A branching process model for sand avalanches
Garcia-Pelayo, R.; Salazar, I.; Schieve, W.C. )
1993-07-01
An analytically solvable model for sand avalanches of noninteracting grains of sand, based on the Chapman-Kolmogorov equations, is presented. For a single avalanche, distributions of lifetimes, sizes of overflows and avalanches, and correlation functions are calculated. Some of these are exponentials, some are power laws. Spatially homogeneous distributions of avalanches are also studied. Computer simulations of avalanches of interacting grains of sand are compared to the solutions to the Chapman-Kolmogorov equations. It is found that within the range of parameters explored in the simulation, the approximation of noninteracting grains of sand is a good one. 20 refs., 4 figs.
Stochastic Equation of Fragmentation and Branching Processes Related to Avalanches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beznea, Lucian; Deaconu, Madalina; Lupaşcu, Oana
2016-02-01
We give a stochastic model for the fragmentation phase of an avalanche. We construct a fragmentation-branching process related to the avalanches, on the set of all fragmentation sizes introduced by Bertoin. A fractal property of this process is emphasized. We also establish a specific stochastic differential equation of fragmentation. It turns out that specific branching Markov processes on finite configurations of particles with sizes bigger than a strictly positive threshold are convenient for describing the continuous time evolution of the number of the resulting fragments. The results are obtained by combining analytic and probabilistic potential theoretical tools.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Achasov, N. N.; Rogozina, E. V.
2014-10-01
Enfant terrible of charmonium spectroscopy, the resonance X(3872), generated a stream of interpretations and ushered in a new exotic XYZ spectroscopy. In the meantime, many (if not all) characteristics of X(3872) are rather ambiguous. We construct spectra of decays of the resonance X(3872) with good analytical and unitary properties which allows to define the branching ratio of the decay studying only one more decay, for example, the X(3872) → π+π- J/ψ(1 S) decay. We next define the range of values of the coupling constant of the X(3872) resonance with the system. Finally, we show that our spectra are effective means of selection of models for the resonance X(3872).
Signal-to-noise ratio of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode single-photon counting detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolb, Kimberly
2014-08-01
Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GM-APDs) use the avalanche mechanism of semiconductors to amplify signals in individual pixels. With proper thresholding, a pixel will be either "on" (avalanching) or "off." This discrete detection scheme eliminates read noise, which makes these devices capable of counting single photons. Using these detectors for imaging applications requires a well-developed and comprehensive expression for the expected signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This paper derives the expected SNR of a GM-APD detector in gated operation based on gate length, number of samples, signal flux, dark count rate, photon detection efficiency, and afterpulsing probability. To verify the theoretical results, carrier-level Monte Carlo simulation results are compared to the derived equations and found to be in good agreement.
Improved measurement of the K+-->pi+nunu; branching ratio.
Anisimovsky, V V; Artamonov, A V; Bassalleck, B; Bhuyan, B; Blackmore, E W; Bryman, D A; Chen, S; Chiang, I-H; Christidi, I-A; Cooper, P S; Diwan, M V; Frank, J S; Fujiwara, T; Hu, J; Ivashkin, A P; Jaffe, D E; Kabe, S; Kettell, S H; Khabibullin, M M; Khotjantsev, A N; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, M; Komatsubara, T K; Konaka, A; Kozhevnikov, A P; Kudenko, Yu G; Kushnirenko, A; Landsberg, L G; Lewis, B; Li, K K; Littenberg, L S; Macdonald, J A; Mildenberger, J; Mineev, O V; Miyajima, M; Mizouchi, K; Mukhin, V A; Muramatsu, N; Nakano, T; Nomachi, M; Nomura, T; Numao, T; Obraztsov, V F; Omata, K; Patalakha, D I; Petrenko, S V; Poutissou, R; Ramberg, E J; Redlinger, G; Sato, T; Sekiguchi, T; Shinkawa, T; Strand, R C; Sugimoto, S; Tamagawa, Y; Tschirhart, R; Tsunemi, T; Vavilov, D V; Viren, B; Yershov, N V; Yoshimura, Y; Yoshioka, T
2004-07-16
An additional event near the upper kinematic limit for K+-->pi(+)nunu; has been observed by experiment E949 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Combining previously reported and new data, the branching ratio is B(K+-->pi(+)nunu;)=(1.47(+1.30)(-0.89))x10(-10) based on three events observed in the pion momentum region 211
branching ratio, the additional event had a signal-to-background ratio of 0.9. PMID:15323812
Stability of earthquake clustering models: Criticality and branching ratios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhuang, Jiancang; Werner, Maximilian J.; Harte, David S.
2013-12-01
We study the stability conditions of a class of branching processes prominent in the analysis and modeling of seismicity. This class includes the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model as a special case, but more generally comprises models in which the magnitude distribution of direct offspring depends on the magnitude of the progenitor, such as the branching aftershock sequence (BASS) model and another recently proposed branching model based on a dynamic scaling hypothesis. These stability conditions are closely related to the concepts of the criticality parameter and the branching ratio. The criticality parameter summarizes the asymptotic behavior of the population after sufficiently many generations, determined by the maximum eigenvalue of the transition equations. The branching ratio is defined by the proportion of triggered events in all the events. Based on the results for the generalized case, we show that the branching ratio of the ETAS model is identical to its criticality parameter because its magnitude density is separable from the full intensity. More generally, however, these two values differ and thus place separate conditions on model stability. As an illustration of the difference and of the importance of the stability conditions, we employ a version of the BASS model, reformulated to ensure the possibility of stationarity. In addition, we analyze the magnitude distributions of successive generations of the BASS model via analytical and numerical methods, and find that the compound density differs substantially from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution, unless the process is essentially subcritical (branching ratio less than 1) or the magnitude dependence between the parent event and the direct offspring is weak.
Branching ratio deviations from statistical behavior in core photoionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Tommaso, Devis; Decleva, Piero
2005-08-01
Accurate calculations of carbon 1s photoionization cross sections have been performed at the density functional level with the B-spline linear combination of atomic orbitals approach. The molecules considered are FCCH, FCCCH3, FCCCN, F2CCH2, CF3COOCH2CH3, and C3H5O. The variation of the branching ratios relative to inequivalent C 1s ionizations have been evaluated from threshold to about 100 eV photoelectron kinetic energy. Large deviations from the statistical ratios are observed at low energies, which remain often significant several tens of eV above threshold. The importance of taking into account core branching ratios for peak deconvolution and quantitative analysis, as well as an additional tool for structural information, is pointed out. Strong shape resonant effects are found to largely cancel in branching ratios. Their nature and variation along the series is analyzed in the framework of excitations into σ* valence orbitals.
Absolute partial decay branching-ratios in 16O
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheldon, C.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Curtis, N.; Freer, M.; Kokalova, Tz; Malcolm, J. D.; Spencer, S. J.; Ziman, V. A.; Faestermann, Th; Krücken, R.; Wirth, H.-F.; Hertenberger, R.; Lutter, R.; Bergmaier, A.
2013-04-01
The a-transfer reaction 126C(63Li, d)168O* has been performed at a 6Li bombarding energy of 42 MeV to populate excited states in 13C and 16O. Absolute branching ratios have been unambiguously determined for states in the excitation energy range 13.85 to 15.87 MeV and reduced widths are extracted.
New measurement of the K+-->pi+ nunu branching ratio.
Artamonov, A V; Bassalleck, B; Bhuyan, B; Blackmore, E W; Bryman, D A; Chen, S; Chiang, I-H; Christidi, I-A; Cooper, P S; Diwan, M V; Frank, J S; Fujiwara, T; Hu, J; Ives, J; Jaffe, D E; Kabe, S; Kettell, S H; Khabibullin, M M; Khotjantsev, A N; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, M; Komatsubara, T K; Konaka, A; Kozhevnikov, A P; Kudenko, Yu G; Kushnirenko, A; Landsberg, L G; Lewis, B; Li, K K; Littenberg, L S; Macdonald, J A; Mildenberger, J; Mineev, O V; Miyajima, M; Mizouchi, K; Mukhin, V A; Muramatsu, N; Nakano, T; Nomachi, M; Nomura, T; Numao, T; Obraztsov, V F; Omata, K; Patalakha, D I; Petrenko, S V; Poutissou, R; Ramberg, E J; Redlinger, G; Sato, T; Sekiguchi, T; Shinkawa, T; Strand, R C; Sugimoto, S; Tamagawa, Y; Tschirhart, R; Tsunemi, T; Vavilov, D V; Viren, B; Wang, Zhe; Yershov, N V; Yoshimura, Y; Yoshioka, T
2008-11-01
Three events for the decay K+-->pi+ nunu have been observed in the pion momentum region below the K+-->pi+pi0 peak, 140 < Ppi < 199 MeV/c, with an estimated background of 0.93+/-0.17(stat.) -0.24+0.32(syst.) events. Combining this observation with previously reported results yields a branching ratio of B(K+-->pi+ nunu) = (1.73(-1.05)+1.15) x 10(-10) consistent with the standard model prediction. PMID:19113260
Measurement of the K+ --> pi+ nu nu branching ratio
Adler, S.; Anisimovsky, V.V.; Aoki, M.; Ardebili, M.; Artamonov, A.V.; Atiya, M.; Bassalleck, B.; Bazarko, A.O.; Bhuyan, B.; Blackmore, E.W.; Bryman, D.A.; /British Columbia U. /Tsinghua U., Beijing /TRIUMF
2008-03-01
Experiment E949 at Brookhaven National Laboratory studied the rare decay K{sup +}-->pi{sup +} nu{ovr {nu}} and other processes with an exposure of 1.77 x 10{sup 12} k{sup +}'s. The data were analyzed using a blind analysis technique yielding one candidate event with an estimated background of 0.30 {+-} 0.03 events. Combining this result with the observation of two candidate events by the predecessor experiment E787 gave the branching ratio B(K{sup +}-->pi{sup +} nu{ovr {nu}}) = (1.47{sub -0.89}{sup +1.30}) x 10{sup -10}, consistent with the standard model prediction of (0.74 {+-} 0.20) x 10{sup -10}. This is a more detailed report of results previously published [V.V. Anisimovsky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 031801 (2004)].
Investigation of photoelectron spectroscopy. [for obtaining branching ratios
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Samson, J. A. R.
1973-01-01
The problem of obtaining true and meaningful branching ratios from the photoelectron spectra is investigated. The problem consists of understanding the transmission of an electron energy analyzer for electrons with different energies, understanding the effects of using partially polarized radiation from different vacuum monochromators, and in understanding the effects of the angular distribution of photoelectrons ejected from different orbitals. An analysis of the degree of polarization of monochromatic radiation and of the problem of varying angular distributions led to the construction of a cylindrical mirror electron energy analyzer set at the special angle of 54 deg 44 min so that no discrimination would occur for electrons of different angular distributions. With the analyzer properly calibrated for transmission of electrons of different energies, data were taken at several wavelengths and for several atmospheric gases.
Branching Ratios for The Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-2012
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daw, Adrian N.; Bhatia, A. K.; Rabin, Douglas M.
2012-01-01
The Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS) sounding rocket instrument is a two-channel imaging spectrograph that observes the solar corona and transition region with high spectral resolution and a rapid cadence made possible by unprecedented sensitivity. The upcoming flight will incorporate a new wavelength channel covering the range 524-630 Angstroms, the previously-flown 300-370 Angstroms channel, and the first flight demonstration of cooled active pixel sensor (APS) arrays. The new 524-630 Angstrom channel incorporates a Toroidal Varied Line Space (TVLS) grating coated with B4C/Ir, providing broad spectral coverage and a wide temperature range of 0.025 to 10 MK. Absolute radiometric calibration of the two channels is being performed using a hollow cathode discharge lamp and NIST-calibrated AXUV-100G photodiode. Laboratory observations of He I 584 Angstroms and He II 304 Angstroms provide absolute radiometric calibrations of the two channels at those two respective wavelengths by using the AXUV photodiode as a transfer standard. The spectral responsivity is being determined by observing line pairs with a common upper state in the spectra of Ne I-III and Ar II-III. Calculations of A-values for the observed branching ratios are in progress.
Tables of stark level transition probabilities and branching ratios in hydrogen-like atoms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Omidvar, K.
1980-01-01
The transition probabilities which are given in terms of n prime k prime and n k are tabulated. No additional summing or averaging is necessary. The electric quantum number k plays the role of the angular momentum quantum number l in the presence of an electric field. The branching ratios between stark levels are also tabulated. Necessary formulas for the transition probabilities and branching ratios are given. Symmetries are discussed and selection rules are given. Some disagreements for some branching ratios are found between the present calculation and the measurement of Mark and Wierl. The transition probability multiplied by the statistical weight of the initial state is called the static intensity J sub S, while the branching ratios are called the dynamic intensity J sub D.
The sensitivity of the Higgs boson branching ratios to the W boson width
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murray, William
2016-07-01
The Higgs boson branching ratio into vector bosons is sensitive to the decay widths of those vector bosons because they are produced with at least one boson significantly off-shell. Γ (H → VV) is approximately proportional to the product of the Higgs boson coupling and the vector boson width. ΓZ is well measured, but ΓW gives an uncertainty on Γ (H → WW) which is not negligible. The ratio of branching ratios, BR (H → WW) / BR (H → ZZ) measured by a combination of ATLAS and CMS at LHC is used herein to extract a width for the W boson of ΓW =1.8-0.3+0.4 GeV by assuming Standard Model couplings of the Higgs bosons. This dependence of the branching ratio on ΓW is not discussed in most Higgs boson coupling analyses.
Vibrational branching ratios and photoelectron angular distributions in 5σ photoionisation of CO
Stephens, J. A.; Dill, Dan; Dehmer, Joseph L.
1981-10-28
Vibrationally resolved photoelectron angular distributions have been calculated for the 5σ photoionisation channel of CO using the multiple-scattering method. Vibrational branching ratios and vibrationally unresolved integrated cross sections and photoelectron angular distributions are also reported and compared with available measurements. Both angular distributions and branching ratios exhibit striking non-Franck-Condon behaviour caused primarily by the f-wave shape resonance in the sigma photoionisation continuum. Significant discrepancies between theory and experiment exist for the weaker v_{f}=2,3 vibrational levels and interaction with nearby two-electron excitation is proposed as a likely cause.
Branching ratios of {alpha} decay to excited states of even-even nuclei
Wang, Y. Z.; Zhang, H. F.; Dong, J. M.; Royer, G.
2009-01-15
Branching ratios of {alpha} decay to members of the ground state rotational band and excited 0{sup +} states of even-even nuclei are calculated in the framework of the generalized liquid drop model (GLDM) by taking into account the angular momentum of the {alpha} particle and the excitation probability of the daughter nucleus. The calculation covers isotopic chains from Hg to Fm in the mass regions 180=}224. The calculated branching ratios of the {alpha} transitions are in good agreement with the experimental data and some useful predictions are provided for future experiments.
Delayed-neutron branching ratios of precursors in the fission product region
Rudstam, G.; Aleklett, K.; Sihver, L. )
1993-01-01
Delayed-neutron branching ratios in the fission product region have been tabulated, and average values have been determined. In order to provide data complementary to published values an experiment covering the mass range 79-150 has been carried out at the OSIRIS isotope-separator on-line facility at Studsvik. This experiment has resulted in branching ratios for some precursors ([sup 84]Ge, [sup 133]Sn, and [sup 150]La) for which such data have not been reported before. In several other cases the new results are accurate than older determinations. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
The branching ratio in the infrared predissociation of aniline-water-methanol + ion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alauddin, Md.; Song, Jae Kyu; Park, Seung Min
2010-09-01
The infrared (IR) photodissociation of aniline-water-methanol cluster ion was investigated in the 2600-3900 cm -1 region to examine the factors which play key roles in determining the branching ratio of a concurrent predissociation reaction. The dominant channel in the IR predissociation of AWM + (A: aniline, W: water, M: methanol) was AWM + → AM + at all vibrational modes although the calculated binding energies of water and methanol were nearly the same. Also, the branching ratio was slightly dependent on the specific excited mode, ranging from 0.036 to 0.074; the most effective mode to kick out methanol was OH vibration of methanol.
High-precision branching-ratio measurement for the superallowed β+ emitter 74Rb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunlop, R.; Ball, G. C.; Leslie, J. R.; Svensson, C. E.; Towner, I. S.; Andreoiu, C.; Chagnon-Lessard, S.; Chester, A.; Cross, D. S.; Finlay, P.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P. E.; Glister, J.; Hackman, G.; Hadinia, B.; Leach, K. G.; Rand, E. T.; Starosta, K.; Tardiff, E. R.; Triambak, S.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.; Yates, S. W.; Zganjar, E. F.
2013-10-01
A high-precision branching-ratio measurement for the superallowed β+ decay of 74Rb was performed at the TRIUMF Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) radioactive ion-beam facility. The scintillating electron-positron tagging array (SCEPTAR), composed of 10 thin plastic scintillators, was used to detect the emitted β particles; the 8π spectrometer, an array of 20 Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors, was used for detecting γ rays that were emitted following Gamow-Teller and nonanalog Fermi β+ decays of 74Rb; and the Pentagonal Array of Conversion Electron Spectrometers (PACES), an array of 5 Si(Li) detectors, was employed for measuring β-delayed conversion electrons. Twenty-three excited states were identified in 74Kr following 8.241(4)×108 detected 74Rb β decays. A total of 58 γ-ray and electron transitions were placed in the decay scheme, allowing the superallowed branching ratio to be determined as B0=99.545(31)%. Combined with previous half-life and Q-value measurements, the superallowed branching ratio measured in this work leads to a superallowed ft value of 3082.8(65) s. Comparisons between this superallowed ft value and the world-average-corrected Ft¯ value, as well as the nonanalog Fermi branching ratios determined in this work, provide guidance for theoretical models of the isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections in this mass region.
Branching ratios of B{sub c} meson decays into tensor meson in the final state
Sharma, Neelesh
2010-01-01
Two-body hadronic weak decays of B{sub c} meson involving tensor meson in the final state are studied by using the Isgur-Scora-Grinstein-Wise II model. Decay amplitudes are obtained using the factorization scheme in the spectator quark model. Branching ratios for the charm changing and bottom changing decay modes are predicted.
Branching ratios for the decay of n = 3 hydrogen atoms in axial and transverse electric fields
Rouze, N.; Havener, C.C.; Westerveld, W.B.; Risley, A.J.S.
1986-01-01
The branching ratios for the n = 3 to n = 2 Balmer- decay of hydrogen atoms in axial and transverse electric fields in the range 0--1000 V/cm have been calculated with use of a density-matrix formalism to take into account the time evolution of the atomic states in the presence of an electric field. The branching ratios are useful when the production of 2s hydrogen atoms is measured with the use of an electric field and when it is desired to correct for cascade contributions from the n = 3 level. The total n = 3 to n = 2 branching ratio is found to depend on each of the 14 independent quantities which determine the axially symmetric n = 3 density matrix, thus emphasizing the need to determine the complete density matrix including the off-diagonal coherence terms. If the off-diagonal density-matrix elements are not known, it is preferable to use transverse electric fields since, in this configuration, the contributions to the branching ratios from the off-diagonal terms are less than with axial electric fields. For transverse fields of approximately 200 V/cm, the contribution from the off-diagonal terms are nearly zero.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Millar, T. J.; Defrees, D. J.; Mclean, A. D.; Herbst, E.
1988-01-01
The approach of Bates to the determination of neutral product branching ratios in ion-electron dissociative recombination reactions has been utilized in conjunction with quantum chemical techniques to redetermine branching ratios for a wide variety of important reactions of this class in dense interstellar clouds. The branching ratios have then been used in a pseudo time-dependent model calculation of the gas phase chemistry of a dark cloud resembling TMC-1 and the results compared with an analogous model containing previously used branching ratios. In general, the changes in branching ratios lead to stronger effects on calculated molecular abundances at steady state than at earlier times and often lead to reductions in the calculated abundances of complex molecules. However, at the so-called 'early time' when complex molecule synthesis is most efficient, the abundances of complex molecules are hardly affected by the newly used branching ratios.
Branching ratio for the superallowed beta-decay of 10C
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eronen, Tommi; Bencomo, M.; Chen, L.; Hardy, J. C.; Horvat, V.; Iacob, V.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.; Roeder, B.; Saastamoinen, A.
2016-03-01
Superallowed β decays play a key role in testing the Standard Model of Particle Physics. These decays occur between nuclear analog states having spin-parity of 0+ and isospin T = 1 . Currently, and in the foreseeable future, they offer the most accurate value for the Vud matrix element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix. Each superallowed transition is characterized with an Ft value combining both experimental and theoretical quantities. We have just made a preliminary new measurement of the 10C branching ratio, which currently is the least precisely known quantity for any of the ``traditional nine'' superallowed transitions. Furthermore, 10C is the only case that appears to have its corrected Ft value outside the world average value, which could be explained with the existence of a scalar current. We performed the branching-ratio measurement with a β- γ coincidence setup using a scintillator for β and an HPGe with +/-0.15% calibrated relative efficiency for γ detection. Since the branching ratio is obtained from the ratio of intensities of 718 keV and 1022 keV γ lines, most systematic uncertainties cancel out. I will show an overview of the experiment and preliminary results.
Quantum-state Dependence of Product Branching Ratios in Vacuum Ultraviolet Photodissociation of N2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Yu; Gao, Hong; Chung Chang, Yih; Hammouténe, D.; Ndome, H.; Hochlaf, M.; Jackson, William M.; Ng, C. Y.
2016-03-01
The branching ratios for the N(4S) + N(2D), N(4S) + N(2P), and N(2D) + N(2D) channels are measured for the photodissociation of {{{N}}}2({X}1{{{{Σ }}}g}+;v\\prime\\prime =0,J\\prime\\prime ) in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region of 100,808-122,159 cm-1 using the VUV-VUV pump-probe approach combined with velocity-map-imaging-photoion detection. No evidence of forming the ground-state N(4S) + N(4S) products is found. No potential barrier is observed for the N(2D) + N(2D) channel, but the N(4S) + N(2P) channel has a small potential barrier of ≈740 cm-1. The branching ratios are found to depend on the symmetry of predissociative N2 states instead of the total VUV excitation energy, indicating that N2 photodissociation is nonstatistical. When the branching ratios for N(4S) + N(2D) and N(4S) + N(2P) products are plotted as a function of the VUV excitation energy for the valence N2 1Πu and {}1{{{{Σ }}}{{u}}}+ states, oscillations in these ratios are observed demonstrating how these channels are competing with each other. These data can be used to select both the velocity and internal states of the atomic products by picking the quantum state that is excited. High-level ab initio potential energy curves of the excited N2 states are calculated to provide insight into the mechanisms for the observed branching ratios. The calculations predict that the formation of both N(4S) + N(2D) and N(4S) + N(2P) channels involves potential energy barriers, in agreement with experimental observations. A discussion of the application of the present results to astronomy, planetary sciences, and comets is given.
Study on branching ratios and direct CP asymmetries of D → PV decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Qin; Li, Hsiang-Nan; Lü, Cai-Dian; Yu, Fu-Sheng
2014-04-01
We study the non-leptonic two-body decays of D mesons decaying into one pseudoscalar meson (P) and one vector meson (V) in the factorization-asisted topological-amplitude approach. In this approach, the decay amplitudes are factorized into two parts, the short-distance contribution (Wilson coefficients) and the long-distance contribution (hadronic matrix elements). We predict the branching ratios of D → PV decays using a global fit with the non-perturbative parameters. Our results agree well with the experimental data. We also predict the direct CP asymmetries by combining short-distance dynamics associated with penguin operators and long-distance hadronic matrix elements determined by branching ratios. The large asymmetries in D+ → π+ρ0 and Ds+-> K+φ may be measurable in the LHCb and future Belle II experiments.
Branching-ratio approximation for the self-exciting Hawkes process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hardiman, Stephen J.; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe
2014-12-01
We introduce a model-independent approximation for the branching ratio of Hawkes self-exciting point processes. Our estimator requires knowing only the mean and variance of the event count in a sufficiently large time window, statistics that are readily obtained from empirical data. The method we propose greatly simplifies the estimation of the Hawkes branching ratio, recently proposed as a proxy for market endogeneity and formerly estimated using numerical likelihood maximization. We employ our method to support recent theoretical and experimental results indicating that the best fitting Hawkes model to describe S&P futures price changes is in fact critical (now and in the recent past) in light of the long memory of financial market activity.
B^0_s and lambda^0_b lifetimes and branching ratios at the Tevatron
Behari, S.; /Johns Hopkins U.
2006-12-01
The authors review B{sub s}{sup 0} and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} lifetime and branching ratio measurements from the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron Run II. Using up to 1 fb{sup -1} data samples per experiment, {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} lifetime in J/{Psi}{Lambda}{sup 0} decays, B{sub s}{sup 0} lifetime difference in K{sup +}K{sup -} and D{sub s}{sup (*)+} D{sub s}{sup (*)-} decays and B{sub s}{sup 0} branching ratio in D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536){mu}{sup +} {nu}X decays are reported.
Half-life of Th232 and the branching ratio of Bi212
Senftle, F.E.; Farley, T.A.; Lazar, N.
1956-01-01
The half-life of Th232 has been calculated by determining an absolute gamma-disintegration rate for Tl208 in equilibrium with Th232 for three old thorium nitrate salts and one natural thorite sample. The branching ratio, ??(??+??), for Bi212, a necessary parameter in the calculation, was also measured. The half-life of Th232 was found to be 1.42??1010 years within an estimated error of 5%, which is essentially in agreement with the presently accepted value. The branching ratio, ??(??+??), of Bi212 was found to be 0.362??0.006, about 7.4% higher than the currently accepted value. ?? 1956 The American Physical Society.
Curve Crossing and Branching Ratios in the Dissociative Recombination of HD{sup +}
Zajfman, D.; Amitay, Z.; Lange, M.; Hechtfischer, U.; Knoll, L.; Schwalm, D.; Wester, R.; Wolf, A.; Urbain, X.
1997-09-01
We present an experimental and theoretical study of the branching ratios in the dissociative recombination of HD{sup +} with low energy electrons. The results give direct insight into the dynamics of the avoided curve crossing process between the dissociative state and the Rydberg series of the neutral molecule. Excellent agreement between the experimental results and the theory, based on a Landau-Zener formulation of the crossing process, is obtained. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Relative branching ratio of the η→ π0γγ decay channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knecht, N.; Papandreou, Z.; Lolos, G. J.; Benslama, K.; Huber, G. M.; Li, S.; Bekrenev, V.; Briscoe, W. J.; Grosnick, D.; Isenhower, D.; Koetke, D. D.; Kozlenko, N. G.; Kruglov, S.; Manley, D. M.; Manweiler, R.; McDonald, S.; Olmsted, J.; Shafi, A.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.
2004-06-01
The η→π0γγ rare decay was measured at the AGS with the Crystal Ball photon spectrometer and its relative branching ratio was extracted to be B1=(8.3±2.8±1.4)×10-4, based on the analysis of 3×107 detected η mesons. This leads to a lower partial width for this eta channel than past measurements and is in line with chiral perturbation theory calculations.
A measurement of the inclusive b-->sγ branching ratio
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
ALEPH Collaboration; Barate, R.; Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Pietrzyk, B.; Alemany, R.; Boix, G.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Graugès, E.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Becker, U.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Casper, D.; Cattaneo, M.; Ciulli, V.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Lehraus, I.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moneta, L.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Chazelle, G.; Deschamps, O.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J.-C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Halley, A. W.; Lynch, J. G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Buchmüller, O.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Martin, E. B.; Marinelli, N.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Spagnolo, P.; Williams, M. D.; Ghete, V. M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Buck, P. G.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Robertson, N. A.; Sloan, T.; Williams, M. I.; Giehl, I.; Greene, A. M.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Etienne, F.; Leroy, O.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Antonelli, M.; Ragusa, F.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Mannert, C.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Tournefier, E.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Boccali, T.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Chambers, J. T.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M.-C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Konstantinidis, N.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Kelly, M. S.; Lehto, M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Affholderbach, K.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y.; González, S.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P. A., III; Nachtman, J. M.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.
1998-06-01
The flavour changing neutral current decay b-->sγ has been detected in hadronic Z decays collected by ALEPH at LEP. The signal is isolated in lifetime-tagged bb¯ events by the presence of a hard photon associated with a system of high momentum and high rapidity hadrons. The background processes are normalised from the data themselves. The inclusive branching ratio is measured to beconsistent with the Standard Model expectation via penguin processes. © 1998
Measurement of the branching ratio of UPSILON(2S). --> pi. /sup +/. pi. /sup -/+UPSILON(1S)
Mueller, J.J.; Potter, D.; Sannes, F.; Skubic, P.; Stone, R.; Brody, A.; Chen, A.; Goldberg, M.; Horwitz, N.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kooy, H.; Lariccia, P.; Moneti, G.C.; Bridges, D.L.; Alam, M.S.; Csorna, S.E.; Hicks, R.; Panvini, R.S.; Poucher, J.S.; Andrews, D.; Avery, P.; Berkelman, K.; Cabenda, P.; Cassel, D.G.; DeWire, J.W.; Ehrlich, R.; Ferguson, T.; Gentile, T.; Gilchriese, M.G.D.; Gittelman, B.; Hartill, D.L.; Herrup, D.; Herzlinger, M.; Kreinick, D.L.; Mistry, N.B.; Nordberg, E.; Perchonok, R.; Plunkett, R.; Shinsky, K.A.; Siemann, R.H.; Silverman, A.; Stein, P.C.; Stone, S.; Talman, R.; Thonemann, H.G.; Weber, D.; Wilcke, R.; Sadoff, A.J.; Bebek, C.; Haggerty, J.; Izen, J.M.; Longuemare, C.; Loomis, W.A.; Mackay, W.W.; Pipkin, F.M.; Rohlf, J.; Tanenbaum, W.; Wilson, R.; Chadwick, K.; Ganci, P.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lobkowicz, F.; Melissinos, A.C.; Olsen, S.L.; Poling, R.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rucinski, G.; Thorndike, E.H.
1981-05-04
We have observed the decay of the UPSILON(2S) into the UPSILON(1S), obtaining a branching ratio of 19.1 +- 3.1 +- 2.9% for the mode UPSILON(2S)..--> pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/UPSILON(1S). The di-pion mass spectrum peaks at large invariant mass, and the angular distribution of the di-pion system is consistent with s-wave production.
Fluorescence branching ratios in nitric oxide - Emission from the A2 Sigma(+) (v prime = 1)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcgee, T. J.; Burris, J., Jr.; Barnes, J.
1985-01-01
The most complete set of branching ratios from the v-prime = 1 level of the A-state in NO measured to data is reported. The assumption that virtually all of the emitted radiation has been sampled is used to extract Franck-Condon factors from the v-prime = 1 manifold. A comparison with previously published results indicates that, except for the (1,0) band, there is reasonably good agreement.
B {sup {yields}} {pi}{pi} decays: Branching ratios and CP asymmetries
Kaidalov, A. B. Vysotsky, M. I.
2007-04-15
Theoretically motivated smallness of the penguin amplitude in B {sup {yields}} {pi}{pi} decays allows one to calculate the value of the unitarity-triangle angle {alpha}(o{sub 2}) with good accuracy. The relatively large branching ratio of the decay into {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} is explained by the large value of FSI phase difference between decay amplitudes with I = 0 and I = 2.
Product Branching Ratios of the Reaction of CO with H-3(+) and H2D+
Yu, H.G.
2009-11-20
The reaction of CO with H{sub 3}{sup +} and H{sub 2}D{sup +} has been studied to investigate thermal rate coefficients and product branching ratios in the temperature range [20, 350] K, by using a direct ab initio molecular dynamics method. In trajectory simulations, the energies and forces are calculated using a scaling all correlation second-order Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory (SAC-MP2) method with the correlation consistent polarized valence triplet-zeta basis (cc-pVTZ). Results show that total thermal rate coefficients for both the CO + H{sub 3}{sup +}and the CO + H{sub 2}D{sup +} reactions have a weakly positive temperature dependence. At room temperature, the rate coefficients are predicted to be (1.42 {+-} 0.03) x 10{sup -9} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} with a product branching ratio of [HOC{sup +}]/[HCO{sup +}] = 0.36 {+-} 0.01 for the CO + H{sub 3}{sup +} reaction, and (1.26 {+-} 0.03) x 10{sup -9} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} with the product branching ratios: 0.37 {+-} 0.01 (([HOC{sup +}] + [DOC{sup +}])/([HCO{sup +}] + [DOC{sup +}])), 0.54 {+-} 0.02 ([DCO{sup +}]/[HCO{sup +}]), and 0.49 {+-} 0.02 ([DOC{sup +}]/[HOC{sup +}]) for CO + H{sub 2}D{sup +}. The product branching ratios have a noticeable temperature dependence as well as a pronounced isotopic effect for the H/DOC{sup +} product channel.
Improved Measurement of the π→eν Branching Ratio
Aguilar-Arevalo, A.; Aoki, M.; Blecher, M.; Britton, D. I.; Bryman, D. A.; vom Bruch, D.; Chen, S.; Comfort, J.; Ding, M.; Doria, L.; et al
2015-08-01
A new measurement of the branching ratio Re/μ=Γ(π+ → e+ν + π+ → e+νγ)/Γ(π+ → μ+ν + π+→μ+νγ) resulted in Rexpe/μ=[1.2344±0.0023(stat)±0.0019(syst)] x 10-4. This is in agreement with the standard model prediction and improves the test of electron-muon universality to the level of 0.1%.
An, Heesun; Choi, Heechol; Lee, Yoon Sup; Baeck, Kyoung Koo
2015-05-18
The photodissociation dynamics of thiophenol (PhSH) excited to the 1(1) ππ* state was investigated by time-dependent quantum wavepacket propagation within two-dimensional (2D) space consisting of the S-H bond and -SH torsion. We systematically studied the dependence of the branching ratio (Ã/X(~)) between the two electronic states of the phenylthiyl radical (PhS(.) ) on several factors of the 2D potential energy surfaces (PESs). The effect of a reduced initial barrier to the first ππ*/πσ* conical intersection (CI) was found to be marginal, whereas the effects of a reduced torsional barrier of -SH on the excited ππ* state and the mitigated slope of the πσ* PES between the first (ππ*/πσ*) and the second (πσ*/S0 ) CIs were noticeable. The effect of the slope on the branching ratio has never been previously noticed. It was shown that the branching ratio can be sufficiently above unity without pre-excitation of the torsion mode of -SH, which has been assumed so far. PMID:25756225
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nickolaisen, Scott L.; Sander, Stanley P.; Friedl, Randall R.
