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Sample records for avena coleoptile elongation

  1. Calorimetric studies of the elongation of Avena coleoptile segments.

    PubMed

    Bogie, H E; Kresheck, G C; Harmet, K H

    1976-06-01

    Elongation rate and heat produced by Avena coleoptile segments suspended in sucrose buffer solutions were measured at pH values from 3.5 to 8.5. The caloric efficiency of elongation (CEE) was defined as the ratio of the rate of elongation to the rate of heat production. Elongation and CEE were greatest at intermediate pH values, but heat production (about 1 cal/g.hr) was insensitive to pH within the limits of experimental error (+/-20%). Quantitative agreement was found between the results of previous respiration studies and the rate of heat production in an aerobic atmosphere, which indicates that oxidative metabolism accounts for essentially all energy changes in the cell, so matter flow is a significant component of the bioenergetics of cell function. Indole-3-acetic acid up to 1 mm, produced about a 10-fold increase in elongation rate, a 5-fold increase of the CEE, and a 25% increase in heat production. Above this concentration, sharp drops in both elongation and heat production occurred, without altering the CEE at pH 6.5, but greatly decreasing the CEE at pH 4.5. Elongation and CEE showed marked decreases after 4 hours in an anaerobic atmosphere, but heat production did not exhibit a proportional decrease. These studies indicate that rate of cell elongation in the presence and absence of auxin is not directly proportional to the overall metabolism of the cell. PMID:16659582

  2. The outer epidermis of Avena and maize coleoptiles is not a unique target for auxin in elongation growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    A controversy exists as to whether or not the outer epidermis in coleoptiles is a unique target for auxin in elongation growth. The following evidence indicates that the outer epidermis is not the only auxin-responsive cell layer in either Avena sativa L. or Zea mays L. coleoptiles. Coleoptile sections from which the epidermis has been removed by peeling elongate in response to auxin. The magnitude of the response is similar to that of intact sections provided the incubation solution contains both auxin and sucrose. The amount of elongation is independent of the amount of epidermis removed. Sections of oat coleoptiles from which the epidermis has been removed from one side are nearly straight after 22 h in auxin and sucrose, despite extensive growth of the sections. These data indicate that the outer epidermis is not a unique target for auxin in elongation growth, at least in Avena and maize coleoptiles.

  3. Conversion of Isatin to Isatate as Related to Growth Promotion in Avena Coleoptile and Pisum Stem Sections 1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, H.-R.; Galston, A. W.; Milstone, L.

    1966-01-01

    Isatin, (indole 2,3-dione), which promotes elongation of Pisum stem sections at concentrations exceeding 0.1 mm, promotes elongation of Avena coleoptile sections only at higher concentrations, exceeding 1 mm. Aged isatin solutions are more active than fresh solutions, due to the slow, spontaneous conversion to isatate (o-aminophenylglyoxylate). A concentration of 0.1 mm aged isatin is as active in Avena coleoptile sections as in peas. Isatate has been independently synthesized and its auxin activity in both Avena coleoptile and Pisum stem sections confirmed. The synthetic isatate is more effective than isatin in both systems. This suggests that the auxin activity of isatin is due to its conversion to isatate. PMID:16656429

  4. Auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles involves two mechanisms with different pH optima

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Although rapid auxin-induced growth of coleoptile sections can persist for at least 18 hours, acid-induced growth lasts for a much shorter period of time. Three theories have been proposed to explain this difference in persistence. To distinguish between these theories, the pH dependence for auxin-induced growth of oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles has been determined early and late in the elongation process. Coleoptile sections from which the outer epidermis was removed to facilitate buffer entry were incubated, with or without 10 micromolar indoleacetic acid, in 20 millimolar buffers at pH 4.5 to 7.0 to maintain a fixed wall pH. During the first 1 to 2 hours after addition of auxin, elongation occurs by acid-induced extension (i.e. the pH optimum is <5 and the elongation varies inversely with the solution pH). Auxin causes no additional elongation because the buffers prevent further changes in wall pH. After 60 to 90 minutes, a second mechanism of auxin-induced growth, whose pH optimum is 5.5 to 6.0, predominates. It is proposed that rapid growth responses to changes in auxin concentration are mediated by auxin-induced changes in wall pH, whereas the prolonged, steady-state growth rate is controlled by a second, auxin-mediated process whose pH optimum is less acidic.

  5. Galactose inhibits auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles by two mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, S. P.; Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Galactose inhibits auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles by at least two mechanisms. First, it inhibits auxin-induced H(+)-excretion needed for the initiation of rapid elongation. Galactose cannot be doing so by directly interfering with the ATPase since fusicoccin-induced H(+)-excretion is not affected. Secondly, galactose inhibits long-term auxin-induced growth, even in an acidic (pH 4.5) solution. This may be due to an inhibition of cell wall synthesis. However, galactose does not reduce the capacity of walls to be loosened by H+, given exogenously or excreted in response to fusicoccin.

  6. Indoleacetic Acid biosynthesis in Avena coleoptile tips and excised bean shoots.

    PubMed

    Black, R C; Hamilton, R H

    1971-11-01

    Avena coleoptiles did not elongate when incubated with tryptophan under sterile conditions. Indole, anthranilic acid, and tryptamine promoted elongation. Under the same conditions, the tissue converted tryptophan-(14)C to IAA-(14)C. More IAA-(14)C was produced from indole-(14)C than from tryptophan-(14)C; however, the free tryptophan content of the tissue was also greatly increased by the indole treatment. Tryptophan-(14)C was readily taken up by the tissue but was mainly incorporated into protein and did not increase the free tryptophan level. When bean shoots were labeled with tryptophan-(14)C or indole-(14)C, the label incorporation into IAA-(14)C was very nearly the same. In this tissue the free tryptophan level in the tryptophan-(14)C and indole-(14)C treatments was also about equal. These results suggest that failure of exogenously supplied tryptophan to promote the elongation of Avena coleoptiles is a result of its predominant incorporation into protein and consequent unavailability for conversion to IAA. PMID:16657844

  7. Characteristics and implications of prolonged fusicoccin-induced growth of Avena coleoptile sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    A study has been made of the prolonged growth of Avena coleoptile sections in response to fusicoccin (FC), a phytotoxin that promotes apoplastic acidification. The final amount of FC-induced growth is a function of the FC concentration. Removal of the epidermis speeds up the initial rate of elongation and shortens the duration of the response, without affecting the total amount of extension. A suboptimal FC concentration (7 x 10(-8) M) which induces the same rate of proton excretion as does optimal indoleacetic acid (IAA) (1 x 10(-5) M), causes elongation which is 60-75% of that induced by IAA in 4 h or 50-65% in 7 h. This suggests that acid-induced extension could make a major contribution to auxin-induced growth for at least 7 h.

  8. Comparison of the lipid composition of oat root and coleoptile plasma membranes. [Avena sativa L

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, R.P. ); Cleland, R.E. )

    1989-07-01

    The total lipid composition of plasma membranes (PM), isolated by the phase partitioning method from two different oat (Avena sativa L.) tissues, the root and coleoptile, was compared. In general, the PM lipid composition was not conserved between these two organs of the oat seedling. Oat roots contained 50 mole % phospholipid, 25 mole % glycolipid, and 25 mole % free sterol, whereas comparable amounts in the coleoptile were 42, 39, and 19 mole %, respectively. Individual lipid components within each lipid class also showed large variations between the two tissues. Maximum specific ATPase activity in the root PM was more than double the activity in the coleoptile. Treatment of coleoptile with auxin for 1 hour resulted in no detectable changes in PM lipids or extractable ATPase activity. Differences in the PM lipid composition between the two tissues that may define the limits of ATPase activity are discussed.

  9. Tropisms of Avena coleoptiles: sine law for gravitropism, exponential law for photogravitropic equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Galland, Paul

    2002-09-01

    The quantitative relation between gravitropism and phototropism was analyzed for light-grown coleoptiles of Avena sativa (L.). With respect to gravitropism the coleoptiles obeyed the sine law. To study the interaction between light and gravity, coleoptiles were inclined at variable angles and irradiated for 7 h with unilateral blue light (466 nm) impinging at right angles relative to the axis of the coleoptile. The phototropic stimulus was applied from the side opposite to the direction of gravitropic bending. The fluence rate that was required to counteract the negative gravitropism increased exponentially with the sine of the inclination angle. To achieve balance, a linear increase in the gravitropic stimulus required compensation by an exponential increase in the counteracting phototropic stimulus. The establishment of photogravitropic equilibrium during continuous unilateral irradiation is thus determined by two different laws: the well-known sine law for gravitropism and a novel exponential law for phototropism described in this work. PMID:12244443

  10. Osmoregulation in the Avena coleoptile in relation to auxin and growth

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, T.T.; Cleland, R.E.

    1981-04-01

    A study has been made of the effects of auxin and growth on the ability of Avena coleoptile sections to osmoregulate, i.e., to take up solutes so as to maintain their osmotic concentration, turgor pressure, and growth rate. The high auxin-induced growth rate of Avena coleoptiles is maintained when cells are provided sucrose, glucose, NaCl, or KCl as a source of absorbable solutes, but not when 2-deoxy-O-glucose or 3-O-methyl-O-glucose is used. In the absence of auxin, cells take up solutes from a 2% sucrose solution and the osmotic concentration increases. Solute uptake is not stimulated by auxin when growth is inhibited osmotically or by calcium ions. Solute uptake appears to have two components: a basal rate, independent of auxin or growth, and an additional uptake which is proportional to growth. Osmoregulation of sections may be limited by the rate of entry of solutes into the tissue rather than by their rate of uptake into the cells.

  11. Calcium bridges are not load-bearing cell-wall bonds in Avena coleoptiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayle, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    I examined the ability of frozen-thawed Avena sativa L. coleoptile sections under applied load to extend in response to the calcium chelators ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 2-[(2-bis-[carboxymethyl]amino-5-methylphenoxy)methyl]-6-methoxy-8-bis[car boxymethyl]aminoquinoline (Quin II). Addition of 5 mM EGTA to weakly buffered (0.1 mM, pH 6.2) solutions of 2(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (Mes) initiated rapid extension and wall acidification. When the buffer strength was increased (e.g. from 20 to 100 mM Mes, pH 6.2) EGTA did not initiate extension nor did it cause wall acidification. At 5 mM Quin II failed to stimulate cell extension or wall acidification at all buffer molarities tested (0.1 to 100 mM Mes). Both chelators rapidly and effectively removed Ca2+ from Avena sections. These data indicate that Ca2+ chelation per se does not result in loosening of Avena cells walls. Rather, EGTA promotes wall extension indirectly via wall acidification.

  12. Calcium bridges are not load-bearing cell-wall bonds in Avena coleoptiles.

    PubMed

    Rayle, D L

    1989-01-01

    I examined the ability of frozen-thawed Avena sativa L. coleoptile sections under applied load to extend in response to the calcium chelators ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 2-[(2-bis-[carboxymethyl]amino-5-methylphenoxy)methyl]-6-methoxy-8-bis[carboxymethyl]aminoquinoline (Quin II). Addition of 5 mM EGTA to weakly buffered (0.1 mM, pH 6.2) solutions of 2(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (Mes) initiated rapid extension and wall acidification. When the buffer strength was increased (e.g. from 20 to 100 mM Mes, pH 6.2) EGTA did not initiate extension nor did it cause wall acidification. At 5 mM Quin II failed to stimulate cell extension or wall acidification at all buffer molarities tested (0.1 to 100 mM Mes). Both chelators rapidly and effectively removed Ca2+ from Avena sections. These data indicate that Ca2+ chelation per se does not result in loosening of Avena cells walls. Rather, EGTA promotes wall extension indirectly via wall acidification. PMID:11539809

  13. Gravitropic responses of the Avena coleoptile in space and on clinostats. I. Gravitropic response thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.; Chapman, D. K.; Johnsson, A.; Heathcote, D.

    1995-01-01

    We conducted a series of gravitropic experiments on Avena coleoptiles in the weightlessness environment of Spacelab. The purpose was to test the threshold stimulus, reciprocity rule and autotropic reactions to a range of g-force stimulations of different intensities and durations The tests avoided the potentially complicating effects of earth's gravity and the interference from clinostat ambiguities. Using slow-speed centrifuges, coleoptiles received transversal accelerations in the hypogravity range between 0.l and 1.0 g over periods that ranged from 2 to 130 min. All responses that occurred in weightlessness were compared to clinostat experiments on earth using the same apparatus. Characteristic gravitropistic response patterns of Atuena were not substantially different from those observed in ground-based experiments. Gravitropic presentation times were extrapolated. The threshold at 1.0 g was less than 1 min (shortest stimulation time 2 min), in agreement with values obtained on the ground. The least stimulus tested, 0.1 g for 130 min, produced a significant response. Therefore the absolute threshold for a gravitropic response is less than 0.1 g.

  14. The pH profile for acid-induced elongation of coleoptile and epicotyl sections is consistent with the acid-growth theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleland, R. E.; Buckley, G.; Nowbar, S.; Lew, N. M.; Stinemetz, C.; Evans, M. L.; Rayle, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    The acid-growth theory predicts that a solution with a pH identical to that of the apoplast of auxin-treated tissues (4.5.-5.0) should induce elongation at a rate comparable to that of auxin. Different pH profiles for elongation have been obtained, however, depending on the type of pretreatment between harvest of the sections and the start of the pH-incubations. To determine the acid sensitivity under in vivo conditions, oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptile, maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptile and pea (Pisum sativum L.) epicotyl sections were abraded so that exogenous buffers could penetrate the free space, and placed in buffered solutions of pH 3.5-6.5 without any preincubation. The extension, without auxin, was measured over the first 3 h. Experiments conducted in three laboratories produced similar results. For all three species, sections placed in buffer without pretreatment elongated at least threefold faster at pH 5.0 than at 6.0 or 6.5, and the rate elongation at pH 5.0 was comparable to that induced by auxin. Pretreatment of abraded sections with pH-6.5 buffer or distilled water adjusted to pH 6.5 or above gave similar results. We conclude that the pH present in the apoplast of auxin-treated coleoptile and stems is sufficiently low to account for the initial growth response to auxin.

  15. Osmoregulation in the Avena coleoptile: control of solute uptake in peeled sections

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, T.T.; Cleland, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Peeled Avena sativa coleoptile sections have been used to study the control of solute uptake under conditions where the uptake is not limited by the cuticular barrier. In the presence of 2% sucrose, auxin enhances the rate at which the total osmotic solutes increase, but this appears to be a response to the increased growth rate, inasmuch as the auxin effect is eliminated when growth is inhibited osmotically. When sections are incubated in sucrose or in 10 millimolar NaCl, the osmotic concentration increases until a plateau is reached after 8 to 24 hours. Auxin has no effect on the initial rate of increase in osmotic concentration. This difference in steady-state osmotic concentration is, in part, a response to auxin itself, as it persists when auxin-induced growth is inhibited osmotically. The upper limit for osmotic concentration does not appear to be determined by the turgor pressure, inasmuch as a combination of sucrose and NaCl gave a higher plateau osmotic concentration than did either solute alone. The authors suggest that the rate of solute uptake is determined by the availability of absorbable solutes and by the surface area exposed to the solutes. Each absorbable solute reaches a maximum internal concentration independent of other absorbable solutes; the steady-state osmotic concentration is simply the sum of these individual internal concentrations.

  16. Phytochrome-controlled extension growth of Avena sativa L. seedlings : I. Kinetic characterization of mesocotyl, coleoptile, and leaf responses.

    PubMed

    Schopfer, P; Fidelak, K H; Schäfer, E

    1982-05-01

    The effects of continuous red and far-red light and of brief light pulses on the growth kinetics of the mesocotyl, coleoptile, and primary leaf of intact oat (Avena sativa L.) seedlings were investigated. Mesocotyl lengthening is strongly inhibited, even by very small amounts of Pfr, the far-red light absorbing form of phytochrome (e.g., by [Pfr]≈0.1% of total phytochrome, established by a 756-nm light pulse). Coleoptile growth is at first promoted by Pfr, but apparently inhibited later. This inhibition is correlated in time with the rupturing of the coleoptile tip by the primary leaf, the growth of which is also promoted by phytochrome. The growth responses of all three seedling organs are fully reversible by far-red light. The apparent lack of photoreversibility observed by some previous investigators of the mesocotyl inhibition can be explained by an extremely high sensitivity to Pfr. Experiments with different seedling parts failed to demonstrate any further obvious interorgan relationship in the light-mediated growth responses of the mesocotyl and coleoptile. The organspecific growth kinetics, don't appear to be influenced by Pfr destruction. Following an irradiation, the growth responses are quantitatively determined by the level of Pfr established at the onset of darkness rather than by the actual Pfr level present during the growth period. PMID:24276065

  17. Growth-limiting proteins in maize coleoptiles and the auxin-brassinosteroid hypothesis of mesocotyl elongation.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The shoot of grass coleoptiles consists of the mesocotyl, the node, and the coleoptile (with enclosed primary leaf). Since the 1930s, it is known that auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA), produced in the tip of the coleoptile, is the central regulator of turgor-driven organ growth. Fifty years ago, it was discovered that antibiotics that suppress protein biosynthesis, such as cycloheximide, inhibit auxin (IAA)-induced cell elongation in excised sections of coleoptiles and stems. Based on such inhibitor studies, the concept of "growth-limiting proteins (GLPs)" emerged that was subsequently elaborated and modified. Here, we summarize the history of this idea with reference to IAA-mediated shoot elongation in maize (Zea mays) seedlings and recent studies on the molecular mechanism underlying auxin action in Arabidopsis thaliana. In addition, the analysis of light-induced inhibition of shoot elongation in intact corn seedlings is discussed. We propose a concept to account for the GLP-mediated epidermal wall-loosening process in coleoptile segments and present a more general model of growth regulation in intact maize seedlings. Quantitative proteomic and genomic studies led to a refinement of the classic "GLP concept" to explain phytohormone-mediated cell elongation at the molecular level (i.e., the recently proposed theory of a "central growth regulation network," CGRN). Novel data show that mesocotyl elongation not only depends on auxin but also on brassinosteroids (BRs). However, the biochemical key processes that regulate the IAA/BR-mediated loosening of the expansion-limiting epidermal wall(s) have not yet been elucidated. PMID:25772679

  18. In vitro and in vivo protein phosphorylation in Avena sativa L. coleoptiles: effects of Ca2+, calmodulin antagonists, and auxin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veluthambi, K.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo protein phosphorylations in oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptile segments were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In vitro phosphorylation of several polypeptides was distinctly promoted at 1 to 15 micromolar free Ca2+ concentrations. Ca2(+)-stimulated phosphorylation was markedly reduced by trifluoperazine, chlorpromazine, and naphthalene sulfonamide (W7). Two polypeptides were phosphorylated both under in vitro and in vivo conditions, but the patterns of phosphorylation of several other polypeptides were different under the two conditions indicating that the in vivo phosphorylation pattern of proteins is not truly reflected by in vitro phosphorylation studies. Trifluoperazine, W7, or ethylene glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) + calcium ionophore A23187 treatments resulted in reduced levels of in vivo protein phosphorylation of both control and auxin-treated coleoptile segments. Analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis following in vivo phosphorylation revealed auxin-dependent changes of certain polypeptides. A general inhibition of phosphorylation by calmodulin antagonists suggested that both control and auxin-treated coleoptiles exhibited Ca2+, and calmodulin-dependent protein phosphorylation in vivo.

  19. [The influence of high pressure on the 3-indoleacetic-acid-induced curvature of Avena coleoptiles in the Went-test].

    PubMed

    Chrometzka, P

    1967-12-01

    1. High atmospheric pressure causes an increase of the 3-indoleacetic-acid-induced curvature of Avena coleoptiles in the Went-test, regardless of whether the applied gas is nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, or air. 2. The highest increase was caused by high pressure of oxygen, the lowest by lack of oxygen. 3. The high pressure effect was also observed with coleoptiles which were treated 20 hours prior to the test and which were then kept under normal pressure. 4. High pressure of oxygen for a long period (20 hours) had a poisonous effect on the coleoptiles. They ceased to grow. Preliminary studies have shown that the respiration is enhanced if the coleoptiles have been kept under high pressure. PMID:24554325

  20. Gravitropic responses of the Avena coleoptile in space and on clinostats. II. Is reciprocity valid?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsson, A.; Brown, A. H.; Chapman, D. K.; Heathcote, D.; Karlsson, C.

    1995-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine if the reciprocity rule is valid for gravitropic responses of oat coleoptiles in the acceleration region below 1 g. The rule predicts that the gravitropic response should be proportional to the product of the applied acceleration and the stimulation time. Seedlings were cultivated on 1 g centrifuges and transferred to test centrifuges to apply a transverse g-stimulation. Since responses occurred in microgravity, the uncertainties about the validity of clinostat simulation of weightlessness was avoided. Plants at two stages of coleoptile development were tested. Plant responses were obtained using time-lapse video recordings that were analyzed after the flight. Stimulus intensities and durations were varied and ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 g and from 2 to 130 min, respectively. For threshold g-doses the reciprocity rule was obeyed. The threshold dose was of the order of 55 g s and 120 g s, respectively, for two groups of plants investigated. Reciprocity was studied also at bending responses which are from just above the detectable level to about 10 degrees. The validity of the rule could not be confirmed for higher g-doses, chiefly because the data were more variable. It was investigated whether the uniformity of the overall response data increased when the gravitropic dose was defined as (gm x t) with m-values different from unity. This was not the case and the reciprocity concept is, therefore, valid also in the hypogravity region. The concept of gravitropic dose, the product of the transverse acceleration and the stimulation time, is also well-defined in the acceleration region studied. With the same hardware, tests were done on earth where responses occurred on clinostats. The results did not contradict the reciprocity rule but scatter in the data was large.

  1. Assessment of chromium efficacy on germination, root elongation, and coleoptile growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at different growth periods.

    PubMed

    Dotaniya, M L; Das, H; Meena, V D

    2014-05-01

    The tannery effluents contain a high concentration of chromium (Cr). It drastically reduces the crop yield when used for irrigation purpose. A huge volume of tannery effluents is available as irrigation for crop production. It is negatively affecting germination as well as yield of the crop. The wheat seeds were exposed to five different concentrations of Cr (0, 20, 40, 80, and 100 ppm). In Petri plates, 100 seeds were placed and the germination percent was recorded after 72 hour (h). Root elongation and coleoptile growth were measured at 72, 120, 168, and 240 h. Results showed that the germination percent of the test crop decreased with increasing Cr levels. It decreased by 6, 14, 30, and 37 % under the Cr concentration of 20, 40, 80, and 100 ppm, respectively. The root elongation was more sensitive than the coleoptile growth. The negative correlation was found between Cr levels and root elongation as well as coleoptile growth. These growth parameters were significantly affected up to 80 ppm of Cr level. The wheat growers using tannery effluent as irrigation should be well treated prior to application. PMID:24415062

  2. Elongation growth of the leaf sheath base of Avena sativa seedlings: regulation by hormones and sucrose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1991-01-01

    The leaf sheath base of the seedling of Avena sativa was characterized for growth response to hormones and sucrose. Six day old plants, raised under a 10:14 hr light:dark cycle, were excised at the coleoptilar node and 1 cm above the node for treatment. The growth of the leaf sheath base was promoted by gibberellic acid (GA3) and this response was dose dependent. The lag to response initiation was approximately 4 hr. Growth with or without GA3 (10 micromoles) was transient, diminishing appreciably after 48 hr. The addition of 10 mM sucrose greatly prolonged growth; the effect of GA3 and sucrose was additive. Neither indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) nor the cytokinin N6-benzyladenine (BA), alone or in combination, promoted the growth of leaf sheath bases. However, both significantly inhibited the action of GA3. The inhibitory effect of IAA was dose dependent and was not affected by the addition of BA or sucrose. These results indicate that the growth of leaf sheath bases of Avena sativa is promoted specifically by gibberellin, that this action depends on the availability of carbohydrates from outside of the leaf sheath base, and that the promotional effect of GA3 can be modified by either auxins or cytokinins.

  3. Gravitropism and phototropism of oat coleoptiles: Post-tropic autostraightening and tissue shrinkage during tropism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarui, Y.; Iino, M.

    1999-01-01

    We measured changes in length on the two opposite sides of the red-light-grown oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles subjected to either gravitropic or phototropic stimulation and subsequently rotated on a horizontal clinostat. The length measurement was conducted using three 5 mm-long zones delimited by ink markers from the tip. Curvature of each zone was analyzed from the length difference between the two sides. Gravitropism was induced by displacing the seedling from the vertical by 30° or 90° for 25 min. Phototropism was induced by exposing the coleoptile to unilateral blue light for 30 s, which provided a fluence (1.0 μmol m-2) optimal for the pulse-induced positive phototropism or a lower, suboptimal fluence (0.03 μmol m-2). After negatively gravitropic bending, the upper two zones straightened rapidly at either displacement angle. After positively phototropic bending, straightening occurred, but only in the top zone and at the lower fluence. The upper two zones straightened rapidly, however, when bilateral blue light (30 s; 15 μmol m-2 from either direction) was applied 25 min after unilateral stimulation at the higher fluence. Bilateral blue light alone induced no curvature. These results confirm that the straightening of gravitropically bent coleoptiles is autonomic, and suggest that a similar autonomic response participates in the straightening of phototropically bent coleoptiles. Suppression of elongation on the concave side of the coleoptile mainly accounted for gravitropic and phototropic curvatures. The concave side of the top zone shrank during both tropisms. This shrinkage progressed at a high rate from the beginning of curvature response, suggesting that a drop in turgor pressure is the main and direct cause of the shrinkage.

  4. Gravitropism and phototropism of oat coleoptiles: post-tropic autostraightening and tissue shrinkage during tropism.

    PubMed

    Tarui, Y; Iino, M

    1999-01-01

    We measured changes in length on the two opposite sides of the red-light-grown oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles subjected to either gravitropic or phototropic stimulation and subsequently rotated on a horizontal clinostat. The length measurement was conducted using three 5 mm-long zones delimited by ink markers from the tip. Curvature of each zone was analyzed from the length difference between the two sides. Gravitropism was induced by displacing the seedling from the vertical by 30 degrees or 90 degrees for 25 min. Phototropism was induced by exposing the coleoptile to unilateral blue light for 30 s, which provided a fluence (1.0 micromoles m-2) optimal for the pulse-induced positive phototropism or a lower, suboptimal fluence (0.03 micromoles m-2). After negatively gravitropic bending, the upper two zones straightened rapidly at either displacement angle. After positively phototropic bending, straightening occurred, but only in the top zone and at the lower fluence. The upper two zones straightened rapidly, however, when bilateral blue light (30 s; 15 micromoles m-2 from either direction) was applied 25 min after unilateral stimulation at the higher fluence. Bilateral blue light alone induced no curvature. These results confirm that the straightening of gravitropically bent coleoptiles is autonomic, and suggest that a similar autonomic response participates in the straightening of phototropically bent coleoptiles. Suppression of elongation on the concave side of the coleoptile mainly accounted for gravitropic and phototropic curvatures. The concave side of the top zone shrank during both tropisms. This shrinkage progressed at a high rate from the beginning of curvature response, suggesting that a drop in turgor pressure is the main and direct cause of the shrinkage. PMID:11542618

  5. Lignin Formation in Wheat Coleoptile Cell Walls

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, F. W.

    1971-01-01

    Four growth-influencing compounds—hydroxyproline, 2,2′-dipyridyl, 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid, and indoleacetic acid—were used to examine the relationship between lignin formation and growth of wheat coleoptile sections. Hydroxyproline and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid, at low concentrations, inhibited growth and increased lignin content. Dipyridyl, which promoted coleoptile elongation, decreased lignin content. Indoleacetic acid caused a 300% increase in growth at 0.1 mm but resulted in lignin content no different from controls with no auxin. Chemical and anatomical evidence is given which indicates that lignin is present in the epidermal cell walls of the wheat coleoptile. It is thus possible that bonding between lignin and hemicellulose may have some influence on coleoptile growth. Images PMID:16657843

  6. Cell Wall Development in Maize Coleoptiles 1

    PubMed Central

    Carpita, Nicholas C.

    1984-01-01

    The physical bases for enhancement of growth rates induced by auxin involve changes in cell wall structure. Changes in the chemical composition of the primary walls during maize (Zea mays L. cv WF9 × Bear 38) coleoptile development were examined to provide a framework to study the nature of auxin action. This report documents that the primary walls of maize cells vary markedly depending on developmental state; polymers synthesized and deposited in the primary wall during cell division are substantially different from those formed during cell elongation. The embryonal coleoptile wall is comprised of mostly glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX), xyloglucan, and polymers enriched in 5-arabinosyl linkages. During development, both GAX and xyloglucan are synthesized, but the 5-arabinosyls are not. Rapid coleoptile elongation is accompanied by synthesis of a mixed-linked glucan that is nearly absent from the embryonal wall. A GAX highly substituted with mostly terminal arabinofuranosyl units is also synthesized during elongation and, based on pulse-chase studies, exhibits turnover possibly to xylans with less substitution via loss of the arabinosyl and glucuronosyl linkages. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16663799

  7. Inhibition of gravitropism in oat coleoptiles by the calcium chelator, ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daye, S.; Biro, R. L.; Roux, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    A treatment period as brief as 8 h in 10(-3) M EGTA completely blocks gravitropism in 70-80% of the treated coleoptiles of oats (Avena sativa L. cv. Garry) without inhibiting growth. Only about 10% of the plants perfused in water failed to exhibit gravitropism. Subsequent perfusion of EGTA-treated plants with calcium completely restores gravitropism; post-perfusion with water does not. After perfusion in water for 10 h, gravistimulated oat coleoptile segments show the same asymmetry of 45Ca distribution as reported earlier for non-perfused coleoptiles and sunflower hypocotyls. The degree of this asymmetry is reduced in those coleoptiles partially inhibited by perfusion in EGTA and is essentially absent in those coleoptiles completely inhibited by EGTA. The fact that calcium reverses the inhibitory effects of EGTA on gravitropism indicates that the inhibition was probably due to a reduction in the availability of free calcium required for one or more of the transduction steps of gravitropism.

