites of dye were analyzed using UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Possible metabolic pathways of NB-HE2R were proposed with AR, EF and AR-EF systems independently. Looking at the superior efficacy of AR-EF system, a rhizoreactor was developed for the treatment of NB-HE2R at a concentration of 1000 ppm. Control reactor systems with independently grown AR and EF gave 94 and 85% NB-HE2R removal, respectively within 36h. The AR-EF rhizoreactor, however, gave 97% decolorization. The endophyte colonization additionally increased root and shoot lengths of candidate plants through mutualism. Combined bioreactor strategies can be effectively used for future eco-friendly remediation purposes. PMID:26803212

  4. Comparative transcriptional analysis provides new insights into the molecular basis of adventitious rooting recalcitrance in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Márcia Rodrigues; de Bastiani, Daniela; Gaeta, Marcos Letaif; de Araújo Mariath, Jorge Ernesto; de Costa, Fernanda; Retallick, Jeffrey; Nolan, Lana; Tai, Helen H; Strömvik, Martina V; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2015-10-01

    Adventitious rooting (AR) is essential in clonal propagation. Eucalyptus globulus is relevant for the cellulose industry due to its low lignin content. However, several useful clones are recalcitrant to AR, often requiring exogenous auxin, adding cost to clonal garden operations. In contrast, E. grandis is an easy-to-root species widely used in clonal forestry. Aiming at contributing to the elucidation of recalcitrance causes in E. globulus, we conducted a comparative analysis with these two species differing in rooting competence, combining gene expression and anatomical techniques. Recalcitrance in E. globulus is reversed by exposure to exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which promotes important gene expression modifications in both species. The endogenous content of IAA was significantly higher in E. grandis than in E. globulus. The cambium zone was identified as an active area during AR, concentrating the first cell divisions. Immunolocalization assay showed auxin accumulation in cambium cells, further indicating the importance of this region for rooting. We then performed a cambium zone-specific gene expression analysis during AR using laser microdissection. The results indicated that the auxin-related genes TOPLESS and IAA12/BODENLOS and the cytokinin-related gene ARR1may act as negative regulators of AR, possibly contributing to the hard-to-root phenotype of E. globulus. PMID:26398800

  5. Anatomical and biochemical changes during adventitious rooting of apple rootstocks MM 106 cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Naija, Sélima; Elloumi, Nadhra; Jbir, Najoua; Ammar, Saida; Kevers, Claire

    2008-07-01

    Adventitious rooting in microcuttings of Malus rootstocks MM106 was studied as regards their histological and biochemical aspects. Microcuttings from shoots raised in Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium were transferred into a rooting medium containing IBA in the dark, then fixed 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after. Some cambial zone and adjacent phloem cells became dense cytoplasm, nuclei with prominent nucleoli and the first cell divisions were observed at day 3. Meristemoids became individualized, consisting of densely staining cells (with enlarged nucleoli) formed outside the xylem by day 5. Identifiable root primordia with a conical shape and several cell layers were present at day 7. Roots with organized tissue system emerged from the stem 10 days after the root induction treatment. From these histological observations, it can be established that the rooting induction stage ended before day 3. The initiation stage, with the first histological modifications to the formation of meristemoids, would correspond to the transient increase of our biochemical marker (peroxidase activity) until day 5. The best rooting percentage obtained with cultures in the presence of auxin during 5 days confirms this hypothesis. The expression of rooting can then take place. PMID:18558375

  6. Percutaneous Image-Guided Aspiration and Sclerosis of Adventitial Cystic Disease of the Femoral Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jason M.; Kiankhooy, Armin; Bertges, Daniel J.; Morris, Christopher S.

    2009-07-15

    Adventitial cystic disease (ACD), also known as cystic mucoid or myxomatous degeneration, is a rare vascular disease mainly seen in arteries. Seventeen cases have been reported in the world literature. We report the first known case of ACD successfully treated with percutaneous image-guided ethanol sclerosis. Computed tomography showed a cystic mass adherent to the wall of the common femoral vein. An ultrasound examination revealed a deep venous thrombosis of the leg, secondary to extrinsic compression of the common femoral vein. Three years prior to our procedure, the cyst was aspirated, which partially relieved the patient's symptoms. Over the following 3 years the patient's symptoms worsened and a 10-cm discrepancy in thigh size developed, in addition to the deep venous thrombosis associated with lower-extremity edema. Using ultrasound guidance and fluoroscopic control, the cyst was drained and then sclerosed with absolute ethanol. The patient's symptoms and leg swelling resolved completely within several weeks. Follow-up physical examination and duplex ultrasound 6 months following sclerosis demonstrated resolution of the symptoms and elimination of the extrinsic compression effect of the ACD on the common femoral vein.

  7. Differential regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in varicella zoster virus-infected human brain vascular adventitial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Rempel, April; Wyborny, Ann; Stenmark, Kurt; Gilden, Don

    2015-11-15

    Upon reactivation, varicella zoster virus (VZV) spreads transaxonally, infects cerebral arteries and causes ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, as well as aneurysms. The mechanism(s) of VZV-induced aneurysm formation is unknown. However, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which digest extracellular structural proteins in the artery wall, play a role in cerebral and aortic artery aneurysm formation and rupture. Here, we examined the effect of VZV infection on expression of MMP-1, -2, -3, and -9 in primary human brain vascular adventitial fibroblasts (BRAFS). At 6 days post-infection, VZV- and mock-infected BRAFs were analyzed for mRNA levels of MMP-1, -2, -3 and -9 by RT-PCR and for corresponding total intra- and extracellular protein levels by multiplex ELISA. The activity of MMP-1 was also measured in a substrate cleavage assay. Compared to mock-infected BRAFs, MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9 transcripts, cell lysate protein and conditioned supernatant protein were all increased in VZV-infected BRAFs, whereas MMP-2 transcripts, cell lysate protein and conditioned supernatant protein were decreased. MMP-1 from the conditioned supernatant of VZV-infected BRAFs showed increased cleavage activity on an MMP-1-specific substrate compared to mock-infected BRAFs. Differential regulation of MMPs in VZV-infected BRAFs may contribute to aneurysm formation in VZV vasculopathy. PMID:26443282

  8. Adventitious sounds identification and extraction using temporal-spectral dominance-based features.

    PubMed

    Jin, Feng; Krishnan, Sridhar Sri; Sattar, Farook

    2011-11-01

    Respiratory sound (RS) signals carry significant information about the underlying functioning of the pulmonary system by the presence of adventitious sounds (ASs). Although many studies have addressed the problem of pathological RS classification, only a limited number of scientific works have focused on the analysis of the evolution of symptom-related signal components in joint time-frequency (TF) plane. This paper proposes a new signal identification and extraction method for various ASs based on instantaneous frequency (IF) analysis. The presented TF decomposition method produces a noise-resistant high definition TF representation of RS signals as compared to the conventional linear TF analysis methods, yet preserving the low computational complexity as compared to those quadratic TF analysis methods. The discarded phase information in conventional spectrogram has been adopted for the estimation of IF and group delay, and a temporal-spectral dominance spectrogram has subsequently been constructed by investigating the TF spreads of the computed time-corrected IF components. The proposed dominance measure enables the extraction of signal components correspond to ASs from noisy RS signal at high noise level. A new set of TF features has also been proposed to quantify the shapes of the obtained TF contours, and therefore strongly, enhances the identification of multicomponents signals such as polyphonic wheezes. An overall accuracy of 92.4±2.9% for the classification of real RS recordings shows the promising performance of the presented method. PMID:21712152

  9. Analysis of miRNAs and Their Targets during Adventitious Shoot Organogenesis of Acacia crassicarpa

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lingyu; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Fei; Wang, Weixuan; Liang, Di; Yang, Hailun; Jin, Yi; Xie, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    Organogenesis is an important process for plant regeneration by tissue or cell mass differentiation to regenerate a complete plant. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in regulating plant development by mediating target genes at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, but the diversity of miRNAs and their potential roles in organogenesis of Acacia crassicarpa have rarely been investigated. In this study, approximately 10 million sequence reads were obtained from a small RNA library, from which 189 conserved miRNAs from 57 miRNA families, and 7 novel miRNAs from 5 families, were identified from A. crassicarpa organogenetic tissues. Target prediction for these miRNAs yielded 237 potentially unique genes, of which 207 received target Gene Ontology annotations. On the basis of a bioinformatic analysis, one novel and 13 conserved miRNAs were selected to investigate their possible roles in A. crassicarpa organogenesis by qRT-PCR. The stage-specific expression patterns of the miRNAs provided information on their possible regulatory functions, including shoot bud formation, modulated function after transfer of the culture to light, and regulatory roles during induction of organogenesis. This study is the first to investigate miRNAs associated with A. crassicarpa organogenesis. The results provide a foundation for further characterization of miRNA expression profiles and roles in the regulation of diverse physiological pathways during adventitious shoot organogenesis of A. crassicarpa. PMID:24718555

  10. Structure of a murine norovirus NS6 protease-product complex revealed by adventitious crystallisation.

    PubMed

    Leen, Eoin N; Baeza, Gabriela; Curry, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Murine noroviruses have emerged as a valuable tool for investigating the molecular basis of infection and pathogenesis of the closely related human noroviruses, which are the major cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis. The replication of noroviruses relies on the proteolytic processing of a large polyprotein precursor into six non-structural proteins (NS1-2, NS3, NS4, NS5, NS6(pro), NS7(pol)) by the virally-encoded NS6 protease. We report here the crystal structure of MNV NS6(pro), which has been determined to a resolution of 1.6 Å. Adventitiously, the crystal contacts are mediated in part by the binding of the C-terminus of NS6(pro) within the peptide-binding cleft of a neighbouring molecule. This insertion occurs for both molecules in the asymmetric unit of the crystal in a manner that is consistent with physiologically-relevant binding, thereby providing two independent views of a protease-peptide complex. Since the NS6(pro) C-terminus is formed in vivo by NS6(pro) processing, these crystal contacts replicate the protease-product complex that is formed immediately following cleavage of the peptide bond at the NS6-NS7 junction. The observed mode of binding of the C-terminal product peptide yields new insights into the structural basis of NS6(pro) specificity. PMID:22685603

  11. Influence of light and shoot development stage on leaf photosynthesis and carbohydrate status during the adventitious root formation in cuttings of Corylus avellana L.

    PubMed Central

    Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Poni, Stefano; Farinelli, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Adventitious root formation in plant cuttings is influenced by many endogenous and environmental factors. Leaf photosynthesis during rooting of leafy cuttings in hard to root species can contribute to supply carbohydrates to the intensive metabolic processes related to adventious root formation. Light intensity during rooting is artificially kept low to decrease potential cutting desiccation, but can be limiting for photosynthetic activity. Furthermore, leafy cuttings collected from different part of the shoot can have a different ability to fuel adventitious root formation in cutting stem. The aim of this work was to determine the role of leaf photosynthesis on adventitious root formation in hazelnut (Corylus avellana L) (a hard-to-root specie) leafy cuttings and to investigate the possible influence of the shoot developmental stage on cutting rooting and survival in the post-rooting phase. Cutting rooting was closely related to carbohydrate content in cutting stems during the rooting process. Cutting carbohydrate status was positively influenced by leaf photosynthesis during rooting. Non-saturating light exposure of leafy cuttings can contribute to improve photosynthetic activity of leafy cuttings. Collection of cuttings from different part of the mother shoots influenced rooting percentage and this appear related to the different capability to concentrate soluble sugars in the cutting stem during rooting. Adventitious root formation depend on the carbohydrate accumulation at the base of the cutting. Mother shoot developmental stage and leaf photosynthesis appear pivotal factors for adventitious roots formation. PMID:26635821

  12. Construction of a Fosmid Library of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and Comparative Analyses of the eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E Regions from Cucumber and Melon (Cucumis melo)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber and melon are the most economically important plants in the family Cucurbitaceae and are members of distinct subgenera in the genus Cucumis. We undertook comparative sequence analyses to assess synteny between the cucumber and melon genomes. A fosmid library of cucumber was synthesized as...

  13. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat ) and stomatal conductance (gssat ) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates. PMID:27446170

  14. Adventitial Tertiary Lymphoid Organs as Potential Source of MicroRNA Biomarkers for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Spear, Rafaelle; Boytard, Ludovic; Blervaque, Renaud; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Hot, David; Vanhoutte, Jonathan; Staels, Bart; Lemoine, Yves; Lamblin, Nicolas; Pruvot, François-René; Haulon, Stephan; Amouyel, Philippe; Pinet, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an inflammatory disease associated with marked changes in the cellular composition of the aortic wall. This study aims to identify microRNA (miRNA) expression in aneurysmal inflammatory cells isolated by laser microdissection from human tissue samples. The distribution of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, B and T lymphocytes, mast cells) was evaluated in human AAA biopsies. We observed in half of the samples that adventitial tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs) with a thickness from 0.5 to 2 mm were located exclusively in the adventitia. Out of the 850 miRNA that were screened by microarray in isolated ATLOs (n = 2), 164 miRNAs were detected in ATLOs. The three miRNAs (miR-15a-3p, miR-30a-5p and miR-489-3p) with the highest expression levels were chosen and their expression quantified by RT-PCR in isolated ATLOs (n = 4), M1 (n = 2) and M2 macrophages (n = 2) and entire aneurysmal biopsies (n = 3). Except for the miR-30a-5p, a similar modulation was found in ATLOs and the two subtypes of macrophages. The modulated miRNAs were then evaluated in the plasma of AAA patients for their potential as AAA biomarkers. Our data emphasize the potential of miR-15a-3p and miR-30a-5p as biomarkers of AAA but also as triggers of ATLO evolution. Further investigations will be required to evaluate their targets in order to better understand AAA pathophysiology. PMID:25993295

  15. Adventitial Tertiary Lymphoid Organs as Potential Source of MicroRNA Biomarkers for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Rafaelle; Boytard, Ludovic; Blervaque, Renaud; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Hot, David; Vanhoutte, Jonathan; Staels, Bart; Lemoine, Yves; Lamblin, Nicolas; Pruvot, François-René; Haulon, Stephan; Amouyel, Philippe; Pinet, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an inflammatory disease associated with marked changes in the cellular composition of the aortic wall. This study aims to identify microRNA (miRNA) expression in aneurysmal inflammatory cells isolated by laser microdissection from human tissue samples. The distribution of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, B and T lymphocytes, mast cells) was evaluated in human AAA biopsies. We observed in half of the samples that adventitial tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs) with a thickness from 0.5 to 2 mm were located exclusively in the adventitia. Out of the 850 miRNA that were screened by microarray in isolated ATLOs (n = 2), 164 miRNAs were detected in ATLOs. The three miRNAs (miR-15a-3p, miR-30a-5p and miR-489-3p) with the highest expression levels were chosen and their expression quantified by RT-PCR in isolated ATLOs (n = 4), M1 (n = 2) and M2 macrophages (n = 2) and entire aneurysmal biopsies (n = 3). Except for the miR-30a-5p, a similar modulation was found in ATLOs and the two subtypes of macrophages. The modulated miRNAs were then evaluated in the plasma of AAA patients for their potential as AAA biomarkers. Our data emphasize the potential of miR-15a-3p and miR-30a-5p as biomarkers of AAA but also as triggers of ATLO evolution. Further investigations will be required to evaluate their targets in order to better understand AAA pathophysiology. PMID:25993295

  16. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species

    PubMed Central

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gssat) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates. PMID:27446170

  17. Progression Rates of Carotid Intima-media Thickness and Adventitial Diameter during the Menopausal Transition

    PubMed Central

    El Khoudary, Samar R.; Wildman, Rachel P.; Matthews, Karen; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The authors assessed whether the levels and progression rates of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and adventitial diameter (AD) vary by menopausal stage. Methods 249 Women (42–57 years old, premenopausal (49%) or early peri-menopausal (46%)) from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation were included in the current analysis. Participants were followed for up to 9 years (median=3.7 years) and had up to 5 carotid scans. Linear mixed models were used for analysis. Results The overall rate of change in IMT was 0.007 mm/year. Independent of age and race, progression rate of IMT increased substantially in late peri-menopausal stage (0.017 mm/year) compared to both premenopausal (0.007 mm/year) and early peri-menopausal (0.005 mm/year) stages; (P≤0.05). For AD, while the overall rate of change was negative (−0.009 mm/year), significant positive increases in the rate of change were observed in late peri-menopausal (0.024 mm/year) and postmenopausal (0.018 mm/year) stages compared to premenopausal stage (−0.032 mm/year); (P<0.05). In final models, postmenopausal stage was independently associated with higher levels of IMT and AD (P<0.05) compared to premenopausal stage. Conclusions During the menopausal transition, the carotid artery undergoes an adaptation that is reflected in adverse changes in IMT and AD. These changes may impact the vulnerability of the vessel to disease in older women. PMID:22990755

  18. Improved Correlation of Strain Indices with Cognitive Dysfunction with Inclusion of Adventitial Layer with Carotid Plaque.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Mitchell, C C; Varghese, T; Jackson, D C; Rocque, B G; Hermann, B P; Dempsey, R J

    2016-05-01

    Plaque instability may lead to chronic embolization, which in turn may contribute to progressive cognitive decline. Accumulated strain tensor indices over a cardiac cycle within a pulsating carotid plaque may be viable biomarkers for the diagnosis of plaque instability. Using plaque-only carotid artery segmentations, we recently demonstrated that impaired cognitive function correlated significantly with maximum axial and lateral strain indices within a localized region of interest in plaque. Inclusion of the adventitial layer focuses our strain or instability measures on the vessel wall-plaque interface hypothesized to be a region with increased shearing forces and measureable instability. A hierarchical block-matching motion tracking algorithm developed in our laboratory was used to estimate accumulated axial, lateral, and shear strain distribution in plaques identified with the plaque-with-adventitia segmentation. Correlations of strain indices to the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status Total score were performed and compared with previous results. Overall, correlation coefficients (r) and significance (p) values improved for axial, lateral, and shear strain indices. Shear strain indices, however, demonstrated the largest improvement. The Pearson correlation coefficients for maximum shear strain and cognition improved from the previous plaque-only analyses of -0.432 and -0.345 to -0.795 and -0.717 with the plaque-with-adventitia segmentation for the symptomatic group and for all patients combined, respectively. Our results demonstrate the advantage of including adventitia for ultrasound carotid strain imaging providing improved association to parameters assessing cognitive impairment in patients. This supports theories of the importance of the vessel wall plaque interface in the pathophysiology of embolic disease. PMID:26025578

  19. Auxin and cytokinin control formation of the quiescent centre in the adventitious root apex of arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Della Rovere, F.; Fattorini, L.; D'Angeli, S.; Veloccia, A.; Falasca, G.; Altamura, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Adventitious roots (ARs) are part of the root system in numerous plants, and are required for successful micropropagation. In the Arabidopsis thaliana primary root (PR) and lateral roots (LRs), the quiescent centre (QC) in the stem cell niche of the meristem controls apical growth with the involvement of auxin and cytokinin. In arabidopsis, ARs emerge in planta from the hypocotyl pericycle, and from different tissues in in vitro cultured explants, e.g. from the stem endodermis in thin cell layer (TCL) explants. The aim of this study was to investigate the establishment and maintenance of the QC in arabidopsis ARs, in planta and in TCL explants, because information about this process is still lacking, and it has potential use for biotechnological applications. Methods Expression of PR/LR QC markers and auxin influx (LAX3)/efflux (PIN1) genes was investigated in the presence/absence of exogenous auxin and cytokinin. Auxin was monitored by the DR5::GUS system and cytokinin by immunolocalization. The expression of the auxin-biosynthetic YUCCA6 gene was also investigated by in situ hybridization in planta and in AR-forming TCLs from the indole acetic acid (IAA)-overproducing superroot2-1 mutant and its wild type. Key Results The accumulation of auxin and the expression of the QC marker WOX5 characterized the early derivatives of the AR founder cells, in planta and in in vitro cultured TCLs. By determination of PIN1 auxin efflux carrier and LAX3 auxin influx carrier activities, an auxin maximum was determined to occur at the AR tip, to which WOX5 expression was restricted, establishing the positioning of the QC. Cytokinin caused a restriction of LAX3 and PIN1 expression domains, and concomitantly the auxin biosynthesis YUCCA6 gene was expressed in the apex. Conclusions In ARs formed in planta and TCLs, the QC is established in a similar way, and auxin transport and biosynthesis are involved through cytokinin tuning. PMID:24061489

  20. When stress and development go hand in hand: main hormonal controls of adventitious rooting in cuttings

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Cibele T.; de Almeida, Márcia R.; Ruedell, Carolina M.; Schwambach, Joseli; Maraschin, Felipe S.; Fett-Neto, Arthur G.

    2013-01-01

    Adventitious rooting (AR) is a multifactorial response leading to new roots at the base of stem cuttings, and the establishment of a complete and autonomous plant. AR has two main phases: (a) induction, with a requirement for higher auxin concentration; (b) formation, inhibited by high auxin and in which anatomical changes take place. The first stages of this process in severed organs necessarily include wounding and water stress responses which may trigger hormonal changes that contribute to reprogram target cells that are competent to respond to rooting stimuli. At severance, the roles of jasmonate and abscisic acid are critical for wound response and perhaps sink strength establishment, although their negative roles on the cell cycle may inhibit root induction. Strigolactones may also inhibit AR. A reduced concentration of cytokinins in cuttings results from the separation of the root system, whose tips are a relevant source of these root induction inhibitors. The combined increased accumulation of basipetally transported auxins from the shoot apex at the cutting base is often sufficient for AR in easy-to-root species. The role of peroxidases and phenolic compounds in auxin catabolism may be critical at these early stages right after wounding. The events leading to AR strongly depend on mother plant nutritional status, both in terms of minerals and carbohydrates, as well as on sink establishment at cutting bases. Auxins play a central role in AR. Auxin transporters control auxin canalization to target cells. There, auxins act primarily through selective proteolysis and cell wall loosening, via their receptor proteins TIR1 (transport inhibitor response 1) and ABP1 (Auxin-Binding Protein 1). A complex microRNA circuitry is involved in the control of auxin response factors essential for gene expression in AR. After root establishment, new hormonal controls take place, with auxins being required at lower concentrations for root meristem maintenance and cytokinins

  1. Triterpene glycosides from the Far Eastern sea cucumber Cucumaria conicospermium.

    PubMed

    Avilov, Sergey A; Antonov, Alexandr S; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Stonik, Valentin A; Riguera, Ricardo; Jimenez, Carlos

    2003-07-01

    Four new triterpene glycosides, cucumariosides A(2)-5 (1), A(3)-2 (2), A(3)-3 (3), and isokoreoside A (4), along with the previously isolated koreoside A (5), have been found in the sea cucumber Cucumariaconicospermium. Glycoside 1 was isolated as a native substance, while glycosides 2-5 were identified through their desulfated derivatives. Their structures have been deduced by extensive spectral analysis (NMR and MS) and chemical evidence. All the glycosides contain the same branched pentasaccharide carbohydrate chain but differ in the number and positions of the sulfate groups. Glycoside 1 has one, glycosides 2 and 3 have two, and glycosides 4 and 5 have three sulfate groups. Glycosides 2-5 are non-holostane derivatives; their aglycons lack the 18(20)-lactone and are characterized by shortened side chains, which is a very rare feature among the sea cucumber glycosides. PMID:12880305

  2. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    McFeeters, Roger F; Pérez-Díaz, Ilenys

    2010-04-01

    Waste water containing high levels of NaCl from cucumber fermentation tank yards is a continuing problem for the pickled vegetable industry. A major reduction in waste salt could be achieved if NaCl were eliminated from the cucumber fermentation process. The objectives of this project were to ferment cucumbers in brine containing CaCl(2) as the only salt, to determine the course of fermentation metabolism in the absence of NaCl, and to compare firmness retention of cucumbers fermented in CaCl(2) brine during subsequent storage compared to cucumbers fermented in brines containing both NaCl and CaCl(2) at concentrations typically used in commercial fermentations. The major metabolite changes during fermentation without NaCl were conversion of sugars in the fresh cucumbers primarily to lactic acid which caused pH to decrease to less than 3.5. This is the same pattern that occurs when cucumbers are fermented with NaCl as the major brining salt. Lactic acid concentration and pH were stable during storage and there was no detectable production of propionic acid or butyric acid that would indicate growth of spoilage bacteria. Firmness retention in cucumbers fermented with 100 to 300 mM CaCl(2) during storage at a high temperature (45 degrees C) was not significantly different from that obtained in fermented cucumbers with 1.03 M NaCl and 40 mM CaCl(2). In closed jars, cucumber fermentations with and without NaCl in the fermentation brine were similar both in the chemical changes caused by the fermentative microorganisms and in the retention of firmness in the fermented cucumbers. PMID:20492282

  3. Characterization of the optical properties of normal and defective pickling cucumbers and whole pickles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.; Cen, Haiyan

    2010-04-01

    Internal defect in pickling cucumbers can cause bloater damage during brining, which lowers the quality of final pickled products and results in economic loss for the pickle industry. Hence it is important to have an effective optical inspection system for detection and segregation of defective pickling cucumbers. This research was intended to measure the spectral absorption and scattering properties of normal and internally defective pickling cucumbers and whole pickles, using hyperspectral imaging-based spatially-resolved technique. Spatially-resolved hyperspectral scattering images were acquired from 50 freshly harvested 'Journey' pickling cucumbers in the summer of 2008. The cucumbers were then subjected to rolling under mechanical load to induce internal damage. The damaged cucumbers were imaged again one hour and one day after the mechanical stress treatment. In addition, 20 whole pickles each of normal and defective (bloated) class were also measured by following the same procedure as that for pickling cucumbers. Spectra of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients for pickling cucumbers and whole pickles were extracted from the spatially-resolved scattering profiles, using an inverse algorithm for a diffusion theory model, for the spectral range of 700-1,000 nm. It was found that within one hour after mechanical damage, changes in the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients for the cucumbers were minimal. One day after mechanical damage, the absorption coefficient for the cucumbers increased noticeably for the wavelengths of 700-920 nm, whereas the reduced scattering coefficient decreased more significantly for the wavelengths of 700-1,000 nm. Overall mechanical damage had greater impact on the scattering properties than on the absorption properties. After brining, pickles became translucent and scattering was greatly diminished. Thus the diffusion theory model was no longer valid for determining the optical properties of whole pickles. This

  4. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  5. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  6. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  7. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  8. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  9. Overview of USDA-SCRI Project: Cucumber applied genomics: tool development and applications for recessive disease resistance genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cucumber project was recently funded by the USDA NIFA-SCRI program which is titled “Translational genomics in cucumber - tool development and application for recessive disease resistances”. This grant was the result of a joint effort of the UW public cucumber research community with strong support...

  10. Fine genetic mapping of Cp, a recessive gene for compact (dwarf) plant architecture in cucumber, cucumis sativus L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The compact or dwarf plant architecture is an important trait in cucumber breeding. Compact cucumber has the potential to be used in once-over mechanical harvest of pickling cucumber production. Compact growth habit is controlled by a simply inherited recessive gene. To facilitate markers assisted s...

  11. Map-based cloning a multifunctional gene regulating leaf, flower and fruit development and plant architecture in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    standard-leaf type cucumbers as well as multi-branched vines not presented in standard-leaf type cucumbers. Littleleaf has the potential to address some problems in picking cucumber production. Littleleaf is controlled by a single, recessively inherited gene designated ll. In the present study, a hi...

  12. Role of selected oxidative yeasts and bacteria in cucumber secondary fermentation associated with spoilage of the fermented fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes during the spoilage of fermented cucumber pickles have been attributed to the metabolism of different yeasts and bacteria. In this study six organisms isolated from commercial spoiled cucumber pickles were evaluated for their possible role in primary and secondary cucumber fermentations. The...

  13. Fixation of Emerging Interviral Recombinants in Cucumber Mosaic Virus Populations

    PubMed Central

    Pita, Justin S.

    2013-01-01

    Interstrain recombinants were observed in the progenies of the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) reassortant L1L2F3 containing RNAs 1 and 2 from LS-CMV and RNA 3 from Fny-CMV. We characterized these recombinants, and we found that their fixation was controlled by the nature of the replicating RNAs 1 and 2. We demonstrate that the 2b gene partially affects this fixation process, but only in the context of homologous RNAs 1 and 2. PMID:23115282

  14. An ACC Oxidase Gene Essential for Cucumber Carpel Development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huiming; Sun, Jinjing; Li, Shuai; Cui, Qingzhi; Zhang, Huimin; Xin, Fengjiao; Wang, Huaisong; Lin, Tao; Gao, Dongli; Wang, Shenhao; Li, Xia; Wang, Donghui; Zhang, Zhonghua; Xu, Zhihong; Huang, Sanwen

    2016-09-01

    Sex determination in plants gives rise to unisexual flowers that facilitate outcrossing and enhance genetic diversity. In cucumber and melon, ethylene promotes carpel development and arrests stamen development. Five sex-determination genes have been identified, including four encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis, and a transcription factor gene CmWIP1 that corresponds to the Mendelian locus gynoecious in melon and is a negative regulator of femaleness. ACC oxidase (ACO) converts ACC into ethylene; however, it remains elusive which ACO gene in the cucumber genome is critical for sex determination and how CmWIP1 represses development of female flowers. In this study, we discovered that mutation in an ACO gene, CsACO2, confers androecy in cucumber that bears only male flowers. The mutation disrupts the enzymatic activity of CsACO2, resulting in 50% less ethylene emission from shoot tips. CsACO2 was expressed in the carpel primordia and its expression overlapped with that of CsACS11 in female flowers at key stages for sex determination, presumably providing sufficient ethylene required for proper CsACS2 expression. CmACO3, the ortholog of CsACO2, showed a similar expression pattern in the carpel region, suggesting a conserved function of CsACO2/CmACO3. We demonstrated that CsWIP1, the ortholog of CmWIP1, could directly bind the promoter of CsACO2 and repress its expression. Taken together, we propose a presumably conserved regulatory module consisting of WIP1 transcription factor and ACO controls unisexual flower development in cucumber and melon. PMID:27403533

  15. Fruit removal increases root-zone respiration in cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Kläring, H.-P.; Hauschild, I.; Heißner, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Many attempts have been made to avoid the commonly observed fluctuations in fruit initiation and fruit growth in crop plants, particularly in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Weak sinks of the fruit have been assumed to result in low sink/source ratios for carbohydrates, which may inhibit photosynthesis. This study focuses on the effects of low sink–source ratios on photosynthesis and respiration, and in particular root-zone respiration. Methods Mature fruit-bearing cucumber plants were grown in an aerated nutrient solution. The root containers were designed as open chambers to allow measurement of CO2 gas exchange in the root zone. A similar arrangement in a gas-exchange cuvette enabled simultaneous measurements of CO2 exchange in the shoot and root zones. Key Results Reducing the sinks for carbohydrates by removing all fruit from the plants always resulted in a doubling of CO2 exchange in the root zone within a few hours. However, respiration of the shoot remained unaffected and photosynthesis was only marginally reduced, if at all. Conclusions The results suggest that the increased level of CO2 gas exchange in the root zone after removing the carbon sinks in the shoot is due primarily to the exudation of organic compounds by the roots and their decomposition by micro-organisms. This hypothesis must be tested in further experiments, but if proved correct it would make sense to include carbon leakage by root exudation in cucumber production models. In contrast, inhibition of photosynthesis was measurable only at zero fruit load, a situation that does not occur in cucumber production systems, and models that estimate production can therefore ignore (end-product) inhibition of photosynthesis. PMID:25301817

  16. High Spatial Resolution MRI of Cystic Adventitial Disease of the Iliofemoral Vein Communicating with the Hip Joint

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelides, Michael; Pantziara, Maria Ioannidis, Kleanthis

    2013-05-14

    Venous cystic adventitial disease (CAD) is an extremely rare entity, and so far less than 20 cases have been described in the literature. Herein, we describe the imaging findings of CAD of iliofemoral vein in a 51-year-old woman who presented with leg swelling with special emphasis on high spatial resolution MRI, which demonstrated communication of the cyst with the hip joint. To our knowledge, this is the first description of high spatial resolution MRI findings in venous CAD supporting a new theory about the pathogenesis of venous CAD.

  17. Root signals and stomatal closure in relation to photosynthesis, chlorophyll a fluorescence and adventitious rooting of flooded tomato plants

    PubMed Central

    Else, Mark A.; Janowiak, Franciszek; Atkinson, Christopher J.; Jackson, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims An investigation was carried out to determine whether stomatal closure in flooded tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) results from decreased leaf water potentials (ψL), decreased photosynthetic capacity and attendant increases in internal CO2 (Ci) or from losses of root function such as cytokinin and gibberellin export. Methods Pot-grown plants were flooded when 1 month old. Leaf conductance was measured by diffusion porometry, the efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) was estimated by fluorimetry, and infrared gas analysis was used to determine Ci and related parameters. Key Results Flooding starting in the morning closed the stomata and increased ψL after a short-lived depression of ψL. The pattern of closure remained unchanged when ψ`L depression was avoided by starting flooding at the end rather than at the start of the photoperiod. Raising external CO2 concentrations by 100 µmol mol−1 also closed stomata rapidly. Five chlorophyll fluorescence parameters [Fq′/Fm′, Fq′/Fv′, Fv′/Fm′, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and Fv/Fm] were affected by flooding within 12–36 h and changes were linked to decreased Ci. Closing stomata by applying abscisic acid or increasing external CO2 substantially reproduced the effects of flooding on chlorophyll fluorescence. The presence of well-aerated adventitious roots partially inhibited stomatal closure of flooded plants. Allowing adventitious roots to form on plants flooded for >3 d promoted some stomatal re-opening. This effect of adventitious roots was not reproduced by foliar applications of benzyl adenine and gibberellic acid. Conclusions Stomata of flooded plants did not close in response to short-lived decreases in ψL or to increased Ci resulting from impaired PSII photochemistry. Instead, stomatal closure depressed Ci and this in turn largely explained subsequent changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Stomatal opening was promoted by the presence of well

  18. Proteomics analysis of compatibility and incompatibility in grafted cucumber seedlings.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Guo, Shi-Rong; Li, Lin; An, Ya-Hong; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin

    2016-08-01

    Graft compatibility between rootstock and scion is the most important factor influencing the survival of grafted plants. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) to investigate differences in leaf proteomes of graft-compatible and graft-incompatible cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)/pumpkin (Cucurbita L.) combinations. Cucumber seedlings were used as the scions and two pumpkin cultivars with strongly contrasting grafting compatibilities were used as the rootstocks. Non-grafted and self-grafted cucumber seedlings served as control groups. An average of approximately 500 detectable spots were observed on each 2-DE gel. A total of 50 proteins were differentially expressed in response to self-grafting, compatible-rootstock grafting, and incompatible-rootstock grafting and were all successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The regulation of Calvin cycle, photosynthetic apparatus, glycolytic pathway, energy metabolism, protein biosynthesis and degradation, and reactive oxygen metabolism will probably contribute to intensify the biomass and photosynthetic capacity in graft-compatible combinations. The improved physiological and growth characteristics of compatible-rootstock grafting plants are the result of the higher expressions of proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and protein metabolism. At the same time, the compatible-rootstock grafting regulation of stress defense, amino acid metabolism, and other metabolic functions also plays important roles in improvement of plant growth. PMID:27070289

  19. Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Wang, Han; Yang, Shuang; Lv, Zhihua

    2016-01-01

    The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A1 was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristics of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1, we examined their transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and effective permeability by single-pass intestinal perfusion. The results of Caco-2 cell model indicate that Echinoside A is transported by passive diffusion, and not influenced by the exocytosis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, expressed in the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers as the classic inhibitor). The intestinal perfusion also demonstrated well the absorption of Echinoside A and poor absorption of Holotoxin A1, which matched up with the result of the Caco-2 cell model. The results demonstrated our conjecture and provides fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of these sea cucumber saponins and their absorption characteristics, and we believe that our findings build a foundation for the further metabolism study of sea cucumber saponins and contribute to the further clinical research of saponins. PMID:27322290

  20. Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Wang, Han; Yang, Shuang; Lv, Zhihua

    2016-01-01

    The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A₁; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A₁ was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristics of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A₁, we examined their transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and effective permeability by single-pass intestinal perfusion. The results of Caco-2 cell model indicate that Echinoside A is transported by passive diffusion, and not influenced by the exocytosis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, expressed in the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers as the classic inhibitor). The intestinal perfusion also demonstrated well the absorption of Echinoside A and poor absorption of Holotoxin A₁, which matched up with the result of the Caco-2 cell model. The results demonstrated our conjecture and provides fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of these sea cucumber saponins and their absorption characteristics, and we believe that our findings build a foundation for the further metabolism study of sea cucumber saponins and contribute to the further clinical research of saponins. PMID:27322290

  1. Feeding behavior and digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiamin; Zhang, Libin; Pan, Yang; Lin, Chenggang; Wang, Fang; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-02-01

    The feeding behavior and digestive physiology of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are not well understood. A better understanding may provide useful information for the development of the aquaculture of this species. In this article the tentacle locomotion, feeding rhythms, ingestion rate (IR), feces production rate (FPR) and digestive enzyme activities were studied in three size groups (small, medium and large) of sea cucumber under a 12h light/12h dark cycle. Frame-by-frame video analysis revealed that all size groups had similar feeding strategies using a grasping motion to pick up sediment particles. The tentacle insertion rates of the large size group were significantly faster than those of the small and medium-sized groups (P<0.05). Feeding activities investigated by charge coupled device cameras with infrared systems indicated that all size groups of sea cucumber were nocturnal and their feeding peaks occurred at 02:00-04:00. The medium and large-sized groups also had a second feeding peak during the day. Both IR and FPR in all groups were significantly higher at night than those during the daytime (P<0.05). Additionally, the peak activities of digestive enzymes were 2-4h earlier than the peak of feeding. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the light/dark cycle was a powerful environment factor that influenced biological rhythms of A. japonicus, which had the ability to optimize the digestive processes for a forthcoming ingestion. PMID:25449414

  2. Multispectral fluorescence imaging technique for discrimination of cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) seed viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we developed a nondestructive method for discriminating viable cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seeds based on hyperspectral fluorescence imaging. The fluorescence spectra of cucumber seeds in the 420–700 nm range were extracted from hyperspectral fluorescence images obtained using 365 nm u...