1996-01-01
The photolysis of chlorine nitrate was studied using broadband flash photolysis coupled with long-path ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Branching ratios for the Cl + NO3 and ClO + NO2 product channels were determined from time-dependent measurements of ClO and NO3 concentrations. Yields of the ClO and NO3 products displayed a dependence on the bath gas density and the spectral distribution of the photolysis pulse. Product yields decreased with increasing bath gas density regardless of the spectral distribution of the photolysis pulse; however, the decrease in product yield was much more pronounced when photolysis was limited to longer wavelengths. For photolysis in a quartz cell (lambda > 200 nm) the yield decreased by a factor of 2 over the pressure 10-100 Torr. In a Pyrex cell (lambda > 300 nm), the yield decreased by a factor of 50 over the same pressure range. When photolysis was limited to lambda > 350 nm, the yield decreased by a factor of 250. Branching ratios for the photolysis channels [ClONO2 + h.nu yields ClO + NO2 (1a) and ClONO2 + h.nu yields Cl + NO3 (lb)] were determined from the relative ClO and NO3 product yields at various pressures. Although the absolute product yield displayed a pressure dependence, the branching between the two channels was independent of pressure. The relative branching ratios (assuming negligible contributions from other channels) are 0.61 +/- 0.20 for channel 1a and 0.39 +/- 0.20 for channel lb for photolysis with lambda > 200 nm and 0.44 +/- 0.08 for channel 1a and 0.56 +/- 0.08 for channel 1b for photolysis with lambda > 300 nm. The implications of these results for the chemistry of the lower stratosphere are discussed.
Branching ratio measurements and isospin violation in B-meson decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Martin
2016-02-01
The approximate symmetry of the strong interactions under isospin transformations is among the most precise tools available to control hadronic matrix elements. It is crucial in extracting fundamental parameters, but also provides avenues for the search of phenomena beyond the Standard Model. The precision of the resulting predictions requires special care when determining the quantities they are to be tested with. Specifically, in the extraction of branching ratios often isospin symmetry is assumed at one point or another implicitly, implying a significant bias for precision analyses. We extract a bias-free value for the production asymmetry between charged and neutral B meson pairs at B factories and discuss its consequences for the determination of branching fractions generally, and isospin-violating observables like the rate asymmetries in B → J / ψK or B →K* γ decays specifically.
Measurement of the Lambda 0(b) -> Lambda +(c) pi- branching ratio
Le, Yi; /Johns Hopkins U.
2003-01-01
The authors present a measurement of the {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} branching ratio in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using 65 pb{sup -1} data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). The measurement starts from reconstructing two decay modes: {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, where {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p K{sup -} {pi}{sup +}; and {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, where D{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +}. The authors obtained 96 {+-} 13 {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} and 321 {+-} 22 {bar B}{sup 0} candidates from the CDF Run II Two-Track Hadronic Trigger data sample. The relative branching ratio of the two decays is then measured based on the equation: f{sub {Lambda}{sub b}} BR({Lambda}{sub b} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {pi}{sup -})/f{sub d} BR({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +} {pi}{sup -}) = BR(D{sup +} {yields} K{pi}{pi}) N{sub {Lambda}{sub b}} {epsilon}{sub B{sup 0}}/BR({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{pi}) N{sub {bar B}{sup 0}} {epsilon}{sub {Lambda}{sub b}}. The measurement gives f{sub {Lambda}{sub b}} BR({Lambda}{sub b} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/f{sub d} BR({bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = 0.66 {+-} 0.11(stat) {+-} 0.09(syst) {+-} 0.18(BR). The {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} branching ratio is then extracted, giving BR({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = (6.6 {+-} 1.2(stat.) {+-} 0.9(syst.) {+-} 2.3(BR+FR)) x 10{sup -3}. The {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} sample they reconstructed in this analysis is the largest fully reconstructed {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} sample in existence. The result they report here on the {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} branching ratio is the world's first such measurement.
Flavor changing kaon decays from hypercp: Measurements of the K+ ---> pi+- mu+ mu- branching ratios
E. Craig Dukes et al.
2004-01-12
The Fermilab HyperCP collaboration is making precision studies of charged hyperon and kaon decays, as well as searches for rare and forbidden hyperon and kaon decays. We report here on measurements of the branching ratios of the flavor-changing neutral-current decays: K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}} {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -}, and compare our results to theoretical predictions. This is the first observation of the K{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup -} {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} decay.
High-precision calculation of the branching ratio of the 40K decay constant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jourdan, F.
2008-12-01
40K is of great importance in Earth science, particularly for K/Ar, 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ca geochronology. The decay scheme of the 40K includes two different modes of decay, beta and electron capture followed by gamma-ray emission, which yield two different products, 40Ca* and 40Ar*. The relative probability that 40K decay following one of the two schemes is known as the branching ratio. An original method of calculation to obtain the value of the 40K branching ratio (λβ- /λtot) based on the K/Ar technique, is proposed. λβ- /λtot is obtained by combining the 40Ar*/40K value of Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) secondary standard derived from four primary 40Ar/39Ar standards, with the current best estimates of the age of FCs and the value of the 40K total decay constant. The latest estimation of the 40K total decay constant and the age of FCs by Mundil et al. (2006), through comparison with U/Pb ages, yields a λβ- /λtot value of 89.59 ± 0.03% (1σ; relative error = ± 0.035%). Indirect measurement of the age of FCs by orbital tuning (Kuiper et al., 2008) combined with the value of 40K total decay constant measured by liquid scintillation counting by Kossert and Gunther (2004) yields a statistically indistinguishable value for the branching ratio of 89.61 ± 0.03%, with an average between the two values of 89.60 ± 0.04%. The method proposed here allows can easily be applied to further constrain the value of the 40K branching ratio as future refinements of the 40K decay constant and FCs age are produced, although it is expected that the adopted value will be close to λβ- /λtot = 89.60 ± 0.04%. Kossert and Gunther, 2004. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 60, 459-464. Kuiper et al., 2008. Science 320, 500-504. Mundil et al. 2006, Eos Trans. AGU, 87(52)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mumma, M. J.
1972-01-01
A state-of-the-art review is given of the molecular branching ratio method for intensity calibration in the vacuum ultraviolet. Ways are described for determining both relative and quantitative responses in the wavelength range 1000 A to 3000 A. The molecular band systems which are discussed are the following: H2(B 1 Sigma u +)-(X 1 Sigma g +), H2(C 1 Pi u)-(X 1 Sigma g +), N2(A 1 Pi g)-(X 1 Sigma g +), CO(A 1 Pi)-(X 1 Sigma +), NO(A 2 Sigma +)-(X 2 Pi r), and NO(+) (A 1 Pi)-(X 1 Sigma +).
Improved Measurement of the π→eν Branching Ratio.
Aguilar-Arevalo, A; Aoki, M; Blecher, M; Britton, D I; Bryman, D A; Vom Bruch, D; Chen, S; Comfort, J; Ding, M; Doria, L; Cuen-Rochin, S; Gumplinger, P; Hussein, A; Igarashi, Y; Ito, S; Kettell, S H; Kurchaninov, L; Littenberg, L S; Malbrunot, C; Mischke, R E; Numao, T; Protopopescu, D; Sher, A; Sullivan, T; Vavilov, D; Yamada, K
2015-08-14
A new measurement of the branching ratio R_{e/μ}=Γ(π^{+}→e^{+}ν+π^{+}→e^{+}νγ)/Γ(π^{+}→μ^{+}ν+π^{+}→μ^{+}νγ) resulted in R_{e/μ}^{exp}=[1.2344±0.0023(stat)±0.0019(syst)]×10^{-4}. This is in agreement with the standard model prediction and improves the test of electron-muon universality to the level of 0.1%. PMID:26317713
Evaluation of partial widths and branching ratios from resonance wave functions
Goldzak, Tamar; Gilary, Ido; Moiseyev, Nimrod
2010-11-15
A quantum system in a given resonance state has different open channels for decay. Partial widths are the decay rates of the resonance (metastable) state into the different open channels. Here we present a rigorous derivation of the partial widths from the solution of a time-dependent Schroedinger equation with outgoing boundary conditions. We show that the sum of the partial widths obtained from the resonance wave function is equal to the total width. The difference with respect to previous studies on partial widths and branching ratios is discussed.
Branching ratios from B{sub s} and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}
Matthew S. Martin
2004-05-28
CDF Run II relative branching ratio measurements for 65 pb{sup -1} of data in the channels B{sub s} {yields} D{sub s}{sup {-+}}{pi}{sup {-+}}, {Lambda} {sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} and B {yields} h{sup +}h{sup -} are presented. Further, an observation of B{sub s} {yields} K{sup {+-}} K{sup {-+}} and a measurement of A{sub CP} are presented.
Harsokoesoemo, D.; Santoso, G.
1994-12-31
Numerical stress calculation results of stress distribution around 90{degree} branch pipe connection due to internal pressure for several main and branch pipe diameter ratios using finite element program MECHANICA (RASNA) are presented in this paper. The calculation results are presented in two types of diagrams, one is in the form of stress versus its location on the main and branch pipe curves for 4 different diameter ratios and the other as stress concentration factor versus diameter ratios curves for the case d/t = D/T and t = T and for three pipe schedule number 40, 80 and 160.
Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Schwanke, U; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Barillari, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Tinslay, J; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Aspinwall, M L; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Pulliam, T; Brau, J; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Tanaka, H A; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H
2004-02-20
We report a measurement of the inclusive charmless semileptonic branching fraction of B mesons in a sample of 89 x 10(6) (-)BB events recorded with the BABAR detector at the Upsilon(4S) resonance. Events are selected by fully reconstructing the decay of one B meson and identifying a charged lepton from the decay of the other B meson. The number of signal events is extracted from the mass distribution of the hadronic system accompanying the lepton and is used to determine the ratio of branching fractions B((-)B-->X(u)lnu;)/B((-)B-->Xlnu;)=[2.06+/-0.25(stat)+/-0.23(syst)+/-0.36(theo)]x10(-2). Using the measured branching fraction for inclusive semileptonic B decays, we find B((-)B-->X(u)lnu;)=[2.24+/-0.27(stat)+/-0.26(syst)+/-0.39(theo)]x10(-3) and derive the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element |V(ub)|=[4.62+/-0.28(stat)+/-0.27(syst)+/-0.48(theo)]x10(-3). PMID:14995840
Branching ratios and direct CP asymmetries in D→PV decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Qin; Li, Hsiang-nan; Lü, Cai-Dian; Yu, Fu-Sheng
2014-03-01
We study the two-body hadronic D→PV decays, where P (V) denotes a pseudoscalar (vector) meson, in the factorization-assisted topological-amplitude approach proposed in our previous work. This approach is based on the factorization of short-distance and long-distance dynamics into Wilson coefficients and hadronic matrix elements of four-fermion operators, respectively, with the latter being parametrized in terms of several nonperturbative quantities. We further take into account the ρ-ω mixing effect, which improves the global fit to the branching ratios involving the ρ0 and ω mesons. Combining short-distance dynamics associated with penguin operators and the hadronic parameters determined from the global fit to branching ratios, we predict direct CP asymmetries. In particular, the direct CP asymmetries in the D0→K0K¯*0, K¯0K*0, D+→π+ρ0, and Ds+→K+ω, K+ϕ decays are found to be of O(10-3), which can be observed at the LHCb and future Belle II experiment. We also predict the CP asymmetry observables of some neutral D meson decays.
Branching ratios, radiative lifetimes, and transition dipole moments for tantalum nitride, TaN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouchard, Jacob L.; Steimle, Timothy; Kokkin, Damian L.; Sharfi, David J.; Mawhorter, Richard J.
2016-07-01
The dispersed laser induced fluorescence resulting from excitation in the regions of the [17.58]0+ - X1Σ+ (0, 0), [18.42]0+ - X1Σ+ (0, 0), [19.22]1 - X1Σ+ (0, 0), and [19.40]1 - X1Σ+ (0, 0) bands of tantalum nitride, 181TaN, have been recorded and analyzed. The branching ratios and radiative lifetimes for the [17.58]0+(v = 0), [18.42]0+(v = 0), [19.22]1+(v = 0), and [19.40]1(v = 0) states have been determined. From these values the transition dipole moments for visible bands are determined. Vibrational spacing in the X1Σ+ state and the spin-orbit splitting of the a3Δ state are measured and compared with predicted values. The dispersed fluorescence spectra and determined branching ratios reveal that the most effective mechanism for populating the a3Δ1 (J = 1, v = 0) state, which will be used in future P- and T-violation measurements, is via excitation of the [18.42]0+ - X1Σ+ (0, 0) band followed by subsequent spontaneous or stimulated emission.
Branching ratios of autoionization from Eu 476p1/26d [J] autoionizing states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Jun-Gang; Shen, Li; Liang, Hong-Rui; Dai, Chang-Jian
2015-08-01
The autoionization branching ratios from Eu 4f76p1/26d [J] autoionizing states to its 4f76s+ (9So), 4f76s+ (7So), and 4f75d+ (9Do) final ionic states are investigated with the combination of the three-step laser excitation and the velocity-map imaging technique. These different autoionizing states are excited via 4f76s6d 8DJ [J = 5/2, 7/2, and 9/2] intermediate states, respectively. The experimental photoelectron images are obtained, from which energy distributions of ejected electrons are achieved with the mathematical transformation. Furthermore, the energy dependence of the branching ratio is investigated within the autoionization resonance, by which population inversion is observed as an important characteristic. The J-dependence is also studied systematically. The validity of the well-known isolated core excitation technique used for obtaining the autoionization spectrum is also studied. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11174218).
On Branching Ratios of Bs Decays and the Search for New Physics in Bs0→μ+μ-
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleischer, Robert
2013-08-01
The LHCb experiment has recently established a sizable width difference between the mass eigenstates of the Bs-meson system. This phenomenon leads to a subtle difference at the 10% level between the experimental branching ratios of Bs decays extracted from time-integrated, untagged data samples and their theoretical counterparts. Measuring the corresponding effective Bs-decay lifetimes, both branching ratio concepts can be converted into each other. The rare decay Bs0→μ+μ- and the search for New Physics through this channel is also affected by this effect, which enhances the Standard-Model reference value of the branching ratio by O(10%), while the effective lifetime offers a new observable to search for physics beyond the Standard Model that is complementary to the branching ratio.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rio, C.; Loison, J. C.; Caralp, F.; Flaud, P. M.; Villenave, E.
2009-04-01
Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere is described as a mass transfer of volatile organic compound oxidation products with low vapour pressures in particular phases. Among the different aerosol components, the SOA represent an important fraction, but, the fundamental processes governing their physics and chemistry in the atmosphere are poorly understood. So it is important to characterize and understand the mechanisms of their formation. It is well-known that atmospheric oxidation of monoterpenes is an important process in tropospheric SOA formation. Consequently, the identification and quantification of reaction products from the oxidation of monoterpenes in the gas phase have been receiving great attention over the past years. However, the atmospheric degradation leads to the formation of a plethora of reaction products and proceeds through a very complex mechanism that is still not fully characterised. In our study, we have focused on SOA formation from OH + monoterpene reactions and more precisely on the primary oxidation steps of Î³-terpinene and d-limonene by OH radicals. Indeed, the primary reaction of monoterpenes with hydroxyl radicals can in principle occur by two reaction pathways: OH-addition and H-abstraction. In this work, we have determined branching ratios of these reactions. Although there seems to be a consensus in the literature that OH-monoterpene reactions proceed almost exclusively by addition, several measurements have shown that in some case H-abstraction can represent up to 30% of the total reaction rate constant. Therefore it is necessary to determine this branching ratio in order to know, in particular, the main peroxy radicals formed and propose a mechanism for the gas phase oxidation of terpene by hydroxyl radicals. (Î³-terpinene + OH) and (d-limonene + OH) reactions have been studied i) at atmospheric pressure, using laser photolysis coupled with UV absorption radical detection, and ii) at low pressure, using
First observation of the decay Bs0-->Ds-Ds+ and measurement of its branching ratio.
Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Bednar, P; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Forrester, S; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giakoumopolou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Koay, S A; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kraus, J; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Luci, C; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyria, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wagner, W; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S
2008-01-18
We report the observation of the exclusive decay Bs0-->Ds-Ds+ at the 7.5 standard deviation level using 355 pb(-1) of data collected by the CDF II detector in pp collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron. We measure the relative branching ratio B(Bs0-->Ds-Ds+)/B(B0-->D-Ds+)=1.44(-0.44)(+0.48). Using the world average value for B(B0-->D-Ds+), we find B(Bs0-->Ds-Ds+)=(9.4(-4.2)(+4.4))x10(-3). This provides a lower bound DeltaGammasCP/Gammas>or=2B(Bs0-->Ds-Ds+)>1.2x10(-2) at 95% C.L. PMID:18232856
Carrier-envelope phase control over the branching ratios in strong-field dissociation of HD+
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rigsbee, Brandon; Wang, Yujun; Esry, Brett
2014-05-01
We have theoretically explored the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) effect on the dissociation of HD+ with short, intense laser pulses. The branching ratios (BR) of the dissociating fragments are calculated for several laser wavelengths ranging from 800 nm to 4000 nm with two-cycle pulse durations. The CEP dependence of the BR is shown to be stronger with increasing wavelength. In addition, we explore the feasibility of CEP control over the BR with relatively long pulses by exploiting the dynamics of the nonadiabatic coupling which has a strong dependence on the internuclear distance and energy of the dissociating wave packet. J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA.
Plessis, Sylvain; Carrasco, Nathalie; Pernot, Pascal
2010-10-07
Experimental data about branching ratios for the products of dissociative recombination of polyatomic ions are presently the unique information source available to modelers of natural or laboratory chemical plasmas. Yet, because of limitations in the measurement techniques, data for many ions are incomplete. In particular, the repartition of hydrogen atoms among the fragments of hydrocarbons ions is often not available. A consequence is that proper implementation of dissociative recombination processes in chemical models is difficult, and many models ignore invaluable data. We propose a novel probabilistic approach based on Dirichlet-type distributions, enabling modelers to fully account for the available information. As an application, we consider the production rate of radicals through dissociative recombination in an ionospheric chemistry model of Titan, the largest moon of Saturn. We show how the complete scheme of dissociative recombination products derived with our method dramatically affects these rates in comparison with the simplistic H-loss mechanism implemented by default in all recent models.
Measurement of the Branching Ratio Lambda_c+ -> p pi+ pi-
Lopez-Hinojosa, Guillermo; /San Luis Potosi U.
2008-03-01
The confirmation of the Cabibbo-suppressed charm baryon decay mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} is reported. All data analyzed are from SELEX, a fixed target experiment at Fermilab that took data during 1996 and 1997, mainly with a 600 GeV/c {Sigma}{sup -} beam. The branching ratio of the Cabibbo-suppressed decay mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} relative to the Cabibbo-favored mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +} is measured to be: {Gamma}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Gamma}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.103 {+-} 0.022.
Higgs branching ratios in constrained minimal and next-to-minimal supersymmetry scenarios surveyed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beskidt, C.; de Boer, W.; Kazakov, D. I.; Wayand, S.
2016-08-01
In the CMSSM the heaviest scalar and pseudo-scalar Higgs bosons decay largely into b-quarks and tau-leptons because of the large tan β values favored by the relic density. In the NMSSM the number of possible decay modes is much richer. In addition to the CMSSM-like scenarios, the decay of the heavy Higgs bosons is preferentially into top quark pairs (if kinematically allowed), lighter Higgs bosons or neutralinos, leading to invisible decays. We provide a scan over the NMSSM parameter space to project the 6D parameter space of the Higgs sector on the 3D space of the Higgs masses to determine the range of branching ratios as function of the Higgs boson mass for all Higgs bosons. Specific LHC benchmark points are proposed, which represent the salient NMSSM features.
Strong-field control over the product branching ratios in molecular dissociation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rigsbee, Brandon; Zohrabi, Mohammad; Ablikim, Utuq; Guevara, Nicolais; Carnes, Kevin; Ben-Itzhak, Itzik; Esry, Brett
2012-06-01
We present a theoretical and experimental study of strong-field control over the fragmentation channel in molecular dissociation by intense, single-color laser fields with emphasis on the effect of chirped pulses. In particular, the branching ratio between H+D^+ and H^++D from an HD^+ target is examined as a function of kinetic energy release for 790 nm pulses with intensities on the order of 10^14 W/cm^2 and pulse lengths ranging from 25 to 65 fs. Theoretical calculations based on numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation are compared to measurements using a coincidence 3-D momentum imaging technique. Both demonstrate that control is indeed possible and depends, as expected, on details of the laser pulse such as its chirp.
Measurement of the K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{nu} branching ratio
Adler, S.; Atiya, M.; Bhuyan, B.; Chiang, I-H.; Diwan, M. V.; Frank, J. S.; Haggerty, J.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S. H.; Li, K. K.; Littenberg, L. S.; Redlinger, G.; Strand, R. C.; Viren, B.; Anisimovsky, V. V.; Ivashkin, A. P.; Khabibullin, M. M.; Khotjantsev, A. N.; Kudenko, Yu. G.; Mineev, O. V.
2008-03-01
Experiment E949 at Brookhaven National Laboratory studied the rare decay K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{nu} and other processes with an exposure of 1.77x10{sup 12} K{sup +}'s. The data were analyzed using a blind analysis technique yielding one candidate event with an estimated background of 0.30{+-}0.03 events. Combining this result with the observation of two candidate events by the predecessor experiment E787 gave the branching ratio B(K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{nu})=(1.47{sub -0.89}{sup +1.30})x10{sup -10}, consistent with the standard model prediction of (0.74{+-}0.20)x10{sup -10}. This is a more detailed report of results previously published [V. V. Anisimovsky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 031801 (2004)].
Direct CP Violation, Branching Ratios and Form Factors B --> pi, B --> K in B decays
O. Leitner; X.-H. Guo; A.W. Thomas
2004-11-01
The B {yields} {pi} and B {yields} K transitions involved in hadronic B decays are investigated in a phenomenological way through the framework of QCD factorization. By comparing our results with experimental branching ratios from the BELLE, BABAR and CLEO collaborations for all the B decays including either a pion or a kaon, we propose boundaries for the transition form factors B {yields} {pi} and B {yields} K depending on the CKM matrix element parameters {rho} and {eta}. From this analysis, the form factors required to reproduce the experimental data for branching ratios are F{sup B {yields} {pi}} = 0.31 {+-} 0.12 and F{sup B {yields} K} = 0.37 {+-} 0.13. We calculate the direct CP violating asymmetry parameter, a{sub CP}, for B {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi} and B {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} K decays, in the case where {rho} - {omega} mixing effects are taken into account. Based on these results, we find that the direct CP asymmetry for B{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}, {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, B{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}K{sup -}, and {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} {bar K}{sup 0}, reaches its maximum when the invariant mass {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} is in the vicinity of the {omega} meson mass. The inclusion of {rho} - {omega} mixing provides an opportunity to erase, without ambiguity, the phase uncertainty mod{pi} in the determination of th CKM angles {alpha} in case of b {yields} u and {gamma} in case of b {yields} s.
Measuring the branching ratio of the rare decay pi0 --> e+ e-
Niclasen, Rune
2006-02-01
A precise branching ratio measurement of the rare decay {pi}{sup 0} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} has been made. The measurement was made with the rare kaon decay experiment KTeV at Fermilab where the source of {pi}{sup 0}s was K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} decaying in flight. A total of 794 fully reconstructed K{sub L} {yields} 3{pi}{sup 0} events consistent with two of the intermediate {pi}{sup 0}s decaying into {gamma}{gamma} and one into e{sup +}e{sup -} were collected. An estimated 53.2 {+-} 11.0 of these events were expected to be background. Normalizing to the {pi}{sup 0} Dalitz decay they found Br({pi}{sup 0} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}, (m{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}}/m{sub {pi}{sup 0}}){sup 2} > 0.95) = (6.44 {+-} 0.25(stat) {+-} 0.22(syst)) x 10{sup -8} where internal radiation, {pi}{sup 0} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}({gamma}), was limited by the requirement (m{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}}/m{sub {pi}{sup 0}}){sup 2} > 0.95 which separated it from the tree level Dalitz decay, {pi}{sup 0} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}P{gamma}.
A shock tube study of the branching ratios of propene + OH reaction.
Badra, Jihad; Khaled, Fethi; Giri, Binod Raj; Farooq, Aamir
2015-01-28
Absolute rate coefficients for the reaction of the OH radical with propene (C3H6) and five deuterated isotopes, propene-1-D1 (CDHCHCH3), propene-1,1-D2 (CD2CHCH3), propene-1,1,2-D3 (CD2CDCH3), propene-3,3,3-D3 (CH2CHCD3), and propene-D6 (C3D6), were measured behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 818-1460 K and pressures near 1 atm. The reaction progress was followed by monitoring the OH radical near 306.7 nm using UV laser absorption. Kinetic isotope effects in the measured rate coefficients are discussed and rationalized for the site-specific H-abstraction by the OH radical. The first experimental measurements for the branching ratio of the title reaction are reported and compared with transition state theory calculations. The allylic H-atom abstraction of propene by OH radicals was found to be the most dominant reaction pathway followed by propen-1-yl and propen-2-yl channels over the entire temperature range of this study. The derived Arrhenius expressions for various site-specific rate coefficients over 818-1442 K are (the subscript in the rate coefficient identifies the position of H or D atom according to the IUPAC nomenclature of alkenes): PMID:25493300
Ormond, Thomas K; Scheer, Adam M; Nimlos, Mark R; Robichaud, David J; Troy, Tyler P; Ahmed, Musahid; Daily, John W; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Stanton, John F; Ellison, G Barney
2015-07-16
The thermal decomposition of cyclopentadienone (C5H4═O) has been studied in a flash pyrolysis continuous flow microreactor. Passing dilute samples of o-phenylene sulfite (C6H4O2SO) in He through the microreactor at elevated temperatures yields a relatively clean source of C5H4═O. The pyrolysis of C5H4═O was investigated over the temperature range 1000-2000 K. Below 1600 K, we have identified two decomposition channels: (1) C5H4═O (+ M) → CO + HC≡C-CH═CH2 and (2) C5H4═O (+ M) → CO + HC≡CH + HC≡CH. There is no evidence of radical or H atom chain reactions. To establish the thermochemistry for the pyrolysis of cyclopentadienone, ab initio electronic structure calculations (AE-CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pCVQZ//AE-CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ and anharmonic FC-CCSD(T)/ANO1 ZPEs) were used to find ΔfH0(C5H4═O) to be 16 ± 1 kcal mol(-1) and ΔfH0(CH2═CH-C≡CH) to be 71 ± 1 kcal mol(-1). The calculations predict the reaction enthalpies ΔrxnH0(1) to be 28 ± 1 kcal mol(-1) (ΔrxnH298(1) is 30 ± 1 kcal mol(-1)) and ΔrxnH0(2) to be 66 ± 1 kcal mol(-1) (ΔrxnH298(2) is 69 ± 1 kcal mol(-1)). Following pyrolysis of C5H4═O, photoionization mass spectrometry was used to measure the relative concentrations of HCC-CHCH2 and HCCH. Reaction 1 dominates at low pyrolysis temperatures (1000-1400 K). At temperatures above 1400 K, reaction 2 becomes the dominant channel. We have used the product branching ratios over the temperature range 1000-1600 K to extract the ratios of unimolecular rate coefficients for reactions 1 and 2 . If Arrhenius expressions are used, the difference of activation energies for reactions 1 and 2 , E2 - E1, is found to be 16 ± 1 kcal mol(-1) and the ratio of the pre-exponential factors, A2/A1, is 7.0 ± 0.3. PMID:25608038
Measurement of the Ratio of Branching Fractions of the Υ(4S) to Charged and Neutral B Mesons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Godang, Romulus; Kinoshita, Kay
2002-04-01
Using 2.73 fb-1 of CLEO II data taken on the Υ(4S) and 1.43 fb-1 taken at a center of mass energy 60 MeV below the Υ(4S), we measure the ratio of production fractions times the ratio of semileptonic branching fractions, f_+-b_+\\over f_00b0 through the decays barB arrow D^*l^- barν_l, reconstructed using a partial reconstruction method. Assuming that b_+\\over b0 is equal to the lifetime ratio τ_+\\overτ0 and using the world average value of τ_+\\overτ_0, the ratio of branching fractions of the Υ(4S) to charged and neutral B mesons will be presented.
A measurement of the branching ratio of K+-- ->pi+--mu+mu- decays in the Hyper CP experiment
Zyla, Piotr; other HyperCP Collaborators
2001-11-26
Large samples of hyperon and kaon decays were collected with the Hyper CP spectrometer during two fixed-target runs at Fermilab. Based on an analysis of 110 million K pm decays from the 1997 data sample we present a branching ratio for K pm right arrow pi pm mu+ mu-. This is the first observation of K- right arrow pi- mu+ mu- decay.
Branching ratios and polarization in B{yields}VV,VA,AA decays
Cheng, H.-Y.; Yang, K.-C.
2008-11-01
We present a detailed study of charmless two-body B decays into final states involving two vector mesons (VV) or two axial-vector mesons (AA) or one vector and one axial-vector meson (VA), within the framework of QCD factorization, where A is either a {sup 3}P{sub 1} or {sup 1}P{sub 1} axial-vector meson. The main results are as follows. (i) In the presence of next-to-leading-order nonfactorizable corrections, effective Wilson coefficients a{sub i}{sup h} are helicity-dependent. For some penguin-dominated modes, the constructive (destructive) interference in the negative-helicity (longitudinal-helicity) amplitude of the B{yields}VV decay will render the former comparable to the latter and push up the transverse polarization. (ii) In QCD factorization, the transverse polarization fraction can be large for penguin-dominated charmless VV modes by allowing for sizable penguin-annihilation contributions. (iii) Using the measured K*{sup 0}{rho}{sup -} channel as an input, we predict the branching ratios and polarization fractions for other B{yields}K*{rho} decays. (iv) The smallness of the axial-vector decay constant of the {sup 1}P{sub 1} axial-vector meson can be tested by measuring various b{sub 1}{rho} modes to see if {gamma}(B{sup 0}{yields}b{sub 1}{sup -}{rho}{sup +})<<{gamma}(B{sup 0}{yields}b{sub 1}{sup +}{rho}{sup -}) and {gamma}(B{sup -}{yields}b{sub 1}{sup -}{rho}{sup 0})<<{gamma}(B{sup -}{yields}b{sub 1}{sup 0}{rho}{sup -}). (v) For the penguin-dominated modes a{sub 1}K* and b{sub 1}K*, it is found that the former are dominated by transverse polarization amplitudes, whereas the latter are governed by longitudinal polarization states. (vi) The rates of B{yields}K{sub 1}(1270)K* and K{sub 1}(1400)K* are generally very small. The decay modes K{sub 1}{sup -}K*{sup +} and K{sub 1}{sup +}K*{sup -} are of particular interest as they are the only AV modes which receive contributions solely from weak annihilation. (vii) For tree-dominated B{yields}AA decays, the a
Measurement of $B_s^0 \\to D_s^{(*)+} D_s^{(*)-}$ Branching Ratios
Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; /Dubna, JINR /Texas A-M
2012-04-01
The decays B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+}D{sub s}{sup (*)-}s are reconstructed in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 6.8 fb{sup -1} collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron p{bar p} collider. All decay modes are observed with a significance of more than 10 {sigma}, and we measure the B{sub s}{sup 0} production rate times B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+} D{sub s}{sup (*)-} branching ratios relative to the normalization mode B{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +}d{sup -} to be 0.183 {+-} 0.021 {+-} 0.017 for B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +}D{sub s}{sup -}, 0.424 {+-} 0.046 {+-} 0.035 for B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup {+-}} D{sub s}{sup {-+}}, 0.654 {+-} 0.072 {+-} 0.065 for B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup *+} D{sub s}{sup *-}, and 1.261 {+-} 0.095 {+-} 0.112 for the inclusive decay B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+}D{sub s}{sup (*)-}, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic. These results are the most precise single measurements to date and provide important constraints for indirect searches for non-standard model physics in B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing.
[Avalanche accidents and treatment of avalanche victims].
Skaiaa, Sven Christjar; Thomassen, Øyvind
2016-03-15
Avalanches may be provoked spontaneously or as a result of human activity, and they trigger the need for considerable rescue resources. Avalanche search and rescue operations are complex and characterised by physical and mental stress. The guidelines for resuscitation of avalanche victims may be perceived as complex and abstruse, which can lead to suboptimal treatment and an increased strain on rescue teams. The purpose of this article is to summarise the principles for medical treatment of avalanche victims. PMID:26983147
Precise Branching Ratios to Unbound 12C States from 12N and 12B (beta)-Decays
Hyldegaard, S; Forssen, C; Alcorta, M; Barker, F C; Bastin, B; Borge, M G; Boutami, R; Brandenburg, S; Buscher, J; Dendooven, P; Diget, C A; Van Duppen, P; Eronen, T; Fox, S; Fulton, B R; Fynbo, H U; Huikari, J; Huyse, M; Jeppesen, H B; Jokinen, A; Jonson, B; Jungmann, K; Kankainen, A; Kirsebom, O; Madurga, M; Moore, I; Navratil, P; Nilsson, T; Nyman, G; Onderwater, G G; Penttila, H; Perajarvi, K; Raabe, R; Riisager, K; Rinta-Antila, S; Rogachevskiy, A; Saastamoinen, A; Sohani, M; Tengblad, O; Traykov, E; Vary, J P; Wang, Y; Wilhelmsen, K; Wilschut, H W; Aysto, J
2008-08-20
Two complementary experimental techniques have been used to extract precise branching ratios to unbound states in {sup 12}C from {sup 12}N and {sup 12}B {beta}-decays. In the first the three {alpha}-particles emitted after {beta}-decay are measured in coincidence in separate detectors, while in the second method {sup 12}N and {sup 12}B are implanted in a detector and the summed energy of the three {alpha}-particles is measured directly. For the narrow states at 7.654 MeV (0{sup +}) and 12.71 MeV (1{sup +}) the resulting branching ratios are both smaller than previous measurements by a factor of {approx_equal} 2. The experimental results are compared to no-core shell model calculations with realistic interactions from chiral perturbation theory, and inclusion of three-nucleon forces is found to give improved agreement.
Matsumori, M.; Sanda, A.I.; Keum, Y.-Y.
2005-07-01
The main contribution to the radiative B{yields}K*{gamma} mode is from penguin operators which are quantum corrections. Thus, this mode may be useful in the search for physics beyond the standard model. In this paper, we compute the branching ratio, direct CP asymmetry, and isospin breaking effects within the standard model in the framework of perturbative QCD, and discuss how new physics might show up in this decay.
First measurement of the b^0_s semileptonic branching ratio to an orbitally excited d _s** state
Rieger, Jason; /Indiana U.