  8. Gravitropism of maize and rice coleoptiles: dependence on the stimulation angle.

    PubMed

    Iino, M; Tarui, Y; Uematsu, C

    1996-10-01

    Gravitropism of maize and rice coleoptiles was investigated with respect to its dependence on the angle of displacement or the initial stimulation angle (ISA). Close examination of curvature kinetics and the response to a drop in stimulation angle (SA) indicated that the gravtropic response during an early but substantial part of the curvature development is directly related to the ISA, there being no effect of the reduction of SA resulting from the curvature response itself. On the basis of this finding, the relationship between the steady SA and the curvature rate was determined. In maize, the curvature rate increased linearly with the sines of SAs up to an SA of 90 degrees. Rice coleoptiles, however, showed a saturation curve in the same range of SAs. The saturation profile was nearly identical between coleoptiles grown in air and those submerged in water, although the latter elongated much faster. Rice coleoptiles appeared to be far more sensitive to gravity than maize coleoptiles. It is concluded that the sensitivity to gravity, assessed through dependence on ISA, is a property inherent to a given gravitropic organ. Long-term measurements of curvature indicated that the coleoptiles bend back past the vertical. This overshooting was marked in submerged rice coleoptiles. PMID:11539324

  9. Role of Ca++ in Shoot Gravitropism. [avena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayle, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    A cornerstone in the argument that Ca(2+) levels may regulate growth is the finding the EGTA promotes straight growth. The usual explanation for these results is that Ca(2+) chelation from cell walls results in wall loosening and thus accelerated straight growth. The ability of frozen-thawed Avena coleoptile tissue (subjected to 15g tension) to extend in response to EGTA and Quin II was examined. The EGTA when applied in weakly buffered (i.e., 0.1mM) neutral solutions initiates rapid extension. When the buffer strength is increased, similar concentrations of EGTA produce no growth response. This implies when EGTA liberated protons are released upon Ca(2+) chelation they can either initiate acid growth (low buffer conditions) or if consumed (high buffer conditions) have no effect. Thus Ca(2+) chelation in itself apparently does not result in straight growth.

  10. Comparison of the lipid composition of oat root and coleoptile plasma membranes: lack of short-term change in response to auxin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandstrom, R. P.; Cleland, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    The total lipid composition of plasma membranes (PM), isolated by the phase partitioning method from two different oat (Avena sativa L.) tissues, the root and coleoptile, was compared. In general, the PM lipid composition was not conserved between these two organs of the oat seedling. Oat roots contained 50 mole percent phospholipid, 25 mole percent glycolipid, and 25 mole percent free sterol, whereas comparable amounts in the coleoptile were 42, 39, and 19 mole percent, respectively. Individual lipid components within each lipid class also showed large variations between the two tissues. Maximum specific ATPase activity in the root PM was more than double the activity in the coleoptile. Treatment of coleoptile with auxin for 1 hour resulted in no detectable changes in PM lipids or extractable ATPase activity. Differences in the PM lipid composition between the two tissues that may define the limits of ATPase activity are discussed.

  11. Osmoregulation by Oat Coleoptile Protoplasts (Effect of Auxin).

    PubMed Central

    Keller, C. P.; Van Volkenburgh, E.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of auxin on the physiology of protoplasts from growing oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles was investigated. Protoplasts, isolated iso-osmotically from peeled oat coleoptile segments, were found to swell steadily over many hours. Incubated in 1 mM CaCl2, 10 mM KCl, 10 mM 2-(morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid/1,3-bis-[tris(hydroxymethyl)methylamino]propane, pH 6.5, and mannitol to 300 milliosmolal, protoplasts swelled 28.9% [plus or minus] 2.0 (standard error) after 6 h. Addition of 10 [mu]M indoleacetic acid (IAA) increased swelling to 41.1% [plus or minus] 2.1 (standard error) after 6 h. Swelling (in the absence of IAA) was partially dependent on K+ in the bath medium, whereas auxin-induced swelling was entirely dependent on K+. Replacement of mannitol in the bath by Glc increased swelling (in the absence of IAA) and eliminated auxin-induced swelling. Swelling with or without IAA was inhibited by osmotic shock and was completely reversed by 0.1 mM NaN3. Sodium orthovanadate, applied at 0.5 mM, only gradually inhibited swelling under various conditions but was most effective with protoplasts prepared from tissue preincubated in vanadate. Our data are interpreted to suggest that IAA increases the conductance of the plasma membrane to K+. PMID:12226237

  12. Gravitropism of oat and wheat coleoptiles: dependence on the stimulation angle and involvement of autotropic straightening.

    PubMed

    Tarui, Y; Iino, M

    1997-12-01

    Gravitropism of oat (Avena sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) coleoptiles was investigated in relation to the displacement angle or to the initially set stimulation angle (SA). We measured curvature rates at the early phase of curvature, before it was affected by the drop in SA resulting from the curvature response itself. The plot of the rates against the sines of initial SAs revealed similar curves for oats and wheat, which approached saturation as the sine increased to unity. The two species and previously analyzed rice [Iino et al. (1996) Plant Cell Environ. 19: 1160] appeared to have similar gravisensitivities. Initial SAs below and over 90 degrees yielded comparable rates when the sine values were the same, indicating that the extent of gravitropism is determined by the gravity component perpendicular to the organ's long axis. Long-term curvature kinetics at different SAs indicated that the net curvature rate dropped sharply before the tip reached the vertical position and then the tip approached the vertical slowly, with clear oscillatory movements in the case of wheat. During this late curvature phase, the coleoptile straightened gradually, although none of its parts had yet reached the vertical. When rotated on horizontal clinostats or displaced upwards to reduce SA in the late curvature phase, coleoptiles bent in the opposite direction. These results demonstrated that autotropism counteracts gravitropism to straighten coleoptiles. PMID:11536867

  13. TRANSFER OF ACIDOVORAX AVENAE SUBSPECIES TO MESOTHERMOPHILUS AVENAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacterium Acidovorax avenae causes disease in a wide range of plants, including, corn, rice, watermelon, melon, pumpkin and orchids. Taxonomic relatedness among strains of plant pathogenic A. avenae subspecies avenae, citrulli, and. cattleyae, and between the plant pathogenic strains and non-phy...

  14. Mechanisms of growth and patterns of gene expression in oxygen-deprived rice coleoptiles.

    PubMed

    Narsai, Reena; Edwards, Joshua M; Roberts, Thomas H; Whelan, James; Joss, Gregory H; Atwell, Brian J

    2015-04-01

    Coleoptiles of rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings grown under water commonly elongate by up to 1 mm h(-1) to reach the atmosphere. We initially analysed this highly specialized phenomenon by measuring epidermal cell lengths along the coleoptile axis to determine elongation rates. This revealed a cohort of cells in the basal zone that elongated rapidly following emergence from the embryo, reaching 200 μm within 12 h. After filming coleoptiles in vivo for a day, kinematic analysis was applied. Eight time-sliced 'segments' were defined by their emergence from the embryo at four-hourly intervals, revealing a mathematically simple growth model. Each segment entering the coleoptile from the embryo elongated at a constant velocity, resulting in accelerating growth for the entire organ. Consistent with the epidermal cell lengths, relative rates of elongation (mm mm(-1) h(-1)) were tenfold greater in the small, newly emerged basal segments than the older distal tip segments. This steep axial gradient defined two contrasting growth zones (bases versus tips) in which we measured ATP production and protein, RNA and DNA content, and analysed the global transcriptome under steady-state normoxia, hypoxia (3% O2) and anoxia. Determination of the transcriptome revealed tip-specific induction of genes encoding TCP [Teosinte Branched1 (Tb1) of maize, Cycloidea (Cyc), and Proliferating Cell Factor (Pcf)] transcription factors, RNA helicases, ribosomal proteins and proteins involved in protein folding, whilst expression of F-box domain-containing proteins in the ubiquitin E3-SCF complex (Skp, Cullin, F-box containing complex) was induced specifically in bases under low oxygen conditions. We ascribed the sustained elongation under hypoxia to hypoxia-specific responses such as controlled suppression of photosystem components and induction of RNA binding/splicing functions, indicating preferential allocation of energy to cell extension. PMID:25650041

  15. Auxin Transport in Zea mays Coleoptiles II. Influence of Light on the Transport of Indoleacetic Acid-2-C.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, S M; Gordon, S A

    1967-01-01

    The effect of bilateral irradiation with white light (1000 Meter Candle Sec) on the basipetal transport of auxin has been investigated. Illumination of either the intact shoot or the excised coleoptile tip of the Zea seedling, decreased the amount of diffusible auxin obtained from the tip, and decreased Avena curvature response to unilaterally applied indoleacetic acid. Irradiation of the intact Zea seedling did not affect the absorption of (14)C-labeled indoleacetic acid from an agar block subsequently placed on the decapitated coleoptile. However, light caused a significant decrease in the amount of labeled auxin basipetally transported, without affecting materially the velocity of that transport. These and other observations are interpreted as support for the hypothesis that the primary hormonal phenomenon in first-positive phototropism is a light-induced impairment in the basipetal transport of auxin. PMID:16656477

  16. Red Light and Auxin Effects on 86Rubidium Uptake by Oat Coleoptile and Pea Epicotyl Segments 1

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Carl S.; Richardson, Alice E.

    1979-01-01

    Apical segments of etiolated oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Victory) coleoptiles showed enhanced uptake of [86Rb+] when tested 30 minutes after a 5-minute red irradiation. The response was partly reversible by far red light. Uptake was sensitive to carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, but not to isotonic mannitol. Indoleacetic acid (10−7 molar) caused a very pronounced and rapid stimulation of uptake. Basal coleoptile segments also exhibited a red light-enhanced uptake, but not an effect of red light on changes in the pH of the medium. The [86Rb+] uptake of third internode segments from etiolated peas (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) was not affected by either red light or auxin. This tissue also showed no red light effect on acidification of the medium. It is concluded that alteration of [86Rb+] flux is not a general feature of phytochrome action. PMID:16660665

  17. Quantifying ATP turnover in anoxic coleoptiles of rice (Oryza sativa) demonstrates preferential allocation of energy to protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Joshua M; Roberts, Thomas H; Atwell, Brian J

    2012-07-01

    Oxygen deprivation limits the energy available for cellular processes and yet no comprehensive ATP budget has been reported for any plant species under O(2) deprivation, including Oryza sativa. Using 3-d-old coleoptiles of a cultivar of O. sativa tolerant to flooding at germination, (i) rates of ATP regeneration in coleoptiles grown under normoxia (aerated solution), hypoxia (3% O(2)), and anoxia (N(2)) and (ii) rates of synthesis of proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and cell walls, as well as K(+) transport, were determined. Based on published bioenergetics data, the cost of synthesizing each class of polymer and the proportion of available ATP allocated to each process were then compared. Protein synthesis consumed the largest proportion of ATP synthesized under all three oxygen regimes, with the proportion of ATP allocated to protein synthesis in anoxia (52%) more than double that in normoxic coleoptiles (19%). Energy allocation to cell wall synthesis was undiminished in hypoxia, consistent with preferential elongation typical of submerged coleoptiles. Lipid synthesis was also conserved strongly in O(2) deficits, suggesting that membrane integrity was maintained under anoxia, thus allowing K(+) to be retained within coleoptile cells. Rates of protein synthesis in coleoptiles from rice cultivars with contrasting tolerance to oxygen deficits (including mutants deficient in fermentative enzymes) confirmed that synthesis and turnover of proteins always accounted for most of the ATP consumed under anoxia. It is concluded that successful establishment of rice seedlings under water is largely due to the capacity of coleoptiles to allocate energy to vital processes, particularly protein synthesis. PMID:22585748

  18. Evidence from studies with acifluorfen for participation of a flavin-cytochrome complex in blue light photoreception for phototropism of oat coleoptiles.

    PubMed

    Leong, T Y; Briggs, W R

    1982-09-01

    The diphenyl ether acifluorfen enhances the blue light-induced absorbance change in Triton X100-solubilized crude membrane preparations from etiolated oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Lodi) coleoptiles. Enhancement of the spectral change is correlated with a change in rate of dark reoxidation of a b-type cytochrome. Similar, although smaller, enhancement was obtained with oxyfluorfen, nitrofen, and bifenox. Light-minus-dark difference spectra in the presence and absence of acifluorfen, and the dithionite-reduced-minus oxidized difference spectrum indicate that acifluorfen is acting specifically at a blue light-sensitive cytochrome-flavin complex. Sodium azide, a flavin inhibitor, decreases the light-induced absorbance change significantly, but does not affect the dark reoxidation of the cytochrome. Hence, it is acting on the light reaction, suggesting that the photoreceptor itself is a flavin. Acifluorfen sensitizes phototropism in dark-grown oat seedlings such that the first positive response occurs with blue light fluences as little as one-third of those required to elicit the same response in seedlings grown in the absence of the herbicide. Both this increase in sensitivity to light and the enhancement of the light-induced cytochrome reduction vary with the applied acifluorfen concentration in a similar manner. The herbicide is without effect either on elongation or on the geotropic response of dark-grown oat seedlings, indicating that acifluorfen is acting specifically close to, or at the photoreceptor end of, the stimulus-response chain. It seems likely that the flavin-cytochrome complex serves to transduce the light signal into curvature in phototropism in oats, with the flavin moiety itself serving as the photoreceptor. PMID:16662593

  19. Evidence from Studies with Acifluorfen for Participation of a Flavin-Cytochrome Complex in Blue Light Photoreception for Phototropism of Oat Coleoptiles 12

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Ta-Yan; Briggs, Winslow R.

    1982-01-01

    The diphenyl ether acifluorfen enhances the blue light-induced absorbance change in Triton X100-solubilized crude membrane preparations from etiolated oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Lodi) coleoptiles. Enhancement of the spectral change is correlated with a change in rate of dark reoxidation of a b-type cytochrome. Similar, although smaller, enhancement was obtained with oxyfluorfen, nitrofen, and bifenox. Light-minus-dark difference spectra in the presence and absence of acifluorfen, and the dithionite-reduced-minus oxidized difference spectrum indicate that acifluorfen is acting specifically at a blue light-sensitive cytochrome-flavin complex. Sodium azide, a flavin inhibitor, decreases the light-induced absorbance change significantly, but does not affect the dark reoxidation of the cytochrome. Hence, it is acting on the light reaction, suggesting that the photoreceptor itself is a flavin. Acifluorfen sensitizes phototropism in dark-grown oat seedlings such that the first positive response occurs with blue light fluences as little as one-third of those required to elicit the same response in seedlings grown in the absence of the herbicide. Both this increase in sensitivity to light and the enhancement of the light-induced cytochrome reduction vary with the applied acifluorfen concentration in a similar manner. The herbicide is without effect either on elongation or on the geotropic response of dark-grown oat seedlings, indicating that acifluorfen is acting specifically close to, or at the photoreceptor end of, the stimulus-response chain. It seems likely that the flavin-cytochrome complex serves to transduce the light signal into curvature in phototropism in oats, with the flavin moiety itself serving as the photoreceptor. PMID:16662593

  20. Role of chloride ions in the promotion of auxin-induced growth of maize coleoptile segments

    PubMed Central

    Burdach, Zbigniew; Kurtyka, Renata; Siemieniuk, Agnieszka; Karcz, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The mechanism of auxin action on ion transport in growing cells has not been determined in detail. In particular, little is known about the role of chloride in the auxin-induced growth of coleoptile cells. Moreover, the data that do exist in the literature are controversial. This study describes experiments that were carried out with maize (Zea mays) coleoptile segments, this being a classical model system for studies of plant cell elongation growth. Methods Growth kinetics or growth and pH changes were recorded in maize coleoptiles using two independent measuring systems. The growth rate of the segments was measured simultaneously with medium pH changes. Membrane potential changes in parenchymal cells of the segments were also determined for chosen variants. The question of whether anion transport is involved in auxin-induced growth of maize coleoptile segments was primarily studied using anion channel blockers [anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (A-9-C) and 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (DIDS)]. In addition, experiments in which KCl was replaced by KNO3 were also performed. Key Results Both anion channel blockers, added at 0·1 mm, diminished indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-induced elongation growth by ∼30 %. Medium pH changes measured simultaneously with growth indicated that while DIDS stopped IAA-induced proton extrusion, A-9-C diminished it by only 50 %. Addition of A-9-C to medium containing 1 mm KCl did not affect the characteristic kinetics of IAA-induced membrane potential changes, while in the presence of 10 mm KCl the channel blocker stopped IAA-induced membrane hyperpolarization. Replacement of KCl with KNO3 significantly decreased IAA-induced growth and inhibited proton extrusion. In contrast to the KCl concentration, the concentration of KNO3 did not affect the growth-stimulatory effect of IAA. For comparison, the effects of the cation channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA-Cl) on IAA-induced growth and

  1. Metabolic and transcriptional regulatory mechanisms underlying the anoxic adaptation of rice coleoptile.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Meiyappan; Mohanty, Bijayalaxmi; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2014-01-01

    The ability of rice to germinate under anoxia by extending the coleoptile is a highly unusual characteristic and a key feature underpinning the ability of rice seeds to establish in such a stressful environment. The process has been a focal point for research for many years. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anoxic growth of the coleoptile still remain largely unknown. To unravel the key regulatory mechanisms of rice germination under anoxic stress, we combined in silico modelling with gene expression data analysis. Our initial modelling analysis via random flux sampling revealed numerous changes in rice primary metabolism in the absence of oxygen. In particular, several reactions associated with sucrose metabolism and fermentation showed a significant increase in flux levels, whereas reaction fluxes across oxidative phosphorylation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the pentose phosphate pathway were down-regulated. The subsequent comparative analysis of the differences in calculated fluxes with previously published gene expression data under air and anoxia identified at least 37 reactions from rice central metabolism that are transcriptionally regulated. Additionally, cis-regulatory content analyses of these transcriptionally controlled enzymes indicate a regulatory role for transcription factors such as MYB, bZIP, ERF and ZnF in transcriptional control of genes that are up-regulated during rice germination and coleoptile elongation under anoxia. PMID:24894389

  2. Some aspects of geotropism in coleoptiles.

    PubMed

    Filner, B; Hertel, R; Steele, C; Fan, V

    1970-12-01

    Auxin transport was studied in coleoptile sections that were stimulated geotropically. The early time course of auxin-transport asymmetry was measured. An initial phase in which more IAA was delivered into the receptor for the upper half was found after 5 min of horizontal exposure. After about 15 min this was followed by the expected known asymmetry in which more auxin flows in the lower side of the coleoptile. Upon return of the coleoptile to a vertical position, this asymmetry disappeared within 30 min.Earlier correlations of geosensitivity of the auxin transport system with sedimentation of amyloplasts in comparisons of wild type corn and an amylomaize mutant were confirmed and extended. It was also shown that, in contrast to the geotropic effect, phototropically induced lateral auxin asymmetry was not significantly different in wild type and amylomaize. Eleven other single-gene endosperm starch mutants of corn were compared to their corresponding normals. In all pairs, if a difference in geosensitivity of lateral auxin transport was present, it was correlated with a parallel difference in amyloplast sedimentation: e.g., sugary 1 ("67") had an amyloplast asymmetry index of 0.32 and a 13% gravity effect on auxin transport; the paired wild-type had both a greater amyloplast asymmetry (0.61) and a greater gravity effect on transport (23%).Correlations between gravity effects on auxin transport and amyloplasts were also shown in comparisons of apical and basal sections of corn, oat and Sorghum coleoptiles.Further results, confirming the increased effect of centrifugal acceleration greater than 1xg on lateral auxin transport and on curvature, are in agreement with the hypothesis that the pressure exerted by amyloplasts, acting as statoliths, locally stimulates the auxin transport system in the individual cells. PMID:24496977

  3. Magnetophoretic induction of curvature in coleoptiles and hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetsov, O. A.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1997-01-01

    Coleoptiles of barley (Hordeum vulgare) were positioned in a high gradient magnetic field (HGMF, dynamic factor gradient of H(2)/2 of 10(9)-10(10) Oe2 cm-1), generated by a ferromagnetic wedge in a uniform magnetic field and rotated on a 1 rpm clinostat. After 4 h 90% of coleoptiles had curved toward the HGMF. The cells affected by HGMF showed clear intracellular displacement of amyloplasts. Coleoptiles in a magnetic field next to a non-ferromagnetic wedge showed no preferential curvature. The small size of the area of nonuniformity of the HGMF allowed mapping of the sensitivity of the coleoptiles by varying the initial position of the wedge relative to the coleoptile apex. When the ferromagnetic wedge was placed 1 mm below the coleoptile tip only 58% of the coleoptiles curved toward the wedge indicating that the cells most sensitive to intracellular displacement of amyloplasts and thus gravity sensing are confined to the top 1 mm portion of barley coleoptiles. Similar experiments with tomato hypocotyls (Lycopersicum esculentum) also resulted in curvature toward the HGMF. The data strongly support the amyloplast-based gravity-sensing system in higher plants and the usefulness of HGMF to substitute gravity in shoots.

  4. The role of auxin and ethylene for gravitropic differential growth of coleoptiles and roots of rye- and maize seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmann, H. G.; Sabovljevic, A.; Njio, G.; Roth, U.

    The relevance of auxin and ethylene for differential gravitropic growth has been analyzed both in shoots and roots of etiolated rye- and maize seedlings. As previously demonstrated for indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA), incubation of coleoptiles in dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) resulted in a two- to threefold length increase compared to water controls. In spite of this immense effect on elongation growth, gravi-curvature was similar to water controls. In contrast, inhibition of ethylene synthesis prevented differential growth of abraded coleoptiles as well as of roots without a significant inhibiting effect on elongation. Inhibition of ethylene perception in horizontally stimulated maize roots growing on surfaces eliminated the capacity of the roots to adapt growth to the surface and a vertical orientation of the root tip. This effect is accompanied by up- and down-regulation of a number of proteins as detected with the 2D-MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization- time of flight) method. Exogenous ethylene inhibited growth but enhanced gravitropic curvature in roots that were "freely" gravistimulated in a horizontal position, exhibiting a pronounced "waving" behavior. Together the data challenge the regulatory relevance of IAA-redistribution for gravitropic differential growth. They corroborate the crucial regulatory relevance of ethylene for gravitropic growth, in both roots and coleoptiles.

  5. Enhancement of phototropic response to a range of light doses in Triticum aestivum coleoptiles in clinostat-simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heathcote, D. G.; Bircher, B. W.; Brown, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    The phototropic dose-response relationship has been determined for Triticum aestivum cv. Broom coleoptiles growing on a purpose-built clinostat apparatus providing gravity compensation by rotation about a horizontal axis at 2 rev min-1. These data are compared with data sets obtained with the clinostat axis vertical and stationary, as a 1 g control, and rotating vertically to examine clinostat effects other than gravity compensation. Triticum at 1 g follows the well-established pattern of other cereal coleoptiles with a first positive curvature at low doses, followed by an indifferent response region, and a second positive response at progressively increasing doses. However, these response regions lie at higher dose levels than reported for Avena. There is no significant difference between the responses observed with the clinostat axis vertical in the rotating and stationary modes, but gravity compensation by horizontal rotation increases the magnitude of first and second positive curvatures some threefold at 100 min after stimulation. The indifferent response is replaced by a significant curvature towards the light source, but remains apparent as a reduced curvature response at these dose levels.

  6. Characteristics of statoliths from rootcaps and coleoptiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, F. D.; Leopold, A. C.

    1982-01-01

    Amyloplasts with intact envelopes were isolated from corn coleoptiles, incubated with either cationized ferritin (CF) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-CF, and examined with epifluorescence optics. Before incubation, the mean zeta potential was found to be -19.4 mv. The net negative surface charge was confirmed ultrastructurally by the binding of CF to both amyloplasts and starch grains. Binding to the latter was reduced compared to the former. FITC-CF showed binding to some but not all amyloplasts, and was absent from individual starch granules. Membrane-bound calcium, indicated by chlorotetracycline, fluorescence, was detected throughout the cytoplasm of root cap cells. These results may reflect an affinity of CF for membrane-based charge, and suggest that a calcium shell exists on the amyloplast envelope.

  7. Short-term effects of plant hormones on membrane potential and membrane permeability of dwarf maize coleoptile cells (Zea mays L. d 1) in comparison with growth responses.

    PubMed

    Nelles, A

    1977-01-01

    The membrane potential difference of dwarf maize coleoptile cells is increased by both 10(-5)moll(-1) gibberellic acid (GA3) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) a few minutes after application. A final level is reached after 10-20 min. The membrane permeability ratio P Na:P K is altered by both hormones during the first 15 min after application, indicating a rapid effect on the membrane. Elongation growth of coleoptile segments, however, is only stimulated by IAA. The auxin-induced growth as well as the auxin effect on membrane permeability depends on the calcium ion concentration of the medium. It is concluded that IAA acts via a proton extrusion pump that is electrically balanced by a potassium ion uptake, driven by the electromotive force of the pump. The mode of action of GA3 on elongation growth is assumed to involve a process that depends on the physiologic state of the tissue and/or metabolic energy. PMID:24420668

  8. Uptake and Metabolic Fate of Glucose, Arabinose, and Xylose by Zea mays Coleoptiles in Relation to Cell Wall Synthesis 1

    PubMed Central

    Carpita, Nicholas C.; Brown, Ronald A.; Weller, Kathleen M.

    1982-01-01

    According to the acid-growth hypothesis, auxin-induced secretion of hydrogen ions activate “wall loosening” enzymes that change the rheological properties of the cell wall. The wall loosening process may yield monosaccharides by the enzymic cleavage of load-bearing polysaccharides. Our study was initiated to determine the metabolic fate of such sugars when released from the major hemicellulosic polysaccharides of the cell walls of Zea mays coleoptiles. Excised coleoptile sections accumulated radioactive glucose, arabinose, and xylose supplied in an incubation medium, and the radioactivity from these sugars was incorporated into polysaccharides. At least 50% of the radioactivity from glucose accumulated in the soluble neutral sugar fraction regardless of external concentrations. The distribution of radioactivity from xylose into all subcellular fractions was similar to that from glucose, indicating that xylose was converted to glucose before being used by the coleoptile. IAA increased the incorporation of glucose into cell wall polysaccharide and neutral sugar pools when the exogenous concentration was higher than 1 millimolar. Over 80% of the radioactivity from arabinose accumulated by the coleoptile sections was incorporated into soluble and noncellulosic polymers; IAA induced an increase in the incorporation of arabinose into noncellulosic polymers by 22%. Accumulation of radioactivity from arabinose into polysaccharide was enhanced by IAA at concentrations of exogenous arabinose up to 33 millimolar. IAA promoted the incorporation of both arabinose and glucose into cell wall polysaccharides even when elongation was inhibited by CaCl2, indicating that the influence of IAA was not a consequence of the growth response. PMID:16662366

  9. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci for Long Coleoptile in Chinese Wheat Landrace Wangshuibai

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars with long coleoptiles can be sown deeply for better seedling establishment in drought environments. A population of 139 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between a long-coleoptile Chinese landrace, Wangshuibai, and short coleoptile U.S. wheat cultiva...

  10. Nastic curvatures of wheat coleoptiles that develop in true microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heathcote, D. G.; Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.

    1995-01-01

    Dark-grown wheat coleoptiles developed strong curvatures within 5 h of being transferred in orbit from a 1 g centrifuge to microgravity during an experiment flown on the IML-1 shuttle mission. The curving tendency was strongest in seedlings that were immature, with coleoptiles shorter than 10 mm at the time of transfer. The curvature direction was non-random, and directed away from the caryopsis (the coleptile face adjacent to the caryopsis becoming convex). The curvatures were most marked in the basal third of the coleoptiles, contrasting with phototropic responses, which occur in the apical third. We interpret these curvatures as being nastic, and related to the curvatures commonly reported to occur during clinostat rotation treatments.

  11. Actin microfilaments in presumptive statocytes of root caps and coleoptiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. G.; Sack, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    Rhodamine-phalloidin was used to determine the distribution of actin microfilament bundles (mfb) in cells thought to be the site of gravity perception (statocytes) in coleoptiles and root caps of Zea mays and Hordeum vulgare. In coleoptile cells, amyloplasts were usually observed in close proximity to thick mfb, which often appeared to divide into finer mfb adjacent to individual amyloplasts. The nucleus in these cells was surrounded by an extensive network of mfb, which were connected to thicker transvacuolar mfb. Columella cells of the root cap contained an extensive reticulum of fine mfb throughout the protoplast, but lacked the much thicker mfb seen in coleoptile cells. The distribution and extent of mfb observed in fixed cells correlates with patterns of streaming and amyloplast movement seen in living cells. A possible role for actin mfb in the perception of gravity is discussed.

  12. Red stripe caused by Acidovirax avenae subsp. avenae in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red stripe of sugarcane caused by Acidovirax avenae subsp. avenae is considered to be of minor importance because, most often when found, only the mild leaf stripe symptom is observed. In 2010, both leaf stripe and the more severe top rot symptom were observed in commercial sugarcane fields in Louis...