  3. Commercial scale cucumber fermentations brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride instead of NaCl...

  4. Pentatricopeptide repeat 336 as the candidate gene for paternal sorting of mitochondria (Psm) in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a useful plant to study organellar-nuclear interactions because its three genomes show differential transmission: bi-parental nuclear, maternal chloroplast and paternal mitochondrial (mt). The mt DNA of cucumber is relatively large due in part to accumulation of rep...

  5. Biological characteristics and pathogenicity of a highly pathogenic Shewanella marisflavi infected sea cucumber (Apostichopus uaponicus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shewanella marisflavi isolate AP629 was characterized as a novel pathogen of sea cucumber. The LD50 values (14 days) in sea cucumber and swordtail fish were 3.89 × 106 and 4.85 × 104 CFU g-1 body weight, respectively. Studies on S. marisflavi had been conducted, including morphology, physiological a...

  6. Individual variation in growth in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenck) housed individually

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Miao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli

    2010-09-01

    The exceptionally large individual growth variation has been previously recognized in several sea cucumber cohorts. However, there is a lack of information regarding the mechanism of such individual differences. In this study, the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) was reared individually in order to eliminate possible effects of social interaction, stocking density, etc. The results showed that there were substantial differences in growth among the sea cucumber individuals during the 100-day experiment. The special growth rate of the sea cucumber individuals differed by up to three folds (from 0.40% to 1.01%), and the coefficient of variation in body weight increased from 12.04% to 40.51%. The final wet body weight, food intake and food conversion efficiency for each sea cucumber were generally positively correlated with their initial wet body weight ( P<0.05). Energy budget of the animals showed that the food energy spent on respiration was much greater (about four folds) but energy deposited for growth was much less for (initially) smaller than for larger A. japonicus. The present result implies that there are obvious genetic differences among the sea cucumber individuals, largely accounting for the individual growth variation of the cohort sea cucumber. These results will provide some basic data for promoting selective breeding and farming of the sea cucumber.

  7. First complete genome sequence of an emerging cucumber green mottle mosaic virus isolate in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome sequence (6,423 nt) of an emerging Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolate on cucumber in North America was determined through deep sequencing of sRNA and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. It shares 99% nucleotide sequence identity to the Asian genotype, but only 90% t...

  8. Identification of five sea cucumber species through PCR-RFLP analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yingchun; Zheng, Rong; Zuo, Tao; Wang, Yuming; Li, Zhaojie; Xue, Yong; Xue, Changhu; Tang, Qingjuan

    2014-10-01

    Sea cucumbers are traditional marine food and Chinese medicine in Asia. The rapid expansion of sea cucumber market has resulted in various problems, such as commercial fraud and mislabeling. Conventionally, sea cucumber species could be distinguished by their morphological and anatomical characteristics; however, their identification becomes difficult when they are processed. The aim of this study was to develop a new convenient method of identifying and distinguishing sea cucumber species. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene ( COI) was used to identifing five sea cucumber species ( Apostichopus japonicus, Cucumaria frondosa, Thelenota ananas, Parastichopus californicus and Actinopyga lecanora). A 692 bp fragment of COI was searched for BamHI, KpnI, PstI, XbaI and Eco31I restriction sites with DNAMAN 6.0, which were then used to PCR-RFLP analysis. These five sea cucumber species can be discriminated from mixed sea cucumbers. The developed PCR-RFLP assay will facilitate the identification of sea cucumbers, making their source tracing and quality controlling feasible.

  9. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew is a serious fungal disease of cucumber and other cucurbot crops in the US and many other parts of the world. Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber are not well understood. In a three-y...

  10. Reduction of Salmonella populations on cucumber fruit by application of lytic bacteriophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Foodborne illness outbreaks of Salmonella enterica associated with consumption of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) in the U.S. in 2014 and 2015 sickened over 1000 people and caused 5 deaths. Whole and fresh-cut cucumbers are susceptible to Salmonella contamination during growing and harvestin...

  11. Metabolic footprinting of Lactobacillus buchneri strain LA1147 during anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactobacillus buchneri has recently been associated with anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers due to its ability to metabolize lactic acid into acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. However, we have limited knowledge of other chemical components in fermented cucumber that may be related to spoilage ...

  12. Development of preservation prediction chart for long term storage of fermented cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Off-flavors and odors in fermented cucumbers result from the growth of undesirable microorganisms during the secondary fermentation. Under laboratory conditions using a sterile fermented cucumber slurry medium, the spoilage fermentations were reproduced. Using this system the salt and pH conditions ...

  13. Detection of Fruit Fly Infestation in Pickling Cucumbers using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labo...

  14. Evaluation of enzymatic and non-enzymatic softening in low salt cucumber fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Retention of a firm, crisp fruit texture is a major consideration for pickled vegetables including pickles made from fermented cucumbers. It is known that cucumbers soften rapidly when fermented at low salt concentrations (<3%) without added calcium. This study has shown that there is non-enzymati...

  15. Engineering Research on Quality Detection of Pickling Cucumbers: 2009 Progress Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report briefly summarizes the three studies performed in 2009 on cucumber defect detection. Hyperspectral imaging transmittance mode has demonstrated great potential for online sorting and grading of cucumbers and pickles. However, the technique is still limited by its speed in acquiring and pr...

  16. On-Line Hyperspectral Transmittance Imaging for Internal Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral imaging technique under transmittance mode was investigated for detection of internal defect in pickling cucumbers such as carpel suture separation or hollow cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A prototype of on-line hyperspectral transmittance imaging system was developed for real...

  17. Preparation of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture for cucumber fermentations that can meet kosher guidelines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method is described for growth of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture in jars of commercially available pasteurized fresh-pack kosher dill cucumbers so that jars can be used to inoculate commercial scale cucumber fermentation tanks. A procedure is also described to transfer lactic acid bacte...

  18. Rhizoctonia belly rot in cucumber fruit using Rhizoctonia solani isolated from sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumbers are grown in rotation with sugar beets in some areas in Michigan but their interaction with important diseases affecting sugar beets is not well known. Cucumbers are known to be primarily susceptible to Rhizoctonia solani AG-4, but little is known about their susceptibility to AG 2-2 isola...

  19. QTL mapping for downy mildew resistance in cucumber inbred line WI7120 (PI 330628)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy mildew (DM) is the most devastating fungal disease of cucumber worldwide. The molecular mechanism of DM resistance in cucumber is poorly understood, and use of marker-assisted breeding for DM resistance is not widely available. Here we reported QTL mapping of DM resistance with 243 F2:3 famili...

  20. Identification and characterisation of Dof transcription factors in the cucumber genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is susceptible to many foliage diseases. Although candidate genes for resistances to several pathogens in cucumber have been reported, the underlying defence mechanisms remain unclear. The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) proteins are a group of plant-specific transcription factors that ha...

  1. Small, repetitive DNAs contribute significantly to the expanded mitochondrial genome of cucumber.

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, J W; Havey, M J

    2001-01-01

    Closely related cucurbit species possess eightfold differences in the sizes of their mitochondrial genomes. We cloned mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments showing strong hybridization signals to cucumber mtDNA and little or no signal to watermelon mtDNA. The cucumber mtDNA clones carried short (30-53 bp), repetitive DNA motifs that were often degenerate, overlapping, and showed no homology to any sequences currently in the databases. On the basis of dot-blot hybridizations, seven repetitive DNA motifs accounted for >13% (194 kb) of the cucumber mitochondrial genome, equaling >50% of the size of the Arabidopsis mitochondrial genome. Sequence analysis of 136 kb of cucumber mtDNA revealed only 11.2% with significant homology to previously characterized mitochondrial sequences, 2.4% to chloroplast DNA, and 15% to the seven repetitive DNA motifs. The remaining 71.4% of the sequence was unique to the cucumber mitochondrial genome. There was <4% sequence colinearity surrounding the watermelon and cucumber atp9 coding regions, and the much smaller watermelon mitochondrial genome possessed no significant amounts of cucumber repetitive DNAs. Our results demonstrate that the expanded cucumber mitochondrial genome is in part due to extensive duplication of short repetitive sequences, possibly by recombination and/or replication slippage. PMID:11560907

  2. Genome-wide Characterization of Simple Sequence Repeats in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is an important vegetable crop worldwide, but progress in genetic and genomics research in this crop is slow. Recently the genomes of two cucumber genotypes were sequenced, (ibred line ‘9930’ and pickling cultivar ‘Gy14’), which provides a powerful tool for developing markers in large scale...

  3. SEQUENCING OF CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVUS L.) CHLOROPLAST GENOMES IDENTIFIES PUTATIVE CANDIDATE GENES FOR CHILLING TOLERANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilling injury in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is conditioned by maternal factors and the sequencing of its chloroplast (cp) genome could lead to the identification of economically important candidate genes. Complete sequencing of cucumber cpDNA was facilitated by the development of 414 consensus...

  4. A truncated F-box protein confers the dwarfism in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dwarfism is an important plant architecture trait for cucumber breeding. In the present study, we identified a dwarf mutant 406M in cucumber which showed a shorter internode length as compared with its wild type. In a BC1F2 population from the cross of 406M with its wild type parental line 406, the ...

  5. Genome sequencing, genetic diversity and field detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using LAMP technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent outbreaks of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus on cucumber, melon and watermelon in Australia, Canada, and the U.S. highlight the importance in implementing a cleaned seed program to manage this seed-borne virus from introduction. Both Canadian and Australian isolates were closely relate...

  6. Genome-wide characterization of simple sequence repeats in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is an important vegetable crop worldwide, but progress in genetic and genomics research in this crop is slow. Recently the genomes of two cucumber genotypes were sequenced, (ibred line ‘9930’ and pickling cultivar ‘Gy14’), which provides a powerful tool for developing markers in large scale...

  7. Inheritance of Beta-Carotene-Associated Flesh Color in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutritional value of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) can be improved by the introgression of ß-carotene (i.e., provitamin A and/or orange flesh) genes from “Xishuangbanna gourd” (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan) into U.S. pickling cucumber. However, the genetics of ß-carote...

  8. Putative paternal factors controlling chilling tolerance in Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilling temperatures (<10 degrees C) may cause damage to Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants during winter and early spring growing seasons. Inheritance to chilling in U.S. processing cucumber is controlled by cytoplasmic (maternally) and nuclear factors. To understand inherit...

  9. Bag-in-box technology: Temperature prediction during blanching and cooling of cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the bag-in-box procedure cucumbers are blanched before brining to inactivate the natural microflora and enzymes present in them. In addition, it is desired that the temperature of the cucumbers after blanching and brining should not exceed 32 deg C (90 deg F), so as to minimize textural loss due ...

  10. Genetic Diversity of USDA Cucumis metuliferus E. Mey. Collection Revealed by Cucumber Genomic Microsatellite Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumis metuliferus E. Mey. ex Naud (African horned cucumber, AHC) is indigenous to Africa and is a relative of cultivated cucumber (C. sativus L.) and melon (C. melo L.). AHC is being promoted as a specialty fruit crop in a number of countries. In addition, several traits in C. metuliferus such as ...

  11. Maternal Effects Supersede Nuclear Effects Conditioning Chilling Response in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilling damage can be a major determinant of yield reduction in cucumber production by acting to alter in sex expression, flowering dates, and plant development. Previous research determined that the ability of cucumber plants to withstand a chilling event (i.e., tolerance and susceptibility) is d...

  12. Determination of germination quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seed by LED-induced hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: We developed a viability evaluation method for cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seed using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. Methods: Reflectance spectra of cucumber seeds in the 400 to 1000 nm range were collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED ill...

  13. Expression patterns of genes encoding plasma membrane aquaporins during fruit development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Ren; Li, Dianbo; Xu, Fengfeng; Sun, Qianqian; Zhao, Bin; Mao, Ai-Jun; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-11-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels precisely regulating water movement through cell membranes in most living organisms. Despite the advances in the physiology of fruit development, their participation during fruit development in cucumber still barely understood. In this paper, the expressions of 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) were analyzed during cucumber fruit development in our work. Based on the homology search with known PIPs from rice, Arabidopsis and strawberry, 12 cucumber PIP genes subfamily members were identified. Cellular localization assays indicated that CsPIPs were localized in the plasma membrane. The qRT-PCR analysis of CsPIPs showed that 12 CsPIPs were differentially expressed during fruit development. These results suggest that 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (CsPIPs) play very important roles in cucumber life cycle and the data generated will be helpful in understanding their precise roles during fruit development in cucumber. PMID:26351149

  14. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of red-color spoilage in cucumber pickle products.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; Kelling, R E; Hale, S; Breidt, F; McFeeters, R F

    2007-09-01

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in pickled cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the fruits. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from 2 outbreaks of this spoilage that occurred about 15 y apart during the last 3 decades. Both organisms were shown to produce this spoilage when inoculated into pickled cucumbers while concomitantly degrading the azo dye tartrazine (FD&C yellow nr 5). This food dye is used as a yellow coloring in the brine cover solutions of commercial pickled cucumber products. The red color does not occur in the absence of tartrazine, nor when turmeric is used as a yellow coloring in the pickles. Addition of sodium benzoate to the brine cover solutions of a pickled cucumber product, more specifically hamburger dill pickles, prevented growth of these lactic acid bacteria and the development of the red spoilage. PMID:17995647

  15. AtTCTP2 mRNA and protein movement correlates with formation of adventitious roots in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Toscano-Morales, Roberto; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Martínez-Navarro, Angélica Concepción; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    The Translationally Controlled Tumor Proteins, or TCTP, is a superfamily of exclusively eukaryotic proteins essential in the regulation of proliferation and general growth. However, it is clear that these are multifunctional proteins given (1) the pleiotropic effects of its mutations, and (2), the multiple processes in which this protein is involved. TCTP function in general is conserved, since Arabidopsis AtTCTP1 can rescue a Drosophila mutant, and vice versa. It has become clear, however, that these proteins may have "taxon-specific" functions. In the case of plants, mRNA and/or proteins have been found in the phloem translocation stream of different species, suggesting a role in long-distance signaling. We have found that a second Arabidopsis TCTP gene, AtTCTP2, codes for a protein that moves long-distance through a graft union in tobacco. Interestingly, the mRNA is also transported long-distance. Both mRNA and protein move long-distance; interestingly, the movement, while more efficient from source to sink tissues, also occurs in the opposite direction. The protein reaches the nuclei of parenchyma cells and adventitious roots. Furthermore, it is clear that the long-distance delivery of AtTCTP2 protein and mRNA is required for the induction of adventitious roots. A model is presented that accounts for these observations. PMID:26237533

  16. AtTCTP2 mRNA and protein movement correlates with formation of adventitious roots in tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Toscano-Morales, Roberto; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Martínez-Navarro, Angélica Concepción; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The Translationally Controlled Tumor Proteins, or TCTP, is a superfamily of exclusively eukaryotic proteins essential in the regulation of proliferation and general growth. However, it is clear that these are multifunctional proteins given (1) the pleiotropic effects of its mutations, and (2), the multiple processes in which this protein is involved. TCTP function in general is conserved, since Arabidopsis AtTCTP1 can rescue a Drosophila mutant, and vice versa. It has become clear, however, that these proteins may have “taxon-specific” functions. In the case of plants, mRNA and/or proteins have been found in the phloem translocation stream of different species, suggesting a role in long-distance signaling. We have found that a second Arabidopsis TCTP gene, AtTCTP2, codes for a protein that moves long-distance through a graft union in tobacco. Interestingly, the mRNA is also transported long-distance. Both mRNA and protein move long-distance; interestingly, the movement, while more efficient from source to sink tissues, also occurs in the opposite direction. The protein reaches the nuclei of parenchyma cells and adventitious roots. Furthermore, it is clear that the long-distance delivery of AtTCTP2 protein and mRNA is required for the induction of adventitious roots. A model is presented that accounts for these observations. PMID:26237533

  17. Nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide alleviate drought stress in marigold explants and promote its adventitious root development.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei-Biao; Huang, Gao-Bao; Yu, Ji-Hua; Zhang, Mei-Ling

    2012-09-01

    Drought stress is one of the most important environmental factors that regulates plant growth and development. In this study, we examined the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on adventitious rooting in marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) under drought stress. The results showed that the promoting effect of NO or H(2)O(2) on rooting under drought stress was dose-dependent, with a maximal biological response at 10 μM NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or 600 μM H(2)O(2). Results also indicated that endogenous NO and H(2)O(2) may play crucial roles in rooting under drought conditions, and H(2)O(2) may be involved in rooting promoted by NO under drought stress. NO or H(2)O(2) treatment attenuated the destruction of mesophyll cells ultrastructure by drought stress. Similarly, NO or H(2)O(2) increased leaf chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, ΦPS II and qP), and hypocotyls soluble carbohydrate and protein content, while decreasing starch content. Results suggest that the protection of mesophyll cells ultrastructure by NO or H(2)O(2) under drought conditions improves the photosynthetic performance of leaves and alleviates the negative effects of drought on carbohydrate and nitrogen accumulation in explants, thereby adventitious rooting being promoted. PMID:22771430

  18. Water uptake by seminal and adventitious roots in relation to whole-plant water flow in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Knipfer, Thorsten; Fricke, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    Prior to an assessment of the role of aquaporins in root water uptake, the main path of water movement in different types of root and driving forces during day and night need to be known. In the present study on hydroponically grown barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) the two main root types of 14- to 17-d-old plants were analysed for hydraulic conductivity in dependence of the main driving force (hydrostatic, osmotic). Seminal roots contributed 92% and adventitious roots 8% to plant water uptake. The lower contribution of adventitious compared with seminal roots was associated with a smaller surface area and number of roots per plant and a lower axial hydraulic conductance, and occurred despite a less-developed endodermis. The radial hydraulic conductivity of the two types of root was similar and depended little on the prevailing driving force, suggesting that water uptake occurred along a pathway that involved crossing of membrane(s). Exudation experiments showed that osmotic forces were sufficient to support night-time transpiration, yet transpiration experiments and cuticle permeance data questioned the significance of osmotic forces. During the day, 90% of water uptake was driven by a tension of about –0.15 MPa. PMID:20974734

  19. Effect of CTRP3 on activation of adventitial fibroblasts induced by TGF-β1 from rat aorta in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shaohui; Ma, Shaojun; Lu, Ping; Cai, Wenwei; Chen, Yi; Sheng, Jing

    2014-01-01

    CTRP3, discovered as novel adipokines, is a member of the C1q tumor necrosis factor (TNF) related protein (CTRP) super-family. CTRP3 is found to function as adipokines that display diverse biological activities in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Recent study demonstrated that CTRP3 was protective against pathological cardiac remodeling in mice. Nevertheless, the effect of CTRP3 on vascular remodeling remains undefined. Our present study aimed to explore the effects of adipokine CTRP3 on the activation of adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) induced by TGF-β1. Immunofluorescent staining, real-time PCR and Western blot were conducted to evaluate the expression of α-smooth muscle-actin (α-SMA) and collagen I. The expression of CTGF was evaluated by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the proliferation and migration of adventitial fibroblasts were detected by using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and Transwell technique, respectively. Functional analysis showed that CTRP3 inhibited TGF-β1 inducing AFs phenotypic conversion, collagen synthesis, proliferation and migration. The secretion of CTGF was also inhibited by CTRP3. Our findings suggest that CTRP3 may be beneficial to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and provide a promising therapeutic strategy to attenuate vascular remodeling. PMID:24966928

  20. Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant growth performance and foliar nutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Ravnskov, S; Larsen, J

    2016-09-01

    Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant and fungal growth, and foliar nutrient composition from all possible combinations of six cucumber varieties and three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was evaluated. Measurements of foliar nutrient composition included N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu. Growth of AM fungi was measured in terms of root colonisation, as examined with microscopy and the AM fungus biomarker fatty acid 16:1ω5 from both phospholipids and neutral lipids. Different responses of plant growth and foliar nutrient profiles were observed for the different AM symbioses examined. The AM fungus Claroideoglomus claroideum caused growth depression in association with four out of six cucumber varieties; Rhizophagus irregularis caused growth promotion in one of six cucumber varieties; whereas Funneliformis mosseae had no effect on the growth performance of any of the cucumber varieties examined. All three AM fungi markedly altered host plant shoot nutrient composition, with the strongest contrast observed between cucumber-R. irregularis symbioses and non-mycorrhizal cucumber plants, independent of cucumber variety. On the other hand, AM fungal growth in roots differed between the three AM fungi, but was unaffected by host genotype. Strong build-up of storage lipids was observed for R. irregularis, which was more moderate in the two other AM fungi. In conclusion, strong differential responses of cucumber varieties to inoculation with different AM fungi in terms of growth and shoot nutrient composition revealed high functional diversity in AM symbioses in cucumber plants. PMID:27094118

  1. Detection of mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariana, D.; Lu, R.; Guyer, D.

    2005-11-01

    Automated detection of defects on freshly harvested pickling cucumbers will help the pickle industry provide higher quality pickle products and reduce potential economic losses. Research was conducted on using a hyperspectral imaging system for detecting defects on pickling cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture both spatial and spectral information from cucumbers in the spectral region of 900 - 1700 nm. The system consisted of an imaging spectrograph attached to an InGaAs camera with line-light fiber bundles as an illumination source. Cucumber samples were subjected to two forms of mechanical loading, dropping and rolling, to simulate stress caused by mechanical harvesting. Hyperspectral images were acquired from the cucumbers over time periods of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 6 days after mechanical stress. Hyperspectral image processing methods, including principal component analysis and wavelength selection, were developed to separate normal and mechanically injured cucumbers. Results showed that reflectance from normal or non-bruised cucumbers was consistently higher than that from bruised cucumbers. The spectral region between 950 and 1350 nm was found to be most effective for bruise detection. The hyperspectral imaging system detected all mechanically injured cucumbers immediately after they were bruised. The overall detection accuracy was 97% within two hours of bruising and it was lower as time progressed. Lower detection accuracies for the prolonged times after bruising were attributed to the self- healing of the bruised tissue after mechanical injury. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers.

  2. Plant Hormone Homeostasis, Signaling, and Function during Adventitious Root Formation in Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation in cuttings is a multiphase developmental process, resulting from wounding at the cutting site and isolation from the resource and signal network of the whole plant. Though, promotive effects of auxins are widely used for clonal plant propagation, the regulation and function of plant hormones and their intricate signaling networks during AR formation in cuttings are poorly understood. In this focused review, we discuss our recent publications on the involvement of polar auxin transport (PAT) and transcriptional regulation of auxin and ethylene action during AR formation in petunia cuttings in a broad context. Integrating new findings on cuttings of other plant species and general models on plant hormone networks, a model on the regulation and function of auxin, ethylene, and jasmonate in AR formation of cuttings is presented. PAT and cutting off from the basipetal auxin drain are considered as initial principles generating early accumulation of IAA in the rooting zone. This is expected to trigger a self-regulatory process of auxin canalization and maximization to responding target cells, there inducing the program of AR formation. Regulation of auxin homeostasis via auxin influx and efflux carriers, GH3 proteins and peroxidases, of flavonoid metabolism, and of auxin signaling via AUX/IAA proteins, TOPLESS, ARFs, and SAUR-like proteins are postulated as key processes determining the different phases of AR formation. NO and H2O2 mediate auxin signaling via the cGMP and MAPK cascades. Transcription factors of the GRAS-, AP2/ERF-, and WOX-families link auxin signaling to cell fate specification. Cyclin-mediated governing of the cell cycle, modifications of sugar metabolism and microtubule and cell wall remodeling are considered as important implementation processes of auxin function. Induced by the initial wounding and other abiotic stress factors, up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, and signaling via ERFs and early accumulation of

  3. Plant Hormone Homeostasis, Signaling, and Function during Adventitious Root Formation in Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R.

    2016-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation in cuttings is a multiphase developmental process, resulting from wounding at the cutting site and isolation from the resource and signal network of the whole plant. Though, promotive effects of auxins are widely used for clonal plant propagation, the regulation and function of plant hormones and their intricate signaling networks during AR formation in cuttings are poorly understood. In this focused review, we discuss our recent publications on the involvement of polar auxin transport (PAT) and transcriptional regulation of auxin and ethylene action during AR formation in petunia cuttings in a broad context. Integrating new findings on cuttings of other plant species and general models on plant hormone networks, a model on the regulation and function of auxin, ethylene, and jasmonate in AR formation of cuttings is presented. PAT and cutting off from the basipetal auxin drain are considered as initial principles generating early accumulation of IAA in the rooting zone. This is expected to trigger a self-regulatory process of auxin canalization and maximization to responding target cells, there inducing the program of AR formation. Regulation of auxin homeostasis via auxin influx and efflux carriers, GH3 proteins and peroxidases, of flavonoid metabolism, and of auxin signaling via AUX/IAA proteins, TOPLESS, ARFs, and SAUR-like proteins are postulated as key processes determining the different phases of AR formation. NO and H2O2 mediate auxin signaling via the cGMP and MAPK cascades. Transcription factors of the GRAS-, AP2/ERF-, and WOX-families link auxin signaling to cell fate specification. Cyclin-mediated governing of the cell cycle, modifications of sugar metabolism and microtubule and cell wall remodeling are considered as important implementation processes of auxin function. Induced by the initial wounding and other abiotic stress factors, up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, and signaling via ERFs and early accumulation of

  4. Cucumber ECERIFERUM1 (CsCER1), which influences the cuticle properties and drought tolerance of cucumber, plays a key role in VLC alkanes biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjiao; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Chong; Ren, Jiaojiao; Liu, Xiaofeng; Black, Kezia; Gai, Xinshuang; Wang, Qian; Ren, Huazhong

    2015-02-01

    Most land plants have a wax layer which covers their aerial parts to protect them from environmental stresses, such as drought, UV radiation, and pathogenic invasion. The wax biosynthesis has been well studied previously in Arabidopsis, but it still remains elusive in cucumber. Here, we isolated a CER1 homolog CsCER1 in cucumber, and we found that the expression of CsCER1 in the cucumber line 3401 which shows waxy fruit phenotype is much higher than that in the cucumber line 3413 which displays glossy fruit phenotype. Spatial and temporal expression analyses revealed that CsCER1 is specifically expressed in the epidermis where waxes are synthesized, and sub-cellular location showed that CsCER1 protein is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The expression of CsCER1 can be induced by low temperature, drought, salt stress and abscisic acid. In addition, abnormal expressions of CsCER1 in transgenic cucumber plants have dramatic effects on very-long-chain (VLC) alkanes biosynthesis, cuticle permeability, and drought resistance. Our data suggested that CsCER1 plays an important role in VLC alkanes biosynthesis in cucumber. PMID:25539982

  5. Factors affecting adventitious regeneration from in vitro leaf explants of 'Improved French' plum, the most important dried plum cultivar in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An adventitious shoot regeneration protocol from leaves of the most important dried plum cultivar in the U.S., 'Improved French', has been established. Factors affecting regeneration were studied, and relatively high percentages have been obtained. The proliferation medium were shoots, used as the...

  6. Characteristics of Spoilage-Associated Secondary Cucumber Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Wendy; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D.; McFeeters, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological utilization of lactic acid and the formation of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. The objectives of this study were to characterize the chemical and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations and to isolate and characterize potential causative microorganisms. Both commercial spoilage samples and laboratory-reproduced secondary fermentations were evaluated. Potential causative agents were isolated based on morphological characteristics. Two yeasts, Pichia manshurica and Issatchenkia occidentalis, were identified and detected most commonly concomitantly with lactic acid utilization. In the presence of oxygen, yeast metabolic activities lead to lactic acid degradation, a small decline in the redox potential (Eh, Ag/AgCl, 3 M KCl) of the fermentation brines, and an increase in pH to levels at which bacteria other than the lactic acid bacteria responsible for the primary fermentation can grow and produce acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. Inhibition of these yeasts by allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) resulted in stabilization of the fermented medium, while the absence of the preservative resulted in the disappearance of lactic and acetic acids in a model system. Additionally, three Gram-positive bacteria, Lactobacillus buchneri, a Clostridium sp., and Pediococcus ethanolidurans, were identified as potentially relevant to different stages of the secondary fermentation. The unique opportunity to study commercial spoilage samples generated a better understanding of the microbiota and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations. PMID:22179234

  7. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumber and Botrytis cinerea during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tingting; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Jingqi; He, Xiaoqing; Jin, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Cucumber gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is considered one of the most serious cucumber diseases. With the advent of Hi-seq technology, it is possible to study the plant–pathogen interaction at the transcriptome level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of RNA-seq to identify cucumber and B. cinerea differentially expressed genes (DEGs) before and after the plant–pathogen interaction. In total, 248,908,688 raw reads were generated; after removing low-quality reads and those containing adapter and poly-N, 238,341,648 clean reads remained to map the reference genome. There were 3,512 cucumber DEGs and 1,735 B. cinerea DEGs. GO enrichment and KEGG enrichment analysis were performed on these DEGs to study the interaction between cucumber and B. cinerea. To verify the reliability and accuracy of our transcriptome data, 5 cucumber DEGs and 5 B. cinerea DEGs were chosen for RT-PCR verification. This is the first systematic transcriptome analysis of components related to the B. cinerea–cucumber interaction. Functional genes and putative pathways identified herein will increase our understanding of the mechanism of the pathogen–host interaction. PMID:26536465

  8. Diversity analysis of type I ketosynthase in rhizosphere soil of cucumber.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baixia; Gao, Zenggui; Shao, Yang; Yan, Jianfang; Hu, Yingchang; Yu, Jicheng; Liu, Qiu; Chen, Fei

    2012-04-01

    Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum (Sch1.) f.sp. cucumerinum Owen.] is a major soil-borne disease of cucumber worldwide, and can cause huge yield losses. Biological control of Fusarium wilt of cucumber has received considerable attention. Many bacteria, particularly actinomycetes, are known to produce secondary metabolites synthesized by Polyketide synthases (PKSs) with a diverse range of biological activities. Ketosynthase (KS) gene diversity was analyzed in samples which were collected from rhizosphere soil of both diseased cucumber and healthy cucumber in Dalian, China. The phylogenetic analysis amino acid (AA) sequences indicated that the KS genes in the rhizosphere soil samples were clustered into diverse seven clades, including Sorangium cellulosum, Anabaena variabilis, Nostoc punctiforme, Xanthobacter autotrophicus, Streptomyces, myxobacteria and uncultured bacteria. Among seven major clades in the phylogenetic tree, two clades were peculiar to rhizosphere soil of diseased cucumber and one was peculiar to healthy cucumber. Among the 182 cloned KS genes, 147 KS genes were clustered with the uncultured bacteria group. Most of the KS genes showed about 80% similarity at the AA level to sequences known in GenBank. These results revealed the great diversity and novelty of KS genes in rhizosphere soil of cucumber. PMID:21780139

  9. Ultraviolet-C Light Sanitization of English Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Packaged in Polyethylene Film.

    PubMed

    Tarek, Abdussamad R; Rasco, Barbara A; Sablani, Shyam S

    2016-06-01

    Food safety is becoming an increasing concern in the United States. This study investigated the effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light as a postpackaging bactericidal treatment on the quality of English cucumber packaged in polyethylene (PE) film. Escherichia coli k-12 was used as a surrogate microbe. The microbial growth and physical properties of packaged cucumbers were analyzed during a 28-d storage period at 5 °C. Inoculating packaged cucumbers treated at 23 °C for 6 min with UV-C (560 mJ/cm(2) ) resulted in a 1.60 log CFU/g reduction. However, this treatment had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the water vapor transmission rate or oxygen transmission rate of the PE film. Results show that UV-C light treatment delayed the loss of firmness and yellowing of English cucumber up to 28 d at 5 °C. In addition, UV-C light treatment extended the shelf life of treated cucumber 1 wk longer compared to untreated cucumbers. Electron microscopy images indicate that UV-C light treatment influences the morphology of the E. coli k-12 cells. Findings demonstrate that treating cucumbers with UV-C light following packaging in PE film can reduce bacterial populations significantly and delay quality loss. This technology may also be effective for other similarly packaged fresh fruits and vegetables. PMID:27097058

  10. High sequence conservation among cucumber mosaic virus isolates from lily.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y K; Derks, A F; Langeveld, S; Goldbach, R; Prins, M

    2001-08-01

    For classification of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates from ornamental crops of different geographical areas, these were characterized by comparing the nucleotide sequences of RNAs 4 and the encoded coat proteins. Within the ornamental-infecting CMV viruses both subgroups were represented. CMV isolates of Alstroemeria and crocus were classified as subgroup II isolates, whereas 8 other isolates, from lily, gladiolus, amaranthus, larkspur, and lisianthus, were identified as subgroup I members. In general, nucleotide sequence comparisons correlated well with geographic distribution, with one notable exception: the analyzed nucleotide sequences of 5 lily isolates showed remarkably high homology despite different origins. PMID:11676424

  11. A sulfated alpha-L-fucan from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A C; Vieira, R P; Mourão, P A; Mulloy, B

    1994-03-01

    A purified sulfated alpha-L-fucan from the sea cucumber body wall was studied, before and after almost complete desulfation, using methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. NMR analysis indicates that 2,4-di-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose and unsubstituted fucopyranose are present in equal proportions, and that 2-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose is present in twice that proportion. There is some NMR evidence that a regular repeating sequence of four residues comprises most or all of the polysaccharide chain. PMID:8181009

  12. De Novo Characterization of the Mung Bean Transcriptome and Transcriptomic Analysis of Adventitious Rooting in Seedlings Using RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-Weng; Shi, Rui-Fang; Leng, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Adventitious rooting is the most important mechanism underlying vegetative propagation and an important strategy for plant propagation under environmental stress. The present study was conducted to obtain transcriptomic data and examine gene expression using RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analysis, thereby providing a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting. Three cDNA libraries constructed from mRNA samples from mung bean hypocotyls during adventitious rooting were sequenced. These three samples generated a total of 73 million, 60 million, and 59 million 100-bp reads, respectively. These reads were assembled into 78,697 unigenes with an average length of 832 bp, totaling 65 Mb. The unigenes were aligned against six public protein databases, and 29,029 unigenes (36.77%) were annotated using BLASTx. Among them, 28,225 (35.75%) and 28,119 (35.62%) unigenes had homologs in the TrEMBL and NCBI non-redundant (Nr) databases, respectively. Of these unigenes, 21,140 were assigned to gene ontology classes, and a total of 11,990 unigenes were classified into 25 KOG functional categories. A total of 7,357 unigenes were annotated to 4,524 KOs, and 4,651 unigenes were mapped onto 342 KEGG pathways using BLAST comparison against the KEGG database. A total of 11,717 unigenes were differentially expressed (fold change>2) during the root induction stage, with 8,772 unigenes down-regulated and 2,945 unigenes up-regulated. A total of 12,737 unigenes were differentially expressed during the root initiation stage, with 9,303 unigenes down-regulated and 3,434 unigenes up-regulated. A total of 5,334 unigenes were differentially expressed between the root induction and initiation stage, with 2,167 unigenes down-regulated and 3,167 unigenes up-regulated. qRT-PCR validation of the 39 genes with known functions indicated a strong correlation (92.3%) with the RNA-Seq data. The GO enrichment, pathway mapping, and gene expression profiles reveal

  13. Accounting for nanometer-thick adventitious carbon contamination in X-ray absorption spectra of carbon-based materials.