2007-12-01
In a data sample of approximately 1.3 fb{sup -1} collected with the D0 detector between 2002 and 2006, the orbitally excited charm state D{sub s1}{sup {+-}}(2536)has been observed with a measured mass of 2535.7 {+-} 0.6(stat) {+-} 0.5(syst) MeV/c{sup 2} via the decay mode B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536){mu}{sup +}{nu}X followed by D{sub s1}{sup {+-}}(2536) {yields} D*{sup {+-}}K{sub S}{sup 0}. By normalizing to the known branching ratio Br({bar b} {yields} D*{sup -} {mu}{sup +}{nu}X) and to the number of reconstructed D* mesons with an associated identified muon, a first-ever measurement is made of the product branching ratio ({bar b} {yields} D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536){mu}{sup +}{nu}X) {center_dot} Br(D{sub s1}{sup -} {yields} D*{sup -}K{sub S}{sup 0}). Assuming that D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536) production in semileptonic decay is entirely from B{sub s}{sup 0}, an extraction of the semileptonic branching ratio Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536){mu}{sup +}{nu}X) is made. Comparisons are made with theoretical expectations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Omidvar, K.
1980-01-01
Branching ratios in hydrogen-like atoms due to electric-dipole transitions are tabulated for the initial principal and angular momentum quantum number n, lambda, and final principal and angular momentum quantum numbers n, lambda. In table 1, transition probabilities are given for transitions n, lambda, yields n, where sums have been made with respect to lambda. In this table, 2 or = n' or = 10, o or = lambda' or = n'-1, and 1 or = n or = n'-1. In addition, averages with respect to lambda' and sums with respect to n, and lifetimes are given. In table 2, branching ratios are given for transitions n' lambda' yields ni, where sums have been made with respect to lambda. In these tables, 2 or = n' or = 10, 0 or = lambda', n'-1, and 1 or = n or = n'-1. Averages with respect to lambda' are also given. In table 3, branching ratios are given for transitions n' lambda' yields in lambda, where 1 or = n or = 5, 0 or = lambda or = n-1, n n' or = 15, and 0 or = lambda' or = n(s), where n(s), is the smaller of the two numbers n'-1 and 6. Averages with respect to lambda' are given.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, D.; Cunningham, A. J.; Christensen, A. B.
1981-01-01
Branching ratios for four sets of extreme ultraviolet transitions terminating on the 2D0 and 2P0 metastable levels of ionized oxygen have been measured. The emissions were excited in both an open window hollow cathode and a capillary discharge lamp, and the branching ratios were derived from the observed intensity ratios of the multiplet pairs. The results are in good agreement with theoretical values and compare favorably, within experimental uncertainties, with line ratios obtained by EUV spectroscopy of the airglow.
Analysis of τ 1-prong exclusive branching ratios using neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López, J. M.; Matorras, F.; Ruiz, A.
1997-02-01
A FFNN has been used to identify six different 1-prong τ decays among the τ+τ- events collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP. The method operates with better efficiency-purity than the classical methods for the previously studied channels and allows the possibility of analysing a new one. It has been applied to 1993 and 1994 data to obtain the branching fractions of these channels. A first estimation of the systematic errors has been performed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rudolph, H.; Mckoy, V.; Dixit, S. N.; Huo, W. M.
1988-01-01
Rotational branching ratios resulting from the (1 + 1) resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy of NO via the 0-0 transition of the A-X band for the four possible branches that can be assigned as R(21.5) are explored using calculation performed in the frozen-core approximation at the Hartree-Fock level. The four different branches, of which three are distinctly different in the perturbative limit, have rather different branching ratios. The mixed R12 + Q22(21.5) branch, which is not intense and has the lowest transition energy, appears to give the best agreement with experimental branching ratio for parallel detection. The agreement is less satisfactory for perpendicular detection. Neither the effect of finite-acceptance angle of the photoelectron detector nor high intensities can explain the discrepancy.
Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Ballagh, H.C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J.P.; Bingham, H.H.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Brucker, E.B.; Burnstein, R.A.; Campbell, J.R.; Cence, R.J.; Chatterjee, T.K.; Clayton, E.F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; DeProspo, D.; Devanand,; De Wolf, E.A.; /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Brussels U., IIHE /CERN /Punjab U. /Fermilab /Hawaii U. /Imperial Coll., London /IIT, Chicago /Jammu U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Oxford U. /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /Stevens Tech. /Tufts U.
1997-01-01
Holography has been used successfully in combination with conventional optics for the first time in a large cryogenic bubble chamber, the 15-Foot Bubble Chamber at Fermilab, during a physics run. The innovative system combined the reference beam with the object beam, illuminating a conical volume of {approx} 1.4 m{sup 3}. Bubble tracks from neutrino interactions with a width of {approx} 120 {micro}m have been recorded with good contrast. The ratio of intensities of the object light to the reference light striking the film is called the Beam Branching Ratio. We obtained in our experiment an exceedingly small minimum-observable ratio of (0.54 {+-} 0.21) x 10{sup -7}. The technology has the potential for a wide range of applications.
Measuring Volatile/Solid Carbon Branching Ratios for Fischer-Tropsch-Type Reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nuth, J. A.; Johnson, N. M.; Carayon, A.
2014-09-01
Nebular CO can be converted to volatile organics or carbonaceous grain coatings on grain surfaces. The coating catalyzes further reaction and is easy to accrete into planetesimals. We measured the volatile/solid ratio vs. time, temperature & catalyst.
Measurement of W and Z boson production and extraction of the W width and branching ratios at CDF
Badgett, W.F.; CDF Collaboration
1994-08-01
We present results from W and Z boson production in proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV using the CDF detector. We measure the W and Z cross sections times lepton branching ratio, {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} W){center_dot}B(W {yields} l{nu}{sub l}) and {sigma}(p {bar p} {yields} Z){center_dot} B(Z {yields} k{sup +}l{sup {minus}}) l = e, {mu}. We also measure the ratio: R{sub l} = {sigma} {center_dot} B(W {yields} l{nu}{sub l})/{sigma} {center_dot} B(Z {yields} ll). From R{sub l}, we extract the W electron and muon branching ratios, BR(W {yields} l{nu}{sub l}, and the total W width, {Gamma}{sub W}. In addition, high transverse mass W {yields}e{nu}{sub e}, candidates provide an alternate, direct measurement of {Gamma}{sub W}.
Xiao Zhenjun; Zhang Zhiqing; Liu Xin; Guo Libo
2008-12-01
We calculate the branching ratios and CP-violating asymmetries of the four B{yields}K{eta}{sup (')} decays in the perturbative QCD (pQCD) factorization approach. Besides the full leading-order contributions, the partial next-to-leading-order (NLO) contributions from the QCD vertex corrections, the quark-loops, and the chromomagnetic penguins are also taken into account. The NLO pQCD predictions for the CP-averaged branching ratios are Br(B{sup +}{yields}K{sup +}{eta}){approx_equal}3.2x10{sup -6}, Br(B{sup {+-}}{yields}K{sup {+-}}{eta}{sup '}){approx_equal}51.0x10{sup -6}, Br(B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup 0}{eta}){approx_equal}2.1x10{sup -6}, and Br(B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup 0}{eta}{sup '}){approx_equal}50.3x10{sup -6}. The NLO contributions can provide a 70% enhancement to the LO Br(B{yields}K{eta}{sup '}), but a 30% reduction to the LO Br(B{yields}K{eta}), which play the key role in understanding the observed pattern of branching ratios. The NLO pQCD predictions for the CP-violating asymmetries, such as A{sub CP}{sup dir}(K{sub S}{sup 0}{eta}{sup '}){approx}2.3% and A{sub CP}{sup mix}(K{sub S}{sup 0}{eta}{sup '}){approx}63%, agree very well with currently available data. This means that the deviation {delta}S=A{sub CP}{sup mix}(K{sub S}{sup 0}{eta}{sup '})-sin2{beta} in pQCD approach is also very small.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Samson, J. A. R.; Gardner, J. L.
1973-01-01
The probability of radiation producing ions in specific electronic and vibrational levels was documented. For example, when a narrow band-pass of solar ionizing photons is incident on an atmospheric species it is now possible to describe, accurately, how the radiant energy is shared among the various electronic states of the ions produced. The molecules studied were N2, CO, and CO2. These molecules were photoionized by radiation between 53 and 75 nm. The effects of autoionization are discussed and continuum vibrational intensities are tabulated and compared with theoretical Franck-Condon factors where available. The branching ratios and partial cross sections for ionization into various electronic states are tabulated.
Precise measurement of Ke4 form factors and branching ratios at the NA48/2 experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venditti, S.; NA48/2 Collaboration
2011-10-01
The NA48/2 experiment at CERN [V. Fanti et al., Nucl. Instrum. Meth.A574 433-471 (2007).] collected ˜18ṡ10 charged kaon decays during the years 2003/4. Along with the primary goals of the collaboration, i.e., the measurement of the CP-violating asymmetry in the K→πππ and K→πππ channels, the collected data allowed to perform many other interesting analyses. In this paper the measurement of the K→eνππ and K→eνππ decays' branching ratios (BR) and form factors will be reviewed.
Microscopic Calculation of Astrophysical S-factor and Branching Ratio for the 3H(α, γ)7Li Reaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solovyev, Alexander S.; Igashov, Sergey Yu.; Tchuvill'sky, Yury M.
2015-01-01
In the present work the radiative capture reaction 3H(α, γ)7Li has been investigated. The astrophysical S-factor and the branching ratio of the reaction have been calculated within a microscopic approach - the algebraic version of the resonating-group model. The lowest compatible with the Pauli exclusion principle wave functions of the translation-invariant oscillator shell model are adopted as the internal wave functions of the colliding clusters. The modified Hasegawa-Nagata NN-potential was employed in the calculations. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]
Crater wall dust avalanches in southern Arabia Terra.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 10.3, Longitude 24.5 East (335.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Truppe, Stefan; Holland, Darren; Hendricks, Richard James; Hinds, Ed; Tarbutt, Michael
2014-06-01
We aim to slow a supersonic, molecular beam of 11BH using a Zeeman slower and subsequently cool the molecules to sub-millikelvin temperatures in a magneto-optical trap. Most molecules are not suitable for direct laser cooling because the presence of rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom means there is no closed-cycle transition which is necessary to scatter a large number of photons. As was pointed out by Di Rosa, there exists a class of molecules for which the excitation of vibrational modes is suppressed due to highly diagonal Franck-Condon factors. Furthermore, Stuhl et al. showed that angular momentum selection rules can be used to suppress leakage to undesired rotational states. Here we present a measurement of the radiative branching ratios of the A^1Π→ X^1Σ transition in 11BH - a necessary step towards subsequent laser cooling experiments. We also perform high-resolution mm-wave spectroscopy of the J'=1← J=0 rotational transition in the X^1Σ (v=0) state near 708 GHz. From this measurement we derive new, accurate hyper fine constants and compare these to theoretical descriptions. The measured branching ratios suggest that it is possible to laser cool 11BH molecules close to the recoil temperature of 4 μK using three laser frequencies only. M. D. Di Rosa, The European Physical Journal D, 31, 395, 2004 B. K. Stuhl et al., Physical Review Letters, 101, 243002, 2008
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minato, Futoshi
2016-06-01
Nuclear β-decay and delayed neutron (DN) emission is important for the r-process nucleosynthesis after the freeze-out, and stable and safe operation of nuclear reactors. Even though radioactive beam facilities have enabled us to measure β-decay and branching ratio of neutron-rich nuclei apart from the stability line in the nuclear chart, there are still a lot of nuclei which one cannot investigate experimentally. In particular, information on DN is rather scarce than that of T1/2. To predict T1/2 and the branching ratios of DN for next JENDL decay data, we have developed a method which comprises the quasiparticle-random-phase-approximation (QRPA) and the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model (HFSM). In this work, we calculate fission fragments with T1/2 ≤ 50 sec. We obtain the rms deviation from experimental half-life of 3:71. Although the result is still worse than GT2 which has been adopted in JENDL decay data, DN spectra are newly calculated. We also discuss further subjects to be done in future for improving the present approach and making next generation of JENDL decay data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schinke, R.; McBane, G. C.
2010-01-01
The lowest five A1' states of ozone, involved in the photodissociation with UV light, are analyzed on the basis of multireference configuration interaction electronic structure calculations with emphasis on the various avoided crossings in different regions of coordinate space. Global diabatic potential energy surfaces are constructed for the lowest four states termed X, A, B, and R. In addition, the off-diagonal potentials that couple the initially excited state B with states R and A are constructed to reflect results from additional electronic structure calculations, including the calculation of nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The A/X and A/R couplings are also considered, although in a less ambitious manner. The photodissociation dynamics are studied by means of trajectory surface hopping (TSH) calculations with the branching ratio between the singlet, O(D1)+O2(Δ1g), and triplet, O(P3)+O2(Σ3g-), channels being the main focus. The semiclassical branching ratio agrees well with quantum mechanical results except for wavelengths close to the threshold of the singlet channel. The calculated O(D1) quantum yield is approximately 0.90-0.95 across the main part of the Hartley band, in good agreement with experimental data. TSH calculations including all four states show that transitions B→A are relatively unimportant and subsequent transitions A→X/R to the triplet channel are negligible.
Branching ratios and CP violations of B→K0*(1430)K* decays in the perturbative QCD approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xin; Xiao, Zhen-Jun; Zou, Zhi-Tian
2013-11-01
We investigate B→K0*(1430)K* decays in the perturbative QCD (pQCD) factorization approach, where B denotes Bu, Bd, and Bs mesons, respectively, and the scalar K0*(1430) is considered as a meson based on the model of the conventional two-quark structure. With the light-cone distribution amplitude of K0*(1430) defined in two scenarios, namely Scenario 1 and Scenario 2, we make the first estimation for the branching ratios and CP-violating asymmetries for those concerned decay modes in the pQCD factorization approach. For all considered B→K0*(1430)K* decays in this paper, only one preliminary upper limit on the branching ratio of B0→K0*(1430)0K¯*0 measured at 90% C.L. by the Belle Collaboration is available now. It is therefore of great interest to examine the predicted physical quantities at two B factories, the Large Hadron Collider experiments, and the forthcoming Super-B facility, and then to test the reliability of the pQCD approach employed to study the considered decay modes involving a p-wave scalar meson as one of the final state mesons. Furthermore, these pQCD predictions combined with the future precision measurements are also helpful to explore the complicated QCD dynamics involved in the light scalars.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pesaresi, Damiano; Ravanat, Xavier; Thibert, Emmanuel
2010-05-01
The characterization of avalanches with seismic signals is an important task. For risk mitigation, estimating remotely avalanche activity by means of seismic signals is a good alternative to direct observations that are often limited by visual conditions and observer's availability. In seismology, the main challenge is to discriminate avalanche signals within the natural earth seismic activity and background noise. Some anthropogenic low frequency (infra-sound) sources like helicopters also generate seismic signals. In order to characterize an avalanche seismic signal, a 3-axis broad band seismometer (Guralp 3T) has been set-up on a real scale avalanche test site in Lautaret (France). The sensor is located in proximity of 2 avalanche paths where avalanches can be artificially released. Preliminary results of seismic records are presented, correlated with avalanche physical parameters (volume released, velocity, energy).
Reaction Mechanism and Product Branching Ratios of the CH + C3H6 Reaction: A Theoretical Study.
Ribeiro, Joao Marcelo; Mebel, Alexander M
2016-03-24
The mechanism of CH(X(2)Π) reaction with propene has been studied with ab initio CCSD(T)-F12/CBS//B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) calculations of the C4H7 potential energy surface and RRKM/master equation calculations of unimolecular rate constants for the various isomerization and dissociation steps available to the C4H7 radicals. Product branching ratios were calculated and were found to strongly depend on the initial chemically activated C4H7 complex formed in a barrierless entrance channel. If the reaction is initiated via either CH addition to the double bond in propene or CH insertions into the terminal sp(2) C-H or single C-C bonds, then 1,3-butadiene + H are predicted to be the dominant products, ethene + C2H3 radical are minor but non-negligible products, and a small amount of 1,2-butadiene + H is also produced. The reaction then proceeds through a key CH3CHCH(•)CH2 intermediate, which loses an H atom to form either 1,3- or 1,2-butadiene or isomerizes to (•)CH2CH2CHCH2 and then dissociates to ethene + C2H3 radical. If CH inserts into a C-H bond in the CH3 group the (•)CH2CH2CHCH2 complex is formed directly and then the major reaction products are predicted to be ethene + C2H3 radical and 1,3-butadiene + H. Finally, if CH inserts into the middle sp(2) C-H bond, a branched CH3C((•)CH2)CH2 complex is produced, which predominantly decomposes to allene + CH3 radical. A comparison of the calculated reaction mechanism with available experimental data indicates that the CH addition entrance channel is favorable, in which case the computed branching ratios are in agreement with the experimental result of Loison and Bergeat, who measured the H elimination branching ratio of 78 ± 10%. However, the computed branching ratios quantitatively disagree with the experimental data by Trevitt et al., who observed a nearly 100% yield of the C4H6 + H products and also larger yields of 1,2-butadiene and 1-butyne than the calculations predict. The deviation of the theoretical results
Negative feedback avalanche diode
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Itzler, Mark Allen (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A single-photon avalanche detector is disclosed that is operable at wavelengths greater than 1000 nm and at operating speeds greater than 10 MHz. The single-photon avalanche detector comprises a thin-film resistor and avalanche photodiode that are monolithically integrated such that little or no additional capacitance is associated with the addition of the resistor.
Branching ratio measurement of a Λ system in Tm3+:YAG under a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Louchet, A.; Habib, J. S.; Crozatier, V.; Lorgeré, I.; Goldfarb, F.; Bretenaker, F.; Gouët, J.-L. Le; Guillot-Noël, O.; Goldner, Ph.
2007-01-01
A three-level Λ system in Tm3+ doped YAG crystal is experimentally investigated in the prospect of quantum information processing. Zeeman effect is used to lift the nuclear spin degeneracy of this ion. In a previous paper [de Seze , Phys. Rev. B 73, 085112 (2006)] we measured the gyromagnetic tensor components and concluded that adequate magnetic field orientation could optimize the optical connection of both ground state sublevels to each one of the excited state sublevels, thus generating Λ systems. Here we report on the direct measurement of the transition probability ratio along the two legs of the Λ . Measurement techniques combine frequency selective optical pumping with optical nutation or photon echo processes.
Mebel, Alexander M.; Landera, Alexander
2012-06-21
Ab initio CCSD(T)/CBS//B3LYP/6-311G** calculations of the potential energy surface for possible dissociation channels of the phenyl radical are combined with microcanonical Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus calculations of reaction rate constants in order to predict statistical product branching ratios in photodissociation of c-C{sub 6}H{sub 5} at various wavelengths. The results indicate that at 248 nm the photodissociation process is dominated by the production of ortho-benzyne via direct elimination of a hydrogen atom from the phenyl radical. At 193 nm, the statistical branching ratios are computed to be 63.4%, 21.1%, and 14.4% for the o-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}+ H, l-C{sub 6}H{sub 4} ((Z)-hexa-3-ene-1,5-diyne) + H, and n-C{sub 4}H{sub 3}+ C{sub 2}H{sub 2} products, respectively, in a contradiction with recent experimental measurements, which showed C{sub 4}H{sub 3}+ C{sub 2}H{sub 2} as the major product. Although two lower energy pathways to the i-C{sub 4}H{sub 3}+ C{sub 2}H{sub 2} products are identified, they appeared to be kinetically unfavorable and the computed statistical branching ratio of i-C{sub 4}H{sub 3}+ C{sub 2}H{sub 2} does not exceed 1%. To explain the disagreement with experiment, we optimized conical intersections between the ground and the first excited electronic states of C{sub 6}H{sub 5} and, based on their structures and energies, suggested the following photodissociation mechanism at 193 nm: c-C{sub 6}H{sub 5} 1{yields} absorption of a photon {yields} electronically excited 1{yields} internal conversion to the lowest excited state {yields} conversion to the ground electronic state via conical intersections at CI-2 or CI-3{yields} non-statistical decay of the vibrationally excited radical favoring the formation of the n-C{sub 4}H{sub 3}+ C{sub 2}H{sub 2} products. This scenario can be attained if the intramolecular vibrational redistribution in the CI-2 or CI-3 structures in the ground electronic state is slower than their dissociation to n-C{sub 4}H
Mechanisms of evolution of avalanches in regular graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Handford, Thomas P.; Pérez-Reche, Francisco J.; Taraskin, Sergei N.
2013-06-01
A mapping of avalanches occurring in the zero-temperature random-field Ising model to life periods of a population experiencing immigration is established. Such a mapping allows the microscopic criteria for the occurrence of an infinite avalanche in a q-regular graph to be determined. A key factor for an avalanche of spin flips to become infinite is that it interacts in an optimal way with previously flipped spins. Based on these criteria, we explain why an infinite avalanche can occur in q-regular graphs only for q>3 and suggest that this criterion might be relevant for other systems. The generating function techniques developed for branching processes are applied to obtain analytical expressions for the durations, pulse shapes, and power spectra of the avalanches. The results show that only very long avalanches exhibit a significant degree of universality.
Dynamics of nonadiabatic reactions (theory). I. Branching ratios for early and late seams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayne, H. R.; Polanyi, J. C.; Tully, J. C.
1985-01-01
The 3D classical trajectory surface hopping (TSH) method has been applied in a ``model'' study of factors governing nonadiabatic reaction, A+BC→AB+C* and →AB+C. In the diabatic approximation the potential-energy surfaces (pes) were a LEPS surface for F+H2 (→AB+C*) and a repulsive pes Vrep (→AB+C). These intersected in the exit valley to give an early or a late seam (E or L, perpendicular to the exit valley). The splitting at the avoided crossing 2ɛ was adjusted to ɛ=1.26 or 5.02 kcal/mol. The ratio of reactive cross sections onto the upper and lower adiabatic pes ρ* was investigated for mass combinations H+HL, L+HL, L+HH, and H+LL with E and L seams, and for small and large ɛ. The effect on ρ* of reapportioning a constant total energy (ETOT=13.84 kcal/mol) between reagent translation T and vibration V was examined for these 16 cases. Since the velocity in the coordinate of separation increased with increased T (yielding increased product translation; ΔT→ΔT') ρ* also tended to increase with T. The extreme mass combinations H+HL and L+HH exhibited modified ρ* due to markedly differing widths in the entry and exit valley. The strongly skewed pes for H+LL led to multiple crossing of the seam which reduced ρ*. For other mass combinations ρ* was reduced by the inability of the low T' component of the product to hop across the 2ɛ gap. In all cases ρ* was an index of the local dynamics at the seam, and hence shed light on the intermediate motions en route to the asymptotic outcome V', R', T'.
Cheng, Baosen; /Wisconsin U., Madison
2006-03-07
We present the preliminary results on the search for B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup -}K*{sup +}. The data sample comprises 122.7 million B{bar B} pairs in the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation through the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance collected during 1999-2003 with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy collider at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). We obtain an upper limit of the branching ratio at 90% confidence level as {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup -}K*{sup +}) < 17.2 x 10{sup -6}. The fitted result on the polarization fraction shows no evidence that the decay is longitudinally dominated as predicted by various theoretical models.
Measurement of the K{sup +{yields}{pi}0{mu}+{nu}}{sub {mu}{gamma}}branching ratio
Adler, S.; Chiang, I-H.; Diwan, M. V.; Frank, J. S.; Haggerty, J. S.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jain, V.; Kettell, S. H.; Li, K. K.; Littenberg, L. S.; Ng, C.; Strand, R. C.; Witzig, C.; Bazarko, A. O.; Ito, M. M.; Meyers, P. D.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Stone, J. R.; Bergbusch, P. C.; Bryman, D. A.
2010-05-01
A measurement of the decay K{sup +{yields}{pi}0{mu}+{nu}}{sub {mu}{gamma}}has been performed with the E787 detector at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Forty events were observed in the signal region with the background expectation of (16.5{+-}2.7) events. The branching ratio was measured to be (1.58{+-}0.46(stat.){+-}0.08(syst.))x10{sup -5} in the kinematic region E{sub {gamma}>}30 MeV and {theta}{sub {mu}{gamma}>}20 deg., where E{sub {gamma}}is the energy of the emitted photon and {theta}{sub {mu}{gamma}}is the angle between the muon and the photon in the K{sup +} rest frame. The results were consistent with theoretical predictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya
2010-01-01
We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series Xt . The branching ratio bx is defined as bx=E[ξx/x] . The random variable ξx is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x , so ξx={Xt+1∣Xt=x} . If bx>1 , the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x , while if bx<1 , it is subcritical. For stock prices we find bx=1 within statistical uncertainty, for all x , consistent with an “efficient market hypothesis.” For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, bx is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where bx≃1 , which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for Xt and for ξx . For the BTW model the distribution of ξx is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x . Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where bx is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model—supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.
Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya
2010-01-01
We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series X(t). The branching ratio b(x) is defined as b(x)=E[xi(x)/x]. The random variable xi(x) is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x, so xi(x)=[X(t+1) | X(t)=x]. If b(x)>1, the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x, while if b(x)<1, it is subcritical. For stock prices we find b(x)=1 within statistical uncertainty, for all x, consistent with an "efficient market hypothesis." For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, b(x) is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where b(x) approximately equal 1, which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for X(t) and for xi(x). For the BTW model the distribution of xi(x) is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x. Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where b(x) is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model-supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality. PMID:20365434
A Limit on the Branching Ratio of the Flavor-Changing Top Quark Decay T→Zc
Paramonov, Alexander Andreevich
2009-06-01
We have used the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF-II) to set upper limits on the branching ratio of the flavor-changing neutral-current (FCNC) top quark decay t → Zc using a technique employing ratios of W and Z production, measured in 1.52 fb^{-1} of p$\\bar{p}$ data. The analysis uses a comparison of two decay chains, p$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$ → WbWb → ℓvbjjb and p$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$ ZcWb → ℓ^{+}ℓ^{-} cjjb, to cancel systematic uncertainties in acceptance, efficiency, and luminosity. We validate the MC modeling of acceptance and efficiency for lepton identification over the multi-year dataset also using a ratio of W and Z production, in this case the observed ratio of inclusive production of W to Z-bosons, a technique that will be essential for precision comparisons with the standard model at the LHC. We introduce several methods of determining backgrounds to the W and Z samples. To improve the discrimination against SM backgrounds to top quark decays, we calculate the top mass for each event with two leptons and four jets assuming it is a t$\\bar{t}$ event with one of the top quarks decaying to Zc. The upper limit on the Br(t → Zc) is estimated from a likelihood constructed with the {ell}^{+}ℓ^{-} cjjb top mass distribution and the number of ℓvbjjb events. Limits are set as a function of the helicity of the Z-boson produced in the FCNC decay. For 100%-longitudinally-polarized Z-bosons we find a limit of 8.3% (95% C.L.).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nuth, Joseph A.; Johnson, Natasha M.; Ferguson, Frank T.; Carayon, Alicia
2016-06-01
We report the ratio of the initial carbon available as CO that forms gas-phase compounds compared to the fraction that deposits as a carbonaceous solid (the gas/solid branching ratio) as a function of time and temperature for iron, magnetite, and amorphous iron silicate smoke catalysts during surface-mediated reactions in an excess of hydrogen and in the presence of N2. This fraction varies from more than 99% for an amorphous iron silicate smoke at 673 K to less than 40% for a magnetite catalyst at 873 K. The CO not converted into solids primarily forms methane, ethane, water, and CO2, as well as a very wide range of organic molecules at very low concentration. Carbon deposits do not form continuous coatings on the catalytic surfaces, but instead form extremely high surface area per unit volume "filamentous" structures. While these structures will likely form more slowly but over much longer times in protostellar nebulae than in our experiments due to the much lower partial pressure of CO, such fluffy coatings on the surfaces of chondrules or calcium aluminum inclusions could promote grain-grain sticking during low-velocity collisions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nuth, Joseph A.; Johnson, Natasha M.; Ferguson, Frank T.; Carayon, Alicia
2016-07-01
We report the ratio of the initial carbon available as CO that forms gas-phase compounds compared to the fraction that deposits as a carbonaceous solid (the gas/solid branching ratio) as a function of time and temperature for iron, magnetite, and amorphous iron silicate smoke catalysts during surface-mediated reactions in an excess of hydrogen and in the presence of N2. This fraction varies from more than 99% for an amorphous iron silicate smoke at 673 K to less than 40% for a magnetite catalyst at 873 K. The CO not converted into solids primarily forms methane, ethane, water, and CO2, as well as a very wide range of organic molecules at very low concentration. Carbon deposits do not form continuous coatings on the catalytic surfaces, but instead form extremely high surface area per unit volume "filamentous" structures. While these structures will likely form more slowly but over much longer times in protostellar nebulae than in our experiments due to the much lower partial pressure of CO, such fluffy coatings on the surfaces of chondrules or calcium aluminum inclusions could promote grain-grain sticking during low-velocity collisions.
Scaini, Giselli; Morais, Meline O S; Furlanetto, Camila B; Kist, Luiza W; Pereira, Talita C B; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Pasquali, Matheus A B; Gelain, Daniel P; Moreira, José Cláudio F; Bogo, Maurício R; Streck, Emilio L
2015-05-01
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is caused by an inborn error in metabolism resulting from a deficiency in the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity. This blockage leads to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine and valine, as well as their corresponding α-keto acids and α-hydroxy acids. High levels of BCAAs are associated with neurological dysfunction and the role of pro- and mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the neurological dysfunction of MSUD is still unclear. Thus, in the present study we investigated the effect of an acute BCAA pool administration on BDNF levels and on the pro-BDNF cleavage-related proteins S100A10 and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in rat brains. Our results demonstrated that acute Hyper-BCAA (H-BCAA) exposure during the early postnatal period increases pro-BDNF and total-BDNF levels in the hippocampus and striatum. Moreover, tPA levels were significantly decreased, without modifications in the tPA transcript levels in the hippocampus and striatum. On the other hand, the S100A10 mRNA and S100A10 protein levels were not changed in the hippocampus and striatum. In the 30-day-old rats, we observed increased pro-BDNF, total-BDNF and tPA levels only in the striatum, whereas the tPA and S100A10 mRNA expression and the immunocontent of S100A10 were not altered. In conclusion, we demonstrated that acute H-BCAA administration increases the pro-BDNF/total-BDNF ratio and decreases the tPA levels in animals, suggesting that the BCAA effect may depend, at least in part, on changes in BDNF post-translational processing. PMID:25681161
Study of the branching ratio of {psi}(3770){yields}DD in e{sup +}e{sup -{yields}}DD scattering
Li Haibo; Qin Xiaoshuai; Yang Maozhi
2010-01-01
Based on the data of BES and Belle, the production of DD in the e{sup +}e{sup -{yields}}DD scattering process is studied in this paper. We analyze the continuum and resonant contributions in the energy region from 3.7 to 4.4 GeV. In the {chi}{sup 2} fit to data, we obtain the resonance parameters of {psi}(3770), the branching ratio of {psi}(3770){yields}DD decay by confronting the data to the theoretical formula where both the contributions of the resonances, continuum and interference effects are included. We obtain the branching ratio of {psi}(3770){yields}DD decay is 97.2%{+-}8.9%, as well as the branching ratio of {psi}(4040), {psi}(4160){yields}DD decays.
Measurement of the b → τ -ν-τX branching ratio and an upper limit on B - → τ -ν-τ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buskulic, D.; Casper, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Palla, F.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Engelhardt, A.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Girone, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perrodo, P.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Barres, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Johnson, S. D.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Passalacqua, L.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Delfino, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Salomone, S.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Hassard, J. F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Moneta, L.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Payne, D. G.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Abt, I.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; Denis, R. St.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Courault, F.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacquet, M.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Musolino, G.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Park, I. C.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Johnson, D. L.; Medcalf, T.; Mir, Ll. M.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; Bertin, V.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Edwards, M.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Beddall, A.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, C.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Rankin, C.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Feigl, E.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Pitis, L.; Ragusa, F.; Kim, H.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Bellantoni, L.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Wildish, T.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration
1995-02-01
Using 1.45 million hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH experiment at LEP, the b → τ -ν-τX branching ratio is measured to be 2.75 ± 0.30 ± 0.37%. In addition an upper limit of 1.8 × 10 -3 at 90% confidence level is placed upon the exclusive branching ratio of B- → τ -ν-τ. These measurements are consistent with SM expectations, and put the constraint tan {β}/{M h ±} < 0.52 GeV -1 at 90% confidence level on all Type II two Higgs doublet models (such as the MSSM).
Song, Hongwei; Lee, Soo-Ying; Lu, Yunpeng; Guo, Hua
2015-12-17
Full-dimensional quantum dynamical calculations are carried out to study the mode specificity, bond selectivity, and isotopic branching ratio of the Cl + HOD reaction on an accurate global potential energy surface. Total reaction cross sections have been computed for several low-lying vibrational states of HOD. Our results confirm the experimental observed vibrationally promoted bond cleavage, in which the breaking of the OH(OD) bond is strongly enhanced by the OH(OD) excitation. These results are rationalized by the recently proposed sudden vector projection model. In addition, the OH/OD branching ratio as a function of energy is investigated and rationalized by a reorientation effect. PMID:26244377
Quandt, R.W.; Hershberger, J.F.
1995-11-16
The title reactions were studied at 298 K using time-resolved infrared diode laser spectroscopy. For the NH ({sup 3}{Sigma}{sup -}) + NO reaction, N{sub 2}O + H were found to be the primary products, with a branching ratio of 0.77 {+-} 0.08, in good agreement with other recent measurements. For the NH ({sup 3} {Sigma}{sup -}) + NO{sub 2} reaction, the measured branching ratio was 0.41 {+-} 0.15 into the N{sub 2}O + OH channel and 0.59 {+-} 0.15 into the NO + HNO channel. 45 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.