  13. Wheat seedling emergence from deep planting depths and its relationship with coleoptile length.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Amita; Schillinger, William F; Gill, Kulvinder S

    2013-01-01

    Successful stand establishment is prerequisite for optimum crop yields. In some low-precipitation zones, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is planted as deep as 200 mm below the soil surface to reach adequate soil moisture for germination. To better understand the relationship of coleoptile length and other seed characteristics with emergence from deep planting (EDP), we evaluated 662 wheat cultivars grown around the world since the beginning of the 20(th) century. Coleoptile length of collection entries ranged from 34 to 114 mm. A specialized field EDP test showed dramatic emergence differences among cultivars ranging from 0-66% by 21 days after planting (DAP). Less than 1% of entries had any seedlings emerged by 7 DAP and 43% on day 8. A wide range of EDP within each coleoptile length class suggests the involvement of genes other than those controlling coleoptile length. Emergence was correlated with coleoptile length, but some lines with short coleoptiles ranked among the top emergers. Coleoptiles longer than 90 mm showed no advantage for EDP and may even have a negative effect. Overall, coleoptile length accounted for only 28% of the variability in emergence among entries; much lower than the 60% or greater reported in previous studies. Seed weight had little correlation with EDP. Results show that EDP is largely controlled by yet poorly understood mechanisms other than coleoptile length. PMID:24019916

  14. PHYLOGENETIC STUDIES OF CORN AND RICE STRAINS OF ACIDOVORAX AVENAE SUBSP. AVENAE BY DNA/DNA HYBRIDIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) is the causal agent of diseases of several important economic crops, including bacterial streak of corn (Zea mays) and bacterial stripe of rice (Oryza sativa). To determine the phylogenetic relationship of these two pathogens, a highly reproducible S1 exonuclea...

  15. Additional sources of broad-spectrum resistance to Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae in Canadian accessions of Avena barbata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) is considered the most damaging disease of oat and the use of race-specific seedling (Pc) genes for resistance has been the primary means of control. As these resistance genes from cultivated oat, Avena sativa and the wild hexaploid animated oat, A. ster...

  16. Genome size variation in the genus Avena.

    PubMed

    Yan, Honghai; Martin, Sara L; Bekele, Wubishet A; Latta, Robert G; Diederichsen, Axel; Peng, Yuanying; Tinker, Nicholas A

    2016-03-01

    Genome size is an indicator of evolutionary distance and a metric for genome characterization. Here, we report accurate estimates of genome size in 99 accessions from 26 species of Avena. We demonstrate that the average genome size of C genome diploid species (2C = 10.26 pg) is 15% larger than that of A genome species (2C = 8.95 pg), and that this difference likely accounts for a progression of size among tetraploid species, where AB < AC < CC (average 2C = 16.76, 18.60, and 21.78 pg, respectively). All accessions from three hexaploid species with the ACD genome configuration had similar genome sizes (average 2C = 25.74 pg). Genome size was mostly consistent within species and in general agreement with current information about evolutionary distance among species. Results also suggest that most of the polyploid species in Avena have experienced genome downsizing in relation to their diploid progenitors. Genome size measurements could provide additional quality control for species identification in germplasm collections, especially in cases where diploid and polyploid species have similar morphology. PMID:26881940

  17. Eugenol-inhibited root growth in Avena fatua involves ROS-mediated oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Nitina; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Plant essential oils and their constituent monoterpenes are widely known plant growth retardants but their mechanism of action is not well understood. We explored the mechanism of phytotoxicity of eugenol, a monoterpenoid alcohol, proposed as a natural herbicide. Eugenol (100-1000 µM) retarded the germination of Avena fatua and strongly inhibited its root growth compared to the coleoptile growth. We further investigated the underlying physiological and biochemical alterations leading to the root growth inhibition. Eugenol induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress and membrane damage in the root tissue. ROS generation measured in terms of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical content increased significantly in the range of 24 to 144, 21 to 91, 46 to 173% over the control at 100 to 1000 µM eugenol, respectively. The disruption in membrane integrity was indicated by 25 to 125% increase in malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation byproduct), and decreased conjugated diene content (~10 to 41%). The electrolyte leakage suggesting membrane damage increased both under light as well as dark conditions measured over a period from 0 to 30 h. In defense to the oxidative damage due to eugenol, a significant upregulation in the ROS-scavenging antioxidant enzyme machinery was observed. The activities of superoxide dismutases, catalases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases and glutathione reductases were elevated by ~1.5 to 2.8, 2 to 4.3, 1.9 to 5.0, 1.4 to 3.9, 2.5 to 5.5 times, respectively, in response to 100 to 1000 µM eugenol. The study concludes that eugenol inhibits early root growth through ROS-mediated oxidative damage, despite an activation of the antioxidant enzyme machinery. PMID:25752432

  18. Separation of Photolabile-Phytochrome and Photostable-Phytochrome Actions on Growth and Microtubule Orientation in Maize Coleoptiles (A Physiological Approach).

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, K.; Schopfer, P.

    1997-01-01

    For separating the physiological actions of photolabile (phy-l) and photostable phytochromes, we compared the effects of red (R) and far-red (FR) light on elongation growth and microtubule reorientation in segments of maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles raised either in darkness (phy-l present) or preirradiated with R (phy-l eliminated). In 4.5-d-old dark-grown seedlings R first promoted growth and induced a transverse microtubule orientation. In continuous R the phytochrome action responsible for these responses was replaced by an opposite phytochrome action that produced a stable growth inhibition and longitudinal microtubule orientation. In R-preirradiated segments only the second type of phytochrome action could be observed. Reversion experiments with FR light pulses demonstrated that both types of phytochrome action were dependent on the FR-absorbing form of phytochrome and mirrored the actual phytochrome state after 1 h. We conclude from these and related results that growth promotion and transverse microtubule orientation are mediated by phy-l, whereas growth inhibition and longitudinal microtubule orientation are mediated by photostable phytochrome. The opposite actions of the two phytochromes can be separated by preirradiating the seedlings with R. Photoresponsiveness ascribed to phy-l disappeared after 5 d. phy-l appears to play a distinct but transitory role in coleoptile development. PMID:12223819

  19. Circumnutation of rice coleoptiles: its relationships with gravitropism and absence in lazy mutants.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Takeshi; Iino, Moritoshi

    2006-05-01

    Although circumnutation occurs widely in higher plants, its mechanism is little understood. The idea that circumnutation is based on gravitropism has long been investigated, but the reported results have been controversial. We used dark-grown coleoptiles of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to re-investigate this issue. The following results supported the existence of a close relationship between gravitropism and circumnutation: (1) circumnutation disappears on a horizontal clinostat; (2) circumnutation is interrupted by a gravitropic response and re-initiated at a definable phase after gravitropic curvature; (3) circumnutation can be re-established by submergence and a brief gravitropic stimulation in the coleoptiles that have stopped nutating in response to red light; and (4) lazy mutants show no circumnutation. In spite of these results, however, there were cases in which gravitropism and circumnutation could be separated. Firstly, the non-circumnutating lazy coleoptile showed nearly a wild-type level of gravitropic responsiveness in its upper half, although this part was an active site of both gravitropism and circumnutation in wild-type coleoptiles. Secondly, coleoptiles could nutate without overshooting the vertical when developing phototropic curvature. It is concluded that gravitropism influences, but it is not directly involved in the process of circumnutation. It is further suggested that a gravity signal, shared with gravitropism, contributes to the maintenance of circumnutation. PMID:17087462

  20. Tissue culture characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) haploid coleoptile sections.

    PubMed

    Jiang, L; Jing, G X; Li, X Y; Wang, X Q; Xing, Z; Deng, P K; Zhao, R G

    2015-01-01

    Doubled haploid (DH) technology, which is used for rapidly purifying genetic resources, is a key technology in modern maize breeding. The present study evaluated the tissue culture characteristics of maize haploid coleoptile sections, in order to provide a new way of haploid doubling. With 20 combinations of haploid coleoptile sections, obtained by hybridization within Reid, Tangsipingtou, and Term-tropical groups, as explants, we analyzed the induction and differentiation rate of callus, observed the number of root tip chromosomes in regenerated plants, and analyzed the pollen fertility. In addition, we used 47 SSR markers to analyze the genotypes of regenerated plants. The Reid and Tangsipingtou groups had significantly higher induction rates of haploid coleoptile callus compared to the Term-tropical group. Fifteen haploid plants were obtained which had 10 chromosomes in the root tips as assessed by I-KI staining. It was also noticed that the pollen of pollinated anthers were partially fertile. The haploid plants had genetic stability and showed no variation. The Reid and Tangsipingtou groups had good culture characteristics of haploid coleoptile sections, while the Term-tropical group had poor culture characteristics. Genotypes of haploid plants generated by tissue culture were evidenced to come from recombinant types of parents. Thus, this study established a tissue culture system of maize haploid coleoptile. PMID:26662420

  1. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiaolin; Luo, Ju; Qiu, Wen; Cai, Li; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Li, Bin; Hou, Mingsheng; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2016-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice. PMID:27472315

  2. Temperature modulates the cell wall mechanical properties of rice coleoptiles by altering the molecular mass of hemicellulosic polysaccharides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Yukiko; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hoson, Takayuki

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the mechanism inducing the difference in the cell wall extensibility of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Koshihikari) coleoptiles grown under various temperature (10-50 degrees C) conditions. The growth rate and the cell wall extensibility of rice coleoptiles exhibited the maximum value at 30-40 degrees C, and became smaller as the growth temperature rose or dropped from this temperature range. The amounts of cell wall polysaccharides per unit length of coleoptile increased in coleoptiles grown at 40 degrees C, but not at other temperature conditions. On the other hand, the molecular size of hemicellulosic polysaccharides was small at temperatures where the cell wall extensibility was high (30-40 degrees C). The autolytic activities of cell walls obtained from coleoptiles grown at 30 and 40 degrees C were substantially higher than those grown at 10, 20 and 50 degrees C. Furthermore, the activities of (1-->3),(1-->4)-beta-glucanases extracted from coleoptile cell walls showed a similar tendency. When oat (1-->3),(1-->4)-beta-glucans with high molecular mass were incubated with the cell wall enzyme preparations from coleoptiles grown at various temperature conditions, the extensive molecular mass downshifts were brought about only by the cell wall enzymes obtained from coleoptiles grown at 30-40 degrees C. There were close correlations between the cell wall extensibility and the molecular mass of hemicellulosic polysaccharides or the activity of beta -glucanases. These results suggest that the environmental temperature regulates the cell wall extensibility of rice coleoptiles by modifying mainly the molecular mass of hemicellulosic polysaccharides. Modulation of the activity of beta-glucanases under various temperature conditions may be involved in the alteration of the molecular size of hemicellulosic polysaccharides.

  3. Suppression of glucan, water dikinase in the endosperm alters wheat grain properties, germination and coleoptile growth.

    PubMed

    Bowerman, Andrew F; Newberry, Marcus; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Whan, Alex; Larroque, Oscar; Pritchard, Jenifer; Gubler, Frank; Howitt, Crispin A; Pogson, Barry J; Morell, Matthew K; Ral, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Starch phosphate ester content is known to alter the physicochemical properties of starch, including its susceptibility to degradation. Previous work producing wheat (Triticum aestivum) with down-regulated glucan, water dikinase, the primary gene responsible for addition of phosphate groups to starch, in a grain-specific manner found unexpected phenotypic alteration in grain and growth. Here, we report on further characterization of these lines focussing on mature grain and early growth. We find that coleoptile length has been increased in these transgenic lines independently of grain size increases. No changes in starch degradation rates during germination could be identified, or any major alteration in soluble sugar levels that may explain the coleoptile growth modification. We identify some alteration in hormones in the tissues in question. Mature grain size is examined, as is Hardness Index and starch conformation. We find no evidence that the increased growth of coleoptiles in these lines is connected to starch conformation or degradation or soluble sugar content and suggest these findings provide a novel means of increasing coleoptile growth and early seedling establishment in cereal crop species. PMID:25989474

  4. Aluminum resistance mechanisms in oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhanced aluminum (Al) resistance has been observed in several dicots over-expressing enzymes involved in organic acid synthesis; however, this method for improving Al resistance has not been investigated in cereal crops such as oat (Avena sativa L.). Oat is considered among the most Al resistant ce...

  5. Rapid auxin-mediated changes in the proteome of the epidermal cells in rye coleoptiles: Implications for the initiation of growth

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Z.; Xu, S.; Chalkley, R. J.; Oses-Prieto, J. A.; Burlingame, A. L.; Wang, Z.-Y.; Kutschera, U.

    2011-01-01

    In axial organs of juvenile plants, the phytohormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) rapidly allows cell wall loosening and hence promotes turgor-driven elongation. In this study, we used rye (Secale cereale) coleoptile sections to investigate possible effects of IAA on the proteome of cells. In a first set of experiments, we document that IAA causes organ elongation via promotion of expansion of the rigid outer wall of the outer epidermis. A quantitative comparison of the proteome (membrane-associated proteins), using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE), revealed that, within 2 h of auxin treatment, at least 16 protein spots were up- or down-regulated by IAA. These proteins were identified using reverse-phase liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Four of these proteins were detected in the growth-controlling outer epidermis and were further analysed. One epidermal polypeptide, a small Ras-related GTP-binding protein, was rapidly down-regulated by IAA (after 0.5 h of incubation) by −35% compared to the control. Concomitantly, a subunit of the 26S proteasome was up-regulated by IAA (+30% within 1 h). In addition, this protein displayed IAA-mediated post-translational modification. The implications of these rapid auxin effects with respect to signal transduction and IAA-mediated secretion of glycoproteins (osmiophilic nano-particles) into the growth-controlling outer epidermal wall are discussed. PMID:22117532

  6. Synthesis of Elongated Microcapsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Calle, Luz M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the factors that influence the effectiveness of self-healing in functional materials is the amount of liquid healing agents that can be delivered to the damaged area. The use of hollow tubes or fibers and the more sophisticated micro-vascular networks has been proposed as a way to increase the amount of healing agents that can be released when damage is inflicted. Although these systems might be effective in some specific applications, they are not practical for coatings applications. One possible practical way to increase the healing efficiency is to use microcapsules with high-aspect-ratios, or elongated microcapsules. It is understood that elongated microcapsules will be more efficient because they can release more healing agent than a spherical microcapsule when a crack is initiated in the coating. Although the potential advantage of using elongated microcapsules for self healing applications is clear, it is very difficult to make elongated microcapsules from an emulsion system because spherical microcapsules are normally formed due to the interfacial tension between the dispersed phase and the continuous phase. This paper describes the two methods that have been developed by the authors to synthesize elongated microcapsules. The first method involves the use of an emulsion with intermediate stability and the second involves the application of mechanical shear conditions to the emulsion.

  7. Evidence for regulation of polar auxin transport at the efflux carrier in maize coleoptile sections

    SciTech Connect

    Vesper, M.J. )

    1989-04-01

    Previously we have shown that conditions which result in an increased auxin-induced growth response in maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptile sections also result in a decrease in the velocity of polar auxin transport. Coleoptile sections given conditions which result in slower transport of IAA have different kinetics for net IAA accumulation compared to sections given conditions which result in faster transport. In further experiments, sections were loaded with 30 nM ({sup 3}H)IAA in the presence of increasing unlabeled IAA at low pH. Efflux of ({sup 3}H)IAA was then followed as a function of unlabeled IAA. Saturation of efflux appears to occur at a lower conc. of IAA in sections showing slower transport.

  8. A chemical pollen suppressant inhibits auxin-induced growth in maize coleoptile sections

    SciTech Connect

    Vesper, M.J. ); Cross, J.W. )

    1990-05-01

    Chemical inhibitors of pollen development having a phenylcinnoline carboxylate structure were found to inhibit IAA- and 1-NAA-induced growth in maize coleoptile sections. The inhibitor (100 {mu}M) used in these experiments caused approx. 35% reduction in auxin-induced growth over the auxin concentration range of 0.3 to 100 {mu}M. Growth inhibition was noted as a lengthening of the latent period and a decrease in the rate of an auxin-induced growth response. An acid growth response to pH 5 buffer in abraded sections was not impaired. The velocity of basipetal transport of ({sup 3}H)IAA through the coleoptile sections also was not inhibited by the compound, nor was uptake of ({sup 3}H)IAA. Similarly, the inhibitor does not appear to alter auxin-induced H{sup +} secretion. We suggest that the agent targets some other process necessary for auxin-dependent growth.

  9. Distribution of calmodulin in corn seedlings - Immunocytochemical localization in coleoptiles and root apices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    Immunofluorescence techniques have been used to study the distribution of calmodulin in several tissues in etiolated corn (Zea mays, var. Bear Hybrid) seedlings. Uniform staining was seen in the background cytoplasm of most cell types. Cell walls and vacuoles were not stained. In coleoptile mesophyll cells the nucleoplasm of most nuclei was stained as was the stroma of most amyloplasts. The lumen border of mature tracheary elements in coleoptiles also stained. In the rootcap the most intensely stained regions were the cytoplasms of columella cells and of the outermost cells enmeshed in the layer of secreted slime. Nuclei in the rootcap cells did not stain distinctly, but those in all cell types of the root meristem did. Also in the root meristem, the cytoplasm of metaxylem elements stained brightly. These results are compared and contrasted with previous data on the localization of calmodulin in pea root apices and epicotyls and discussed in relation to current hypotheses on mechanisms of gravitropism.

  10. Immunohistochemical observation of indole-3-acetic acid at the IAA synthetic maize coleoptile tips

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Sachiko; Lucas, M. Mercedes; Strnad, Miroslav; Baluška, František; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and the IAA synthetic cells in maize coleoptiles, we established immunohistochemistry of IAA using an anti-IAA-C-monoclonal antibody. We first confirmed the specificity of the antibody by comparing the amounts of endogenous free and conjugated IAA to the IAA signal obtained from the IAA antibody. Depletion of endogenous IAA showed a corresponding decrease in immuno-signal intensity and negligible cross-reactivity against IAA-related compounds, including tryptophan, indole-3-acetamide, and conjugated-IAA was observed. Immunolocalization showed that the IAA signal was intense in the approximately 1 mm region and the outer epidermis at the approximately 0.5 mm region from the top of coleoptiles treated with 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid. By contrast, the IAA immuno-signal in the outer epidermis almost disappeared after 5-methyl-tryptophan treatment. Immunogold labeling of IAA with an anti-IAA-N-polyclonal antibody in the outer-epidermal cells showed cytoplasmic localization of free-IAA, but none in cell walls or vacuoles. These findings indicated that IAA is synthesized in the 0–2.0 mm region of maize coleoptile tips from Trp, in which the outer-epidermal cells of the 0.5 mm tip are the most active IAA synthetic cells. PMID:22112455

  11. Cholodny-Went revisited: a role for jasmonate in gravitropism of rice coleoptiles.

    PubMed

    Gutjahr, Caroline; Riemann, Michael; Müller, Axel; Düchting, Petra; Weiler, Elmar W; Nick, Peter

    2005-11-01

    Gravitropism is explained by the Cholodny-Went hypothesis: the basipetal flow of auxin is diverted laterally. The resulting lateral auxin gradient triggers asymmetric growth. However, the Cholodny-Went hypothesis has been questioned repeatedly because the internal auxin gradient is too small to account for the observed growth asymmetry. Therefore, an additional gradient in indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA) sensitivity has been suggested (Brauner and Hager in Planta 51:115-147, 1958). We challenged the Cholodny-Went hypothesis for gravitropism of rice coleoptiles (Oryza sativa L.) and found it to be essentially true. However, we observed, additionally, that the two halves of gravitropically stimulated coleoptiles responded differentially to the same amount of exogenous auxin: the auxin response is reduced in the upper flank but normal in the lower flank. This indicates that the auxin-gradient is amplified by a gradient of auxin responsiveness. Hormone contents were measured across the coleoptile by a GC-MS/MS technique and a gradient of jasmonate was detected opposing the auxin gradient. Furthermore, the total content of jasmonate increased during the gravitropic response. Jasmonate gradient and increase persist even when the lateral IAA gradient is inhibited by 1-N-naphtylphtalamic acid. Flooding with jasmonate delays the onset of gravitropic bending. Moreover, a jasmonate-deficient rice mutant bends more slowly and later than the wild type. We discuss a role of jasmonate as modulator of auxin responsiveness in gravitropism. PMID:16047199

  12. 1-Naphthyl Acetate-Dependent Medium Acidification by Zea mays L. Coleoptile Segments 1

    PubMed Central

    Salguero, Julio; Calatayud, Angeles; Gonzalez-Daros, Francisco; del Valle-Tascon, Secundino

    1991-01-01

    Zea mays L. cv INRA 5a coleoptile segments ecidify the incubation medium on the addition of 1-naphthyl acetate (1-NA). The buffering capacity of the bathing solution increases during 1-NA stimulated medium acidification. The solution bathing the 1-NA treated coleoptile segment was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. A considerable amount of acetic acid was detected in the bathing solution used to measure 1-NA-dependent medium acidification. For the first time, the data demonstrate directly the release of acetic acid from 1-NA. The extent of medium acidification was proportional to 1-NA concentration. Simultaneous measurement of medium acidification and acetate content upon addition of 1-NA showed that both processes were temporally correlated. The stoichiometry of proton equivalents to acetate ion was 0.966. Addition of 50 micromolar N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide had little effect on 1-NA-dependent medium acidification. The results indicate that 1-NA is hydrolyzed in the extracellular space of coleoptile cells. PMID:16668108

  13. G-proteins in etiolated Avena seedlings. Possible phytochrome regulation.

    PubMed

    Romero, L C; Sommer, D; Gotor, C; Song, P S

    1991-05-01

    The molecular mechanism of light signal transduction in plants mediated by the photosensor phytochrome is not well understood. The possibility that phytochrome initiates the signal transduction chain by modulating a G-protein-like receptor is examined in the present work. Etiolated Avena seedlings contain G-proteins as examined in terms of the binding of GTP as well as by cross-reaction with mammalian G-protein antibodies. The binding of GTP was regulated in vivo by red/far-red light. The possible involvement of G-proteins in the phytochrome-mediated signal transduction in etiolated Avena seedlings has been implicated from the study of the light regulated expression of the Cab and phy genes. PMID:1903719

  14. Spatial organization of the gravitropic response in plants: applicability of the revised local curvature distribution model to Triticum aestivum coleoptiles.

    PubMed

    Meskauskas, A; Jurkoniene, S; Moore, D

    1999-08-01

    The revised local curvature distribution model, which provides accurate computer simulations of the gravitropic response of mushroom stems, was found to produce accurate simulations of the gravitropic reaction of wheat (Triticum aestivum) coleoptiles. The key feature of the mathematical model that enables it to approach universality of application is the assumption that the stem has an autonomic straightening reaction (curvature compensation or 'autotropism'). In the model, the local bending rate for any segment of the organ is determined by the difference between the 'bending signal' (generated by the gravitropic signal perception system) and a 'straightening signal' (which is proportional to the local curvature of the segment). The model reveals three major differences between the gravitropic reactions of wheat coleoptiles and Coprinus mushroom stems. First, in Coprinus, the capacity for autonomic straightening is much more concentrated in the apical region of the stem. Second, local perception of the gravitropic signal, which is necessary for exact simulation in Coprinus, is not needed in wheat coleoptiles (the corresponding constant in the model can be set to zero). Third, the transmission rate of the gravitropic signal is about seven times faster in wheat coleoptiles than in the mushroom stem. Thus, we demonstrate that a single model, depending on the values given to its parameters, is able to simulate the spatial organization of the gravitropic reaction of wheat coleoptiles and Coprinus mushroom stems. The model promises to be a valuable predictive tool in guiding future research into the gravitropic reaction of axial organs of all types. PMID:11542912

  15. Plant growth and phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil of wild oat (Avena fatua L.)

    PubMed Central

    Iannucci, Anna; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Platani, Cristiano; Papa, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the pattern of dry matter (DM) accumulation and the evolution of phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil from tillering to the ripe seed stages of wild oat (Avena fatua L.), a widespread annual grassy weed. Plants were grown under controlled conditions and harvested 13 times during the growing season. At each harvest, shoot and root DM and phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil were determined. The maximum DM production (12.6 g/plant) was recorded at 122 days after sowing (DAS; kernel hard stage). The increase in total aerial DM with age coincided with reductions in the leaf/stem and source/sink ratios, and an increase in the shoot/root ratio. HPLC analysis shows production of seven phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil of wild oat, in order of their decreasing levels: syringic acid, vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringaldehyde, ferulic acid, p-cumaric acid and vanillic acid. The seasonal distribution for the total phenolic compounds showed two peaks of maximum concentrations, at the stem elongation stage (0.71 μg/kg; 82 DAS) and at the heading stage (0.70 μg/kg; 98 DAS). Thus, wild oat roots exude allelopathic compounds, and the levels of these phenolics in the rhizosphere soil vary according to plant maturity. PMID:24381576

  16. Altered growth response to exogenous auxin and gibberellic acid by gravistimulation in pulvini of Avena sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1988-01-01

    Pulvini of excised segments from oats (Avena sativa L. cv Victory) were treated unilaterally with indoleacetic acid (IAA) or gibberellic acid (GA3) with or without gravistimulation to assess the effect of gravistimulation on hormone action. Optimum pulvinus elongation growth (millimeters) and segment curvature (degrees) over 24 hours were produced by 100 micromolar IAA in vertical segments. The curvature response to IAA at levels greater than 100 micromolar, applied to the lower sides of gravistimulated (90 degrees) pulvini, was significantly less than the response to identical levels in vertical segments. Furthermore, the bending response of pulvini to 100 micromolar IAA did not vary significantly over a range of presentation angles between 0 and 90 degrees. In contrast, the response to IAA at levels less than 10 micromolar, with gravistimulation, was approximately the sum of the responses to gravistimulation alone and to IAA without gravistimulation. This was observed over a range of presentation angles. Also, GA3 (0.3-30 micromolar) applied to the lower sides of horizontal segments significantly enhanced pulvinus growth and segment curvature, although exogenous GA3 over a range of concentrations had no effect on pulvinus elongation growth or segment curvature in vertical segments. The response to GA3 (10 micromolar) plus IAA (1.0 or 100 micromolar) was additive for either vertical or horizontal segments. These results indicate that gravistimulation produces changes in pulvinus responsiveness to both IAA and GA3 and that the changes are unique for each growth regulator. It is suggested that the changes in responsiveness may result from processes at the cellular level other than changes in hormonal sensitivity.

  17. Close correspondence between the action spectra for the blue light responses of the guard cell and coleoptile chloroplasts, and the spectra for blue light-dependent stomatal opening and coleoptile phototropism

    SciTech Connect

    Quinones, M.A.; Lu, Zhenmin; Zeiger, E.

    1996-03-05

    Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize blue light responses from chloroplasts of adaxial guard cells from Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense) and coleoptile tips from corn (Zea mays). The chloroplast response to blue light was quantified by measurements of the blue light-induced enhancement of a red light-stimulated quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence. In adaxial (upper) guard cells, low fluence rates of blue light applied under saturating fluence rates of red light enhanced the red light-stimulated fluorescence quenching by up to 50%. In contrast, added blue light did not alter the red light-stimulated quenching from abaxial (lower) guard cells. This response pattern paralleled the blue light sensitivity of stomatal opening in the two leaf surfaces. An action spectrum for the blue light-induced enhancement of the red light-stimulated quenching showed a major peak at 450 nm and two minor peaks at 420 and 470 nm. This spectrum matched closely an action spectrum for blue light-stimulated stomatal opening. Coleoptile chloroplasts also showed an enhancement by blue light of red light-stimulated quenching. The action spectrum of this response, showing a major peak at 450 nm, a minor peak at 470 nm, and a shoulder at 430 nm, closely matched an action spectrum for blue light-stimulated coleoptile phototropism. Both action spectra match the absorption spectrum of zeaxanthin, a chloroplastic carotenoid recently implicated in blue light photoreception of both guard cells and coleoptiles. The remarkable similarity between the action spectra for the blue light responses of guard cells and coleoptile chloroplasts and the spectra for blue light-stimulated stomatal opening and phototropism, coupled to the recently reported evidence on a role of zeaxanthin in blue light photoreception, indicates that the guard cell and coleoptile chloroplasts specialize in sensory transduction. 28 refs. 4 figs.

  18. Elongated Microcapsules and Their Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M. (Inventor); Li, Wenyan N. (Inventor); Buhrow, Jerry W. (Inventor); Perusich, Stephen A. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Williams, Martha K. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Elongated microcapsules, such as elongated hydrophobic-core and hydrophilic-core microcapsules, may be formed by pulse stirring an emulsion or shearing an emulsion between two surfaces moving at different velocities. The elongated microcapsules may be dispersed in a coating formulation, such as paint.

  19. Single Molecule Transcription Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Galburt, Eric A.; Grill, Stephan W.; Bustamante, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Single molecule optical trapping assays have now been applied to a great number of macromolecular systems including DNA, RNA, cargo motors, restriction enzymes, DNA helicases, chromosome remodelers, DNA polymerases and both viral and bacterial RNA polymerases. The advantages of the technique are the ability to observe dynamic, unsynchronized molecular processes, to determine the distributions of experimental quantities and to apply force to the system while monitoring the response over time. Here, we describe the application of these powerful techniques to study the dynamics of transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:19426807

  20. Disease development and genotypic diversity of Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae in Swedish oat fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disease development and population structure of Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae, which causes stem rust on oat, were studied to investigate if sexual reproduction plays an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. The genetic population structure of P. graminis f. sp. avenae in Sweden w...

  1. Transfer of crown rust resistance from diploid oat Avena strigosa into hexaploid cultivated oat A. sativa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New sources of resistance to crown rust, Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae (Eriks.), the major fungal disease of cultivated oat, Avena sativa L. (2n = 6x = 42), are constantly needed due to frequent, rapid shifts in the virulence pattern of the pathogen. Crown rust resistance identified in the diploid...

  2. Cytoplasmic streaming affects gravity-induced amyloplast sedimentation in maize coleoptiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, F. D.; Leopold, A. C.