    PubMed

    Mangolini, Filippo; McClimon, J Brandon; Rose, Franck; Carpick, Robert W

    2014-12-16

    Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is a powerful technique for characterizing the composition and bonding state of nanoscale materials and the top few nanometers of bulk and thin film specimens. When coupled with imaging methods like photoemission electron microscopy, it enables chemical imaging of materials with nanometer-scale lateral spatial resolution. However, analysis of NEXAFS spectra is often performed under the assumption of structural and compositional homogeneity within the nanometer-scale depth probed by this technique. This assumption can introduce large errors when analyzing the vast majority of solid surfaces due to the presence of complex surface and near-surface structures such as oxides and contamination layers. An analytical methodology is presented for removing the contribution of these nanoscale overlayers from NEXAFS spectra of two-layered systems to provide a corrected photoabsorption spectrum of the substrate. This method relies on the subtraction of the NEXAFS spectrum of the overlayer adsorbed on a reference surface from the spectrum of the two-layer system under investigation, where the thickness of the overlayer is independently determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This approach is applied to NEXAFS data acquired for one of the most challenging cases: air-exposed hard carbon-based materials with adventitious carbon contamination from ambient exposure. The contribution of the adventitious carbon was removed from the as-acquired spectra of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) to determine the intrinsic photoabsorption NEXAFS spectra of these materials. The method alters the calculated fraction of sp(2)-hybridized carbon from 5 to 20% and reveals that the adventitious contamination can be described as a layer containing carbon and oxygen ([O]/[C] = 0.11 ± 0.02) with a thickness of 0.6 ± 0.2 nm and a fraction of sp(2)-bonded carbon of 0.19 ± 0.03. This

  14. Occidental diffusion of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) 500–1300 CE: two routes to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2012-01-01

    Background The cucumber, Cucumis sativus, is one of the most widely consumed fruit vegetables the world over. The history of its dispersal to the Occident from its centre of origin, the Indian subcontinent, has been incorrectly understood for some time, due to the confusion of cucumbers with vegetable melons. Iconographic and literary evidence has shown that cucumber was absent in Roman times, up to 500 CE, but present in Europe by late medieval times, 1300. The objective of the present investigation was to determine more accurately when the cucumber arrived in Europe and by what route. Findings and Conclusions The evidence for the movement of C. sativus westward is entirely lexicographical until the 10th century. Syriac, Persian and Byzantine Greek sources suggest the presence of cucumbers, to the east and north-east of the Mediterranean Sea (modern Iran, Iraq and Turkey), by the 6th or 7th century. Arabic medical writings suggest the presence of cucumbers in Spain as early as the mid-9th century and in Tunisia by the early 10th century. Descriptive evidence in Arabic establishes the presence of cucumbers in Andalusia by the second half of the 10th century. Latin translations from Arabic sources indicate the presence of cucumbers in southern Italy by the second half of the 11th century. These writings, together with lexicographical discrepancies in names of cucurbits in late medieval Latin writings, suggest that cucumber was introduced to Europe by two independent diffusions. One diffusion appears to have been overland from Persia into eastern and northern Europe and preceded the Islamic conquests. The other, subsequent diffusion into western and southern Europe, was probably by a mostly maritime route from Persia or the Indian subcontinent into Andalusia. PMID:22104164

  15. Safety Assessment of Cucumis sativus (Cucumber)-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-05-26

    The CIR Expert Panel assessed the safety of 6 Cucumis sativus (cucumber)-derived ingredients and found them safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. These ingredients are reported to function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents. Cucumber is a commonly consumed food with no history of significant adverse effects, suggesting that its ingredients should not pose any major safety issues following oral exposure. This assessment focused on the dermal exposure to the low concentrations of these ingredients as used in cosmetics. Some of the constituents of cucumbers have been assessed previously for safe use as cosmetic ingredients. PMID:24861368

  16. A new indicator in early drought diagnosis of cucumber with chlorophyll fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Heng; Li, Haifeng; Xu, Liang; Liu, Xu

    2015-05-01

    Crop population growth information can more fully reflect the state of crop growth, eliminate individual differences, and reduce error in judgment. We have built a suitable plant population growth information online monitoring system with the plant chlorophyll fluorescence and spectral scanning imaging to get the crop growth status. On the basis of the fluorescence image detection, we have studied the early drought diagnosis of cucumber. The typical chlorophyll fluorescence parameters can not reflect the drought degree significantly. We define a new indication parameter (DI). With the drought deepening, DI declines. DI can enlarge the early manifestation of cucumber drought (3-5 days), indicate more significantly in the early drought diagnosis of cucumber.

  17. Ethylene and adventitious root formation in hypocotyl segments of etiolated mung-bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Batten, D J; Mullins, M G

    1978-01-01

    Rooting responses and ethylene production by hypocotyl cuttings from etiolated mung-bean seedlings treated with the auxins α-naphthaleneacetic acid, γ-(indole-3)-n-butyric acid (IBA) and 2,4,5-trichloro-phenoxypropionic acid were determined. There was no relationship between the abilities of the auxins to induce root formation and their capacities for inducing ethylene production. Studies with mixtures of 3-indoleacetic acid, a poor stimulator of rooting but an effective inducer of ethylene production, and IBA, an effective rooting stimulator but a poor inducer of ethylene production, exposure of cuttings to ethylene or (2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid (Ethephon), hypobaric storage (150 mb) of treated cuttings, and exposure of auxin-treated cuttings to 7% CO2 also indicated that ethylene is not directly involved in initiation of adventitious roots in this plant material. PMID:24414045

  18. Chain conformational and physicochemical properties of fucoidans from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoqi; Xue, Changhu; Chang, Yaoguang; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Kunhao

    2016-11-01

    Although fucoidans from sea cucumber (SC-FUCs) have been proven as potential bioactive polysaccharides and functional food ingridents, their chain conformation and physicochemical properties were still poorly understood. This study investigated the chain conformation of fucoidans from sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides (Am-FUC), Isostichopus badionotus (Ib-FUC) and Apostichopus japonicus (Aj-FUC), of which primary structure has been recently clarified. Chain conformation parameters demonstrated that studied SC-FUCs adopted random coil conformation in 150mM NaCl solution (pH 7.4). Based on the worm-like cylinder model and atomic force microscopy, the chain stiffness of SC-FUCs was further evaluated as Am-FUC≈Ib-FUC>Aj-FUC. It was suggested that the existence of branch structure increased the chain flexibility, while sulfated pattern exerted limited influence. SC-FUCs demonstrated shear-thinning rheological behavior and negative charge. Am-FUC possessed a higher thermostability than Ib-FUC and Aj-FUC. These results have important implications for understanding the molecular characteristics of SC-FUCs, which could facilitate their further application. PMID:27516290

  19. Autolysis and extension of isolated walls from growing cucumber hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.; Durachko, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    Walls isolated from cucumber hypocotyls retain autolytic activities and the ability to extend when placed under the appropriate conditions. To test whether autolysis and extension are related, we treated the walls in various ways to enhance or inhibit long-term wall extension ('creep') and measured autolysis as release of various saccharides from the wall. Except for some non-specific inhibitors of enzymatic activity, we found no correlation between wall extension and wall autolysis. Most notably, autolysis and extension differed strongly in their pH dependence. We also found that exogenous cellulases and pectinases enhanced extension in native walls, but when applied to walls previously inactivated with heat or protease these enzymes caused breakage without sustained extension. In contrast, pretreatment of walls with pectinase or cellulase, followed by boiling in methanol to inactivate the enzymes, resulted in walls with much stronger expansin-mediated extension responses. Crude protein preparations from the digestive tracts of snails enhanced extension of both native and inactivated walls, and these preparations contained expansin-like proteins (assessed by Western blotting). Our results indicate that the extension of isolated cucumber walls does not depend directly on the activity of endogenous wall-bound autolytic enzymes. The results with exogenous enzymes suggest that the hydrolysis of matrix polysaccharides may not induce wall creep by itself, but may act synergistically with expansins to enhance wall extension.

  20. [Allelopathy of different plants on wheat, cucumber and radish seedlings].

    PubMed

    Shen, Huimin; Guo, Hongru; Huang, Gaobao

    2005-04-01

    By means of bioassay in laboratory and field, this paper studied the allelopathy of 18 kinds of plants in Gansu Province on the seedlings of wheat, cucumber and radish. The results showed that the aqueous extract of the stems and leaves of Artemisia annua, Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium had the strongest allelopathy on test receptor plants, and their synthetic inhibitory effect (SE) was 47.66%, 32.89% and 26.63%, respectively. The SE of Xanthium sibiricum, Portulaca oleraca, Cephalanoplos segetum, and Chenopodium album was 21.71%, 20.93%, 20.83% and 20.2%, respectively, while Vicia amoena (SE 3.5%), Setaria viridis (SE 2.2%), and Cymamchum chinense (SE 1.97%) had a weaker allelopathy. Chenopodium ambrosioides (SE - 1.03%), Polygonum caespitosum (SE - 1.63%) and Avena fatua (SE 5.33%) had no evident allelopathy, but Artemisia annua affected the seedling height and fresh weight of radish, cucumber, wheat and maize, with the SE being 54.07%, 38.46%, 33.35% and 20.88%, respectively. Artemisia annua had a 44.70% of SE on wheat growth, and thus, had a certain value to develop and use. PMID:16011179

  1. Stress stimulus induced resistance to Cladosporium cucumerinum in cucumber seeding.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huan; Wang, Bo-Chu; Zhao, Hu-Cheng; Wang, Jing Bo

    2005-07-25

    Up to date, the studies of plant induced resistance have become the focus in plant pathology and physiology. During the course of pathogens penetrating the plant cell, besides of chemical secretion, the pathogens may generate mechanical signal caused by the physical pressure on the plant cell. In the non-host resistance, both the chemical signal and the mechanical stress signal are considered to have contribution to the entire defense reaction acted by the plant. The penetration of pathogen Cladosporium cucumerinum to cucumber is thought to be one of the model in research of plant induced resistance. In the current study, as a mechanical signal elicitor, the appropriate stress stimulus was proved to effectually induce the resistance of cucumber seedling to C. cucumerinum. After the treatment of the stress stimulus on leaves, the activities of resistance-related enzymes were significantly increased, such as phenylanine ammonia lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POD). Also, we found that stress stimulation may cause synthesis of lignin, which acts as the physical barrier to defense the pathogens. The results suggest that stress stimulation may not only enhance ability of the plant cell resistance to pathogen penetration but also elicit the accumulation of pathogens suppression or antimicrobial chemical substance in the plant cell. PMID:16002268

  2. Adventitious Arsenate Reductase Activity of the Catalytic Domain of the Human Cdc25B and Cdc25C Phosphatases†

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Sheng, Ju; Ajees, A. Abdul; Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Rosen, Barry P.

    2013-01-01

    A number of eukaryotic enzymes that function as arsenate reductases are homologues of the catalytic domain of the human Cdc25 phosphatase. For example, the Leishmania major enzyme LmACR2 is both a phosphatase and an arsenate reductase, and its structure bears similarity to the structure of the catalytic domain of human Cdc25 phosphatase. These reductases contain an active site C-X5-R signature motif, where C is the catalytic cysteine, the five X residues form a phosphate binding loop, and R is a highly conserved arginine, which is also present in human Cdc25 phosphatases. We therefore investigated the possibility that the three human Cdc25 isoforms might have adventitious arsenate reductase activity. The sequences for the catalytic domains of Cdc25A, -B, and -C were cloned individually into a prokaryotic expression vector, and their gene products were purified from a bacterial host using nickel affinity chromatography. While each of the three Cdc25 catalytic domains exhibited phosphatase activity, arsenate reductase activity was observed only with Cdc25B and -C. These two enzymes reduced inorganic arsenate but not methylated pentavalent arsenicals. Alteration of either the cysteine and arginine residues of the Cys-X5-Arg motif led to the loss of both reductase and phosphatase activities. Our observations suggest that Cdc25B and -C may adventitiously reduce arsenate to the more toxic arsenite and may also provide a framework for identifying other human protein tyrosine phosphatases containing the active site Cys-X5-Arg loop that might moonlight as arsenate reductases. PMID:20025242

  3. Activity and isoforms of peroxidases, lignin and anatomy, during adventitious rooting in cuttings of Ebenus cretica L.

    PubMed

    Syros, Thomas; Yupsanis, Traianos; Zafiriadis, Helias; Economou, Athanasios

    2004-01-01

    Adventitious rooting of Ebenus cretica cuttings was studied in order to examine a) the rooting ability of different genotypes in relation to electrophoretic patterns of peroxidases. b) the activity and electrophoretic patterns of soluble and wall ionically bound peroxidases, the lignin content and anatomical changes in the control and IBA treated cuttings of and genotypes in the course of adventitious root formation. In addition, a fraction of soluble cationic peroxidases was separated by gel filtration chromatography from the total soluble peroxidases of a genotype. No rooting occurred in cuttings without IBA-treatment. In both genotypes, electrophoretic patterns of soluble anionic peroxidases revealed two common peroxidase isoforms, while a fast-migrating anionic peroxidase isoform (A3) appeared only in genotypes. Both genotypes showed similar patterns of soluble, as well as wall ionically bound cationic peroxidase isoforms. The number of isoforms was unchanged during the rooting process (induction, initiation and expression phase) but an increase in peroxidase activity (initiation phase) followed by decrease has been found in IBA-treated cuttings. During initiation phase the lignin content was almost similar to that on day 0 in genotype while it was reduced at by about 50% in genotype at the respective time. Microscopic observations revealed anatomical differences between genotypes. According to this study, the and genotypes display differences in anatomy, lignin content, activity of soluble peroxidases and the electrophoretic patterns of soluble anionic peroxidase isoforms. The A3-anionic peroxidase isoform could be used as biochemical marker to distinguish and genotypes of E. cretica and seems to be correlated to lignin synthesis in rooting process. PMID:15002666

  4. Odontonema cuspidatum and Psychotria punctata, two new cucumber mosaic virus hosts identified in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide host range of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been expanded by the identification of Odontonema cuspidatum (firespike) and Psychotria punctata (dotted wild coffee) as CMV hosts in Florida....

  5. A hyperspectral imaging prototype for online quality evaluation of pickling cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hyperspectral imaging prototype was developed for online evaluation of external and internal quality of pickling cucumbers. The prototype had several new, unique features including simultaneous reflectance and transmittance imaging and inline, real time calibration of hyperspectral images of each ...

  6. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  7. Pasteuria penetrans for control of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato and cucumber, and M. arenaria on snapdragon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria, are important parasitic nematodes of vegetable and ornamental crops. Field microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to test commercial formulations of the biocontrol agent Pasteuria penetrans for control of M. incognita on tomato and cucumbe...

  8. Use of species-specific PCR for the identification of 10 sea cucumber species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jing; Zeng, Ling

    2014-11-01

    We developed a species-specific PCR method to identify species among dehydrated products of 10 sea cucumber species. Ten reverse species-specific primers designed from the 16S rRNA gene, in combination with one forward universal primer, generated PCR fragments of ca. 270 bp length for each species. The specificity of the PCR assay was tested with DNA of samples of 21 sea cucumber species. Amplification was observed in specific species only. The species-specific PCR method we developed was successfully applied to authenticate species of commercial products of dehydrated sea cucumber, and was proven to be a useful, rapid, and low-cost technique to identify the origin of the sea cucumber product.

  9. [Effects of NO3- stress on cucumber seedling growth and magnesium absorbing under suboptimal temperature].

    PubMed

    Yang, Quan-yong; Wang, Xiu-feng; Han, Yu-rui; Yang, Jing-jing; Wei, Min; Yang, Feng-juan; Shi, Qing-hua; Li, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The effects of NO3- stress on the growth and the magnesium absorption of cucumber seedlings were investigated after 1 and 14 d of suboptimal temperature [18 °C/12 °C (day/night)] treatment. The results indicated that the growth, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, Fv/Fm and ΦPSII of cucumber seedlings were significantly inhibited by NO3- stress under suboptimal temperature. The magnesium content of cucumber seedlings was also significantly decreased compared with control treatment, especially in the IV treatment (suboptimal temperature +140 mmol · L(-1) NO3- + 1 mmol · L(-1) Mg2+), and the antagonistic impact of magnesium ion absorption on the absorption of potassium and calcium ion was observed. The magnesium deficiency symptom of cucumber seedlings could be partly alleviated by increasing the concentration of magnesium ion in the nutrient solution. PMID:26571650

  10. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.

    2011-06-01

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labor intensive and also prone to error due to human fatigue and the difficulty of visually detecting infestation that is hidden inside the fruit. In this research, a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system was used to detect fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers. Hyperspectral reflectance (450-740 nm) and transmittance (740-1,000 nm) images were acquired simultaneously for 329 normal (infestation free) and fruit flyinfested pickling cucumbers of three size classes with the mean diameters of 16.8, 22.1, and 27.6 mm, respectively. Mean spectra were extracted from the hyperspectral image of each cucumber, and they were then corrected for the fruit size effect using a diameter correction equation. Partial least squares discriminant analyses for the reflectance, transmittance and their combined data were performed for differentiating normal and infested pickling cucumbers. With reflectance mode, the overall classification accuracies for the three size classes and mixed class were between 82% and 88%, whereas transmittance achieved better classification results with the overall accuracies of 88%-93%. Integration of reflectance and transmittance did not result in noticeable improvements, compared to transmittance mode. Overall, the hyperspectral imaging system performed better than manual inspection, which had an overall accuracy of 75% and decreased significantly for smaller size cucumbers. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is potentially useful for detecting fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers.

  11. Exposure to Dust and Endotoxin of Employees in Cucumber and Tomato Nurseries

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, A. M.; Hansen, V. M.; Nielsen, S. H.; Olsen, T. T.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to bioaerosols in occupational settings is associated with a range of adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure levels to dust and endotoxin of people working in two cucumber nurseries and two tomato nurseries. Exposure was measured for greenhouse workers (n = 70) mainly working on harvesting cucumbers and tomatoes and clearing the plants after the harvest season. The people were exposed to between 0.2 and 15 mg inhalable dust m−3 (median = 1.6 mg m−3) and between 0.5 and 400 ng inhalable endotoxin m−3 (median = 32 ng m−3). The exposure to ‘total dust’ and endotoxin measured by stationary samplers (n = 30) in the greenhouses was low. Endotoxin was present in relatively high concentrations on cucumber leaves compared with leaves on pot plants. The Danish occupational exposure limit (OEL) for total organic dust is 3 mg m−3 and 36% and 17% of the cucumber and tomato workers, respectively, were exposed to >3.0 mg inhalable dust m−3. There is no OEL for endotoxin, but ‘no effect levels’ at ∼15 ng m−3 have been found. The majority of subjects (65%) were exposed to >15 ng m−3. Significantly higher exposure was found for employees in cucumber nurseries than for employees in tomato nurseries. Clearing tomato plants after the harvest season caused a higher exposure to endotoxin than tomato harvesting. In conclusion, people working in cucumber and tomato nurseries were often exposed to high levels of inhalable dust and endotoxin. Cucumber harvest workers were exposed to significantly more dust and endotoxin than tomato harvest workers. The dust and endotoxin aerosolized during the working processes were only transported to other areas in the greenhouses to a very low degree. Cucumber and tomato leaves were identified as endotoxin reservoirs. PMID:19033558

  12. Spectral Changes of Cucumber Leaf During Adaptation of the Photosynthetic Apparatus to Led Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viazau, Y. V.; Kozel, N. V.; Domanski, V. P.; Shalygo, N. V.

    2015-01-01

    A direct correlation between the change of fluorescence at 77 K in leaves of cucumber plants growing under LED lighting and the change of the quantitative composition of structural proteins of PS1 and PS2 was established. It was shown that light absorption and the utilization of its energy during the long-term action of narrow-band light on cucumber plants could affect considerably spectra of the leaves because of changes in the synthesis of photosystem structural proteins.

  13. Effect of vinegar residue compost amendments on cucumber growth and Fusarium wilt.

    PubMed

    Du, Nanshan; Shi, Lu; Du, Lantian; Yuan, Yinghui; Li, Bin; Sang, Ting; Sun, Jin; Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shirong

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum J. H. Owen is one of the major destructive soilborne diseases and results in considerable yield losses. Methyl bromide was once the most effective disease control method but has been confirmed as harmful to the environment. Using suppressive media as biological controls to assist crop growth is becoming popular. In this study, Fusarium wilt of cucumber was successfully controlled by a newly identified suppressive media: vinegar residue compost-amended media (vinegar residue compost mixed with peat and vermiculite in a 6:3:1 ratio (v/v) vinegar residue substrate (VRS). Greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of VRS on the growth of cucumber seedlings and disease suppression. The control was peat/vermiculite (2:1, v/v). To identify the mixed media most suitable for the growth of plants and their suppressiveness indicators, we evaluated the biological characteristics of cucumber, the physicochemical and biochemical properties of the growth media, and the enzyme activities. Total organic C (C(org)), microbial biomass C (C(mic)), basal respiration (R(mic)), and enzyme (catalase, invertase, urease, proteinase, phosphatase, β-glucosidase, and hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate) activities increased significantly after vinegar waste compost amendment. The compost media also showed a significantly positive effect on the growth of cucumber seedlings and the suppression of the disease severity index (DSI, 38% reduction). The cucumber rhizosphere population of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was significantly lower in VRS than in the control. These results demonstrate convincingly that vinegar residue compost-amended media has a beneficial effect on cucumber growth and could be applied as a method for biological control of cucumber Fusarium wilt. PMID:26250808

  14. Identification of differentially expressed genes related to aphid resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Danna; Liu, Min; Hu, Qijing; He, Min; Qi, Xiaohua; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Fucai; Chen, Xuehao

    2015-01-01

    Cucumber, a very important vegetable crop worldwide, is easily damaged by pests. Aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover) are among the most serious pests in cucumber production and often cause severe loss of yield and make fruit quality get worse. Identifying genes that render cucumbers resistant to aphid-induced damage and breeding aphid-resistant cucumber varieties have become the most promising control strategies. In this study, a Illumina Genome Analyzer platform was applied to monitor changes in gene expression in the whole genome of the cucumber cultivar ‘EP6392’ which is resistant to aphids. Nine DGE libraries were constructed from infected and uninfected leaves. In total, 49 differentially expressed genes related to cucumber aphid resistance were screened during the treatment period. These genes are mainly associated with signal transduction, plant-pathogen interactions, flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism and sugar metabolism pathways. Eight of the 49 genes may be associated with aphid resistance. Finally, expression of 9 randomly selected genes was evaluated by qRT-PCR to verify the results for the tag-mapped genes. With the exception of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homolog 6, the expression of the chosen genes was in agreement with the results of the tag-sequencing analysis patterns. PMID:25959296

  15. Mechanical stress induces neuroendocrine and immune responses of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jie; Li, Fenghui; Sun, Huiling; Gao, Fei; Yan, Jingping; Gai, Chunlei; Chen, Aihua; Wang, Qingyin

    2015-04-01

    Grading procedure in routine sea cucumber hatchery production is thought to affect juvenile sea cucumber immunological response. The present study investigated the impact of a 3-min mechanical perturbation mimicking the grading procedure on neuroendocrine and immune parameters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. During the application of stress, concentrations of noradrenaline and dopamine in coelomic fluid increased significantly, indicating that the mechanical perturbation resulted in a transient state of stress in sea cucumbers. Coelomocytes concentration in coelomic fluid increased transiently after the beginning of stressing, and reached the maximum in 1 h. Whereas, coelomocytes phagocytosis at 3 min, superoxide anion production from 3 min to 0.5 h, acid phosphatase activity at 0.5 h, and phenoloxidase activity from 3 min to 0.5 h were all significantly down-regulated. All of the immune parameters recovered to baseline levels after the experiment was conducted for 8 h, and an immunostimulation occurred after the stress considering the phagocytosis and acid phosphatase activity. The results suggested that, as in other marine invertebrates, neuroendocrine/immune connections exist in sea cucumber A. japonicus. Mechanical stress can elicit a profound influence on sea cucumber neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrine messengers act in turn to modulate the immunity functions. Therefore, these effects should be considered for developing better husbandry procedures.

  16. Distinct physiological responses of tomato and cucumber plants in silicon-mediated alleviation of cadmium stress

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiawen; Guo, Jia; Hu, Yanhong; Gong, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    The alleviative effects of silicon (Si) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity were investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown hydroponically. The growth of both plant species was inhibited by 100 μM Cd, but Si application counteracted the adverse effects on growth. Si application significantly decreased the Cd concentrations in shoots of both species and roots of cucumber. The root-to-shoot transport of Cd was depressed by added Si in tomato whereas it was increased by added Si in cucumber. The total content of organic acids was decreased in tomato leaves but increased in cucumber roots and leaves by Si application under Cd stress. Si application also increased the cell wall polysaccharide levels in the roots of both species under Cd toxicity. Si-mediated changes in levels of organic acids and cell wall polysaccharides might contribute to the differences in Cd transport in the two species. In addition, Si application also mitigated Cd-induced oxidative damage in both species. The results indicate that there were different mechanisms for Si-mediated decrease in shoot Cd accumulation: in tomato, Si supply decreased root-to-shoot Cd transport; whereas in cucumber, Si supply reduced the Cd uptake by roots. It is suggested that Si-mediated Cd tolerance is associated with different physiological responses in tomato and cucumber plants. PMID:26136764

  17. High-value components and bioactives from sea cucumbers for functional foods--a review.

    PubMed

    Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:22072996

  18. Deposit-Feeding Sea Cucumbers Enhance Mineralization and Nutrient Cycling in Organically-Enriched Coastal Sediments

    PubMed Central

    MacTavish, Thomas; Stenton-Dozey, Jeanie; Vopel, Kay; Savage, Candida

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioturbators affect multiple biogeochemical interactions and have been suggested as suitable candidates to mitigate organic matter loading in marine sediments. However, predicting the effects of bioturbators at an ecosystem level can be difficult due to their complex positive and negative interactions with the microbial community. Methodology/Principal Findings We quantified the effects of deposit-feeding sea cucumbers on benthic algal biomass (microphytobenthos, MPB), bacterial abundance, and the sediment–seawater exchange of dissolved oxygen and nutrients. The sea cucumbers increased the efflux of inorganic nitrogen (ammonium, NH4+) from organically enriched sediments, which stimulated algal productivity. Grazing by the sea cucumbers on MPB (evidenced by pheopigments), however, caused a net negative effect on primary producer biomass and total oxygen production. Further, there was an increased abundance of bacteria in sediment with sea cucumbers, suggesting facilitation. The sea cucumbers increased the ratio of oxygen consumption to production in surface sediment by shifting the microbial balance from producers to decomposers. This shift explains the increased efflux of inorganic nitrogen and concordant reduction in organic matter content in sediment with bioturbators. Conclusions/Significance Our study demonstrates the functional role and potential of sea cucumbers to ameliorate some of the adverse effects of organic matter enrichment in coastal ecosystems. PMID:23209636

  19. Identification of differentially expressed genes related to aphid resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Liang, Danna; Liu, Min; Hu, Qijing; He, Min; Qi, Xiaohua; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Fucai; Chen, Xuehao

    2015-01-01

    Cucumber, a very important vegetable crop worldwide, is easily damaged by pests. Aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover) are among the most serious pests in cucumber production and often cause severe loss of yield and make fruit quality get worse. Identifying genes that render cucumbers resistant to aphid-induced damage and breeding aphid-resistant cucumber varieties have become the most promising control strategies. In this study, a Illumina Genome Analyzer platform was applied to monitor changes in gene expression in the whole genome of the cucumber cultivar 'EP6392' which is resistant to aphids. Nine DGE libraries were constructed from infected and uninfected leaves. In total, 49 differentially expressed genes related to cucumber aphid resistance were screened during the treatment period. These genes are mainly associated with signal transduction, plant-pathogen interactions, flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism and sugar metabolism pathways. Eight of the 49 genes may be associated with aphid resistance. Finally, expression of 9 randomly selected genes was evaluated by qRT-PCR to verify the results for the tag-mapped genes. With the exception of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homolog 6, the expression of the chosen genes was in agreement with the results of the tag-sequencing analysis patterns. PMID:25959296

  20. High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:22072996

  1. Compositional characteristics and antioxidant properties of fresh and processed sea cucumber (Cucumaria frondosa).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ying; Khan, Muhammad Ahmad; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2007-02-21

    The antioxidant activity of fresh and rehydrated sea cucumber (Cucumaria frondosa) samples with/without internal organs was evaluated for the first time. In addition, their proximate, amino acid, and fatty acid compositions were examined. Rehydrated sea cucumber samples in distilled water were prepared from oven-dried products. All samples contained 83-90% moisture, but showed a significant difference among groups in their protein and lipid contents. Glutamic acid was the predominant amino acid in sea cucumber, followed by glycine and aspartic acid. Essential amino acids such as leucine and lysine were also present at high levels. The trend for free amino acid was different from that of total amino acids and varied among groups. Lipids in sea cucumber were dominated by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), ranging from 43.2 to 56.7% of the total fatty acids. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) was present at a much lower concentration of 2.0-5.8%. All sea cucumber samples exhibited radical scavenging property against 2,2'-azobis(2-aminopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, with rehydrated samples, especially those with internal organs, possessing higher antioxidant activity than their fresh counterparts. No correlation existed between radical scavenging capacity and total phenolics content, suggesting that other components, in addition to phenolic compounds, contribute to the antioxidant activity of sea cucumber. PMID:17243707

  2. Characterization and comparison of proteomes of albino sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) by iTRAQ analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chang-ge; Zhang, Dijun; Ma, Chengnv; Zhou, Jun; He, Shan; Su, Xiu-rong

    2016-04-01

    Sea cucumber is a commercially important marine organism in China. Of the different colored varieties sold in China, albino sea cucumber has the greatest appeal among consumers. Identification of factors contributing to albinism in sea cucumber is therefore likely to provide a scientific basis for improving the cultivability of these strains. In this study, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used for the first time to quantitatively define the proteome of sea cucumbers and reveal proteomic characteristics unique to albino sea cucumbers. A total of 549 proteins were identified and quantified in albino sea cucumber and the functional annotations of 485 proteins have been exhibited based on COG database. Compared with green sea cucumber, 12 proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the intestine and 16 proteins in the body wall of albino sea cucumber. Among them, 5 proteins were up-regulated in the intestine and 8 proteins were down-regulated in body wall. Gene ontology annotations of these differentially expressed proteins consisted mostly of 'biological process'. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying albinism in sea cucumber. PMID:26707782

  3. Modeling gene flow distribution within conventional fields and development of a simplified sampling method to quantify adventitious GM contents in maize

    PubMed Central

    Melé, Enric; Nadal, Anna; Messeguer, Joaquima; Melé-Messeguer, Marina; Palaudelmàs, Montserrat; Peñas, Gisela; Piferrer, Xavier; Capellades, Gemma; Serra, Joan; Pla, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been commercially grown for two decades. GM maize is one of 3 species with the highest acreage and specific events. Many countries established a mandatory labeling of products containing GM material, with thresholds for adventitious presence, to support consumers’ freedom of choice. In consequence, coexistence systems need to be introduced to facilitate commercial culture of GM and non-GM crops in the same agricultural area. On modeling adventitious GM cross-pollination distribution within maize fields, we deduced a simple equation to estimate overall GM contents (%GM) of conventional fields, irrespective of its shape and size, and with no previous information on possible GM pollen donor fields. A sampling strategy was designed and experimentally validated in 19 agricultural fields. With 9 samples, %GM quantification requires just one analytical GM determination while identification of the pollen source needs 9 additional analyses. A decision support tool is provided. PMID:26596213

  4. Modeling gene flow distribution within conventional fields and development of a simplified sampling method to quantify adventitious GM contents in maize.

    PubMed

    Melé, Enric; Nadal, Anna; Messeguer, Joaquima; Melé-Messeguer, Marina; Palaudelmàs, Montserrat; Peñas, Gisela; Piferrer, Xavier; Capellades, Gemma; Serra, Joan; Pla, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been commercially grown for two decades. GM maize is one of 3 species with the highest acreage and specific events. Many countries established a mandatory labeling of products containing GM material, with thresholds for adventitious presence, to support consumers' freedom of choice. In consequence, coexistence systems need to be introduced to facilitate commercial culture of GM and non-GM crops in the same agricultural area. On modeling adventitious GM cross-pollination distribution within maize fields, we deduced a simple equation to estimate overall GM contents (%GM) of conventional fields, irrespective of its shape and size, and with no previous information on possible GM pollen donor fields. A sampling strategy was designed and experimentally validated in 19 agricultural fields. With 9 samples, %GM quantification requires just one analytical GM determination while identification of the pollen source needs 9 additional analyses. A decision support tool is provided. PMID:26596213

  5. A gastric artery aneurysm complicated by a dissection of gastric and hepatic arteries: possible role of adventitial inflammation and disruption of internal elastic lamina in splanchnic artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masahiko; Mellen, Paul F

    2008-06-01

    A 77-year-old woman was found deceased at home. An autopsy examination revealed a hemoperitoneum due to a ruptured false aneurysm of a branch of the left gastric artery. A long dissection extending from the aneurysm involved splanchnic arteries including the left gastric, common hepatic, right and left branches of proper hepatic, and intrahepatic arteries. An intimal tear was identified in the common hepatic artery. Neutrophils infiltrating in the adventitia may have been reactive and may have triggered the adventitial rupture of aneurysm or development of the dissection. Disruption of the internal elastic lamina, which has been proposed to cause dissection of intracranial arteries, was seen in the dissected arteries. Little is currently known about aneurysms or dissections of splanchnic arteries; however, observation of adventitial inflammation and internal elastic lamina may help disclose the etiology and pathogenesis. PMID:18520493

  6. Backcross introgression of plastomic factors controlling chilling tolerance into elite cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) germplasm: Early generation recovery of recurrent parent phenotytpe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental stresses such as chilling temperatures can decrease germination, emergence, flower and fruit development, marketable yield, and postharvest fruit storage longevity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). While response to chilling injury in cucumber is controlled by simple plastidic (matern...

  7. Fatty acid composition of the edible sea cucumber Athyonidium chilensis.

    PubMed

    Careaga, Valeria P; Muniain, Claudia; Maier, Martas S

    2013-04-01

    The edible sea cucumber Athyonidium chilensis is a fishery resource of high commercial value in Chile, but no information on its lipid and fatty acid composition has been previously reported. Phospholipids were the major lipid contents of the ethanolic extracts of tubules, internal organs and body wall of A. chilensis. Saturated fatty acids predominated in tubule phospholipids (40.69%), while in internal organs and body wall phospholipids, the monounsaturated fatty acids were in higher amounts (41.99% and 37.94%, respectively). The main polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids were C20 : 2ω-6, arachidonic (C20 : 4ω-6) and eicosapentaenoic (C20 : 5ω-3) acids. These results demonstrate for the first time that A. chilensis is a valuable food for human consumption in terms of fatty acids. PMID:22583008

  8. Differential permeation of artemia cysts and cucumber seeds by alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. W.; Siegel, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    The rate of penetration of the simpler alcohols into brine shrimp cysts and cucumber seeds was studied. In solutions below 70% the rate of penetration is related to lipid solvent capacity of the alcohol. In concentrations above 70%, particularly in absolute alcohols, methanol penetrates brine shrimp rapidly and ethanol penetrates slowly. All the other alcohols tested did not penetrate the dormant structures. Ethionine and deuteroxy-methanol did not affect the rate of penetration of methanol. It is suggested that in dehydrated membranes the lipid moiety is protected by a continuous sheet of protein. Methanol, which is fairly similar to water, is probably able to penetrate the membrane by initiating a conformation change in the protein, exposing the lipid which subsequently dissolves in the methanol thus destroying the membrane.