Measurement of ratios of branching fractions and CP-violating asymmetries of B±→D*K± decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Tico, J. Garra; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Cahn, R. N.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kukartsev, G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Ronan, M. T.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Walker, D.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Teodorescu, L.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Shen, B. C.; Vitug, G. M.; Yasin, Z.; Zhang, L.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Wang, L.; Wilson, M. G.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Kreisel, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Altenburg, D. D.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Mader, W. F.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Sundermann, J. E.; Volk, A.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Latour, E.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Gradl, W.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Contri, R.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; de Nardo, G.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Bard, D. J.; Dauncey, P. D.; Nash, J. A.; Vazquez, W. Panduro; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Lae, C. K.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Schott, G.; Arnaud, N.; Béquilleux, J.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; da Costa, J. Firmino; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Lepeltier, V.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; George, K. A.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Flaecher, H. U.; Hopkins, D. A.; Paramesvaran, S.; Salvatore, F.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Alwyn, K. E.; Barlow, N. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Chia, Y. M.; Edgar, C. L.; Lafferty, G. D.; West, T. J.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Chen, C.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Li, X.; Salvati, E.; Saremi, S.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Koeneke, K.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; McLachlin, S. E.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Viaud, F. B.; Nicholson, H.; Baak, M. A.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Benelli, G.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Sekula, S. J.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; David, P.; Del Buono, L.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Biesiada, J.; Pegna, D. Lopes; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Del Re, D.; di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Gioi, L. Li; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Polci, F.; Renga, F.; Voena, C.; Ebert, M.; Hartmann, T.; Schröder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Franek, B.; Olaiya, E. O.; Roethel, W.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Escalier, M.; Esteve, L.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Kozanecki, W.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Allen, M. T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Bechtle, P.; Benitez, J. F.; Cenci, R.; Coleman, J. P.; Convery, M. R.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Gabareen, A. M.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Li, S.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ofte, I.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Thompson, J. M.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; West, C. A.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yi, K.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Majewski, S. A.; Miyashita, T. S.; Petersen, B. A.; Wilden, L.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Bula, R.; Ernst, J. A.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Zain, S. B.; Spanier, S. M.; Wogsland, B. J.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Drummond, B. W.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Della Ricca, G.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bhuyan, B.; Choi, H. H. F.; Hamano, K.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Ilic, J.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Dasu, S.; Flood, K. T.; Pan, Y.; Pierini, M.; Prepost, R.; Vuosalo, C. O.; Wu, S. L.
2008-11-01
We report a study of B±→D*K± decays with D* decaying to Dπ0 or Dγ, using 383×106 B Bmacr pairs collected at the Υ(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II B Factory. The D meson decays under study include a non-CP mode (K±π∓), CP-even modes (K±K∓,π±π∓), and CP-odd modes (KS0π0,KS0ϕ,KS0ω). We measure ratios (RCP±*) of branching fractions of decays to CP eigenmode states and to flavor-specific states as well as CP asymmetries (ACP±*). These measurements are sensitive to the unitarity triangle angle γ. We obtain ACP+*=-0.11±0.09±0.01, RCP+*=1.31±0.13±0.04, and ACP-*=0.06±0.10±0.02, RCP-*=1.10±0.12±0.04, where the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic. Translating our results into an alternative parametrization, widely used for related measurements, we obtain x+*=0.11±0.06±0.02 and x-*=0.00±0.06±0.02. No significant CP-violating charge asymmetry is found in either the flavor-specific mode D→K±π∓ or in B±→D*π± decays.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seeraji, Shakil; Andreoiu, C.; Jang, F.; Ma, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Grossheim, A.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Schultz, B. E.; Mane, E.; Gwinner, G.; Dilling, J.; Lennarz, A.; Frekers, D.; Chowdhury, U.; Simon, V. V.; Brunner, T.; Delheij, P.; Simon, M. C.
2012-10-01
The TITAN-EC project has developed a unique technique to measure electron capture branching ratios (ECBRs) of short lived intermediate nuclide involved in double beta decay. The ECBR information is important for determination of nuclear matrix elements of double-β decay for both double beta decay (2νββ) and neutrino-less double beta decay (0νββ) processes. An important feature of this technique is the use of open access penning trap. Radioactive ions are stored in the trap and their decays are observed. Electrons produced from β decay are guided out of the trap by the Penning trap's strong magnetic field and the x-ray from EC are detected by seven Si(Li) detectors placed radially around trap using thin Be windows. This set-up provides a lower background for the x-ray detection compared to earlier ECBC measurements where the beam is implanted in mylar tape. Detailed GEANT4 simulations have been performed to characterize the efficiency of the detectors and understand their response. In addition the impact of different sizes and shapes of the ion cloud inside the trap has also been investigated to optimize the experimental set-up.
Liu, Wangyu; Wang, Ningling; Jiang, Xiaoyong; Peng, Yujian
2016-07-01
The branching system plays an important role in maintaining the survival of palm trees. Due to the nature of monocots, no additional vascular bundles can be added in the palm tree tissue as it ages. Therefore, the changing of the cross-sectional area in the palm branch creates a graded distribution in the mechanical properties of the tissue. In the present work, this graded distribution in the tissue mechanical properties from sheath to petiole were studied with a multi-scale modeling approach. Then, the entire palm branch was reconstructed and analyzed using finite element methods. The variation of the elastic modulus can lower the level of mechanical stress in the sheath and also allow the branch to have smaller values of pressure on the other branches. Under impact loading, the enhanced frictional dissipation at the surfaces of adjacent branches benefits from the large Poisson׳s ratio of the sheath tissue. These findings can help to link the wind resistance ability of palm trees to their graded materials distribution in the branching system. PMID:26807774
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hwang, Hyoun-Tae; Jeen, Sung-Wook; Sudicky, Edward A.; Illman, Walter A.
2015-06-01
The applicability of a newly-developed chain-decay multispecies model (CMM) was validated by obtaining kinetic rate constants and branching ratios along the reaction pathways of trichloroethene (TCE) reduction by zero-valent iron (ZVI) from column experiments. Changes in rate constants and branching ratios for individual reactions for degradation products over time for two columns under different geochemical conditions were examined to provide ranges of those parameters expected over the long-term. As compared to the column receiving deionized water, the column receiving dissolved CaCO3 showed higher mean degradation rates for TCE and all of its degradation products. However, the column experienced faster reactivity loss toward TCE degradation due to precipitation of secondary carbonate minerals, as indicated by a higher value for the ratio of maximum to minimum TCE degradation rate observed over time. From the calculated branching ratios, it was found that TCE and cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) were dominantly dechlorinated to chloroacetylene and acetylene, respectively, through reductive elimination for both columns. The CMM model, validated by the column test data in this study, provides a convenient tool to determine simultaneously the critical design parameters for permeable reactive barriers and natural attenuation such as rate constants and branching ratios.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, M. D.; Cunningham, A. J.
1983-01-01
Branching ratios are presented of singly and doubly ionized sulfur EUV emissions. They are determined by measuring the relative photon intensities of each of the branching components. For several transitions in S II for which mean lifetimes have been measured with fast-beam spectroscopy, the data presented here are used to determine transition probabilities. The S II transitions originate from the 2P, 4s-prime 2D, and 4s 2P terms and terminate on the metastable states of the ion. The S III transitions originate from the 3d 3D0, 4s 3P0, 3p3 3S0, 4s 1P0, and 3s3p3 1P0 terms and terminate on the metastable and ground ionic states. The results for S III include branching ratios involving intercombination transitions that affect ongoing modeling of the energy budget of the Io plasma torus.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Christensen, A. B.
1979-01-01
Recent laboratory, geophysical, and theoretical determinations of the O I (7990 A) and O I (11,287 A) branching ratios indicate that the generally used values based on the NBS transition parameters need revision. The O I (7990 A) branching ratio is about 300 times smaller than the NBS value, and the O I (11,287 A) is about one-quarter as large. The transitions are important in the generation of permitted atomic oxygen spectra in several types of astronomical source, including the Orion Nebula (M42), the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151, Arcturus, and comets. The absence of the O I (7990 A) emission in M42 and NGC 4151 is consistent with its very small branching ratio, and previous conclusions based on its absence, such as the rejection of starlight excitation in the Seyfert galaxy, require reinvestigation. The reduction of the O I (11,287 A) branching ratio is pertinent to hydrogen L-beta fluorescence excitation of O I (1304 A) and O I (8446 A) emission and requires an upward revision of oxygen production rates in comets.
Measurement of Ratios of Branching Fractions and CP-Violating Asymmetries of B+/- --> D*K +/- decays
Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Cahn, R.N.; Jacobsen, R.G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Karlsruhe U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison
2008-08-01
The authors report a study of B{sup {+-}} {yields} D*K{sup {+-}} decays with D* decaying to D{pi}{sup 0} or D{gamma}, using 383 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II B-Factory. The D meson decays under study include a non-CP mode (K{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}}), CP-even modes (K{sup {+-}}K{sup {-+}}, {pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}}) and CP-odd modes (K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, K{sub S}{sup 0}{phi}, K{sub S}{sup 0}{omega}). They measure ratios (R*{sub CP{+-}}) of branching fractions of decays to CP eigenmode states and to flavor-specific states as well as CP asymmetries A*{sub CP{+-}} = -0.11 {+-} 0.09 {+-} 0.01, R*{sub CP+} = 1.31 {+-} 0.13 {+-} 0.04, and A*{sub CP-} = 0.06 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.02, R*{sub CP-} = 1.10 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.04, where the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic. Translating the results into an alternative parameterization, widely used for related measurements, they obtain x*{sub +} = 0.11 {+-} 0.06 {+-} 0.02 and x*{sub -} = 0.00 {+-} 0.06 {+-} 0.01. No significant CP-violating charge asymmetry is found in either the flavor-specific mode D {yields} K{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} or in B{sup {+-}} {yields} D*{pi}{sup {+-}} decays.
Avalanches in tip-driven interfaces in random media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aragón, L. E.; Kolton, A. B.; Le Doussal, P.; Wiese, K. J.; Jagla, E. A.
2016-01-01
We analyse by numerical simulations and scaling arguments the avalanche statistics of 1-dimensional elastic interfaces in random media driven at a single point. Both global and local avalanche sizes are power-law distributed, with universal exponents given by the depinning roughness exponent ζ and the interface dimension d, and distinct from their values in the uniformly driven case. A crossover appears between uniformly driven behaviour for small avalanches, and point-driven behaviour for large avalanches. The scale of the crossover is controlled by the ratio between the stiffness of the pulling spring and the elasticity of the interface; it is visible both in the global and local avalanche-size distributions, as in the average spatial avalanche shape. Our results are relevant to model experiments involving locally driven elastic manifolds at low temperatures, such as magnetic domain walls or vortex lines in superconductors.
Zhang, Lan; Copini, Paul; Weemstra, Monique; Sterck, Frank
2016-03-01
Leaf, xylem and phloem areas drive the water and carbon fluxes within branches and trees, but their mutual coordination is poorly understood. We test the hypothesis that xylem and phloem areas increase relative to leaf area when species are selected for, or branches are exposed to, higher levels of light intensity. Trees of 10 temperate, broadleaved and deciduous, tree species were selected. Fifty-centimetre-long branches were collected from shaded and exposed conditions at a height of 3-4 m. We measured the total leaf area, xylem area, phloem area and leaf traits, as well as the area of the constituent cell types, for a stem section at the branch base. Xylem area : leaf area and phloem area : leaf area ratios did not differ consistently between sun and shade branches, but, as expected, they decreased with species' shade tolerance. Similar trends were observed for conductive cell areas in xylem and phloem. Trees of light-demanding species maintain higher water loss and carbon gain rates per leaf area by producing more xylem area and phloem area than shade-tolerant species. We call for more comparative branch studies as they provide an integrated biological perspective on functional traits and their role in the ecology of tree species. PMID:26527414
Measurement of the Branching fraction ratio B ---> D K / B ---> D pi with the CDF II detector
Squillacioti, Paola; /INFN, Pisa /Siena U.
2006-11-01
In this thesis the author has described the first measurement performed at a hadron collider of the branching fraction of the Cabibbo-suppressed mode B{sup +} {yields} {bar D}{sup 0} K{sup +}. The analysis has been performed with 360 pb{sup -1} of data collected by the CDF II detector.
PRODUCT BRANCHING RATIOS OF THE REACTION OF CO WITH H{sup +} {sub 3} AND H{sub 2}D{sup +}
Yu Huagen
2009-11-20
The reaction of CO with H{sup +} {sub 3} and H{sub 2}D{sup +} has been studied to investigate thermal rate coefficients and product branching ratios in the temperature range [20, 350] K, by using a direct ab initio molecular dynamics method. In trajectory simulations, the energies and forces are calculated using a scaling all correlation second-order Mphiller-Plesset perturbation theory (SAC-MP2) method with the correlation consistent polarized valence triplet-zeta basis (cc-pVTZ). Results show that total thermal rate coefficients for both the CO + H{sup +} {sub 3}and the CO + H{sub 2}D{sup +} reactions have a weakly positive temperature dependence. At room temperature, the rate coefficients are predicted to be (1.42 +- 0.03) x 10{sup -9} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} with a product branching ratio of [HOC{sup +}]/[HCO{sup +}] = 0.36 +- 0.01 for the CO + H{sup +} {sub 3} reaction, and (1.26 +- 0.03) x 10{sup -9} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} with the product branching ratios: 0.37 +- 0.01 (([HOC{sup +}] + [DOC{sup +}])/([HCO{sup +}] + [DOC{sup +}])), 0.54 +- 0.02 ([DCO{sup +}]/[HCO{sup +}]), and 0.49 +- 0.02 ([DOC{sup +}]/[HOC{sup +}]) for CO + H{sub 2}D{sup +}. The product branching ratios have a noticeable temperature dependence as well as a pronounced isotopic effect for the H/DOC{sup +} product channel.
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
SRD 119 Vibrational branching ratios and asymmetry parameters in the photoionization of CO2 in the region between 650 Å and 840 Å (Web, free access) CO2 is studied using dispersed synchrotron radiation in the 650 Å to 850 Å spectral region. The vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra are analyzed to generate relative vibrational transition amplitudes and the angular asymmetry parameters describing the various transitions observed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mladenovic, Mirjana; Zhao, Meishan; Truhlar, Donald G.; Schwenke, David W.; Sun, Yan
1988-01-01
The paper reports extensive quantum mechanical calculations of the product vibrational branching ratios in the reaction H + p-H2 yields o-H2 + H. The calculations involve total angular momentum up to 2 and excited as well as ground initial rotational states, and they are completely converged with up to 513 channels in individual total angular momentum/parity blocks. Comparisons are made with recent experiments by Nieh and Valentini.
Chaudhuri, Chanchal; Lee, Shih-Huang
2011-04-28
We observed fifteen photofragments upon photolysis of propenal (acrolein, CH(2)CHCHO) at 193 nm using photofragment translational spectroscopy and selective vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization. All the photoproducts arise from nine primary and two secondary dissociation pathways. We measured distributions of kinetic energy of products and determined branching ratios of dissociation channels. Dissociation to CH(2)CHCO + H and CH(2)CH + HCO are two major primary channels with equivalent branching ratios of 33%. The CH(2)CHCO fragment spontaneously decomposes to CH(2)CH + CO. A proportion of primary products CH(2)CH from the fission of bond C-C of propenal further decompose to CHCH + H but secondary dissociation HCO → H + CO is negligibly small. Binary dissociation to CH(2)CH(2) (or CH(3)CH) + CO and concerted three-body dissociation to C(2)H(2) + CO + H(2) have equivalent branching ratios of 14%-15%. The other channels have individual branching ratios of ∼1%. The production of HCCO + CH(3) indicates the formation of intermediate methyl ketene (CH(3)CHCO) and the production of CH(2)CCH + OH and CH(2)CC + H(2)O indicate the formation of intermediate hydroxyl propadiene (CH(2)CCHOH) from isomerization of propenal. Distributions of kinetic energy release and dissociation mechanisms are discussed. This work provides a complete look and profound insight into the multi-channel dissociation mechanisms of propenal. The combination of a molecular beam apparatus and synchrotron VUV ionization allowed us to untangle the complex mechanisms of nine primary and two secondary dissociation channels. PMID:21423979
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Countryman, Peter John
We have measured the coincidence cross-sections ^{238}U(alpha, alpha'{rm n| f} ) and ^{238}U( alpha,alpha'f), and inclusive cross-sections ^{238} U(alpha,alpha') using the 120 MeV alpha particle beam at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. The (alpha, alpha'{rm n| f} ) experiment simultaneously measured the cross-sections for ^{238}U(alpha, alpha'f) and ^{238 }U(alpha,alpha' {rm n| f}) at theta _{alpha'} ~ 17^circ, a local maximum for the angular distributions of the isoscalar giant quadrupole and monopole resonances (GQ_0R and GM _0R). The branching ratio Gamma _{rm n}/Gamma_{ rm f} obtained from this experiment is therefore not subject to many of the systematic errors which go into the individual cross-sections. The energy of the scattered alpha-particle (E _{alpha'}) and the neutron time-of-flight were measured for each event. Fission events were detected using a large solid-angle array, so that the fission neutrons could be removed from the neutron decay spectra. This enabled us to make the first measurement of the neutron decay from an actinide nucleus. Inelastic scattering cross-sections are presented for the range of excitation energy from 0. to 20. MeV. In a separate experiment, the cross-section {rm d^2sigma(alpha,alpha 'rm f)}over {rm d Omega_{alpha'}{dE}_{alpha'} } was measured for uranium at seven scattering angles in the range theta_{alpha '} = 7^circ -21^{circ}. We extracted the transition strength as a function of excitation energy for the GQ_0R and GM _0R. In (alpha,alpha 'f), we find 25% of the L = 2 energy-weighted sum-rule (from 8 to 12 MeV), and 50% of the L = 0 sum-rule (12 to 16 MeV). The strength agrees well with a recent (e,e^'f) experiment. We used the strengths extracted from the ( alpha,alpha'f) experiment along with the (alpha,alpha' {n| f}) data to place limits on (Gamma_{rm n }/Gamma_{rm f}) _{rm GQR} and ( Gamma_{rm n}/Gamma_ {rm f})_{rm GMR}. We obtained (Gamma_ {rm n}/Gamma_{rm f})_{rm GQR} = 6 +/- 4 (statistical
Fractal avalanche ruptures in biological membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gözen, Irep; Dommersnes, Paul; Czolkos, Ilja; Jesorka, Aldo; Lobovkina, Tatsiana; Orwar, Owe
2010-11-01
Bilayer membranes envelope cells as well as organelles, and constitute the most ubiquitous biological material found in all branches of the phylogenetic tree. Cell membrane rupture is an important biological process, and substantial rupture rates are found in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells under a mechanical load. Rupture can also be induced by processes such as cell death, and active cell membrane repair mechanisms are essential to preserve cell integrity. Pore formation in cell membranes is also at the heart of many biomedical applications such as in drug, gene and short interfering RNA delivery. Membrane rupture dynamics has been studied in bilayer vesicles under tensile stress, which consistently produce circular pores. We observed very different rupture mechanics in bilayer membranes spreading on solid supports: in one instance fingering instabilities were seen resulting in floral-like pores and in another, the rupture proceeded in a series of rapid avalanches causing fractal membrane fragmentation. The intermittent character of rupture evolution and the broad distribution in avalanche sizes is consistent with crackling-noise dynamics. Such noisy dynamics appear in fracture of solid disordered materials, in dislocation avalanches in plastic deformations and domain wall magnetization avalanches. We also observed similar fractal rupture mechanics in spreading cell membranes.
Nucleation and development of dendritic flux avalanches in superconducting films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vestgården, Jørn Inge; Shantsev, Daniil; Galperin, Yuri; Henning Johansen, Tom
2012-02-01
The stability of superconducting films is threatened by thermomagnetic runaways commonly observed as abrupt dendritic flux avalanches. We report numerical simulations of the electrodynamics and thermal behavior of superconducting films, where the gradual flux penetration is interrupted by such avalanches. The simulation formalism is based on an efficient method for treating the nonlinear and nonlocal electrodynamics, and it handles both the slow flux creep dynamics prior to the avalanches and the transition to the many orders of magnitude faster instability regime. Then the temperature rises quickly above the critical temperature, and the avalanche develops fully in less than 100 nanoseconds, with an initial velocity of approximately 100 km/s. Both the morphology and speed of the avalanches are in excellent agreement with results from magneto-optical imaging experiments. The sample is seeded with randomly distributed disorder, which results in a significantly reduced threshold for onset of avalanches. Interaction with the material disorder also contributes to branching and irreprodusibility of the flux structures. However, disorder is not the main mechanism behind branching and dendritic structures are also found to develop in completely uniform samples.
Identifying single electron avalanches in streamer discharges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wormeester, Gideon; Nijdam, Sander; Ebert, Ute
2011-10-01
Although some properties of positive streamers in nitrogen-oxygen mixtures, such as velocity and diameter, are remarkably insensitive to the N 2 :O 2 -ratio of the background gas, the visible structure can be quite different. In particular, experiments in high purity nitrogen have demonstrated that streamers can exhibit a feather-like structure, with small hairs connecting to the main streamer channel. Such structures were not observed in mixtures with higher oxygen density, such as air. We hypothesize that these hairs are avalanches started by single electrons that move towards the positively charged streamer head. Using results from numerical simulations, the presence or absence of these hairs can be explained: In air, the electron density outside the streamer channel is high and avalanches overlap, while in high purity nitrogen, the electron density is sufficiently low that avalanches are distinct and visible individually.
Disordered artificial spin ices: Avalanches and criticality (invited)
Reichhardt, Cynthia J. Olson Chern, Gia-Wei; Reichhardt, Charles; Libál, Andras
2015-05-07
We show that square and kagome artificial spin ices with disconnected islands exhibit disorder-induced nonequilibrium phase transitions. The critical point of the transition is characterized by a diverging length scale and the effective spin reconfiguration avalanche sizes are power-law distributed. For weak disorder, the magnetization reversal is dominated by system-spanning avalanche events characteristic of a supercritical regime, while at strong disorder, the avalanche distributions have subcritical behavior and are cut off above a length scale that decreases with increasing disorder. The different type of geometrical frustration in the two lattices produces distinct forms of critical avalanche behavior. Avalanches in the square ice consist of the propagation of locally stable domain walls separating the two polarized ground states, and we find a scaling collapse consistent with an interface depinning mechanism. In the fully frustrated kagome ice, however, the avalanches branch strongly in a manner reminiscent of directed percolation. We also observe an interesting crossover in the power-law scaling of the kagome ice avalanches at low disorder. Our results show that artificial spin ices are ideal systems in which to study a variety of nonequilibrium critical point phenomena as the microscopic degrees of freedom can be accessed directly in experiments.
Disordered artificial spin ices: Avalanches and criticality (invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reichhardt, Cynthia J. Olson; Chern, Gia-Wei; Libál, Andras; Reichhardt, Charles
2015-05-01
We show that square and kagome artificial spin ices with disconnected islands exhibit disorder-induced nonequilibrium phase transitions. The critical point of the transition is characterized by a diverging length scale and the effective spin reconfiguration avalanche sizes are power-law distributed. For weak disorder, the magnetization reversal is dominated by system-spanning avalanche events characteristic of a supercritical regime, while at strong disorder, the avalanche distributions have subcritical behavior and are cut off above a length scale that decreases with increasing disorder. The different type of geometrical frustration in the two lattices produces distinct forms of critical avalanche behavior. Avalanches in the square ice consist of the propagation of locally stable domain walls separating the two polarized ground states, and we find a scaling collapse consistent with an interface depinning mechanism. In the fully frustrated kagome ice, however, the avalanches branch strongly in a manner reminiscent of directed percolation. We also observe an interesting crossover in the power-law scaling of the kagome ice avalanches at low disorder. Our results show that artificial spin ices are ideal systems in which to study a variety of nonequilibrium critical point phenomena as the microscopic degrees of freedom can be accessed directly in experiments.
Hunt, D. C.; Tanioka, Kenkichi; Rowlands, J. A.
2007-12-15
The flat-panel detector (FPD) is the state-of-the-art detector for digital radiography. The FPD can acquire images in real-time, has superior spatial resolution, and is free of the problems of x-ray image intensifiers--veiling glare, pin-cushion and magnetic distortion. However, FPDs suffer from poor signal to noise ratio performance at typical fluoroscopic exposure rates where the quantum noise is reduced to the point that it becomes comparable to the fixed electronic noise. It has been shown previously that avalanche multiplication gain in amorphous selenium (a-Se) can provide the necessary amplification to overcome the electronic noise of the FPD. Avalanche multiplication, however, comes with its own intrinsic contribution to the noise in the form of gain fluctuation noise. In this article a cascaded systems analysis is used to present a modified metric related to the detective quantum efficiency. The modified metric is used to study a diagnostic x-ray imaging system in the presence of intrinsic avalanche multiplication noise independently from other noise sources, such as electronic noise. An indirect conversion imaging system is considered to make the study independent of other avalanche multiplication related noise sources, such as the fluctuations arising from the depth of x-ray absorption. In this case all the avalanche events are initiated at the surface of the avalanche layer, and there are no fluctuations in the depth of absorption. Experiments on an indirect conversion x-ray imaging system using avalanche multiplication in a layer of a-Se are also presented. The cascaded systems analysis shows that intrinsic noise of avalanche multiplication will not have any deleterious influence on detector performance at zero spatial frequency in x-ray imaging provided the product of conversion gain, coupling efficiency, and optical quantum efficiency are much greater than a factor of 2. The experimental results show that avalanche multiplication in a-Se behaves as
Measurement of the branching fraction ratio B (Bc+→ψ (2 S )π+)/B (Bc+→J /ψ π+)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianı, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusardi, N.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthieu, K.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Ninci, D.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zucchelli, S.; LHCb Collaboration
2015-10-01
Using p p collision data collected by LHCb at center-of-mass energies √{s } =7 TeV and 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1 , the ratio of the branching fraction of the Bc+→ψ (2 S ) π+ decay relative to that of the Bc+→J /ψ π+ decay is measured to be 0.268 ±0.032 (stat ) ±0.007 (syst ) ±0.006 (BF ) . The first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is due to the uncertainties on the branching fractions of the J /ψ →μ+μ- and ψ (2 S ) →μ+μ- decays. This measurement is consistent with the previous LHCb result, and the statistical uncertainty is halved.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
05 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows large, low albedo (dark) sand dunes in Kaiser Crater near 47.2oS, 340.4oW. The dunes are--ever so slowly--moving east to west (right to left) as sand avalanches down the steeper, slip face slopes of each. Avalanching sand in the Kaiser dune field has left deep scars on these slopes, suggesting that the sand is not loose but is instead weakly cemented. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.
Avalanches in Wood Compression.
Mäkinen, T; Miksic, A; Ovaska, M; Alava, Mikko J
2015-07-31
Wood is a multiscale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power laws. The stress-strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using digital image correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free. PMID:26274428
Inverse avalanches on Abelian sandpiles
Chau, H.F. Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 )
1994-11-01
A simple and computationally efficient way of finding inverse avalanches for Abelian sandpiles, called the inverse particle addition operator, is presented. In addition, the method is shown to be optimal in the sense that it requires the minimum amount of computation among methods of the same kind. The method is also conceptually succinct because avalanche and inverse avalanche are placed in the same footing.
A Combination of CDF and D0 limits on the branching ratio of B0(s)(d) ---> mu+ mu- decays
Bernhard, R.; Glenzinski, D.; Herndon, M.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Landsberg, G.; Lehner, F.; Lin, C.J.; Mrenna, S.; /Zurich U. /Fermilab /Wisconsin U., Madison /Texas A-M /Brown U.
2005-08-01
The authors combine the results of CDF and D0 searches for the rare decays B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. The experiments use 364 pb{sup -1} and 300 pb{sup -1} of data respectively. The limits on the branching ratios are obtained by normalizing the estimated sensitivity to the decay B{sup +} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup +} taking into account the fragmentation ratios f{sub u}/f{sub s(d)}. The combined results exclude branching ratios of BR(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) > 1.5 x 10{sup -7} and BR(B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) > 4.0 x 10{sup -8} at 95% confidence level. These are the most stringent limits on these decays at the present time.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
(Released 13 May 2002) The Science The rugged, arcuate rim of the 90 km crater Reuyl dominates this THEMIS image. Reuyl crater is at the southern edge of a region known to be blanketed in thick dust based on its high albedo (brightness) and low thermal inertia values. This thick mantle of dust creates the appearance of snow covered mountains in the image. Like snow accumulation on Earth, Martian dust can become so thick that it eventually slides down the face of steep slopes, creating runaway avalanches of dust. In the center of this image about 1/3 of the way down is evidence of this phenomenon. A few dozen dark streaks can be seen on the bright, sunlit slopes of the crater rim. The narrow streaks extend downslope following the local topography in a manner very similar to snow avalanches on Earth. But unlike their terrestrial counterparts, no accumulation occurs at the bottom. The dust particles are so small that they are easily launched into the thin atmosphere where they remain suspended and ultimately blow away. The apparent darkness of the avalanche scars is due to the presence of relatively dark underlying material that becomes exposed following the passage of the avalanche. Over time, new dust deposition occurs, brightening the scars until they fade into the background. Although dark slope streaks had been observed in Viking mission images, a clear understanding of this dynamic phenomenon wasn't possible until the much higher resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed the details. MOC images also showed that new avalanches have occurred during the time MGS has been in orbit. THEMIS images will allow additional mapping of their distribution and frequency, contributing new insights about Martian dust avalanches. The Story The stiff peaks in this image might remind you of the Alps here on Earth, but they really outline the choppy edge of a large Martian crater over 50 miles wide (seen in the context image at right). While these aren
Acosta, D.; The CDF Collaboration
2005-05-31
We present the first evidence of charmless decays of the B{sub s}{sup 0} meson, the decay B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}{phi}, and a measurement of the Branching Ratio BR(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}{phi}) using 180 pb{sup -1} of data collected by the CDF II experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. In addition, the BR and direct CP asymmetry for the B{sup +} {yields} {phi}K{sup +} decay are measured.
Kharlamova, T. A.; Collaboration: KEDR Collaboration
2015-05-15
A preliminary result of the KEDR/VEPP-4M experiment devoted to measuring the cross section for electron-positron annihilation to hadrons (e{sup +}e{sup −} → hadrons) in the energy region of J/ψ-resonance production is presented. The value found for the product of the J/ψ-meson width with respect to decay to electrons and the branching ratio for J/ψ-meson decay to hadrons is Γ{sub ee}B{sub h} = 4.67±0.04(stat.)± 0.22(syst.) keV.
Measurement of the Ratio of Branching Fractions Br(Bs -> Ds- pi+)/Br(B -> D- pi+) at CDF-II
Furic, Ivan Kresimir; /MIT
2004-03-01
The measurement of B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing is one of the flagship analyses for the Run II B physics program. The sensitivity of the measurement to the frequency of B{sub s}{sup 0} oscillations strongly depends on the number of reconstructed B{sub s}{sup 0} mesons. They present the measurement of the ratio of branching fractions Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/Br(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}), which directly influences the number of B{sub s}{sup 0} events available for the measurement of B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing at CDF-II. They analyze 115 pb{sup -1} of data collected with the CDF-II detector in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using a novel displaced track trigger. They reconstruct 78 {+-} 11 B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays at 1153 {+-} 45 B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays with good signal to background ratio. This is the world's largest sample of fully reconstructed B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays. They find the ratio of production fractions multiplied by the ratio of branching fractions to be: f{sub s}/f{sub d} {center_dot} Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/Br(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.325 {+-} 0.046(stat) {+-} 0.034(syst) {+-} 0.084 (BR). Using the world average value of f{sub s}/f{sub d} = 0.26 {+-} 0.03, we infer that the ratio of branching fractions is: Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/Br(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 1.25 {+-} 0.18(stat) {+-} 0.13(syst) {+-} 0.32(BR) {+-} 0.14(PR) where the last uncertainty is due to the uncertainty on the world average measurement of the ratio of B{sub s}{sup 0} to B{sup 0} production rates, f{sub s}/f{sub d}.
Link, J M; Reyes, M; Yager, P M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Göbel, C; Magnin, J; Massafferi, A; de Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; dos Reis, A C; Simão, F R; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vázquez, F; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; O'Reilly, B; Ramirez, J E; Vaandering, E W; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Bianco, S; Fabbri, F L; Sarwar, S; Zallo, A; Cawlfield, C; Kim, D Y; Rahimi, A; Wiss, J; Gardner, R; Chung, Y S; Kang, J S; Ko, B R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Park, H; Alimonti, G; Boschini, M; Caccianiga, B; D'Angelo, P; DiCorato, M; Dini, P; Giammarchi, M; Inzani, P; Leveraro, F; Malvezzi, S; Menasce, D; Mezzadri, M; Milazzo, L; Moroni, L; Pedrini, D; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Rovere, M; Sala, A; Sala, S; Davenport, T F; Agostino, L; Arena, V; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Gianini, G; Liguori, G; Merlo, M; Pantea, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Segoni, I; Viola, L; Vitulo, P; Hernandez, H; Lopez, A M; Mendez, H; Mendez, L; Mirles, A; Montiel, E; Olaya, D; Paris, A; Quinones, J; Rivera, C; Xiong, W; Zhang, Y; Wilson, J R; Cho, K; Handler, T; Engh, D; Hosack, M; Johns, W E; Nehring, M; Sheldon, P D; Stenson, K; Webster, M; Sheaff, M
2001-10-15
We have studied hadronic four-body decays of D(+) and D(+)(s) mesons with a K(S) in the final state using data recorded during the 1996-1997 fixed-target run of the Fermilab high energy photoproduction experiment FOCUS. We report a new branching ratio measurement of gamma(D(+)-->K(S)K-pi(+)pi(+))/gamma(D(+)-->K(S)pi(+)pi(+)pi(-)) = 0.0768+/-0.0041+/-0.0032. We make the first observation of three new decay modes with branching ratios gamma(D(+)-->K(S)K+pi(+)pi(-))/gamma(D(+)-->K(S)pi(+)pi(+)pi(-)) = 0.0562+/-0.0039+/-0.0040, gamma(D(+)-->K(S)K+K-pi(+))/gamma(D(+)-->K(S)pi(+)pi(+)pi(-)) = 0.0077+/-0.0015+/-0.0009, and gamma(D(+)(s)-->K(S)K+pi(+)pi(-))/gamma(D(+)(s)-->K(S)K-pi(+)pi(+)) = 0.586+/-0.052+/-0.043, where in each case the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic. PMID:11690200
Vazquez-Jauregui, E.; Engelfried, J.; Akgun, U.; Alkhazov, Georgiy; Amaro-Reyes, J.; Atamantchouk, A.G.; Ayan, Ahmet Sedat; Balatz, M.Y.; Blanco-Covarrubias, A.; Bondar, N.F.; Cooper, Peter S.; /Fermilab /Michigan U., Flint
2008-04-01
The authors report the first observation of two Cabibbo-suppressed decay modes, {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}. They observe 56 {+-} 13 over a background of 21, and 23 {+-} 7 over a background of 12 events, respectively, for the signals. The data were accumulated using the SELEX spectrometer during the 1996-1997 fixed target run at Fermilab, chiefly from a 600 GeV/c {Sigma}{sup -} beam. The branching ratios of the decays relative to the Cabibbo-favored {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Xi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} are measured to be B({Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/B({xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Xi}{sup -} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.50 {+-} 0.20, and B({Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Sigma}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +})/B({Xi}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Xi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.23 {+-} 0.11, respectively. They also report branching ratios for the same decay modes of the {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} relative to {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +}.
Parr, A. C.; West, J. B.; King, M. R. F.; Ueda, K.; Dehmer, P. M.; Dehmer, J. L.