    1985-01-01

    Living maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptile cells were observed using a horizontal microscope to determine the interaction between cytoplasmic streaming and gravity-induced amyloplast sedimentation. Sedimentation is heavily influenced by streaming which may (1) hasten or slow the velocity of amyloplast movement and (2) displace the plastid laterally or even upwards before or after sedimentation. Amyloplasts may move through transvacuolar strands or through the peripheral cytoplasm which may be divided into fine cytoplasmic strands of much smaller diameter than the plastids. The results indicate that streaming may contribute to the dynamics of graviperception by influencing amyloplast movement.

  3. Stagonospora avenae secretes multiple enzymes that hydrolyze oat leaf saponins.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, J P; Wubben, J P; Osbourn, A E

    2000-10-01

    The phytopathogenic fungus Stagonospora avenae is able to infect oat leaves despite the presence of avenacoside saponins in the leaf tissue. In response to pathogen attack, avenacosides are converted into 26-desglucoavenacosides (26-DGAs), which possess antifungal activity. These molecules are comprised of a steroidal backbone linked to a branched sugar chain consisting of one alpha-L-rhamnose and two (avenacoside A) or three (avenacoside B) beta-D-glucose residues. Isolates of the fungus that are pathogenic to oats are capable of sequential hydrolysis of the sugar residues from the 26-DGAs. Degradation is initiated by removal of the L-rhamnose, which abolishes antifungal activity. The D-glucose residues are then hydrolyzed by beta-glucosidase activity. A comprehensive analysis of saponin-hydrolyzing activities was undertaken, and it was established that S. avenae isolate WAC1293 secretes three enzymes, one alpha-rhamnosidase and two beta-glucosidases, that carry out this hydrolysis. The major beta-glucosidase was purified and the gene encoding the enzyme cloned. The protein is similar to saponin-hydrolyzing enzymes produced by three other phytopathogenic fungi, Gaeumannomyces graminis, Septoria lycopersici, and Botrytis cinerea, and is a family 3 beta-glucosidase. The gene encoding the beta-glucosidase is expressed during infection of oat leaves but is not essential for pathogenicity. PMID:11043466

  4. Purification and Properties of Flavin- and Molybdenum-Containing Aldehyde Oxidase from Coleoptiles of Maize.

    PubMed Central

    Koshiba, T.; Saito, E.; Ono, N.; Yamamoto, N.; Sato, M.

    1996-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO; EC 1.2.3.1) that could oxidize indole-3-acetaldehyde into indole-3-acetic acid was purified approximately 2000-fold from coleoptiles of 3-d-old maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. The apparent molecular mass of the native enzyme was about 300 kD as estimated by gel-filtration column chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the enzyme was composed of 150-kD subunits. It contained flavin adenine dinucleotide, iron, and molybdenum as prosthetic groups and had absorption peaks in the visible region (300-600 nm). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the presence of flavin adenine dinucleotide and metals in plant AO. Other aromatic aldehydes such as indole-3-aldehyde and benzaldehyde also served as good substrates, but N-methylnicotinamide, a good substrate for animal AO, was not oxidized. 2-Mercaptoethanol, p-chloromercu-ribenzoate, and iodoacetate partially inhibited the activity, but well-known inhibitors of animal AO, such as menadione and estradiol, caused no reduction in activity. These results indicate that, although maize AO is similar to animal enzymes in molecular mass and cofactor components, it differs in substrate specificity and susceptibility to inhibitors. Immunoblotting analysis with mouse polyclonal antibodies raised against the purified maize AO showed that the enzyme was relatively rich in the apical region of maize coleoptiles. The possible role of this enzyme is discussed in relation to phytohormone biosynthesis in plants. PMID:12226218

  5. Role of Blossoms in Watermelon Seed Infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    PubMed

    Walcott, R R; Gitaitis, R D; Castro, A C

    2003-05-01

    ABSTRACT The role of watermelon blossom inoculation in seed infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli was investigated. Approximately 98% (84/87) of fruit developed from blossoms inoculated with 1 x 10(7) or 1 x 10(9) CFU of A. avenae subsp. citrulli per blossom were asymptomatic. Using immunomagnetic separation and the polymerase chain reaction, A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected in 44% of the seed lots assayed, despite the lack of fruit symptoms. Furthermore, viable colonies were recovered from 31% of the seed lots. Of these lots, 27% also yielded seedlings expressing bacterial fruit blotch symptoms when planted under conditions of 30 degrees C and 90% relative humidity. A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected and recovered from the pulp of 33 and 19%, respectively, of symptomless fruit whose blossoms were inoculated with A. avenae subsp. citrulli. The ability to penetrate watermelon flowers was not unique to A. avenae subsp. citrulli, because blossoms inoculated with Pantoea ananatis also resulted in infested seed and pulp. The data indicate that watermelon blossoms are a potential site of ingress for fruit and seed infestation by A. avenae subsp. citrulli. PMID:18942974

  6. Transcriptome analysis of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae cultivated in vivo and co-culture with Burkholderia seminalis.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ge, Mengyu; Cui, Zhouqi; Sun, Guochang; Xu, Fei; Kube, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Response of bacterial pathogen to environmental bacteria and its host is critical for understanding of microbial adaption and pathogenesis. Here, we used RNA-Seq to comprehensively and quantitatively assess the transcriptional response of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 cultivated in vitro, in vivo and in co-culture with rice rhizobacterium Burkholderia seminalis R456. Results revealed a slight response to other bacteria, but a strong response to host. In particular, a large number of virulence associated genes encoding Type I to VI secretion systems, 118 putative non-coding RNAs, and 7 genomic islands (GIs) were differentially expressed in vivo based on comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses. Furthermore, the loss of virulence for knockout mutants of 11 differentially expressed T6SS genes emphasized the importance of these genes in bacterial pathogenicity. In addition, the reliability of expression data obtained by RNA-Seq was supported by quantitative real-time PCR of the 25 selected T6SS genes. Overall, this study highlighted the role of differentially expressed genes in elucidating bacterial pathogenesis based on combined analysis of RNA-Seq data and knockout of T6SS genes. PMID:25027476

  7. Gene Expression of Type VI Secretion System Associated with Environmental Survival in Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae by Principle Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhouqi; Jin, Guoqiang; Li, Bin; Kakar, Kaleem Ullah; Ojaghian, Mohammad Reza; Wang, Yangli; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2015-01-01

    Valine glycine repeat G (VgrG) proteins are regarded as one of two effectors of Type VI secretion system (T6SS) which is a complex multi-component secretion system. In this study, potential biological roles of T6SS structural and VgrG genes in a rice bacterial pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) RS-1, were evaluated under seven stress conditions using principle component analysis of gene expression. The results showed that growth of the pathogen was reduced by H2O2 and paraquat-induced oxidative stress, high salt, low temperature, and vgrG mutation, compared to the control. However, pathogen growth was unaffected by co-culture with a rice rhizobacterium Burkholderia seminalis R456. In addition, expression of 14 T6SS structural and eight vgrG genes was significantly changed under seven conditions. Among different stress conditions, high salt, and low temperature showed a higher effect on the expression of T6SS gene compared with host infection and other environmental conditions. As a first report, this study revealed an association of T6SS gene expression of the pathogen with the host infection, gene mutation, and some common environmental stresses. The results of this research can increase understanding of the biological function of T6SS in this economically-important pathogen of rice. PMID:26378528

  8. Auxin and Cellular Elongation.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Silvia Melina; Barbez, Elke; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Estevez, José M

    2016-03-01

    Auxin is a crucial growth regulator in plants. However, a comprehensive understanding of how auxin induces cell expansion is perplexing, because auxin acts in a concentration- and cell type-dependent manner. Consequently, it is desirable to focus on certain cell types to exemplify the underlying growth mechanisms. On the other hand, plant tissues display supracellular growth (beyond the level of single cells); hence, other cell types might compromise the growth of a certain tissue. Tip-growing cells do not display neighbor-induced growth constraints and, therefore, are a valuable source of information for growth-controlling mechanisms. Here, we focus on auxin-induced cellular elongation in root hairs, exposing a mechanistic view of plant growth regulation. We highlight a complex interplay between auxin metabolism and transport, steering root hair development in response to internal and external triggers. Auxin signaling modules and downstream cascades of transcription factors define a developmental program that appears rate limiting for cellular growth. With this knowledge in mind, the root hair cell is a very suitable model system in which to dissect cellular effectors required for cellular expansion. PMID:26787325

  9. Species differences in ligand specificity of auxin-controlled elongation and auxin transport: comparing Zea and Vigna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Hu; Hertel, Rainer; Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin affects cell elongation in both roots and shoots. In roots, the predominant action of auxin is to inhibit cell elongation while in shoots auxin, at normal physiological levels, stimulates elongation. The question of whether the primary receptor for auxin is the same in roots and shoots has not been resolved. In addition to its action on cell elongation in roots and shoots, auxin is transported in a polar fashion in both organs. Although auxin transport is well characterized in both roots and shoots, there is relatively little information on the connection, if any, between auxin transport and its action on elongation. In particular, it is not clear whether the protein mediating polar auxin movement is separate from the protein mediating auxin action on cell elongation or whether these two processes might be mediated by one and the same receptor. We examined the identity of the auxin growth receptor in roots and shoots by comparing the response of roots and shoots of the grass Zea mays L. and the legume Vigna mungo L. to indole-3-acetic acid, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 4,6-dichloroindoleacetic acid, and 4,7-dichloroindoleacetic acid. We also studied whether or not a single protein might mediate both auxin transport and auxin action by comparing the polar transport of indole-3-acetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid through segments from Vigna hypocotyls and maize coleoptiles. For all of the assays performed (root elongation, shoot elongation, and polar transport) the action and transport of the auxin derivatives was much greater in the dicots than in the grass species. The preservation of ligand specificity between roots and shoots and the parallels in ligand specificity between auxin transport and auxin action on growth are consistent with the hypothesis that the auxin receptor is the same in roots and shoots and that this protein may mediate auxin efflux as well as auxin action in both organ types.

  10. Transport of indoleacetic acid in intact corn coleoptiles. [Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, K.E.; Briggs, W.R. )

    1990-10-01

    We have characterized the transport of ({sup 3}H)indoleacetic acid (IAA) in intact corn (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles. We have used a wide range of concentrations of added IAA (28 femtomoles to 100 picomoles taken up over 60 minutes). The shape of the transport curve varies with the concentration of added IAA, although the rate of movement of the observed front of tracer is invariant with concentration. At the lowest concentration of tracer used, the labeled IAA in the transport stream is not detectably metabolized or immobilized, curvature does not develop as a result of tracer application, and normal phototropic and gravitropic responsiveness are not affected. Therefore we believe we are observing the transport of true tracer quantities of labeled auxin at this lowest concentration.

  11. On the relation between photo- and gravitropically induced spatial memory in maize coleoptiles.

    PubMed

    Nick, P; Sailer, H; Schafer, E

    1990-06-01

    The interaction of photo- and gravitropic stimulation was studied by analysing the curvature of maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles subjected to rotation on horizontal clinostats. Gravitropic curvature in different directions with respect to the stimulation plane was found to be transient. This instability was caused by an increasing deviation of response direction from the stimulation plane towards the caryopsis. The bending angle as such, however, increased steadily. This reorientation of the gravitropic response towards the caryopsis is thought to be caused by the clinostat-elicited nastic curvature found in maize coleoptiles. In contrast, the response to phototropic stimulation was stable, in both, orientation and curving. Although stimulation by gravity was not capable of inducing a stable tropistic response, it could inhibit the response to opposing phototropic stimulation, if the counterstimulation was given more than 90 min after the onset of gravistimulation. For shorter time intervals the influence of the phototropic stimulus obscured the response to the first, gravitropic stimulation. For time intervals exceeding 90 min, however, the phototropic effects disappeared and the response was identical to that for gravity stimulation alone. This gravity-induced inhibition of the phototropic response was confined to the plane of gravity stimulation, because a phototropic stimulation in the perpendicular direction remained unaffected, irrespective of the time interval between the stimulations. This concerned not only the stable phototropic curving, but also the capacity of the phototropic induction to elicit a stable directional memory as described earlier (P. Nick and F. Schafer, 1988b, Planta 175, 380-388). This was tested by a second blue-light pulse opposing the first. It is suggested that gravity, too, can induce a directional memory differing from the blue-light elicited memory. The mechanisms mediating gravi- and phototropic directional memories are thought to

  12. Reversibility of H+-ATPase and H+-Pyrophosphatase in Tonoplast Vesicles from Maize Coleoptiles and Seeds1

    PubMed Central

    Rocha Façanha, Arnoldo; de Meis, Leopoldo

    1998-01-01

    Tonoplast-enriched vesicles isolated from maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles and seeds synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) and inorganic pyrophosphate from Pi. The synthesis is consistent with reversal of the catalytic cycle of the H+-ATPase and H+-pyrophosphatase (PPase) vacuolar membrane-bound enzymes. This was monitored by measuring the exchange reaction that leads to 32Pi incorporation into ATP or inorganic pyrophosphate. The reversal reactions of these enzymes were dependent on the proton gradient formed across the vesicle membrane and were susceptible to the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p(trifluoromethoxy)-phenylhydrazone and the detergent Triton X-100. Comparison of the two H+ pumps showed that the H+-ATPase was more active than H+-PPase in coleoptile tonoplast vesicles, whereas in seed vesicles H+-PPase activity was clearly dominant. These findings may reflect the physiological significance of these enzymes in different tissues at different stages of development and/or differentiation. PMID:9536067

  13. Elongational rheology of polyethylene melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfzadeh, Bijan

    Elongational melt flow behavior is an important and fundamental concept underlying many industrial plastics operations which involve a rapid change of shape as for example fiber spinning and stretching, bottle blow molding, and film blowing and stretching. Under high process loads polymeric materials experience enormous stresses causing the molecular structure to gain considerable orientation. This event has significant effects on the melt flow behavior and can be measured in terms of elongational viscosity and changes in enthalpy and entropy. Different polymeric materials with unique molecular characteristics are expected to respond uniquely to the elongational deformation; hence, molecular parameters such as molecular weight and degree of branching were related to the measurable elongational flow variables. Elongational viscosities were measured for high and low density polyethylenes using an advanced capillary extrusion rheometer fitted with semi-hyperbolic dies. Said dies establish a purely elongational. flow field at constant elongational strain rate. The elongational viscosities were evaluated under influence of process strain rate, Hencky strain (natural logarithm of area reduction of the extrusion die), and temperature. Enthalpy and entropy changes associated with the orientation development of semi-hyperbolic processed melts were also determined. Results showed that elongational viscosities were primarily affected by differences in weight average molecular weight rather than degree of branching. This effect was process strain rate as well as temperature dependent. An investigation of melt relaxation and the associated first decay time constants revealed that with increasing strain rate the molecular field of the melt asymptotically gained orientation in approaching a limit. As a result of this behavior molecular uniqueness vanished at high process strain rates, yielding to orientation development and the associated restructuring of the melt's molecular

  14. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Gantasala, Nagavara Prasad; Roychowdhury, Tanmoy; Thakur, Prasoon Kumar; Banakar, Prakash; Shukla, Rohit N; Jones, Michael G K; Rao, Uma

    2014-01-01

    The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae) is a major pest of wheat (Triticum spp) that reduces crop yields in many countries. Cyst nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites that reproduce by amphimixis. Here, we report the first transcriptome analysis of two stages of H. avenae. After sequencing extracted RNA from pre parasitic infective juvenile and adult stages of the life cycle, 131 million Illumina high quality paired end reads were obtained which generated 27,765 contigs with N50 of 1,028 base pairs, of which 10,452 were annotated. Comparative analyses were undertaken to evaluate H. avenae sequences with those of other plant, animal and free living nematodes to identify differences in expressed genes. There were 4,431 transcripts common to H. avenae and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and 9,462 in common with more closely related potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annotation of H. avenae carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy) revealed fewer glycoside hydrolases (GHs) but more glycosyl transferases (GTs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs) when compared to M. incognita. 1,280 transcripts were found to have secretory signature, presence of signal peptide and absence of transmembrane. In a comparison of genes expressed in the pre-parasitic juvenile and feeding female stages, expression levels of 30 genes with high RPKM (reads per base per kilo million) value, were analysed by qRT-PCR which confirmed the observed differences in their levels of expression levels. In addition, we have also developed a user-friendly resource, Heterodera transcriptome database (HATdb) for public access of the data generated in this study. The new data provided on the transcriptome of H. avenae adds to the genetic resources available to study plant parasitic nematodes and provides an opportunity to seek new effectors that are specifically involved in the H. avenae-cereal host interaction. PMID:24802510

  15. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis of the Cereal Cyst Nematode, Heterodera avenae

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mukesh; Gantasala, Nagavara Prasad; Roychowdhury, Tanmoy; Thakur, Prasoon Kumar; Banakar, Prakash; Shukla, Rohit N.; Jones, Michael G. K.; Rao, Uma

    2014-01-01

    The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae) is a major pest of wheat (Triticum spp) that reduces crop yields in many countries. Cyst nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites that reproduce by amphimixis. Here, we report the first transcriptome analysis of two stages of H. avenae. After sequencing extracted RNA from pre parasitic infective juvenile and adult stages of the life cycle, 131 million Illumina high quality paired end reads were obtained which generated 27,765 contigs with N50 of 1,028 base pairs, of which 10,452 were annotated. Comparative analyses were undertaken to evaluate H. avenae sequences with those of other plant, animal and free living nematodes to identify differences in expressed genes. There were 4,431 transcripts common to H. avenae and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and 9,462 in common with more closely related potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annotation of H. avenae carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy) revealed fewer glycoside hydrolases (GHs) but more glycosyl transferases (GTs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs) when compared to M. incognita. 1,280 transcripts were found to have secretory signature, presence of signal peptide and absence of transmembrane. In a comparison of genes expressed in the pre-parasitic juvenile and feeding female stages, expression levels of 30 genes with high RPKM (reads per base per kilo million) value, were analysed by qRT-PCR which confirmed the observed differences in their levels of expression levels. In addition, we have also developed a user-friendly resource, Heterodera transcriptome database (HATdb) for public access of the data generated in this study. The new data provided on the transcriptome of H. avenae adds to the genetic resources available to study plant parasitic nematodes and provides an opportunity to seek new effectors that are specifically involved in the H. avenae-cereal host interaction. PMID:24802510

  16. Broad spectrum resistance to crown rust, Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae, in U.S. accessions of the tetraploid slender oat, Avena barbata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of race-specific seedling genes for resistance has been the primary means of controlling crown rust of oat (Puccinia coronata). As resistance genes from hexaploid cultivated oat, Avena sativa and later, the wild hexaploid animated oat, A. sterilis were deployed in oat cultivars, correspondin...

  17. Regulatory role of tetR gene in a novel gene cluster of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 under oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, He; Yang, Chun-Lan; Ge, Meng-Yu; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Li, Bin; Zhao, Wen-Jun; Chen, Gong-You; Zhu, Bo; Xie, Guan-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae is the causal agent of bacterial brown stripe disease in rice. In this study, we characterized a novel horizontal transfer of a gene cluster, including tetR, on the chromosome of A. avenae subsp. avenae RS-1 by genome-wide analysis. TetR acted as a repressor in this gene cluster and the oxidative stress resistance was enhanced in tetR-deletion mutant strain. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that TetR regulator bound directly to the promoter of this gene cluster. Consistently, the results of quantitative real-time PCR also showed alterations in expression of associated genes. Moreover, the proteins affected by TetR under oxidative stress were revealed by comparing proteomic profiles of wild-type and mutant strains via 1D SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS analyses. Taken together, our results demonstrated that tetR gene in this novel gene cluster contributed to cell survival under oxidative stress, and TetR protein played an important regulatory role in growth kinetics, biofilm-forming capability, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, and oxide detoxicating ability. PMID:25374564

  18. Crown Rust Development and Selection for Virulence in Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae in an Oat Multiline Variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata f.sp. avenae is the most important disease of cultivated oat in North America. Numerous race-specific (Pc) genes for crown rust have been found in Avena spp., but this type of resistance has not been durable when used in oat varieties. Increasing diversity for...

  19. Ecology and Control of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) in Southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Brown, R H

    1984-07-01

    The ecology and control of cereal cyst nematode in southern Australia is reviewed. The wide distribution of Heterodera avenae in Victoria and South Australia is due largely to movement of cysts by wind during dust storms. The fungus Rhizoctonia solani frequently is associated with the nematode in a disease complex in wheat, and disease symptoms are most severe on lighter or well structured soils. Crop rotations which include periods of fallow, or of nonhost crop reduce population levels of H. avenae and improve yields. Early-sown crops (April-May) are less severely damaged than late-sown crops (June-July). The resowing of damaged wheat crops or the application of nitrogenous fertilizers rarely improve grain yields. 'Katyil,' the world's first wheat cultivar bred specifically with resistance to H. avenae, has been released in Victoria. Chemical control of the nematode in cereals is now commercially feasible, and five nematicides are registered for use by growers. PMID:19294014

  20. Characterization of Naphthaleneacetic Acid Binding to Receptor Sites on Cellular Membranes of Maize Coleoptile Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Peter M.; Dohrmann, Ulrike; Hertel, Rainer

    1977-01-01

    Characteristics of and optimum conditions for saturable (“specific”) binding of [14C]naphthaleneacetic acid to sites located on membranous particles from maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptiles are described. Most, if not all, of the specific binding appears to be due to a single kinetic class of binding sites having a KD of 5 to 7 × 10−7m for naphthalene-1-acetic acid (NAA). Binding of NAA is insensitive to high monovalent salt concentrations, indicating that binding is not primarily ionic. However, specific binding is inhibited by Mg2+ or Ca2+ above 5 mm. Specific binding is improved by organic acids, especially citrate. Binding is heat-labile and is sensitive to agents that act either on proteins or on lipids. Specific binding is reversibly inactivated by reducing agents such as dithioerythritol; a reducible group, possibly a disulfide group, may be located at the binding site and required for its function. The affinity of the specific binding sites for auxins is modified by an unidentified dialyzable, heat-stable, apparently amphoteric, organic factor (“supernatant factor”) found in maize tissue. PMID:16659851

  1. Glycosyltransferases from Oat (Avena) Implicated in the Acylation of Avenacins*

    PubMed Central

    Owatworakit, Amorn; Townsend, Belinda; Louveau, Thomas; Jenner, Helen; Rejzek, Martin; Hughes, Richard K.; Saalbach, Gerhard; Qi, Xiaoquan; Bakht, Saleha; Roy, Abhijeet Deb; Mugford, Sam T.; Goss, Rebecca J. M.; Field, Robert A.; Osbourn, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce a huge array of specialized metabolites that have important functions in defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of these compounds are glycosylated by family 1 glycosyltransferases (GTs). Oats (Avena spp.) make root-derived antimicrobial triterpenes (avenacins) that provide protection against soil-borne diseases. The ability to synthesize avenacins has evolved since the divergence of oats from other cereals and grasses. The major avenacin, A-1, is acylated with N-methylanthranilic acid. Previously, we have cloned and characterized three genes for avenacin synthesis (for the triterpene synthase SAD1, a triterpene-modifying cytochrome P450 SAD2, and the serine carboxypeptidase-like acyl transferase SAD7), which form part of a biosynthetic gene cluster. Here, we identify a fourth member of this gene cluster encoding a GT belonging to clade L of family 1 (UGT74H5), and show that this enzyme is an N-methylanthranilic acid O-glucosyltransferase implicated in the synthesis of avenacin A-1. Two other closely related family 1 GTs (UGT74H6 and UGT74H7) are also expressed in oat roots. One of these (UGT74H6) is able to glucosylate both N-methylanthranilic acid and benzoic acid, whereas the function of the other (UGT74H7) remains unknown. Our investigations indicate that UGT74H5 is likely to be key for the generation of the activated acyl donor used by SAD7 in the synthesis of the major avenacin, A-1, whereas UGT74H6 may contribute to the synthesis of other forms of avenacin that are acylated with benzoic acid. PMID:23258535

  2. Glycosyltransferases from oat (Avena) implicated in the acylation of avenacins.

    PubMed

    Owatworakit, Amorn; Townsend, Belinda; Louveau, Thomas; Jenner, Helen; Rejzek, Martin; Hughes, Richard K; Saalbach, Gerhard; Qi, Xiaoquan; Bakht, Saleha; Roy, Abhijeet Deb; Mugford, Sam T; Goss, Rebecca J M; Field, Robert A; Osbourn, Anne

    2013-02-01

    Plants produce a huge array of specialized metabolites that have important functions in defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of these compounds are glycosylated by family 1 glycosyltransferases (GTs). Oats (Avena spp.) make root-derived antimicrobial triterpenes (avenacins) that provide protection against soil-borne diseases. The ability to synthesize avenacins has evolved since the divergence of oats from other cereals and grasses. The major avenacin, A-1, is acylated with N-methylanthranilic acid. Previously, we have cloned and characterized three genes for avenacin synthesis (for the triterpene synthase SAD1, a triterpene-modifying cytochrome P450 SAD2, and the serine carboxypeptidase-like acyl transferase SAD7), which form part of a biosynthetic gene cluster. Here, we identify a fourth member of this gene cluster encoding a GT belonging to clade L of family 1 (UGT74H5), and show that this enzyme is an N-methylanthranilic acid O-glucosyltransferase implicated in the synthesis of avenacin A-1. Two other closely related family 1 GTs (UGT74H6 and UGT74H7) are also expressed in oat roots. One of these (UGT74H6) is able to glucosylate both N-methylanthranilic acid and benzoic acid, whereas the function of the other (UGT74H7) remains unknown. Our investigations indicate that UGT74H5 is likely to be key for the generation of the activated acyl donor used by SAD7 in the synthesis of the major avenacin, A-1, whereas UGT74H6 may contribute to the synthesis of other forms of avenacin that are acylated with benzoic acid. PMID:23258535

  3. Elongation Transducer For Tensile Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Paul W.; Stokes, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    Extensometer transducer measures elongation of tensile-test specimen with negligible distortion of test results. Used in stress-versus-strain tests of small specimens of composite materials. Clamping stress distributed more evenly. Specimen clamped gently between jaw and facing surface of housing. Friction force of load points on conical tips onto specimen depends on compression of spring, adjusted by turning cover on housing. Limp, light nylon-insulated electrical leads impose minimal extraneous loads on measuring elements.

  4. An improved assay for detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli in watermelon and melon seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), the causal agent of a watermelon seedling blight and fruit blotch (WFB), has emerged as a serious seedborne pathogen of watermelon, melons, pumpkin, and citron. Although attempts have been made to develop a simple routine laboratory seed assay to detect the...

  5. Evaluation of several seed treatments for eradication of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli from watermelon seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), is a serious seedborne pathogen. To determine the effectiveness of several seed treatments for eradication of Aac from seed, healthy triploid watermelon seedlots were spiked with n...

  6. Multilocus sequence typing reveals two evolutionary lineages of the watermelon pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), the causal agent of bacterial blight and fruit blotch of watermelon and other cucurbits, has caused great damage to the watermelon and melon industry in China and the USA. Understanding the origin of this emerging disease is important for controlling outbrea...

  7. Adding B-chromosomes of Zea mays L. to the genome of Avena sativa L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    B-chromosomes (Bs) are supernumerary dispensable chromosomes described in hundreds of animal and plant species, including maize (Zea mays L.). However, Bs have not been reported to exist in hexaploid oat (Avena sativa L.). In order to transfer maize Bs sexually from maize to oat genomes, we used as ...

  8. Mycobiota on wild oat (Avena fatua L.) seed and their caryopsis decay potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild oat is a serious weed in cereals that is difficult to control due to long-term survival in the weed seed bank. The mycobiota associated with dormant wild oat (Avena fatua L.) seeds buried for six months in a no-till wheat field were evaluated for their caryopsis decay potential. Over 800 fung...

  9. Foraging by Hippodamia convergens for the aphid Sitobion avenae on wheat plants growing in greenhouse plots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated predation by adult convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, on English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae L., on wheat, Triticum aestivum L., growing in 1.8 x 1.8 m plantings in a greenhouse with a soil floor. The wheat was planted to simulate wheat in a typical pro...

  10. Avena barbata, a potential source of new crown rust resistance in oat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of race-specific seedling genes for resistance has been the primary means of controlling crown rust of oat (Puccinia coronata). As resistance genes from hexaploid cultivated oat, Avena sativa and later, the wild hexaploid animated oat, A. sterilis were deployed in oat cultivars, correspondi...

  11. Functional response of Hippodamia convergens to Sitobion avenae on wheat plants in the laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated predation by adult convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, on English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae L., on wheat, Triticum aestivum L., plants in a laboratory arena and developed a functional response model for the number of aphids eaten by an adult female conv...

  12. Spring wheat tolerance and resistance to Heterodera avenae in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae reduces wheat yields in the Pacific Northwest. Previous evaluations of cultivar resistance had been in controlled environments. Cultivar tolerance had not been evaluated. Seven spring wheat trials were conducted in naturally infested fields in three states ...