  9. [Co-crystallization of cucumber concentrate (Cucumis sativa L.)].

    PubMed

    Vázquez, A; Beristain, C I

    1998-09-01

    A sucrose syrup of 70 degrees Brix was concentrated until a concentration greater than 95 degrees Brix was attained. It was studied the effect of concentration (20, 25 and 35 degrees Brix) on the physical properties of the cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) granules. Moisture content, solubility, and density were determined. The best results were found for the concentrated at 30 degrees Brix. Lemon juice was added to the concentrated to decrease pH from 5.5 to 4.0 to improve flavor and to avoid growth of molds and yeast. No significant differences in the higroscopicity were found between both pH (s). Sensory evaluation shows that 30 judges of 45 preferred the sample made with the co-crystallizate containing lemon juice. PMID:9951539

  10. Cytoprotective Effects of Lysophospholipids from Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Furukawa, Ayumi; Shiga, Ikumi; Muroi, Yoshikage; Ishii, Toshiaki; Hongo, Yayoi; Takahashi, Shunya; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Lysophospholipids are important signaling molecules in animals and metazoan cells. They are widely distributed among marine invertebrates, where their physiological roles are unknown. Sea cucumbers produce unique lysophospholipids. In this study, two lysophospholipids were detected in Holothuria atra for the first time, lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, with nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometric analyses. The lipid fraction of H. atra contained lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, and inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis in the macrophage cell line J774A.1. The antioxidant activity of the lysophospholipid-containing lipid fraction of H. atra was confirmed with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. Our results suggest that the lysophospholipids from H. atra are potential therapeutic agents for the inflammation induced by oxidative stress. PMID:26275144

  11. Gravitropism of cucumber hypocotyls: biophysical mechanism of altered growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The biophysical basis for the changes in cell elongation rate during gravitropism was examined in aetiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls. Bulk osmotic pressures on the two sides of the stem and in the epidermal cells were not altered during the early time course of gravitropism. By the pressure-probe technique, a small increase in turgor (0.3 bar, 30 kPa) was detected on the upper (inhibited) side, whereas there was a negligible decrease in turgor on the lower (stimulated) side. These small changes in turgor and water potential appeared to be indirect, passive consequences of the altered growth and the small resistance for water movement from the xylem, and indicated that the change in growth was principally due to changes in wall properties. The results indicate that the hydraulic conductance of the water-transport pathway was large (.25 h-1 bar-1) and the water potential difference supporting cell expansion was no greater than 0.3 bar (30 kPa). From pressure-block experiments, it appeared that upon gravitropic stimulation (1) the yield threshold of the lower half of the stem did not decrease and (2) the wall on the upper side of the stem was not made more rigid by a cross-linking process. Mechanical measurements of the stress/strain properties of the walls showed that the initial development of gravitropism did not involve an alteration of the mechanical behaviour of the isolated walls. Thus, gravitropism in cucumber hypocotyls occurs principally by an alteration of the wall relaxation process, without a necessary change in wall mechanical properties.

  12. The magnesium-chelatase in developing cucumber cotyledons

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1990-05-01

    Mg-chelatase in chloroplasts catalyzes the insertion of Mg into protoporphyrin. This step is the first in the tetrapyrrole pathway unique to chlorophyll biosynthesis. Mg-chelatase was assayed in semi-green cucumber cotyledons by an adaptation of the method of Fuesler at al, (1984) Plant Physiol. 74, 928-933. Plastid intactness was essential for Mg-chelatase activity. The estimated Km for the protoporphyrin substrate was between 0.5 and 1.0 {mu}M. In the presence of 4 mM ATP and an ATP regenerating system, activities of 500 pmol Mg-Protoporphyrin/mg protein/20 min were routinely recorded. In greening cotyledons, the specific activity of the Mg-chelatase increased steadily until the chlorophyll content of the plastids reached about 30 nmol/mg plastid protein, at which point further greening caused a decrease in Mg-chelatase activity. The total heme content of the plastids also rose with greening and paralleled the increase in Mg-chelatase activity. The regulation of heme levels and Mg-chelatase activity in greening cotyledons will be discussed. Substrate specificity studies showed that mesoporphyrin and deuteroporphyrin were active substrates for Mg chelation. The Mg-chelatase was not inhibited by its product, Mg-Protoporphyrin, but was inhibited by N-methyl mesoporphyrin (I{sub 50} = 2.5 {mu}M). Mg-chelatase activity was also measured in fully mature pea and corn chloroplasts (grown under diurnal light); the specific activities were comparable with those in cucumber.

  13. Localization of a new gene for bitterness in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengping; Miao, Han; Sun, Rifei; Wang, Xiaowu; Huang, Sanwen; Wehner, Todd C; Gu, Xingfang

    2013-01-01

    Bitterness in cucumber fruit and foliage is due to the presence of cucurbitacins. Several genes have been described that control the trait, with bi (bi-1) making fruit and foliage bitter free and Bt (Bt-1) making the fruit highly bitter. Previous studies have reported the inheritance and molecular markers linked to bi-1 or Bt-1, but we were interested in studying the inheritance of fruit bitterness in the progeny of 2 nonbitter fruit inbred lines. The objective was to determine the inheritance of cucumber fruit and foliage bitterness and to locate them on a current linkage map using a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived by crossing 9110Gt and 9930. It was concluded from the inheritance analysis that there were 2 loci controlling fruit bitterness in the population. One locus was in the same position as the location previously identified for bi-1, and another locus was for bi-3. Using a simple sequence repeat (SSR) linkage map, 2 loci for fruit bitterness in this RILs population were mapped. The locus of bi-1 was located at the region between SSR0004 and SSR02309 within the genetic distance of 5.2 cM on chromosome 6. The locus of bi-3 was placed in the region of SSR00116-SSR05321 within the genetic distance of 6.3 cM on chromosome 5. The physical distances for the regions of bi-1 and bi-3 were 11,430.94 Kb with 160 predicted genes and 1528.23 Kb with 198 predicted genes, respectively. Among 160 predicted genes for bi-1, there is a terpene synthase gene named Csa008595, which was speculated as the candidate gene of bi-1. PMID:23091223

  14. Rhabdovirus-like endogenous viral elements in the genome of Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells are actively transcribed: Implications for adventitious virus detection.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Christoph; Jarvis, Donald L

    2016-07-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf) cell lines are used to produce several biologicals for human and veterinary use. Recently, it was discovered that all tested Sf cell lines are persistently infected with Sf-rhabdovirus, a novel rhabdovirus. As part of an effort to search for other adventitious viruses, we searched the Sf cell genome and transcriptome for sequences related to Sf-rhabdovirus. To our surprise, we found intact Sf-rhabdovirus N- and P-like ORFs, and partial Sf-rhabdovirus G- and L-like ORFs. The transcribed and genomic sequences matched, indicating the transcripts were derived from the genomic sequences. These appear to be endogenous viral elements (EVEs), which result from the integration of partial viral genetic material into the host cell genome. It is theoretically impossible for the Sf-rhabdovirus-like EVEs to produce infectious virus particles as 1) they are disseminated across 4 genomic loci, 2) the G and L ORFs are incomplete, and 3) the M ORF is missing. Our finding of transcribed virus-like sequences in Sf cells underscores that MPS-based searches for adventitious viruses in cell substrates used to manufacture biologics should take into account both genomic and transcribed sequences to facilitate the identification of transcribed EVE's, and to avoid false positive detection of replication-competent adventitious viruses. PMID:27236849

  15. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the SAMS Gene during Adventitious Root Development in IBA-Induced Tetraploid Black Locust

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Jine; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Chunxia; Meng, Sen; Zhao, Zhong; Xu, Xuexuan

    2014-01-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS) catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a precursor for ethylene and polyamine biosynthesis. Here, we report the isolation of the 1498 bp full-length cDNA sequence encoding tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) SAMS (TrbSAMS), which contains an open reading frame of 1179 bp encoding 392 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of TrbSAMS has more than 94% sequence identity to SAMSs from other plants, with a closer phylogenetic relationship to SAMSs from legumes than to SAMS from other plants. The TrbSAMS monomer consists of N-terminal, central, and C-terminal domains. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the TrbSAMS protein localizes mainly to in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells and Arabidopsis mesophyll cell protoplasts. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-treated cuttings showed higher levels of TrbSAMS transcript than untreated control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. TrbSAMS and its downstream genes showed differential expression in shoots, leaves, bark, and roots, with the highest expression observed in bark. IBA-treated cuttings also showed higher SAMS activity than control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. These results indicate that TrbSAMS might play an important role in the regulation of IBA-induced adventitious root development in tetraploid black locust cuttings. PMID:25285660

  16. Identification of genes involved in indole-3-butyric acid-induced adventitious root formation in nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis (L.) by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Wang, Liyuan; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Chengcai; Ma, Chunlei; Zhang, Liqun; Gong, Wuyun; Wu, Liyun

    2013-02-10

    The plant hormone auxin plays a key role in adventitious rooting. To increase our understanding of genes involved in adventitious root formation, we identified transcripts differentially expressed in single nodal cuttings of Camellia sinensis treated with or without indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). A total of 77 differentially expressed transcripts, including 70 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated sequences, were identified in tea cuttings under IBA treatment. Seven candidate transcripts were selected and analyzed for their response to IBA, and IAA by real time RT-PCR. All these transcripts were up regulated by at least two folds one day after IBA treatment. Meanwhile, IAA showed less positive effects on the expression of candidate transcripts. The full-length cDNA of a F-box/kelch gene was also isolated and found to be similar to a group of At1g23390 like genes. These unigenes provided a new source for mining genes related to adventitious root formation, which facilitate our understanding of relative fundamental metabolism. PMID:23201417

  17. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of the SAMS gene during adventitious root development in IBA-induced tetraploid black locust.

    PubMed

    Quan, Jine; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Chunxia; Meng, Sen; Zhao, Zhong; Xu, Xuexuan

    2014-01-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS) catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a precursor for ethylene and polyamine biosynthesis. Here, we report the isolation of the 1498 bp full-length cDNA sequence encoding tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) SAMS (TrbSAMS), which contains an open reading frame of 1179 bp encoding 392 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of TrbSAMS has more than 94% sequence identity to SAMSs from other plants, with a closer phylogenetic relationship to SAMSs from legumes than to SAMS from other plants. The TrbSAMS monomer consists of N-terminal, central, and C-terminal domains. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the TrbSAMS protein localizes mainly to in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells and Arabidopsis mesophyll cell protoplasts. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-treated cuttings showed higher levels of TrbSAMS transcript than untreated control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. TrbSAMS and its downstream genes showed differential expression in shoots, leaves, bark, and roots, with the highest expression observed in bark. IBA-treated cuttings also showed higher SAMS activity than control cuttings during root primordium and adventitious root formation. These results indicate that TrbSAMS might play an important role in the regulation of IBA-induced adventitious root development in tetraploid black locust cuttings. PMID:25285660

  18. QTL mapping in multiple populations and development stages reveals dynamic quantitative trait loci for fruit size in cucumbers of different market classes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit size is an important quality trait in cucumber of different market classes. The genetic and molecular basis of fruit size variations in cucumber is not well understood. In this study, we conducted QTL mapping of fruit size in cucumber using three mapping populations developed from cross betwee...

  19. Commercial Scale Cucumber Fermentations Brined with Calcium Chloride Instead of Sodium Chloride.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F; Moeller, L; Johanningsmeier, S D; Hayes, J; Fornea, D S; Rosenberg, L; Gilbert, C; Custis, N; Beene, K; Bass, D

    2015-12-01

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) instead of NaCl to commercial scale production. Although CaCl2 brined cucumber fermentations were stable in laboratory experiments, commercial scale trials using 6440 L open-top tanks rapidly underwent secondary cucumber fermentation. It was understood that a limited air purging routine, use of a starter culture and addition of preservatives to the cover brine aids in achieving the desired complete cucumber fermentation. The modified process was used for subsequent commercial trials using 12490 and 28400 L open-top tanks packed with variable size cucumbers and from multiple lots, and cover brines containing CaCl2 and potassium sorbate to equilibrated concentrations of 100 and 6 mM, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum LA0045 was inoculated to 10(6) CFU/mL, and air purging was applied for two 2-3 h periods per day for the first 10 d of fermentation and one 2-3 h period per day between days 11 and 14. All fermentations were completed, as evidenced by the full conversion of sugars to lactic acid, decrease in pH to 3.0, and presented microbiological stability for a minimum of 21 d. This CaCl2 process may be used to produce fermented cucumbers intended to be stored short term in a manner that reduces pollution and waste removal costs. PMID:26512798

  20. Suitability of Zucchini and Cucumber Genotypes to Populations of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica.

    PubMed

    López-Gómez, Manuel; Flor-Peregrín, Elena; Talavera, Miguel; Verdejo-Lucas, Soledad

    2015-03-01

    The host suitability of five zucchini and three cucumber genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita (MiPM26) and M. javanica (Mj05) was determined in pot experiments in a greenhouse. The number of egg masses (EM) did not differ among the genotypes of zucchini or cucumber, but the eggs/plant and reproduction factor (Rf) did slightly. M. incognita MiPM26 showed lower EM, eggs/plant, and Rf than M. javanica Mj05. Examination of the zucchini galls for nematode postinfection development revealed unsuitable conditions for M. incognita MiPM26 as only 22% of the females produced EM compared to 95% of the M. javanica females. As far as cucumber was concerned, 86% of the M. incognita and 99% of the M. javanica females produced EM, respectively. In a second type of experiments, several populations of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica were tested on zucchini cv. Amalthee and cucumber cv. Dasher II to assess the parasitic variation among species and populations of Meloidogyne. A greater parasitic variation was observed in zucchini than cucumber. Zucchini responded as a poor host for M. incognita MiPM26, MiAL09, and MiAL48, but as a good host for MiAL10 and MiAL15. Intraspecific variation was not observed among the M. javanica or M. arenaria populations. Cucumber was a good host for all the tested populations. Overall, both cucurbits were suitable hosts for Meloidogyne but zucchini was a poorer host than the cucumber. PMID:25861120

  1. Suitability of Zucchini and Cucumber Genotypes to Populations of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica

    PubMed Central

    López-Gómez, Manuel; Flor-Peregrín, Elena; Talavera, Miguel; Verdejo-Lucas, Soledad

    2015-01-01

    The host suitability of five zucchini and three cucumber genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita (MiPM26) and M. javanica (Mj05) was determined in pot experiments in a greenhouse. The number of egg masses (EM) did not differ among the genotypes of zucchini or cucumber, but the eggs/plant and reproduction factor (Rf) did slightly. M. incognita MiPM26 showed lower EM, eggs/plant, and Rf than M. javanica Mj05. Examination of the zucchini galls for nematode postinfection development revealed unsuitable conditions for M. incognita MiPM26 as only 22% of the females produced EM compared to 95% of the M. javanica females. As far as cucumber was concerned, 86% of the M. incognita and 99% of the M. javanica females produced EM, respectively. In a second type of experiments, several populations of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica were tested on zucchini cv. Amalthee and cucumber cv. Dasher II to assess the parasitic variation among species and populations of Meloidogyne. A greater parasitic variation was observed in zucchini than cucumber. Zucchini responded as a poor host for M. incognita MiPM26, MiAL09, and MiAL48, but as a good host for MiAL10 and MiAL15. Intraspecific variation was not observed among the M. javanica or M. arenaria populations. Cucumber was a good host for all the tested populations. Overall, both cucurbits were suitable hosts for Meloidogyne but zucchini was a poorer host than the cucumber. PMID:25861120

  2. Resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus in Gladiolus plants transformed with either a defective replicase of coat protein subgroup II gene from Cucumber mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic Gladiolus plants that contain either Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup I coat protein, CMV subgroup II coat protein, CMV replicase, a combination of the CMV subgroups I and II coat proteins, or a combination of the CMV subgroup II coat protein and replicase genes were developed. These...

  3. A Co-Opted Hormonal Cascade Activates Dormant Adventitious Root Primordia upon Flooding in Solanum dulcamara1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dawood, Thikra; Kensche, Philip R.; Cristescu, Simona M.; Mariani, Celestina

    2016-01-01

    Soil flooding is a common stress factor affecting plants. To sustain root function in the hypoxic environment, flooding-tolerant plants may form new, aerenchymatous adventitious roots (ARs), originating from preformed, dormant primordia on the stem. We investigated the signaling pathway behind AR primordium reactivation in the dicot species Solanum dulcamara. Transcriptome analysis indicated that flooding imposes a state of quiescence on the stem tissue, while increasing cellular activity in the AR primordia. Flooding led to ethylene accumulation in the lower stem region and subsequently to a drop in abscisic acid (ABA) level in both stem and AR primordia tissue. Whereas ABA treatment prevented activation of AR primordia by flooding, inhibition of ABA synthesis was sufficient to activate them in absence of flooding. Together, this reveals that there is a highly tissue-specific response to reduced ABA levels. The central role for ABA in the response differentiates the pathway identified here from the AR emergence pathway known from rice (Oryza sativa). Flooding and ethylene treatment also induced expression of the polar auxin transporter PIN2, and silencing of this gene or chemical inhibition of auxin transport inhibited primordium activation, even though ABA levels were reduced. Auxin treatment, however, was not sufficient for AR emergence, indicating that the auxin pathway acts in parallel with the requirement for ABA reduction. In conclusion, adaptation of S. dulcamara to wet habitats involved co-option of a hormonal signaling cascade well known to regulate shoot growth responses, to direct a root developmental program upon soil flooding. PMID:26850278

  4. Evidence for vocal learning in juvenile male killer whales, Orcinus orca, from an adventitious cross-socializing experiment.

    PubMed

    Crance, Jessica L; Bowles, Ann E; Garver, Alan

    2014-04-15

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are thought to learn their vocal dialect. Dispersal in the species is rare, but effects of shifts in social association on the dialect can be studied under controlled conditions. Individual call repertoires and social association were measured in three adult female killer whales and three males (two juveniles and an adult) during two periods, 2001-2003 and 2005-2006. Three distinct dialect repertoires were represented among the subjects. An adventitious experiment in social change resulted from the birth of a calf and the transfer of two non-focal subjects in 2004. Across the two periods, 1691 calls were collected, categorized and attributed to individuals. Repertoire overlap for each subject dyad was compared with an index of association. During 2005-2006, the two juvenile males increased association with the unrelated adult male. By the end of the period, both had begun producing novel calls and call features characteristic of his repertoire. However, there was little or no reciprocal change and the adult females did not acquire his calls. Repertoire overlap and association were significantly correlated in the first period. In the second, median association time and repertoire similarity increased, but the relationship was only marginally significant. The results provided evidence that juvenile male killer whales are capable of learning new call types, possibly stimulated by a change in social association. The pattern of learning was consistent with a selective convergence of male repertoires. PMID:24744421

  5. Effect of Naphthalene Acetic Acid on Adventitious Root Development and Associated Physiological Changes in Stem Cutting of Hemarthria compressa

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin-Quan; Yang, Wen-Yu; Wan, Yan; Ma, Ying-Mei; Zhu, Yong-Qun; Peng, Yan; Huang, Lin-Kai

    2014-01-01

    In order to find a way to induce rooting on cuttings of Hemarthria compressa cv. Ya’an under controlled conditions, a project was carried out to study the effect of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on rooting in stem cuttings and related physiological changes during the rooting process of Hemarthria compressa. The cuttings were treated with five concentrations of NAA (0, 100, 200 300, 400 mg/l) at three soaking durations (10, 20, 30 minutes), and cuttings without treatment were considered as control. Samples were planted immediately into pots after treatment. IAA-oxidase (IAAO) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were determined after planting. Results showed that NAA had positive effect on rooting at the concentration of 200 mg/l compared to other concentrations at 30 days after planting (DAP). Among the three soaking durations, 20 minutes (min) of 200 mg/l NAA resulted in higher percentages of rooting, larger numbers of adventitious roots and heavier root dry weight per cutting. The lowest IAAO activity was obtained when soaked at 200 mg/l NAA for 20 min soaking duration. This was consistent with the best rooting ability, indicating that the lower IAAO activity, the higher POD activity and PPO activity could be used as an indicator of better rooting ability for whip grass cuttings and might serve as a good marker for rooting ability in cuttings. PMID:24595064

  6. Persistence and protection of mitochondrial DNA in the generative cell of cucumber is consistent with its paternal transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber, unlike most plants, shows paternal inheritance of its mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); however, the mechanisms regulating this unique transmission mode are unclear. Here we monitored the amounts of mtDNA through the development of cucumber microspores to pollen and observed that mtDNA decreases ...

  7. Resurgance of soilborne pests in double-cropped cucumber after application of methyl bromide chemical alternatives and solarization in tomato.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted during four consectutive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)-cucumber (Cucumis sativus) rotations to examine the long-term residual effects of tomato methyl bromide alternatives on soilborne pests in double-cropped cucumber. Four treatments were established in tomato field...

  8. Syntenic relationships between cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and melon (C. melo L.) chromosomes as revealed by comparative genetic mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber and melon are two economically important vegetable species. Both species have an Asian origin that diverged approximately nine million years ago. Cucumber is believed to have evolved from melon, where twelve melon chromosomes are thought to have undergone chromosome fusion to result in the ...

  9. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial ins...

  10. Nondestructive detection of chilling injury in cucumber fruit using hyperspectral imaging with feature selection and supervised classification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilling injury, as a physiological disorder in cucumbers, occurs after the fruit has been subjected to low temperatures. It is thus desirable to detect chilling injury at early stages and/or remove chilling injured cucumbers during sorting and grading. This research was aimed to apply hyperspectral...

  11. Metabolism of lactic acid in fermented cucumbers by Lactobacillus buchneri and related species, potential spoilage organisms in reduced salt fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent evidence suggests that Lactobacillus buchneri may play an important role in spoilage-associated secondary fermentation of cucumbers. Lactic acid degradation during fermented cucumber spoilage is influenced by sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, pH, and presence of oxygen. Objectives were to...

  12. A method of genotyping by pedigree-based training-set for identification of QTLs associated with cucumber fruit size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large sets of genomic data are becoming available for cucumber (Cucumis sativus), yet there is no tool for whole genome genotyping. Creation of saturated genetic maps depends on development of good markers. The present cucumber genetic maps are based on several hundreds of markers. However they are ...

  13. Preservation of acidified cucumbers with a combination of fumaric acid and cinnamaldehyde that target lactic acid bacteria and yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The naturally occurring compound, fumaric acid, was evaluated as a potential preservative for the long-term storage of cucumbers. Fumaric acid inhibited growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in an acidified cucumber juice medium model system resembling conditions that could allow preservation of cucu...

  14. Genome-wide characterization of simple sequence repeats in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Until very recently, cucumber genetic and genomic resources, especially molecular markers, have been very limited, impeding progress of cucumber breeding efforts. Microsatellites are short tandemly repeated DNA sequences, which are frequently favored as genetic markers due to their high level of polymorphism and codominant inheritance. Data from previously characterized genomes has shown that these repeats vary in frequency, motif sequence, and genomic location across taxa. During the last year, the genomes of two cucumber genotypes were sequenced including the Chinese fresh market type inbred line '9930' and the North American pickling type inbred line 'Gy14'. These sequences provide a powerful tool for developing markers in a large scale. In this study, we surveyed and characterized the distribution and frequency of perfect microsatellites in 203 Mbp assembled Gy14 DNA sequences, representing 55% of its nuclear genome, and in cucumber EST sequences. Similar analyses were performed in genomic and EST data from seven other plant species, and the results were compared with those of cucumber. Results A total of 112,073 perfect repeats were detected in the Gy14 cucumber genome sequence, accounting for 0.9% of the assembled Gy14 genome, with an overall density of 551.9 SSRs/Mbp. While tetranucleotides were the most frequent microsatellites in genomic DNA sequence, dinucleotide repeats, which had more repeat units than any other SSR type, had the highest cumulative sequence length. Coding regions (ESTs) of the cucumber genome had fewer microsatellites compared to its genomic sequence, with trinucleotides predominating in EST sequences. AAG was the most frequent repeat in cucumber ESTs. Overall, AT-rich motifs prevailed in both genomic and EST data. Compared to the other species examined, cucumber genomic sequence had the highest density of SSRs (although comparable to the density of poplar

  15. CsAP3: A Cucumber Homolog to Arabidopsis APETALA3 with Novel Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin-Jing; Li, Feng; Wang, Dong-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Xia; Liu, Na; Gu, Hai-Tao; Zou, Cheng; Luo, Jing-Chu; He, Chao-Xing; Huang, San-Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Bai, Shu-Nong

    2016-01-01

    In our previous efforts to understand the regulatory mechanisms of cucumber unisexual flower development, we observed a stamen-specific down-regulation of the ethylene receptor CsETR1 in stage 6 female flowers of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). This down-regulation is correlated with the primordial anther-specific DNA damage that characterizes inappropriate stamen development in cucumber female flowers. To understand how CsETR1 is down regulated in the stamen, we characterized a cucumber MADS box gene homologous to Arabidopsis AP3, CsAP3. We demonstrated that CsAP3 is functionally equivalent to the Arabidopsis B-class MADS gene AP3. However, three novel characteristics of CsAP3 were found. These include firstly, binding and activating CsETR1 promoter in vitro and in vivo; secondly, containing a GV repeat in its C-terminus, which is conserved in cucurbits and required for the transcription activation; and thirdly, decreased expression as the node number increases, which is similar to that found for CsETR1. These findings revealed not only the conserved function of CsAP3 as a B-class floral identity gene, but also its unique functions in regulation of female flower development in cucumber. PMID:27540391

  16. Reliable Reference Genes for Normalization of Gene Expression in Cucumber Grown under Different Nitrogen Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Warzybok, Anna; Migocka, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    In plants, nitrogen is the most important nutritional factor limiting the yield of cultivated crops. Since nitrogen is essential for synthesis of nucleotides, amino acids and proteins, studies on gene expression in plants cultivated under different nitrogen availability require particularly careful selection of suitable reference genes which are not affected by nitrogen limitation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to select the most reliable reference genes for qPCR analysis of target cucumber genes under varying nitrogen source and availability. Among twelve candidate cucumber genes used in this study, five are highly homologous to the commonly used internal controls, whereas seven novel candidates were previously identified through the query of the cucumber genome. The expression of putative reference genes and the target CsNRT1.1 gene was analyzed in roots, stems and leaves of cucumbers grown under nitrogen deprivation, varying nitrate availability or different sources of nitrogen (glutamate, glutamine or NH3). The stability of candidate genes expression significantly varied depending on the tissue type and nitrogen supply. However, in most of the outputs genes encoding CACS, TIP41, F-box protein and EFα proved to be the most suitable for normalization of CsNRT1.1 expression. In addition, our results suggest the inclusion of 3 or 4 references to obtain highly reliable results of target genes expression in all cucumber organs under nitrogen-related stress. PMID:24058446

  17. [Effects of nutrition medium on cucumber growth and soil microenvironment in greenhouse under continuous cropping].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Cheng; Li, Tian-Lai; Cao, Xia; Meng, Si-Da; Zhang, Yong-Yong; Yang, Li-Juan

    2014-05-01

    An experiment of continuous cropping of cucumber in nutrition medium (composted with straw, rural soil and puffed chicken manure) or soil was conducted in greenhouse in order to study the effects of medium type on the cucumber growth and soil microenvironment, respectively. The results showed that the two treatments both displayed different levels of obstacles resulted from continuous cropping. In the same cropping season, the nutrient content, soil invertase and urease activities and B/F (bacteria/fungi) ratio in the nutrition medium were obviously higher but fungi quantity was lower than in the soil medium, suggesting the use of nutrition medium changed the bacterial population structure as to improve the cucumber growth and yield. Under continuous cropping, correlation analysis showed that the bacterial quantity was significantly positively related with plant height and root dry mass, and markedly significantly positive correlation exited between the aboveground dry mass and yield of cucumber. The urease activity was also significantly positively related with the cucumber yield. Compared with the soil medium, the nutrition medium could greatly improve soil microenvironment and alleviate the continuous cropping obstacle. PMID:25129942

  18. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:27481896

  19. Modification of the cellular heat sensitivity of cucumber by growth under supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, C.R.

    1994-02-01

    The effect of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation on the thermal sensitivity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was studied using UV-B-sensitive cv Poinsett 76 and UV-B-resistant cv Ashley grown under control and elevated (300 mW m{sup -2}) UV-B radiation levels. Using both cotyledon and leaf discs, the ability of the tissue to reduce triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) was determined after treatment at 50{degrees}C for various times. Semilogarithmic plots of TTC reduction as a function of time at 50{degrees}were curvilinear. They were monophasic for the control cucumber and biphasic for cucumber grown in the presence of elevated UV-B. Treatment of cucumber plants at 37{degrees}C for 24 h or of tissue discs at acute UV-B levels for 1 h further modified their response to elevated temperature. These results suggest that growth of cucumber under enhanced UV-B radiation levels increased its ability to withstand elevated temperatures. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Transcriptomic analysis reveals distinct resistant response by physcion and chrysophanol against cucumber powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanping; Tian, Shilin; Yang, Xiaojun; Wang, Xin; Guo, Yuhai; Ni, Hanwen

    2016-01-01

    Physcion and chrysophanol induce defense responses against powdery mildew in cucumbers. The combination of these two compounds has synergistic interaction against the disease. We performed RNA-seq on cucumber leaf samples treated with physcion and chrysophanol alone and with their combination. We generated 17.6 Gb of high-quality sequencing data (∼2 Gb per sample) and catalogued the expressions profiles of 12,293 annotated cucumber genes in each sample. We identified numerous differentially expressed genes that exhibited distinct expression patterns among the three treatments. The gene expression patterns of the Chr and Phy treatments were more similar to each other than to the Phy × Chr treatment. The Phy × Chr treatment induced the highest number of differentially expressed genes. This dramatic transcriptional change after Phy × Chr treatment leaves reflects that physcion combined with chrysophanol treatment was most closely associated with induction of disease resistance. The analysis showed that the combination treatment caused expression changes of numerous defense-related genes. These genes have known or potential roles in structural, chemical and signaling defense responses and were enriched in functional gene categories potentially responsible for cucumber resistance. These results clearly demonstrated that disease resistance in cucumber leaves was significantly influenced by the combined physcion and chrysophanol treatment. Thus, physcion and chrysophanol are appealing candidates for further investigation of the gene expression and associated regulatory mechanisms related to the defense response. PMID:27231648

  1. Sex Determination in the Monoecious Species Cucumber Is Confined to Specific Floral Whorls

    PubMed Central

    Kater, Martin M.; Franken, John; Carney, Kim J.; Colombo, Lucia; Angenent, Gerco C.

    2001-01-01

    In unisexual flowers, sex is determined by the selective repression of growth or the abortion of either male or female reproductive organs. The mechanism by which this process is controlled in plants is still poorly understood. Because it is known that the identity of reproductive organs in plants is controlled by homeotic genes belonging to the MADS box gene family, we analyzed floral homeotic mutants from cucumber, a species that bears both male and female flowers on the same individual. To study the characteristics of sex determination in more detail, we produced mutants similar to class A and C homeotic mutants from well-characterized hermaphrodite species such as Arabidopsis by ectopically expressing and suppressing the cucumber gene CUCUMBER MADS1 (CUM1). The cucumber mutant green petals (gp) corresponds to the previously characterized B mutants from several species and appeared to be caused by a deletion of 15 amino acid residues in the coding region of the class B MADS box gene CUM26. These homeotic mutants reveal two important concepts that govern sex determination in cucumber. First, the arrest of either male or female organ development is dependent on their positions in the flower and is not associated with their sexual identity. Second, the data presented here strongly suggest that the class C homeotic function is required for the position-dependent arrest of reproductive organs. PMID:11251091

  2. Growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka during periods of inactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Rongbin; Zang, Yuanqi; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2013-03-01

    The growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, were investigated during periods of inactivity. The body weight, oxygen consumption rate (OCR), activities of acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and content of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the body wall and coelomic fluid of A. japonicus were measured during starvation, experimental aestivation and aestivation. The results showed that the body weight of sea cucumber in the three treatments decreased significantly during the experimental period ( P < 0.05). The OCR of sea cucumber reduced in starvation and experimental aestivation treatments, but increased gradually in natural aestivation treatment. The activities of ACP and AKP of sea cucumber decreased gradually in all treatments, whereas those of SOD and CAT as well as Hsp70 content decreased in the starvation and experimental aestivation treatments and increased in natural aestivation treatment. The sea cucumber entered a state of aestivation at 24°C. To some extent, the animals in experimental aestivation were different from those in natural aestivation in metabolism and physiological response. These findings suggested that the aestivation mechanism of A. japonicus is complex and may not be attributed to the elevated temperature only.

  3. CsAP3: A Cucumber Homolog to Arabidopsis APETALA3 with Novel Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin-Jing; Li, Feng; Wang, Dong-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Xia; Liu, Na; Gu, Hai-Tao; Zou, Cheng; Luo, Jing-Chu; He, Chao-Xing; Huang, San-Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Bai, Shu-Nong

    2016-01-01

    In our previous efforts to understand the regulatory mechanisms of cucumber unisexual flower development, we observed a stamen-specific down-regulation of the ethylene receptor CsETR1 in stage 6 female flowers of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). This down-regulation is correlated with the primordial anther-specific DNA damage that characterizes inappropriate stamen development in cucumber female flowers. To understand how CsETR1 is down regulated in the stamen, we characterized a cucumber MADS box gene homologous to Arabidopsis AP3, CsAP3. We demonstrated that CsAP3 is functionally equivalent to the Arabidopsis B-class MADS gene AP3. However, three novel characteristics of CsAP3 were found. These include firstly, binding and activating CsETR1 promoter in vitro and in vivo; secondly, containing a GV repeat in its C-terminus, which is conserved in cucurbits and required for the transcription activation; and thirdly, decreased expression as the node number increases, which is similar to that found for CsETR1. These findings revealed not only the conserved function of CsAP3 as a B-class floral identity gene, but also its unique functions in regulation of female flower development in cucumber. PMID:27540391

  4. Identification and characterisation of Dof transcription factors in the cucumber genome

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chang-long; Cheng, Qing; Zhao, Liqun; Mao, Aijun; Yang, Jingjing; Yu, Shuancang; Weng, Yiqun; Xu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber is vulnerable to many foliage diseases. Recent studies reported cloning of candidate genes for several diseases in cucumber; however, the exact defence mechanisms remain unclear. Dof genes have been shown to play significant roles in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Dof genes coding for plant-specific transcription factors can promote large-scale expression of defence-related genes at whole genome level. The genes in the family have been identified and characterized in several plant species, but not in cucumber. In the present study, we identified 36 CsDof members from the cucumber draft genomes which could be classified into eight groups. The proportions of the CsDof family genes, duplication events, chromosomal locations, cis-elements and miRNA target sites were comprehensively investigated. Consequently, we analysed the expression patterns of CsDof genes in specific tissues and their response to two biotic stresses (watermelon mosaic virus and downy mildew). These results indicated that CsDof may be involved in resistance to biotic stresses in cucumber. PMID:26979661

  5. Transcriptomic analysis reveals distinct resistant response by physcion and chrysophanol against cucumber powdery mildew

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanping; Tian, Shilin; Yang, Xiaojun; Wang, Xin; Guo, Yuhai

    2016-01-01

    Physcion and chrysophanol induce defense responses against powdery mildew in cucumbers. The combination of these two compounds has synergistic interaction against the disease. We performed RNA-seq on cucumber leaf samples treated with physcion and chrysophanol alone and with their combination. We generated 17.6 Gb of high-quality sequencing data (∼2 Gb per sample) and catalogued the expressions profiles of 12,293 annotated cucumber genes in each sample. We identified numerous differentially expressed genes that exhibited distinct expression patterns among the three treatments. The gene expression patterns of the Chr and Phy treatments were more similar to each other than to the Phy × Chr treatment. The Phy × Chr treatment induced the highest number of differentially expressed genes. This dramatic transcriptional change after Phy × Chr treatment leaves reflects that physcion combined with chrysophanol treatment was most closely associated with induction of disease resistance. The analysis showed that the combination treatment caused expression changes of numerous defense-related genes. These genes have known or potential roles in structural, chemical and signaling defense responses and were enriched in functional gene categories potentially responsible for cucumber resistance. These results clearly demonstrated that disease resistance in cucumber leaves was significantly influenced by the combined physcion and chrysophanol treatment. Thus, physcion and chrysophanol are appealing candidates for further investigation of the gene expression and associated regulatory mechanisms related to the defense response. PMID:27231648

  6. [Effects of irrigation with treated wastewater on nutrient distribution in cucumber and tomato plants and their fruit quality].