2001-01-01
The vibrational branching ratios and asymmetry parameters for CO2 have been determined in the wavelength region of 650 Å to near the ionization onset at about 840 Å. The study was performed using synchrotron radiation from the Daresbury storage ring that was dispersed with a 5 m grating monochomator that afforded resolution of 0.1 Å to 0.2 Å. This resolution allowed the study of the branching ratios and asymmetry parameters with enough detail to see the changes in the parameters within the pronounced autoionization structure in CO2 in this wavelength region. While the electron spectrometer resolution was not sufficient to resolve the spin orbit and Renner-Teller splitting in the photoelectron spectra, we are able to fit the data with a model that identifies the major structure in terms of the symmetric stretch and elements of the asymmetric stretch and bending modes. A calculation of the expected relative vibrational excitations based upon the Franck-Condon principle clearly showed non-Franck-Condon behavior in some of the vibrational-electronic transitions.
Fleischer, Robert; Serra, Nicola; Tuning, Niels
2010-08-01
The LHCb experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider will soon allow us to enter a new era in the exploration of B{sub s} decays. A particularly promising channel for the search of ''new physics'' is B{sub s}{sup 0{yields}{mu}+{mu}-}. The systematic key uncertainty affecting the measurement of this--and in fact all B{sub s}-decay branching ratios--is the ratio of fragmentation functions f{sub d}/f{sub s}. As the currently available methods for determining f{sub d}/f{sub s} are not sufficient to meet the high precision at LHCb, we propose a new strategy using B{sub s}{sup 0}{yields}D{sub s}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and B{sub d}{sup 0}{yields}D{sup +}K{sup -}. It allows us to obtain a lower experimental bound on BR(B{sub s}{sup 0{yields}{mu}+{mu}-}) which offers a powerful probe for new physics. In order to go beyond this bound and to determine f{sub d}/f{sub s} with a theoretical precision matching the experimental one it is sufficient to know the SU(3)-breaking correction to a form-factor ratio from nonperturbative methods at the level of 20%. Thanks to our strategy, we can detect new physics in B{sub s}{sup 0{yields}{mu}+{mu}-} at LHCb with 5{sigma} for a branching ratio as small as twice the standard model value, which represents an improvement of the new-physics reach by about a factor of 2 with respect to the current LHCb expectation.
Vazquez Jauregui, Eric
2008-08-01
We studied several Ξ_{c}^{+} decay modes, most of them with a hyperon in the final state, and determined their branching ratios. The data used in this analysis come from the fixed target experiment SELEX, a multi-stage spectrometer with high acceptance for forward interactions, that took data during 1996 and 1997 at Fermilab with 600 GeV=c (mainly Σ^{-}, π^{-}) and 540 GeV/c (mainly p) beams incident on copper and carbon targets. The thesis mainly details the first observation of two Cabibbo-suppressed decay modes, Ξ_{c}^{+} → Σ^{+}π^{-}π^{+} and Ξ_{c}^{+} → Σ^{-}π^{+}π^{+}. The branching ratios of the decays relative to the Cabibbo-favored Ξ_{c}^{+} → Σ^{-}π^{+}π^{+} are measured to be: Γ(Ξ_{c}^{+} → Σ^{-}π^{+}π^{+})/Γ(Ξ_{c}^{+} → Ξ^{-}π^{+}π^{+}) = 0.184 ± 0.086. Systematic studies have been performed in order to check the stability of the measurements varying all cuts used in the selection of events over a wide interval and we do not observe evidence of any trend, so the systematic error is negligible in the final results because the quadrature sum of the total error is not affected. The branching ratios for the same decay modes of the Λ_{c}^{+} are measured to check the methodology of the analysis. The branching ratio of the decay mode Λ_{c}^{+} → Σ^{+}π^{-}π^{+} is measured relative to Λ_{c}^{+} → pK^{-} π^{+}, while the one of the decay mode Λ_{c}^{+} → Σ^{-}π^{+}π^{+}is relative to Λ_{c}^{+}→ Σ^{+}π^{-}π^{+}, as they have been reported earlier. The results for the control modes are:
Butkovskaya, N I; Setser, D W
2016-09-01
Reactions of OH and OD radicals with (CH3)3N, (CH3)2NH, and CH3NH2 were studied by Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy (FTIR) of the water product molecules from a fast-flow reactor at 298 K. The rate constants (4.4 ± 0.5) × 10(-11), (5.2 ± 0.8) × 10(-11), and (2.0 ± 0.4) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) were determined for OD + (CH3)3N, (CH3)2NH, and CH3NH2, respectively, by comparing the HOD emission intensities to the HOD intensity from the OD reaction with H2S. Abstraction from the nitrogen site competes with abstraction from the methyl group, as obtained from an analysis of the HOD and D2O emission intensities from the OD reactions with the deuterated reactants, (CD3)2NH and CD3NH2. After adjustment for the hydrogen-deuterium kinetic isotope effect, the product branching fractions of the hydrogen abstraction from the nitrogen for di- and monomethylamine were found to be 0.34 ± 0.04 and 0.26 ± 0.05, respectively. Vibrational distributions of the H2O, HOD, and D2O molecules are typical for direct hydrogen atom abstraction from polar molecules, even though activation energies are negative because of the formation of pre-transition-state complexes. Comparison is made to the reactions of hydroxyl radicals with ammonia and with other compounds with primary C-H bonds to discuss specific features of disposal of energy to water product. PMID:27504785
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.
2014-12-01
Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.
Avalanche Photodiode Statistics in Triggered-avalanche Detection Mode
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tan, H. H.
1984-01-01
The output of a triggered avalanche mode avalanche photodiode is modeled as Poisson distributed primary avalanche events plus conditionally Poisson distributed trapped carrier induced secondary events. The moment generating function as well as the mean and variance of the diode output statistics are derived. The dispersion of the output statistics is shown to always exceed that of the Poisson distribution. Several examples are considered in detail.
Two-loop effective theory analysis of pi (K)-->enu[over ]_{e}[gamma] branching ratios.
Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Rosell, Ignasi
2007-12-01
We study the ratios R_{e/mu};{(P)} identical withGamma(P-->enu[over ]_{e}[gamma])/Gamma(P-->munu[over ]_{mu}[gamma]) (P=pi, K) in Chiral Perturbation Theory to order e;{2}p;{4}. We complement the two-loop effective theory results with a matching calculation of the counterterm, finding R_{e/mu};{(pi)}=(1.2352+/-0.0001)x10;{-4} and R_{e/mu};{(K)}=(2.477+/-0.001)x10;{-5}. PMID:18233356
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]
Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.
These dust avalanches are located in Hebes Chasma.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -1.4, Longitude 286.6 East (73.4 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puspitasari, Dewi; Indarto, Purnomo, Khasani
2016-06-01
Research on the T-junction is still underway for the flow of liquid-liquid (kerosene-water). Some research on the characteristics of kerosene-water separation was performed using T-junction oriented upward branch with a 60° angle. To observe the effect of diameters ratio on the phase separation that produced T-junction then made a test section with a horizontal pipe diameter 36 mm, while the side arm 36 mm diameter, 26 mm and 19 mm (diameters ratio of 1, 0.7 and 0.5) by using plexiglass pipe type. Based on experimental results and visualization of data flow in the test section, to the value obtained 60% water cut, the maximum separation efficiency of 94%, FK = 0.94 and FW = 0.001 with a diameter ratio of 1. For other diameter ratio of 0.7 and 0.5 respectively separation efficiency of 66%, FK = 1 and Fw = 0.34 for 0.7 and separation efficiency of 84%, FK = 1 and Fw = 0.16 for 0.5, the best value is obtained at a water cut 60% too. All the best conditions to achieve the above-stratified flow pattern.
Branching ratios and CP asymmetries of B{yields}a{sub 1}(1260){pi} and a{sub 1}(1260)K decays
Yang, K.-C.
2007-11-01
We present the studies of the decays B{yields}a{sub 1}(1260){pi} and a{sub 1}(1260)K within the framework of QCD factorization. Because of the G-parity, unlike the vector meson, the chiral-odd two-parton light-cone distribution amplitudes of the a{sub 1} are antisymmetric under the exchange of quark and antiquark momentum fractions in the SU(2) limit. The branching ratios for a{sub 1}{pi} modes are sensitive to tree-penguin interference. The resultant B(B{sup 0}{yields}a{sub 1}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {+-}}) are in good agreement with the data. However, using the current Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa angles, {beta}=22.0 deg. and {gamma}=59.0 deg., our results for the mixing-induced parameter S and {alpha}{sub eff} differ from the measurements of the time-dependent CP asymmetries in the decay B{sup 0}{yields}a{sub 1}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {+-}} at about the 3.7{sigma} level. This puzzle may be resolved by using a larger {gamma} > or approx. 80 deg. For a{sub 1}K modes, the annihilation topologies give sizable contributions and are sensitive to the first Gegenbauer moment of the leading-twist tensor (chiral-odd) distribution amplitude of the a{sub 1} meson. The B{yields}a{sub 1}K amplitudes resemble the corresponding B{yields}{pi}K ones very much. Taking the ratios of corresponding CP-averaged a{sub 1}K and {pi}K branching ratios, we can extract information relevant to the electroweak penguins and annihilations. The existence of new physics in the electroweak penguin sector and final-state interactions during decays can thus be explored.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Bina; Han, Yong-Chang; Bowman, Joel M.; Leonori, Francesca; Balucani, Nadia; Angelucci, Luca; Occhiogrosso, Angela; Petrucci, Raffaele; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio
2012-12-01
The reaction of O(3P) with C2H4, of importance in combustion and atmospheric chemistry, stands out as paradigm reaction involving not only the indicated triplet state potential energy surface (PES) but also an interleaved singlet PES that is coupled to the triplet surface. This reaction poses great challenges for theory and experiment, owing to the ruggedness and high dimensionality of these potentials, as well as the long lifetimes of the collision complexes. Crossed molecular beam (CMB) scattering experiments with soft electron ionization detection are used to disentangle the dynamics of this polyatomic multichannel reaction at a collision energy Ec of 8.4 kcal/mol. Five different primary products have been identified and characterized, which correspond to the five exothermic competing channels leading to H + CH2CHO, H + CH3CO, CH3 + HCO, CH2 + H2CO, and H2 + CH2CO. These experiments extend our previous CMB work at higher collision energy (Ec ˜ 13 kcal/mol) and when the results are combined with the literature branching ratios from kinetics experiments at room temperature (Ec ˜ 1 kcal/mol), permit to explore the variation of the branching ratios over a wide range of collision energies. In a synergistic fashion, full-dimensional, QCT surface hopping calculations of the O(3P) + C2H4 reaction using ab initio PESs for the singlet and triplet states and their coupling, are reported at collision energies corresponding to the CMB and the kinetics ones. Both theory and experiment find almost an equal contribution from the triplet and singlet surfaces to the reaction, as seen from the collision energy dependence of branching ratios of product channels and extent of intersystem crossing (ISC). Further detailed comparisons at the level of angular distributions and translational energy distributions are made between theory and experiment for the three primary radical channel products, H + CH2CHO, CH3 + HCO, and CH2 + H2CO. The very good agreement between theory and
Fu, Bina; Han, Yong-Chang; Bowman, Joel M; Leonori, Francesca; Balucani, Nadia; Angelucci, Luca; Occhiogrosso, Angela; Petrucci, Raffaele; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio
2012-12-14
The reaction of O((3)P) with C(2)H(4), of importance in combustion and atmospheric chemistry, stands out as paradigm reaction involving not only the indicated triplet state potential energy surface (PES) but also an interleaved singlet PES that is coupled to the triplet surface. This reaction poses great challenges for theory and experiment, owing to the ruggedness and high dimensionality of these potentials, as well as the long lifetimes of the collision complexes. Crossed molecular beam (CMB) scattering experiments with soft electron ionization detection are used to disentangle the dynamics of this polyatomic multichannel reaction at a collision energy E(c) of 8.4 kcal∕mol. Five different primary products have been identified and characterized, which correspond to the five exothermic competing channels leading to H + CH(2)CHO, H + CH(3)CO, CH(3) + HCO, CH(2) + H(2)CO, and H(2) + CH(2)CO. These experiments extend our previous CMB work at higher collision energy (E(c) ∼ 13 kcal∕mol) and when the results are combined with the literature branching ratios from kinetics experiments at room temperature (E(c) ∼ 1 kcal∕mol), permit to explore the variation of the branching ratios over a wide range of collision energies. In a synergistic fashion, full-dimensional, QCT surface hopping calculations of the O((3)P) + C(2)H(4) reaction using ab initio PESs for the singlet and triplet states and their coupling, are reported at collision energies corresponding to the CMB and the kinetics ones. Both theory and experiment find almost an equal contribution from the triplet and singlet surfaces to the reaction, as seen from the collision energy dependence of branching ratios of product channels and extent of intersystem crossing (ISC). Further detailed comparisons at the level of angular distributions and translational energy distributions are made between theory and experiment for the three primary radical channel products, H + CH(2)CHO, CH(3) + HCO, and CH(2) + H(2)CO
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rudolph, H.; Mckoy, V.; Dixit, S. N.; Huo, W. M.
1988-01-01
Results are presented for the rotationally resolved photoelectron spectra resulting from a (2 + 1) one-color resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) of NO via the rotationally clean S21(11.5) and mixed S11(15.5) + R21(15.5) branches of the 0-0 transition in the D-X band. The calculations were done in the fixed-nuclei frozen core approximation. The resulting photoionization spectra, convoluted with a Lorentzian detection function, agree qualitatively with experimental results of Viswanathan et al. (1986) and support their conclusion that the nonspherical nature of the molecular potential creates a substantial l-mixing in the continuum, which in turn leads to the intense Delta N = 0 peak. The rather strong photoelectron energy dependence of the rotational branching ratios of the D 2Sigma(+) S21(11.5) line was investigated and compared to the weak energy dependence of the A 2Sigma(+) R22(21.5) line.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Champine, Brian; Gooden, Matthew; Thomas, Keenan; Krishichayan, F.; Norman, Eric; Scielzo, Nick; Tonchev, Anton; Tornow, Werner
2015-10-01
The cross section of the 169Tm(n,3n)167Tm reaction has been measured from 17.5 to 21.5 MeV using activation technique. This energy region was chosen to resolve the two different trends of the previous (n,3n) cross section measurements on 169Tm. In addition, the branching ratio of the 207.8 keV γ-ray line stemming from electron capture of 167Tm was measured to be 0.419(16). The result of these measurements provide more accurate diagnostic estimation of the so called reaction-in-flight neutrons produced via the internal confinement fusion plasma in deuterium-tritium capsules at the National Ignition Facility.
Measurement of the branching ratio B(D+ -> ρ0 l+ νl)/B(D+ ->K*0 l+ νl)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aitala, E. M.; Amato, S.; Anjos, J. C.; Appel, J. A.; Ashery, D.; Banerjee, S.; Bediaga, I.; Blaylock, G.; Bracker, S. B.; Burchat, P. R.; Burnstein, R. A.; Carter, T.; Carvalho, H. S.; Copty, N. K.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Darling, C.; Denisenko, K.; Fernandez, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gounder, K.; Halling, A. M.; Herrera, G.; Hurvits, G.; James, C.; Kasper, P. A.; Kwan, S.; Langs, D. C.; Leslie, J.; Lundberg, B.; Maytal-Beck, S.; Meadows, B.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Milburn, R. H.; de Miranda, J. M.; Napier, A.; Nguyen, A.; D'Oliveira, A. B.; O'Shaughnessy, K.; Peng, K. C.; Perera, L. P.; Purohit, M. V.; Quinn, B.; Radeztsky, S.; Rafatian, A.; Reay, N. W.; Reidy, J. J.; Dos Reis, A. C.; Rubin, H. A.; Santha, A. K. S.; Santoro, A. F. S.; Schwartz, A. J.; Sheaff, M.; Sidwell, R. A.; Slaughter, A. J.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Stanton, N. R.; Stenson, K.; Summers, D. J.; Takach, S.; Thorne, K.; Tripathi, A. K.; Watanabe, S.; Weiss-Babai, R.; Wiener, J.; Witchey, N.; Wolin, E.; Yi, D.; Yoshida, S.; Zaliznyak, R.; Zhang, C.
1997-02-01
We report a measurement of the branching ratio B(D+ -> ρ0 l+ νl)/B(D+ -> K*0 l+ νl) from the Fermilab charm hadroproduction experiment E791. Based on signals of 49 +/- 17 events in the D+ -> ρ0 e+ νe mode and 54 +/- 18 events in the D+ -> ρ0 μ+ νμ mode, we measureB(D+ -> ρ0 e+ νe)/B(D+ -> K*0 e) νe) = 0.045 +/- 0.014 +/- 0.009,B(D+ -> ρ0 μ+ νμ)/B(D+ -> K*0 μ+ νμ) = 0.051 +/- 0.015 +/- 0.009. Combining the results from both the electronic and muonic modes, we obtainB(D+ -> ρ0 l+ νl)/B(D+ -> K*0 l+ νl) = 0.047 +/- 0.013. This result is compared to theoretical predictions.
Search for D0-D¯0 Mixing and Branching-Ratio Measurement in the Decay D0→K+π-π0
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Chen, J. C.; Qi, N. D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y. S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Button-Shafer, J.; Cahn, R. N.; Charles, E.; Gill, M. S.; Groysman, Y.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kadyk, J. A.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kukartsev, G.; Lynch, G.; Mir, L. M.; Orimoto, T. J.; Pripstein, M.; Roe, N. A.; Ronan, M. T.; Wenzel, W. A.; Sanchez, P. Del Amo; Barrett, M.; Ford, K. E.; Harrison, T. J.; Hart, A. J.; Hawkes, C. M.; Morgan, S. E.; Watson, A. T.; Held, T.; Koch, H.; Lewandowski, B.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Schroeder, T.; Steinke, M.; Boyd, J. T.; Burke, J. P.; Cottingham, W. N.; Walker, D.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Knecht, N. S.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Saleem, M.; Sherwood, D. J.; Teodorescu, L.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Best, D. S.; Bondioli, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Chao, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Mommsen, R. K.; Roethel, W.; Stoker, D. P.; Abachi, S.; Buchanan, C.; Foulkes, S. D.; Gary, J. W.; Long, O.; Shen, B. C.; Wang, K.; Zhang, L.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hill, E. J.; Paar, H. P.; Rahatlou, S.; Sharma, V.; Berryhill, J. W.; Campagnari, C.; Cunha, A.; Dahmes, B.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Flacco, C. J.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Nesom, G.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Spradlin, P.; Williams, D. C.; Wilson, M. G.; Albert, J.; Chen, E.; Dvoretskii, A.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Ryd, A.; Samuel, A.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Blanc, F.; Bloom, P. C.; Chen, S.; Ford, W. T.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Kreisel, A.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Olivas, A.; Ruddick, W. O.; Smith, J. G.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Zhang, J.; Chen, A.; Eckhart, E. A.; Soffer, A.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, R. J.; Winklmeier, F.; Zeng, Q.; Altenburg, D. D.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Brandt, T.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Mader, W. F.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, J.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Sundermann, J. E.; Volk, A.; Bernard, D.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Grenier, P.; Latour, E.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Gradl, W.; Muheim, F.; Playfer, S.; Robertson, A. I.; Xie, Y.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Prencipe, E.; Anulli, F.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Buzzo, A.; Capra, R.; Contri, R.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M. M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Santroni, A.; Tosi, S.; Brandenburg, G.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Wu, J.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Bard, D. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bowerman, D. A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Egede, U.; Flack, R. L.; Nash, J. A.; Nikolich, M. B.; Vazquez, W. Panduro; Behera, P. K.; Chai, X.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Meyer, N. T.; Ziegler, V.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gritsan, A. V.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Schott, G.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Grosdidier, G.; Höcker, A.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Oyanguren, A.; Pruvot, S.; Rodier, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Stocchi, A.; Wang, W. F.; Wormser, G.; Cheng, C. H.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Chavez, C. A.; Forster, I. J.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; George, K. A.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Schofield, K. C.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Lodovico, F. Di; Menges, W.; Sacco, R.; Cowan, G.; Flaecher, H. U.; Hopkins, D. A.; Jackson, P. S.; McMahon, T. R.; Ricciardi, S.; Salvatore, F.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Allison, J.; Barlow, N. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Chia, Y. M.; Edgar, C. L.; Lafferty, G. D.; Naisbit, M. T.; Williams, J. C.; Yi, J. I.; Chen, C.; Hulsbergen, W. D.; Jawahery, A.; Lae, C. K.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Blaylock, G.; Dallapiccola, C.; Hertzbach, S. S.; Li, X.; Moore, T. B.; Saremi, S.; Staengle, H.; Cowan, R.; Sciolla, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Spitznagel, M.; Taylor, F.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Kim, H.; McLachlin, S. E.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Eschenburg, V.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Brunet, S.; Côté, D.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Viaud, F. B.; Nicholson, H.; Cavallo, N.; de Nardo, G.; Fabozzi, F.; Gatto, C.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Paolucci, P.; Piccolo, D.; Sciacca, C.; Baak, M.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Losecco, J. M.; Allmendinger, T.; Benelli, G.; Gan, K. K.; Honscheid, K.; Hufnagel, D.; Jackson, P. D.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Rahimi, A. M.; Ter-Antonyan, R.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Gaz, A.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Pompili, A.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Benayoun, M.; Chauveau, J.; Briand, H.; David, P.; Del Buono, L.; de La Vaissière, Ch.; Hamon, O.; Hartfiel, B. L.; John, M. J. J.; Leruste, Ph.; Malclès, J.; Ocariz, J.; Roos, L.; Therin, G.; Gladney, L.; Panetta, J.; Biasini, M.; Covarelli, R.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bucci, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cenci, R.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Mazur, M. A.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Haire, M.; Judd, D.; Wagoner, D. E.; Biesiada, J.; Danielson, N.; Elmer, P.; Lau, Y. P.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Bellini, F.; Cavoto, G.; D'Orazio, A.; Del Re, D.; di Marco, E.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Polci, F.; Tehrani, F. Safai; Voena, C.; Ebert, M.; Schröder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; de Groot, N.; Franek, B.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Aleksan, R.; Emery, S.; Gaidot, A.; Ganzhur, S. F.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Kozanecki, W.; Legendre, M.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; Wilson, J. R.; Allen, M. T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Bechtle, P.; Berger, N.; Claus, R.; Coleman, J. P.; Convery, M. R.; Cristinziani, M.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dujmic, D.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Glanzman, T.; Gowdy, S. J.; Graham, M. T.; Halyo, V.; Hast, C.; Hryn'Ova, T.; Innes, W. R.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Li, S.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ozcan, V. E.; Perazzo, A.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Snyder, A.; Stelzer, J.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Thompson, J. M.; Va'Vra, J.; van Bakel, N.; Weaver, M.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yi, K.; Young, C. C.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Majewski, S. A.; Petersen, B. A.; Roat, C.; Wilden, L.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Bula, R.; Ernst, J. A.; Jain, V.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Wappler, F. R.; Zain, S. B.; Bugg, W.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Spanier, S. M.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Satpathy, A.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Ye, S.; Bianchi, F.; Gallo, F.; Gamba, D.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Cossutti, F.; Ricca, G. Della; Dittongo, S.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bhuyan, B.; Brown, C. M.; Fortin, D.; Hamano, K.; Kowalewski, R.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Pappagallo, M.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Cheng, B.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Flood, K. T.; Hollar, J. J.; Kutter, P. E.; Mellado, B.; Mihalyi, A.; Pan, Y.; Pierini, M.; Prepost, R.; Wu, S. L.; Yu, Z.; Neal, H.
2006-12-01
We analyze 230.4fb-1 of data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e+e- collider at SLAC to search for evidence of D0-D¯0 mixing using regions of phase space in the decay D0→K+π-π0. We measure the time-integrated mixing rate RM=(0.023-0.014+0.018(stat.)±0.004(syst.))%, and RM<0.054% at the 95% confidence level, assuming CP invariance. The data are consistent with no mixing at the 4.5% confidence level. We also measure the branching ratio for D0→K+π-π0 relative to D0→K-π+π0 to be (0.214±0.008(stat.)±0.008(syst.))%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Champine, B.; Gooden, M. E.; Krishichayan, Norman, E. B.; Scielzo, N. D.; Stoyer, M. A.; Thomas, K. J.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Wang, B. S.
2016-01-01
The cross section for the 169Tm(n ,3 n ) 167Tm reaction was measured from 17 to 22 MeV using quasimonoenergetic neutrons produced by the 2H(d ,n ) 3He reaction. This energy range was studied to resolve the discrepancy between previous (n ,3 n ) cross-section measurements. In addition, the absolute γ -ray branching ratios following the electron-capture decay of 167Tm were measured. These results provide more reliable nuclear data for an important diagnostic that is used at the National Ignition Facility to estimate the yield of reaction-in-flight neutrons produced via the inertial-confinement-fusion plasma in deuterium-tritium capsules.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Filer, Elizabeth D.; Barnes, Norman P.; Morrison, Clyde A.
1991-01-01
The calculated energy levels, the branching ratios, and the estimated thresholds for thulium operating on the 3F4 to 3H6 transitions are reported. Garnet materials with the general formula A3B2C3O12 are evaluated. Calculations are performed for the A side under the assumption of D2 symmetry. X-ray data available in the literature are used to evaluate the crystal-field components, A sub nm. Even-n components are employed to calculate the crystal-field splittings within the manifold. Thermal occupation factors are determined in a straightforward manner using a Boltzmann distribution for the respective manifolds. Odd-n components are applied to calculate the transition probabilities for electric field transitions. It is determined that the magnetic dipole contributions to the transition probability are comparable to the electric dipole contributions in some cases. Thresholds as a function of the density of thulium atoms are calculated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wohrer, K.; Sampoll, G.; Watson, R. L.; Chabot, M.; Heber, O.; Horvat, V.
1992-10-01
Data on the production and dissociation of COQ+ molecular ions (where Q=1 through 7) obtained by ion-ion coincidence time-of-flight measurements were analyzed to determine production yields, dissociation fractions, and branching ratios. A detailed comparison of the dissociation fractions for CO+ and CO2+ for several collision systems in the same perturbative regime revealed them to be quite similar, whereas the dissociation fraction for CO+ produced by valence-electron photoionization is a factor of 1.8 to 3.6 larger. The results for Q>=2 indicated a preference for dissociation channels leading to symmetric or nearly symmetric charge division. An enhancement of the total ionization yields for Q>4 was observed, and it suggests that electron transfer followed by LMM Auger decay plays an important role in determining the final charges of the dissociation products.
New measurement of BR(D+ ---> rho0 mu+ nu) / BR(D+ ---> anti-K*0 mu+ nu) branching ratio
Link, J.M.; Yager, P.M.; Anjos, J.C.; Bediaga, I.; Castromonte, C.; Machado, A.A.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; de Miranda, J.M.; Pepe, I.M.; Polycarpo, E.; dos Reis, A.C.; Carrillo, S.; Casimiro, E.; Cuautle, E.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Uribe, C.; Vazquez, F.; Agostino, L.; Cinquini, L.; Cumalat, J.P.; /Colorado U. /Fermilab /Frascati /Guanajuato U. /Illinois U., Urbana /Indiana U. /Korea U. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /North Carolina U. /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /Rio de Janeiro, Pont. U. Catol. /Puerto Rico U., Mayaguez /South Carolina U. /Tennessee U. /Vanderbilt U. /Wisconsin U., Madison
2005-11-01
Using data collected by the FOCUS experiment at Fermilab, the authors present a new measurement of the charm semileptonic branching ratio BR(D{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup 0}{mu}{sup +}{nu})/BR(D{sup +}{yields}{bar K}*{sup 0} {mu}{sup +}{nu}). From a sample of 320 {+-} 44 and 11,372 {+-} 161 D{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup 0}{mu}{sup +}{nu} and D{sup +} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{mu}{sup +}{nu} events respectively, they find BR(D{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup 0}{mu}{sup +}{nu})/BR(D{sup +}{yields}{bar K}*{sup 0} {mu}{sup +}{nu}) = 0.041 {+-} 0.006(stat) {+-} 0.004(syst).
Joseph, S; Caridade, P J S B; Varandas, A J C
2011-07-14
The recently proposed ab initio single-sheeted double many-body expansion potential energy for the methylene molecule has been used to perform quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) calculations for the title reaction. Thermal and initial state-specific (v = 0, j = 0) rate constants for the C((1)D) + H(2)/HD/D(2) reactions have been obtained over a wide range of temperatures. Cross sections for the reaction C((1)D) + H(2) and its deuterated isotopes have also been calculated, as well as the CD/CH branching ratios for the C((1)D) + HD reaction. It is found that the CD + H product channel in the C((1)D) + HD reaction is preferred relative to the CH + D channel. The estimated rate constants are predicted to be in the order k(H2) > k(HD) > k(D2) and the calculated cross sections and rate constants compared with available theoretical and experimental data. PMID:21644798
Iyutin, Boris; /MIT
2007-03-01
In this thesis they report the measurement of ratios of branching fractions: {Beta}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}), and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}D{sub s}{sup +})/{Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}), using 355 pb{sup -1} of data collected by CDF detector at the Tevatron p{bar p} collider at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV.
Search for D0-D0 mixing and branching-ratio measurement in the decay D0-->K+ pi- pi0.
Aubert, B; Barate, R; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; Briand, H; David, P
2006-12-01
We analyze 230.4 fb;{-1} of data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e;{+}e;{-} collider at SLAC to search for evidence of D0-D[over ];{0} mixing using regions of phase space in the decay D;{0}-->K;{+}pi;{-}pi;{0}. We measure the time-integrated mixing rate R_{M}=(0.023_{-0.014};{+0.018}(stat.)+/-0.004(syst.))%, and R_{M}<0.054% at the 95% confidence level, assuming CP invariance. The data are consistent with no mixing at the 4.5% confidence level. We also measure the branching ratio for D;{0}-->K;{+}pi;{-}pi;{0} relative to D;{0}-->K;{-}pi;{+}pi;{0} to be (0.214+/-0.008(stat.)+/-0.008(syst.))%. PMID:17155794
Tikhonravov Crater Dust Avalanches
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]
Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.
These dust avalanches are located within a small crater inside Tikhonravov Crater.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 12.6, Longitude 37.1 East (322.9 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]
Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.
These dust avalanches occur on the slopes of Lycus Sulci near Olympus Mons.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 28.1, Longitude 220.4 East (139.6 West). 18 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]
Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.
These dust avalanches are located in a small canyon within a crater rim northeast of Naktong Vallis.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 7.1, Longitude 34.7 East (325.3 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2005-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site]
Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.
This region of dust avalanches is located in and around a crater to the west of yesterday's image.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 14.7, Longitude 32.7 East (327.3 West). 18 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Integrated avalanche photodiode arrays
Harmon, Eric S.
2015-07-07
The present disclosure includes devices for detecting photons, including avalanche photon detectors, arrays of such detectors, and circuits including such arrays. In some aspects, the detectors and arrays include a virtual beveled edge mesa structure surrounded by resistive material damaged by ion implantation and having side wall profiles that taper inwardly towards the top of the mesa structures, or towards the direction from which the ion implantation occurred. Other aspects are directed to masking and multiple implantation and/or annealing steps. Furthermore, methods for fabricating and using such devices, circuits and arrays are disclosed.
Lee, Shih-Huang
2009-11-07
After the photolysis of acetaldehyde (CH{sub 3}CHO) at 157.6 nm in a molecular-beam apparatus using photofragment translational spectroscopy and vacuum-ultraviolet photoionization to detect products, we observed 13 photofragments associated with six primary dissociation channels and secondary dissociation of products CH{sub 3}CO and HCO. We measured time-of-flight spectra and spatial angular anisotropies of products and evaluated the branching ratios of products. All photoproducts have nearly isotropic angular distributions with an average |{beta}| value less than 0.05. Primary dissociations to CH{sub 3}CO+H and CH{sub 3}+HCO are two major paths; most CH{sub 3}CO subsequently decomposes spontaneously to CH{sub 3}+CO and CH{sub 2}CO+H and most HCO decomposes to H+CO. The ternary dissociation to CH{sub 3}+CO+H thus accounts for approximately half of the total branching. Dissociations to CH{sub 2}CO+H{sub 2} and CH{sub 2}+CH{sub 2}O are observable, but the production of CH{sub 4}+CO is ambiguous. The productions of C{sub 2}H{sub 3}+OH and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O indicate that isomerization from acetaldehyde to ethenol occurs before fragmentation. After photoexcitation to the n-3p state, most acetaldehyde converts into states T{sub 1} and S{sub 0} but a little isomerizes to ethenol followed by multichannel decomposition.
Neuronal avalanches and learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Arcangelis, Lucilla
2011-05-01
Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behaviour of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behaviour is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. Spontaneous neuronal activity has recently shown features in common to other complex systems. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. These avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution for the size and duration, features found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behaviour. In this contribution we discuss a statistical mechanical model for the complex activity in a neuronal network. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. Then, we discuss the learning abilities of this neuronal network. Learning occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths by a non-uniform negative feedback mechanism. The system is able to learn all the tested rules, in particular the exclusive OR (XOR) and a random rule with three inputs. The learning dynamics exhibits universal features as function of the strength of plastic adaptation. Any rule could be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chabot, M.; Tuna, T.; Béroff, K.; Pino, T.; Le Padellec, A.; Désequelles, P.; Martinet, G.; Nguyen-Thi, V. O.; Carpentier, Y.; Le Petit, F.; Roueff, E.; Wakelam, V.
2010-12-01
Context. Fragmentation-branching ratios of electronically excited molecular species are of first importance for the modeling of gas phase interstellar chemistry. Despite experimental and theoretical efforts that have been done during the last two decades there is still a strong lack of detailed information on those quantities for many molecules such as Cn, CnH or C3H2. Aims: Our aim is to provide astrochemical databases with more realistic branching ratios for Cn (n = 2 to 10), CnH (n = 2 to 4), and C3H2 molecules that are electronically excited either by dissociative recombination, photodissociation, or cosmic ray processes, when no detailed calculations or measurements exist in literature. Methods: High velocity collision in an inverse kinematics scheme was used to measure the complete fragmentation pattern of electronically excited Cn (n = 2 to 10), CnH (n = 2 to 4), and C3H2 molecules. Branching ratios of dissociation where deduced from those experiments. The full set of branching ratios was used as a new input in chemical models and branching ratio modification effects observed in astrochemical networks that describe the dense cold Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 and the photon dominated Horse Head region. Results: The comparison between the branching ratios obtained in this work and other types of experiments showed a good agreement. It was interpreted as the signature of a statistical behavior of the fragmentation. The branching ratios we obtained lead to an increase of the C3 production together with a larger dispersion of the daughter fragments. The introduction of these new values in the photon dominated region model of the Horse Head nebula increases the abundance of C3 and C3H, but reduces the abundances of the larger Cn and hydrocarbons at a visual extinction AV smaller than 4. Conclusions: We recommend astrochemists to use these new branching ratios. The data published here have been added to the online database KIDA (KInetic Database for Astrochemistry
Abulencia, A.; Acosta, D.; Adelman, Jahred A.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /Argonne /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Baylor U. /INFN, Bologna /Brandeis U. /UC, Davis /UCLA /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.