  13. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Symbiotic Bacteria in the Aphid Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Alkhedir, Hussein; Karlovsky, Petr; Mashaly, Ashraf Mohamed Ali; Vidal, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Aphids have developed symbiotic associations with different bacterial species, and some morphological and molecular analyses have provided evidence of the host relationship between the primary symbiotic bacteria (Buchnera aphidicola) and the aphid while the contrary with the secondary symbiotic bacteria. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships of the bacterial endosymbionts in the aphid Sitobion avenae (F.). We characterized all bacterial endosymbionts in 10 genetically defined S. avenae clones by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and, from these clones, sequenced the 16S rRNA genes of both the primary endosymbiont, B. aphidicola (for the first time), and the secondary endosymbionts, Regiella insecticola and Hamiltonella defensa (for the first time). The phylogenetic analysis indicated that Buchnera from Sitobion related to those in Macrosiphoni. The analysis of the secondary endosymbionts indicated that there is no host relationship between H. defensa and R. insecticola from Sitobion and those from other aphid species. In this study, therefore, we identified further evidence for the relationship between Buchnera and its host and reported a relationship within the secondary endosymbionts of S. avenae from the same country, even though there were no relationships between the secondary bacteria and their host. We also discussed the diversity within the symbiotic bacteria in S. avenae clones. PMID:26314016

  14. Deciphering the Mechanism of β-Aminobutyric Acid-Induced Resistance in Wheat to the Grain Aphid, Sitobion avenae

    PubMed Central

    Cao, He-He; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xing-Xing; Guo, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The non-protein amino acid β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) can induce plant resistance to a broad spectrum of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, BABA-induced plant resistance to insects is less well-studied, especially its underlying mechanism. In this research, we applied BABA to wheat seedlings and tested its effects on Sitobion avenae (F.). When applied as a soil drench, BABA significantly reduced weights of S. avenae, whereas foliar spray and seed treatment had no such effects. BABA-mediated suppression of S. avenae growth was dose dependent and lasted at least for 7 days. The aminobutyric acid concentration in phloem sap of BABA-treated plants was higher and increased with BABA concentrations applied. Moreover, after 10 days of treatment, the aminobutyric acid content in BABA-treated plants was still higher than that in control treatment. Sitobion avenae could not discriminate artificial diet containing BABA from standard diet, indicating that BABA itself is not a deterrent to this aphid. Also S. avenae did not show preference for control plants or BABA-treated plants. Consistent with choice test results, S. avenae had similar feeding activities on control and BABA-treated plants, suggesting that BABA did not induce antifeedants in wheat seedlings. In addition, aminobutyric acid concentration in S. avenae feeding on BABA-treated plants was significantly higher than those feeding on control plants. Sitobion avenae growth rate was reduced on the artificial diet containing BABA, indicating that BABA had direct toxic effects on this aphid species. These results suggest that BABA application reduced S. avenae performance on wheat seedlings and the mechanism is possibly due to direct toxicity of high BABA contents in plant phloem. PMID:24651046

  15. Metabolism of Glycogen and Neutral Lipids by Aphelenchus avenae and Caenorhabditis sp. in Aerobic, Microaerobic and Anaerobic Environments.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A F; Van Gundy, S D

    1970-10-01

    Starving Aphelenchus avenae survived 3-4 weeks in microaerobic and anaerobic environments, but Caenorhabditis sp. survived less than 80 hr. Aerobically, both nematodes metabolize neutral lipid reserves: there was no microaerobic ( <5% O) or anaerobic neutral lipid catabolism. Early in anaerobiosis both nematodes utilized endogenous glycogen. Caenorhabditis sp. depleted the glycogen and died. A. avenae under oxygen stress longer than 120 hr entered cryptobiosis, during which there was neither measurable O uptake nor glycogen or neutral lipid utilization, Only when re-aerated, did A. avenae recover and resume "'normal" metabolism. PMID:19322317

  16. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-Lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the 'Amigo' variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. 'Tm' (Triticum monococcum), 'Astron,' 'Xanthus,' 'Ww2730,' and 'Batis' varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, 'Amigo,' 'Xiaoyan22,' and some '186Tm' samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for '98-10-35,' 'Xiaoyan22,' 'Tp,' 'Tam200,' 'PI high,' and other '186Tm' samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to 'Xinong1376,' because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of laboratory and long-term field experiments in targeted planting

  17. METHOD OF FORMING ELONGATED COMPACTS

    DOEpatents

    Larson, H.F.

    1959-05-01

    A powder compacting procedure and apparatus which produces elongated compacts of Be is described. The powdered metal is placed in a thin metal tube which is chemically compatible to lubricant, powder, atmosphere, and die material and will undergo a high degree of plastic deformation and have intermediate hardness. The tube is capped and placed in the die, and punches are applied to the ends. During the compacting stroke the powder seizes the tube and a thickening and shortening of the tube occurs. The tube is easily removed from the die, split, and peeled from the compact. (T.R.H.)

  18. Differential Molecular Responses of Rice and Wheat Coleoptiles to Anoxia Reveal Novel Metabolic Adaptations in Amino Acid Metabolism for Tissue Tolerance1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Shingaki-Wells, Rachel N.; Huang, Shaobai; Taylor, Nicolas L.; Carroll, Adam J.; Zhou, Wenxu; Millar, A. Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are the most important starch crops in world agriculture. While both germinate with an anatomically similar coleoptile, this tissue defines the early anoxia tolerance of rice and the anoxia intolerance of wheat seedlings. We combined protein and metabolite profiling analysis to compare the differences in response to anoxia between the rice and wheat coleoptiles. Rice coleoptiles responded to anoxia dramatically, not only at the level of protein synthesis but also at the level of altered metabolite pools, while the wheat response to anoxia was slight in comparison. We found significant increases in the abundance of proteins in rice coleoptiles related to protein translation and antioxidant defense and an accumulation of a set of enzymes involved in serine, glycine, and alanine biosynthesis from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate or pyruvate, which correlates with an observed accumulation of these amino acids in anoxic rice. We show a positive effect on wheat root anoxia tolerance by exogenous addition of these amino acids, indicating that their synthesis could be linked to rice anoxia tolerance. The potential role of amino acid biosynthesis contributing to anoxia tolerance in cells is discussed. PMID:21622811

  19. Differential molecular responses of rice and wheat coleoptiles to anoxia reveal novel metabolic adaptations in amino acid metabolism for tissue tolerance.

    PubMed

    Shingaki-Wells, Rachel N; Huang, Shaobai; Taylor, Nicolas L; Carroll, Adam J; Zhou, Wenxu; Millar, A Harvey

    2011-08-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are the most important starch crops in world agriculture. While both germinate with an anatomically similar coleoptile, this tissue defines the early anoxia tolerance of rice and the anoxia intolerance of wheat seedlings. We combined protein and metabolite profiling analysis to compare the differences in response to anoxia between the rice and wheat coleoptiles. Rice coleoptiles responded to anoxia dramatically, not only at the level of protein synthesis but also at the level of altered metabolite pools, while the wheat response to anoxia was slight in comparison. We found significant increases in the abundance of proteins in rice coleoptiles related to protein translation and antioxidant defense and an accumulation of a set of enzymes involved in serine, glycine, and alanine biosynthesis from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate or pyruvate, which correlates with an observed accumulation of these amino acids in anoxic rice. We show a positive effect on wheat root anoxia tolerance by exogenous addition of these amino acids, indicating that their synthesis could be linked to rice anoxia tolerance. The potential role of amino acid biosynthesis contributing to anoxia tolerance in cells is discussed. PMID:21622811

  20. [Induction of heat resistance in wheat coleoptiles by salicylic and succinic acids: connection of the effect with the generation and neutralization of active oxygen forms].

    PubMed

    Kolupaev, Iu E; Iastreb, T O; Shvidenko, N V; Karpets, Iu V

    2012-01-01

    The influence of salicylic (SaA) and succinic (SuA) acids on the generation of active oxygen forms (AOFs) and the heat resistance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) coleoptiles has been studied. The treatment of coleoptiles with 10 microM SaA or SuA results in the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and enhanced formation of a superoxide anion radical. This effect is partially suppressed by both alpha-naphthol (the NADPH oxidase inhibitor) and salicylhydroxamic acid (peroxidase inhibitor). SaA and SuA cause an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and soluble peroxidase, and improve the heat resistance ofcoleoptiles. Antioxidant ionol and compounds, which inhibit the NADPH oxidase and peroxidase, significantly reduce the positive influence of SaA and SuA on the heat resistance of wheat coleoptiles. AOFs are considered to be intermediates for heat resistance induction in coleoptiles, treated with SaA and SuA; enhanced AOF generation can be caused by an increased activity of the NADPH oxidase and peroxidase. PMID:23101394

  1. Structure and Elongation of fine Ladies’ Hosiery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozo, M.; Vrljicak, Z.

    2016-07-01

    On a sock-knitting machine with diameter of cylindrical needle bed 100 mm (4e") that knitted with 400 needles, samples of fine women's hosiery were made from four PA filament yarns in counts 20 dtex f 20, 30 dtex f 34, 40 dtex f 40 and 60 dtex f 60. Each type of yarns was used to make hosiery samples with four loop sinking depths of unit values in a computer program 400, 550, 700 and 850. For all the samples, parameters of yarn structure were analyzed and elongation properties of knitted fabric were measured. During the elongation of knitted fabric, areas of knitted fabric elasticity, beginning of permanent deformation and elongation at break were measured. Elongation of knitted fabric in the wale direction, i.e. transverse hosiery elongation and elongation of knitted fabric in the course direction, or longitudinal direction of hosiery were measured. Yarn fineness and loop sinking depth significantly influence the elongation properties of hosiery.

  2. Genome Sequence of Acidovorax avenae Strain T10_61 Associated with Sugarcane Red Stripe in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Cecilia A.; Bassi, Daniela; Puglisi, Edoardo; Salazar, Sergio M.; Vignolo, Graciela M.; Coccocelli, Pier S.

    2016-01-01

    Red stripe of sugarcane in Argentina is a bacterial disease caused by Acidovorax avenae. The genome sequence from the first isolate of this bacterium in Argentina is presented here. The draft genome of the A. avenae T10_61 strain contains 5,646,552 bp and has a G+C content of 68.6 mol%. PMID:26847889

  3. The Acid Growth Theory of auxin-induced cell elongation is alive and well

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayle, D. L.; Cleland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Plant cells elongate irreversibly only when load-bearing bonds in the walls are cleaved. Auxin causes the elongation of stem and coleoptile cells by promoting wall loosening via cleavage of these bonds. This process may be coupled with the intercalation of new cell wall polymers. Because the primary site of auxin action appears to be the plasma membrane or some intracellular site, and wall loosening is extracellular, there must be communication between the protoplast and the wall. Some "wall-loosening factor" must be exported from auxin-impacted cells, which sets into motion the wall loosening events. About 20 years ago, it was suggested that the wall-loosening factor is hydrogen ions. This idea and subsequent supporting data gave rise to the Acid Growth Theory, which states that when exposed to auxin, susceptible cells excrete protons into the wall (apoplast) at an enhanced rate, resulting in a decrease in apoplastic pH. The lowered wall pH then activates wall-loosening processes, the precise nature of which is unknown. Because exogenous acid causes a transient (1-4 h) increase in growth rate, auxin must also mediate events in addition to wall acidification for growth to continue for an extended period of time. These events may include osmoregulation, cell wall synthesis, and maintenance of the capacity of walls to undergo acid-induced wall loosening. At present, we do not know if these phenomena are tightly coupled to wall acidification or if they are the products of multiple independent signal transduction pathways.

  4. Light interacts with auxin during leaf elongation and leaf angle development in young corn seedlings.

    PubMed

    Fellner, Martin; Horton, Lindsey A; Cocke, Allison E; Stephens, Nicholas R; Ford, E David; Van Volkenburgh, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Modern corn ( Zea mays L.) varieties have been selected for their ability to maintain productivity in dense plantings. We have tested the possibility that the physiological consequence of the selection of the modern hybrid, 3394, for increased crop yield includes changes in responsiveness to auxin and light. Etiolated seedlings in the modern line are shorter than in an older hybrid, 307, since they produce shorter coleoptile, mesocotyl, and leaves (blade as well as sheath). Etiolated 3394 seedlings, as well as isolated mesocotyl and sheath segments, were less responsive to auxin and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Reduced response of 3394 to auxin was associated with less reduction of elongation growth by light (white, red, far-red, blue) than in 307, whereas the activity of polar auxin transport (PAT) and its reduction by red or far-red light was similar in both genotypes. NPA reduced PAT in etiolated 3394 seedlings much less than in 307. A characteristic feature of 3394 plants is more erect leaves. In both hybrids, light (white, red, blue) increases leaf declination from the vertical, whereas NPA reduces leaf declination in 307, but not in 3394. Our results support findings that auxin and PAT are involved in elongation growth of corn seedlings, and we show that light interacts with auxin or PAT in regulation of leaf declination. We hypothesize that, relative to 307, more erect leaves in the modern hybrid may be primarily a consequence of a reduced amount of auxin receptor(s) and reduced responsiveness to light in etiolated 3394 plants. The more erect leaves in 3394 may contribute to the tolerance of the modern corn hybrid to dense planting. PMID:12520327

  5. Genome-wide association study for crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) resistance in an oat (Avena sativa) collection of commercial varieties and landraces.

    PubMed

    Montilla-Bascón, Gracia; Rispail, Nicolas; Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Rubiales, Diego; Mur, Luis A J; Langdon, Tim; Howarth, Catherine J; Prats, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Diseases caused by crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) are among the most important constraints for the oat crop. Breeding for resistance is one of the most effective, economical, and environmentally friendly means to control these diseases. The purpose of this work was to identify elite alleles for rust and powdery mildew resistance in oat by association mapping to aid selection of resistant plants. To this aim, 177 oat accessions including white and red oat cultivars and landraces were evaluated for disease resistance and further genotyped with 31 simple sequence repeat and 15,000 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers to reveal association with disease resistance traits. After data curation, 1712 polymorphic markers were considered for association analysis. Principal component analysis and a Bayesian clustering approach were applied to infer population structure. Five different general and mixed linear models accounting for population structure and/or kinship corrections and two different statistical tests were carried out to reduce false positive. Five markers, two of them highly significant in all models tested were associated with rust resistance. No strong association between any marker and powdery mildew resistance at the seedling stage was identified. However, one DArT sequence, oPt-5014, was strongly associated with powdery mildew resistance in adult plants. Overall, the markers showing the strongest association in this study provide ideal candidates for further studies and future inclusion in strategies of marker-assisted selection. PMID:25798140

  6. The low temperature induced physiological responses of Avena nuda L., a cold-tolerant plant species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenying; Yu, Kenming; He, Tengfei; Li, Feifei; Zhang, Dongxu; Liu, Jianxia

    2013-01-01

    The paperaim of the was to study the effect of low temperature stress on Avena nuda L. seedlings. Cold stress leads to many changes of physiological indices, such as membrane permeability, free proline content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and chlorophyll content. Cold stress also leads to changes of some protected enzymes such as peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). We have measured and compared these indices of seedling leaves under low temperature and normal temperature. The proline and MDA contents were increased compared with control; the chlorophyll content gradually decreased with the prolongation of low temperature stress. The activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were increased under low temperature. The study was designated to explore the physiological mechanism of cold tolerance in naked oats for the first time and also provided theoretical basis for cultivation and antibiotic breeding in Avena nuda L. PMID:23843738

  7. Asymmetric somatic hybridization between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Avena sativa L.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Fengning; Xia, Guangmin; Chen, Huimin

    2003-06-01

    Protoplasts from cell suspensions ofyoung-embryo-derived calli, which were nonregenerable for long-term subculture and protoplasts from embryogenic calli with the regeneration capacity of 75% ofthe same wheat Jinan 177, were mixed as recipient. Protoplasts from embryogenic calli of Avena sativa (with the regeneration capacity ofless than 10%) irradiated with UV at an intensity of 300 muW/cm(2) for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 5 min were used as the donor. Protoplasts ofthe recipient and the donor were fused by PEG method. Many calli and normal green plants were regenerated at high frequency, and were verified as somatic hybrids by chromosome counting, isozyme, 5S rDNA spacer sequence analysis and GISH (genomic in situ hybridization). Fusion combination between protoplasts either from the cell suspensions or from the calli and UV-treated Avena sativa protoplasts could not regenerate green plants. PMID:18763139

  8. Resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae in Barley Is Associated with the Rpg5 Locus.

    PubMed

    Dracatos, Peter; Singh, Davinder; Fetch, Tom; Park, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In barley, gene Rpg5 was first identified for providing resistance to the rye stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis). A subsequent study determined that Rpg5 is required for rpg4-mediated resistance to the wheat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. tritici) including pathotype TTKSK ("Ug99"), which poses a major threat to global wheat and barley production. Based on the effectiveness of Rpg5 against P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis, we assessed whether it also conferred resistance to the oat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. avenae). A barley F8 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced by crossing 'Q21861' (Rpg1 and Rpg5) with '73-G1' (Rpg1), which is susceptible to P. graminis f. sp. avenae, P. graminis f. sp. secalis, and some pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici. Seedling tests were performed on the F8 RIL population using Australian pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici, P. graminis f. sp. secalis, P. graminis f. sp. avenae, and a putative somatic hybrid between P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis known as the 'Scabrum' rust. Segregation in the responses to all rust isolates for the RILs was identical (50 resistant: 52 susceptible), and fitted a 1:1 ratio (X2=0.039, P=0.843), indicating that resistance to all isolates was monogenetically inherited. Screening of the RILs and the parental lines with perfect markers for the functional Rpg1 and Rpg5 resistance alleles indicated that Rpg1 was fixed, while Rpg5 was positive in all resistant lines and negative in all susceptible lines. This suggests that different formae speciales of P. graminis may share common effectors, and that the Rpg5 locus confers resistance to both P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis and the heterologous formae speciales of P. graminis, P. graminis f. sp. avenae. PMID:25870923

  9. Inheritance of prehaustorial resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Dracatos, Peter M; Ayliffe, Michael; Khatkar, Mehar S; Fetch, Tom; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert F

    2014-11-01

    Rust pathogens within the genus Puccinia cause some of the most economically significant diseases of crops. Different formae speciales of P. graminis have co-evolved to mainly infect specific grass hosts; however, some genotypes of other closely related cereals can also be infected. This study investigated the inheritance of resistance to three diverse pathotypes of the oat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. avenae) in the 'Yerong' ✕ 'Franklin' (Y/F) barley doubled haploid (DH) population, a host with which it is not normally associated. Both parents, 'Yerong' and 'Franklin', were immune to all P. graminis f. sp. avenae pathotypes; however. there was transgressive segregation within the Y/F population, in which infection types (IT) ranged from complete immunity to mesothetic susceptibility, suggesting the presence of heritable resistance. Both QTL and marker-trait association (MTA) analysis was performed on the Y/F population to map resistance loci in response to P. graminis f. sp. avenae. QTL on chromosome 1H ('Yerong' Rpga1 and Rpga2) were identified using all forms of analysis, while QTL detected on 5H ('Franklin' Rpga3 and Rpga4) and 7H (Rpga5) were only detected using MTA or composite interval mapping-single marker regression analysis respectively. Rpga1 to Rpga5 were effective in response to all P. graminis f. sp. avenae pathotypes used in this study, suggesting resistance is not pathotype specific. Rpga1 co-located to previously mapped QTL in the Y/F population for adult plant resistance to the barley leaf scald pathogen (Rhynchosporium secalis) on chromosome 1H. Histological evidence suggests that the resistance observed within parental and immune DH lines in the population was prehaustorial and caused by callose deposition within the walls of the mesophyll cells, preventing hyphal penetration. PMID:25025780

  10. New insights into virulence mechanisms of rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 following exposure to ß-lactam antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Ge, Mengyu; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Li; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Guochang; Chen, Gongyou

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that pathogen virulence can be altered by exposure to antibiotics, even when the growth rate is unaffected. Investigating this phenomenon provides new insights into understanding the virulence mechanisms of bacterial pathogens. This study investigates the phenotypic and transcriptomic responses of the rice pathogenic bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) strain RS-1 to ß-lactam antibiotics especially Ampicillin (Amp). Our results indicate that exposure to Amp does not influence bacterial growth and biofilm formation, but alters the virulence, colonization capacity, composition of extracellular polymeric substances and secretion of Type VI secretion system (T6SS) effector Hcp. This attenuation in virulence is linked to unique or differential expression of known virulence-associated genes based on genome-wide transcriptomic analysis. The reliability of expression data generated by RNA-Seq was verified with quantitative real-time PCR of 21 selected T6SS genes, where significant down-regulation in expression of hcp gene, corresponding to the reduction in secretion of Hcp, was observed under exposure to Amp. Hcp is highlighted as a potential target for Amp, with similar changes observed in virulence-associated phenotypes between exposure to Amp and mutation of hcp gene. In addition, Hcp secretion is reduced in knockout mutants of 4 differentially expressed T6SS genes. PMID:26915352

  11. Phytochrome-Mediated Cellular Photomorphogenesis 1

    PubMed Central

    Schaer, John A.; Mandoli, Dina F.; Briggs, Winslow R.

    1983-01-01

    Red light-induced cell elongation and division in intact, etiolated oat (Avena sativa cv Lodi) seedlings have been assessed. The middle of coleoptile was especially responsive in the very low fluence range whereas the region immediately below the coleoptile tip and the two regions just above the coleoptilar node were more responsive than the entire organ in the low fluence range. These responses in the coleoptile are both the result of an increase in cell elongation. Coleoptile cell division is slightly inhibited in the very low and slightly stimulated by red light in the low fluence range. The one-sixth of the mesocotyl closest to the node is more suppressed in its growth than is any other region in the very low fluence range. However, the low fluence response involved the entire mesocotyl equally. In the apical one-sixth of the mesocotyl, a strong suppression of cell division and a weak suppression of cell elongation occurs. In the lower five regions of the mesocotyl, red light in both fluence ranges suppresses only cell elongation. Apparently, the difference between red light-induced oat growth stimulation and suppression primarily involves differences in the response of the cell elongation process. PMID:16663071

  12. Genetic basis and selection for life-history trait plasticity on alternative host plants for the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xinjia; Gao, Suxia; Liu, Deguang

    2014-01-01

    Sitobion avenae (F.) can survive on various plants in the Poaceae, which may select for highly plastic genotypes. But phenotypic plasticity was often thought to be non-genetic, and of little evolutionary significance historically, and many problems related to adaptive plasticity, its genetic basis and natural selection for plasticity have not been well documented. To address these questions, clones of S. avenae were collected from three plants, and their phenotypic plasticity under alternative environments was evaluated. Our results demonstrated that nearly all tested life-history traits showed significant plastic changes for certain S. avenae clones with the total developmental time of nymphs and fecundity tending to have relatively higher plasticity for most clones. Overall, the level of plasticity for S. avenae clones' life-history traits was unexpectedly low. The factor 'clone' alone explained 27.7-62.3% of the total variance for trait plasticities. The heritability of plasticity was shown to be significant in nearly all the cases. Many significant genetic correlations were found between trait plasticities with a majority of them being positive. Therefore, it is evident that life-history trait plasticity involved was genetically based. There was a high degree of variation in selection coefficients for life-history trait plasticity of different S. avenae clones. Phenotypic plasticity for barley clones, but not for oat or wheat clones, was frequently found to be under significant selection. The directional selection of alternative environments appeared to act to decrease the plasticity of S. avenae clones in most cases. G-matrix comparisons showed significant differences between S. avenae clones, as well as quite a few negative covariances (i.e., trade-offs) between trait plasticities. Genetic basis and evolutionary significance of life-history trait plasticity were discussed. PMID:25181493

  13. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the ‘Amigo’ variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. ‘Tm’ (Triticum monococcum), ‘Astron,’ ‘Xanthus,’ ‘Ww2730,’ and ‘Batis’ varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, ‘Amigo,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ and some ‘186Tm’ samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for ‘98-10-35,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ ‘Tp,’ ‘Tam200,’ ‘PI high,’ and other ‘186Tm’ samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to ‘Xinong1376,’ because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of

  14. A spaceflight experiment to investigate the effects of a range of unilateral blue light phototropic stimulations on the movements of wheat coleoptiles (6-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heathcote, David G.

    1992-01-01

    In 1978, in response to an announcement of opportunity by NASA, two independent groups proposed related investigations to study the response of seedling plants to photostimulations at microgravity. The spaceflight experiment is known by its NASA acronym, FOTRAN. The scientific objectives behind the experiment are outlined, and a brief description of the spaceflight equipment and the experimental procedures developed to accomplish the aims of the experiment are presented. By reference to the results of ground-based studies, the likely scientific returns of the FOTRAN experiment will be assessed. The experiment is designed to investigate the effects of a range of blue light stimulations on the movements of wheat coleoptiles at zero-g. The seedlings will be dark-grown, and their movements assessed from infrared time-lapse video recordings made during flight. The photostimulus may be expected to modulate circumnutations of the coleoptiles, by synchronizing, initiating or amplifying these rhythmic movements, and to initiate the classic phototropic response.

  15. Ethylene Responses in Rice Roots and Coleoptiles Are Differentially Regulated by a Carotenoid Isomerase-Mediated Abscisic Acid Pathway[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Cui-Cui; Ma, Biao; Collinge, Derek Phillip; Pogson, Barry James; He, Si-Jie; Xiong, Qing; Duan, Kai-Xuan; Chen, Hui; Yang, Chao; Lu, Xiang; Wang, Yi-Qin; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Sun, Xiao-Hong; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jin-Fang; Lu, Tie-Gang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) act synergistically or antagonistically to regulate plant growth and development. ABA is derived from the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. Here, we analyzed the interplay among ethylene, carotenoid biogenesis, and ABA in rice (Oryza sativa) using the rice ethylene response mutant mhz5, which displays a reduced ethylene response in roots but an enhanced ethylene response in coleoptiles. We found that MHZ5 encodes a carotenoid isomerase and that the mutation in mhz5 blocks carotenoid biosynthesis, reduces ABA accumulation, and promotes ethylene production in etiolated seedlings. ABA can largely rescue the ethylene response of the mhz5 mutant. Ethylene induces MHZ5 expression, the production of neoxanthin, an ABA biosynthesis precursor, and ABA accumulation in roots. MHZ5 overexpression results in enhanced ethylene sensitivity in roots and reduced ethylene sensitivity in coleoptiles. Mutation or overexpression of MHZ5 also alters the expression of ethylene-responsive genes. Genetic studies revealed that the MHZ5-mediated ABA pathway acts downstream of ethylene signaling to inhibit root growth. The MHZ5-mediated ABA pathway likely acts upstream but negatively regulates ethylene signaling to control coleoptile growth. Our study reveals novel interactions among ethylene, carotenogenesis, and ABA and provides insight into improvements in agronomic traits and adaptive growth through the manipulation of these pathways in rice. PMID:25841037

  16. In Planta Stage-Specific Fungal Gene Profiling Elucidates the Molecular Strategies of Fusarium graminearum Growing inside Wheat Coleoptiles[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Jia, Lei-Jie; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Gang; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Dong; Tang, Wei-Hua

    2012-01-01

    The ascomycete Fusarium graminearum is a destructive fungal pathogen of wheat (Triticum aestivum). To better understand how this pathogen proliferates within the host plant, we tracked pathogen growth inside wheat coleoptiles and then examined pathogen gene expression inside wheat coleoptiles at 16, 40, and 64 h after inoculation (HAI) using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis. We identified 344 genes that were preferentially expressed during invasive growth in planta. Gene expression profiles for 134 putative plant cell wall–degrading enzyme genes suggest that there was limited cell wall degradation at 16 HAI and extensive degradation at 64 HAI. Expression profiles for genes encoding reactive oxygen species (ROS)–related enzymes suggest that F. graminearum primarily scavenges extracellular ROS before a later burst of extracellular ROS is produced by F. graminearum enzymes. Expression patterns of genes involved in primary metabolic pathways suggest that F. graminearum relies on the glyoxylate cycle at an early stage of plant infection. A secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene cluster was specifically induced at 64 HAI and was required for virulence. Our results indicate that F. graminearum initiates infection of coleoptiles using covert penetration strategies and switches to overt cellular destruction of tissues at an advanced stage of infection. PMID:23266949

  17. Relationship between Water Soluble Carbohydrate Content, Aphid Endosymbionts and Clonal Performance of Sitobion avenae on Cocksfoot Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Alkhedir, Hussein; Karlovsky, Petr; Vidal, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Aphids feed on plant phloem sap, rich in sugars but poor in essential amino acids. However, sugars cause osmotic regulation problems for aphids, which they overcome by hydrolysing the sugars in their gut and polymerising the hydrolysis products into oligosaccharides, excreted with honeydew. Aphids harbour primary bacterial endosymbionts, which supply them with essential amino acids necessary for survival. They also harbour secondary (facultative) endosymbionts (sfS), some of which have a positive impact on life history traits, although it is not yet known whether they also play a role in providing effective tolerance to differing levels of water soluble carbohydrates (WSCs). We investigated the relationship between WSC content of cocksfoot cultivars and performance of clones of the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae F. We evaluated how clone genotype and their sfS modulate performance on these different cultivars. We therefore examined the performance of genetically defined clones of S. avenae, collected from different host plants, harbouring different sfS. The performance was tested on 10 Dactylis glomerata L. cultivars with varying WSC content. D. glomerata is known as a wild host plant for S. avenae and is also commercially planted. We found that high WSCs levels are responsible for the resistance of D. glomerata cultivars to specific S. avenae clones. The minimum level of WSCs conferring resistance to D. glomerata cultivars was 1.7% dw. Cultivars with a WSC content of 2.2% or higher were resistant to S. avenae and did not allow reproduction. Our results further indicate that sfS modulate to some extend host plant cultivar adaptation in S. avenae. This is the first study revealing the importance of WSCs for aphid performance. Cocksfoot cultivars with a high content of WSCs might be therefore considered for aphid control or used for resistance breeding in this and other grass species, including cereals. PMID:23342134

  18. Assessment of Sublethal and Transgenerational Effects of Pirimicarb on the Wheat Aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Sitobion avenae.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Da; Yang, Ting; Desneux, Nicolas; Han, Peng; Gao, Xiwu

    2015-01-01

    The wheat aphids, Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus) and Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), are key pests on wheat crops worldwide. Management practices rely primarily on insecticides. The pirimicarb (carbamate) is used extensively as an effective insecticide to control these two aphids. In addition to the mortality caused by pirimicarb, various sublethal effects may occur in aphids when exposed to low lethal or sublethal doses. Understanding the general effect of pirimicarb on aphids could help increasing rational use of this insecticide. Under laboratory conditions, we assessed the sublethal effects of a low lethal concentration of pirimicarb (LC25) on biological traits and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of R. padi and S. avenae. Both direct and transgenerational effects, i.e. on parent and the F1 generations were assessed, respectively. We found that R. padi and S. avenae responded differentially to the LC25 of pirimicarb. The parent generation of R. padi showed a 39% decrease in fecundity and multiple transgenerational effects were observed in the F1 generation; overall juvenile development, reproductive period, adult longevity and lifespan were longer than those of the control group. By contrast, LC25 of pirimicarb showed almost no effects on S. avenae biological traits in both the parent and F1 generations; only the pre-reproductive duration was reduced in F1 generations. Demographic parameter estimates (e.g. rm) showed similar trend, i.e. significant negative effect on R. padi population growth and no effect on S. avenae. However, AChE activity decreased in both R. padi and S. avenae treated by the LC25 of pirimicarb. We demonstrated sublethal and transgenerational effects of pirimicarb in the two wheat aphid species; it hinted at the importance of considering sublethal effects (including hormesis) of pirimicarb for optimizing Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of wheat aphids. PMID:26121265

  19. Assessment of Sublethal and Transgenerational Effects of Pirimicarb on the Wheat Aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Sitobion avenae

    PubMed Central

    Desneux, Nicolas; Han, Peng; Gao, Xiwu

    2015-01-01

    The wheat aphids, Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus) and Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), are key pests on wheat crops worldwide. Management practices rely primarily on insecticides. The pirimicarb (carbamate) is used extensively as an effective insecticide to control these two aphids. In addition to the mortality caused by pirimicarb, various sublethal effects may occur in aphids when exposed to low lethal or sublethal doses. Understanding the general effect of pirimicarb on aphids could help increasing rational use of this insecticide. Under laboratory conditions, we assessed the sublethal effects of a low lethal concentration of pirimicarb (LC25) on biological traits and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of R. padi and S. avenae. Both direct and transgenerational effects, i.e. on parent and the F1 generations were assessed, respectively. We found that R. padi and S. avenae responded differentially to the LC25 of pirimicarb. The parent generation of R. padi showed a 39% decrease in fecundity and multiple transgenerational effects were observed in the F1 generation; overall juvenile development, reproductive period, adult longevity and lifespan were longer than those of the control group. By contrast, LC25 of pirimicarb showed almost no effects on S. avenae biological traits in both the parent and F1 generations; only the pre-reproductive duration was reduced in F1 generations. Demographic parameter estimates (e.g. rm) showed similar trend, i.e. significant negative effect on R. padi population growth and no effect on S. avenae. However, AChE activity decreased in both R. padi and S. avenae treated by the LC25 of pirimicarb. We demonstrated sublethal and transgenerational effects of pirimicarb in the two wheat aphid species; it hinted at the importance of considering sublethal effects (including hormesis) of pirimicarb for optimizing Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of wheat aphids. PMID:26121265

  20. Effects of elongation delay in transcription dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Jin, Huiqin; Yang, Zhuoqin; Lei, Jinzhi

    2014-12-01

    In the transcription process, elongation delay is induced by the movement of RNA polymerases (RNAP) along the DNA sequence, and can result in changes in the transcription dynamics. This paper studies the transcription dynamics that involved the elongation delay and effects of cell division and DNA replication. The stochastic process of gene expression is modeled with delay chemical master equation with periodic coefficients, and is studied numerically through the stochastic simulation algorithm with delay. We show that the average transcription level approaches to a periodic dynamics over cell cycles at homeostasis, and the elongation delay can reduce the transcription level and increase the transcription noise. Moreover, the transcription elongation can induce bimodal distribution of mRNA levels that can be measured by the techniques of flow cytometry. PMID:25365608

  1. Elongated Deposits in Southern Elysium Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, J. W.

    2012-03-01

    In the Elysium Planitia region, deposits have elongated elevations that resemble terrestrial drumlins or yardangs. Drumlins and drumlin clusters are glacial landforms that have been extensively studied. In contrast, Yardangs are formed by wind.