    PubMed

    Xue, Yan-Dong; Yang, Pei-Ling; Ren, Shu-Mei; Liu, Hong; Wu, Wen-Yong; S u, Yan-Ping; Fang, Yan-Xu

    2011-02-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of irrigation with treated wastewater on the nutrient distribution in cucumber and tomato plants and their fruit quality. Irrigation with treated wastewater promoted tomato growth significantly, but had definite inhibition effect on cucumber growth. After the irrigation with treated wastewater, the nitrogen in plants had the characteristics of upward translocation, potassium was easily to be accumulated in cucumber leaf but not accumulated in tomato root, and sodium was mostly accumulated in root but less enriched in leaf, not giving damage to the plants. No significant effects were observed on the distribution of calcium, magnesium, and chlorine in plants. Under the irrigation with treated wastewater, the overall quality of cucumber and tomato fruits was less affected. The nitrate concentration in cucumber and tomato fruits was increased by 5.3% and 32.9%, respectively, but still lower than the state food safety standard of China. PMID:21608253

  7. Characteristics of the Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus's population in the Sea of Japan (Kievka Bay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilova, G. S.; Sukhin, I. Yu.

    2011-06-01

    In Kievka Bay of the Sea of Japan, the population of the Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus inhabits the areas of coarse sediments and complex bottom topography. These distributional patterns are closely related to the species' ecology, i.e., to the demand for protection against the wave turbulence. The aggregationing coverage of the sea cucumber population is about 80 hectares, where ˜200 thousand animals were accounted for in the last years. The aggregation's area varies during the year, which is closely related to the species' biological peculiarities, such as their behavioral patterns and the redistribution of their food resources. A significant increase of the juvenile population occurred after the farm-reared sea cucumber spat were released in 2003.

  8. Distribution and accumulative pattern of tetracyclines and sulfonamides in edible vegetables of cucumber, tomato, and lettuce.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed Bedair M; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Lim, Jung Eun; Vu, Ngoc Thang; Kim, Il Seop; Kang, Ho Min; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-01-21

    Veterinary antibiotics can be released to environment by the animals' excretions, which thereby poses human health and ecological risks. Six antibiotics (tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfadimethoxine) at three concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) were employed in pots filled with a loamy sand upland soil. Three types of vegetable seedlings, including cucumber (Cucumis sativus), cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa), were also cultivated during 45 d in the greenhouse. All antibiotics taken up by tested plants showed negative effects on growth. Relatively high levels of tetracyclines and sulfonamides (SAs) were detected in the nonedible parts, roots, and leaves of cucumber and tomato, but fruit parts accumulated them lower than acceptable daily intake. Indeed, cucumber roots accumulated SAs by up to 94.6% of total addition (at 5 mg kg(-1) soil). PMID:25495233

  9. Influence of flow velocity on motor behavior of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Libin; Lin, Chenggang; Sun, Jiamin; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-05-15

    The influence of flow velocity on the motor behavior of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in the laboratory. Cameras were used to record sea cucumber movements and behavior analysis software was used to measure the distance traveled, time spent, upstream or downstream of the start position and the speed of movements. In general, the mean velocity of A. japonicus was below 0.7mms(-1). The maximum velocity recorded for all the sea cucumbers tested was for a large individual (89.25±17.11g), at a flow rate of 4.6±0.5cms(-1). Medium sized (19.68±5.53g) and large individuals moved significantly faster than small individuals (2.65±1.24g) at the same flow rate. A. japonicus moved significantly faster when there was a moderate current (4.6±0.5cms(-1) and 14.7±0.3cms(-1)), compared with the fast flow rate (29.3±3.7cms(-1)) and when there was no flow (0cms(-1)). Sea cucumbers did not show positive rheotaxis in general, but did move in a downstream direction at faster current speeds. Large, medium and small sized individuals moved downstream at the fastest current speed tested, 29.3±3.7cms(-1). When there was no water flow, sea cucumbers tended to move in an irregular pattern. The movement patterns show that the sea cucumber, A. japonicus can move across the direction of flow, and can move both upstream and downstream along the direction of flow. PMID:25727024

  10. Understanding mechanism of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus aestivation: Insights from TMT-based proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Muyan; Li, Xingke; Zhu, Aijun; Storey, Kenneth B; Sun, Lina; Gao, Tianxiang; Wang, Tianming

    2016-09-01

    Marine invertebrate aestivation is a unique strategy for summer survival in response to hot marine conditions. The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is an excellent model marine invertebrate for studies of environmentally-induced aestivation. In the present study, we used a tandem mass tag (TMT)-coupled LC-MS/MS approach to identify and quantify the global proteome expression profile over the aestivation-arousal cycle of A. japonicus. A total of 3920 proteins were identified from the intestine of sea cucumber. Among them, 630 proteins showed significant differential expression when comparing three conditions of sea cucumbers: non-aestivating (active), deep-aestivation (at least 15days of continuous aestivation), and arousal after aestivation (renewed moving and feeding). Sea cucumbers in deep aestivation showed substantial differentially expressed proteins (143 up-regulated and 267 down-regulated proteins compared with non-aestivating controls). These differentially expressed proteins suggested that protein and phospholipid probably are major fuel sources during hypometabolism and a general attenuation of carbohydrate metabolism was observed during deep aestivation. Differentially expressed proteins also provided the first global picture of a shift in protein synthesis, protein folding, DNA binding, apoptosis, cellular transport and signaling, and cytoskeletal proteins during deep aestivation in sea cucumbers. A comparison of arousal from aestivation with deep aestivation, revealed a general reversal of the changes that occurred in aestivation for most proteins. Western blot detection further validated the significant up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of methyltransferase-like protein 7A-like in deep-aestivation. Our results suggest that there is substantial post-transcriptional regulation of proteins during the aestivation-arousal cycle in sea cucumbers. PMID:27376927

  11. Pasteuria penetrans for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato and Cucumber, and M. arenaria on Snapdragon.

    PubMed

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy

    2015-09-01

    Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria are important parasitic nematodes of vegetable and ornamental crops. Microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to test commercial formulations of the biocontrol agent Pasteuria penetrans for control of M. incognita on tomato and cucumber and M. arenaria on snapdragon. Three methods of application for P. penetrans were assessed including seed, transplant, and post-plant treatments. Efficacy in controlling galling and reproduction of the two root-knot nematode species was evaluated. Seed treatment application was assessed only for M. incognita on cucumber. Pasteuria treatment rates of a granular transplant formulation ranged from 1.5 × 10(5) endospores/cm(3) to 3 × 10(5) endospores/cm(3) of transplant mix applied at seeding. Additional applications of 1.5 × 10(5) endospores/cm(3) of soil were applied as a liquid formulation to soil post-transplant for both greenhouse and microplot trials. In greenhouse cucumber trials, all Pasteuria treatments were equivalent to steamed soil for reducing M. incognita populations in roots and soil, and reducing nematode reproduction and galling. In cucumber microplot trials there were no differences among treatments for M. incognita populations in roots or soil, eggs/g root, or root condition ratings. Nematode reproduction on cucumber was low with Telone II and with the seed treatment plus post-plant application of Pasteuria, which had the lowest nematode reproduction. However, galling for all Pasteuria treatments was higher than galling with Telone II. Root-knot nematode control with Pasteuria in greenhouse and microplot trials varied on tomato and snapdragon. Positive results were achieved for control of M. incognita with the seed treatment application on cucumber. PMID:26527842

  12. Pasteuria penetrans for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato and Cucumber, and M. arenaria on Snapdragon

    PubMed Central

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria are important parasitic nematodes of vegetable and ornamental crops. Microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to test commercial formulations of the biocontrol agent Pasteuria penetrans for control of M. incognita on tomato and cucumber and M. arenaria on snapdragon. Three methods of application for P. penetrans were assessed including seed, transplant, and post-plant treatments. Efficacy in controlling galling and reproduction of the two root-knot nematode species was evaluated. Seed treatment application was assessed only for M. incognita on cucumber. Pasteuria treatment rates of a granular transplant formulation ranged from 1.5 × 105 endospores/cm3 to 3 × 105 endospores/cm3 of transplant mix applied at seeding. Additional applications of 1.5 × 105 endospores/cm3 of soil were applied as a liquid formulation to soil post-transplant for both greenhouse and microplot trials. In greenhouse cucumber trials, all Pasteuria treatments were equivalent to steamed soil for reducing M. incognita populations in roots and soil, and reducing nematode reproduction and galling. In cucumber microplot trials there were no differences among treatments for M. incognita populations in roots or soil, eggs/g root, or root condition ratings. Nematode reproduction on cucumber was low with Telone II and with the seed treatment plus post-plant application of Pasteuria, which had the lowest nematode reproduction. However, galling for all Pasteuria treatments was higher than galling with Telone II. Root-knot nematode control with Pasteuria in greenhouse and microplot trials varied on tomato and snapdragon. Positive results were achieved for control of M. incognita with the seed treatment application on cucumber. PMID:26527842

  13. Ethylene Production by Chilled Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, C Y; Adams, D O

    1980-11-01

    Chilling at 2.5 C accelerated the synthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and C(2)H(4) production in cucumber fruit. Skin tissue contained higher levels of ACC and was more sensitive to chilling than was cortex tissue. Accumulation of ACC in chilled tissue was detected after 1 day of chilling and remained elevated even after C(2)H(4) production started to decline. These data suggest that ACC synthesis is readily stimulated by chilling, whereas the system that converts ACC to C(2)H(4) is vulnerable to chilling injury. Chilling-induced C(2)H(4) production was inhibited by amino-ethoxyvinylglycine, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, 2,4-dinitrophenol, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, and cycloheximide. The utilization of methionine for ACC formation and chilling-induced C(2)H(4) biosynthesis was established using l-[3,4-(14)C]methionine. Chilled tissue had a higher capacity to convert l-[3,4-(14)C]methionine to ACC and C(2)H(4) than did nonchilled tissue. PMID:16661538

  14. Ethylene Production by Chilled Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chien Yi; Adams, Douglas O.

    1980-01-01

    Chilling at 2.5 C accelerated the synthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and C2H4 production in cucumber fruit. Skin tissue contained higher levels of ACC and was more sensitive to chilling than was cortex tissue. Accumulation of ACC in chilled tissue was detected after 1 day of chilling and remained elevated even after C2H4 production started to decline. These data suggest that ACC synthesis is readily stimulated by chilling, whereas the system that converts ACC to C2H4 is vulnerable to chilling injury. Chilling-induced C2H4 production was inhibited by amino-ethoxyvinylglycine, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, 2,4-dinitrophenol, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, and cycloheximide. The utilization of methionine for ACC formation and chilling-induced C2H4 biosynthesis was established using l-[3,4-14C]methionine. Chilled tissue had a higher capacity to convert l-[3,4-14C]methionine to ACC and C2H4 than did nonchilled tissue. PMID:16661538

  15. Polymer mobility in cell walls of cucumber hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, K. M.; Apperley, D. C.; Cosgrove, D. J.; Jarvis, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Cell walls were prepared from the growing region of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hypocotyls and examined by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy, in both enzymically active and inactivated states. The rigidity of individual polymer segments within the hydrated cell walls was assessed from the proton magnetic relaxation parameter, T2, and from the kinetics of cross-polarisation from 1H to 13C. The microfibrils, including most of the xyloglucan in the cell wall, as well as cellulose, behaved as very rigid solids. A minor xyloglucan fraction, which may correspond to cross-links between microfibrils, shared a lower level of rigidity with some of the pectic galacturonan. Other pectins, including most of the galactan side-chain residues of rhamnogalacturonan I, were much more mobile and behaved in a manner intermediate between the solid and liquid states. The only difference observed between the enzymically active and inactive cell walls, was the loss of a highly mobile, methyl-esterified galacturonan fraction, as the result of pectinesterase activity.

  16. Characterization of the Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes in Cucumber: Structure, Phylogeny, and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Cao, Ning; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to produce unsaturated fatty acids, and therefore play a critical role in plant development and acclimation to environmental stresses. In this study, 23 full-length FAD genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were identified through database searches, including three CsFAB2 genes, two CsFAD2 genes, fourteen CsFAD5 genes, and one gene each for CsFAD3, CsFAD4, CsFAD6 and CsFAD7. These cucumber FAD genes were distributed on all seven chromosomes and two additional scaffolds. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the cucumber FAD proteins were clustered into five subfamilies with their counterparts from other plants. Gene structures and protein sequences were considerably conserved in each subfamily. All three CsFAB2 proteins shared conserved structure with the known plant soluble FAD proteins. The other cucumber FADs belonged to the membrane-bound FADs and contained three highly conserved histidine boxes. Additionally, the putative endoplasmic reticulum retention signal was found at the C-termini of the CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 proteins, while the N-termini of CsFAD4, CsFAD5, CsFAD6, CsFAD7 and three CsFAB2s contained a predicted chloroplast signal peptide, which was consistent with their associated metabolic pathways. Furthermore, a gene expression analysis showed that CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 were universally expressed in all tested tissues, whereas the other cucumber FAD genes were preferentially expressed in the cotyledons or leaves. The tissue-specific expression patterns of cucumber FAD genes were correlated well with the differences in the fatty acid compositions ofroots and leaves. Finally, the cucumber FAD genes showed a cold-induced and heat-repressed expression pattern, although with distinct regulatory time courses among the different CsFAD members, which indicates the potential roles of the FADs in temperature stress resistance in cucumber. PMID:26938877

  17. Development of genome viewer (Web Omics Viewer) for managing databases of cucumber genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcieszek, M.; RóŻ, P.; Pawełkowicz, M.; Nowak, R.; Przybecki, Z.

    Cucumber is an important plant in horticulture and science world. Sequencing projects of C. sativus genome enable new methodological aproaches in further investigation of this species. Accessibility is crucial to fully exploit obtained information about detail structure of genes, markers and other characteristic features such contigs, scaffolds and chromosomes. Genome viewer is one of tools providing plain and easy way for presenting genome data for users and for databases administration. Gbrowse - the main viewer has several very useful features but lacks in managing simplicity. Our group developed new genome browser Web Omics Viewer (WOV), keeping functionality but improving utilization and accessibility to cucumber genome data.

  18. Characterization of the Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes in Cucumber: Structure, Phylogeny, and Expression Patterns.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Cao, Ning; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to produce unsaturated fatty acids, and therefore play a critical role in plant development and acclimation to environmental stresses. In this study, 23 full-length FAD genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were identified through database searches, including three CsFAB2 genes, two CsFAD2 genes, fourteen CsFAD5 genes, and one gene each for CsFAD3, CsFAD4, CsFAD6 and CsFAD7. These cucumber FAD genes were distributed on all seven chromosomes and two additional scaffolds. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the cucumber FAD proteins were clustered into five subfamilies with their counterparts from other plants. Gene structures and protein sequences were considerably conserved in each subfamily. All three CsFAB2 proteins shared conserved structure with the known plant soluble FAD proteins. The other cucumber FADs belonged to the membrane-bound FADs and contained three highly conserved histidine boxes. Additionally, the putative endoplasmic reticulum retention signal was found at the C-termini of the CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 proteins, while the N-termini of CsFAD4, CsFAD5, CsFAD6, CsFAD7 and three CsFAB2s contained a predicted chloroplast signal peptide, which was consistent with their associated metabolic pathways. Furthermore, a gene expression analysis showed that CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 were universally expressed in all tested tissues, whereas the other cucumber FAD genes were preferentially expressed in the cotyledons or leaves. The tissue-specific expression patterns of cucumber FAD genes were correlated well with the differences in the fatty acid compositions ofroots and leaves. Finally, the cucumber FAD genes showed a cold-induced and heat-repressed expression pattern, although with distinct regulatory time courses among the different CsFAD members, which indicates the potential roles of the FADs in temperature stress resistance in cucumber. PMID:26938877

  19. Cytotoxic and antifungal triterpene glycosides from the Patagonian sea cucumber Hemoiedema spectabilis.

    PubMed

    Chludil, Hugo D; Muniain, Claudia C; Seldes, Alicia M; Maier, Marta S

    2002-06-01

    Two new sulfated triterpene glycosides, hemoiedemosides A (1) and B (2), have been isolated from the Patagonian sea cucumber Hemoiedema spectabilis. Their structures have been established by a combination of spectroscopic analysis (NMR and FABMS) and chemical transformations. Both glycosides present the same aglycon and differ in the degree of sulfation of the tetrasaccharide chain. Hemoiedemoside B (2) is a new example of a small number of trisulfated triterpene glycosides from sea cucumbers belonging to the family Cucumariidae. Glycosides 1 and 2 exhibit considerable antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum, while the semisynthetic desulfated derivative 1a is less active. PMID:12088428

  20. Aspergillus niger Enhance Bioactive Compounds Biosynthesis As Well As Expression of Functional Genes in Adventitious Roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Juan; Li, Jinxin; Liu, Dahui; Li, Hongfa; Gao, Wenyuan; Li, Jianli; Liu, Shujie

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the culture conditions for the accumulation of Glycyrrhiza uralensis adventitious root metabolites in balloon-type bubble bioreactors (BTBBs) have been optimized. The results of the culture showed that the best culture conditions were a cone angle of 90° bioreactor and 0.4-0.6-0.4-vvm aeration volume. Aspergillus niger can be used as a fungal elicitor to enhance the production of defense compounds in plants. With the addition of a fungal elicitor (derived from Aspergillus niger), the maximum accumulation of total flavonoids (16.12 mg g(-1)) and glycyrrhetinic acid (0.18 mg g(-1)) occurred at a dose of 400 mg L(-1) of Aspergillus niger resulting in a 3.47-fold and 1.8-fold increase over control roots. However, the highest concentration of polysaccharide (106.06 mg g(-1)) was achieved with a mixture of elicitors (Aspergillus niger and salicylic acid) added to the medium, resulting in a 1.09-fold increase over Aspergillus niger treatment alone. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) analysis was performed, showing that seven compounds were present after treatment with the elicitors, including uralsaponin B, licorice saponin B2, liquiritin, and (3R)-vestitol, only identified in the mixed elicitor treatment group. It has also been found that elicitors (Aspergillus niger and salicylic acid) significantly upregulated the expression of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), β-amyrin synthase (β-AS), squalene epoxidase (SE) and a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP72A154) genes, which are involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activity. PMID:26490378

  1. Promoting Roles of Melatonin in Adventitious Root Development of Solanum lycopersicum L. by Regulating Auxin and Nitric Oxide Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Dan; Gong, Biao; Sun, Shasha; Liu, Shiqi; Wang, Xiufeng; Wei, Min; Yang, Fengjuan; Li, Yan; Shi, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin (MT) plays integral roles in regulating several biological processes including plant growth, seed germination, flowering, senescence, and stress responses. This study investigated the effects of MT on adventitious root formation (ARF) of de-rooted tomato seedlings. Exogenous MT positively or negatively influenced ARF, which was dependent on the concentration of MT application. In the present experiment, 50 μM MT showed the best effect on inducing ARF. Interestingly, exogenous MT promoted the accumulation of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) by down-regulating the expression of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR). To determine the interaction of MT and NO in ARF, MT synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine, NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt as well as GSNOR-overexpression plants with low NO levels were used. The function of MT was removed by NO scavenger or GSNOR-overexpression plants. However, application of MT synthesis inhibitor did little to abolish the function of NO. These results indicate that NO, as a downstream signal, was involved in the MT-induced ARF. Concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid, as well as the expression of several genes related to the auxin signaling pathway (PIN1, PIN3, PIN7, IAA19, and IAA24), showed that MT influenced auxin transport and signal transduction as well as auxin accumulation through the NO signaling pathway. Collectively, these strongly suggest that elevated NO levels resulting from inhibited GSNOR activity and auxin signaling were involved in the MT-induced ARF in tomato plants. This can be applied in basic research and breeding. PMID:27252731

  2. Promoting Roles of Melatonin in Adventitious Root Development of Solanum lycopersicum L. by Regulating Auxin and Nitric Oxide Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wen, Dan; Gong, Biao; Sun, Shasha; Liu, Shiqi; Wang, Xiufeng; Wei, Min; Yang, Fengjuan; Li, Yan; Shi, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin (MT) plays integral roles in regulating several biological processes including plant growth, seed germination, flowering, senescence, and stress responses. This study investigated the effects of MT on adventitious root formation (ARF) of de-rooted tomato seedlings. Exogenous MT positively or negatively influenced ARF, which was dependent on the concentration of MT application. In the present experiment, 50 μM MT showed the best effect on inducing ARF. Interestingly, exogenous MT promoted the accumulation of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) by down-regulating the expression of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR). To determine the interaction of MT and NO in ARF, MT synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine, NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt as well as GSNOR-overexpression plants with low NO levels were used. The function of MT was removed by NO scavenger or GSNOR-overexpression plants. However, application of MT synthesis inhibitor did little to abolish the function of NO. These results indicate that NO, as a downstream signal, was involved in the MT-induced ARF. Concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-butyric acid, as well as the expression of several genes related to the auxin signaling pathway (PIN1, PIN3, PIN7, IAA19, and IAA24), showed that MT influenced auxin transport and signal transduction as well as auxin accumulation through the NO signaling pathway. Collectively, these strongly suggest that elevated NO levels resulting from inhibited GSNOR activity and auxin signaling were involved in the MT-induced ARF in tomato plants. This can be applied in basic research and breeding. PMID:27252731

  3. Effects of ion beam irradiation on adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro leaf explants of Saintpaulia ionahta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L. B.; Li, W. J.; Ma, S.; Dong, X. C.; Yu, L. X.; Li, Q.; Zhou, G. M.; Gao, Q. X.

    2006-03-01

    The effects of 960 MeV carbon ion beam and 8 MeV X-ray irradiation on adventitious shoots from in vitro leaf explants of two different Saintpaulia ionahta (Mauve and Indikon) cultivars were studied with regard to tissue increase, shoots differentiation and morphology changes in the shoots. The experimental results showed that the survival fraction of shoot formation for the Mauve and Indikon irradiated with the carbon ion beam at 20 Gy were 0.715 and 0.600, respectively, while those for both the cultivars exposed to the X-ray irradiation at the same dose were 1.000. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Mauve with respect to X-ray was about two. Secondly, the percentage of regenerating explants with malformed shoots in all Mauve regenerating explants irradiated with carbon ion beam at 20 Gy accounted for 49.6%, while that irradiated with the same dose of X-ray irradiation was only 4.7%; as for Saintpaulia ionahta Indikon irradiated with 20 Gy carbon ion beam, the percentage was 43.3%, which was higher than that of X-ray irradiation. Last, many chlorophyll deficient and other varieties of mutants were obtained in this study. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that the effect of mutation induction by carbon ion beam irradiation on the leaf explants of Saintpaulia ionahta is better than that by X-ray irradiation; and the optimal mutagenic dose varies from 20 Gy to 25 Gy for carbon ion beam irradiation.

  4. Transcriptomic analysis reveals ethylene as stimulator and auxin as regulator of adventitious root formation in petunia cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Lischewski, Sandra; Ahkami, Amir H.; Zerche, Siegfried; Hause, Bettina; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R.

    2014-01-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation in the stem base (SB) of cuttings is the basis for propagation of many plant species and petunia is used as model to study this developmental process. Following AR formation from 2 to 192 hours post-excision (hpe) of cuttings, transcriptome analysis by microarray revealed a change of the character of the rooting zone from SB to root identity. The greatest shift in the number of differentially expressed genes was observed between 24 and 72 hpe, when the categories storage, mineral nutrient acquisition, anti-oxidative and secondary metabolism, and biotic stimuli showed a notable high number of induced genes. Analyses of phytohormone-related genes disclosed multifaceted changes of the auxin transport system, auxin conjugation and the auxin signal perception machinery indicating a reduction in auxin sensitivity and phase-specific responses of particular auxin-regulated genes. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and action showed a more uniform pattern as a high number of respective genes were generally induced during the whole process of AR formation. The important role of ethylene for stimulating AR formation was demonstrated by the application of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and perception as well as of the precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, all changing the number and length of AR. A model is proposed showing the putative role of polar auxin transport and resulting auxin accumulation in initiation of subsequent changes in auxin homeostasis and signal perception with a particular role of Aux/IAA expression. These changes might in turn guide the entrance into the different phases of AR formation. Ethylene biosynthesis, which is stimulated by wounding and does probably also respond to other stresses and auxin, acts as important stimulator of AR formation probably via the expression of ethylene responsive transcription factor genes, whereas the timing of different phases seems to be controlled by auxin. PMID

  5. Augmenting in vitro shoot multiplication by vipul (triacontanol) and adventitious rhizogenesis by rice bran extract in Dendrocalamus strictus.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Y; Rana, P K; Shirin, F; Ansari, S A

    2001-02-01

    Like other bamboo species, Dendrocalamus strictus flowers gregariously after a prolonged intermast period of 48 years and constitutes an ideal material for in vitro clonal propagation. In this study, MS liquid medium containing 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mL/L vipul (Godrej Agrovet, Ltd., Sachin, India), a commercial formulation of triacontanol, with or without BA (3.0 mg/L) was tested for in vitro shoot multiplication and 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mL/L of 20% (w/v) alcoholic/aqueous rice bran extract (alone or in combination) with NAA (3 mg/L) used for in vitro adventitious rhizogenesis in single node culture derived shoots of Dendrocalamus strictus.. After a multiplication cycle for 4-5 week, vipul (0.5 mL/L) with BA (3.0 mg/L) in the culture medium induced 4.59 fold shoot multiplication rate whereas application of BA and vipul alone had corresponding values of 3.29 and 0.53 fold respectively. Maximum vipul concentration (2 mL/L) with BA (3 mg/L) exhibited shoot multiplication higher than (or equal to) that of BA alone. Maximum in vitro rooting percentage (55.66%) was obtained on half MS medium enriched with alcoholic rice bran extract (2.5 mL/L) and NAA (3 mg/L). This is the first investigation reporting amelioration of in vitro shoot multiplication rate by triacontanol and rooting percentage by rice bran extract in explants from mature bamboo culms. The protocol is economical and rapid for in vitro clonal propagation of Dendrocalamus strictus. PMID:11480214

  6. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis Unravels the Existence of Crucial Genes Regulating Primary Metabolism during Adventitious Root Formation in Petunia hybrida

    PubMed Central

    Ahkami, Amirhossein; Scholz, Uwe; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Strickert, Marc; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Druege, Uwe; Reinhardt, Didier; Nouri, Eva; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Franken, Philipp; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-01-01

    To identify specific genes determining the initiation and formation of adventitious roots (AR), a microarray-based transcriptome analysis in the stem base of the cuttings of Petunia hybrida (line W115) was conducted. A microarray carrying 24,816 unique, non-redundant annotated sequences was hybridized to probes derived from different stages of AR formation. After exclusion of wound-responsive and root-regulated genes, 1,354 of them were identified which were significantly and specifically induced during various phases of AR formation. Based on a recent physiological model distinguishing three metabolic phases in AR formation, the present paper focuses on the response of genes related to particular metabolic pathways. Key genes involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism such as those mediating apoplastic sucrose unloading were induced at the early sink establishment phase of AR formation. Transcriptome changes also pointed to a possible role of trehalose metabolism and SnRK1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1- related protein kinase) in sugar sensing during this early step of AR formation. Symplastic sucrose unloading and nucleotide biosynthesis were the major processes induced during the later recovery and maintenance phases. Moreover, transcripts involved in peroxisomal beta-oxidation were up-regulated during different phases of AR formation. In addition to metabolic pathways, the analysis revealed the activation of cell division at the two later phases and in particular the induction of G1-specific genes in the maintenance phase. Furthermore, results point towards a specific demand for certain mineral nutrients starting in the recovery phase. PMID:24978694

  7. Adventitial Vessel Growth and Progenitor Cells Activation in an Ex Vivo Culture System Mimicking Human Saphenous Vein Wall Strain after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Prandi, Francesca; Piola, Marco; Soncini, Monica; Colussi, Claudia; D’Alessandra, Yuri; Penza, Eleonora; Agrifoglio, Marco; Vinci, Maria Cristina; Polvani, Gianluca; Gaetano, Carlo; Fiore, Gianfranco Beniamino; Pesce, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Saphenous vein graft disease is a timely problem in coronary artery bypass grafting. Indeed, after exposure of the vein to arterial blood flow, a progressive modification in the wall begins, due to proliferation of smooth muscle cells in the intima. As a consequence, the graft progressively occludes and this leads to recurrent ischemia. In the present study we employed a novel ex vivo culture system to assess the biological effects of arterial-like pressure on the human saphenous vein structure and physiology, and to compare the results to those achieved in the presence of a constant low pressure and flow mimicking the physiologic vein perfusion. While under both conditions we found an activation of Matrix Metallo-Proteases 2/9 and of microRNAs-21/146a/221, a specific effect of the arterial-like pressure was observed. This consisted in a marked geometrical remodeling, in the suppression of Tissue Inhibitor of Metallo-Protease-1, in the enhanced expression of TGF-β1 and BMP-2 mRNAs and, finally, in the upregulation of microRNAs-138/200b/200c. In addition, the veins exposed to arterial-like pressure showed an increase in the density of the adventitial vasa vasorum and of cells co-expressing NG2, CD44 and SM22α markers in the adventitia. Cells with nuclear expression of Sox-10, a transcription factor characterizing multipotent vascular stem cells, were finally found in adventitial vessels. Our findings suggest, for the first time, a role of arterial-like wall strain in the activation of pro-pathologic pathways resulting in adventitial vessels growth, activation of vasa vasorum cells, and upregulation of specific gene products associated to vascular remodeling and inflammation. PMID:25689822

  8. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aloe vera Adventitious Root Extracts through the Alteration of Primary and Secondary Metabolites via Salicylic Acid Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10–11 and 5–13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment. PMID:24358188

  9. Protective effect of heat-treated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) juice on alcohol detoxification in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Kim, Na-Hyung; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Kangmin; Kang, Sun Chul

    2016-05-01

    In this study, heat-treated cucumber juice was assessed for its protective effect on blood alcohol levels and hepatic alcohol metabolic enzyme system in experimental rats. Initially, during detoxification of alcohol, all groups were orally dosed to 22% alcohol (6ml/kg body weight) along with different concentrations of heat-treated cucumber juice (10, 100 and 500mg/kg) and commercial goods for hangover-removal on sale (2ml/kg). Cucumber juice was dosed before 30 min, and simultaneously after 30min of alcohol administration, and its hepatoprotective effect on blood alcohol levels and hepatic alcohol metabolic enzyme system in experimental rats was evaluated. As a result, after 7h, remarkable reduction was found in the blood alcohol levels for all concentrations of cucumber juice treatment. Treatment with cucumber juice resulted in increasing dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymatic activities in rat liver at 9h after alcohol administration thereby stimulated blood alcohol metabolism as compared with control group. The effect of heat-treated cucumber juice on alcohol detoxification was observed only in the rats treated before 30min from alcohol administration. These findings indicate that heat-treated cucumber juice has significant protective effect on alcohol detoxification in experimental rats, suggesting its usefulness in the treatment of liver injury caused by alcohol consumption. PMID:27383492

  10. Application of wet waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) with or without sea mud to feeding sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) ( P > 0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no significant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments ( P > 0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  11. [Effects of exogenous NO on the growth and antioxidant enzyme activities of cucumber seedlings under NO3- stress].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Juan; Wang, Xiu-feng; Yang, Feng-juan; Sun, Jia-zheng; Wei, Min; Shi, Qing-hua; Wang, Xiu-hong

    2009-12-01

    In this study, cucumber seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution added with different concentration (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mmol x L(-1)) sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as nitric oxide (NO) donor to study the effects of exogenous NO on the growth of cucumber seedlings and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in cucumber leaves under NO3- stress. Under the stress of 140 mmol x L(-1) NO3-, treating with 0.1 mmol x L(-1) of SNP for 1 d or 7 d increased the leaf soluble protein content and superoxidase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX) activities, and decreased the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content significantly, suggesting that exogenous NO could enhance the capacity of cucumber seedlings in scavenging active oxygen species, protect the seedlings from the peroxidation of membrane lipids, and promote the seedlings growth and increase their resistance to high concentration NO3- stress. After the cucumber seedlings grew in 0.3 mmol x L(-1) of SNP for 7 d, the activities of leaf SOD, POD, and CAT decreased, and the MDA content increased, resulting in the injury of cucumber seedlings. It was indicated that certain concentration (0.1-0.2 mmol x L(-1)) exogenous NO could alleviate the NO3- stress to cucumber seedlings. PMID:20353070

  12. Residual behavior and risk assessment of the mixed formulation of benzene kresoxim-methyl and fluazinam in cucumber field application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quansheng; Wei, Peng; Cao, Mengchao; Liu, Yanan; Wang, Mengcen; Guo, Yirong; Zhu, Guonian

    2016-06-01

    Benzene kresoxim-methyl (BKM) is a new strobilurin fungicide mixed with fluazinam (Flu) into 40 % suspension concentrate (SC) formulation to improve fungicidal efficacy and to reduce the risk of resistance on cucumber. However, the fate of the fungicide residues in a cucumber plantation remains unclear. Thus, an efficient method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample preparation was developed to simultaneously determine the BKM and Flu residues in cucumber and soil samples to investigate their residual behavior and risk assessment in the cucumber plantation. This analytical method revealed that the detection limits of BKM and Flu were 1.64 × 10(-3) and 1.82 × 10(-3) mg L(-1), respectively, and their average recoveries in the cucumber and soil samples were 77.5-106.9 %. The respective half-lives of BKM and Flu were 2.2-3.4 and 1.0-2.5 days in cucumber; in soil, the half-lives of BKM and Flu were 2.6-5.0 and 2.4-5.3 days, respectively. Seven days after application, the terminal residues of BKM and Flu in cucumber were less than 0.02 mg kg(-1). The residual profiles of BKM and Flu suggested that these fungicides could rapidly degrade in cucumber plantations. Their hazard quotient values were all less than 1 on the preharvest intervals of 3, 5, and 7 days, indicating that the dietary risk of BKM and Flu 40 % SC with the recommended usage on cucumber is negligible. PMID:27168328

  13. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300–1458

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Janick, Jules; Daunay, Marie-Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions. Findings The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio. Most of the images show the cucumbers marked by sparsely distributed, large dark dots, but images from northern France show them as having densely distributed, small black dots. The different size, colour and distribution reflect the different surface wartiness and spininess of modern American and French pickling cucumbers. The melon fruits are green, oval to serpentine, closely resembling the chate and snake vegetable melons, but not sweet melons. In nearly all manuscripts of Italian provenance, the cucumber image is labelled with the Latin caption citruli, or similar, plural diminuitive of citrus (citron, Citrus medica). However, in manuscripts of French provenance, the cucumber image is labelled cucumeres, which is derived from the classical Latin epithet cucumis for snake melon. The absence of melon in some manuscripts and the expropriation of the Latin cucumis/cucumer indicate replacement of vegetable melons by cucumbers during the medieval period in Europe. One image, from British Library ms. Sloane 4016, has a caption that allows tracing of the word ‘gherkin’ back to languages of the geographical nativity of C

  14. A High-Density Genetic Linkage Map for Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.): Based on Specific Length Amplified Fragment (SLAF) Sequencing and QTL Analysis of Fruit Traits in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wen-Ying; Huang, Long; Chen, Long; Yang, Jian-Tao; Wu, Jia-Ni; Qu, Mei-Ling; Yao, Dan-Qing; Guo, Chun-Li; Lian, Hong-Li; He, Huan-Le; Pan, Jun-Song; Cai, Run

    2016-01-01

    High-density genetic linkage map plays an important role in genome assembly and quantitative trait loci (QTL) fine mapping. Since the coming of next-generation sequencing, makes the structure of high-density linkage maps much more convenient and practical, which simplifies SNP discovery and high-throughput genotyping. In this research, a high-density linkage map of cucumber was structured using specific length amplified fragment sequencing, using 153 F2 populations of S1000 × S1002. The high-density genetic map composed 3,057 SLAFs, including 4,475 SNP markers on seven chromosomes, and spanned 1061.19 cM. The average genetic distance is 0.35 cM. Based on this high-density genome map, QTL analysis was performed on two cucumber fruit traits, fruit length and fruit diameter. There are 15 QTLs for the two fruit traits were detected. PMID:27148281

  15. A High-Density Genetic Linkage Map for Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.): Based on Specific Length Amplified Fragment (SLAF) Sequencing and QTL Analysis of Fruit Traits in Cucumber.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-Ying; Huang, Long; Chen, Long; Yang, Jian-Tao; Wu, Jia-Ni; Qu, Mei-Ling; Yao, Dan-Qing; Guo, Chun-Li; Lian, Hong-Li; He, Huan-Le; Pan, Jun-Song; Cai, Run

    2016-01-01

    High-density genetic linkage map plays an important role in genome assembly and quantitative trait loci (QTL) fine mapping. Since the coming of next-generation sequencing, makes the structure of high-density linkage maps much more convenient and practical, which simplifies SNP discovery and high-throughput genotyping. In this research, a high-density linkage map of cucumber was structured using specific length amplified fragment sequencing, using 153 F2 populations of S1000 × S1002. The high-density genetic map composed 3,057 SLAFs, including 4,475 SNP markers on seven chromosomes, and spanned 1061.19 cM. The average genetic distance is 0.35 cM. Based on this high-density genome map, QTL analysis was performed on two cucumber fruit traits, fruit length and fruit diameter. There are 15 QTLs for the two fruit traits were detected. PMID:27148281

  16. High-Throughput Sequencing Identifies Novel and Conserved Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) microRNAs in Response to Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liang, C. Q.; Jiang, N.; Liu, P. F.; Li, J. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. (cv. 'Zhongnong 16') were artificially inoculated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) at the three-true-leaf stage. Leaf and flower samples were collected at different time points post-inoculation (10, 30 and 50 d), and processed by high throughput sequencing analysis to identify candidate miRNA sequences. Bioinformatic analysis using screening criteria, and secondary structure prediction, indicated that 8 novel and 23 known miRNAs (including 15 miRNAs described for the first time in vivo) were produced by cucumber plants in response to CGMMV infection. Moreover, gene expression profiles (p-value <0.01) validated the expression of 3 of the novel miRNAs and 3 of the putative candidate miRNAs and identified a further 82 conserved miRNAs in CGMMV-infected cucumbers. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the predicted target genes of these 88 miRNAs, which were screened using the psRNATarget and miRanda algorithms, were involved in three functional categories: 2265 in molecular function, 1362 as cellular components and 276 in biological process. The subsequent Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that the predicted target genes were frequently involved in metabolic processes (166 pathways) and genetic information processes (40 pathways) and to a lesser degree the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (12 pathways). These results could provide useful clues to help elucidate host-pathogen interactions in CGMMV and cucumber, as well as for the screening of resistance genes. PMID:26076360

  17. Parental Effect of Long Acclimatization on Thermal Tolerance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Lin; Yu, Shan-Shan; Dong, Yun-Wei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus) from the same broodstock were transplanted southward and acclimatized at high temperature in field mesocosms. Four groups of juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced different durations of high temperature acclimatization were established. Upper thermal limits, oxygen consumption and levels of heat shock protein mRNA of juveniles was determined to compare thermal tolerance of individuals from different groups. Juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced high temperature could acquire high thermal resistance. With the increase of parental exposure duration to high temperature, offspring became less sensitive to high temperature, as indicated by higher upper thermal limits (LT50), less seasonal variations of oxygen consumption, and stable oxygen consumption rates between chronic and acute thermal stress. The relatively high levels of constitutive expression of heat-shock proteins should contribute to the high thermal tolerance. Together, these results indicated that the existence of a parental effect of long acclimatization would increase thermal tolerance of juveniles and change the thermal sensitivity of sea cucumber to future climate change. PMID:26580550

  18. Characterization of cucumber fermentation spoilage bacteria by enrichment culture and 16S rDNA cloning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial cucumber fermentations are typically carried out in 40000 L fermentation tanks. A secondary fermentation can occur after sugars are consumed that results in the formation of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, concomitantly with the loss of lactic acid and an increase in pH. Spoilage fe...