2006-05-01
The authors present a measurement of R{sub B}, the ratio of the branching fraction for the rare decay D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} to that for the Cabibbo-favored decay D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}. Charge conjugate decays are implicitly included. A signal of 2005 {+-} 104 events for the decay D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} is obtained using the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 0.35 fb{sup -1} produced in {bar p}p collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Assuming no mixing, they find R{sub B} = [4.05 {+-} 0.21(stat) {+-} 0.11(syst)] x 10{sup -3}. This measurement is consistent with the world average, and comparable in accuracy with the best measurements from other experiments.
Statistical Evaluation of Waveform Collapse Reveals Scale-Free Properties of Neuronal Avalanches
Shaukat, Aleena; Thivierge, Jean-Philippe
2016-01-01
Neural avalanches are a prominent form of brain activity characterized by network-wide bursts whose statistics follow a power-law distribution with a slope near 3/2. Recent work suggests that avalanches of different durations can be rescaled and thus collapsed together. This collapse mirrors work in statistical physics where it is proposed to form a signature of systems evolving in a critical state. However, no rigorous statistical test has been proposed to examine the degree to which neuronal avalanches collapse together. Here, we describe a statistical test based on functional data analysis, where raw avalanches are first smoothed with a Fourier basis, then rescaled using a time-warping function. Finally, an F ratio test combined with a bootstrap permutation is employed to determine if avalanches collapse together in a statistically reliable fashion. To illustrate this approach, we recorded avalanches from cortical cultures on multielectrode arrays as in previous work. Analyses show that avalanches of various durations can be collapsed together in a statistically robust fashion. However, a principal components analysis revealed that the offset of avalanches resulted in marked variance in the time-warping function, thus arguing for limitations to the strict fractal nature of avalanche dynamics. We compared these results with those obtained from cultures treated with an AMPA/NMDA receptor antagonist (APV/DNQX), which yield a power-law of avalanche durations with a slope greater than 3/2. When collapsed together, these avalanches showed marked misalignments both at onset and offset time-points. In sum, the proposed statistical evaluation suggests the presence of scale-free avalanche waveforms and constitutes an avenue for examining critical dynamics in neuronal systems. PMID:27092071
Statistical Evaluation of Waveform Collapse Reveals Scale-Free Properties of Neuronal Avalanches.
Shaukat, Aleena; Thivierge, Jean-Philippe
2016-01-01
Neural avalanches are a prominent form of brain activity characterized by network-wide bursts whose statistics follow a power-law distribution with a slope near 3/2. Recent work suggests that avalanches of different durations can be rescaled and thus collapsed together. This collapse mirrors work in statistical physics where it is proposed to form a signature of systems evolving in a critical state. However, no rigorous statistical test has been proposed to examine the degree to which neuronal avalanches collapse together. Here, we describe a statistical test based on functional data analysis, where raw avalanches are first smoothed with a Fourier basis, then rescaled using a time-warping function. Finally, an F ratio test combined with a bootstrap permutation is employed to determine if avalanches collapse together in a statistically reliable fashion. To illustrate this approach, we recorded avalanches from cortical cultures on multielectrode arrays as in previous work. Analyses show that avalanches of various durations can be collapsed together in a statistically robust fashion. However, a principal components analysis revealed that the offset of avalanches resulted in marked variance in the time-warping function, thus arguing for limitations to the strict fractal nature of avalanche dynamics. We compared these results with those obtained from cultures treated with an AMPA/NMDA receptor antagonist (APV/DNQX), which yield a power-law of avalanche durations with a slope greater than 3/2. When collapsed together, these avalanches showed marked misalignments both at onset and offset time-points. In sum, the proposed statistical evaluation suggests the presence of scale-free avalanche waveforms and constitutes an avenue for examining critical dynamics in neuronal systems. PMID:27092071
Neuronal avalanches and coherence potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plenz, D.
2012-05-01
The mammalian cortex consists of a vast network of weakly interacting excitable cells called neurons. Neurons must synchronize their activities in order to trigger activity in neighboring neurons. Moreover, interactions must be carefully regulated to remain weak (but not too weak) such that cascades of active neuronal groups avoid explosive growth yet allow for activity propagation over long-distances. Such a balance is robustly realized for neuronal avalanches, which are defined as cortical activity cascades that follow precise power laws. In experiments, scale-invariant neuronal avalanche dynamics have been observed during spontaneous cortical activity in isolated preparations in vitro as well as in the ongoing cortical activity of awake animals and in humans. Theory, models, and experiments suggest that neuronal avalanches are the signature of brain function near criticality at which the cortex optimally responds to inputs and maximizes its information capacity. Importantly, avalanche dynamics allow for the emergence of a subset of avalanches, the coherence potentials. They emerge when the synchronization of a local neuronal group exceeds a local threshold, at which the system spawns replicas of the local group activity at distant network sites. The functional importance of coherence potentials will be discussed in the context of propagating structures, such as gliders in balanced cellular automata. Gliders constitute local population dynamics that replicate in space after a finite number of generations and are thought to provide cellular automata with universal computation. Avalanches and coherence potentials are proposed to constitute a modern framework of cortical synchronization dynamics that underlies brain function.
Avalanche effects near nanojunctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nandigana, Vishal V. R.; Aluru, N. R.
2016-07-01
In this article, we perform a computational investigation of a nanopore connected to external fluidic reservoirs of asymmetric geometries. The asymmetry between the reservoirs is achieved by changing the cross-sectional areas, and the reservoirs are designated as the micropore reservoir and macropore reservoir. When an electric field is applied, which is directed from the macropore towards the micropore reservoir, we observe local nonequilibrium chaotic current oscillations. The current oscillations originate at the micropore-nanopore interface owing to the local cascade of ions; we refer to this phenomenon as the "avalanche effects." We mathematically quantify chaos in terms of the maximum Lyapunov exponent. The maximum Lyapunov exponent exhibits a monotonic increase with the applied voltage and the macropore reservoir diameter. The temporal power spectra maps of the chaotic currents depict a low-frequency "1 /f "-type dynamics for the voltage chaos and "1 /f2 "-type dynamics for the macropore reservoir chaos. The results presented here offer avenues to manipulate ionic diodes and fluidic pumps.
Ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McClintock, Ryan; Razeghi, Manijeh
2015-08-01
The III-Nitride material system is rapidly maturing; having proved itself as a material for LEDs and laser, and now finding use in the area of UV photodetectors. However, many UV applications are still dominated by the use of photomultiplier tubes (PMT). PMTs are capable of obtaining very high sensitivity using internal electron multiplication gain (typically ~106). It is highly desirable to develop a compact semiconductor-based photodetector capable of realizing this level of sensitivity. In principle, this can be obtained in III-Nitrides by taking advantage of avalanche multiplication under high electric fields - typically 2.7 MV/cm, which with proper design can correspond to an external reverse bias of less than 100 volts. In this talk, we review the current state-of-the-art in III-Nitride solar- and visible-blind APDs, and present our latest results on GaN APDs grown on both conventional sapphire and low dislocation density free-standing c- and m-plane GaN substrates. Leakage current, gain, and single photon detection efficiency (SPDE) of these APDs were compared. The spectral response and Geiger-mode photon counting performance of UV APDs are studied under low photon fluxes, with single photon detection capabilities as much as 30% being demonstrated in smaller devices. Geiger-mode operation conditions are optimized for enhanced SPDE.
Avalanche effects near nanojunctions.
Nandigana, Vishal V R; Aluru, N R
2016-07-01
In this article, we perform a computational investigation of a nanopore connected to external fluidic reservoirs of asymmetric geometries. The asymmetry between the reservoirs is achieved by changing the cross-sectional areas, and the reservoirs are designated as the micropore reservoir and macropore reservoir. When an electric field is applied, which is directed from the macropore towards the micropore reservoir, we observe local nonequilibrium chaotic current oscillations. The current oscillations originate at the micropore-nanopore interface owing to the local cascade of ions; we refer to this phenomenon as the "avalanche effects." We mathematically quantify chaos in terms of the maximum Lyapunov exponent. The maximum Lyapunov exponent exhibits a monotonic increase with the applied voltage and the macropore reservoir diameter. The temporal power spectra maps of the chaotic currents depict a low-frequency "1/f"-type dynamics for the voltage chaos and "1/f^{2}"-type dynamics for the macropore reservoir chaos. The results presented here offer avenues to manipulate ionic diodes and fluidic pumps. PMID:27575159
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Powis, I.; Holland, D. M. P.; Antonsson, E.; Patanen, M.; Nicolas, C.; Miron, C.; Schneider, M.; Soshnikov, D. Yu.; Dreuw, A.; Trofimov, A. B.
2015-10-01
Angle resolved photoelectron spectra of the X ˜ 2 B 1 , A ˜ 2 A 2 , B ˜ 2 B 2 , and C ˜ 2 B 1 states of bromobenzene have been recorded over the excitation range 20.5-94 eV using linearly polarized synchrotron radiation. The photoelectron anisotropy parameters and electronic branching ratios derived from these spectra have been compared to theoretical predictions obtained with the continuum multiple scattering approach. This comparison shows that ionization from the 8b2 orbital and, to a lesser extent, the 4b1 orbital is influenced by the Cooper minimum associated with the bromine atom. The 8b2 and 4b1 orbitals are nominally bromine lone-pairs, but the latter orbital interacts strongly with the π-orbitals in the benzene ring and this leads to a reduced atomic character. Simulations of the X ˜ 2 B 1 , B ˜ 2 B 2 , and C ˜ 2 B 1 state photoelectron bands have enabled most of the vibrational structures appearing in the experimental spectra to be assigned. Many of the photoelectron peaks exhibit an asymmetric shape with a tail towards low binding energy. This asymmetry has been examined in the simulations of the vibrationally unexcited peak, due mainly to the adiabatic transition, in the X ˜ 2 B 1 state photoelectron band. The simulations show that the asymmetric profile arises from hot-band transitions. The inclusion of transitions originating from thermally populated levels results in a satisfactory agreement between the experimental and simulated peak shapes.
Correlations in avalanche critical points.
Cerruti, Benedetta; Vives, Eduard
2009-07-01
Avalanche dynamics and related power-law statistics are ubiquitous in nature, arising in phenomena such as earthquakes, forest fires, and solar flares. Very interestingly, an analogous behavior is associated with many condensed-matter systems, such as ferromagnets and martensites. Bearing it in mind, we study the prototypical random-field Ising model at T=0. We find a finite correlation between waiting intervals and the previous avalanche size. This correlation is not found in other models for avalanches but it is experimentally found in earthquakes and in forest fires. Our study suggests that this effect occurs in critical points that are at the end of a first-order discontinuity separating two regimes: one with high activity from another with low activity. PMID:19658651
Avalanche Collapse of Interdependent Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baxter, G. J.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Goltsev, A. V.; Mendes, J. F. F.
2012-12-01
We reveal the nature of the avalanche collapse of the giant viable component in multiplex networks under perturbations such as random damage. Specifically, we identify latent critical clusters associated with the avalanches of random damage. Divergence of their mean size signals the approach to the hybrid phase transition from one side, while there are no critical precursors on the other side. We find that this discontinuous transition occurs in scale-free multiplex networks whenever the mean degree of at least one of the interdependent networks does not diverge.
Vanuzzo, Gianmarco; Balucani, Nadia; Leonori, Francesca; Stranges, Domenico; Nevrly, Vaclav; Falcinelli, Stefano; Bergeat, Astrid; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio; Cavallotti, Carlo
2016-07-14
We performed synergic experimental/theoretical studies on the mechanism of the O((3)P) + propyne reaction by combining crossed molecular beams experiments with mass-spectrometric detection and time-of-flight analysis at 9.2 kcal/mol collision energy (Ec) with ab initio electronic structure calculations at a high level of theory of the relevant triplet and singlet potential energy surfaces (PESs) and statistical calculations of branching ratios (BRs) taking into account intersystem crossing (ISC). In this paper (I) we report the results of the experimental investigation, while the accompanying paper (II) shows results of the theoretical investigation with comparison to experimental results. By exploiting soft electron ionization detection to suppress/mitigate the effects of the dissociative ionization of reactants, products, and background gases, product angular and velocity distributions at different charge-to-mass ratios were measured. From the laboratory data angular and translational energy distributions in the center-of-mass system were obtained for the five competing most important product channels, and product BRs were derived. The reactive interaction of O((3)P) with propyne under single collision conditions is mainly leading to the rupture of the three-carbon atom chain, with production of the radical products methylketenyl + atomic hydrogen (BR = 0.04), methyl + ketenyl (BR = 0.10), and vinyl + formyl (BR = 0.11) and the molecular products ethylidene/ethylene + carbon monoxide (BR = 0.74) and propandienal + molecular hydrogen (BR = 0.01). Because some of the products can only be formed via ISC from the entrance triplet to the low-lying singlet PES, we infer from their BRs an amount of ISC larger than 80%. This value is dramatically large when compared to the negligible ISC reported for the O((3)P) reaction with the simplest alkyne, acetylene. At the same time, it is much larger than that (∼20%) recently observed in the related reaction of the three
Ward, Sally P; Leyser, Ottoline
2004-02-01
The mature form of a plant shoot system is an expression of several genetically controlled traits, many of which are also environmentally regulated. A major component of this architectural variation is the degree of shoot branching. Recent results indicate conserved mechanisms for shoot branch development across the monocots and eudicots. The existence of a novel long-range branch-inhibiting signal has been inferred from studies of branching mutants in pea and Arabidopsis. PMID:14732444
Germanium avalanche receiver for low power interconnects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Virot, Léopold; Crozat, Paul; Fédéli, Jean-Marc; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Cassan, Eric; Boeuf, Frédéric; Vivien, Laurent
2014-09-01
Recent advances in silicon photonics have aided the development of on-chip communications. Power consumption, however, remains an issue in almost all integrated devices. Here, we report a 10 Gbit per second waveguide avalanche germanium photodiode under low reverse bias. The avalanche photodiode scheme requires only simple technological steps that are fully compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes and do not need nanometre accuracy and/or complex epitaxial growth schemes. An intrinsic gain higher than 20 was demonstrated under a bias voltage as low as -7 V. The Q-factor relating to the signal-to-noise ratio at 10 Gbit per second was maintained over 20 dB without the use of a trans-impedance amplifier for an input optical power lower than -26 dBm thanks to an aggressive shrinkage of the germanium multiplication region. A maximum gain over 140 was also obtained for optical powers below -35 dBm. These results pave the way for low-power-consumption on-chip communication applications.
Lumped transmission line avalanche pulser
Booth, R.
1995-07-18
A lumped linear avalanche transistor pulse generator utilizes stacked transistors in parallel within a stage and couples a plurality of said stages, in series with increasing zener diode limited voltages per stage and decreasing balanced capacitance load per stage to yield a high voltage, high and constant current, very short pulse. 8 figs.
Lumped transmission line avalanche pulser
Booth, Rex
1995-01-01
A lumped linear avalanche transistor pulse generator utilizes stacked transistors in parallel within a stage and couples a plurality of said stages, in series with increasing zener diode limited voltages per stage and decreasing balanced capacitance load per stage to yield a high voltage, high and constant current, very short pulse.
Experimental Avalanches in a Rotating Drum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hubard, Aline; O'Hern, Corey; Shattuck, Mark
We address the question of universality in granular avalanches and the system size effects on it. We set up an experiment made from a quasi-two-dimensional rotating drum half-filled with a monolayer of stainless-steel spheres. We measure the size of the avalanches created by the increased gravitational stress on the pile as we quasi-statically rotate the drum. We find two kinds of avalanches determined by the drum size. The size and duration distributions of the avalanches that do not span the whole system follow a power law and the avalanche shapes are self-similar and nearly parabolic. The distributions of the avalanches that span the whole system are limited by the maximal amount of potential energy stored in the system at the moment of the avalanche. NSF CMMI-1462439, CMMI-1463455.
Retrieving avalanche basal friction law parameters from high rate positioning of avalanches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pulfer, Gaëtan; Naaim, Mohamed; Thibert, Emmanuel; Soruco, Alvaro
2015-04-01
The Voellmy avalanche basal friction parameters are retrieved from high rate positioning of artificially released avalanches. Avalanche fronts were tracked thanks to an accurate photogrammetric system set up at the Lautaret full-scale avalanche test-site (French Alps). Couples of images were acquired at 1 frame per second with 2 APS-C DSLR synchronized cameras set at 800 meters from the avalanche track. The avalanche height and velocity are also measured at a fixed location in the avalanche track. Rheological parameters of the avalanche flow are reconstructed by an inverse optimization method using these in situ data. The direct model is a Saint-Venant type model were basal friction is parameterized according to the Voellmy's friction law. A Sensitivity analysis of the friction parameters is conducted and theirs uncertainty are determined. Finally the results obtained from different avalanches are compared and discussed.
Two-threshold model for scaling laws of noninteracting snow avalanches
Faillettaz, J.; Louchet, F.; Grasso, J.-R.
2004-01-01
A two-threshold model was proposed for scaling laws of noninteracting snow avalanches. It was found that the sizes of the largest avalanches just preceding the lattice system were power-law distributed. The proposed model reproduced the range of power-law exponents observe for land, rock or snow avalanches, by tuning the maximum value of the ratio of the two failure thresholds. A two-threshold 2D cellular automation was introduced to study the scaling for gravity-driven systems.
Quantitative Scaling of Magnetic Avalanches.
Durin, G; Bohn, F; Corrêa, M A; Sommer, R L; Le Doussal, P; Wiese, K J
2016-08-19
We provide the first quantitative comparison between Barkhausen noise experiments and recent predictions from the theory of avalanches for pinned interfaces, both in and beyond mean field. We study different classes of soft magnetic materials, including polycrystals and amorphous samples-which are characterized by long-range and short-range elasticity, respectively-both for thick and thin samples, i.e., with and without eddy currents. The temporal avalanche shape at fixed size as well as observables related to the joint distribution of sizes and durations are analyzed in detail. Both long-range and short-range samples with no eddy currents are fitted extremely well by the theoretical predictions. In particular, the short-range samples provide the first reliable test of the theory beyond mean field. The thick samples show systematic deviations from the scaling theory, providing unambiguous signatures for the presence of eddy currents. PMID:27588876
Quantitative Scaling of Magnetic Avalanches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durin, G.; Bohn, F.; Corrêa, M. A.; Sommer, R. L.; Le Doussal, P.; Wiese, K. J.
2016-08-01
We provide the first quantitative comparison between Barkhausen noise experiments and recent predictions from the theory of avalanches for pinned interfaces, both in and beyond mean field. We study different classes of soft magnetic materials, including polycrystals and amorphous samples—which are characterized by long-range and short-range elasticity, respectively—both for thick and thin samples, i.e., with and without eddy currents. The temporal avalanche shape at fixed size as well as observables related to the joint distribution of sizes and durations are analyzed in detail. Both long-range and short-range samples with no eddy currents are fitted extremely well by the theoretical predictions. In particular, the short-range samples provide the first reliable test of the theory beyond mean field. The thick samples show systematic deviations from the scaling theory, providing unambiguous signatures for the presence of eddy currents.
Neuronal avalanches and brain plasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Arcangelis, L.; Herrmann, H. J.; Perrone-Capano, C.
2007-12-01
Networks of living neurons exhibit an avalanche mode of activity, experimentally found in organotypic cultures. Moreover, experimental studies of morphology indicate that neurons develop a network of small-world-like connections, with the possibility of a very high connectivity degree. Here we discuss a recent model based on self-organized criticality, which consists of an electrical network with threshold firing and activity-dependent synapse strengths. The model is implemented on regular and small world lattices and on a scale-free network, the Apollonian network. The system exhibits an avalanche activity with a power law distribution of sizes and durations. The analysis of the power spectra of the electrical signal reproduces very robustly the power law behaviour with the exponent 0.8, experimentally measured in electroencephalogram (EEG) spectra. The exponents are found to be quite stable with respect to initial configurations and strength of plastic remodelling, indicating that universality holds for a wide class of neural network models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Štigler, J.; Šperka, O.; Klas, R.
2012-11-01
This article deals with a fluid flow in the pipe junction. The comparison of the pipe junction characteristics obtained from the experiment with the pipe junction characteristics obtained from the numerical modelling using the CFD software will be discussed in this article. All measurements are done for the case of 50 mm diameter of the straight pipe and 20 mm diameter of the adjacent branch with five different angles. There are six possible flow configurations for this pipe junction. Three of them are cases of the flow combination and three of them are cases of the flow division. Only results for the flow combination are presented in this paper.
Measurement of branching ratio and B0s lifetime in the decay B0s → J/ψ f0(980) at CDF
Aaltonen, T.
2011-09-30
We present a study of Bs0 decays to the CP-odd final state J/ψ f0(980) with J/ψ → µ+µ- and f0(980) → π+π-. Using pp̄ collision data with an integrated luminosity of 3.8 fb-1 collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron we measure a Bs0 lifetime of τ(B0s → J/ψ f0(980)) = 1.70-0.11+0.12(stat) ± 0.03(syst) ps. This is the first measurement of the Bs0} lifetime in a decay to a CP eigenstate and corresponds in the standard model to the lifetime of the heavy Bs0 eigenstate. We also measure the product of branching fractions of B0s → J/ψ f0(980)more » and f0(980) → π+π- relative to the product of branching fractions of B0s → J/ψφ and φ→K+K- to be Rf0/ψ = 0.257 ± 0.020(stat) ± 0.014(syst), which is the most precise determination of this quantity to date.« less
Avalanche dynamics of elastic interfaces.
Le Doussal, Pierre; Wiese, Kay Jörg
2013-08-01
Slowly driven elastic interfaces, such as domain walls in dirty magnets, contact lines wetting a nonhomogeneous substrate, or cracks in brittle disordered material proceed via intermittent motion, called avalanches. Here we develop a field-theoretic treatment to calculate, from first principles, the space-time statistics of instantaneous velocities within an avalanche. For elastic interfaces at (or above) their (internal) upper critical dimension d≥d(uc) (d(uc)=2,4 respectively for long-ranged and short-ranged elasticity) we show that the field theory for the center of mass reduces to the motion of a point particle in a random-force landscape, which is itself a random walk [Alessandro, Beatrice, Bertotti, and Montorsi (ABBM) model]. Furthermore, the full spatial dependence of the velocity correlations is described by the Brownian-force model (BFM) where each point of the interface sees an independent Brownian-force landscape. Both ABBM and BFM can be solved exactly in any dimension d (for monotonous driving) by summing tree graphs, equivalent to solving a (nonlinear) instanton equation. We focus on the limit of slow uniform driving. This tree approximation is the mean-field theory (MFT) for realistic interfaces in short-ranged disorder, up to the renormalization of two parameters at d=d(uc). We calculate a number of observables of direct experimental interest: Both for the center of mass, and for a given Fourier mode q, we obtain various correlations and probability distribution functions (PDF's) of the velocity inside an avalanche, as well as the avalanche shape and its fluctuations (second shape). Within MFT we find that velocity correlations at nonzero q are asymmetric under time reversal. Next we calculate, beyond MFT, i.e., including loop corrections, the one-time PDF of the center-of-mass velocity u[over ·] for dimension d
Avalanche ecology and large magnitude avalanche events: Glacier National Park, Montana, USA
Fagre, Daniel B.; Peitzsch, Erich H.
2010-01-01
Large magnitude snow avalanches play an important role ecologically in terms of wildlife habitat, vegetation diversity, and sediment transport within a watershed. Ecological effects from these infrequent avalanches can last for decades. Understanding the frequency of such large magnitude avalanches is also critical to avalanche forecasting for the Going-to-the-Sun Road (GTSR). In January 2009, a large magnitude avalanche cycle occurred in and around Glacier National Park, Montana. The study site is the Little Granite avalanche path located along the GTSR. The study is designed to quantify change in vegetative cover immediately after a large magnitude event and document ecological response over a multi-year period. GPS field mapping was completed to determine the redefined perimeter of the avalanche path. Vegetation was inventoried using modified U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plots, cross sections were taken from over 100 dead trees throughout the avalanche path, and an avalanche chronology was developed. Initial results indicate that the perimeter of this path was expanded by 30%. The avalanche travelled approximately 1200 vertical meters and 3 linear kilometers. Stands of large conifers as old as 150 years were decimated by the avalanche, causing a shift in dominant vegetation types in many parts of the avalanche path. Woody debris is a major ground cover up to 3 m in depth on lower portions of the avalanche path and will likely affect tree regrowth. Monitoring and measuring the post-avalanche vegetation recovery of this particular avalanche path provides a unique dataset for determining the ecological role of avalanches in mountain landscapes.
Highly enhanced avalanche probability using sinusoidally-gated silicon avalanche photodiode
Suzuki, Shingo; Namekata, Naoto Inoue, Shuichiro; Tsujino, Kenji
2014-01-27
We report on visible light single photon detection using a sinusoidally-gated silicon avalanche photodiode. Detection efficiency of 70.6% was achieved at a wavelength of 520 nm when an electrically cooled silicon avalanche photodiode with a quantum efficiency of 72.4% was used, which implies that a photo-excited single charge carrier in a silicon avalanche photodiode can trigger a detectable avalanche (charge) signal with a probability of 97.6%.
Snowfall and avalanche synchronization: beyond observational statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crouzy, Benoît; Forclaz, Romain; Sovilla, Betty; Corripio, Javier; Perona, Paolo
2015-04-01
We present a methodology for quantifying the synchronization between snowfall and avalanches in relation to slope and terrain properties at the detachment zone. Focusing on a particular field situation (SLF study site, Vallée de la Sionne, Valais, Switzerland), we present a dataset consisting of 549 avalanche events and use a stochastic framework (Perona et al., Proceedings of the Royal Society A, 2012) for capturing the avalanche statistics with a minimal number of ingredients. Over the observation period (7 years), meteorological data was collected and pictures of the slope were taken every 30 minutes. For the avalanche events, slope, aspect, coordinates and altitude of the detachment zone are available from georeferenced images, and the timing of the events can be obtained from selecting the images before and after avalanche events. All model parameters can directly be computed from meteorological data (snow depth evolution), except for one parameter: the state-dependent avalanche release rate, which aggregates the influence of slope and terrain properties. From the timing distribution of the precipitation events and of the avalanche events, we calibrate the model and fix the value of the missing parameter by maximizing the likelihood of the field observations, conditional to the value of the model parameter. We carefully discuss confidence intervals for our parameter estimation. The calibrated model allows us to obtain statistical properties of the avalanches in our study site, beyond observational statistics. We compute the synchronization between snowfall and avalanches for low and high slopes, which in turn allows us to derive the return period of avalanche events (dependent and independent on the release depth). We obtain the critical event magnitude above which the return period of avalanche events with release depth h* is shorter than the return period of snowfall with equal deposited snow depth h*. Finally, using the concept of information entropy, we
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tost, M.; Cronin, S. J.; Procter, J. N.
2014-12-01
The steep flanks of composite volcanoes are prone to collapse, producing debris avalanches that completely reshape the landscape. This study describes new insights into the runout of large debris avalanches enhanced by topography, using the example of six debris avalanche deposits from Mount Ruapehu, New Zealand. Individual large flank collapses (>1 km3) produced all of these units, with four not previously recognised. Five major valleys within the highly dissected landscape surrounding Mount Ruapehu channelled the debris avalanches into deep gorges (≥15 m) and resulted in extremely long debris avalanche runouts of up to 80 km from source. Classical sedimentary features of debris avalanche deposits preserved in these units include the following: very poor sorting with a clay-sand matrix hosting large subrounded boulders up to 5 m in diameter, jigsaw-fractured clasts, deformed clasts and numerous rip-up clasts of late-Pliocene marine sediments. The unusually long runouts led to unique features in distal deposits, including a pervasive and consolidated interclast matrix, and common rip-up clasts of Tertiary mudstone, as well as fluvial gravels and boulders. The great travel distances can be explained by the debris avalanches entering deep confined channels (≥15 m), where friction was minimised by a reduced basal contact area along with loading of water-saturated substrates which formed a basal lubrication zone for the overlying flowing mass. Extremely long-runout debris avalanches are most likely to occur in settings where initially partly saturated collapsing masses move down deep valleys and become thoroughly liquified at their base. This happens when pore water is available within the base of the flowing mass or in the sediments immediately below it. Based on their H/L ratio, confined volcanic debris avalanches are two to three times longer than unconfined, spreading flows of similar volume. The hybrid qualities of the deposits, which have some similarities to
A probabilistic model for snow avalanche occurrence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perona, P.; Miescher, A.; Porporato, A.
2009-04-01
Avalanche hazard forecasting is an important issue in relation to the protection of urbanized environments, ski resorts and of ski-touring alpinists. A critical point is to predict the conditions that trigger the snow mass instability determining the onset and the size of avalanches. On steep terrains the risk of avalanches is known to be related to preceding consistent snowfall events and to subsequent changes in the local climatic conditions. Regression analysis has shown that avalanche occurrence indeed correlates to the amount of snow fallen in consecutive three snowing days and to the state of the settled snow at the ground. Moreover, since different type of avalanches may occur as a result of the interactions of different factors, the process of snow avalanche formation is inherently complex and with some degree of unpredictability. For this reason, although several models assess the risk of avalanche by accounting for all the involved processes with a great detail, a high margin of uncertainty invariably remains. In this work, we explicitly describe such an unpredictable behaviour with an intrinsic noise affecting the processes leading snow instability. Eventually, this sets the basis for a minimalist stochastic model, which allows us to investigate the avalanche dynamics and its statistical properties. We employ a continuous time process with stochastic jumps (snowfalls), deterministic decay (snowmelt and compaction) and state dependent avalanche occurrence (renewals) as a minimalist model for the determination of avalanche size and related intertime occurrence. The physics leading to avalanches is simplified to the extent where only meteorological data and terrain data are necessary to estimate avalanche danger. We explore the analytical formulation of the process and the properties of the probability density function of the avalanche process variables. We also discuss what is the probabilistic link between avalanche size and preceding snowfall event and
Time Directed Avalanches in Invasion Models
Maslov, S. Department of Physics, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 )
1995-01-23
We define forward and backward time-directed avalanches for a broad class of self-organized critical models including invasion percolation, interface depinning, and a simple model of evolution. Although the geometrical properties of the avalanches do not change under time reversal, their stationary state statistical distribution does. The overall distribution of forward avalanches [ital P]([ital s])[similar to][ital s][sup [minus]2] is superuniversal in this class of models. The power-law exponent [pi] for the distribution of distances between subsequent active sites is derived from the properties of backward avalanches.
Forest damage and snow avalanche flow regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feistl, T.; Bebi, P.; Christen, M.; Margreth, S.; Diefenbach, L.; Bartelt, P.
2015-01-01
Snow avalanches break, uproot and overturn trees causing damage to forests. The extent of forest damage provides useful information on avalanche frequency and intensity. However, impact forces depend on avalanche flow regime. In this paper, we define avalanche loading cases representing four different avalanche flow regimes: powder, intermittent, dry and wet. In the powder regime, the blast of the cloud can produce large bending moments in the tree stem because of the impact area extending over the entire tree crown. We demonstrate that intermittent granular loadings are equivalent to low-density uniform dry snow loadings under the assumption of homogeneous particle distributions. In the wet snow case, avalanche pressure is calculated using a quasi-static model accounting for the motion of plug-like wet snow flows. Wet snow pressure depends both on avalanche volume and terrain features upstream of the tree. Using a numerical model that simulates both powder and wet snow avalanches, we study documented events with forest damage. We find (1) powder clouds with velocities over 20 m s-1 can break tree stems, (2) the intermittent regime seldom controls tree breakage and (3) quasi-static pressures of wet snow avalanches can be much higher than pressures calculated using dynamic pressure formulas.
Measurement of the relative branching ratio of B-s(0) -> J/psi f(0)(980) to B-s(0) -> J/psi phi
Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Aoki, M.; Askew, A.; Asman, B.; Atkins, S.; Atramentov, O.; Augsten, K.; Avila, C.; BackusMayes, J.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besancon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brown, J.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buszello, C. P.; Calpas, B.; Camacho-Perez, E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M. A.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Chevalier-Thery, S.; Cho, D. K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M. -C.; Croc, A.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; De, K.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Deliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dorland, T.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Garcia-Guerra, G. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geng, W.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Golovanov, G.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Grohsjean, A.; Gruenendahl, S.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffre, M.; Jamin, D.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kaadze, K.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kulikov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurca, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Kvita, J.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lellouch, J.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lietti, S. M.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; de Sa, R. Lopes; Lubatti, H. J.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Mackin, D.; Madar, R.; Magana-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Maravin, Y.; Martinez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; et al.
2012-01-20
We present a measurement of the relative branching fraction, R{sub f{sub 0}/{phi}}, of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}f{sub 0}(980), with f{sub 0}(980) {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, to the process B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{phi}, with {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}. The J/{psi}f{sub 0}(980) final state corresponds to a CP-odd eigenstate of B{sub s}{sup 0} that could be of interest in future studies of CP violation. Using 8 fb{sup -1} of data recorded with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, we find R{sub f{sub 0}/{phi}} = 0.275 {+-} 0.041(stat) {+-} 0.061(syst).
Branching Ratio Measurements of B ---> J/psi eta K and B+- ---> D0 K+- with D0 ---> pi+ pi- pi0
Zeng, Qinglin; /Colorado State U.
2006-03-08
Results are presented for the decays of B {yields} J/{psi}{eta}K and B{sup {+-}} {yields} DK{sup {+-}}, respectively, with experimental data collected with BABAR detector at PEP-II, located at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). With 90 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance, we obtained branching fractions of {Beta}(B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}{eta}K{sup {+-}}) = [10.8 {+-} 2.3(stat) {+-} 2.4(syst)] x 10{sup -5} and {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{eta}K{sub S}{sup 0}) = [8.4 {+-} 2.6(stat) {+-} 2.7(syst)] x 10{sup -5}; and we set an upper limit of {Beta}[B{sup {+-}} {yields} X(3872)K{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}{eta}K{sup {+-}}] < 7.7 x 10{sup -6} at 90% confidence level. The branching fraction of decay chain {Beta}(B{sup {+-}} {yields} DK{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}K{sup {+-}}) = [5.5 {+-} 1.0(stat) {+-} 0.7(syst)] x 10{sup -6} with 229 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} events at {Upsilon}(4S) resonance, here D represents the neutral D meson. The decay rate asymmetry is A = 0.02 {+-} 0.16(stat) {+-} 0.03(syst) for this full decay chain. This decay can be used to extract the unitarity angle {gamma}, a weak CP violation phase, through the interference of decay production of D{sup 0} and {bar D}{sup 0} to {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}.