  2. Use of Repetitive Sequences for Molecular and Cytogenetic Characterization of Avena Species from Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, Diana; Rodrigues, Joana; Varela, Ana; Veloso, Maria Manuela; Viegas, Wanda; Silva, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Genomic diversity of Portuguese accessions of Avena species—diploid A. strigosa and hexaploids A. sativa and A. sterilis—was evaluated through molecular and cytological analysis of 45S rDNA, and other repetitive sequences previously studied in cereal species—rye subtelomeric sequence (pSc200) and cereal centromeric sequence (CCS1). Additionally, retrotransposons and microsatellites targeting methodologies—IRAP (inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism) and REMAP (retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism)—were performed. A very high homology was detected for ribosomal internal transcribed sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) between the species analyzed, although nucleolar organizing regions (NOR) fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed distinct number of Nor loci between diploid and hexaploid species. Moreover, morphological diversity, evidenced by FISH signals with different sizes, was observed between distinct accessions within each species. pSc200 sequences were for the first time isolated from Avena species but proven to be highly similar in all genotypes analyzed. The use of primers designed for CCS1 unraveled a sequence homologous to the Ty3/gypsy retrotransposon Cereba, that was mapped to centromeric regions of diploid and hexaploid species, being however restricted to the more related A and D haplomes. Retrotransposon-based methodologies disclosed species- and accessions-specific bands essential for the accurate discrimination of all genotypes studied. Centromeric, IRAP and REMAP profiles therefore allowed accurate assessment of inter and intraspecific variability, demonstrating the potential of these molecular markers on future oat breeding programs. PMID:26861283

  3. Use of Repetitive Sequences for Molecular and Cytogenetic Characterization of Avena Species from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Tomás, Diana; Rodrigues, Joana; Varela, Ana; Veloso, Maria Manuela; Viegas, Wanda; Silva, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Genomic diversity of Portuguese accessions of Avena species--diploid A. strigosa and hexaploids A. sativa and A. sterilis--was evaluated through molecular and cytological analysis of 45S rDNA, and other repetitive sequences previously studied in cereal species--rye subtelomeric sequence (pSc200) and cereal centromeric sequence (CCS1). Additionally, retrotransposons and microsatellites targeting methodologies--IRAP (inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism) and REMAP (retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism)--were performed. A very high homology was detected for ribosomal internal transcribed sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) between the species analyzed, although nucleolar organizing regions (NOR) fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed distinct number of Nor loci between diploid and hexaploid species. Moreover, morphological diversity, evidenced by FISH signals with different sizes, was observed between distinct accessions within each species. pSc200 sequences were for the first time isolated from Avena species but proven to be highly similar in all genotypes analyzed. The use of primers designed for CCS1 unraveled a sequence homologous to the Ty3/gypsy retrotransposon Cereba, that was mapped to centromeric regions of diploid and hexaploid species, being however restricted to the more related A and D haplomes. Retrotransposon-based methodologies disclosed species- and accessions-specific bands essential for the accurate discrimination of all genotypes studied. Centromeric, IRAP and REMAP profiles therefore allowed accurate assessment of inter and intraspecific variability, demonstrating the potential of these molecular markers on future oat breeding programs. PMID:26861283

  4. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  5. Identification and Expression Analysis of Candidate Odorant-Binding Protein and Chemosensory Protein Genes by Antennal Transcriptome of Sitobion avenae

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wenxin; Fan, Jia; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Qingxuan; Han, Zongli; Sun, Jingrui; Chen, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) of aphids are thought to be responsible for the initial molecular interactions during olfaction that mediate detection of chemical signals. Analysis of the diversity of proteins involved comprises critical basic research work that will facilitate the development of sustainable pest control strategies. To help us better understand differences in the olfactory system between winged and wingless grain aphids, we constructed an antennal transcriptome from winged and wingless Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), one of the most serious pests of cereal fields worldwide. Among the 133,331 unigenes in the antennal assembly, 13 OBP and 5 CSP putative transcripts were identified with 6 OBP and 3 CSP sequences representing new S. avenae annotations. We used qPCR to examine the expression profile of these genes sets across S. avenae development and in various tissues. We found 7 SaveOBPs and 1 SaveCSP were specifically or significantly elevated in antennae compared with other tissues, and that some transcripts (SaveOBP8, SaveCSP2 and SaveCSP5) were abundantly expressed in the legs of winged or wingless aphids. The expression levels of the SaveOBPs and SaveCSPs varied depending on the developmental stage. Possible physiological functions of these genes are discussed. Further molecular and functional studies of these olfactory related genes will explore their potential as novel targets for controlling S. avenae. PMID:27561107

  6. Long-term survival and seed transmission of Acidovorax avenae ssp. citrulli in melon and watermelon seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed transmission of Acidovorax avenae ssp. citrulli (Aac) is a key factor in the dissemination of bacterial fruit blotch of cucurbits. In this study, we report seed transmission of Aac from 34-year-old watermelon seed (Citrullus lanatus) and from 40-year-old melon seed (Cucumis melo). The seed lo...

  7. Genome-wide association mapping of barley yellow dwarf virus tolerance in spring oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is one of the most destructive diseases of cereal crops worldwide. Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) are responsible for BYD and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.). Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-t...

  8. Progress in the Development of Crimson Sweet-type Watermelon Breeding Lines with Resistance to Acidovorax Avenae Subsp. Citrulli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial fruit blotch (Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli [Schaad et al.] Willems et al.) continues to occur almost every year and has the potential to cause a disaster for the watermelon industry. In this study, Crimson Sweet watermelon was crossed with PI482279 and PI494817, two Citrullus lanatus...

  9. Inhibition of Fusarium graminiarum growth in flour gel cultures by hexane soluble compounds from oat (Avena sativa L.) flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, primarily affects wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgarum) while oat (Avena sativa) appears to be more resistant. Although this has generally been attributed to the open panicle of oats, we hypothesized that a chemical c...

  10. Identification and Expression Analysis of Candidate Odorant-Binding Protein and Chemosensory Protein Genes by Antennal Transcriptome of Sitobion avenae.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenxin; Fan, Jia; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Qingxuan; Han, Zongli; Sun, Jingrui; Chen, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) of aphids are thought to be responsible for the initial molecular interactions during olfaction that mediate detection of chemical signals. Analysis of the diversity of proteins involved comprises critical basic research work that will facilitate the development of sustainable pest control strategies. To help us better understand differences in the olfactory system between winged and wingless grain aphids, we constructed an antennal transcriptome from winged and wingless Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), one of the most serious pests of cereal fields worldwide. Among the 133,331 unigenes in the antennal assembly, 13 OBP and 5 CSP putative transcripts were identified with 6 OBP and 3 CSP sequences representing new S. avenae annotations. We used qPCR to examine the expression profile of these genes sets across S. avenae development and in various tissues. We found 7 SaveOBPs and 1 SaveCSP were specifically or significantly elevated in antennae compared with other tissues, and that some transcripts (SaveOBP8, SaveCSP2 and SaveCSP5) were abundantly expressed in the legs of winged or wingless aphids. The expression levels of the SaveOBPs and SaveCSPs varied depending on the developmental stage. Possible physiological functions of these genes are discussed. Further molecular and functional studies of these olfactory related genes will explore their potential as novel targets for controlling S. avenae. PMID:27561107

  11. The structure of elongated viral capsids.

    PubMed

    Luque, Antoni; Reguera, David

    2010-06-16

    There are many viruses whose genetic material is protected by a closed elongated protein shell. Unlike spherical viruses, the structure and construction principles of these elongated capsids are not fully known. In this article, we have developed a general geometrical model to describe the structure of prolate or bacilliform capsids. We show that only a limited set of tubular architectures can be built closed by hemispherical icosahedral caps. In particular, the length and number of proteins adopt a very special set of discrete values dictated by the axial symmetry (fivefold, threefold, or twofold) and the triangulation number of the caps. The results are supported by experimental observations and simulations of simplified physical models. This work brings about a general classification of elongated viruses that will help to predict their structure, and to design viral cages with tailored geometrical properties for biomedical and nanotechnological applications. PMID:20550912

  12. The maize fused leaves1 (fdl1) gene controls organ separation in the embryo and seedling shoot and promotes coleoptile opening.

    PubMed

    La Rocca, Nicoletta; Manzotti, Priscilla S; Cavaiuolo, Marina; Barbante, Alessandra; Dalla Vecchia, Francesca; Gabotti, Damiano; Gendrot, Ghislaine; Horner, David S; Krstajic, Jelena; Persico, Martina; Rascio, Nicoletta; Rogowsky, Peter; Scarafoni, Alessio; Consonni, Gabriella

    2015-09-01

    The fdl1-1 mutation, caused by an Enhancer/Suppressor mutator (En/Spm) element insertion located in the third exon of the gene, identifies a novel gene encoding ZmMYB94, a transcription factor of the R2R3-MYB subfamily. The fdl1 gene was isolated through co-segregation analysis, whereas proof of gene identity was obtained using an RNAi strategy that conferred less severe, but clearly recognizable specific mutant traits on seedlings. Fdl1 is involved in the regulation of cuticle deposition in young seedlings as well as in the establishment of a regular pattern of epicuticular wax deposition on the epidermis of young leaves. Lack of Fdl1 action also correlates with developmental defects, such as delayed germination and seedling growth, abnormal coleoptile opening and presence of curly leaves showing areas of fusion between the coleoptile and the first leaf or between the first and the second leaf. The expression profile of ZmMYB94 mRNA-determined by quantitative RT-PCR-overlaps the pattern of mutant phenotypic expression and is confined to a narrow developmental window. High expression was observed in the embryo, in the seedling coleoptile and in the first two leaves, whereas RNA level, as well as phenotypic defects, decreases at the third leaf stage. Interestingly several of the Arabidopsis MYB genes most closely related to ZmMYB94 are also involved in the activation of cuticular wax biosynthesis, suggesting deep conservation of regulatory processes related to cuticular wax deposition between monocots and dicots. PMID:26093144

  13. Expression of Potential Resistance Genes to the English Grain Aphid, Sitobion avenae, in Wheat, Triticum aestivum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Ping; Wang, Zheng-Hong; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Zhu, Qi-Di; Luo, Kun; Wang, Li-Ming; Dong, Pu-Hui

    2013-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) (Homoptera: Aphididae), is a dominant and destructive pest in wheat, Triticum estivum L. (Poales: Poaceae), production regions in China and other grain-growing areas worldwide. Patterns of gene expression of the S. avenae-resistant synthetic wheat line 98-10-35, the S. avenae-susceptible line1376, and their hybrid population, and the differences in segments between 98-10-35/1376 F3 resistant plants and resistant parents of 98-10-35, as well as those between the F3 resistant and susceptible populations, were examined with differential display reverse transcription PCR. The results showed that five patterns of differential expression were detected between the progeny and its resistant parents: 1) The gene was silenced in one of the parents; 2) Special expression showed in the progeny; 3) Expression was consistent with the resistant parents; 4) Up expression showed in the progeny but not in the parents; 5) Down expression showed in the progeny but not in the parents. Paired t-test results were not significant; however, the probability value (0.9158) indicated that gene expression on the RNA level were consistent with resistant bands found in F3 resistant individuals and resistant parents, as well as the F3 resistant and susceptible populations. For both the F3 of 98-10-35/1376 and the parents, the total number of amplified bands was 202, with an average of 25.3 per primer. The number of differential bands was 116, with an average of 14.5 per primer amplified and a polymorphism ratio of 56.3%. In the present study, differential expression genes in the resistant line 98-10-35 were all up-regulated. Among them, gene expression of resistant groups in the F3 population was in agreement with patterns 2, 3, and 4. However, the susceptible line 1376 did not have this gene expression on the RNA level. This pattern is expected to be used to select and analyze target genes from the same F3 population and the resistant parents. The

  14. Reorientation of elongated particles at density interfaces.

    PubMed

    Doostmohammadi, A; Ardekani, A M

    2014-09-01

    Density interfaces in the water column are ubiquitously found in oceans and lakes. Interaction of settling particles with pycnoclines plays a pivotal function in nutrient transport between ocean layers and settling rates of marine particles. We perform direct numerical simulations of an elongated particle settling through a density interface and scrutinize the role of stratification on the settling dynamics. It is found that the presence of the density interface tends to turn the long axis of an elongated particle parallel to the settling direction, which is dramatically different from its counterpart in a homogeneous fluid. Although broadside-on settling of the elongated particle is enhanced upon approaching the interface, the long axis rotates toward the settling direction as the particle passes through the interface. We quantify turning couples due to stratification effects, which counteract the pressure-induced torques due to the fluid inertia. A similar behavior is observed for different initial orientations of the particle. It is shown that the reorientation of an elongated particle occurs in both sharp and linear density stratifications. PMID:25314535

  15. Electrorheological fluid under elongation, compression, and shearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y.; Meng, Y.; Mao, H.; Wen, S.

    2002-03-01

    Electrorheological (ER) fluid based on zeolite and silicone oil under elongation, compression, and shearing was investigated at room temperature. Dc electric fields were applied on the ER fluid when elongation and compression were carried out on a self-constructed test system. The shear yield stress, presenting the macroscopic interactions of particles in the ER fluid along the direction of shearing and perpendicular to the direction of the electric field, was also obtained by a HAAKE RV20 rheometer. The tensile yield stress, presenting the macroscopic interactions of particles in the ER fluid along the direction of the electric field, was achieved as the peak value in the elongating curve with an elongating yield strain of 0.15-0.20. A shear yield angle of about 15°-18.5° reasonably connected tensile yield stress with shear yield stress, agreeing with the shear yield angle tested well by other researchers. The compressing tests showed that the ER fluid has a high compressive modulus under a small compressive strain lower than 0.1. The compressive stress has an exponential relationship with the compressive strain when it is higher than 0.1, and it is much higher than shear yield stress.

  16. Avena sativa (Oat), a potential neutraceutical and therapeutic agent: an overview.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; De, Subrata; Belkheir, Asma

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present review article is to summarize the available information related to the availability, production, chemical composition, pharmacological activity, and traditional uses of Avena sativa to highlight its potential to contribute to human health. Oats are now cultivated worldwide and form an important dietary staple for the people in number of countries. Several varieties of oats are available. It is a rich source of protein, contains a number of important minerals, lipids, β-glucan, a mixed-linkage polysaccharide, which forms an important part of oat dietary fiber, and also contains various other phytoconstituents like avenanthramides, an indole alkaloid-gramine, flavonoids, flavonolignans, triterpenoid saponins, sterols, and tocols. Traditionally oats have been in use since long and are considered as stimulant, antispasmodic, antitumor, diuretic, and neurotonic. Oat possesses different pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, anticholesterolaemic, etc. A wide spectrum of biological activities indicates that oat is a potential therapeutic agent. PMID:23072529

  17. An ANNEXIN-like protein from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae suppresses plant defense.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changlong; Liu, Shusen; Liu, Qian; Niu, Junhai; Liu, Pei; Zhao, Jianlong; Jian, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Parasitism genes encoding secreted effector proteins of plant-parasitic nematodes play important roles in facilitating parasitism. An annexin-like gene was isolated from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae (termed Ha-annexin) and had high similarity to annexin 2, which encodes a secreted protein of Globodera pallida. Ha-annexin encodes a predicted 326 amino acid protein containing four conserved annexin domains. Southern blotting revealed that there are at least two homologies in the H. avenae genome. Ha-annexin transcripts were expressed within the subventral gland cells of the pre-parasitic second-stage juveniles by in situ hybridization. Additionally, expression of these transcripts were relatively higher in the parasitic second-stage juveniles by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis, coinciding with the time when feeding cell formation is initiated. Knockdown of Ha-annexin by method of barley stripe mosaic virus-based host-induced gene silencing (BSMV-HIGS) caused impaired nematode infections at 7 dpi and reduced females at 40 dpi, indicating important roles of the gene in parasitism at least in early stage in vivo. Transiently expression of Ha-ANNEXIN in onion epidermal cells and Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells showed the whole cell-localization. Using transient expression assays in N. benthamiana, we found that Ha-ANNEXIN could suppress programmed cell death triggered by the pro-apoptotic mouse protein BAX and the induction of marker genes of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) in N. benthamiana. In addition, Ha-ANNEXIN targeted a point in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway downstream of two kinases MKK1 and NPK1 in N. benthamiana. PMID:25849616

  18. An ANNEXIN-Like Protein from the Cereal Cyst Nematode Heterodera avenae Suppresses Plant Defense

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Changlong; Liu, Shusen; Liu, Qian; Niu, Junhai; Liu, Pei; Zhao, Jianlong; Jian, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Parasitism genes encoding secreted effector proteins of plant-parasitic nematodes play important roles in facilitating parasitism. An annexin-like gene was isolated from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae (termed Ha-annexin) and had high similarity to annexin 2, which encodes a secreted protein of Globodera pallida. Ha-annexin encodes a predicted 326 amino acid protein containing four conserved annexin domains. Southern blotting revealed that there are at least two homologies in the H. avenae genome. Ha-annexin transcripts were expressed within the subventral gland cells of the pre-parasitic second-stage juveniles by in situ hybridization. Additionally, expression of these transcripts were relatively higher in the parasitic second-stage juveniles by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis, coinciding with the time when feeding cell formation is initiated. Knockdown of Ha-annexin by method of barley stripe mosaic virus-based host-induced gene silencing (BSMV-HIGS) caused impaired nematode infections at 7 dpi and reduced females at 40 dpi, indicating important roles of the gene in parasitism at least in early stage in vivo. Transiently expression of Ha-ANNEXIN in onion epidermal cells and Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells showed the whole cell-localization. Using transient expression assays in N. benthamiana, we found that Ha-ANNEXIN could suppress programmed cell death triggered by the pro-apoptotic mouse protein BAX and the induction of marker genes of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) in N. benthamiana. In addition, Ha-ANNEXIN targeted a point in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway downstream of two kinases MKK1 and NPK1 in N. benthamiana. PMID:25849616

  19. Expression profiling and cross-species RNA interference (RNAi) of desiccation-induced transcripts in the anhydrobiotic nematode Aphelenchus avenae

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Some organisms can survive extreme desiccation by entering a state of suspended animation known as anhydrobiosis. The free-living mycophagous nematode Aphelenchus avenae can be induced to enter anhydrobiosis by pre-exposure to moderate reductions in relative humidity (RH) prior to extreme desiccation. This preconditioning phase is thought to allow modification of the transcriptome by activation of genes required for desiccation tolerance. Results To identify such genes, a panel of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) enriched for sequences upregulated in A. avenae during preconditioning was created. A subset of 30 genes with significant matches in databases, together with a number of apparently novel sequences, were chosen for further study. Several of the recognisable genes are associated with water stress, encoding, for example, two new hydrophilic proteins related to the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein family. Expression studies confirmed EST panel members to be upregulated by evaporative water loss, and the majority of genes was also induced by osmotic stress and cold, but rather fewer by heat. We attempted to use RNA interference (RNAi) to demonstrate the importance of this gene set for anhydrobiosis, but found A. avenae to be recalcitrant with the techniques used. Instead, therefore, we developed a cross-species RNAi procedure using A. avenae sequences in another anhydrobiotic nematode, Panagrolaimus superbus, which is amenable to gene silencing. Of 20 A. avenae ESTs screened, a significant reduction in survival of desiccation in treated P. superbus populations was observed with two sequences, one of which was novel, while the other encoded a glutathione peroxidase. To confirm a role for glutathione peroxidases in anhydrobiosis, RNAi with cognate sequences from P. superbus was performed and was also shown to reduce desiccation tolerance in this species. Conclusions This study has identified and characterised the expression profiles of members

  20. An auxin-binding protein is localized to the plasma membrane of maize coleoptile cells: Identification by photoaffinity labeling and purification of a 23-kDa polypeptide

    SciTech Connect

    Feldwisch, J.; Zettl, R.; Hesse, F.; Schell, J.; Palme, K. )

    1992-01-15

    Plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptile tissue by aqueous two-phase partitioning and assayed for homogeneity by the use of membrane-specific enzymatic assays. Using 5-azido-(7-{sup 3}H)indole-3-acetic acid (({sup 3}H)N{sub 3}IAA), the authors identified several IAA-binding proteins with the molecular masses of 60 kDa (pm60), 58 kDa (pm58), and 23 kDa (pm23). Using Triton X-114, they were able to selectively extract pm23 from the plasma membrane. They show that auxins and functional analogues compete with ({sup 3}H)N{sub 3}IAA for binding to pm23. They found that PAB130, a polyclonal antibody raised against auxin-binding protein 1 (ABP-1), recognized ABP-1 as well as pm23. This suggests that pm23 shares common epitopes with ABP-1. In addition, they identified an auxin-binding protein with a molecular mass of 24 kDa (pm24), which was detected in microsomal but not in plasma membrane vesicle preparations. Like pm23 this protein was extracted from membrane vesicles with Triton X-114. They designed a purification scheme allowing simultaneous purification of pm23 and pm24. Homogeneous pm23 and pm24 were obtained from coleoptile extracts after 7,000-fold purification.

  1. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  2. Elongational viscosity of photo-oxidated LDPE

    SciTech Connect

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H. E-mail: manfred.wagner@tu-berlin.de; Wagner, Manfred H. E-mail: manfred.wagner@tu-berlin.de

    2014-05-15

    Sheets of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were photo-oxidatively treated at room temperature, and subsequently characterized rheologically in the melt state by shear and uniaxial extensional experiments. For photo-oxidation, a xenon lamp was used to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Linear-viscoelastic characterization was performed in a temperature range of 130 to 220°C to obtain the master curve at 170°C, the reference temperature at which the elongational viscosities were measured. Linear viscoelasticity is increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by an increasing gel fraction as determined by a solvent extraction method. The elongational measurements reveal a strong enhancement of strain hardening until a saturation level is achieved. The elongational data are analyzed in the frame work of two constitutive equations, the rubber-like liquid and the molecular stress function models. Within the experimental window, timedeformation separability is confirmed for all samples, independent of the degree of photo-oxidation.

  3. Cell wall and enzyme changes during the graviresponse of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibeaut, David M.; Karuppiah, Nadarajah; Chang, S.-R.; Brock, Thomas G.; Vadlamudi, Babu; Kim, Donghern; Ghosheh, Najati S.; Rayle, David L.; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1990-01-01

    The graviresponse of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa) involves an asymmetric growth response and asymmetric processes involving degradation of starch and cell wall synthesis. Cellular and biochemical events were studied by investigation of the activities of related enzymes and changes in cell walls and their constituents. It is suggested that an osmotic potential gradient acts as the driving factor for growth, while wall extensibility is a limiting factor in pulvinus growth.

  4. Isolation and characterization of a fatty acid- and retinoid-binding protein from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae.

    PubMed

    Le, Xiuhu; Wang, Xuan; Guan, Tinglong; Ju, Yuliang; Li, Hongmei

    2016-08-01

    A gene encoding fatty acid- and retinoid-binding protein was isolated from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae and the biochemical function of the protein that it encodes was analysed. The full-length cDNA of the Ha-far-1 gene is 827 bp long and includes a 22- nucleotide trans-spliced leader sequence (SL1) at its 5-end. The genomic clone of Ha-far-1 consists of eight exons separated by seven introns, which range in size from 48 to 186 bp. The Ha-far-1 cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding a 191 amino acid protein, with a predicted secretory signal peptide. Sequence analysis showed that Ha-FAR-1 has highest similarity to the Gp-FAR-1 protein from the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida and that the protein was grouped with all homologues from other plant-parasitic nematodes in a phylogenetic analysis. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis confirmed that the recombinant Ha-FAR-1 protein was able to bind fatty acids and retinol. Spatial and temporal expression assays showed that the transcripts of Ha-far-1 accumulated mainly in the hypodermis and that the gene is most highly expressed in third-stage juveniles of H. avenae. Fluorescence immunolocalization showed that the Ha-FAR-1 protein was present on the surface of the infective second-stage juveniles of H. avenae. Nematodes treated with dsRNA corresponding to Ha-far-1 showed significantly reduced reproduction compared to nematodes exposed to dsRNA from a non-endogenous gene, suggesting that Ha-far-1 may be an effective target gene for control of H. avenae using an RNAi strategy. PMID:27240755

  5. Impacts of Water Deficiency on Life History of Sitobion avenae Clones From Semi-arid and Moist Areas.

    PubMed

    Dai, Peng; Liu, Deguang; Shi, Xiaoqin

    2015-10-01

    The climate warming trend appears to be evident with an increasing frequency of drought events in Shaanxi Province of China, which may have contributed to an increase in outbreaks of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius). To explore the potential effects of water-deficit stress on aphid outbreak risks, clones of S. avenae were collected from semi-arid and moist areas of Shaanxi. The life histories of collected clones were then compared on wheat under well-watered and moderately water-stressed conditions in the laboratory. Our results demonstrated that semi-arid area clones of S. avenae had longer developmental times, shorter reproductive times, lower fecundities, and lower net reproductive rates compared with moist area clones. Age-specific reproductive rates of moist area clones tended to be higher than those of semi-arid area clones. Significant differences between semi-arid and moist area clones were found for the survival functions when tested under water-stressed conditions, and semi-arid area clones tended to have a lower survival rate than moist area clones throughout their lives. "Population origin" (i.e., semi-arid and moist area clones) and "clone" together explained 62.74-96.56% of the total variance of tested life-history traits, suggesting the genetic basis for differentiation of clones from both areas. Significant differences in correlations, and selection differentials and gradients of life-history traits were also found between clones from both areas, providing further evidence of genetic basis for the life-history differentiation between them. Divergence between clones from both areas and its implications for S. avenae outbreaks are discussed. PMID:26453713

  6. Polyamine levels as related to growth, differentiation and senescence in protoplast-derived cultures of Vigna aconitifolia and Avena sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaur Sawhney, R.; Shekhawat, N. S.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    We have previously reported that aseptically cultured mesophyll protoplasts of Vigna divide rapidly and regenerate into complete plants, while mesophyll protoplasts of Avena divide only sporadically and senesce rapidly after isolation. We measured polyamine titers in such cultures of Vigna and Avena, to study possible correlations between polyamines and cellular behavior. We also deliberately altered polyamine titer by the use of selective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, noting the effects on internal polyamine titer, cell division activity and regenerative events. In Vigna cultures, levels of free and bound putrescine and spermidine increased dramatically as cell division and differentiation progressed. The increase in bound polyamines was largest in embryoid-forming callus tissue while free polyamine titer was highest in root-forming callus. In Avena cultures, the levels of total polyamines decreased as the protoplast senesced. The presence of the inhibitors alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (specific inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) and dicyclohexylamine (inhibitor of spermidine synthase) reduced cell division and organogenesis in Vigna cultures. Addition of low concentration of polyamines to such cultures containing inhibitors or removal of inhibitors from the culture medium restored the progress of growth and differentiation with concomitant increase in polyamine levels.