  19. Grafting cucumber onto luffa improves drought tolerance by increasing ABA biosynthesis and sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shanshan; Li, Hao; Lv, Xiangzhang; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Kai; Asami, Tadao; Yu, Jingquan; Zhou, Yanhong

    2016-01-01

    Balancing stomata-dependent CO2 assimilation and transpiration is a key challenge for increasing crop productivity and water use efficiency under drought stress for sustainable crop production worldwide. Here, we show that cucumber and luffa plants with luffa as rootstock have intrinsically increased water use efficiency, decreased transpiration rate and less affected CO2 assimilation capacity following drought stress over those with cucumber as rootstock. Drought accelerated abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in roots, xylem sap and leaves, and induced the transcript of ABA signaling genes, leading to a decreased stomatal aperture and transpiration in the plants grafted onto luffa roots as compared to plants grafted onto cucumber roots. Furthermore, stomatal movement in the plants grafted onto luffa roots had an increased sensitivity to ABA. Inhibition of ABA biosynthesis in luffa roots decreased the drought tolerance in cucumber and luffa plants. Our study demonstrates that the roots of luffa have developed an enhanced ability to sense the changes in root-zone moisture and could eventually deliver modest level of ABA from roots to shoots that enhances water use efficiency under drought stress. Such a mechanism could be greatly exploited to benefit the agricultural production especially in arid and semi-arid areas. PMID:26832070

  20. USDA, ARS EOM 402-10 high B-carotene cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high B-carotene cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. sativus L.) line EOM 402-10 is being released. This line was derived from a cross between the "Xishuangbanna gourd" (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan; 2n = 2x = 14) that bears orange fruit and the non-orange-fruited cultivated c...

  1. Comparison of Physicochemical Characteristics and Anticoagulant Activities of Polysaccharides from Three Sea Cucumbers

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lan; Wu, Mingyi; Xu, Li; Lian, Wu; Xiang, Jingying; Lu, Feng; Gao, Na; Xiao, Chuang; Wang, Shengmin; Zhao, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    In order to search for sulfated polysaccharides in different invertebrate connective tissues and to examine their biological activities, we have isolated three types of polysaccharides from the body wall of the three sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis, Apostichopus japonicas and Holothuria nobilis. The physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities of these polysaccharides were examined and compared. The chemical composition analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicate that two types of polysaccharides, sulfated fucan and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS), were found in all of the three species and in addition a neutral glycan was observed in H. edulis. The neutral α-glucan was firstly obtained from sea cucumber. The same type of polysaccharides from different species of sea cucumbers have similar physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities, but those of different types of glycans are significantly different, possibly due to their different monosaccharide compositions, electric charges and average molecular weights. The FuCSs have stronger anticoagulant activities than the sulfated fucans, although the molecular sizes of the FuCSs are lower than those of the sulfated fucans, whereas the neutral glucan has no activity, as expected from the absence of sulfate. Thus, anticoagulant activities of the different type of polysaccharides are likely to relate to monosaccharide composition and sulfate content. Preliminary analysis suggests that the sulfation patterns of the FuCSs may result in the difference in anticoagulant activities. Our data could help elucidate the structure-activity relationship of the sea cucumber polysaccharides. PMID:23385300

  2. Fine Genetic Mapping Localizes Cucumber Scab Resistance Gene Ccu into an R Gene Cluster

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The scab caused by Cladosporium cucumerinum, is an important disease of cucumber, Cucumis sativus. In this study, we conducted fine genetic mapping of the single dominant scab resistance gene, Ccu, with 148 F9 recombination inbreeding lines (RILs) and 1,944 F2 plants derived from the resistant cucum...

  3. Different cucumber CsYUC genes regulate response to abiotic stresses and flower development.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuangshuang; Che, Gen; Ding, Lian; Chen, Zijing; Liu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hongyin; Zhao, Wensheng; Ning, Kang; Zhao, Jianyu; Tesfamichael, Kiflom; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is essential for plant growth and development, and YUCCA (YUC) proteins catalyze a rate-limiting step for endogenous auxin biosynthesis. Despite YUC family genes have been isolated from several species, systematic expression analyses of YUCs in response to abiotic stress are lacking, and little is known about the function of YUC homologs in agricultural crops. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a world cultivated vegetable crop with great economical and nutritional value. In this study, we isolated 10 YUC family genes (CsYUCs) from cucumber and explored their expression pattern under four types of stress treatments. Our data showed that CsYUC8 and CsYUC9 were specifically upregulated to elevate the auxin level under high temperature. CsYUC10b was dramatically increased but CsYUC4 was repressed in response to low temperature. CsYUC10a and CsYUC11 act against the upregulation of CsYUC10b under salinity stress, suggesting that distinct YUC members participate in different stress response, and may even antagonize each other to maintain the proper auxin levels in cucumber. Further, CsYUC11 was specifically expressed in the male flower in cucumber, and enhanced tolerance to salinity stress and regulated pedicel and stamen development through auxin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:26857463

  4. Asynchronous meiosis in Cucumis hystrix-cucumber synthetic tetraploids resulting in low male fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wide hybridization is an important tool for crop improvement. Recently, we successfully developed a synthetic allotetraploid from interspecific cross between cucumber and its relative Cucumis hystrix-(2n = 2x =24) followed by chemical induction of chromosome doubling. The resulting allotetraploid wa...

  5. Inter- and intramolecular recombinations in the cucumber mosaic virus genome related to adaptation to alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuh-Kun; Goldbach, Rob; Prins, Marcel

    2002-04-01

    In four distinct alstroemeria-infecting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates, additional sequences of various lengths were present in the 3' nontranslated regions of their RNAs 2 and 3, apparently the result of intra- and intermolecular recombination events. Competition experiments revealed that these recombined RNA 2 and 3 segments increased the biological fitness of CMV in alstroemeria. PMID:11907253

  6. Efficacy of Fluensulfone in a Tomato–Cucumber Double Cropping System

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Kelly A.; Langston, David B.; Dickson, Donald W.; Davis, Richard F.; Timper, Patricia; Noe, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable crops in the southeastern United States are commonly grown on plastic mulch with two crop cycles produced on a single mulch application. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in two locations to evaluate the efficacy of fluensulfone for controlling Meloidogyne spp. when applied through drip irrigation to cucumber in a tomato–cucumber double-cropping system. In the spring tomato crop, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), fluensulfone, and a resistant cultivar significantly decreased root galling by 91%, 73%, and 97%, respectively, compared to the untreated control. Tomato plots from the spring were divided into split plots for the fall where the main plots were the spring treatment and the subplots were cucumber either treated with fluensulfone (3.0 kg a.i./ha. via drip irrigation) or left untreated. The fall application of fluensulfone improved cucumber vigor and reduced gall ratings compared to untreated subplots. Fluensulfone reduced damage from root-knot nematodes when applied to the first crop as well as provided additional protection to the second crop when it was applied through a drip system. PMID:26941459

  7. Non-destructive detection of pesticide residues in cucumber using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Bahareh; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Jamshidi, Jamshid; Minaei, Saeid; Sharifi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was assessed for non-destructive detection of diazinon residues in intact cucumbers. Vis/NIR spectra of diazinon solution and cucumber samples without and with different concentrations of diazinon residue were analysed at the range of 450-1000 nm. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were developed based on different spectral pre-processing techniques to classify cucumbers with contents of diazinon below and above the MRL as safe and unsafe samples, respectively. The best model was obtained using a first-derivative method with the lowest standard error of cross-validation (SECV = 0.366). Moreover, total percentages of correctly classified samples in calibration and prediction sets were 97.5% and 92.31%, respectively. It was concluded that Vis/NIR spectroscopy could be an appropriate, fast and non-destructive technology for safety control of intact cucumbers by the absence/presence of diazinon residues. PMID:25789964

  8. Gladiolus plants transformed with single-chain variable fragment antibodies to Cucumber mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic plants of Gladiolus ‘Peter Pears’ or ‘Jenny Lee’ were developed that contain single-chain variable fragments (scFv) to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup I or II. The CMV subgroup I heavy and light chain scFv fragments were placed under control of either the duplicated CaMV 35S or suga...

  9. Hyperspectral Imaging for Determining Pigment Contents in Cucumber Leaves in Response to Angular Leaf Spot Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Li, Xiaoli; Yu, Ke-Qiang; Cheng, Fan; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging technique was employed to determine spatial distributions of chlorophyll (Chl), and carotenoid (Car) contents in cucumber leaves in response to angular leaf spot (ALS). Altogether, 196 hyperspectral images of cucumber leaves with five infection severities of ALS were captured by a hyperspectral imaging system in the range of 380–1,030 nm covering 512 wavebands. Mean spectrum were extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) in the hyperspectral images. Partial least square regression (PLSR) models were used to develop quantitative analysis between the spectra and the pigment contents measured by biochemical analyses. In addition, regression coefficients (RCs) in PLSR models were employed to select important wavelengths (IWs) for modelling. It was found that the PLSR models developed by the IWs provided the optimal measurement results with correlation coefficient (R) of prediction of 0.871 and 0.876 for Chl and Car contents, respectively. Finally, Chl and Car distributions in cucumber leaves with the ALS infection were mapped by applying the optimal models pixel-wise to the hyperspectral images. The results proved the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging for visualizing the pigment distributions in cucumber leaves in response to ALS. PMID:27283050

  10. Hyperspectral Imaging for Determining Pigment Contents in Cucumber Leaves in Response to Angular Leaf Spot Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Li, Xiaoli; Yu, Ke-Qiang; Cheng, Fan; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging technique was employed to determine spatial distributions of chlorophyll (Chl), and carotenoid (Car) contents in cucumber leaves in response to angular leaf spot (ALS). Altogether, 196 hyperspectral images of cucumber leaves with five infection severities of ALS were captured by a hyperspectral imaging system in the range of 380-1,030 nm covering 512 wavebands. Mean spectrum were extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) in the hyperspectral images. Partial least square regression (PLSR) models were used to develop quantitative analysis between the spectra and the pigment contents measured by biochemical analyses. In addition, regression coefficients (RCs) in PLSR models were employed to select important wavelengths (IWs) for modelling. It was found that the PLSR models developed by the IWs provided the optimal measurement results with correlation coefficient (R) of prediction of 0.871 and 0.876 for Chl and Car contents, respectively. Finally, Chl and Car distributions in cucumber leaves with the ALS infection were mapped by applying the optimal models pixel-wise to the hyperspectral images. The results proved the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging for visualizing the pigment distributions in cucumber leaves in response to ALS. PMID:27283050

  11. Hyperspectral imaging-based classification and wavebands selection for internal defect detection of pickling cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting internal defect of pickling cucumbers. The technique, however, is not yet suitable for high-speed online implementation due to the challenges for analyzing large-scale hyperspectral images. This research was aimed to select the optimal wavebands from the...

  12. Enantioselective degradation of chiral insecticide dinotefuran in greenhouse cucumber and soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Wang, Yunhao; Zheng, Yongquan

    2015-02-01

    The enantioselective degradation behavior of the chiral insecticide dinotefuran in cucumber and soil was investigated under greenhouse conditions based on the method established with a normal-phase high-performance chromatography (HPLC) on a ChromegaChiral CCA column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm, ES Industries). The linearity range, matrix effect, precision, and accuracy of the method were evaluated and the method was then successfully applied for the enantioselective analysis of dinotefuran in cucumber and soil. Significant enantioselectivity of degradation was observed in soil according to the results. The (+)-dinotefuran was more persistent in soil with half-life of 21.7 d, which is much longer than that of (-)-dinotefuran (16.5 d). In cucumber, the (-)-dinotefuran also tended to be preferentially degraded both in foliar and douche treatment. However, the statistical analysis indicated the enantioselectivity of degradation in cucumber was not significant. The research provides the first report concerning the enantioselective degradation of dinotefuran enantiomers and the results can be used for understanding the insect-controlling effect and food safety evaluation. PMID:25378099

  13. Sampling plan for Diaphania spp. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and for hymenopteran parasitoids on cucumber.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Leandro; Picanço, Marcelo C; Moura, Marcelo F; Della Lucia, Terezinha M C; Semeão, Altair A

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the best technique, sampling unit, and the number of samples to compose a conventional sampling plan for the cucurbit borers, Diaphania spp. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and for hymenopteran parasitoids on cucumber. This research was carried out in 10 commercial cucumber crops fields from July to December 2000 in Tocantins, Minas Gerais State, Brazil (21 degrees 11' 15" S; 42 degrees 03' 45" W; altitude 363 m). The sampling methods studied were beating on a tray, direct counting of insects on the lower leaf surface, and whole leaf collection. Three sampling units also were studied: leaves from a branch located in the apical, median, or basal third of the canopy. The best sampling systems, which included the best technique and sampling unit, were determined based on the relative variance and the economic precision of the sampling. Once the best sampling systems were established, the numbers of samples to compose the conventional sampling plans were determined. The more suitable sampling system for the larvae of Diaphania spp. in cucumber plants was beating a leaf of the median third of the canopy on a plastic tray. One leaf must be sampled for every 50 plants in a crop. The more suitable sampling system for hymenopteran parasitoids in cucumber plants was to directly count the adults on one leaf of the median third of the canopy. One leaf must be sampled for every 74 plants in a crop. PMID:17195691

  14. Metabolic footprinting of Lactobacillus buchneri strain LA1147 during anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; McFeeters, Roger F

    2015-12-23

    Lactobacillus buchneri has recently been associated with anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers due to its ability to metabolize lactic acid into acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. However, we have limited knowledge of other chemical components in fermented cucumber that may be related to spoilage and the unique metabolic capabilities of L. buchneri. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolite profiling methods were applied for nontargeted detection of volatile and nonvolatile compounds to determine changes that occurred during anaerobic fermented cucumber spoilage by L. buchneri LA1147 and during reproduction of spoilage with natural microbiota. Univariate analysis of variance combined with hierarchial clustering analysis revealed 92 metabolites that changed during spoilage (P<0.01). Decreases were observed in mono and disaccharides, amino acids, nucleosides, long chain fatty acids, aldehydes, and ketones, and increases were observed in several alcohols and butanoic and pentanoic acids. Most of the metabolite changes preceded lactic acid utilization, indicating that lactic acid is not a preferred substrate for anaerobic spoilage organisms in fermented cucumbers. The ability to detect biochemical changes that preceded lactate utilization revealed citrulline, trehalose, and cellobiose as compounds that may signify metabolic activity of L. buchneri spoilage strains prior to any significant product degradation. PMID:26325599

  15. VISIBLE/NEAR-INFRARED HYPERSPECTRAL TRANSMITTANCE IMAGING FOR DETECTION OF INTERNAL MECHANICAL INJURY IN PICKLING CUCUMBERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal product quality is an important aspect in the quality control and assurance of pickled products. A rapid and non-destructive method for internal defect detection would be of value to the pickling cucumber industry. A hyperspectral transmittance imaging technique was developed to detect inte...

  16. Grafting cucumber onto luffa improves drought tolerance by increasing ABA biosynthesis and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shanshan; Li, Hao; Lv, Xiangzhang; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Kai; Asami, Tadao; Yu, Jingquan; Zhou, Yanhong

    2016-01-01

    Balancing stomata-dependent CO2 assimilation and transpiration is a key challenge for increasing crop productivity and water use efficiency under drought stress for sustainable crop production worldwide. Here, we show that cucumber and luffa plants with luffa as rootstock have intrinsically increased water use efficiency, decreased transpiration rate and less affected CO2 assimilation capacity following drought stress over those with cucumber as rootstock. Drought accelerated abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in roots, xylem sap and leaves, and induced the transcript of ABA signaling genes, leading to a decreased stomatal aperture and transpiration in the plants grafted onto luffa roots as compared to plants grafted onto cucumber roots. Furthermore, stomatal movement in the plants grafted onto luffa roots had an increased sensitivity to ABA. Inhibition of ABA biosynthesis in luffa roots decreased the drought tolerance in cucumber and luffa plants. Our study demonstrates that the roots of luffa have developed an enhanced ability to sense the changes in root-zone moisture and could eventually deliver modest level of ABA from roots to shoots that enhances water use efficiency under drought stress. Such a mechanism could be greatly exploited to benefit the agricultural production especially in arid and semi-arid areas. PMID:26832070

  17. Cucumber as a model plant to study mitochondrial-nuclear interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The three genomes of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) show different modes of transmission: maternal for plastid, paternal for mitochondrial (mt), and biparental for nuclear DNA. When the highly inbred line ‘B’ is passed through cell cultures, paternally transmitted mosaic (MSC) phenotypes appear after re...

  18. Different cucumber CsYUC genes regulate response to abiotic stresses and flower development

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shuangshuang; Che, Gen; Ding, Lian; Chen, Zijing; Liu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hongyin; Zhao, Wensheng; Ning, Kang; Zhao, Jianyu; Tesfamichael, Kiflom; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is essential for plant growth and development, and YUCCA (YUC) proteins catalyze a rate-limiting step for endogenous auxin biosynthesis. Despite YUC family genes have been isolated from several species, systematic expression analyses of YUCs in response to abiotic stress are lacking, and little is known about the function of YUC homologs in agricultural crops. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a world cultivated vegetable crop with great economical and nutritional value. In this study, we isolated 10 YUC family genes (CsYUCs) from cucumber and explored their expression pattern under four types of stress treatments. Our data showed that CsYUC8 and CsYUC9 were specifically upregulated to elevate the auxin level under high temperature. CsYUC10b was dramatically increased but CsYUC4 was repressed in response to low temperature. CsYUC10a and CsYUC11 act against the upregulation of CsYUC10b under salinity stress, suggesting that distinct YUC members participate in different stress response, and may even antagonize each other to maintain the proper auxin levels in cucumber. Further, CsYUC11 was specifically expressed in the male flower in cucumber, and enhanced tolerance to salinity stress and regulated pedicel and stamen development through auxin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:26857463

  19. Consumer acceptability of cucumber pickles produced by fermentation in calcium chloride brine for reduced environmental impact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentation of cucumbers in calcium chloride brine has been proposed as an alternative process to reduce the environmental impact of traditional, high salt fermentations. The objective of this research was to determine whether consumer acceptability of pickle products would be impacted by fermentat...

  20. QTL mapping of downy mildew resistance in PI 197088 and PI 330628 cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy mildew (DM, Pseudoperonospora cubensis) is a devastating fungal disease of cucumber worldwide. Several plant introduction lines have been identified with high resistance to the post-2004 new DM strain found in the U.S. However, the inheritance of DM resistance is still not well defined. Molecu...

  1. The MSC phenotype of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) - a method for production of plant mitochondrial mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mosaic (MSC) mutants of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) appear after passage through cell cultures. The MSC phenotype shows paternal transmission and is associated with mitochondrial DNA rearrangements. This review describes the origins and phenotypes of independently produced MSC mutants of cuc...

  2. The mosaic mutants of cucumber: A system to produce mitochondrial knock-downs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mitochondrial (mt) DNA of cucumber has several unique attributes, including paternal transmission and large size due in part to the accumulation of repetitive DNAs. Recombination among these repetitive motifs generates structural rearrangements in the mt DNAs. When the highly inbred line ‘B’ of ...

  3. Efficacy of Fluensulfone in a Tomato-Cucumber Double Cropping System.

    PubMed

    Morris, Kelly A; Langston, David B; Dickson, Donald W; Davis, Richard F; Timper, Patricia; Noe, James P

    2015-12-01

    Vegetable crops in the southeastern United States are commonly grown on plastic mulch with two crop cycles produced on a single mulch application. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in two locations to evaluate the efficacy of fluensulfone for controlling Meloidogyne spp. when applied through drip irrigation to cucumber in a tomato-cucumber double-cropping system. In the spring tomato crop, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), fluensulfone, and a resistant cultivar significantly decreased root galling by 91%, 73%, and 97%, respectively, compared to the untreated control. Tomato plots from the spring were divided into split plots for the fall where the main plots were the spring treatment and the subplots were cucumber either treated with fluensulfone (3.0 kg a.i./ha. via drip irrigation) or left untreated. The fall application of fluensulfone improved cucumber vigor and reduced gall ratings compared to untreated subplots. Fluensulfone reduced damage from root-knot nematodes when applied to the first crop as well as provided additional protection to the second crop when it was applied through a drip system. PMID:26941459

  4. An Extended Intervarietal Microsatellite Linkage Map of Cucumber, Cucumis Sativus L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from two cultivated cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., 2n = 2x = 14) lines Gy-7 (synom. G421) and H-19 was previously utilized to map yield and fruit quality components. However, that map consisted mainly of dominant markers (i.e., AFLPs and...

  5. Genetic and environmental effects on production of spontaneous tetraploids in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The appearance of spontaneous tetraploid (4x) plants is a serious problem for cucumber growers and the seed industry. These plants produce unacceptable fruits with poor quality that do not meet market standards, and result in substantial losses. A higher frequency of spontaneous 4x plants has been a...

  6. Water balance altered in cucumber plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Sun, Guomei; Liu, Xiaokang; Zhai, Luchong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is caused by the infection and growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the xylem of host plants. The physiological responses of cucumbers that are infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was studied in pot and hydroponic experiments in a greenhouse. The results showed that although water absorption and stem hydraulic conductance decreased markedly in infected plants, large amounts of red ink accumulated in the leaves of infected cucumber plants. The transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) of the infected plants were significantly reduced, but the E/gs was higher than healthy plants. We further found that there was a positive correlation between leaf membrane injury and E/gs, indicating that the leaf cell membrane injury increased the non-stomatal water loss from infected plants. The fusaric acid (FA), which was detected in the infected plant, resulted in damage to the leaf cell membranes and an increase in E/gs, suggesting that FA plays an important role in non-stomatal water loss. In conclusion, leaf cell membrane injury in the soil-borne Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants induced uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells. FA plays a critical role in accelerating the development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:25579504

  7. Cucumber rhizosphere microbial community response to biocontrol agent Bacillus subtilis B068150

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis B068150 has been used as a biocontrol agent against the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum. However, their survival ability in cucumber rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere as well as their influence on native microbial communities has not been fully i...

  8. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  9. Optical Absorption and Scattering Properties of Normal and Defective Pickling Cucumbers for 700-1000 nm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal defect in pickling cucumbers can cause bloater damage during brining, which lowers the quality of final pickled products and results in economic loss for the pickle industry. Hence it is important to have an effective optical inspection system for detection and segregation of defective pick...

  10. Characterization of the Optical Properties of Normal and Defective Pickling Cucumbers and Whole Pickles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal defect in pickling cucumbers can cause bloater damage during brining, which lowers the quality of final pickled products and results in economic loss for the pickle industry. Hence it is important to have an effective optical inspection system for detection and segregation of defective pick...

  11. Development of hyperspectral imaging technique for the detection of chilling injury in cucumbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Chen, Yud-Ren; Wang, C. Y.; Chan, D. E.; Kim, Moon S.

    2004-11-01

    Hyperspectral images of cucumbers were acquired before and during cold storage treatments as well as during subsequent room temperature (RT) storage to explore the potential for the detection of chilling induced damage in whole cucumbers. Region of interest (ROI) spectral features of chilling injured areas, resulting from cold storage treatments at 0°C or 5°C, showed a reduction in reflectance intensity during multi-day post chilling periods of RT storage. Large spectral differences between good-smooth skins and chilling injured skins occurred in the 700-850 nm visible/NIR region. A number of data processing methods, including simple spectral band algorithms, second difference, and principal component analysis (PCA), were attempted to discriminate the ROI spectra of good cucumber skins from those of chilling injured skins. Results revealed that using either a dual-band ratio algorithm (Q811/756) or a PCA model from a narrow spectral region of 733-848 nm could detect chilling injured skins with a success rate of over 90%. Furthermore, the dual-band algorithm was applied to the analysis of images of cucumbers at different conditions, and the resultant images showed more correct identification of chilling injured spots than other processing methods.

  12. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cucumber fermentation brines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial pathogens have been reported on fresh cucumbers and other vegetables used for commercial fermentation. The Food and Drug Administration currently has a 5-log reduction standard for E. coli O157:H7 and other vegetative pathogens in acidified pickle products. For fermented vegetables, which...

  13. Development of a Hyperspectral Imaging System for Online Quality Inspection of Pickling Cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports on the development of a hyperspectral imaging prototype for evaluation of external and internal quality of pickling cucumbers. The prototype consisted of a two-lane round belt conveyor, two illumination sources (one for reflectance and one for transmittance), and a hyperspectral i...

  14. Influence of microbial growth in the redox potential of fermented cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commonly, pH measurements are used during the production of fermented cucumbers to indirectly monitor growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acid production. Redox potential (Eh) measurements, which are determined by the flux of electrons in a system, could serve as a more accurate tool to monitor...

  15. [Salt resistance and its mechanism of cucumber under effects of exogenous chemical activators].

    PubMed

    Song, Shiqing; Liu, Wei; Guo, Shirong; Shang, Qingmao; Zhang, Zhigang

    2006-10-01

    With root injection and foliar spray, this paper studied the effects of different concentrations salicylic acid, brassinolide, chitosan and spermidine on the growth, morphogenesis, and physiological and biochemical characters of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L. ) seedlings under 200 mmol x L(-1) NaCl stress. The results showed that at proper concentrations, these four exogenous chemical activators could markedly decrease the salt stress index and mortality of cucumber seedlings, and the decrement induced by 0. 01 mg x L (-1) brassinolide was the largest, being 63. 0% and 75. 0% , respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) , peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) increased significantly, resulting in a marked decrease of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage. The dry weight water content and morphogenesis of cucumber seedlings improved, and the stem diameter, leaf number, and healthy index increased significantly. All of these suggested that exogenous chemical activators at proper concentrations could induce the salt resistance of cucumber, and mitigate the damage degree of salt stress. The salt resistance effect of test exogenous chemical activators decreased in the sequence of 0.005 -0.05 mg (L-1) brassinolide, 150 -250 mg x L (-1) spermidine, 100 -200 mg x L(-1) chitosan, and 50 -150 mg x L(-1) salicylic acid. PMID:17209385

  16. A tiling microarray for global analysis of chloroplast genome expression in cucumber and other plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Plastids are small organelles equipped with their own genomes (plastomes). Although these organelles are involved in numerous plant metabolic pathways, current knowledge about the transcriptional activity of plastomes is limited. To solve this problem, we constructed a plastid tiling microarray (PlasTi-microarray) consisting of 1629 oligonucleotide probes. The oligonucleotides were designed based on the cucumber chloroplast genomic sequence and targeted both strands of the plastome in a non-contiguous arrangement. Up to 4 specific probes were designed for each gene/exon, and the intergenic regions were covered regularly, with 70-nt intervals. We also developed a protocol for direct chemical labeling and hybridization of as little as 2 micrograms of chloroplast RNA. We used this protocol for profiling the expression of the cucumber chloroplast plastome on the PlasTi-microarray. Owing to the high sequence similarity of plant plastomes, the newly constructed microarray can be used to study plants other than cucumber. Comparative hybridization of chloroplast transcriptomes from cucumber, Arabidopsis, tomato and spinach showed that the PlasTi-microarray is highly versatile. PMID:21952044

  17. Inter- and Intramolecular Recombinations in the Cucumber Mosaic Virus Genome Related to Adaptation to Alstroemeria

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuh-Kun; Goldbach, Rob; Prins, Marcel

    2002-01-01

    In four distinct alstroemeria-infecting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates, additional sequences of various lengths were present in the 3′ nontranslated regions of their RNAs 2 and 3, apparently the result of intra- and intermolecular recombination events. Competition experiments revealed that these recombined RNA 2 and 3 segments increased the biological fitness of CMV in alstroemeria. PMID:11907253

  18. Water balance altered in cucumber plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Sun, Guomei; Liu, Xiaokang; Zhai, Luchong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is caused by the infection and growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the xylem of host plants. The physiological responses of cucumbers that are infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was studied in pot and hydroponic experiments in a greenhouse. The results showed that although water absorption and stem hydraulic conductance decreased markedly in infected plants, large amounts of red ink accumulated in the leaves of infected cucumber plants. The transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) of the infected plants were significantly reduced, but the E/gs was higher than healthy plants. We further found that there was a positive correlation between leaf membrane injury and E/gs, indicating that the leaf cell membrane injury increased the non-stomatal water loss from infected plants. The fusaric acid (FA), which was detected in the infected plant, resulted in damage to the leaf cell membranes and an increase in E/gs, suggesting that FA plays an important role in non-stomatal water loss. In conclusion, leaf cell membrane injury in the soil-borne Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants induced uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells. FA plays a critical role in accelerating the development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:25579504

  19. Assessment of chilling injury and molecular marker analysis in cucumber cultivars (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The responses to chilling temperature of 12 Korean cucumber varieties were compared to those of two U.S.A. (previously determined cold tolerant NC76 and 'Chipper'), and Chinese and Japanese germplasms. Seedlings of each entry were exposed to 4 degrees C (Experiment 1) and 1 degree C (Experiments 2 ...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of a Virulent Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense Isolate Causing Soft Rot of Cucumber.

    PubMed

    Onkendi, Edward M; Ramesh, Aadi Moolam; Kwenda, Stanford; Naidoo, Sanushka; Moleleki, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense causes soft rot and blackleg diseases on potatoes, ornamentals, and other crops of economic importance. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of a highly virulent P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense strain, PcbHPI01, isolated from a cucumber in South Africa. PMID:26744374

  1. Romaine lettuce latex deters feeding of banded cucumber beetle: a vehicle for deployment of biochemical defenses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Latex is widely found among plant species and is known to play a defensive role against certain herbivores. Two romaine lettuce cultivars, ‘Valmaine’ (resistant) and ‘Tall Guzmaine’ (susceptible) were selected to study the potential of latex as a defense mechanism against the banded cucumber beetle,...

  2. Detection and characterization of a lytic Pediococcus bacteriophage from the fermenting cucumber brine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of the twelve lytic bacteriophages recovered from five different fermenting cucumber tanks that were inoculated with Pediococcus sp. LA0281, a lytic phage, 'ps05, was characterized in the present study. The plaques were mostly clear and round-shaped on the lawn of starter strain, indicating lytic ph...