Improved Measurement of the $\pi \to \mathrm{e}\nu $ Branching Ratio
Aguilar-Arevalo, A.; Aoki, M.; Blecher, M.; Britton, D. I.; Bryman, D. A.; vom Bruch, D.; Chen, S.; Comfort, J.; Ding, M.; Doria, L.; Cuen-Rochin, S.; Gumplinger, P.; Hussein, A.; Igarashi, Y.; Ito, S.; Kettell, S. H.; Kurchaninov, L.; Littenberg, L. S.; Malbrunot, C.; Mischke, R. E.; Numao, T.; Protopopescu, D.; Sher, A.; Sullivan, T.; Vavilov, D.; Yamada, K.
2015-08-01
A new measurement of the branching ratio R_{e/μ}=Γ(π^{+} → e^{+}ν + π^{+} → e^{+}νγ)/Γ(π+ → μ+ν + π^{+}→μ+νγ) resulted in R^{exp}_{e/μ}=[1.2344±0.0023(stat)±0.0019(syst)] x 10^{-4}. This is in agreement with the standard model prediction and improves the test of electron-muon universality to the level of 0.1%.
Two-threshold model for scaling laws of noninteracting snow avalanches.
Faillettaz, Jerome; Louchet, Francois; Grasso, Jean-Robert
2004-11-12
The sizes of snow slab failure that trigger snow avalanches are power-law distributed. Such a power-law probability distribution function has also been proposed to characterize different landslide types. In order to understand this scaling for gravity-driven systems, we introduce a two-threshold 2D cellular automaton, in which failure occurs irreversibly. Taking snow slab avalanches as a model system, we find that the sizes of the largest avalanches just preceding the lattice system breakdown are power-law distributed. By tuning the maximum value of the ratio of the two failure thresholds our model reproduces the range of power-law exponents observed for land, rock, or snow avalanches. We suggest this control parameter represents the material cohesion anisotropy. PMID:15600971
On the temporal organization of neuronal avalanches
Lombardi, Fabrizio; Herrmann, Hans J.; Plenz, Dietmar; De Arcangelis, Lucilla
2014-01-01
Spontaneous activity of cortex in vitro and in vivo has been shown to organize as neuronal avalanches. Avalanches are cascades of neuronal activity that exhibit a power law in their size and duration distribution, typical features of balanced systems in a critical state. Recently it has been shown that the distribution of quiet times between consecutive avalanches in rat cortex slice cultures displays a non-monotonic behavior with a power law decay at short time scales. This behavior has been attributed to the slow alternation between up and down-states. Here we further characterize the avalanche process and investigate how the functional behavior of the quiet time distribution depends on the fine structure of avalanche sequences. By systematically removing smaller avalanches from the experimental time series we show that size and quiet times are correlated and highlight that avalanche occurrence exhibits the characteristic periodicity of θ and β/γ oscillations, which jointly emerge in most of the analyzed samples. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that smaller avalanches tend to be associated with faster β/γ oscillations, whereas larger ones are associated with slower θ and 1–2 Hz oscillations. In particular, large avalanches corresponding to θ cycles trigger cascades of smaller ones, which occur at β/γ frequency. This temporal structure follows closely the one of nested θ − β/γ oscillations. Finally we demonstrate that, because of the multiple time scales characterizing avalanche dynamics, the distributions of quiet times between avalanches larger than a certain size do not collapse onto a unique function when rescaled by the average occurrence rate. However, when considered separately in the up-state and in the down-state, these distributions are solely controlled by the respective average rate and two different unique function can be identified. PMID:25389393
Gaussian Velocity Distributions in Avalanches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shattuck, Mark
2004-03-01
Imagine a world where gravity is so strong that if an ice cube is tilted the shear forces melt the surface and water avalanches down. Further imagine that the ambient temperature is so low that the water re-freezes almost immediately. This is the world of granular flows. As a granular solid is tilted the surface undergoes a sublimation phase transition and a granular gas avalanches down the surface, but the inelastic collisions rapidly remove energy from the flow lowering the granular temperature (kinetic energy per particle) until the gas solidifies again. It is under these extreme conditions that we attempt to uncover continuum granular flow properties. Typical continuum theories like Navier-Stokes equation for fluids follow the space-time evolution of the first few moments of the velocity distribution. We study continuously avalanching flow in a rotating two-dimensional granular drum using high-speed video imaging and extract the position and velocities of the particles. We find a universal near Gaussian velocity distribution throughout the flowing regions, which are characterized by a liquid-like radial distribution function. In the remaining regions, in which the radial distribution function develops sharp crystalline peaks, the velocity distribution has a Gaussian peak but is much broader in the tails. In a companion experiment on a vibrated two-dimensional granular fluid under constant pressure, we find a clear gas-solid phase transition in which both the temperature and density change discontinuously. This suggests that a low temperature crystal and a high temperature gas can coexist in steady state. This coexistence could result in a narrower, cooler, Gaussian peak and a broader, warmer, Gaussian tail like the non-Gaussian behavior seen in the crystalline portions of the rotating drum.
Macroscopic control parameter for avalanche models for bursty transport
Chapman, S. C.; Rowlands, G.; Watkins, N. W.
2009-01-15
Similarity analysis is used to identify the control parameter R{sub A} for the subset of avalanching systems that can exhibit self-organized criticality (SOC). This parameter expresses the ratio of driving to dissipation. The transition to SOC, when the number of excited degrees of freedom is maximal, is found to occur when R{sub A}{yields}0. This is in the opposite sense to (Kolmogorov) turbulence, thus identifying a deep distinction between turbulence and SOC and suggesting an observable property that could distinguish them. A corollary of this similarity analysis is that SOC phenomenology, that is, power law scaling of avalanches, can persist for finite R{sub A} with the same R{sub A}{yields}0 exponent if the system supports a sufficiently large range of lengthscales, necessary for SOC to be a candidate for physical (R{sub A} finite) systems.
Athermal avalanche in bilayer superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, V. B.; Lita, A. E.; Stevens, M. J.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W.
2016-03-01
We demonstrate that two superconducting nanowires separated by a thin insulating barrier can undergo an avalanche process. In this process, Joule heating caused by a photodetection event in one nanowire and the associated production of athermal phonons which are transmitted through the barrier cause the transition of the adjacent nanowire from the superconducting to the normal state. We show that this process can be utilized in the fabrication of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, reduce system jitter, maximize device area, and increase the external efficiency over a very broad range of wavelengths. Furthermore, the avalanche mechanism may provide a path towards a superconducting logic element based on athermal gating.
Avalanche!--Teachable Moments in Outdoor Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Galloway, Shayne
2005-01-01
Rarely do outdoor educators get the opportunity to safely incorporate an avalanche while the topic of the day is actually avalanche awareness and forecasting. Many similar possibilities exist in the expeditionary context, but even brief excursions may result in incredible learning experiences. These "teachable moments" occur regularly in the…
Forest damage and snow avalanche flow regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feistl, T.; Bebi, P.; Christen, M.; Margreth, S.; Diefenbach, L.; Bartelt, P.
2015-06-01
Snow avalanches break, uproot and overturn trees causing damage to forests. The extent of forest damage provides useful information on avalanche frequency and intensity. However, impact forces depend on avalanche flow regime. In this paper, we define avalanche loading cases representing four different avalanche flow regimes: powder, intermittent, dry and wet. Using a numerical model that simulates both powder and wet snow avalanches, we study documented events with forest damage. First we show that in the powder regime, although the applied impact pressures can be small, large bending moments in the tree stem can be produced due to the torque action of the blast. The impact area of the blast extends over the entire tree crown. We find that, powder clouds with velocities over 20 m s-1 can break tree stems. Second we demonstrate that intermittent granular loadings are equivalent to low-density uniform dry snow loadings under the assumption of homogeneous particle distributions. The intermittent regime seldom controls tree breakage. Third we calculate quasi-static pressures of wet snow avalanches and show that they can be much higher than pressures calculated using dynamic pressure formulas. Wet snow pressure depends both on avalanche volume and terrain features upstream of the tree.
Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Ying; Liu, Li-Yan; Chen, Yang; Zi, Tian-Qi; Du, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Yong-Shuai; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao
2015-11-01
This study aims to examine the association between the ratio of dietary branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and risk of obesity among young northern Chinese adults. A total of 948 randomly recruited participants were asked to finish our internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Associations between dietary BCAA ratio and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were analyzed. Furthermore, 90 subjects were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Dietary BCAA ratio in obese participants was significantly lower than non-obese participants. We found negative correlations between the ratio of dietary BCAA and body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.197, p < 0.001) or waist circumference (r = -0.187, p < 0.001). Compared with those in the first quartile, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of the 3rd and 4th quartiles of dietary BCAA ratio for overweight/obesity were 0.508 (0.265-0.972) and 0.389 (0.193-0.783), respectively (all p < 0.05). After stratification by gender, the significance still existed in the 3rd and 4th quartile in males and the 4th quartile in females. For abdominal obesity, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of the 3rd and 4th quartile of dietary BCAA ratio were 0.351 (0.145-0.845) and 0.376 (0.161-0.876), respectively (all p < 0.05). This significance was stronger in males. Further studies indicated that dietary BCAA ratio was inversely associated with 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG) and status of inflammation. In conclusion, a higher ratio of dietary BCAA is inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, postprandial glucose and status of inflammation in young northern Chinese adults. PMID:26593945
Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Ying; Liu, Li-Yan; Chen, Yang; Zi, Tian-Qi; Du, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Yong-Shuai; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao
2015-01-01
This study aims to examine the association between the ratio of dietary branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and risk of obesity among young northern Chinese adults. A total of 948 randomly recruited participants were asked to finish our internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Associations between dietary BCAA ratio and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were analyzed. Furthermore, 90 subjects were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Dietary BCAA ratio in obese participants was significantly lower than non-obese participants. We found negative correlations between the ratio of dietary BCAA and body mass index (BMI) (r = −0.197, p < 0.001) or waist circumference (r = −0.187, p < 0.001). Compared with those in the first quartile, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of the 3rd and 4th quartiles of dietary BCAA ratio for overweight/obesity were 0.508 (0.265–0.972) and 0.389 (0.193–0.783), respectively (all p < 0.05). After stratification by gender, the significance still existed in the 3rd and 4th quartile in males and the 4th quartile in females. For abdominal obesity, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of the 3rd and 4th quartile of dietary BCAA ratio were 0.351 (0.145–0.845) and 0.376 (0.161–0.876), respectively (all p < 0.05). This significance was stronger in males. Further studies indicated that dietary BCAA ratio was inversely associated with 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG) and status of inflammation. In conclusion, a higher ratio of dietary BCAA is inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, postprandial glucose and status of inflammation in young northern Chinese adults. PMID:26593945
Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rio de Janeiro State U. /ABC Federal U. /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota
2007-12-01
In a data sample of approximately 1.3 fb{sup -1} collected with the D0 detector between 2002 and 2006, the orbitally excited charm state D{sub s1}{sup {+-}}(2536) has been observed with a measured mass of 2535.7 {+-} 0.6(stat) {+-} 0.5(syst) MeV/c{sup 2} via the decay mode B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536){mu}{sup +} {nu}X. A first measurement is made of the branching ratio product Br({bar B} {yields} D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536){mu}{sup +}{nu}X) {center_dot} Br(D{sub s1}{sup -} {yields} D*{sup -} K{sub S}{sup 0}). Assuming that D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536) production in semileptonic decay is entirely from B{sub s}{sup 0}, an extraction of the semileptonic branching ratio Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s1}{sup -}(2536){mu}{sup +}{nu}X) is made.
Avalanche in Adhesion at Metal Interfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banerjea, Amitava; Good, Brian S.
1994-01-01
Simulations have shown that as two metal surfaces approach each other, the surface layers can avalanche together when the rigid interfacial spacing falls below a critical distance. This is accompanied by a discontinuous decrease in the adhesive energy. Here we present an examination of this phenomenon for the body centered cubic (BCC) metals Fe and W using the Equivalent Crystal Theory. In order to identify the circumstances under which avalanche might be inhibited, the effect of loss of registry between the two surfaces is investigated in detail. The avalanche is inhibited when the two surfaces are sufficiently far out of registry and when only a few layers near the surface are allowed to relax. As the relaxing slabs get thicker a sharp avalanche reappears. However, as the loss of registry increases the energy released in the avalanche decreases.
Thermal energy in dry snow avalanches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinkogler, W.; Sovilla, B.; Lehning, M.
2015-09-01
Avalanches can exhibit many different flow regimes from powder clouds to slush flows. Flow regimes are largely controlled by the properties of the snow released and entrained along the path. Recent investigations showed the temperature of the moving snow to be one of the most important factors controlling the mobility of the flow. The temperature of an avalanche is determined by the temperature of the released and entrained snow but also increases by frictional processes with time. For three artificially released avalanches, we conducted snow profiles along the avalanche track and in the deposition area, which allowed quantifying the temperature of the eroded snow layers. This data set allowed to calculate the thermal balance, from release to deposition, and to discuss the magnitudes of different sources of thermal energy of the avalanches. For the investigated dry avalanches, the thermal energy increase due to friction was mainly depending on the effective elevation drop of the mass of the avalanche with a warming of approximately 0.3 °C per 100 vertical metres. Contrarily, the temperature change due to entrainment varied for the individual avalanches, from -0.08 to 0.3 °C, and depended on the temperature of the snow along the path and the erosion depth. Infrared radiation thermography (IRT) was used to assess the surface temperature before, during and just after the avalanche with high spatial resolution. This data set allowed to identify the warmest temperatures to be located in the deposits of the dense core. Future research directions, especially for the application of IRT, in the field of thermal investigations in avalanche dynamics are discussed.
Multi-scale modelling of granular avalanches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Krishna; Soga, Kenichi; Delenne, Jean-Yves
2013-06-01
Avalanches, debris flows, and landslides are geophysical hazards, which involve rapid mass movement of granular solids, water and air as a single-phase system. The dynamics of a granular flow involve at least three distinct scales: the micro-scale, meso-scale, and the macro-scale. This study aims to understand the ability of continuum models to capture the micro-mechanics of dry granular collapse. Material Point Method (MPM), a hybrid Lagrangian and Eulerian approach, with Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is used to describe the continuum behaviour of granular column collapse, while the micromechanics is captured using Discrete Element Method (DEM) with tangential contact force model. The run-out profile predicted by the continuum simulations matches with DEM simulations for columns with small aspect ratios (`h/r' < 2), however MPM predicts larger run-out distances for columns with higher aspect ratios (`h/r' > 2). Energy evolution studies in DEM simulations reveal higher collisional dissipation in the initial free-fall regime for tall columns. The lack of a collisional energy dissipation mechanism in MPM simulations results in larger run-out distances. Micro-structural effects, such as shear band formations, were observed both in DEM and MPM simulations. A sliding flow regime is observed above the distinct passive zone at the core of the column. Velocity profiles obtained from both the scales are compared to understand the reason for a slow flow run-out mobilization in MPM simulations.
Maximum speeds and alpha angles of flowing avalanches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McClung, David; Gauer, Peter
2016-04-01
A flowing avalanche is one which initiates as a slab and, if consisting of dry snow, will be enveloped in a turbulent snow dust cloud once the speed reaches about 10 m/s. A flowing avalanche has a dense core of flowing material which dominates the dynamics by serving as the driving force for downslope motion. The flow thickness typically on the order of 1 -10 m which is on the order of about 1% of the length of the flowing mass. We have collected estimates of maximum frontal speed um (m/s) from 118 avalanche events. The analysis is given here with the aim of using the maximum speed scaled with some measure of the terrain scale over which the avalanches ran. We have chosen two measures for scaling, from McClung (1990), McClung and Schaerer (2006) and Gauer (2012). The two measures are the √H0-;√S0-- (total vertical drop; total path length traversed). Our data consist of 118 avalanches with H0 (m)estimated and 106 with S0 (m)estimated. Of these, we have 29 values with H0 (m),S0 (m)and um (m/s)estimated accurately with the avalanche speeds measured all or nearly all along the path. The remainder of the data set includes approximate estimates of um (m/s)from timing the avalanche motion over a known section of the path where approximate maximum speed is expected and with either H0or S0or both estimated. Our analysis consists of fitting the values of um/√H0--; um/√S0- to probability density functions (pdf) to estimate the exceedance probability for the scaled ratios. In general, we found the best fits for the larger data sets to fit a beta pdf and for the subset of 29, we found a shifted log-logistic (s l-l) pdf was best. Our determinations were as a result of fitting the values to 60 different pdfs considering five goodness-of-fit criteria: three goodness-of-fit statistics :K-S (Kolmogorov-Smirnov); A-D (Anderson-Darling) and C-S (Chi-squared) plus probability plots (P-P) and quantile plots (Q-Q). For less than 10% probability of exceedance the results show that
Some influences of rock strength and strain rate on propagation of rock avalanches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowman, Elisabeth; Rait, Kim
2016-04-01
Rock avalanches are extreme and destructive mass movements in which large volumes of rock (typically >1 million cubic metres) travel at high speeds, covering large distances, and the occurrence of which is highly unpredictable. The "size effect" in rock avalanches, whereby those with larger volumes produce greater spreading efficiency (as defined by an increase in normalised runout) or lower farboschung angle (defined as the tangent of the ratio of fall height to runout length), is well known. Studies have shown that rock strength is a controlling factor in the mobility of rock avalanches - that is, mass movements involving lower strength rock are generally found to produce greater mobility as evidenced by the spread of deposits or low farboschung angle. However, there are conflicting ideas as to how and why this influence is manifested. This paper discusses different theories of rock comminution in light of numerical simulations of rock clasts undergoing normal and shear induced loading, experimental work on rock avalanche behaviour, and dynamic fracture mechanics. In doing so, we introduce the idea of thresholds of strain rate for the production of dynamic fragmentation (as opposed to pseudo-static clast crushing) that are based, inter alia, on static rock strength. To do this, we refer to data from physical models using rock analogue materials, field data on chalk cliff collapses, and field statistics from documented rock avalanches. The roles of normal and shear loading and loading rate within a rock avalanche are examined numerically using 3D Discrete Element Method models of rock clasts loaded to failure. Results may help to reconcile the observations that large rock avalanches in stronger materials tend not to fragment as much as those in weaker materials and also possess lower mobility, while small cliff collapses (typically > 1000 cubic metres) in weak chalk can exhibit rock avalanche-like behaviour at much smaller volumes.
3D avalanche multiplication in Si-Ge lateral avalanche photodiodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jamil, Erum; Hayat, Majeed M.; Davids, Paul S.; Camacho, Ryan M.
2016-05-01
Si-Ge lateral avalanche photodiodes (Si-Ge LAPDs) are promising devices for single photon detection, but they also have technology challenges. Si-Ge LAPDs are CMOS compatible and capable of detecting photons near the 1550 nm telecommunications bands. However, the Si-Ge LAPD exhibits a unique avalanche multiplication process in silicon, where the electrons and holes follow curved paths in three-dimensional space. Traditional models for the analysis of the avalanche multiplication process assume one-dimensional paths for the carriers that undergo the chains of impact ionizations; therefore, they are not suitable for analyzing the avalanche properties of Si-Ge LAPDs. In this paper, the statistics of the avalanche process in the Si-Ge LAPD are modeled analytically using a method that was recently developed by our group for understanding the avalanche multiplication in nanopillar, core-shell GaAs avalanche photodiodes, for which the electric field is non-uniform in magnitude and direction. Specifically, the calculated mean avalanche gain and the excess noise are presented for the Si-Ge LAPD device. It is also shown that the avalanche characteristics depend upon the specific avalanche path taken by the carrier, which depends, in turn, on the lateral location where each photon is absorbed in the Ge absorber. This property can be exploited to achieve reduced excess noise as well as wavelength-sensitive single-photon detection.
Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Shen, B C; Wang, K; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Mohanty, G B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Raven, G; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Allmendinger, T; Brau, B; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de laVassière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Anulli, F; Biasini, M; Peruzzi, I M; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Del Gamba, V; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, G; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Elsen, E E; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; Tan, P; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H
2004-06-18
We study B+/ --> J/psi pi(+/-) and B+/ --> J/psi K+/- decays in a sample of about 89 x 10(6) BB pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B factory at SLAC. We observe a signal of 244+/-20 B+/ --> J/psi pi(+/-) events and determine the ratio B(B+/ --> J/psi pi(+/-))/B(B+/ --> J/psi K+/-) to be [5.37+/-0.45(stat)+/-0.11(syst)]%. The charge asymmetries for the B+/ --> J/psi pi(+/-) and B+/ --> J/psi K+/- decays are determined to be A(pi)=0.123+/-0.085(stat)+/-0.004(syst) and A(K)=0.030+/-0.015(stat)+/-0.006(syst), respectively. PMID:15245076
Zitnik, Matjaz; Mihelic, A.; Bucar, K.; Penent, F.; Lablanquie, P.; Richter, R.; Alagia, M.; Stranges, S.
2006-11-15
We have measured the lifetimes of {sup 1}P{sup e} (n=9-12) doubly excited states in static electric fields (1-6 kV/cm) by observing the decay of the fluorescence signal as a function of time. The effects of the field on these helium states below the second ionization threshold are twofold: their excitation becomes possible due to the Stark mixing with the optically allowed {sup 1}P{sup o} series, and their lifetime is strongly modified by the opening of the autoionization channel, not accessible in zero field. Although the electric field represents only a tiny perturbation of the atomic potential, a substantial shortening of the lifetimes below 100 ps is observed. This is the simplest quantum system where the ratio of autoionization to fluorescence decay probability can be effectively controlled by an electric field of moderate strength.
Temporal correlations in neuronal avalanche occurrence
Lombardi, F.; Herrmann, H. J.; Plenz, D.; de Arcangelis, L.
2016-01-01
Ongoing cortical activity consists of sequences of synchronized bursts, named neuronal avalanches, whose size and duration are power law distributed. These features have been observed in a variety of systems and conditions, at all spatial scales, supporting scale invariance, universality and therefore criticality. However, the mechanisms leading to burst triggering, as well as the relationship between bursts and quiescence, are still unclear. The analysis of temporal correlations constitutes a major step towards a deeper understanding of burst dynamics. Here, we investigate the relation between avalanche sizes and quiet times, as well as between sizes of consecutive avalanches recorded in cortex slice cultures. We show that quiet times depend on the size of preceding avalanches and, at the same time, influence the size of the following one. Moreover we evidence that sizes of consecutive avalanches are correlated. In particular, we show that an avalanche tends to be larger or smaller than the following one for short or long time separation, respectively. Our analysis represents the first attempt to provide a quantitative estimate of correlations between activity and quiescence in the framework of neuronal avalanches and will help to enlighten the mechanisms underlying spontaneous activity. PMID:27094323
Temporal correlations in neuronal avalanche occurrence.
Lombardi, F; Herrmann, H J; Plenz, D; de Arcangelis, L
2016-01-01
Ongoing cortical activity consists of sequences of synchronized bursts, named neuronal avalanches, whose size and duration are power law distributed. These features have been observed in a variety of systems and conditions, at all spatial scales, supporting scale invariance, universality and therefore criticality. However, the mechanisms leading to burst triggering, as well as the relationship between bursts and quiescence, are still unclear. The analysis of temporal correlations constitutes a major step towards a deeper understanding of burst dynamics. Here, we investigate the relation between avalanche sizes and quiet times, as well as between sizes of consecutive avalanches recorded in cortex slice cultures. We show that quiet times depend on the size of preceding avalanches and, at the same time, influence the size of the following one. Moreover we evidence that sizes of consecutive avalanches are correlated. In particular, we show that an avalanche tends to be larger or smaller than the following one for short or long time separation, respectively. Our analysis represents the first attempt to provide a quantitative estimate of correlations between activity and quiescence in the framework of neuronal avalanches and will help to enlighten the mechanisms underlying spontaneous activity. PMID:27094323
Temporal correlations in neuronal avalanche occurrence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lombardi, F.; Herrmann, H. J.; Plenz, D.; de Arcangelis, L.
2016-04-01
Ongoing cortical activity consists of sequences of synchronized bursts, named neuronal avalanches, whose size and duration are power law distributed. These features have been observed in a variety of systems and conditions, at all spatial scales, supporting scale invariance, universality and therefore criticality. However, the mechanisms leading to burst triggering, as well as the relationship between bursts and quiescence, are still unclear. The analysis of temporal correlations constitutes a major step towards a deeper understanding of burst dynamics. Here, we investigate the relation between avalanche sizes and quiet times, as well as between sizes of consecutive avalanches recorded in cortex slice cultures. We show that quiet times depend on the size of preceding avalanches and, at the same time, influence the size of the following one. Moreover we evidence that sizes of consecutive avalanches are correlated. In particular, we show that an avalanche tends to be larger or smaller than the following one for short or long time separation, respectively. Our analysis represents the first attempt to provide a quantitative estimate of correlations between activity and quiescence in the framework of neuronal avalanches and will help to enlighten the mechanisms underlying spontaneous activity.
Gallium-based avalanche photodiode optical crosstalk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blazej, Josef; Prochazka, Ivan; Hamal, Karel; Sopko, Bruno; Chren, Dominik
2006-11-01
Solid-state single photon detectors based on avalanche photodiode are getting more attention in various areas of applied physics: optical sensors, quantum key distribution, optical ranging and Lidar, time-resolved spectroscopy, X-ray laser diagnostics, and turbid media imaging. Avalanche photodiodes specifically designed for single photon counting semiconductor avalanche structures have been developed on the basis of various materials: Si, Ge, GaP, GaAsP, and InGaP/InGaAs at the Czech Technical University in Prague during the last 20 years. They have been tailored for numerous applications. Trends in demand are focused on detection array construction recently. Even extremely small arrays containing a few cells are of great importance for users. Electrical crosstalk between individual gating and quenching circuits and optical crosstalk between individual detecting cells are serious limitation for array design and performance. Optical crosstalk is caused by the parasitic light emission of the avalanche which accompanies the photon detection process. We have studied in detail the optical emission of the avalanche photon counting structure in the silicon- and gallium-based photodiodes. The timing properties and spectral distribution of the emitted light have been measured for different operating conditions to quantify optical crosstalk. We conclude that optical crosstalk is an inherent property of avalanche photodiode operated in Geiger mode. The only way to minimize optical crosstalk in avalanche photodiode array is to build active quenching circuit with minimum response time.
Kamaev, Oleg; /IIT, Chicago
2007-12-01
A clean signal of 78 (24) events has been observed in the rare nonleptonic particle (antiparticle) decay modes {Omega}{sup {-+}} {yields} {Xi}{sup {-+}}{pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} using data collected with the HyperCP spectrometer during Fermilab's 1999 fixed-target run. We obtain B({Omega}{sup -} {yields} {Xi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = [4.32 {+-} 0.56(stat) {+-} 0.28(syst)] x 10{sup -4} and B({Omega}{sup +} {yields} {Xi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 3.13 {+-} 0.71(stat) {+-} 0.20(syst) x 10{sup -4}. This is the first observation of the antiparticle mode. Our measurement for the particle mode agrees with the previous experimental result and has an order-of-magnitude better precision. We extract the contribution from the resonance decay mode {Omega}{sup {-+}} {yields} {Xi}*{sub 1530}{sup 0} ({ovr {Xi}*{sub 1530}{sup 0}}){pi}{sup {-+}} to the final state {Xi}{sup {-+}}{pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}}. This the first actual measurement of the resonance-mode branching ratios, gives B({Omega}{sup -} {yields} {Xi}*{sub 1530}{sup 0} {pi}{sup -}) = [4.55 {+-} 2.33(stat) {+-} 0.38(syst)] x 10{sup -5}, B({Omega}{sup +} {yields} {ovr {Xi}*{sub 1530}{sup 0}}{pi}{sup +}) = [1.40 {+-} 2.83(stat) {+-} 0.12(syst)] x 10{sup -5} and disagrees with the current Particle Data Group review value, being {approx} 14 times smaller. Since the central value of the resonance-mode branching ratio is less than two standard deviations away from zero, we also calculate branching ratio upper limits at 90% confidence level: B({Omega}{sup -} {yields} {Xi}*{sub 1530}{sup 0} {pi}{sup -}) < 7.61 x 10{sup -5} and B({Omega}{sup +} {yields} {ovr {Xi}*{sub 1530}{sup 0}} {pi}{sup +}) < 5.61 x 10{sup -5}. This analysis provides new data on nonleptonic hyperon decays which allows studies of how weak interaction processes occur in the presence of strong interactions.