  7. Comparison of fitness traits and their plasticity on multiple plants for Sitobion avenae infected and cured of a secondary endosymbiont.

    PubMed

    Da Wang; Shi, Xiaoqin; Dai, Peng; Liu, Deguang; Dai, Xinjia; Shang, Zheming; Ge, Zhaohong; Meng, Xiuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Regiella insecticola has been found to enhance the performance of host aphids on certain plants, but its functional role in adaptation of host aphids to plants is still controversial. Here we evaluate the impacts of R. insecticola infections on vital life-history traits of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), and their underlying genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity on three plants. It was shown that effects of R. insecticola on S. avenae's fitness (i.e., developmental time and fecundity) were neutral on oat or wheat, but negative on rye. Infections of R. insecticola modified genetic variation that underlies S. avenae's life-history traits. This was demonstrated by comparing life-history trait heritabilities between aphid lines with and without R. insecticola. Moreover, there were enhanced negative genetic correlations between developmental time and fecundity for R. insecticola infected lines, and structural differences in G-matrices of life-history traits for the two types of aphid lines. In R. insecticola-infected aphid lines, there were increases in plasticities for developmental times of first and second instar nymphs and for fecundity, showing novel functional roles of bacterial symbionts in plant-insect interactions. The identified effects of R. insecticola infections could have significant implications for the ecology and evolution of its host populations in natural conditions. PMID:26979151

  8. pH regulation in anoxic rice coleoptiles at pH 3.5: biochemical pHstats and net H+ influx in the absence and presence of NOFormula.

    PubMed

    Greenway, Hank; Kulichikhin, Konstantin Y; Cawthray, Gregory R; Colmer, Timothy D

    2012-03-01

    During anoxia, cytoplasmic pH regulation is crucial. Mechanisms of pH regulation were studied in the coleoptile of rice exposed to anoxia and pH 3.5, resulting in H(+) influx. Germinating rice seedlings survived a combination of anoxia and exposure to pH 3.5 for at least 4 d, although development was retarded and net K(+) efflux was continuous. Further experiments used excised coleoptile tips (7-10 mm) in anoxia at pH 6.5 or 3.5, either without or with 0.2 mM NO(3)(-), which distinguished two processes involved in pH regulation. Net H(+) influx (μmol g(-1) fresh weight h(-1)) for coleoptiles with NO(3)(-) was ∼1.55 over the first 24 h, being about twice that in the absence of NO(3)(-), but then decreased to 0.5-0.9 as net NO(3)(-) uptake declined from ∼1.3 to 0.5, indicating reduced uptake via H(+)-NO(3)(-) symports. NO(3)(-) reduction presumably functioned as a biochemical pHstat. A second biochemical pHstat consisted of malate and succinate, and their concentrations decreased substantially with time after exposure to pH 3.5. In anoxic coleoptiles, K(+) balancing the organic anions was effluxed to the medium as organic anions declined, and this efflux rate was independent of NO(3)(-) supply. Thus, biochemical pHstats and reduced net H(+) influx across the plasma membrane are important features contributing to pH regulation in anoxia-tolerant rice coleoptiles at pH 3.5. PMID:22174442

  9. Dimerization of elongator protein 1 is essential for Elongator complex assembly

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huisha; Lin, Zhijie; Li, Fengzhi; Diao, Wentao; Dong, Chunming; Zhou, Hao; Xie, Xingqiao; Wang, Zheng; Shen, Yuequan; Long, Jiafu

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Elongator complex, which is composed of six subunits elongator protein 1 (Elp1 to -6), plays vital roles in gene regulation. The molecular hallmark of familial dysautonomia (FD) is the splicing mutation of Elp1 [also known as IκB kinase complex-associated protein (IKAP)] in the nervous system that is believed to be the primary cause of the devastating symptoms of this disease. Here, we demonstrate that disease-related mutations in Elp1 affect Elongator assembly, and we have determined the structure of the C-terminal portion of human Elp1 (Elp1-CT), which is sufficient for full-length Elp1 dimerization, as well as the structure of the cognate dimerization domain of yeast Elp1 (yElp1-DD). Our study reveals that the formation of the Elp1 dimer contributes to its stability in vitro and in vivo and is required for the assembly of both the human and yeast Elongator complexes. Functional studies suggest that Elp1 dimerization is essential for yeast viability. Collectively, our results identify the evolutionarily conserved dimerization domain of Elp1 and suggest that the pathological mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of Elp1 mutation-related disease may result from impaired Elongator activities. PMID:26261306

  10. A multiprotein complex that interacts with RNA polymerase II elongator.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Takagi, Y; Jiang, Y; Tokunaga, M; Erdjument-Bromage, H; Tempst, P; Kornberg, R D

    2001-08-10

    A three-subunit Hap complex that interacts with the RNA polymerase II Elongator was isolated from yeast. Deletions of genes for two Hap subunits, HAP1 and HAP3, confer pGKL killer-insensitive and weak Elongator phenotypes. Preferential interaction of the Hap complex with free rather than RNA polymerase II-associated Elongator suggests a role in the regulation of Elongator activity. PMID:11390369

  11. Tripartite Interactions of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, Sitobion avenae and Wheat Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Xiang-Shun; Keller, Mike A.; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Wu, Yun-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1) aphid peak number (APN) in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid) treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC) on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (2) The production of alatae (PA) was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (3) The BYDV disease incidence (DIC) on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID) on Tam200(13)G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4) Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing. PMID:25184214

  12. Regulation of Invertase Levels in Avena Stem Segments by Gibberellic Acid, Sucrose, Glucose, and Fructose 1

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Peter B.; Ghosheh, Najati S.; Lacroix, J. Donald; Soni, Sarvjit L.; Ikuma, Hiroshi

    1973-01-01

    Gibberellic acid and sucrose play significant roles in the increases in invertase and growth in Avena stem segments. About 80% of invertase is readily solubilized, whereas the rest is in the cell wall fraction. The levels of both types of invertase change in a similar manner in the response to gibberellic acid and sucrose treatment. The work described here was carried out with only the soluble enzyme. In response to a treatment, the level of invertase activity typically follows a pattern of increase followed by decrease; the increase in activity is approximately correlated with the active growth phase, whereas the decrease in activity is initiated when growth of the segments slows. A continuous supply of gibberellic acid retards the decline of enzyme activity. When gibberellic acid was pulsed to the segments treated with or without sucrose, the level of invertase activity increased at least twice as high in the presence of sucrose as in its absence, but the lag period is longer with sucrose present. Cycloheximide treatments effectively abolish the gibberellic acid-promoted growth, and the level of enzyme activity drops rapidly. Decay of invertase activity in response to cycloheximide treatment occurs regardless of gibberellic acid or sucrose treatment or both, and it is generally faster when the inhibitor is administered at the peak of enzyme induction than when given at its rising phase. Pulses with sucrose, glucose, fructose, or glucose + fructose elevate the level of invertase significantly with a lag of about 5 to 10 hours. The increase in invertase activity elicited by a sucrose pulse is about one-third that caused by a gibberellic acid pulse given at a comparable time during mid-phase of enzyme induction, and the lag before the enzyme activity increases is nearly twice as long for sucrose as for gibberellic acid. Moreover, the gibberellic acid pulse results in about three times more growth than the sucrose pulse. Our studies support the view that gibberellic

  13. Elongated nanostructures for radial junction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yinghuan; Vece, Marcel Di; Rath, Jatindra K; Dijk, Lourens van; Schropp, Ruud E I

    2013-10-01

    In solar cell technology, the current trend is to thin down the active absorber layer. The main advantage of a thinner absorber is primarily the reduced consumption of material and energy during production. For thin film silicon (Si) technology, thinning down the absorber layer is of particular interest since both the device throughput of vacuum deposition systems and the stability of the devices are significantly enhanced. These features lead to lower cost per installed watt peak for solar cells, provided that the (stabilized) efficiency is the same as for thicker devices. However, merely thinning down inevitably leads to a reduced light absorption. Therefore, advanced light trapping schemes are crucial to increase the light path length. The use of elongated nanostructures is a promising method for advanced light trapping. The enhanced optical performance originates from orthogonalization of the light's travel path with respect to the direction of carrier collection due to the radial junction, an improved anti-reflection effect thanks to the three-dimensional geometric configuration and the multiple scattering between individual nanostructures. These advantages potentially allow for high efficiency at a significantly reduced quantity and even at a reduced material quality, of the semiconductor material. In this article, several types of elongated nanostructures with the high potential to improve the device performance are reviewed. First, we briefly introduce the conventional solar cells with emphasis on thin film technology, following the most commonly used fabrication techniques for creating nanostructures with a high aspect ratio. Subsequently, several representative applications of elongated nanostructures, such as Si nanowires in realistic photovoltaic (PV) devices, are reviewed. Finally, the scientific challenges and an outlook for nanostructured PV devices are presented. PMID:24088584

  14. Faraday waves in elongated superfluid fermionic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuzzi, P.; Vignolo, P.

    2008-10-01

    We use hydrodynamic equations to study the formation of Faraday waves in a superfluid Fermi gas at zero temperature confined in a strongly elongated cigar-shaped trap. First, we treat the role of the radial density profile in the limit of an infinite cylindrical geometry and analytically evaluate the wavelength of the Faraday pattern. The effect of the axial confinement is fully taken into account in the numerical solution of hydrodynamic equations, and shows that the infinite cylinder geometry provides a very good description of the phenomena.

  15. Cell division versus cell elongation: the control of radicle elongation during thermoinhibition of Tagetes minuta achenes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nicky J; Hills, Paul N; van Staden, Johannes

    2007-12-01

    Endogenous embryo factors, which act mainly in the radicle, prevent germination in Tagetes minuta at high temperatures. These factors act to prevent cell elongation, which is critical for radicle protrusion under optimal conditions. Once the radicle has emerged both cell elongation and cell division are required for post-germination growth. Germination can be induced at high temperatures by fusicoccin, which rapidly stimulates cell elongation. In addition, priming seeds at 25 degrees C on polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 and mannitol could also induce germination on water at 36 degrees C, indicating that priming prevents radicle protrusion at a point subsequent to the point of control in thermoinhibited achenes. Flow cytometry studies revealed that DNA synthesis occurs during thermoinhibition and the inhibition of DNA synthesis during this process inhibits subsequent germination on water under optimal conditions, suggesting a protective role for DNA synthesis in thermoinhibited achenes of T. minuta. PMID:17360069

  16. Effect of K+ and Ca2+ on the indole-3-acetic acid- and fusicoccin-induced growth and membrane potential in maize coleoptile cells

    PubMed Central

    Siemieniuk, Agnieszka; Karcz, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    The role of potassium (K+) and calcium (Ca2+) in the regulation of plant growth and development is complex and needs a diverse range of physiological studies. Both elements are essential for satisfactory crop production. Here, the effects of K+ and Ca2+ ions on endogenous growth and growth in the presence of either indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or fusicoccin (FC) were studied in maize (Zea mays) coleoptiles. Membrane potentials of coleoptile parenchymal cells, incubated in media containing IAA, FC and different concentrations of K+ and Ca2+, were also determined. Growth experiments have shown that in the absence of K+ in the incubation medium, both endogenous and IAA- or FC-induced growth were significantly inhibited by 0.1 and 1 mM Ca2+, respectively, while in the presence of 1 mM K+ they were inhibited only by 1 mM Ca2+. At 10 mM K+, endogenous growth and growth induced by either IAA or FC did not depend on Ca2+ concentration. TEA-Cl, a potassium channel blocker, added 1 h before IAA or FC, caused a reduction of growth by 59 or 45 %, respectively. In contrast to TEA-Cl, verapamil, the Ca2+ channel blocker, did not affect IAA- and FC-induced growth. It was also found that in parenchymal cells of maize coleoptile segments, membrane potential (Em) was strongly affected by the medium K+, independently of Ca2+. However, lack of Ca2+ in the incubation medium significantly reduced the IAA- and FC-induced membrane potential hyperpolarization. TEA-Cl applied to the control medium in the same way as in growth experiments caused Em hyperpolarization synergistic with hyperpolarization produced by IAA or FC. Verapamil did not change either the Em of parenchymal cells incubated in the control medium or the IAA- and FC-induced membrane hyperpolarization. The data presented here have been discussed considering the role of K+ uptake channels in regulation of plant cell growth. PMID:26134122

  17. Effect of K+ and Ca2+ on the indole-3-acetic acid- and fusicoccin-induced growth and membrane potential in maize coleoptile cells.

    PubMed

    Siemieniuk, Agnieszka; Karcz, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    The role of potassium (K(+)) and calcium (Ca(2+)) in the regulation of plant growth and development is complex and needs a diverse range of physiological studies. Both elements are essential for satisfactory crop production. Here, the effects of K(+) and Ca(2+) ions on endogenous growth and growth in the presence of either indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or fusicoccin (FC) were studied in maize (Zea mays) coleoptiles. Membrane potentials of coleoptile parenchymal cells, incubated in media containing IAA, FC and different concentrations of K(+) and Ca(2+), were also determined. Growth experiments have shown that in the absence of K(+) in the incubation medium, both endogenous and IAA- or FC-induced growth were significantly inhibited by 0.1 and 1 mM Ca(2+), respectively, while in the presence of 1 mM K(+) they were inhibited only by 1 mM Ca(2+). At 10 mM K(+), endogenous growth and growth induced by either IAA or FC did not depend on Ca(2+) concentration. TEA-Cl, a potassium channel blocker, added 1 h before IAA or FC, caused a reduction of growth by 59 or 45 %, respectively. In contrast to TEA-Cl, verapamil, the Ca(2+) channel blocker, did not affect IAA- and FC-induced growth. It was also found that in parenchymal cells of maize coleoptile segments, membrane potential (Em) was strongly affected by the medium K(+), independently of Ca(2+). However, lack of Ca(2+) in the incubation medium significantly reduced the IAA- and FC-induced membrane potential hyperpolarization. TEA-Cl applied to the control medium in the same way as in growth experiments caused Em hyperpolarization synergistic with hyperpolarization produced by IAA or FC. Verapamil did not change either the Em of parenchymal cells incubated in the control medium or the IAA- and FC-induced membrane hyperpolarization. The data presented here have been discussed considering the role of K(+) uptake channels in regulation of plant cell growth. PMID:26134122

  18. Kinetic analysis of mitotic spindle elongation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Baskin, T I; Cande, W Z

    1990-09-01

    Studies of mitotic spindle elongation in vitro using populations of diatom spindles visualized with immunofluorescence microscopy have shown that the two interdigitating half-spindles are driven apart by an ATP-dependent process that generates force in the zone of overlap between half-spindles. To characterize further the system responsible for spindle elongation, we observed spindle elongation directly with polarized light or phase-contrast video-microscopy. We report that the kinetics of spindle elongation versus time are linear. A constant rate of spindle elongation occurs despite the continuous decrease in length of the zone of overlap between half-spindles. The average rate of spindle elongation varies as a function of treatment, and rates measured match spindle elongation rates measured in vivo. When spindles elongated in the presence of polymerizing tubulin (from bovine brain), the extent of elongation was greater than the original zone of half-spindle overlap, but the rate of elongation was constant. No component of force due to tubulin polymerization was found. The total elongation observed in the presence of added tubulin could exceed a doubling of original spindle length, matching the elongation in the intact diatom. The linear rate of spindle elongation in vitro suggests that the force transducer for anaphase B is a mechanochemical ATPase, analogous to dynein or myosin, and that the force for spindle elongation does not arise from stored energy, e.g. in an elastic matrix in the midzone. Additionally, on the basis of observations described here, we conclude that the force-transduction system for spindle elongation must be able to remain in the zone of microtubule overlap during the sliding apart of half-spindles, and that the transducer can generate force between microtubules that are not strictly antiparallel. PMID:2258393

  19. Competency for graviresponse in the leaf-sheath pulvinus of Avena sativa: onset to loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1988-01-01

    The development of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Victory) was studied in terms of its competency to respond to gravistimulation. Stages of onset of competency, maximum competency and loss of competency were identified, using the length of the supertending internode as a developmental marker. During the early phases in the onset of competency, the latency period between stimulus and graviresponse decreased and the steady state response rate increased significantly. When fully competent, the latency period remained constant as the plant continued to develop, suggesting that the latency period is relatively insensitive to quantitative changes (e.g., in carbohydrate or nutrient availability) at the cell level within the plant. In contrast, the response rate was found to increase with plant development, indicating that graviresponse rate is more strongly influenced by quantitative cellular changes. The total possible graviresponse of a single oat pulvinus was confirmed to be significantly less than the original presentation angle. This was shown to not result from a loss of competency, since the graviresponse could be reinitiated by increasing the presentation angle. As a result of the low overall graviresponse of individual pulvini, two or more pulvini are required to bring the plant apex to the vertical. This was determined to occur though the sequential, rather than simultaneous, action of successive pulvini, since a given pulvinus lost competency to gravirespond shortly after the next pulvinus became fully competent.

  20. Characterization by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of monoclonal antibodies to Pisum and Avena phytochrome

    SciTech Connect

    Cordonnier, M.M.; Greppin, H.; Pratt, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    Nine monoclonal antibodies to pea (Pisum sativum L.) and 16 to oat (Avena sativa L.) phytochrome are characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against phytochrome from six different sources: pea, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), oat, rye (Secale cereale L.), and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). All antibodies were raised against phytochrome with a monomer size near 120,000 daltons. Nevertheless, none of them discriminated qualitatively between 118/114-kilodalton oat phytochrome and a photoreversible, 60-kilodalton proteolytic degradation product derived from it. In addition, none of the 23 antibodies tested discriminated substantially between phytochrome - red-absorbing form and phytochrome - far red-absorbing form. Two antibodies to pea and six to oat phytochrome also bound strongly to phytochrome from the other species, even though these two plants are evolutionarily widely divergent. Of these eight antibodies, two bound significantly to all of the six phytochrome preparations tested, indicating that these two may recognize highly conserved regions of the chromoprotein. Since the molecular function of phytochrome is unknown, these two antibodies may serve as unique probes for regions of this pigment that are important to its mode of action. 27 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  1. Analysis of Leaf and Root Transcriptome of Soil Grown Avena barbata Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Swarbreck, Sté; phanie,; Lindquist, Erika; Ackerly, David; Andersen, Gary

    2011-02-01

    Slender wild oat (Avena barbata) is an annual grass dominant in many grassland ecosystems in Mediterranean climate. This species has been the subject of ecological studies that aim at understanding the effect of global climate change on grassland ecosystems and the genetic basis for adaptation under varying environmental conditions. We present the sequencing and analysis of cDNA libraries constructed from leaf and root samples collected from A. barbata grown on natural soil and under varying rainfall patterns. More than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated using both GS 454-FLX pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing, and these tags were assembled into consensus sequences. We identified numerous candidate polymorphic markers in the dataset, providing possibilities for linking the genomic and the existing genetic information for A. barbata. Using the digital northern method, we showed that genes involved in photosynthesis were down regulated under high rainfall while stress- related genes were up regulated. We also identified a number of genes unique to the root library with unknown function. Real-time RT-PCR was used to confirm the root specificity of some of these transcripts such as two genes encoding O-methyl transferase. Also we showed differential expression under three water levels. Through a combination of Sanger and 454-based sequencing technologies, we were able to generate a large set of transcribed sequences for A. barbata. This dataset provides a platform for further studies of this important wild grass species

  2. Molecular mapping of genomic regions underlying barley yellow dwarf tolerance in cultivated oat (Avena sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhu, S; Kolb, F L; Kaeppler, H F

    2003-05-01

    Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is one of the most important viral diseases in small grains, including oat (Avena sativa L.). Breeding for BYD tolerance is an effective and efficient means to control the disease. Characterization of major sources of tolerance, and identification of marker and the trait associations, will directly benefit breeding for BYD tolerance. Genomic regions underlying BYD tolerance were mapped and characterized in an oat population consisting of 152 recombinant inbred lines from the cross of 'Ogle' (tolerant)/MAM17-5 (sensitive). Tolerance was evaluated in replicated field trials across 2 years under artificial inoculation with viruliferous aphids harboring BYD virus isolate PAV-IL. Composite interval mapping was used for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) analysis with a framework map consisting of 272 molecular markers. Four QTLs, BYDq1, BYDq2, BYDq3 and BYDq4, for BYD tolerance were identified on linkage groups OM1, 5, 7 and 24, respectively. All but BYDq2 were consistently detected across both years. Significant epistasis was found between some QTLs. The final model including the epistatic effect explained 50.3 to 58.2% of the total phenotypic variation for BYD tolerance. Some QTLs for BYD tolerance were closely linked to QTLs for plant height and days to heading. Potential problems with QTL mapping for BYD tolerance have been discussed. The identified association of markers and tolerance should be useful to pyramid favorable alleles for BYD tolerance into individual oat lines. PMID:12748782

  3. Molecular interactions between wheat and cereal aphid (Sitobion avenae): analysis of changes to the wheat proteome.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Natalie; Stavroulakis, Stylianos; Guan, Wenzhu; Davison, Gillian M; Bell, Howard A; Weaver, Robert J; Down, Rachel E; Gatehouse, John A; Gatehouse, Angharad M R

    2011-05-01

    Aphids are major insect pests of cereal crops, acting as virus vectors as well as causing direct damage. The responses of wheat to infestation by cereal aphid (Sitobion avenae) were investigated in a proteomic analysis. Approximately, 500 protein spots were reproducibly detected in the extracts from leaves of wheat seedlings after extraction and 2-DE. Sixty-seven spots differed significantly between control and infested plants following 24 h of aphid feeding, with 27 and 11 up-regulated, and 8 and 21 down-regulated, in local or systemic tissues, respectively. After 8 days, 80 protein spots differed significantly between control and aphid treatments with 13 and 18 up-regulated and 27 and 22 down-regulated in local or systemic tissues, respectively. As positive controls, plants were treated with salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate; 81 and 37 differentially expressed protein spots, respectively, were identified for these treatments. Approximately, 50% of differentially expressed protein spots were identified by PMF, revealing that the majority of proteins altered by aphid infestation were involved in metabolic processes and photosynthesis. Other proteins identified were involved in signal transduction, stress and defence, antioxidant activity, regulatory processes, and hormone responses. Responses to aphid attack at the proteome level were broadly similar to basal non-specific defence and stress responses in wheat, with evidence of down-regulation of insect-specific defence mechanisms, in agreement with the observed lack of aphid resistance in commercial wheat lines. PMID:21500340

  4. Double-stranded RNA in the biological control of grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dahai; Liu, Qi; Li, Xia; Sun, Yongwei; Wang, Hui; Xia, Lanqin

    2015-03-01

    Grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) is the most dominant and destructive pest of wheat, which causes significant yield loss of cereal plants each year by inflicting damage both through the direct effects of feeding and by vectoring debilitating plant viruses. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of grain aphid via Roche 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing. A total of 1,106,696 reads were obtained and assembled into 32,277 unigenes, of which 25,389, 21,635, and 16,211 unigenes matched the Nt, Nr, and Swiss-Prot databases, respectively. Functional annotation of these unigenes revealed not only the presence of genes that encode the key components of RNAi machinery such as Dicer and Argonaute but also the genes encoding the TAR RNA binding protein (TRBP) and the SID-1 protein, which function in assisting the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) formation in microRNA (miRNA) pathway and mediating a systemic RNA interference (RNAi) effect though a cellular uptake mechanism. Furthermore, among a set of 66 unigenes selected for a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) artificial diet assay, four novel effective RNAi targets, which led to high mortality of aphids due to the down-regulation of the expression of the respective target gene, were identified. Moreover, the expansion of systemic RNAi effect in grain aphid was observed by adding the fluorescently labeled dsRNA in an artificial diet assay. PMID:25467938

  5. Colloidal Oatmeal (Avena Sativa) Improves Skin Barrier Through Multi-Therapy Activity.

    PubMed

    Ilnytska, Olha; Kaur, Simarna; Chon, Suhyoun; Reynertson, Kurt A; Nebus, Judith; Garay, Michelle; Mahmood, Khalid; Southall, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Oats (Avena sativa) are a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin barrier conditions, including dry skin, skin rashes, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the actual mechanism of action for the skin barrier strengthening activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were prepared with various solvents and tested in vitro for skin barrier related gene expression and activity. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal were found to induce the expression of genes related to epidermal differentiation, tight junctions and lipid regulation in skin, and provide pH-buffering capacity. Colloidal oatmeal boosted the expression of multiple target genes related to skin barrier, and resulted in recovery of barrier damage in an in vitro model of atopic dermatitis. In addition, an investigator-blinded study was performed with 50 healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Clinically, the colloidal oatmeal lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, moisturization, and barrier. Taken together, these results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal can provide clinically effective benefits for dry and compromised skin by strengthening skin barrier.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(6):684-690. PMID:27272074

  6. Avenaol, a germination stimulant for root parasitic plants from Avena strigosa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Il; Kisugi, Takaya; Khetkam, Pichit; Xie, Xiaonan; Yoneyama, Kaori; Uchida, Kenichi; Yokota, Takao; Nomura, Takahito; McErlean, Christopher S P; Yoneyama, Koichi

    2014-07-01

    Root exudates from the allelopathic plant, black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.), were found to contain at least six different germination stimulants for root parasitic plants, but no known strigolactones (SLs). One of these germination stimulants was purified and named avenaol. Its HR-ESI-TOFMS analysis indicated that the molecular formula of avenaol is C20H24O7, and thus it contains an additional carbon compared with known C19-SLs. Its structure was determined as 5-((E)-(5-(3-hydroxy-1,5,5-trimethyl-2-oxobicyclo[4.1.0]heptan-7-yl)-2-oxodihydrofuran-3(2H)-ylidene)methoxy)-3-methylfuran-2(5H)-one, by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and ESI- and EI-MS spectrometry. Although avenaol contains the C-D moiety, the common structural feature for all known SLs, it lacks the B ring and has an additional carbon atom between the A and C rings. Avenaol is a potent germination stimulant of Phelipanche ramosa seeds, but only a weak stimulant for seeds of Striga hermonthica and Orobanche minor. PMID:24768285

  7. Genetic analysis of seedling resistance to crown rust in five diploid oat (Avena strigosa) accessions.

    PubMed

    Cabral, A L; Park, R F

    2016-02-01

    Crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata Corda f. sp. avenae Eriks., is a serious menace in oats, for which resistance is an effective means of control. Wild diploid oat accessions are a source of novel resistances that first need to be characterised prior to introgression into locally adapted oat cultivars. A genetic analysis of resistance to crown rust was carried out in three diverse diploid oat accessions (CIav6956, CIav9020, PI292226) and two cultivars (Saia and Glabrota) of A. strigosa. A single major gene conditioning resistance to Australian crown rust pathotype (Pt) 0000-2 was identified in each of the three accessions. Allelism tests suggested that these genes are either the same, allelic, or tightly linked with less than 1 % recombination. Similarly, a single gene was identified in Glabrota, and possibly two genes in Saia; both cultivars previously reported to carry two and three crown rust resistance genes, respectively. The identified seedling resistance genes could be deployed in combination with other resistance gene(s) to enhance durability of resistance to crown rust in hexaploid oat. Current diploid and hexaploid linkage maps and molecular anchor markers (simple sequence repeat [SSR] and diversity array technology [DArT] markers) should facilitate their mapping and introgression into hexaploid oat. PMID:26143064

  8. Dynamic enhancer–gene body contacts during transcription elongation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kiwon; Hsiung, Chris C.-S.; Huang, Peng; Raj, Arjun; Blobel, Gerd A.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancers govern transcription through multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). We characterized the dynamics of looped enhancer contacts during synchronous transcription elongation. We found that many distal enhancers form stable contacts with their target promoters during the entire interval of elongation. Notably, we detected additional dynamic enhancer contacts throughout the gene bodies that track with elongating RNAPII and the leading edge of RNA synthesis. These results support a model in which the gene body changes its position relative to a stable enhancer–promoter complex, which has broad ramifications for enhancer function and architectural models of transcriptional elongation. PMID:26443845

  9. Mechanical elongation of the centromere in the barley metaphase chromosome.

    PubMed

    Otobe, Kazunori; Shichiri, Motoharu; Fukushi, Daisuke; Yoshino, Tomoyuki; Nakao, Hidenobu; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Ohtani, Toshio

    2002-12-01

    The present study investigated the mechanical elongation of the centromere in the barley chromosomes by a microneedle manipulation method for the structural analysis of the chromosomes. Chromosomes were extracted from barley root cells, affixed on a cover slip by a standard preparation method, and elongated in either distilled water, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), or 2 x sodium saline citrate (SSC). The mechanical property of the chromosome elongation was assessed by the measurement of the force required for the elongation of chromosomes. This assessment has shown that the chromosomes in distilled water were much firmer than those in the PBS or 2 x SSC. To confirm the elongation of the centromere, the elongated chromosomes were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization with a centromere probe. The fluorescence information indicated that the extent of the loosening of the centromere during elongation differed depending on the buffers used; the centromere elongated in 2 x SSC was more loosened than that in the PBS. Atomic force microscopy also revealed the structure of the unpacked centromere after the mechanical elongation, when rows of fibrous structures about 30 to 50 nm thick were clearly observed in the centromere elongated in 2 x SSC. The investigation of elongated chromosomes should prove useful for an understanding of the structural analysis of chromosomes. PMID:12680461

  10. Introgression of crown rust resistance from diploid oat Avena strigosa into hexaploid cultivated oat A. sativa by two methods: direct crosses and through an initial 2x+4x synthetic hexaploid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New sources of resistance to oat crown rust, Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae (Eriks.), the major fungal disease of cultivated oat, Avena sativa L. (2n = 6x = 42), are constantly needed due to frequent, rapid shifts in the virulence pattern of the pathogen. Crown rust resistance identified in the dip...