  3. Parental Effect of Long Acclimatization on Thermal Tolerance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yun-wei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus) from the same broodstock were transplanted southward and acclimatized at high temperature in field mesocosms. Four groups of juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced different durations of high temperature acclimatization were established. Upper thermal limits, oxygen consumption and levels of heat shock protein mRNA of juveniles was determined to compare thermal tolerance of individuals from different groups. Juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced high temperature could acquire high thermal resistance. With the increase of parental exposure duration to high temperature, offspring became less sensitive to high temperature, as indicated by higher upper thermal limits (LT50), less seasonal variations of oxygen consumption, and stable oxygen consumption rates between chronic and acute thermal stress. The relatively high levels of constitutive expression of heat-shock proteins should contribute to the high thermal tolerance. Together, these results indicated that the existence of a parental effect of long acclimatization would increase thermal tolerance of juveniles and change the thermal sensitivity of sea cucumber to future climate change. PMID:26580550

  4. Antibacterial activity of the body wall extracts of sea cucumber (Invertebrata; Echinodermata) on infectious oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Negin; Heidari, Behrooz; Rassa, Mehdi; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi; Heidari, Bijan

    2014-01-27

    Abstract Background: The present study was carried out to test the antibacterial effect of the body wall of the sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota Brandt on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus salivarius. Methods: After sampling sea cucumbers from the Persian Gulf, different extractions were prepared. Then, aqueous, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.8), chloroform, hexane and methanolic extracts from sea cucumber body wall were screened for antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria S. mutans and S. salivarius using the disk diffusion method. Results: The PBS extract did not show any antibacterial or inhibitory activity; the chloroform extract, however, demonstrated high levels of antibacterial activity against S. salivarius while exhibiting low levels of activity against S. mutans. The hexane and methanolic extracts were found to show no antibacterial activity against S. mutans, but exhibited antibacterial activity against S. salivarius. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results demonstrated the possibility of utilizing sea cucumbers as a cheap source of potential antibacterial agents and for treating odontogenic diseases. PMID:24468613

  5. Biocontrol activity and primed systemic resistance by compost water extracts against anthracnoses of pepper and cucumber.

    PubMed

    Sang, Mee Kyung; Kim, Ki Deok

    2011-06-01

    We investigated direct and indirect effects of compost water extracts (CWEs) from Iljuk-3, Iljuk-7, Shinong-8, and Shinong-9 for the control of anthracnoses caused by Colletotrichum coccodes on pepper and C. orbiculare on cucumber. All tested CWEs significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited in vitro conidial germination and appressorium formation of the fungal pathogens; however, DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA) failed to inhibit the conidial development of the pathogens. Direct treatments of the CWEs and BABA on pepper and cucumber leaves at 1 and 3 days before or after inoculation significantly (P < 0.05) reduced anthracnose severities; Iljuk-3, Shinong-9, and BABA for pepper and Iljuk-7 for cucumber had more protective activities than curative activities. In addition, root treatment of CWEs suppressed anthracnoses on the plants by the pathogens; however, CWE treatment on lower leaves failed to reduce the diseases on the upper leaves of the plants. The CWE root treatments enhanced not only the expression of the pathogenesis-related (PR) genes CABPR1, CABGLU, CAChi2, CaPR-4, CAPO1, and CaPR-10 in pepper and PR1-1a, PR-2, PR-3, and APOX in cucumber but also the activity of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and peroxidase and the generation of hydrogen peroxide in pepper and cucumber under pathogen-inoculated conditions. However, the CWE treatments failed to induce the plant responses under pathogen-free conditions. These results indicated that the CWEs had direct effects, reducing anthracnoses by C. coccodes on pepper leaves and C. orbiculare on cucumber leaves through protective and curative effects. In addition, CWE root treatments could induce systemic resistance in the primed state against pathogens on plant leaves that enhanced PR gene expression, defense-related enzyme production, and hydrogen peroxide generation rapidly and effectively immediately after pathogen infection. Thus, the CWEs might suppress anthracnoses on leaves of both pepper and cucumber through primed

  6. Direct reprogramming of adult somatic cells toward adventitious root formation in forest tree species: the effect of the juvenile–adult transition

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Sala, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Cellular plasticity refers, among others, to the capability of differentiated cells to switch the differentiation process and acquire new fates. One way by which plant cell plasticity is manifested is through de novo regeneration of organs from somatic differentiated cells in an ectopic location. However, switching the developmental program of adult cells prior to organ regeneration is difficult in many plant species, especially in forest tree species. In these species, a decline in the capacity to regenerate shoots, roots, or embryos from somatic differentiated cells is associated with tree age and maturation. The decline in the ability to form adventitious roots from stem cuttings is one of the most dramatic effects of maturation, and has been the subject of investigations on the basic nature of the process. Cell fate switches, both in plants and animals, are characterized by remarkable changes in the pattern of gene expression, as cells switch from the characteristic expression pattern of a somatic cell to a new one directing a new developmental pathway. Therefore, determining the way by which cells reset their gene expression pattern is crucial to understand cellular plasticity. The presence of specific cellular signaling pathways or tissue-specific factors underlying the establishment, maintenance, and redirection of gene expression patterns in the tissues involved in adventitious root formation could be crucial for cell fate switch and for the control of age-dependent cellular plasticity. PMID:25071793

  7. WUSCHEL-related Homeobox genes in Populus tomentosa: diversified expression patterns and a functional similarity in adventitious root formation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background WUSCHEL (WUS)-related homeobox (WOX) protein family members play important roles in the maintenance and proliferation of the stem cell niche in the shoot apical meristem (SAM), root apical meristem (RAM), and cambium (CAM). Although the roles of some WOXs in meristematic cell regulation have been well studied in annual plants such as Arabidopsis and rice, the expression and function of WOX members in woody plant poplars has not been systematically investigated. Here, we present the identification and comprehensive analysis of the expression and function of WOXs in Populus tomentosa. Results A genome-wide survey identified 18 WOX encoding sequences in the sequenced genome of Populus trichocarpa (PtrWOXs). Phylogenetic and gene structure analysis revealed that these 18 PtrWOXs fall into modern/WUS, intermediate, and ancient clades, but that the WOX genes in P. trichocarpa may have expanded differently from the WOX genes in Arabidopsis. In the P. trichocarpa genome, no WOX members could be closely classified as AtWOX3, AtWOX6, AtWOX7, AtWOX10, and AtWOX14, but there were two copies of WOX genes that could be classified as PtrWUS, PtrWOX2, PtrWOX4, PtrWOX5, PtrWOX8/9, and PtrWOX11/12, and three copies of WOX genes that could be classified as PtrWOX1 and PtrWOX13. The use of primers specific for each PtrWOX gene allowed the identification and cloning of 18 WOX genes from P. tomentosa (PtoWOXs), a poplar species physiologically close to P. trichocarpa. It was found that PtoWOXs and PtrWOXs shared very high amino acid sequence identity, and that PtoWOXs could be classified identically to PtrWOXs. We revealed that the expression patterns of some PtoWOXs were different to their Arabidopsis counterparts. When PtoWOX5a and PtoWOX11/12a, as well as PtoWUSa and PtoWOX4a were ectopically expressed in transgenic hybrid poplars, the regeneration of adventitious root (AR) was promoted, indicating a functional similarity of these four WOXs in AR regeneration. Conclusions

  8. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application

    PubMed Central

    Wyrwicka, Anna; Urbaniak, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae) and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot), while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POx), were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST). Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity. PMID:27327659

  9. Comparative transcriptome analysis of papilla and skin in the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Derong; Sun, He; Gu, Chenlei; Wang, Hongdi; Qiu, Xuemei; Chang, Yaqing; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-01-01

    Papilla and skin are two important organs of the sea cucumber. Both tissues have ectodermic origin, but they are morphologically and functionally very different. In the present study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of the papilla and skin from the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in order to identify and characterize gene expression profiles by using RNA-Seq technology. We generated 30.6 and 36.4 million clean reads from the papilla and skin and de novo assembled in 156,501 transcripts. The Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that cell part, metabolic process and catalytic activity were the most abundant GO category in cell component, biological process and molecular funcation, respectively. Comparative transcriptome analysis between the papilla and skin allowed the identification of 1,059 differentially expressed genes, of which 739 genes were expressed at higher levels in papilla, while 320 were expressed at higher levels in skin. In addition, 236 differentially expressed unigenes were not annotated with any database, 160 of which were apparently expressed at higher levels in papilla, 76 were expressed at higher levels in skin. We identified a total of 288 papilla-specific genes, 171 skin-specific genes and 600 co-expressed genes. Also, 40 genes in papilla-specific were not annotated with any database, 2 in skin-specific. Development-related genes were also enriched, such as fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-β, collagen-α2 and Integrin-α2, which may be related to the formation of the papilla and skin in sea cucumber. Further pathway analysis identified ten KEGG pathways that were differently enriched between the papilla and skin. The findings on expression profiles between two key organs of the sea cucumber should be valuable to reveal molecular mechanisms involved in the development of organs that are related but with morphological differences in the sea cucumber. PMID:26989617

  10. Exogenous Melatonin Improves Antioxidant Defense in Cucumber Seeds (Cucumis sativus L.) Germinated under Chilling Stress

    PubMed Central

    Marta, Bałabusta; Szafrańska, Katarzyna; Posmyk, Małgorzata M.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between exogenous melatonin applied into cucumber seeds during osmopriming and modifications of their antioxidant defense was studied. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione pool were investigated in embryonic axes isolated from the control, osmoprimed, and osmoprimed with melatonin seeds. Germinating cucumber seeds are very sensitive to chilling. Temperature 10°C causes oxidative stress in young seedlings. Seed pre-treatment with melatonin seemed to limit H2O2 accumulation during germination under optimal condition as well as during chilling stress and recovery period. Melatonin affected superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and its isoforms during stress and recovery period but did not influence CAT and POX activities. Thus it is possible that in cucumber this indoleamine could act mostly as a direct H2O2 scavenger, but superoxide anion combat via SOD stimulation. The GSH/GSSG ratio is considered as an indirect determinant of oxidative stress. When the cells are exposed to oxidative stress GSSG is accumulated and the ratio of GSH to GSSG decreases. In our research pre-sowing melatonin application into the cucumber seeds caused high beneficial value of GSH/GSSG ratio that could be helpful for stress countering. Glutathione reductase (GSSG-R) activity in the axes isolated from these seeds was two fold higher than in those isolated from the control and from the osmoprimed without melatonin ones. Additional isoforms of GSSG-R in melatonin treated seeds were also observed. It explains high and effective GSH pool restoration in the seeds pre-treated with melatonin. We confirmed that melatonin could protect cucumber seeds and young seedlings against oxidative stress directly and indirectly detoxifying ROS, thereby plants grown better even in harmful environmental conditions. This work is the first that investigated on plant in vivo model and documented melatonin influence on redox state during seed germination

  11. Development of fatty acid biomarkers for the identification of wild and aquacultured sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadorozhnyj, P. A.; Pivnenko, T. N.; Kovalev, N. N.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the fatty acids (FAs) of the organs and tissues of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were profiled in order to compare the FA composition of sea cucumber collected from natural habitat (wild) and cages (cultured). The differences in FA contents in dermomuscular tube, peripharyngeal annulus, gonad and intestine (with or without content) between the wild and the cultured were determined. The main fatty acids in all organs and tissues were 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7, 20:4n-6, 22:6n-3, 18:0, and 18:1n-7. The basically different FAs of body wall and digestive tube were 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-11. The ratio of saturated to mono- and polyunsaturated FAs in digestive tube was independent on inside content while there was a redistribution of the total amount of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. The comparison of FA composition of the wild and the cultured sea cucumber showed that 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-7 predominated the wild while 20:4n-6 predominated the cultured. The content of branched-chain fatty acids in the wild was 3%-4% and about 9% in the cultured. The possible FAs for identifying the wild and the cultured sea cucumbers were selected. It was suggested that the indexes such as the ratio of either (n-3:n-6) to (n-7:n-6) or (n-3) + (n-7) to (n-6) may serve as the biomarkers distinguishing the wild and the cultured sea cucumber.

  12. Effects of dietary vitamin C supplementation on lead-treated sea cucumbers, Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ren, Tongjun; Han, Yuzhe; Zhao, Yang; Liao, Mingling; Wang, Fuqiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid, AsA) on lead (Pb) accumulation and toxicity in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. Three hundred sea cucumbers (10.02±0.02g) fed a basal diet containing 100mg Pb/kg were subjected to 5 levels of l-ascorbate-2-polyphosphate (LAPP) supplementation to achieve 5 AsA treatment levels of 0, 2727, 4630, 9171, 13,893mg AsA/kg. After 30 days, specific growth rate (SGR) and body weight gain (BWG) of supplementation groups were significantly (P<0.05) higher than the control group. Pb contents of the intestine significantly (P<0.05) decreased from 20 days to 30 days in all supplementation groups. Pb contents of the respiratory tree in sea cucumbers in the 2727 and 4630mg AsA/kg treatment groups significantly (P<0.05) decreased from 10 days to 30 days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of the sea cucumber body wall in supplementation groups increased after 30 days. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the body wall significantly (P<0.05) declined with increasing AsA level. Therefore, it can be demonstrated that vitamin C could mitigate the effects of Pb on sea cucumber and the optimum levels ranged from 2727mg AsA/kg to 4630mg AsA/kg when Pb levels were 100mg/kg. PMID:25890051

  13. Comparative transcriptome analysis of papilla and skin in the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoxu; Cui, Jun; Liu, Shikai; Kong, Derong; Sun, He; Gu, Chenlei; Wang, Hongdi; Qiu, Xuemei; Chang, Yaqing; Liu, Zhanjiang; Wang, Xiuli

    2016-01-01

    Papilla and skin are two important organs of the sea cucumber. Both tissues have ectodermic origin, but they are morphologically and functionally very different. In the present study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of the papilla and skin from the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in order to identify and characterize gene expression profiles by using RNA-Seq technology. We generated 30.6 and 36.4 million clean reads from the papilla and skin and de novo assembled in 156,501 transcripts. The Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that cell part, metabolic process and catalytic activity were the most abundant GO category in cell component, biological process and molecular funcation, respectively. Comparative transcriptome analysis between the papilla and skin allowed the identification of 1,059 differentially expressed genes, of which 739 genes were expressed at higher levels in papilla, while 320 were expressed at higher levels in skin. In addition, 236 differentially expressed unigenes were not annotated with any database, 160 of which were apparently expressed at higher levels in papilla, 76 were expressed at higher levels in skin. We identified a total of 288 papilla-specific genes, 171 skin-specific genes and 600 co-expressed genes. Also, 40 genes in papilla-specific were not annotated with any database, 2 in skin-specific. Development-related genes were also enriched, such as fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-β, collagen-α2 and Integrin-α2, which may be related to the formation of the papilla and skin in sea cucumber. Further pathway analysis identified ten KEGG pathways that were differently enriched between the papilla and skin. The findings on expression profiles between two key organs of the sea cucumber should be valuable to reveal molecular mechanisms involved in the development of organs that are related but with morphological differences in the sea cucumber. PMID:26989617

  14. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application.

    PubMed

    Wyrwicka, Anna; Urbaniak, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae) and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot), while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POx), were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST). Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity. PMID:27327659

  15. Roles of auxin transport and action in the gravity-regulated morphogenesis of cucumber seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Shimizu, M.; Hotta, T.; Dai-Hee, K.; Yanai, K.; Kamada, M.; Fujii, N.; Miyazawa, Y.; Takahashi, H.

    Cucumber Cucumis sativus L seedlings develop a specialized protuberance peg on the lower side of the transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root when seeds germinate in a horizontal position The peg plays an important role in pulling seedling out from the seed coat We have reported that cucumber seedlings potentially develop a peg on each side of the transition zone but peg development on the upper side is suppressed in response to gravity Auxin is the primary factor responsible for the induction or the suppression of peg formation Here we investigated the roles of auxin transport and action in the gravity-regulated formation suppression of the peg in cucumber seedlings When cucumber seedlings were treated with inhibitors of auxin efflux carrier a peg was formed not only on the lower side but also on the upper side of the gravistimulated transition zone suggesting that activation of auxin efflux carriers is required for the suppression of peg formation To identify auxin efflux carriers involved in the suppression of peg formation by graviresponse we isolated six cucumber cDNAs of PIN auxin efflux carrier genes and investigated their mRNA accumulation and protein expression Our results show that CsPIN1 and CsPIN6 could play a role in the redistribution of auxin in the transition zone To understand auxin action on peg formation suppression we next examined the transcriptional regulators for the expressions of auxin-responsive genes The results suggest that a higher level of auxin in the lower side of the

  16. Photosynthesis Is Not Involved in the Mechanism of Action of Acifluorfen in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Stephen O.; Kenyon, William H.

    1986-01-01

    The possible role of photosynthesis in the mechanism of action of the herbicide acifluorfen (2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy-2-nitrobenzoate; AF) was examined. The sensitivity to AF of cotyledons of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) which had been grown under far red light (FR) and white light were compared. FR grown tissues which were photosynthetically imcompetent were hypersensitive to AF under white light and had approximately the same relative response to AF under blue and red light as green, white-light-grown tissues. Ultrastructural damage was apparent in FR-grown, AF-treated tissues within an hour after exposure to white light, with cytoplasmic and plastidic disorganization occurring simultaneously. In cucumber cotyledon tissue which had been greening for various time periods, there was no correlation between photosynthetic capacity and herbicidal efficacy of AF. PSII inhibitors (atrazine and DCMU) and the photophosphorylation inhibitor, tentoxin, had no effect on AF activity. Atrazine did not reduce AF activity at any concentration or light intensity tested, indicating that there is no second, photosynthetic-dependent mechanism of action operating at low AF concentrations or low fluence rates. Carbon dioxide-dependent O2 evolution of intact chloroplasts of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) had an AF I50 of 125 micromolar compared to 1000 micromolar for cucumber, whereas AF was much more herbicidally active in tissues of cucumber than of spinach. Differences in activity could not be accounted for by differences in uptake of AF. Our results indicate that there is no photosynthetic involvement in the mechanism of action of AF in cucumber. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16664919

  17. Exogenous Melatonin Improves Antioxidant Defense in Cucumber Seeds (Cucumis sativus L.) Germinated under Chilling Stress.

    PubMed

    Marta, Bałabusta; Szafrańska, Katarzyna; Posmyk, Małgorzata M

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between exogenous melatonin applied into cucumber seeds during osmopriming and modifications of their antioxidant defense was studied. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione pool were investigated in embryonic axes isolated from the control, osmoprimed, and osmoprimed with melatonin seeds. Germinating cucumber seeds are very sensitive to chilling. Temperature 10°C causes oxidative stress in young seedlings. Seed pre-treatment with melatonin seemed to limit H2O2 accumulation during germination under optimal condition as well as during chilling stress and recovery period. Melatonin affected superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and its isoforms during stress and recovery period but did not influence CAT and POX activities. Thus it is possible that in cucumber this indoleamine could act mostly as a direct H2O2 scavenger, but superoxide anion combat via SOD stimulation. The GSH/GSSG ratio is considered as an indirect determinant of oxidative stress. When the cells are exposed to oxidative stress GSSG is accumulated and the ratio of GSH to GSSG decreases. In our research pre-sowing melatonin application into the cucumber seeds caused high beneficial value of GSH/GSSG ratio that could be helpful for stress countering. Glutathione reductase (GSSG-R) activity in the axes isolated from these seeds was two fold higher than in those isolated from the control and from the osmoprimed without melatonin ones. Additional isoforms of GSSG-R in melatonin treated seeds were also observed. It explains high and effective GSH pool restoration in the seeds pre-treated with melatonin. We confirmed that melatonin could protect cucumber seeds and young seedlings against oxidative stress directly and indirectly detoxifying ROS, thereby plants grown better even in harmful environmental conditions. This work is the first that investigated on plant in vivo model and documented melatonin influence on redox state during seed germination

  18. Identification of fucans from four species of sea cucumber by high temperature 1H NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Nian; Chen, Shiguo; Ye, Xingqian; Li, Guoyun; Yin, Li'ang; Xue, Changhu

    2014-10-01

    Acidic polysaccharide, which has various biological activities, is one of the most important components of sea cucumber. In the present study, crude polysaccharide was extracted from four species of sea cucumber from three different geographical zones, Pearsonothuria graeffei ( Pg) from Indo-Pacific, Holothuria vagabunda ( Hv) from Norwegian Coast, Stichopus tremulu ( St) from Western Indian Ocean, and Isostichopus badionotu ( Ib) from Western Atlantic. The polysaccharide extract was separated and purified with a cellulose DEAE anion-exchange column to obtain corresponding sea cucumber fucans (SC-Fucs). The chemical property of these SC-Fucs, including molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and sulfate content, was determined. Their structure was compared simply with fourier infrared spectrum analyzer and identified with high temperature 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum analyzer (NMR) and room temperature 13C NMR. The results indicated that Fuc- Pg obtained from the torrid zone mainly contained 2,4-O-disulfated and non-sulfated fucose residue, whereas Fuc- Ib from the temperate zone contained non-, 2-O- and 2,4-O-disulfated fucose residue; Fuc- St from the frigid zone and Fuc- Hv from the torrid zone contained mainly non-sulfated fucose residue. The proton of SC-Fucs was better resolved via high temperature 1H NMR than via room temperature 1H NMR. The fingerprint of sea cucumber in different sea regions was established based on the index of anomer hydrogen signal in SC-Fucs. Further work will help to understand whether there exists a close relationship between the geographical area of sea cucumber and the sulfation pattern of SC-Fucs.

  19. Novel Use of PIT Tags in Sea Cucumbers: Promising Results with the Commercial Species Cucumaria frondosa.

    PubMed

    Gianasi, Bruno L; Verkaik, Katie; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a reliable and innocuous mark-recapture method has limited studies that would provide essential information for the management of commercial sea cucumbers. Tagging sea cucumbers is notoriously difficult because of their plastic nature and autolysis capacities. The markers that have so far been tested, mainly on or through the body wall, were either lost rapidly or had major drawbacks (e.g. suitable only for batch identification, requiring complex analysis, causing infections, necrosis, behavioural changes and mortality). The present study explored the efficacy of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags for individually marking sea cucumbers by assessing retention rates and long-term side effects of tags inserted in previously unstudied tissues/organs. Individuals of the species Cucumaria frondosa were tagged in the body wall, aquapharyngeal bulb and at the base of the oral tentacles. They were monitored closely for evidence of stress, infection, change in feeding and spawning behaviour and tag retention rate. Implanting the tag in an oral tentacle to reach the hydrovascular system of the aquapharyngeal bulb achieved the best retention rates in full-size individuals: from a maximum of 92% after 30 days to 68% at the end of the experimental period (300 days). Efficacy was lower in smaller individuals (84% after 30 d and 42% after 300 d). Following a slight increase in cloacal movements for 15 h post tagging, no side effect was noted in sea cucumbers tagged in the aquapharyngeal bulb via the tentacles. Feeding and spawning behaviours were not affected and no signs of infections or abnormal cell development in the vicinity of the tags were observed. This study indicates that marking sea cucumbers with 8.2 mm long PIT tags implanted via the oral tentacle is an effective technique, yielding relatively high retention rates over long periods without any detectable physiological or behavioural effects. PMID:26011165

  20. Novel Use of PIT Tags in Sea Cucumbers: Promising Results with the Commercial Species Cucumaria frondosa

    PubMed Central

    Gianasi, Bruno L.; Verkaik, Katie; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a reliable and innocuous mark-recapture method has limited studies that would provide essential information for the management of commercial sea cucumbers. Tagging sea cucumbers is notoriously difficult because of their plastic nature and autolysis capacities. The markers that have so far been tested, mainly on or through the body wall, were either lost rapidly or had major drawbacks (e.g. suitable only for batch identification, requiring complex analysis, causing infections, necrosis, behavioural changes and mortality). The present study explored the efficacy of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags for individually marking sea cucumbers by assessing retention rates and long-term side effects of tags inserted in previously unstudied tissues/organs. Individuals of the species Cucumaria frondosa were tagged in the body wall, aquapharyngeal bulb and at the base of the oral tentacles. They were monitored closely for evidence of stress, infection, change in feeding and spawning behaviour and tag retention rate. Implanting the tag in an oral tentacle to reach the hydrovascular system of the aquapharyngeal bulb achieved the best retention rates in full-size individuals: from a maximum of 92% after 30 days to 68% at the end of the experimental period (300 days). Efficacy was lower in smaller individuals (84% after 30 d and 42% after 300 d). Following a slight increase in cloacal movements for 15 h post tagging, no side effect was noted in sea cucumbers tagged in the aquapharyngeal bulb via the tentacles. Feeding and spawning behaviours were not affected and no signs of infections or abnormal cell development in the vicinity of the tags were observed. This study indicates that marking sea cucumbers with 8.2 mm long PIT tags implanted via the oral tentacle is an effective technique, yielding relatively high retention rates over long periods without any detectable physiological or behavioural effects. PMID:26011165

  1. Development of a model system for the study of spoilage associated secondary cucumber fermentation during long term storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium chloride fermentations represent an alternative to reduce chloride concentrations in the wastewaters generated from commercial cucumber fermentations, currently performed in cover brine solutions containing 6% to 12% sodium chloride. However, preliminary attempts to commercially ferment the ...

  2. [Effects of chlorophyllin-iron on osmotic adjustment and activities of antioxidantive enzymes in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xiu-feng; Zhang, Fan-yang; Wei, Min; Shi, Qing-hua; Yang, Feng-juan; Li, Yan

    2014-12-01

    Cucumber cultivar 'Jinyan 4' was subjected to suboptimal temperature treatment of 18/12 degrees C (day/night) in the growth chambers. A solution culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of exogenously spraying 5 mg x L(-1) chlorophyllin-iron solution on plant growth, the content of proline, soluble sugar, MDA and activity of peroxidase in the leaves of cucumber seedling under suboptimal temperature. Application of chlorophyllin-iron showed prominent effects on mitigating the stress of suboptimal temperature on growth of the cucumber seedlings, significantly increasing the plant height, leaf area, shoot dry mass, the contents of soluble sugar and proline and the activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX. Exogenously spraying chlorophyllin-iron could promote the accumulation of proline and soluble sugar, raise the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decrease the membrane lipid peroxidation and improve the adaptability of cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature. PMID:25876404

  3. Chilling tolerant U.S. processing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.): three advanced backcross and ten inbred backcross lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental stresses such as chilling temperatures can reduce seed germination rate, seeding emergence rate, flower and fruit development, marketable yield, and postharvest fruit storage longevity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Chilling temperatures occur in unpredictable patterns, making it d...

  4. Effects of washing, peeling, storage, and fermentation on residue contents of carbaryl and mancozeb in cucumbers grown in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Saeedi Saravi, S S; Shokrzadeh, M

    2016-06-01

    Cucumbers grown in two different greenhouses were exposed to mancozeb and carbaryl at different times. The effects of 10-day preharvest period, water and detergent washing, peeling, predetermined storage period at 4°C (refrigeration), and fermentation on the reduction of residue levels in the plant tissues were investigated. Mancozeb and carbaryl residues in cucumbers were determined by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. Results showed that residue levels in samples, which were collected after 10 days following the pesticide application, were significantly lower than the samples collected after 2 h subsequent to the pesticide application. The culinary applications were effective in reducing the residue levels of the pesticides in cucumbers. As a result, non-fermentative pickling in sodium chloride and acetic acid was the most effective way to reduce the mancozeb and carbaryl residues of the cucumbers. PMID:25342670

  5. Ecological effects of co-culturing sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) with scallop Chlamys farreri in earthen ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yichao; Dong, Shuanglin; Qin, Chuanxin; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng

    2012-01-01

    Monthly changes in sedimentation and sediment properties were studied for three different culture treatments: sea cucumber monoculture (Mc), sea cucumber and scallop polyculture (Ps-c) and scallop monoculture (Ms). Results indicated that the survival rate of sea cucumber was significantly higher in Ps-c cultures than in Mc cultures. Sea cucumber yield was 69.6% higher in Ps-c culture than in Mc culture. No significant differences in body weight and scallop shell length were found between Ps-c and Ms cultures. The mean sedimentation rate of total particulate matter (TPM) was 72.2 g/(m2·d) in Ps-c cultures, with a maximum of 119.7 g/(m2·d), which was markedly higher than that of Mc (mean value). Sedimentation rates of organic matter (OM), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in Ps-c cultures were also significantly higher than those in Mc cultures. TOC and TN contents of sediment increased rapidly in the first 5 months in Ms cultures and remained at a high level. TOC and TN contents in Mc and Ps-c cultures decreased during sea cucumber feeding seasons and increased during sea cucumber dormancy periods (summer and winter). The study demonstrates that co-culture of sea cucumber and scallop in earthen ponds is an alternative way to alleviate nutrient loads and improve water quality in coastal aquaculture systems. Moreover, it provides the additional benefit of an increased sea cucumber yield.

  6. Antifungal effectiveness of potassium sorbate incorporated in edible coatings against spoilage molds of apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Mehyar, Ghadeer F; Al-Qadiri, Hamzah M; Abu-Blan, Hifzi A; Swanson, Barry G

    2011-04-01

    Predominant spoilage molds of fresh apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes stored at 4 °C were isolated and examined for resistance to potassium sorbate (PS) incorporated in polysaccharide edible coatings. The isolated molds were Penicillium expansum, Cladosporium herbarum, and Aspergillus niger from apples. P. oxalicum and C. cucumerinum were isolated from cucumbers and P. expansium and C. fulvum from tomatoes. Guar gum edible coating incorporated with PS was the most effective mold inhibitor, significantly (P<0.05) reducing the isolated spoilage molds for 20, 15, and 20 d of storage at 4 °C on apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes, respectively. PS incorporated into pea starch edible coating was less effective and selectively inhibited the isolated mold species, causing significant (P<0.05) reduction in mold on apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes counts for 20, 10 to 15, and 15 to 20 d of storage at 4 °C, respectively. The isolated mold species exhibited different resistances to PS incorporated in the edible coatings. The greatest inhibition (2.9 log CFU/g) was obtained with C. herbarum on apples and the smallest (1.1 log CFU/g) was with P. oxalicum on cucumbers and the other isolated mold species exhibited intermediate resistance. The coatings tested, in general, inhibited molds more effectively on apples than on tomatoes and cucumbers. Addition of PS to pea starch and guar gum, edible coatings improved the antifungal activity of PS against isolated spoilage molds on apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes. PS inhibition was most effective against C. herbarum on apples and least effective against P. oxalicum on cucumbers. PMID:21535846

  7. Characterization of phenoloxidase from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingwei; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Guan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Bai; Jiang, Bei; Yang, Aifu; Chen, Zhong; Gao, Shan; Sun, Hongjuan

    2014-06-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) is a crucial immune-related enzyme in invertebrates. In this study, three POs of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were detected in coelomic fluid using linear-gradient native-PAGE combined with catechol staining and then partially purified by gel excising. The results showed that the three POs had a color of mahogany (AjPO1), yellow (AjPO2) and purple (AjPO3) respectively with molecular weights smaller than 21kDa in native-PAGE after staining with catechol. Enzymatic activities analysis revealed that AjPO1, AjPO2 and AjPO3 had optimal temperature of 45, 95 and 85°C and pH of 5.0, 8.0 and 8.0, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed that the Km values of AjPO1 for catechol, l-DOPA, dopamine and hydroquinone were 3.23, 0.86, 3.98 and 1.20mmol/l, respectively, those of AjPO2 were 0.31, 0.38, 2.05 and 1.30mmol/l, respectively, and those of AjPO3 were 5.95, 1.28, 5.81 and 0.62mmol/l, respectively. These results suggest that the three POs are laccase-type phenoloxidase. The activities of all three A. japonicus POs were significantly promoted by Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), and strongly inhibited by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA), sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC) and some common antioxidants. The inhibitions by EDTA and DETC suggest that the three A. japonicus POs are copper-containing metalloenzymes. Immune-responsive analysis showed that the total PO activities in coelomocytes (TPAC) increased greatly after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and declined significantly after polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) challenge, implying that A. japonicus PO immune system, which is composed of several isoenzymes with different characteristics, is closely involved in the defense against the infection of Gram-negative bacteria and double-stranded RNA viruses. PMID:24631331

  8. Effect of Bacillus baekryungensis YD13 supplemented in diets on growth performance and immune response of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fajun; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2014-10-01

    The effect of a potential probiotic on the growth performance and immune response of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) was investigated. Bacillus baekryungensis YD13 isolated from sea cucumber culturing ponds was added to sea cucumber basal feed as a probiotic in different doses (0, the control; 1×104 (YD134), 1×106 (YD136) and 1×108 (YD138) CFU g-1 of diet), and administered orally to A. japonicus (initial mean wet weight 5.44 g ± 0.17 g). The sea cucumbers were fed in 20 aquaria, 5 each treatment, for 60 d. At the end of growth trial, 20 sea cucumbers from each treatment were challenged with Vibrio splendidus. A. japonicus in YD134 and YD136 exhibited significantly better growth performance than control ( P < 0.05). Five non-specific immune parameters including lysozyme, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in coelomic fluid were measured to evaluate the immune response of A. japonicus to the probiotics. Results showed that all parameters were significantly improved when YD11 was supplemented in the dose of 1×106 CFU g-1 ( P < 0.05). The cumulative incidence and mortality after the Vibrio splendidus challenge decreased significantly in sea cucumbers of YD136. Accordingly, 1×106 CFU g-1 of YD13 in diet was recommended for the growth promotion and immune enhancement of A. japonicus.

  9. Evaluation of cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant to facilitate cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) management with foliar insecticides in melons.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Andrew B; Godfrey, Larry D

    2011-08-01

    The bitter plant-derived compounds cucurbitacins are known to stimulate feeding of adult cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). A cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant applied as a flowable bait combined with either spinosad or carbaryl was compared with foliar sprays of spinosad and carbaryl for controlling two cucumber beetle species (Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim and Acalymma trivittatum Mannerheim) in honeydew melons (Cucumis melo L.). Field studies were conducted on the University of California-Davis plant pathology farm in 2008 and 2009. Beetle densities after applications and fruit damage from beetle feeding were compared among treatments. In addition, beetle survival was compared within field cages placed over the treated foliage infested with beetles. Using all three measures of efficacy, we determined that the addition of cucurbitacin bait had no effect on the level of cucumber beetle control with carbaryl in either 2008 or 2009. In both years, spinosad did not significantly reduce cucumber beetle densities in either field cages or field plots and did not reduce fruit damage relative to the untreated control. The addition of the bait to spinosad did not improve its efficacy. A laboratory bioassay of the spinosad formulation used in the field showed it had significant lethal effects on adults of both cucumber beetle species. Results indicated that the bait formulation used did not improve cucumber beetle control but may benefit from the addition of floral attractants or using a different type of cucurbitacin. PMID:21882695

  10. Effects of Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 on digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuexin; Sun, Feixue; Zhang, Congyao; Bao, Pengyun; Cao, Shuqing; Zhang, Meiyan

    2014-12-01

    A marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 was supplemented to feed in a feeding experiment aiming to determine its ability of enhancing the digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile Apostichopus japonicus. Sea cucumber individuals were fed with the diets containing 0 (control), 105, 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 for 45 days. Results showed that intestinal trypsin and lipase activities were significantly enhanced by 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 in comparison with control ( P < 0.01). The phagocytic activity in the coelomocytes of sea cucumber fed the diet supplemented with 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 was significantly higher than that of those fed control diet ( P < 0.05). In addition, 105 and 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 significantly enhanced lysozyme and phenoloxidase activities in the coelomic fluid of sea cucumber, respectively, in comparison with other diets ( P < 0.01). Sea cucumbers, 10 each diet, were challenged with Vibrio splendidus NB13 after 45 days of feeding. It was found that the cumulative incidence and mortality of sea cucumber fed with BC228 containing diets were lower than those of animals fed control diet. Our findings evidenced that BC228 supplemented in diets improved the digestive enzyme activity of juvenile sea cucumber, stimulated its immune response and enhanced its resistance to the infection of V. splendidus.