Measurement of the branching ratio Γ (Λb0 → ψ (2 S)Λ0) / Γ (Λb0 → J / ψΛ0) with the ATLAS detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Benedetti, A.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flaschel, N.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Frate, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fusayasu, T.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gach, G. P.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudiello, A.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Geisler, M. P.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghasemi, S.; Ghazlane, H.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giromini, P.; Giugni, D.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Goddard, J. R.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Goujdami, D.; Goussiou, A. G.; Govender, N.; Gozani, E.; Grabas, H. M. X.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Gradin, P. O. J.; Grafström, P.; Grahn, K.-J.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohs, J. P.; Grohsjean, A.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gustavino, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Haefner, P.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Haley, J.; Hall, D.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamilton, A.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, M. C.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harrington, R. D.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauser, R.; Hauswald, L.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, A. D.; Hayashi, T.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hays, J. M.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, L.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Hellman, S.; Hellmich, D.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Heng, Y.; Hengler, C.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herbert, G. H.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herrberg-Schubert, R.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hetherly, J. W.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hinman, R. R.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoenig, F.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hohn, D.; Holmes, T. R.; Homann, M.; Hong, T. M.; Hooft van Huysduynen, L.; Hopkins, W. H.; Horii, Y.; Horton, A. J.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howard, J.; Howarth, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hrynevich, A.; Hsu, C.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hu, D.; Hu, Q.; Hu, X.; Huang, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Hülsing, T. A.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Ideal, E.; Idrissi, Z.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Iizawa, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikematsu, K.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ilic, N.; Ince, T.; Introzzi, G.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Iordanidou, K.; Ippolito, V.; Irles Quiles, A.; Isaksson, C.; Ishino, M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Iturbe Ponce, J. M.; Iuppa, R.; Ivarsson, J.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jabbar, S.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, M.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M. R.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakoubek, T.; Jakubek, J.; Jamin, D. O.; Jana, D. K.; Jansen, E.; Jansky, R.; Janssen, J.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Javadov, N.; Javůrek, T.; Jeanty, L.; Jejelava, J.; Jeng, G.-Y.; Jennens, D.; Jenni, P.; Jentzsch, J.; Jeske, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, H.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jiggins, S.; Jimenez Pena, J.; Jin, S.; Jinaru, A.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joergensen, M. D.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K. A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, T. J.; Jongmanns, J.; Jorge, P. M.; Joshi, K. D.; Jovicevic, J.; Ju, X.; Jung, C. A.; Jussel, P.; Juste Rozas, A.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kahn, S. J.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalderon, C. W.; Kama, S.; Kamenshchikov, A.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneti, S.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kaplan, L. S.; Kapliy, A.; Kar, D.; Karakostas, K.; Karamaoun, A.; Karastathis, N.; Kareem, M. J.; Karentzos, E.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karpov, S. N.; Karpova, Z. M.; Karthik, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kashif, L.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, Y.; Kato, C.; Katre, A.; Katzy, J.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kazama, S.; Kazanin, V. F.; Keeler, R.; Kehoe, R.; Keller, J. S.; Kempster, J. J.; Keoshkerian, H.; Kepka, O.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Keyes, R. A.; Khalil-zada, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Kharlamov, A. G.; Khoo, T. J.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kido, S.; Kim, H. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kind, O. M.; King, B. T.; King, M.; King, S. B.; Kirk, J.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kishimoto, T.; Kisielewska, D.; Kiss, F.; Kiuchi, K.; Kivernyk, O.; Kladiva, E.; Klein, M. H.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klimek, P.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinger, J. A.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Kluge, E.-E.; Kluit, P.; Kluth, S.; Knapik, J.; Kneringer, E.; Knoops, E. B. F. G.; Knue, A.; Kobayashi, A.; Kobayashi, D.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kocian, M.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Koffeman, E.; Kogan, L. A.; Kohlmann, S.; Kohout, Z.; Kohriki, T.; Koi, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Koletsou, I.; Komar, A. A.; Komori, Y.; Kondo, T.; Kondrashova, N.; Köneke, K.; König, A. C.; Kono, T.; Konoplich, R.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kopeliansky, R.; Koperny, S.; Köpke, L.; Kopp, A. K.; Korcyl, K.; Kordas, K.; Korn, A.; Korol, A. A.; Korolkov, I.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kortner, O.; Kortner, S.; Kosek, T.; Kostyukhin, V. V.; Kotov, V. M.; Kotwal, A.; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, A.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouskoura, V.; Koutsman, A.; Kowalewski, R.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Kozanecki, W.; Kozhin, A. S.; Kramarenko, V. A.; Kramberger, G.; Krasnopevtsev, D.; Krasny, M. W.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kraus, J. K.; Kravchenko, A.; Kreiss, S.; Kretz, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kreutzfeldt, K.; Krieger, P.; Krizka, K.; Kroeninger, K.; Kroha, H.; Kroll, J.; Kroseberg, J.; Krstic, J.; Kruchonak, U.; Krüger, H.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, A.; Kruse, M. C.; Kruskal, M.; Kubota, T.; Kucuk, H.; Kuday, S.; Kuehn, S.; Kugel, A.; Kuger, F.; Kuhl, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kukhtin, V.; Kukla, R.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kuleshov, S.; Kuna, M.; Kunigo, T.; Kupco, A.; Kurashige, H.; Kurochkin, Y. A.; Kus, V.; Kuwertz, E. S.; Kuze, M.; Kvita, J.; Kwan, T.; Kyriazopoulos, D.; La Rosa, A.; La Rosa Navarro, J. L.; La Rotonda, L.; Lacasta, C.; Lacava, F.; Lacey, J.; Lacker, H.; Lacour, D.; Lacuesta, V. R.; Ladygin, E.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lagouri, T.; Lai, S.; Lambourne, L.; Lammers, S.; Lampen, C. L.; Lampl, W.; Lançon, E.; Landgraf, U.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lang, V. S.; Lange, J. C.; Lankford, A. J.; Lanni, F.; Lantzsch, K.; Lanza, A.; Laplace, S.; Lapoire, C.; Laporte, J. F.; Lari, T.; Lasagni Manghi, F.; Lassnig, M.; Laurelli, P.; Lavrijsen, W.; Law, A. T.; Laycock, P.; Lazovich, T.; Le Dortz, O.; Le Guirriec, E.; Le Menedeu, E.; LeBlanc, M.; LeCompte, T.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lee, C. A.; Lee, S. C.; Lee, L.; Lefebvre, G.; Lefebvre, M.; Legger, F.; Leggett, C.; Lehan, A.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Lei, X.; Leight, W. A.; Leisos, A.; Leister, A. G.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, R.; Lellouch, D.; Lemmer, B.; Leney, K. J. C.; Lenz, T.; Lenzi, B.; Leone, R.; Leone, S.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Leontsinis, S.; Leroy, C.; Lester, C. G.; Levchenko, M.; Levêque, J.; Levin, D.; Levinson, L. J.; Levy, M.; Lewis, A.; Leyko, A. M.; Leyton, M.; Li, B.; Li, H.; Li, H. L.; Li, L.; Li, L.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Liang, Z.; Liao, H.; Liberti, B.; Liblong, A.; Lichard, P.; Lie, K.; Liebal, J.; Liebig, W.; Limbach, C.; Limosani, A.; Lin, S. C.; Lin, T. H.; Linde, F.; Lindquist, B. E.; Linnemann, J. T.; Lipeles, E.; Lipniacka, A.; Lisovyi, M.; Liss, T. M.; Lissauer, D.; Lister, A.; Litke, A. M.; Liu, B.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, K.; Liu, L.; Liu, M.; Liu, M.; Liu, Y.; Livan, M.; Lleres, A.; Llorente Merino, J.; Lloyd, S. L.; Lo Sterzo, F.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loch, P.; Lockman, W. S.; Loebinger, F. K.; Loevschall-Jensen, A. E.; Loginov, A.; Lohse, T.; Lohwasser, K.; Lokajicek, M.; Long, B. A.; Long, J. D.; Long, R. E.; Looper, K. A.; Lopes, L.; Lopez Mateos, D.; Lopez Paredes, B.; Lopez Paz, I.; Lorenz, J.; Lorenzo Martinez, N.; Losada, M.; Loscutoff, P.; Lösel, P. J.; Lou, X.; Lounis, A.; Love, J.; Love, P. A.; Lu, N.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luci, C.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lukas, W.; Luminari, L.; Lundberg, O.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lynn, D.; Lysak, R.; Lytken, E.; Lyubushkin, V.; Ma, H.; Ma, L. L.; Maccarrone, G.; Macchiolo, A.; Macdonald, C. M.; Maček, B.; Machado Miguens, J.; Macina, D.; Madaffari, D.; Madar, R.; Maddocks, H. J.; Mader, W. F.; Madsen, A.; Maeda, J.; Maeland, S.; Maeno, T.; Maevskiy, A.; Magradze, E.; Mahboubi, K.; Mahlstedt, J.; Maiani, C.; Maidantchik, C.; Maier, A. A.; Maier, T.; Maio, A.; Majewski, S.; Makida, Y.; Makovec, N.; Malaescu, B.; Malecki, Pa.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Mallik, U.; Malon, D.; Malone, C.; Maltezos, S.; Malyshev, V. M.; Malyukov, S.; Mamuzic, J.; Mancini, G.; Mandelli, B.; Mandelli, L.; Mandić, I.; Mandrysch, R.; Maneira, J.; Manfredini, A.; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, L.; Manjarres Ramos, J.; Mann, A.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Mansoulie, B.; Mantifel, R.; Mantoani, M.; Mapelli, L.; March, L.; Marchiori, G.; Marcisovsky, M.; Marino, C. P.; Marjanovic, M.; Marley, D. E.; Marroquim, F.; Marsden, S. P.; Marshall, Z.; Marti, L. F.; Marti-Garcia, S.; Martin, B.; Martin, T. A.; Martin, V. J.; Martin dit Latour, B.; Martinez, M.; Martin-Haugh, S.; Martoiu, V. S.; Martyniuk, A. C.; Marx, M.; Marzano, F.; Marzin, A.; Masetti, L.; Mashimo, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Masik, J.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Massa, I.; Massa, L.; Massol, N.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mastroberardino, A.; Masubuchi, T.; Mättig, P.; Mattmann, J.; Maurer, J.; Maxfield, S. J.; Maximov, D. A.; Mazini, R.; Mazza, S. M.; Mazzaferro, L.; Mc Goldrick, G.; Mc Kee, S. P.; McCarn, A.; McCarthy, R. L.; McCarthy, T. G.; McCubbin, N. A.; McFarlane, K. W.; Mcfayden, J. A.; Mchedlidze, G.; McMahon, S. J.; McPherson, R. A.; Medinnis, M.; Meehan, S.; Mehlhase, S.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meineck, C.; Meirose, B.; Mellado Garcia, B. R.; Meloni, F.; Mengarelli, A.; Menke, S.; Meoni, E.; Mercurio, K. M.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meroni, C.; Merritt, F. S.; Messina, A.; Metcalfe, J.; Mete, A. S.; Meyer, C.; Meyer, C.; Meyer, J.-P.; Meyer, J.; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, H.; Middleton, R. P.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mijović, L.; Mikenberg, G.; Mikestikova, M.; Mikuž, M.; Milesi, M.; Milic, A.; Miller, D. W.; Mills, C.; Milov, A.; Milstead, D. A.; Minaenko, A. A.; Minami, Y.; Minashvili, I. A.; Mincer, A. I.; Mindur, B.; Mineev, M.; Ming, Y.; Mir, L. M.; Mitani, T.; Mitrevski, J.; Mitsou, V. A.; Miucci, A.; Miyagawa, P. S.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Moa, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Mohapatra, S.; Mohr, W.; Molander, S.; Moles-Valls, R.; Mönig, K.; Monini, C.; Monk, J.; Monnier, E.; Montejo Berlingen, J.; Monticelli, F.; Monzani, S.; Moore, R. W.; Morange, N.; Moreno, D.; Moreno Llácer, M.; Morettini, P.; Mori, D.; Morii, M.; Morinaga, M.; Morisbak, V.; Moritz, S.; Morley, A. K.; Mornacchi, G.; Morris, J. D.; Mortensen, S. S.; Morton, A.; Morvaj, L.; Mosidze, M.; Moss, J.; Motohashi, K.; Mount, R.; Mountricha, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Moyse, E. J. W.; Muanza, S.; Mudd, R. D.; Mueller, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, R. S. P.; Mueller, T.; Muenstermann, D.; Mullen, P.; Mullier, G. A.; Murillo Quijada, J. A.; Murray, W. J.; Musheghyan, H.; Musto, E.; Myagkov, A. G.; Myska, M.; Nachman, B. P.; Nackenhorst, O.; Nadal, J.; Nagai, K.; Nagai, R.; Nagai, Y.; Nagano, K.; Nagarkar, A.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nagata, K.; Nagel, M.; Nagy, E.; Nairz, A. M.; Nakahama, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, I.; Namasivayam, H.; Naranjo Garcia, R. F.; Narayan, R.; Narrias Villar, D. I.; Naumann, T.; Navarro, G.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Nechaeva, P. Yu.; Neep, T. J.; Nef, P. D.; Negri, A.; Negrini, M.; Nektarijevic, S.; Nellist, C.; Nelson, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Nessi, M.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neumann, M.; Neves, R. M.; Nevski, P.; Newman, P. R.; Nguyen, D. H.; Nickerson, R. B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nicquevert, B.; Nielsen, J.; Nikiforou, N.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, J. K.; Nilsson, P.; Ninomiya, Y.; Nisati, A.; Nisius, R.; Nobe, T.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Nooney, T.; Norberg, S.; Nordberg, M.; Novgorodova, O.; Nowak, S.; Nozaki, M.; Nozka, L.; Ntekas, K.; Nunes Hanninger, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Nurse, E.; Nuti, F.; O'Brien, B. J.; O'grady, F.; O'Neil, D. C.; O'Shea, V.; Oakham, F. G.; Oberlack, H.; Obermann, T.; Ocariz, J.; Ochi, A.; Ochoa, I.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Ogren, H.; Oh, A.; Oh, S. H.; Ohm, C. C.; Ohman, H.; Oide, H.; Okamura, W.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Olariu, A.; Olivares Pino, S. A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Oliver Garcia, E.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Oram, C. J.; Oreglia, M. J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlando, N.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Orr, R. S.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Otero y Garzon, G.; Otono, H.; Ouchrif, M.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Oussoren, K. P.; Ouyang, Q.; Ovcharova, A.; Owen, M.; Owen, R. E.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozturk, N.; Pachal, K.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Pagáčová, M.; Pagan Griso, S.; Paganis, E.; Paige, F.; Pais, P.; Pajchel, K.; Palacino, G.; Palestini, S.; Palka, M.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Pan, Y. B.; Panagiotopoulou, E.; Pandini, C. E.; Panduro Vazquez, J. G.; Pani, P.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Paolozzi, L.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Paramonov, A.; Paredes Hernandez, D.; Parker, M. A.; Parker, K. A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Patel, N. D.; Pater, J. R.; Pauly, T.; Pearce, J.; Pearson, B.; Pedersen, L. E.; Pedersen, M.; Pedraza Lopez, S.; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Pelikan, D.; Penc, O.; Peng, C.; Peng, H.; Penning, B.; Penwell, J.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perez Codina, E.; Pérez García-Estañ, M. T.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrella, S.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Pickering, M. A.; Piegaia, R.; Pignotti, D. T.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pingel, A.; Pires, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitt, M.; Pizio, C.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Pluth, D.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Polesello, G.; Poley, A.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prasad, S.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Proissl, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopapadaki, E.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Ptacek, E.; Puddu, D.; Pueschel, E.; Puldon, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reichert, J.; Reisin, H.; Relich, M.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Renaud, A.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosendahl, P. L.; Rosenthal, O.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, J. H. N.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Saddique, A.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sahinsoy, M.; Saimpert, M.; Saito, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Salazar Loyola, J. E.; Saleem, M.; Salek, D.; Sales De Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sammel, D.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, K.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; St. Denis, R. D.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.
2015-12-01
An observation of the Λb0 → ψ (2 S)Λ0 decay and a comparison of its branching fraction with that of the Λb0 → J / ψΛ0 decay has been made with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at √{ s} = 8 TeV at the LHC using an integrated luminosity of 20.6 fb-1. The J / ψ and ψ (2 S) mesons are reconstructed in their decays to a muon pair, while the Λ0 → pπ- decay is exploited for the Λ0 baryon reconstruction. The Λb0 baryons are reconstructed with transverse momentum pT > 10 GeV and pseudorapidity | η | < 2.1. The measured branching ratio of the Λb0 → ψ (2 S)Λ0 and Λb0 → J / ψΛ0 decays is Γ (Λb0 → ψ (2 S)Λ0) / Γ (Λb0 → J / ψΛ0) = 0.501 ± 0.033 (stat) ± 0.019 (syst), lower than the expectation from the covariant quark model.
Continuum description of avalanches in granular media.
Aranson, I. S.; Tsimring, L. S.
2000-12-05
A continuum theory of partially fluidized granular flows is proposed. The theory is based on a combination of the mass and momentum conservation equations with the order parameter equation which describes the transition between flowing and static components of the granular system. We apply this model to the dynamics of avalanches in chutes. The theory provides a quantitative description of recent observations of granular flows on rough inclined planes (Daerr and Douady 1999): layer bistability, and the transition from triangular avalanches propagating downhill at small inclination angles to balloon-shaped avalanches also propagating uphill for larger angles.
Dynamics of Avalanche Activities in Financial Markets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Cheol-Hyun; Park, C. H.; Kim, Soo Yong; Kim, Kyungsik; Scalas, Enrico
We study the dynamical properties of avalanche activities in the Korean Treasury Bond (KTB) futures price and the S&P 500 stock index. We apply the detrended fluctuation analysis, multiscale sample entropy and wavelet coefficient correlation to them, which revealed the scale-free dynamics of the bursting time series, avalanche size, and laminar time. We found that the laminar time and the avalanche size are anti-correlated in a short scale but in a large scale strongly correlated in KTB503, and are strongly correlated over all scales in S&P 500.
Initiation of immersed granular avalanches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang
2014-05-01
By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ≃0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the
Initiation of immersed granular avalanches.
Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang
2014-05-01
By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ≃ 0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huschle, M.; Kuhr, T.; Heck, M.; Goldenzweig, P.; Abdesselam, A.; Adachi, I.; Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Al Said, S.; Arinstein, K.; Asner, D. M.; Aushev, T.; Ayad, R.; Aziz, T.; Badhrees, I.; Bakich, A. M.; Bansal, V.; Barberio, E.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Biswal, J.; Bobrov, A.; Bozek, A.; Bračko, M.; Browder, T. E.; Červenkov, D.; Chang, P.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Cheon, B. G.; Chilikin, K.; Chistov, R.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, Y.; Cinabro, D.; Dalseno, J.; Danilov, M.; Doležal, Z.; Drásal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Eidelman, S.; Epifanov, D.; Farhat, H.; Fast, J. E.; Ferber, T.; Frey, A.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gaur, V.; Gabyshev, N.; Garmash, A.; Gillard, R.; Glattauer, R.; Goh, Y. M.; Golob, B.; Grygier, J.; Hamer, P.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Hasenbusch, J.; Hayasaka, K.; Hayashii, H.; He, X. H.; Heider, M.; Heller, A.; Horiguchi, T.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsu, C.-L.; Iijima, T.; Inami, K.; Inguglia, G.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jaegle, I.; Joffe, D.; Joo, K. K.; Julius, T.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Katrenko, P.; Kawasaki, T.; Keck, T.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, J. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, K. T.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Kinoshita, K.; Ko, B. R.; Kobayashi, N.; Kodyš, P.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Krokovny, P.; Kumita, T.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lee, I. S.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Libby, J.; Liventsev, D.; Lukin, P.; Masuda, M.; Matvienko, D.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyake, H.; Miyata, H.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Moll, A.; Moon, H. K.; Mussa, R.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nanut, T.; Nayak, M.; Nisar, N. K.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Okuno, S.; Oswald, C.; Pakhlova, G.; Pal, B.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Pedlar, T. K.; Pesántez, L.; Pestotnik, R.; Petrič, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pulvermacher, C.; Ribežl, E.; Ritter, M.; Rostomyan, A.; Sakai, Y.; Sandilya, S.; Santelj, L.; Sanuki, T.; Sato, Y.; Savinov, V.; Schneider, O.; Schnell, G.; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, A. J.; Semmler, D.; Senyo, K.; Seon, O.; Sevior, M. E.; Shebalin, V.; Shen, C. P.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shiu, J.-G.; Simon, F.; Sohn, Y.-S.; Sokolov, A.; Solovieva, E.; Stanič, S.; Starič, M.; Steder, M.; Stypula, J.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tamponi, U.; Teramoto, Y.; Trabelsi, K.; Trusov, V.; Uchida, M.; Uglov, T.; Uno, S.; Usov, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Vanhoefer, P.; Varner, G.; Vinokurova, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Wagner, M. N.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, M.-Z.; Wang, P.; Wang, X. L.; Watanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Won, E.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamaoka, J.; Yashchenko, S.; Ye, H.; Yook, Y.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yusa, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.; Zupanc, A.; Belle Collaboration
2015-10-01
We report a measurement of the branching fraction ratios R (D(*)) of B ¯→D(*)τ-ν¯τ relative to B ¯→D(*)ℓ-ν¯ℓ (where ℓ=e or μ ) using the full Belle data sample of 772 ×106B B ¯ pairs collected at the ϒ (4 S ) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. The measured values are R (D )=0.375 ±0.064 (stat)±0.026 (syst) and R (D*)=0.293 ±0.038 (stat)±0.015 (syst) . The analysis uses hadronic reconstruction of the tag-side B meson and purely leptonic τ decays. The results are consistent with earlier measurements and do not show a significant deviation from the standard model prediction.
Metal frame as local protection of superconducting films from thermomagnetic avalanches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikheenko, P.; Vestgârden, J. I.; Chaudhuri, S.; Maasilta, I. J.; Galperin, Y. M.; Johansen, T. H.
2016-03-01
Thermomagnetic avalanches in superconducting films propagating extremely fast while forming unpredictable patterns, represent a serious threat for the performance of devices based on such materials. It is shown here that a normal-metal frame surrounding a selected region inside the film area can provide efficient protection from the avalanches during their propagation stage. Protective behavior is confirmed by magneto-optical imaging experiments on NbN films equipped with Cu and Al frames, and also by performing numerical simulations. Experimentally, it is found that while conventional flux creep is not affected by the frames, the dendritic avalanches are partially or fully screened by them. The level of screening depends on the ratio of the sheet conductance of the metal and the superconductor in the resistive state, and for ratios much larger than unity the screening is very efficient.
Olson, C.J.; Reichhardt, C.; Nori, F.
1997-09-01
Using large-scale simulations on parallel processors, we analyze in detail the dynamical behavior of superconducting vortices undergoing avalanches. In particular, we quantify the effect of the pinning landscape on the macroscopic properties of vortex avalanches and vortex plastic flow. These dynamical instabilities are triggered when the external magnetic field is increased slightly, and are thus driven by a flux gradient rather than by thermal effects. The flux profiles, composed of rigid flux lines that interact with 100 or more vortices, are maintained in the Bean critical state and do not decay away from it. By directly determining vortex positions during avalanches in the plastically moving lattice, we find that experimentally observable voltage bursts correspond to the pulsing movement of vortices along branched channels or winding chains in a manner reminiscent of lightning strikes. This kind of motion cannot be described by elastic theories. We relate the velocity field and cumulative patterns of vortex flow channels with statistical quantities, such as distributions of avalanche sizes. Samples with a high density of strong pinning sites produce very broad avalanche distributions. Easy-flow vortex channels appear in samples with a low pinning density, and typical avalanche sizes emerge in an otherwise broad distribution of sizes. We observe a crossover from interstitial motion in narrow channels to pin-to-pin motion in broad channels as pin density is increased. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Qingnan; Mo, Yuxiang
2016-04-01
The predissociation dynamics of H2+ XUV → H2* → H ( 1 s ) + H ( 2 s , 2 p ) has been studied by measuring the fragment branching ratios between the H(2s) and H(2p) states and the fragment angular distributions using the XUV (extreme ultraviolet) laser pump and UV (ultraviolet) laser probe method. The fragment angular distributions for the predissociation of the 3 p π D1Πu+ ( υ = 3 ) state show parallel transitions, demonstrating that the main components of the dissociating state have 1Σu+ symmetry. The measured fragment branching ratios, H(2s)/(H(2s) + H(2p)), for the transitions R(0), R(1), and P(2) in 3 p π D1 Pi;u+ ( υ = 3 ) ← X1 Σg+ ( υ″ = 0 ) are in good agreement with one of the previous theoretical predictions. The predissociations of the 3 p π D1 Πu- ( υ = 3 ) state arising from the Q(1), Q(2), and Q(3) lines have also been observed. The angular distributions and the state distributions of the excited fragments (all found from the H(2p) state) illustrate that the dissociating states for the Q lines have the expected Πu- symmetry. The predissociation dynamics of the transition 4 p σ B″ 1 Σu+ ( υ = 1 ) ← X1 Σgg+ ( υ″ = 0 ) was also studied. Their fragment angular distributions show the expected parallel transitions, and most of the fragments are in the H(2s) states. The Beutler-Fano profiles and the associated spectroscopic parameters for the predissociations have also been obtained by measuring the fragment yield of H(2s, 2p) as a function of excitation photon energies.
Shocks generate crossover behavior in lattice avalanches.
Burridge, James
2013-11-22
A spatial avalanche model is introduced, in which avalanches increase stability in the regions where they occur. Instability is driven globally by a driving process that contains shocks. The system is typically subcritical, but the shocks occasionally lift it into a near- or supercritical state from which it rapidly retreats due to large avalanches. These shocks leave behind a signature-a distinct power-law crossover in the avalanche size distribution. The model is inspired by landslide field data, but the principles may be applied to any system that experiences stabilizing failures, possesses a critical point, and is subject to an ongoing process of destabilization that includes occasional dramatic destabilizing events. PMID:24313528
Avalanche control: Conservation Guide Series No. 5
Not Available
1985-01-01
This book examines different methods for determining the characteristics of snow cover and for localizing avalanche risk. It describes various techniques for temporary defense; for snow stabilization in the starting zone; and for wind deflection.
Spike avalanches in vivo suggest a driven, slightly subcritical brain state.
Priesemann, Viola; Wibral, Michael; Valderrama, Mario; Pröpper, Robert; Le Van Quyen, Michel; Geisel, Theo; Triesch, Jochen; Nikolić, Danko; Munk, Matthias H J
2014-01-01
In self-organized critical (SOC) systems avalanche size distributions follow power-laws. Power-laws have also been observed for neural activity, and so it has been proposed that SOC underlies brain organization as well. Surprisingly, for spiking activity in vivo, evidence for SOC is still lacking. Therefore, we analyzed highly parallel spike recordings from awake rats and monkeys, anesthetized cats, and also local field potentials from humans. We compared these to spiking activity from two established critical models: the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model, and a stochastic branching model. We found fundamental differences between the neural and the model activity. These differences could be overcome for both models through a combination of three modifications: (1) subsampling, (2) increasing the input to the model (this way eliminating the separation of time scales, which is fundamental to SOC and its avalanche definition), and (3) making the model slightly sub-critical. The match between the neural activity and the modified models held not only for the classical avalanche size distributions and estimated branching parameters, but also for two novel measures (mean avalanche size, and frequency of single spikes), and for the dependence of all these measures on the temporal bin size. Our results suggest that neural activity in vivo shows a mélange of avalanches, and not temporally separated ones, and that their global activity propagation can be approximated by the principle that one spike on average triggers a little less than one spike in the next step. This implies that neural activity does not reflect a SOC state but a slightly sub-critical regime without a separation of time scales. Potential advantages of this regime may be faster information processing, and a safety margin from super-criticality, which has been linked to epilepsy. PMID:25009473
Spike avalanches in vivo suggest a driven, slightly subcritical brain state
Priesemann, Viola; Wibral, Michael; Valderrama, Mario; Pröpper, Robert; Le Van Quyen, Michel; Geisel, Theo; Triesch, Jochen; Nikolić, Danko; Munk, Matthias H. J.
2014-01-01
In self-organized critical (SOC) systems avalanche size distributions follow power-laws. Power-laws have also been observed for neural activity, and so it has been proposed that SOC underlies brain organization as well. Surprisingly, for spiking activity in vivo, evidence for SOC is still lacking. Therefore, we analyzed highly parallel spike recordings from awake rats and monkeys, anesthetized cats, and also local field potentials from humans. We compared these to spiking activity from two established critical models: the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model, and a stochastic branching model. We found fundamental differences between the neural and the model activity. These differences could be overcome for both models through a combination of three modifications: (1) subsampling, (2) increasing the input to the model (this way eliminating the separation of time scales, which is fundamental to SOC and its avalanche definition), and (3) making the model slightly sub-critical. The match between the neural activity and the modified models held not only for the classical avalanche size distributions and estimated branching parameters, but also for two novel measures (mean avalanche size, and frequency of single spikes), and for the dependence of all these measures on the temporal bin size. Our results suggest that neural activity in vivo shows a mélange of avalanches, and not temporally separated ones, and that their global activity propagation can be approximated by the principle that one spike on average triggers a little less than one spike in the next step. This implies that neural activity does not reflect a SOC state but a slightly sub-critical regime without a separation of time scales. Potential advantages of this regime may be faster information processing, and a safety margin from super-criticality, which has been linked to epilepsy. PMID:25009473
Avalanche grainflow on a simulated aeolian dune
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutton, S. L. F.; McKenna Neuman, C.; Nickling, W.
2013-09-01
Avalanches maintain the slipface of aeolian dunes, which alters their airflow characteristics and sediment dynamics, and results in the development of grainflow cross-bedding. We report on a series of experiments in which avalanches were observed on a 1:1 replica of a small (1.2 m brink height) transverse dune in the Dune Simulation Wind Tunnel under wind velocities of 8-11 m s-1. Changes in slipface topography were observed photographically and measured utilizing a 3-D laser scanner with 1 mm2 spatial resolution. Avalanches in noncohesive sands were observed to progress through scarp recession from the point of initiation and continue until the slope angle is reduced. Changes in local slope confirm that the steep, pre-avalanche mean slope relaxes to a uniform value equal to the angle of repose of the test sand (32°) over all involved portions of the slipface. Avalanche volumes are measured, and demonstrate that avalanche magnitude is independent of wind speed over the range of velocities observed. This independence provides the potential to significantly simplify the modeling of grainflow as a function of only the total cross brink sediment transport.
Enhanced Red and Near Infrared Detection in Flow Cytometry Using Avalanche Photodiodes
Lawrence, William G.; Varadi, Gyula; Entine, Gerald; Podniesinski, Edward; Wallace, Paul K.
2008-01-01
Background Polychromatic flow cytometry enables detailed identification of cell phenotype using multiple fluorescent parameters. The photomultiplier tubes used to detect fluorescence in current instruments limit the sensitivity in the long wavelength spectral range. We demonstrate the flow cytometric applications of silicon avalanche photodiodes, which have improved red sensitivity and a working fluorescence detection range beyond 1000 nm. Methods A comparison of the wavelength dependent performance of the avalanche photodiode and photomultiplier tube was carried out using pulsed light emitting diode sources, calibrated test beads and biological samples. A breadboard flow cytometer test bench was constructed to compare the performance of photomultiplier tubes and avalanche photodiode detectors. The avalanche photodiode used an additional amplifier stage to match the internal gain of the photomultiplier tube. Results The resolution of the avalanche photodiode and photomultiplier tube was compared for flow cytometry applications using a pulsed light emitting diode source over the 500 nm to 1060 nm spectral range. These measurements showed the relative changes in the signal to noise performance of the APD and PMT over a broad spectral range. Both the avalanche photodiode and photomultiplier tubes were used to measure the signal to noise response for a set of 6 peak calibration beads over the 530 to 800 nm wavelength range. CD4 positive cells labeled with antibody conjugated phycoerythrin or 800 nm quantum dots were identified by simultaneous detection using the avalanche photodiode and the photomultiplier tube. The ratios of the intensities of the CD4− and CD4+ populations were found to be similar for both detectors in the visible wavelengths, but only the avalanche photodiode was able to separate these populations at wavelengths above 800 nm. Conclusions These measurements illustrate the differences in APD and PMT performance at different wavelengths and signal
Prehistoric rock avalanches in the Olympic Mountains, Washington
Schuster, R.L.; Logan, R.L.; Pringle, P.T.
1992-01-01
Rock avalanches blocked streams in the Olympic Mountains southwest of Puget Sound during the past few thousand years. Limiting radiocarbon ages indicated that three or four of six avalanches occurred from 1000 to 1300 years ago or shortly thereafter. Most of the dates were from the outer preserved rings of trees drowned behind avalanche dams. These three or four avalanches may be coeval not only with one another but also with abrupt tectonic deformation in western Washington. No rock avalanches in the Olympic Mountains are known to have resulted from storms or earthquakes during the past century. The avalanches strengthen the case that a large prehistoric earthquake occurred in the Puget Sound region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farrell, Alan C.; Senanayake, Pradeep; Hung, Chung-Hong; El-Howayek, Georges; Rajagopal, Abhejit; Currie, Marc; Hayat, Majeed M.; Huffaker, Diana L.
2015-12-01
Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are essential components in quantum key distribution systems and active imaging systems requiring both ultrafast response time to measure photon time of flight and high gain to detect low photon flux. The internal gain of an APD can improve system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Excess noise is typically kept low through the selection of material with intrinsically low excess noise, using separate-absorption-multiplication (SAM) heterostructures, or taking advantage of the dead-space effect using thin multiplication regions. In this work we demonstrate the first measurement of excess noise and gain-bandwidth product in III-V nanopillars exhibiting substantially lower excess noise factors compared to bulk and gain-bandwidth products greater than 200 GHz. The nanopillar optical antenna avalanche detector (NOAAD) architecture is utilized for spatially separating the absorption region from the avalanche region via the NOA resulting in single carrier injection without the use of a traditional SAM heterostructure.
Rock avalanches: significance and progress (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, T. R.
2013-12-01
1. The probability distribution of landslide volumes follows a power-law indicating that large rock avalanches dominate the terrestrial sediment supply from mountains, and that their source area morphologies dominate mountain topography. 2. Large rock slope failures (~ 106 m3 or greater) often mobilise into rock avalanches, which can travel extraordinarily long distances with devastating effect. This hypermobility has been the subject of many investigations; we have demonstrated that it can be explained quantitatively and accurately by considering the energetics of the intense rock fragmentation that always occurs during motion of a large rock mass. 3. Study of rock avalanche debris psd shows that the energy used in creating new rock surface area during fragmentation is not lost to surface energy, but is recycled generating a high-frequency elastic energy field that reduces the frictional resistance to motion during runout. 4. Rock avalanches that deposit on glaciers can eventually form large terminal moraines that have no connection with any climatic event; unless these are identified as rock-avalanche-influenced they can confuse palaeoclimatic inferences drawn from moraine ages. Rock-avalanche-derived fines, however, can be identified in moraine debris up to ten thousand years old by the characteristic micron-scale agglomerates that form during intense fragmentation, and which are absent from purely climatically-induced moraines; there is thus a strong case for re-examining existing palaeoclimatic databases to eliminate potentially rock-avalanche-influenced moraine ages. 5. Rock avalanches (especially coseismic ones) are a serious hazard, being very destructive in their own right; they also block river valleys, forming landslide dams and potentially devastating dambreak floods, and subsequent severe decade-scale aggradation of downstream fans and floodplains. Rock avalanches falling into lakes or fiords can cause catastrophic tsunami that pose a serious risk to
Electron avalanches in liquid argon mixtures
Kim, J.G.; Dardin, S.M.; Kadel, R.W.; Kadyk, J.A.; Wenzel, W.B.; Peskov, V.
2004-03-19
We have observed stable avalanche gain in liquid argon when mixed with small amounts of xenon in the high electric field (>7 MV/cm) near the point of a chemically etched needle in a point-plane geometry. We identify two gain mechanisms, one pressure dependent, and the other independent of the applied pressure. We conclude that the pressure dependent signals are from avalanche gain in gas bubbles at the tip of the needle, while the pressure independent pulses are from avalanche gain in liquid. We measure the decay time spectra of photons from both types of avalanches. The decay times from the pressure dependent pulses decrease (increase) with the applied pressure (high voltage), while the decay times from the pressure independent pulses are approximately independent of pressure or high voltage. For our operating conditions, the collected charge distribution from avalanches is similar for 60 keV or 122 keV photon sources. With krypton additives, instead of Xe, we measure behavior consistent with only the pressure dependent pulses. Neon and TMS were also investigated as additives, and designs for practical detectors were tested.
Electron avalanches in liquid argon mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, J. G.; Dardin, S. M.; Kadel, R. W.; Kadyk, J. A.; Peskov, V.; Wenzel, W. A.
2004-12-01
We have observed stable avalanche gain in liquid argon when mixed with small amounts of xenon (xe) in the high electric field ( >7 MV/cm) near the point of a chemically etched needle in a point-plane geometry. We identify two gain mechanisms, one pressure dependent, and the other independent of the applied pressure. We conclude that the pressure-dependent signals are from avalanche gain in gas bubbles at the tip of the needle, while the pressure-independent pulses are from avalanche gain in liquid. We measure the decay time spectra of photons from both types of avalanches. The decay times from the pressure-dependent pulses decrease (increase) with the applied pressure (high voltage), while the decay times from the pressure-independent pulses are approximately independent of pressure or high voltage. For our operating conditions, the collected charge distribution from avalanches is similar for 60 or 122 keV photon sources. With krypton additives, instead of Xe, we measure behavior consistent with only the pressure-dependent pulses. Neon and TMS were also investigated as additives, and designs for practical detectors were tested.
Avalanche of flux jumps in polycrystalline MgB2 superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felner, I.; Awana, V. P. S.; Mudgel, Monika; Kishan, H.
2007-05-01
Dc magnetization studies were carried out on a polycrystalline MgB2 superconductor, which was synthesized at 750°C in Fe tube encapsulation under a vacuum of 10-5Torr. Zero resistances at H =0 and 8T are obtained at 38 and 22K, respectively. The material possesses a sharp diamagnetic transition in the zero-field-cooled branch, whereas the field-cooled branch exhibits the paramagnetic-Meissner-effect-like phenomenon below Tc, indicating strong pinning in this compound. The critical current density at 20K and 2T, estimated by the Bean model is higher than 105A/cm2. Due to the strong pinning, we observed the presence of flux avalanches below H =2T at temperatures below 20K. The magnetization M(H ) grows (as usual) slowly with H and falls sharply to near zero moment value, and further grows again in a common way. The flux avalanches were seen quite symmetric in both increasing/decreasing the field in all four quadrants of the M(H ) loops. The dynamics behavior of sinusoidal-like symmetric reproducible flux avalanches is discussed.
Synaptic plasticity and neuronal refractory time cause scaling behaviour of neuronal avalanches.
Michiels van Kessenich, L; de Arcangelis, L; Herrmann, H J
2016-01-01
Neuronal avalanches measured in vitro and in vivo in different cortical networks consistently exhibit power law behaviour for the size and duration distributions with exponents typical for a mean field self-organized branching process. These exponents are also recovered in neuronal network simulations implementing various neuronal dynamics on different network topologies. They can therefore be considered a very robust feature of spontaneous neuronal activity. Interestingly, this scaling behaviour is also observed on regular lattices in finite dimensions, which raises the question about the origin of the mean field behavior observed experimentally. In this study we provide an answer to this open question by investigating the effect of activity dependent plasticity in combination with the neuronal refractory time in a neuronal network. Results show that the refractory time hinders backward avalanches forcing a directed propagation. Hebbian plastic adaptation plays the role of sculpting these directed avalanche patterns into the topology of the network slowly changing it into a branched structure where loops are marginal. PMID:27534901
Synaptic plasticity and neuronal refractory time cause scaling behaviour of neuronal avalanches
Michiels van Kessenich, L.; de Arcangelis, L.; Herrmann, H. J.
2016-01-01
Neuronal avalanches measured in vitro and in vivo in different cortical networks consistently exhibit power law behaviour for the size and duration distributions with exponents typical for a mean field self-organized branching process. These exponents are also recovered in neuronal network simulations implementing various neuronal dynamics on different network topologies. They can therefore be considered a very robust feature of spontaneous neuronal activity. Interestingly, this scaling behaviour is also observed on regular lattices in finite dimensions, which raises the question about the origin of the mean field behavior observed experimentally. In this study we provide an answer to this open question by investigating the effect of activity dependent plasticity in combination with the neuronal refractory time in a neuronal network. Results show that the refractory time hinders backward avalanches forcing a directed propagation. Hebbian plastic adaptation plays the role of sculpting these directed avalanche patterns into the topology of the network slowly changing it into a branched structure where loops are marginal. PMID:27534901