  11. Gravimorphogenesis of Cucurbitaceae plants: development of peg cells and graviperception mechanism in cucumber seedlings.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Fujii, N; Kamada, M; Higashitani, A; Yamazaki, Y; Kobayashi, A; Takano, M; Yamasaki, S; Sakata, T; Mizuno, H; Kaneko, Y; Murata, T; Kamigaichi, S; Aizawa, S; Yoshizaki, I; Shimazu, T; Fukui, K

    2000-06-01

    We examined the effect of microgravity on the peg formation of cucumber seedlings for clarifying the mechanism of gravimorphogenesis in cucurbitaceous plants. The spaceflight experiments verified that gravity controls the formation of peg, hypocotyl hook and growth orientation of cucumber seedlings. Space-grown cucumber developed a peg on each side of the transition zone of the hypocotyl and root, indicating that on the ground peg formation is regulated negatively by gravity (Takahashi et al. 2000). It was found that the auxin-regulated gene, CS-IAA1, was strongly expressed in the transition zone where peg develops (Fujii et al. 2000). In the seedlings grown horizontally on the ground, CS-IAA1 transcripts were much abundant on the lower side of the transition zone, but no such differential expression of CS-IAA1 was observed in the space-grown cucumber (Kamada et al. 2000). These results imply that gravity plays a role in peg formation through auxin redistribution. By the negative control, peg formation on the upper side of the transition zone in the horizontally growing seedlings might be suppressed due to a reduction in auxin concentration. The threshold theory of auxin concentration accounted for the new concept, negative control of morphogenesis by gravity (Kamada et al. 2000). Anatomical studies have shown that there exists the target cells destined to be a peg and distinguishable at the early stage of the growth. Ultra-structural analysis suggested that endoplasmic reticulum develops well in the cells of the future peg. Furthermore, it was found that reorganization of cortical microtubules is required for the change in cell growth polarity in the process of peg formation. The spaceflight experiment with cucumber seedlings also suggested that in microgravity positive hydrotropic response of roots occurred without interference by gravitropic response (Takahashi et al. 1999b). Thus, this spaceflight experiment together with the ground-based studies has shown that

  12. Physiologic responses and gene diversity indicate olive alternative oxidase as a potential source for markers involved in efficient adventitious root induction.

    PubMed

    Santos Macedo, Elisete; Cardoso, Hélia G; Hernández, Alejandro; Peixe, Augusto A; Polidoros, Alexios; Ferreira, Alexandre; Cordeiro, António; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2009-12-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) trees are mainly propagated by adventitious rooting of semi-hardwood cuttings. However, efficient commercial propagation of valuable olive tree cultivars or landraces by semi-hardwood cuttings can often be restricted by a low rooting capacity. We hypothesize that root induction is a plant cell reaction linked to oxidative stress and that activity of stress-induced alternative oxidase (AOX) is importantly involved in adventitious rooting. To identify AOX as a source for potential functional marker sequences that may assist tree breeding, genetic variability has to be demonstrated that can affect gene regulation. The paper presents an applied, multidisciplinary research approach demonstrating first indications of an important relationship between AOX activity and differential adventitious rooting in semi-hardwood cuttings. Root induction in the easy-to-root Portuguese cultivar 'Cobrançosa' could be significantly reduced by treatment with salicyl-hydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of AOX activity. On the contrary, treatment with H2O2 or pyruvate, both known to induce AOX activity, increased the degree of rooting. Recently, identification of several O. europaea (Oe) AOX gene sequences has been reported from our group. Here we present for the first time partial sequences of OeAOX2. To search for polymorphisms inside of OeAOX genes, partial OeAOX2 sequences from the cultivars 'Galega vulgar', 'Cobrançosa' and 'Picual' were cloned from genomic DNA and cDNA, including exon, intron and 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) sequences. The data revealed polymorphic sites in several regions of OeAOX2. The 3'-UTR was the most important source for polymorphisms showing 5.7% of variability. Variability in the exon region accounted 3.4 and 2% in the intron. Further, analysis performed at the cDNA from microshoots of 'Galega vulgar' revealed transcript length variation for the 3'-UTR of OeAOX2 ranging between 76 and 301 bp. The identified polymorphisms and 3'-UTR

  13. Impact of water temperature on the growth and fatty acid profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Ye, Zhi; Tian, Xiangli

    2016-08-01

    The present study determined the changes in the fatty acid (FA) profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in response to the varied water temperature. Sea cucumbers with similar size (4.02±0.11g) were cultured for 8 weeks at 14°C, 18°C, 22°C and 26°C, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the specific growth rate (SGR) and the profiles of FAs in neutral lipids and phospholipids of the juvenile sea cucumbers cultured at different temperatures were determined. The SGRs of the sea cucumbers cultured at 26°C significantly decreased 46.3% compared to thos cultured at 18°C. Regression analysis showed that the SGR-temperature (T) relationship can be expressed as SGR=-0.0073T(2)+0.255T -1.0231 (R(2)=0.9936) and the highest SGR was predicted at 17.5°C. For the neutral lipids, the sum of saturated FAs (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) of the sea cucumbers that were cultured at the water temperature from 18°C-26°C did not change significantly, indicating the insensitivity of FA profiles for the neutral lipids of sea cucumbers in response to increasing water temperature. For phospholipids, the sum of PUFAs in the sea cucumbers dramatically decreased with the gradually increased water temperature. The sum of SFAs and MUFAs of sea cucumbers, however, increased with the gradually elevated water temperature. In particular, the contents of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the phospholipids of the sea cucumbers decreased 37.2% and 26.1%, respectively, when the water temperature increased from 14°C to 26°C. In summary, the sea cucumbers A. japonicus can regulate the FA compositions, especially the contents of EPA and DHA, in the phospholipids so as to adapt to varied water temperature. PMID:27503728

  14. Bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of cucumbers grown in soils covering a wide range of cucumber cropping histories and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongqiang; Gao, Lihong

    2014-11-01

    Rhizosphere microorganisms in soils are important for plant growth. However, the importance of rhizosphere microorganisms is still underestimated since many microorganisms associated with plant roots cannot be cultured and since the microbial diversity in the rhizosphere can be influenced by several factors, such as the cropping history, biogeography, and agricultural practice. Here, we characterized the rhizosphere bacterial diversity of cucumber plants grown in soils covering a wide range of cucumber cropping histories and environmental conditions by using pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. We also tested the effects of compost addition and/or bacterial inoculation on the bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere. We identified an average of approximately 8,883 reads per sample, corresponding to around 4,993 molecular operational taxonomic units per sample. The Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in almost all soils. The abundances of the phyla Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia varied among the samples, and together with Proteobacteria, these phyla were the six most abundant phyla in almost all analyzed samples. Analyzing all the sample libraries together, the predominant genera found were Flavobacterium, Ohtaekwangia, Opitutus, Gp6, Steroidobacter, and Acidovorax. Overall, compost and microbial amendments increased shoot biomass when compared to untreated soils. However, compost addition decreased the bacterial α-diversity in most soils (but for three soils compost increased diversity), and no statistical effect of microbial amendment on the bacterial α-diversity was found. Moreover, soil amendments did not significantly influence the bacterial β-diversity. Soil organic content appeared more important than compost and microbial amendments in shaping the structure of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of cucumber. PMID:25027276

  15. In Vitro Culture Conditions and OeARF and OeH3 Expressions Modulate Adventitious Root Formation from Oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5 mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency. PMID:24587768

  16. In vitro culture conditions and OeARF and OeH3 expressions modulate adventitious root formation from oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) cuttings.

    PubMed

    Chiappetta, Adriana; Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5 mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency. PMID:24587768

  17. The catalase gene family in cucumber: genome-wide identification and organization

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lifang; Yang, Yingui; Jiang, Lunwei; Liu, Shiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Catalase (CAT) is a common antioxidant enzyme in almost all living organisms. Currently, detailed reports on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) CAT (CsCAT) genes and tissue expression profiling are limited. In the present study, four candidate CsCAT genes were identified in cucumber. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CsCAT1-CsCAT3 are closely related to Arabidopsis AtCAT1-AtCAT3, but no obvious counterpart was observed for CsCAT4. Intron/exon structure analysis revealed that only one of the 15 positions was completely conserved. Motif analysis showed that, unlike the CAT genes of other species, none of CsCAT genes contained all 10 motifs. Expression data showed that transcripts of all of the CsCAT genes, except CsCAT4, were detected in five tissues. Moreover, their transcription levels displayed differences under different stress treatments. PMID:27560990

  18. [Characterization of the Gut Bacterial Community of the Japanese Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus].

    PubMed

    Bogatyrenko, E A; Buzoleva, L S

    2016-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the composition and abundance of the gut bacterial community of the Japanese sea cucumber (trepang) Apostichopus japonicus and the soil from its habitat was carried out. In spite of the presence of strictly aerobic bacteria in the soil, gut microflora of this holothurian was shown to be formed by facultative anaerobes from the environment. Irrespective of the geographical location of the habitat, the sea cucmber gut community had a constant composition considered its normal microflora. Capacity of bactreia isolated from the Japanese sea cucumber for decomposition of starch, sodium alginate, chitin, chondroitin sulfate, Tweens, olive oil, casein, and gelatin was studied. Various degrees of enzymatic activity were shown for 33% of the studied bacterial strains, which indicates a considerable role of the trepang gut microflora in processing and assimilation of organic matter arriving with food. PMID:27301133

  19. Study on the free radical scavenging activity of sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) gelatin hydrolysate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Mingyong; Xiao, Feng; Zhao, Yuanhui; Liu, Zunying; Li, Bafang; Dong, Shiyuan

    2007-07-01

    Gelatin from the sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) was hydrolyzed by bromelain and the hydrolysate was found to have a high free radical scavenging activity. The hydrolysate was fractionated through an ultrafiltration membrane with 5 kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO). The portion (less than 5 kDa) was further separated by Sephadex G-25. The active peak was collected and assayed for free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging rates for superoxide anion radicals (O2·-) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) of the fraction with the highest activity were 29.02% and 75.41%, respectively. A rabbit liver mitochondrial free radical damage model was adopted to study the free radical scavenging activity of the fraction. The results showed that the sea cucumber gelatin hydrolysate can prevent the damage of rabbit liver and mitochondria.

  20. The catalase gene family in cucumber: genome-wide identification and organization.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lifang; Yang, Yingui; Jiang, Lunwei; Liu, Shiqiang

    2016-07-25

    Catalase (CAT) is a common antioxidant enzyme in almost all living organisms. Currently, detailed reports on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) CAT (CsCAT) genes and tissue expression profiling are limited. In the present study, four candidate CsCAT genes were identified in cucumber. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CsCAT1-CsCAT3 are closely related to Arabidopsis AtCAT1-AtCAT3, but no obvious counterpart was observed for CsCAT4. Intron/exon structure analysis revealed that only one of the 15 positions was completely conserved. Motif analysis showed that, unlike the CAT genes of other species, none of CsCAT genes contained all 10 motifs. Expression data showed that transcripts of all of the CsCAT genes, except CsCAT4, were detected in five tissues. Moreover, their transcription levels displayed differences under different stress treatments. PMID:27459261

  1. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF NEW SOURCES OF RESISTANCE TO Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berk. et Curt.) Rostovzev in CUCUMBER.

    PubMed

    Szczechura, W; Staniaszek, M; Klosinska, U; Kozik, E U

    2015-10-01

    Downy mildew of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berk. et Curt.) Rostovzev, is one of the most important foliar diseases of cucurbit crops. Two parental lines resistant PI 197085, susceptible PI 175695 and their F2 generation were used in our study. Inheritance of resistance to Pseudoperonospora cubensis in PI 197085 was quantitative. JoiMap 4.1 and MapQTL 6.0 software was used for a linkage groups construction and QTL mapping. Three QTL were detected: DM1, DM2, DM3. The loci were mapped on chromosome 5 of cucumber genome. Molecular analysis confirmed results of classical quantitative genetics indicating that resistance to Pseudoperonospora cubensis in PI 197085 is polygenic trait. PMID:27169228

  2. The catalase gene family in cucumber: genome-wide identification and organization.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lifang; Yang, Yingui; Jiang, Lunwei; Liu, Shiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Catalase (CAT) is a common antioxidant enzyme in almost all living organisms. Currently, detailed reports on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) CAT (CsCAT) genes and tissue expression profiling are limited. In the present study, four candidate CsCAT genes were identified in cucumber. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CsCAT1-CsCAT3 are closely related to Arabidopsis AtCAT1-AtCAT3, but no obvious counterpart was observed for CsCAT4. Intron/exon structure analysis revealed that only one of the 15 positions was completely conserved. Motif analysis showed that, unlike the CAT genes of other species, none of CsCAT genes contained all 10 motifs. Expression data showed that transcripts of all of the CsCAT genes, except CsCAT4, were detected in five tissues. Moreover, their transcription levels displayed differences under different stress treatments. PMID:27560990

  3. Microsatellite DNA polymorphisms and the relation with body weight in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuli; Shan, Xue; Qiu, Xuemei; Meng, Xiangying; Chang, Yaqing

    2009-05-01

    The relationship between microsatellite polymorphism and body weight of captive bred Chinese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in two local populations in Dalian. Among ten loci discovered, nine show changes except for AJ07 loci. Seven loci were found highly polymorphic in both populations. For each locus in two populations, the average number of alleles is 6.428 6 and 6.285 7, the average observed heterozygosity at 0.225 7 and 0.245 9, the expected heterozygosity at 0.776 8 and 0.748 8, the polymorphism information content (PIC) at 0.709 2 and 0.674 6, respectively. Further analysis show significant correlation between A. japonicus body weight and occurrence markers AJ02 and AJ04. The findings of the relation may be helpful for molecular breeding, as well as the marker-assisted selection of sea cucumbers.

  4. Antithrombotic activities of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates and their depolymerized fragments from two sea cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxiao; Hao, Jiejie; Shan, Xindi; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Li, Qinying; Wang, Xiaojiang; Cai, Chao; Li, Guoyun; Yu, Guangli

    2016-11-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS), a glycosaminoglycan extracted from the body wall of sea cucumber, is a promising antithrombotic agent. The chemical structures of FCSc isolated from sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa and its depolymerized fragment (dFCSc) were characterized for the first time. Additionally, anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that dFCSc exhibited better antithrombotic-hemorrhagic ratio than native FCSc on the electrical induced arterial thrombosis model in rats. Compared to FCSt obtained from Thelenota ananas, FCSc possessed different sulfation patterns but similar antithrombotic effects. Therefore, sulfation pattern of FCS might not affect anticoagulation and antithrombosis as much as molecular weight may. Our results proposed a new point of view to understand the structure-activity relationship of FCS as alternative agents. PMID:27516281

  5. [Allelopathic effects of Lycoris radiate on radish, cucumber, tomato and rape seedlings].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongyun; Zhang, Yanning; Feng, Pingzhang; Zhang, Heng

    2006-09-01

    The laboratory test showed that Lycoris radiate water extract had a stronger inhibitory effect on the seed germination and seedling growth of radish, cucumber, tomato and rape. After treated with 0.0125 g x ml(-1) of the extract, tomato seed could not germinate, but the seed germination inhibition rate of rape, radish and cucumber was only 17.73%, 14.97% and 2.65%, respectively. Under the same concentrations of the extract, sprout growth was inhibited more strongly than root growth. L. radiate methanol extract could inhibit the sprout and root growth of endosperm-removed wheat and sorghum, and the effect was stronger for sorghum than for wheat. All of these illustrated that L. radiate extracts mainly inhibited non-photosynthesis activity, but could also inhibit photosynthesis activity to some degree. PMID:17147176

  6. Rheological and structural properties of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus during heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Xue, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhaohui; Xu, Jiachao; Xue, Changhu

    2005-07-01

    Changes in tissue structure, rheological properties and water content of raw and heated sea cucumber meat were studied. Sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus was heated at 25°C , 70°C and 100°C water for 5 min. The structural changes were observed using a light microscope and the rheological parameters (rupture strength, adhesive strength and deformation) determined using a texture meter. Microscopic photograph revealed that the structural change of heated meat was greater than that of raw meat. The rupture strength, adhesive strength and deformation of raw meat were smaller than those of the heated meat. Meanwhile, rheological parameters showed positive correlation with heating temperature. These changes are mainly caused by thermal denaturation and gelatinization of collagen during heating. These changes were also evidenced in observations using a light microscope and differential scanning calorimetry.

  7. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoming; Li, Yuhong; Pandey, Sudhakar; Yandell, Brain S; Pathak, Mamta; Weng, Yiqun

    2013-08-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a very important disease of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of PM resistance in cucumber are not well understood. A 3-year QTL mapping study of PM resistance was conducted with 132 F2:3 families derived from two cucumber inbred lines WI 2757 (resistant) and True Lemon (susceptible). A genetic map covering 610.4 cM in seven linkage groups was developed with 240 SSR marker loci. Multiple QTL mapping analysis of molecular marker data and disease index of the hypocotyl, cotyledon and true leaf for responses to PM inoculation identified six genomic regions in four chromosomes harboring QTL for PM resistance in WI 2757. Among the six QTL, pm1.1 and pm1.2 in chromosome 1 conferred leaf resistance. Minor QTL pm3.1 (chromosome 3) and pm4.1 (chromosome 4) contributed to disease susceptibility. The two major QTL, pm5.1 and pm5.2 were located in an interval of ~40 cM in chromosome 5 with each explaining 21.0-74.5 % phenotypic variations. Data presented herein support two recessively inherited, linked major QTL in chromosome 5 plus minor QTL in other chromosomes that control the PM resistance in WI 2757. The QTL pm5.2 for hypocotyl resistance plays the most important role in host resistance. Multiple observations in the same year revealed the importance of scoring time in the detection of PM resistance QTL. Results of this study provided new insights into phenotypic and genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber. PMID:23689747

  8. Dietary Cordyceps militaris protects against Vibrio splendidus infection in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongxin; Du, Xingfan; Li, Shuying; Wen, Zhixin; Li, Yajie; Li, Xuejun; Meng, Nan; Mi, Rui; Ma, Shuhui; Sun, Aijie

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio splendidus is the common pathogen that causes infectious diseases widely spread in cultured sea cucumber in China. Therefore, we investigated the ability of Cordyceps militaris to protect against infection caused by V. splendidus. In this study, sea cucumbers were fed with a diet containing 0 (control), 1%, 2% or 3% C. militaris for 28 days, and subsequently challenged with V. splendidus by injection with 1.0 × 10(9) cfu per animal. Parameters of immune response such as phagocytosis (PC), lysozyme (LSZ) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity were determined on days 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 after injection. The results showed that dietary C. militaris at a dose of 2% or 3% significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05) all the immune parameters on day 0. One day after injection with V. splendidus, all the immune indices except ACP exhibited a tendency to decrease and then increase again, returning to the initial level on days 5 and/or 7 after injection. All the immune parameters of those fed with C. militaris were found significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the control group on day 1 after injection. Only LSZ activity of those fed with 1%- or 3%-C. militaris diet on day 5 showed significantly increases (P < 0.05) than the controls. As for ACP activity, the values remained steady with time, but with significant increase (P < 0.05) seen in sea cucumbers fed with 2%-C. militaris diet, and lasted for up to 7 days after V. splendidus injection. The cumulative mortality of sea cucumbers fed with the basal diet followed V. splendidus infection was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those fed with 2% and 3% C. militaris diet. Under the experimental conditions, dietary C. militaris could enhance the immune responses of Apostichopus japonicus and improve its resistance to infection by V. splendidus. PMID:26099218

  9. Hemolytic and cytotoxic properties of saponin purified from Holothuria leucospilota sea cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Mozhgan; Parivar, Kazem; Baharara, Javad; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin; Asili, Javad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Holothuroids (sea cucumbers) are members of the phylum echinodermata, which produce saponins. Saponins exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological and biological activities. In this study, we isolated the crude saponins from the body wall of the dominant Iranian species of sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota). The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of saponins in the Persian Gulf H. leucospilota and study the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of these compounds. Methods: The body wall of sea cucumber was dried and powdered and the crude saponins were isolated using various solvents. The crude saponins were further purified by column chromatography using HP-20 resin. The foam test, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), hemolytic assay, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of saponins. Cytotoxicity was analyzed using a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. Results: The foam test, hemolytic assay, and TLC supported the presence of saponin compounds in the 80% ethanol fraction of H. leucospilota. The infrared (IR) spectrum of the extract showed hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (C-H), ether (C-O) and ester (–C=O) absorption characteristic of teriterpenoid saponins. The C-O-C absorption indicated glycoside linkages to the sapogenins. The crude saponin extracted from sea cucumber was cytotoxic to A549 cells. Conclusion: The 80% ethanol fraction of saponin isolated from H. leucospilota exhibited hemolytic activity and offers promise as an anti-cancer candidate. PMID:26989736

  10. Bulk tank technology: Acidification of commercially fermented cucumbers in bulk tanks to increase microbial stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten commercial fiberglass tanks (8,000 gal) of size no. 1 fermented cucumbers were acidified with 5.46N HCl to lower the brine pH to 3.5 from the pH that resulted at the end of fermentation (3.65-3.70). The volume of hydrochloric acid required to do this varied from 8.9-14.8 gal per tank. The rate...

  11. [Roles of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in low temperature tolerance in cucumber seedlings].

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-juan; Li, Liang; Cao, Ning; Shang, Qing-mao; Zhang, Zhi-gang

    2015-07-01

    To reveal the roles of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in low temperature tolerance in cucumber seedlings, a specific PAL inhibitor (AOPP) was sprayed to the seedlings, and then the stress tolerance was determined. The results suggested that both gene expression and enzymatic activity of PAL in cucumber leaves were induced under low temperature. The seedlings pretreated with AOPP showed lower PAL activity and less accumulation of phenolics and flavonoids. Low temperature caused damages in cucumber seedlings, and pretreatment of AOPP aggravated these damages. Compared to the control, the seedlings pretreated with AOPP showed significantly higher relative electrolyte leakage and MDA production, lower maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) but higher photo-chemical quenching coefficient Y(NO), and reduced expression of low temperature-responsive genes (PR1-la, COR47, P5CS and HSP70). In cucumber seedlings, low temperature stress induced the accumulation of H2O2, increased the contents of ascobate (AsA) but decreased the contents of dehydroascobate (DHA), and thus reduced the value of AsA: DHA. In the AOPP-pretreated seedlings, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and APX) were significantly repressed, and excess H2O2 accumulated. The value of AsA: DHA was also lower than the control. Furthermore, co-application of H2O2 scavenger alleviated the low temperature-induced damages in the AOPP-pretreated seedlings, while coapplication of a CAT inhibitor made the seedlings more sensitive to low temperature stress. These results indicated that under low temperature stress, the enhanced activities of PAL could increase the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid compounds and activate the cellular antioxidant enzymes, which could scavenge the excess ROS and maintain the cellular redox status, and thereby reduce the photo- and oxidative damages caused by low temperature stress. PMID:26710630

  12. [Suppression of three soil-borne diseases of cucumber by a rhizosphere fungal strain].

    PubMed

    Lyu, Heng; Niu, Yong-chun; Deng, Hui; Lin, Xiao-min; Jin, Chun-li

    2015-12-01

    To understand the effect of rhizosphere fungi on soil-borne diseases of cucumber, 16 fungal, strains from rhizosphere soil were investigated for the antagonistic activity to three soilborne pathogenic fungi with dual culture method and for suppression of cucumber diseases caused by the pathogens in pot experiments. Four strains showed antagonism to one or more pathogenic fungi tested. The strain JCL143, identified as Aspergillus terreus, showed strong antagonistic activity to the three pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In greenhouse pot experiments, inoculation with strain JCL143 provided 74% or more of relative control effect to all the three diseases of cucumber seedling caused by the above three pathogenic fungi, and provided 85% or more of relative control effect to Rhizoctonia root rot and Sclerotinia root and stem rot in pot experiment with non-sterilized substrate. In pot experiment with natural soil as substrate, inoculation with strain JCL143 provided average 84.1% of relative control effect to Fusarium wilt of cucumber at vine elongation stage. The fermentation broth of strain JCL143 showed inhibitory effect in different degrees on the colonial growth of the three pathogenic fungi tested, and reached 63.3% of inhibitory rate of colonial growth to S. sclerotiorum. The inhibitory activity of the fermentation broth decreased with increasing treatment temperature, was liable to decrease to alkaline pH than acid pH, and stable to protease treatment. The results indicated that A. terreus is an important factor in suppression of plant soil-borne diseases, and strain JCL143 with stable disease suppression is potential in biocontrol application. PMID:27112016

  13. Plant-microorganism-soil interactions influence the Fe availability in the rhizosphere of cucumber plants.

    PubMed

    Pii, Youry; Penn, Alexander; Terzano, Roberto; Crecchio, Carmine; Mimmo, Tanja; Cesco, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    Iron (Fe) is a very important element for plants, since it is involved in many biochemical processes and, often, for the low solubility of the natural Fe sources in soil, plants suffer from Fe - deficiency, especially when grown on calcareous soils. Among the numerous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that colonize the rhizosphere of agronomically important crops, Azospirillum brasilense has been shown to exert strong stimulating activities on plants, by inducing alterations of the root architecture and an improvement of mineral nutrition, which could result from an enhancement of ion uptake mechanisms as well as by increased bioavailability of nutrients. Some studies have also established that A. brasilense can act as biocontrol agent, by preventing the growth and/or virulence of phytopathogens, most likely through the production of microbial siderophores that sequester Fe from the soil. Despite microbial siderophores complexed with Fe could be an easily accessible Fe source for plants, the possible involvement of A. brasilense in improving Fe nutrition in plants suffering from the micronutrient deficiency has not been investigated yet. Within the present research, the characterization of the physiological and biochemical effects induced by Fe starvation and PGPR inoculation in cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Chinese Long) was carried out. The analyses of root exudates released by hydroponically grown plants highlighted that cucumber plants respond differently depending on the nutritional status. In addition, following the cultivation period on calcareous soil, also the root exudates found in the extracts suggested a peculiar behaviour of plants as a function of the treatment. Interestingly, the presence of the inoculum in soil allowed a faster recovery of cucumber plants from Fe-deficiency symptoms, i.e. increase in the chlorophyll content, in the biomass and in the Fe content of leaves. These observations might suggest a feasible application of

  14. Fine genetic mapping localizes cucumber scab resistance gene Ccu into an R gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Kang, Houxiang; Weng, Yiqun; Yang, Yuhong; Zhang, Zhonghua; Zhang, Shengping; Mao, Zhenchuan; Cheng, Guohua; Gu, Xingfang; Huang, Sanwen; Xie, Bingyan

    2011-03-01

    Scab, caused by Cladosporium cucumerinum, is an important disease of cucumber, Cucumis sativus. In this study, we conducted fine genetic mapping of the single dominant scab resistance gene, Ccu, with 148 F(9) recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and 1,944 F(2) plants derived from the resistant cucumber inbred line 9110Gt and the susceptible line 9930, whose draft genome sequence is now available. A framework linkage map was first constructed with simple sequence repeat markers placing Ccu into the terminal 670 kb region of cucumber Chromosome 2. The 9110Gt genome was sequenced at 5× genome coverage with the Solexa next-generation sequencing technology. Sequence analysis of the assembled 9110Gt contigs and the Ccu region of the 9930 genome identified three insertion/deletion (Indel) markers, Indel01, Indel02, and Indel03 that were closely linked with the Ccu locus. On the high-resolution map developed with the F(2) population, the two closest flanking markers, Indel01 and Indel02, were 0.14 and 0.15 cM away from the target gene Ccu, respectively, and the physical distance between the two markers was approximately 140 kb. Detailed annotation of the 180 kb region harboring the Ccu locus identified a cluster of six resistance gene analogs (RGAs) that belong to the nucleotide binding site (NBS) type R genes. Four RGAs were in the region delimited by markers Indel01 and Indel02, and thus were possible candidates of Ccu. Comparative DNA analysis of this cucumber Ccu gene region with a melon (C. melo) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone revealed a high degree of micro-synteny and conservation of the RGA tandem repeats in this region. PMID:21104067

  15. Endogenous salicylic acid accumulation is required for chilling tolerance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Li, Liang; Shang, Qing-Mao; Liu, Xin-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone, and its exogenous application can induce tolerance to multiple environmental stresses in plants. In this study, we examine the potential involvement of endogenous SA in response to chilling in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. A low temperature of 8 °C induces a moderate increase in endogenous SA levels. Chilling stimulates the enzymatic activities and the expression of genes for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and benzoic acid-2-hydroxylase rather than isochorismate synthase. This indicates that the PAL enzymatic pathway contributes to chilling-induced SA production. Cucumber seedlings pretreated with SA biosynthesis inhibitors accumulate less endogenous SA and suffer more from chilling damage. The expression of cold-responsive genes is also repressed by SA inhibitors. The reduction in stress tolerance and in gene expression can be restored by the exogenous application of SA, confirming the critical roles of SA in chilling responses in cucumber seedlings. Furthermore, the inhibition of SA biosynthesis under chilling stress results in a prolonged and enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. The application of exogenous SA and the chemical scavenger of H2O2 reduces the excess H2O2 and alleviates chilling injury. In contrast, the protective effects of SA are negated by foliar spraying with high concentrations of H2O2 and an inhibitor of the antioxidant enzyme. These results suggest that endogenous SA is required in response to chilling stress in cucumber seedlings, by modulating the expression of cold-responsive genes and the precise induction of cellular H2O2 levels. PMID:25034826

  16. Development of broad virus resistance in non-transgenic cucumber using CRISPR/Cas9 technology.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Jeyabharathy; Brumin, Marina; Wolf, Dalia; Leibman, Diana; Klap, Chen; Pearlsman, Mali; Sherman, Amir; Arazi, Tzahi; Gal-On, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Genome editing in plants has been boosted tremendously by the development of CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) technology. This powerful tool allows substantial improvement in plant traits in addition to those provided by classical breeding. Here, we demonstrate the development of virus resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using Cas9/subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) technology to disrupt the function of the recessive eIF4E (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E) gene. Cas9/sgRNA constructs were targeted to the N' and C' termini of the eIF4E gene. Small deletions and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed in the eIF4E gene targeted sites of transformed T1 generation cucumber plants, but not in putative off-target sites. Non-transgenic heterozygous eif4e mutant plants were selected for the production of non-transgenic homozygous T3 generation plants. Homozygous T3 progeny following Cas9/sgRNA that had been targeted to both eif4e sites exhibited immunity to Cucumber vein yellowing virus (Ipomovirus) infection and resistance to the potyviruses Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Papaya ring spot mosaic virus-W. In contrast, heterozygous mutant and non-mutant plants were highly susceptible to these viruses. For the first time, virus resistance has been developed in cucumber, non-transgenically, not visibly affecting plant development and without long-term backcrossing, via a new technology that can be expected to be applicable to a wide range of crop plants. PMID:26808139

  17. Consumer Acceptability of Cucumber Pickles Produced by Fermentation in Calcium Chloride Brine for Reduced Environmental Impact.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Emily M; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Osborne, Jason A

    2015-06-01

    Fermentation of cucumbers in calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) brine has been proposed as an alternative process to reduce the environmental impact of traditional, high salt fermentations. The objective of this research was to determine whether consumer acceptability of pickle products would be impacted by fermentation and storage of cucumbers in CaCl2 brine. Cucumbers were fermented and stored with 0.1M CaCl2 or 1M sodium chloride (NaCl) in open-air, 3000 gal tanks at a commercial facility and processed into hamburger dill chips containing 0.38M NaCl. Cucumbers fermented in CaCl2 required additional desalting to reduce CaCl2 concentrations to that of current products. Consumers (n = 101) showed no significant preference for pickles from different fermentation treatments, whether stored for 2 mo (P = 0.75) or 8 mo (P = 0.68) prior to processing. In contrast, NaCl fermented pickles were preferred over CaCl2 fermented pickles stored for 10 mo and desalted only once (P < 0.01). A series of preference tests indicated that the taste of CaCl2 was not the factor affecting consumer preference, and the 50% detection threshold of CaCl2 in dill pickle chips was found to be 61.8 ± 7.6 mM, indicating that processors could potentially use CaCl2 fermentations with a single desalting step. Consumer liking of flavor (n = 73) was not influenced by fermentation in CaCl2 or by 23 or 35 mM CaCl2 in finished products (P > 0.05), but variability in texture decreased consumer liking (P < 0.05). Although promising, individual fermentation variability and texture quality of CaCl2 fermented products should be further evaluated prior to broad implementation of this process. PMID:25981784

  18. Simplification of a light-based model for estimating final internode length in greenhouse cucumber canopies

    PubMed Central

    Kahlen, Katrin; Stützel, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Light quantity and quality affect internode lengths in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), whereby leaf area and the optical properties of the leaves mainly control light quality within a cucumber plant community. This modelling study aimed at providing a simple, non-destructive method to predict final internode lengths (FILs) using light quantity and leaf area data. Methods Several simplifications of a light quantity and quality sensitive model for estimating FILs in cucumber have been tested. The direct simplifications substitute the term for the red : far-red (R : FR) ratios, by a term for (a) the leaf area index (LAI, m2 m−2) or (b) partial LAI, the cumulative leaf area per m2 ground, where leaf area per m2 ground is accumulated from the top of each plant until a number, n, of leaves per plant is reached. The indirect simplifications estimate the input R : FR ratio based on partial leaf area and plant density. Key Results In all models, simulated FILs were in line with the measured FILs over various canopy architectures and light conditions, but the prediction quality varied. The indirect simplification based on leaf area of ten leaves revealed the best fit with measured data. Its prediction quality was even higher than of the original model. Conclusions This study showed that for vertically trained cucumber plants, leaf area data can substitute local light quality data for estimating FIL data. In unstressed canopies, leaf area over the upper ten ranks seems to represent the feedback of the growing architecture on internode elongation with respect to light quality. This highlights the role of this domain of leaves as the primary source for the specific R : FR signal controlling the final length of an internode and could therefore guide future research on up-scaling local processes to the crop level. PMID:21642233

  19. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of a complement component 3 in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zunchun; Sun, Dapeng; Yang, Aifu; Dong, Ying; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Xiaoyu; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Bei; Wang, Bai

    2011-10-01

    The complement system has been discovered in invertebrates and vertebrates, and plays a crucial role in the innate defense against common pathogens. As a central component in the complement system, complement component 3 (C3) is an intermediary between innate and adaptive immune system. In this study, a new isoform of C3 in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, termed AjC3-2 was identified. Its open reading frame (ORF) is 5085 bp and encodes for 1695 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 20 amino acid residues. The mature protein molecular weight of AjC3-2 was 187.72 kDa. It has a conserved thioester site and a linker R(689)RRR(692) where AjC3-2 is splitted into β and α chain during posttranslational modification. The expression patterns of two distinct sea cucumber C3 genes, AjC3-2 and AjC3, were similar. During the different development stages from unfertilized egg to juvenile of the sea cucumber, the highest expression levels of AjC3-2 and AjC3 genes were both found in late auricularia. In the adult, the highest expression of these two genes was observed in the coelomocytes and followed by the body wall. AjC3-2 and AjC3 genes expression increased significantly at 6 h after the LPS challenge. These results indicated that these two C3 genes play a pivotal role in immune responses to the bacterial infection in sea cucumber. PMID:21752342

  20. Integrative Analyses of Nontargeted Volatile Profiling and Transcriptome Data Provide Molecular Insight into VOC Diversity in Cucumber Plants (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Wei, Guo; Tian, Peng; Zhang, Fengxia; Qin, Hao; Miao, Han; Chen, Qingwen; Hu, Zhongyi; Cao, Li; Wang, Meijiao; Gu, Xingfang; Huang, Sanwen; Chen, Mingsheng; Wang, Guodong

    2016-09-01

    Plant volatile organic compounds, which are generated in a tissue-specific manner, play important ecological roles in the interactions between plants and their environments, including the well-known functions of attracting pollinators and protecting plants from herbivores/fungi attacks. However, to date, there have not been reports of holistic volatile profiling of the various tissues of a single plant species, even for the model plant species. In this study, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed 85 volatile chemicals, including 36 volatile terpenes, in 23 different tissues of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants using solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most volatile chemicals were found to occur in a highly tissue-specific manner. The consensus transcriptomes for each of the 23 cucumber tissues were generated with RNA sequencing data and used in volatile organic compound-gene correlation analysis to screen for candidate genes likely to be involved in cucumber volatile biosynthetic pathways. In vitro biochemical characterization of the candidate enzymes demonstrated that TERPENE SYNTHASE11 (TPS11)/TPS14, TPS01, and TPS15 were responsible for volatile terpenoid production in the roots, flowers, and fruit tissues of cucumber plants, respectively. A functional heteromeric geranyl(geranyl) pyrophosphate synthase, composed of an inactive small subunit (type I) and an active large subunit, was demonstrated to play a key role in monoterpene production in cucumber. In addition to establishing a standard workflow for the elucidation of plant volatile biosynthetic pathways, the knowledge generated from this study lays a solid foundation for future investigations of both the physiological functions of cucumber volatiles and aspects of cucumber flavor improvement. PMID:27457123