  11. Potential flow about elongated bodies of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Carl

    1936-01-01

    This report presents a method of solving the problem of axial and transverse potential flows around arbitrary elongated bodies of revolution. The solutions of Laplace's equation for the velocity potentials of the axial and transverse flows, the system of coordinates being an elliptic one in a meridian plane, are given. The theory is applied to a body of revolution obtained from a symmetrical Joukowsky profile, a shape resembling an airship hull. The pressure distribution and the transverse-force distribution are calculated and serve as examples of the procedure to be followed in the case of an actual airship. A section on the determination of inertia coefficients is also included in which the validity of some earlier work is questioned.

  12. Very elongated nuclei near A = 194

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.A.; Henry, E.A.; Yates, S.W.; Wang, T.F.; Kuhnert, A. ); Brinkman, M.J.; Cizewski, J.A. ); Deleplanque, M.A.; Diamond, R.M.; Stephens, F.S.; Azaiez, F.; Korten, W.; Draper, J.E. )

    1990-10-01

    A {gamma}-ray cascade in {sup 191}Hg of 12 members with average energy spacing 37 keV and Q{sub t} {equals} 18(3)eb was reported by Moore, and coworkers in 1989. This was the first report of very elongated nuclei (superdeformation) in this mass region. Since then, some 25 {gamma}-ray cascades have been observed in 11 (slightly neutron deficient) Hg, Pb and Tl nuclei. The bands have similar dynamic moments-of-inertia. Some nuclei exhibit multiple bands, and the backbending phenomena has been observed. Level spins can be obtained from comparison of transition energies to rotational model formulas. Selected bands (in different nuclei) have equal transition energies (within 0.1%). Alignment in integer multiples of {h bar} has been observed. Properties of these bands will be described. 27 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Low temperature viscosity in elongated ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcón, T.; Pérez-Madrid, A.; Rubí, J. M.

    1997-12-01

    We have studied the relaxation and transport properties of a ferrofluid in an elongational flow. These properties are influenced by the bistable nature of the potential energy. Bistability comes from the irrotational character of the flow together with the symmetry of the dipoles. Additionally, the presence of a constant magnetic field destroys the symmetry of the potential energy magnetizing the system. We have shown that at a moderate temperature, compared to the height of the energy barrier, the viscosity decreases with respect to the value it would have if the potential were stable. This phenomenon is known as the "negative viscosity" effect. Thermal motion induces jumps of the magnetic moment between the two stable states of the system leading to the aforementioned lowered dissipation effect.

  14. Fatty Acid-Elongating Activity in Rapidly Expanding Leek Epidermis.

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, K. J.; Post-Beittenmiller, D.

    1995-01-01

    A microsomal fatty acid elongase activity measured in epidermis of rapidly expanding leek (Allium porrum L.) was 10-fold higher in specific activity than preparations from store-bought leek. These preparations elongated acyl chains effectively using endogenous or supplied primers. Elongation of C20:0 was specifically inhibited by 2 [mu]M cerulenin, and labeling experiments with [3H]cerulenin labeled two polypeptides (65 and 88 kD). ATP was required for maximal elongase activity in expanding leaves but was lost in nonexpanding tissues. Both [14C]stearoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and [14C]stearate were maximally elongated in the presence of ATP. Addition of fully reduced CoA, however, inhibited [14C]stearate elongation, suggesting that stearoyl-CoA synthesis was not a prerequisite for elongation. Furthermore, microsomes preincubated with [14C]stearoyl-CoA plus ATP resulted in loss of radiolabel from the acyl-CoA pool without a corresponding loss in elongating activity. The lack of correlation between elongating activity and the label retained in the putative acyl-CoA substrate pool suggests that acyl-CoAs may not be the immediate precursors for elongation and that ATP plays a critical, yet undefined, role in the elongation process. We propose that an ATP-dependent elongating activity may generate the long-chain fatty acids required for wax biosynthesis. PMID:12228624

  15. ACCase mutations in Avena sterilis populations and their impact on plant fitness.

    PubMed

    Papapanagiotou, Aristeidis P; Paresidou, Maria I; Kaloumenos, Nikolaos S; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G

    2015-09-01

    Avena sterilis (sterile oat) populations originating from wheat-growing regions of Greece, developed resistance to fenoxaprop, clodinafop and other herbicides. The partial ACCase gene sequence revealed six point mutations (Ile-1781-Leu, Trp-1999-Cys, Trp-2027-Cys, Ile-2041-Asn, Asp-2078-Gly, and Cys-2088-Arg) in 24 out of the 26 resistant (R) populations, confirming the molecular mechanism of resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides. However, DNA sequence of two R populations did not reveal any known ACCase mutations, suggesting possible presence of unknown mutation or metabolism-based mechanism of resistance. The Cys-2088-Arg mutation is the first record for ACCase mutant conferring target-site resistance in A. sterilis worldwide. The evaluation of 12 R and 6 susceptible (S) populations under non-competitive field conditions did not indicate consistent mean growth rate differences, whereas the pot evaluation of the same (12 R and 6 S) populations grown in competition with wheat or in pure stands showed significant growth (fresh weight and panicle number) differences between six S populations and between six R populations containing the same ACCase mutation (Ile-2041-Asn). Finally, one S and five R (Trp-1999-Cys, Trp-2027-Cys, Ile-2041-Asn, Asp-2078-Gly, and Cys-2088-Arg) populations grown under field competitive conditions indicated fresh weight and panicle number differences in competition with other populations as compared with pure stands. These findings suggest clearly that the inconsistent fitness differences between R and S A. sterilis populations are not related with the ACCase resistance trait but they may result from other non-resistance fitness traits selected in their different geographical locations. PMID:26267051

  16. Resistance to uprooting of Alfalfa and Avena Sativa and related importance for flume experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmaier, K.; Crouzy, B.; Burlando, P.; Perona, P.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation influences sediment dynamics by stabilizing the alluvial sediment with its root system. Thus, vegetation engineers the riparian ecosystem by contributing to the formation and stabilization of river bars and islands. The resistance to uprooting of young plants in non-cohesive sediment depends on the competition between flow induced drag and root growth timescales. The investigation of flow-sediment-plant interactions in situ is difficult since variables cannot be controlled and material hardly be collected. In order to investigate ecomorphological processes, laboratory experiments are essential and have gained importance in the last decade. To achieve a better understanding of the dependence of resistance to uprooting on the root system (length and structure) we conducted vertical uprooting experiments with Alfalfa and Avena Sativa which are both species that have been used in flume experiments on vegetation-flow interactions (e.g. Tal and Paola, 2010; Perona et al., in press). Seeds were seeded on quartz sand and vertically uprooted with constant velocity whereat the weight force required to uproot a seedling was measured. After uprooting, roots were scanned and analyzed and the correlation of root parameters with the uprooting work was studied. Total root length was found to be the best explanatory variable, in particular the uprooting work increases following a power law with increasing root length. The impact of other root parameters (main root length, root number, tortuosity) on the uprooting work was as well analyzed. Still, not all influencing root parameters could be captured, like the angle between roots or root hair distribution. Environmental conditions like grain size and saturation were also found to have an effect on the uprooting resistance of roots. So, lower saturated sediment results in a higher uprooting work. This work is a first step to better understand the energy regime for vegetation uprooting and its dependence on various

  17. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T.; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E.; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M.; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha−1 for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of 14C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum. PMID:27570531

  18. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha(-1) for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of (14)C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum. PMID:27570531

  19. The little elongation complex functions at initiation and elongation phases of snRNA gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Hu, Deqing; Smith, Edwin R; Garruss, Alexander S; Mohaghegh, Nima; Varberg, Joseph M; Lin, Chengqi; Jackson, Jessica; Gao, Xin; Saraf, Anita; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Eissenberg, Joel C; Shilatifard, Ali

    2013-08-22

    The small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes have been widely used as a model system for understanding transcriptional regulation due to the unique aspects of their promoter structure, selectivity for either RNA polymerase (Pol) II or III, and because of their unique mechanism of termination that is tightly linked with the promoter. Recently, we identified the little elongation complex (LEC) in Drosophila that is required for the expression of Pol II-transcribed snRNA genes. Here, using Drosophila and mammalian systems, we provide genetic and molecular evidence that LEC functions in at least two phases of snRNA transcription: an initiation step requiring the ICE1 subunit, and an elongation step requiring ELL. PMID:23932780

  20. The Little Elongation Complex functions at initiation and elongation phases of snRNA gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Deqing; Smith, Edwin R.; Garruss, Alexander S.; Mohaghegh, Nima; Varberg, Joseph M.; Lin, Chengqi; Jackson, Jessica; Gao, Xin; Saraf, Anita; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Eissenberg, Joel C.; Shilatifard, Ali

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes have been widely used as a model system for understanding transcriptional regulation due to the unique aspects of their promoter structure, selectivity for either RNA Polymerase (Pol) II or III, and because of their unique mechanism of termination that is tightly linked with the promoter. Recently, we identified the Little Elongation Complex (LEC) in Drosophila that is required for the expression of Pol II-transcribed snRNA genes. Here, using Drosophila and mammalian systems, we provide genetic and molecular evidence that LEC functions in at least two phases of snRNA transcription: an initiation step requiring the ICE1 subunit, and an elongation step requiring ELL. PMID:23932780

  1. Conditions for bubble elongation in cold ice-sheet ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, R.B.; Fitzpatrick, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Highly elongated bubbles are sometimes observed in ice-sheet ice. Elongation is favored by rapid ice deformation, and opposed by diffusive processes. We use simple models to show that vapor transport dominates diffusion except possibly very close to the melting point, and that latent-heat effects are insignificant. Elongation is favored by larger bubbles at pore close-off, but is nearly independent of bubble compression below close-off. The simple presence of highly elongated bubbles indicates only that a critical ice-strain rate has been exceeded for significant time, and provides no information on possible disruption of stratigraphic continuity by ice deformation.

  2. Super elongation complex contains a TFIIF-related subcomplex.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Bruce A; Smith, Marissa L; Walker-Kopp, Nancy; Xu, Xia

    2016-08-01

    Super elongation complex (SEC) belongs to a family of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation factors that has similar properties as TFIIF, a general transcription factor that increases the transcription elongation rate by reducing pausing. Although SEC has TFIIF-like functional properties, it apparently lacks sequence and structural homology. Using HHpred, we find that SEC contains an evolutionarily related TFIIF-like subcomplex. We show that the SEC subunit ELL interacts with the Pol II Rbp2 subunit, as expected for a TFIIF-like factor. These findings suggest a new model for how SEC functions as a Pol II elongation factor and how it suppresses Pol II pausing. PMID:27223670

  3. Emerging brain morphologies from axonal elongation

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Maria A.; Miller, Kyle E.; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the characteristic morphology of our brain remains a challenging, yet important task in human evolution, developmental biology, and neurosciences. Mathematical modeling shapes our understanding of cortical folding and provides functional relations between cortical wavelength, thickness, and stiffness. Yet, current mathematical models are phenomenologically isotropic and typically predict non-physiological, periodic folding patterns. Here we establish a mechanistic model for cortical folding, in which macroscopic changes in white matter volume are a natural consequence of microscopic axonal growth. To calibrate our model, we consult axon elongation experiments in chick sensory neurons. We demonstrate that a single parameter, the axonal growth rate, explains a wide variety of in vitro conditions including immediate axonal thinning and gradual thickness restoration. We embed our axonal growth model into a continuum model for brain development using axonal orientation distributions motivated by diffusion spectrum imaging. Our simulations suggest that white matter anisotropy - as an emergent property from directional axonal growth - intrinsically induces symmetry breaking, and predicts more physiological, less regular morphologies with regionally varying gyral wavelengths and sulcal depths. Mechanistic modeling of brain development could establish valuable relationships between brain connectivity, brain anatomy, and brain function. PMID:25824370

  4. Calcineurin Links Mitochondrial Elongation with Energy Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pfluger, Paul T; Kabra, Dhiraj G; Aichler, Michaela; Schriever, Sonja C; Pfuhlmann, Katrin; García, Verónica Casquero; Lehti, Maarit; Weber, Jon; Kutschke, Maria; Rozman, Jan; Elrod, John W; Hevener, Andrea L; Feuchtinger, Annette; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Walch, Axel; Rollmann, Stephanie M; Aronow, Bruce J; Müller, Timo D; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Jastroch, Martin; De Luca, Maria; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2015-11-01

    Canonical protein phosphatase 3/calcineurin signaling is central to numerous physiological processes. Here we provide evidence that calcineurin plays a pivotal role in controlling systemic energy and body weight homeostasis. Knockdown of calcineurin in Drosophila melanogaster led to a decrease in body weight and energy stores, and increased energy expenditure. In mice, global deficiency of catalytic subunit Ppp3cb, and tissue-specific ablation of regulatory subunit Ppp3r1 from skeletal muscle, but not adipose tissue or liver, led to protection from high-fat-diet-induced obesity and comorbid sequelæ. Ser637 hyperphosphorylation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) in skeletal muscle of calcineurin-deficient mice was associated with mitochondrial elongation into power-cable-shaped filaments and increased mitochondrial respiration, but also with attenuated exercise performance. Our data suggest that calcineurin acts as highly conserved pivot for the adaptive metabolic responses to environmental changes such as high-fat, high-sugar diets or exercise. PMID:26411342

  5. Glycoproteome of Elongating Cotton Fiber Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Saravanan; Kumar, Krishan; Pandey, Pankaj; Rajamani, Vijayalakshmi; Padmalatha, Kethireddy Venkata; Dhandapani, Gurusamy; Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Reddy, Vanga Siva

    2013-01-01

    Cotton ovule epidermal cell differentiation into long fibers primarily depends on wall-oriented processes such as loosening, elongation, remodeling, and maturation. Such processes are governed by cell wall bound structural proteins and interacting carbohydrate active enzymes. Glycosylation plays a major role in the structural, functional, and localization aspects of the cell wall and extracellular destined proteins. Elucidating the glycoproteome of fiber cells would reflect its wall composition as well as compartmental requirement, which must be system specific. Following complementary proteomic approaches, we have identified 334 unique proteins comprising structural and regulatory families. Glycopeptide-based enrichment followed by deglycosylation with PNGase F and A revealed 92 unique peptides containing 106 formerly N-linked glycosylated sites from 67 unique proteins. Our results showed that structural proteins like arabinogalactans and carbohydrate active enzymes were relatively more abundant and showed stage- and isoform-specific expression patterns in the differentiating fiber cell. Furthermore, our data also revealed the presence of heterogeneous and novel forms of structural and regulatory glycoproteins. Comparative analysis with other plant glycoproteomes highlighted the unique composition of the fiber glycoproteome. The present study provides the first insight into the identity, abundance, diversity, and composition of the glycoproteome within single celled cotton fibers. The elucidated composition also indirectly provides clues about unicellular compartmental requirements underlying single cell differentiation. PMID:24019148

  6. Regulated tissue fluidity steers zebrafish body elongation

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Andrew K.; Nandi, Amitabha; Stulberg, Michael J.; Dray, Nicolas; Sneddon, Michael W.; Pontius, William; Emonet, Thierry; Holley, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The tailbud is the posterior leading edge of the growing vertebrate embryo and consists of motile progenitors of the axial skeleton, musculature and spinal cord. We measure the 3D cell flow field of the zebrafish tailbud and identify changes in tissue fluidity revealed by reductions in the coherence of cell motion without alteration of cell velocities. We find a directed posterior flow wherein the polarization between individual cell motion is high, reflecting ordered collective migration. At the posterior tip of the tailbud, this flow makes sharp bilateral turns facilitated by extensive cell mixing due to increased directional variability of individual cell motions. Inhibition of Wnt or Fgf signaling or cadherin 2 function reduces the coherence of the flow but has different consequences for trunk and tail extension. Modeling and additional data analyses suggest that the balance between the coherence and rate of cell flow determines whether body elongation is linear or whether congestion forms within the flow and the body axis becomes contorted. PMID:23293289

  7. Bacterial symbionts, Buchnera, and starvation on wing dimorphism in English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fangmei; Li, Xiangrui; Zhang, Yunhui; Coates, Brad; Zhou, Xuguo “Joe”; Cheng, Dengfa

    2015-01-01

    Wing dimorphism in aphids can be affected by multiple cues, including both biotic (nutrition, crowding, interspecific interactions, the presence of natural enemies, maternal and transgenerational effects, and alarm pheromone) and abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and photoperiod). The majority of the phloem-feeding aphids carry Buchnera, an obligate symbiotic proteobacteria. Buchnera has a highly reduced genome size, but encode key enzymes in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and is crucial for nutritional balance, development and reproduction in aphids. In this study, we investigated the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors, symbionts and starvation, on the wing dimorphism in the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, a devastating insect pest of cereal crops (e.g., wheat) worldwide. Elimination of Buchnera using the antibiotic rifampicin significantly reduced the formation of winged morphs, body mass, and fecundity in S. avenae. Furthermore, the absence of this primary endosymbiont may disrupt the nutrient acquisition in aphids and alter transgenerational phenotypic expression. Similarly, both survival rate and the formation of winged morphs were substantially reduced after neonatal (<24 h old) offspring were starved for a period of time. The combined results shed light on the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors on the phenotypic plasticity in aphids. A better understanding of the wing dimorphism in aphids will provide the theoretical basis for the prediction and integrated management of these phloem-feeding insect pests. PMID:26042046

  8. Testing the fecundity advantage hypothesis with Sitobion avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, and Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feeding on ten wheat accessions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Thieme, Thomas; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Tong-Xian; Zhao, Hui-Yan

    2015-01-01

    The fecundity advantage hypothesis suggests that females with a large body size produce more offspring than smaller females. We tested this hypothesis by exploring the correlations between life-history traits of three aphid species feeding on ten wheat accessions at three levels of analysis with respect to the host plant: overall, inter-accession, and intra-accession. We found that fecundity was significantly correlated with mean relative growth rate (MRGR), weight gain, and development time, and that the faster aphid develops the greater body and fecundity, depending on aphid species, wheat accession, and analyses level. Larger aphids of all three species produced more offspring overall; this held true for Sitobion avenae and Schizaphis graminum at the inter-accession level, and for S. avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, and S. graminum for three, five, and eight accessions respectively at the intra-accession level. Only one correlation, between intrinsic rates of natural increase (rm) and MRGR, was significant for all aphid species at all three analysis levels. A more accurate statement of the fecundity advantage hypothesis is that cereal aphids with greater MRGR generally maintain higher rm on wheat. Our results also provide a method for exploring relationships between individual life-history traits and population dynamics for insects on host plants. PMID:26680508

  9. Bacterial symbionts, Buchnera, and starvation on wing dimorphism in English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangmei; Li, Xiangrui; Zhang, Yunhui; Coates, Brad; Zhou, Xuguo Joe; Cheng, Dengfa

    2015-01-01

    Wing dimorphism in aphids can be affected by multiple cues, including both biotic (nutrition, crowding, interspecific interactions, the presence of natural enemies, maternal and transgenerational effects, and alarm pheromone) and abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and photoperiod). The majority of the phloem-feeding aphids carry Buchnera, an obligate symbiotic proteobacteria. Buchnera has a highly reduced genome size, but encode key enzymes in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and is crucial for nutritional balance, development and reproduction in aphids. In this study, we investigated the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors, symbionts and starvation, on the wing dimorphism in the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, a devastating insect pest of cereal crops (e.g., wheat) worldwide. Elimination of Buchnera using the antibiotic rifampicin significantly reduced the formation of winged morphs, body mass, and fecundity in S. avenae. Furthermore, the absence of this primary endosymbiont may disrupt the nutrient acquisition in aphids and alter transgenerational phenotypic expression. Similarly, both survival rate and the formation of winged morphs were substantially reduced after neonatal (<24 h old) offspring were starved for a period of time. The combined results shed light on the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors on the phenotypic plasticity in aphids. A better understanding of the wing dimorphism in aphids will provide the theoretical basis for the prediction and integrated management of these phloem-feeding insect pests. PMID:26042046

  10. Testing the fecundity advantage hypothesis with Sitobion avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, and Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feeding on ten wheat accessions

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Thieme, Thomas; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Tong-Xian; Zhao, Hui-Yan

    2015-01-01

    The fecundity advantage hypothesis suggests that females with a large body size produce more offspring than smaller females. We tested this hypothesis by exploring the correlations between life-history traits of three aphid species feeding on ten wheat accessions at three levels of analysis with respect to the host plant: overall, inter-accession, and intra-accession. We found that fecundity was significantly correlated with mean relative growth rate (MRGR), weight gain, and development time, and that the faster aphid develops the greater body and fecundity, depending on aphid species, wheat accession, and analyses level. Larger aphids of all three species produced more offspring overall; this held true for Sitobion avenae and Schizaphis graminum at the inter-accession level, and for S. avenae, Rhopalosiphum padi, and S. graminum for three, five, and eight accessions respectively at the intra-accession level. Only one correlation, between intrinsic rates of natural increase (rm) and MRGR, was significant for all aphid species at all three analysis levels. A more accurate statement of the fecundity advantage hypothesis is that cereal aphids with greater MRGR generally maintain higher rm on wheat. Our results also provide a method for exploring relationships between individual life-history traits and population dynamics for insects on host plants. PMID:26680508

  11. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid on the fecundity, longevity, and enzyme activity of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) and Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Lu, Y-H; Zheng, X-S; Gao, X-W

    2016-08-01

    The aphid species Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi are the most important pests in wheat growing regions of many countries. In this study, we investigated the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on fecundity, longevity, and enzyme activity in both aphid species by comparing 3-h exposure for one or three generations. Our results indicated that 3-h exposure to sublethal doses of imidacloprid for one generation had no discernible effect on the survival, fecundity, longevity, or enzyme activity levels of aphids. However, when pulse exposures to imidacloprid were sustained over three generations, both fecundity and longevity were significantly decreased in both S. avenae and R. padi. Interestingly, the fecundity of R. padi had almost recovered by the F5 generation, but its longevity was still deleteriously affected. These results indicated that R. padi laid eggs in shorter time lags and has a more fast resilience. The change in reproduction behavior may be a phenomenon of R. padi to compensate its early death. If this is stable for the next generation, it means that the next generation is more competitive than unexposed populations, which could be the reason underlying population outbreaks that occur after longer-term exposure to an insecticide. This laboratory-based study highlights the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on the longevity and fecundity of descendants and provides an empirical basis from which to consider management decisions for chemical control in the field. PMID:27161277

  12. Formation of Elongated Starch Granules in High-amylose Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GEMS-0067 maize starch contains up to 32% elongated starch granules much higher than amylose-extender (ae) single-mutant maize starch (~7%) and normal (non-mutant) maize starch (0%). These elongated granules are highly resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis at 95-100 C, which function as resistant starc...

  13. Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation.

  14. Blastocyst Elongation, Trophoblastic Differentiation and Embryonic Pattern Formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular basis behind elongation and concomitant gastrulation in ungulates that occurs during pre-implantation is still poorly understood. In-depth transcriptome analysis of the elongating porcine conceptus at specific stages has demonstrated that protein synthesis, protein trafficking, cell g...

  15. Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, N; Hasenstein, K H

    2000-12-01

    We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation. PMID:11762379

  16. Maternal and paternal transmission to offspring of B-chromosomes of Zea mays L. in the alien genetic background of Avena sativa L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    B-chromosomes are supernumerary dispensable chromosomes with highly host-specific organization, behavior, and mode of inheritance described in hundreds of animal, fungal, and plant species. We transferred native B chromosomes of maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays cv. Black Mexican Sweet) to oats (Avena sa...

  17. The perennial wild species Avena macrostachya as a genetic source for improvement of winterhardiness in winter oat for cultivation in Poland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avena macrostachya Bal. et Durieu has been reported as a valuable source of genetic variation for oat because of its winterhardiness and resistance to various diseases and pests. Therefore a series of crosses of cultivated oat with this species was initiated in IHAR-Radzików, Poland, in 2002. Three ...

  18. In vitro antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect, on oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis, of fractions and subfractions from oat (Avena sativa L.) ethanol extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oats (Avena sativa L.) were extracted with 80% aqueous ethanol and the extract was successively isolated by liquid-liquid partition to yield n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water layers. Among these extractions the ethyl acetate (EA) layer exhibited the highest total phenolic content (TPC), t...

  19. Life-history trait plasticity and its relationships with plant adaptation and insect fitness: a case study on the aphid Sitobion avenae.

    PubMed

    Dai, Peng; Shi, Xiaoqin; Liu, Deguang; Ge, Zhaohong; Wang, Da; Dai, Xinjia; Yi, Zhihao; Meng, Xiuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has recently been considered a powerful means of adaptation, but its relationships with corresponding life-history characters and plant specialization levels of insects have been controversial. To address the issues, Sitobion avenae clones from three plants in two areas were compared. Varying amounts of life-history trait plasticity were found among S. avenae clones on barley, oat and wheat. In most cases, developmental durations and their corresponding plasticities were found to be independent, and fecundities and their plasticities were correlated characters instead. The developmental time of first instar nymphs for oat and wheat clones, but not for barley clones, was found to be independent from its plasticity, showing environment-specific effects. All correlations between environments were found to be positive, which could contribute to low plasticity in S. avenae. Negative correlations between trait plasticities and fitness of test clones suggest that lower plasticity could have higher adaptive value. Correlations between plasticity and specialization indices were identified for all clones, suggesting that plasticity might evolve as a by-product of adaptation to certain environments. The divergence patterns of life-history plasticities in S. avenae, as well as the relationships among plasticity, specialization and fitness, could have significant implications for evolutionary ecology of this aphid. PMID:27426961

  20. Life-history trait plasticity and its relationships with plant adaptation and insect fitness: a case study on the aphid Sitobion avenae

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Peng; Shi, Xiaoqin; Liu, Deguang; Ge, Zhaohong; Wang, Da; Dai, Xinjia; Yi, Zhihao; Meng, Xiuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has recently been considered a powerful means of adaptation, but its relationships with corresponding life-history characters and plant specialization levels of insects have been controversial. To address the issues, Sitobion avenae clones from three plants in two areas were compared. Varying amounts of life-history trait plasticity were found among S. avenae clones on barley, oat and wheat. In most cases, developmental durations and their corresponding plasticities were found to be independent, and fecundities and their plasticities were correlated characters instead. The developmental time of first instar nymphs for oat and wheat clones, but not for barley clones, was found to be independent from its plasticity, showing environment-specific effects. All correlations between environments were found to be positive, which could contribute to low plasticity in S. avenae. Negative correlations between trait plasticities and fitness of test clones suggest that lower plasticity could have higher adaptive value. Correlations between plasticity and specialization indices were identified for all clones, suggesting that plasticity might evolve as a by-product of adaptation to certain environments. The divergence patterns of life-history plasticities in S. avenae, as well as the relationships among plasticity, specialization and fitness, could have significant implications for evolutionary ecology of this aphid. PMID:27426961

  1. Formation of elongated galaxies with low masses at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel; Dekel, Avishai

    2015-10-01

    We report the identification of elongated (triaxial or prolate) galaxies in cosmological simulations at z ≃ 2. These are preferentially low-mass galaxies (M* ≤ 109.5 M⊙), residing in dark matter (DM) haloes with strongly elongated inner parts, a common feature of high-redshift DM haloes in the Λ cold dark matter cosmology. Feedback slows formation of stars at the centres of these haloes, so that a dominant and prolate DM distribution gives rise to galaxies elongated along the DM major axis. As galaxies grow in stellar mass, stars dominate the total mass within the galaxy half-mass radius, making stars and DM rounder and more oblate. A large population of elongated galaxies produces a very asymmetric distribution of projected axis ratios, as observed in high-z galaxy surveys. This indicates that the majority of the galaxies at high redshifts are not discs or spheroids but rather galaxies with elongated morphologies.

  2. Elastocaloric effect dependence on pre-elongation in natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhongjian; Sebald, Gael; Guyomar, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    In the context of solid-state-cooling, the elastocaloric effect offers a very large controlled entropy change based in low-cost polymers, especially natural rubber which is environmentally friendly. However, large elastocaloric activity requires large elongation (>5), which makes this material impractical for cooling systems due to the large change in sample's area. By performing a pre-elongation, area change is limited, and β = - ∂ γ / ∂ λ (where γ is the specific entropy and λ is the elongation) is larger. The highest β value is obtained when pre-elongation is right before (at the "eve") the onset of the strain-induced crystallization, which is also interpreted in the view of molecular conformation. Experimental results obtained on a natural rubber sample showed an adiabatic temperature change of 4.3 °C for pre-elongation of 4 with further elongation of 4 (true strain change of 69%). Furthermore, the entropy exhibits a quasi-linear dependence on elongation, and the β value is found to be 6400 J K-1 m-3.

  3. Deficiency of maize starch-branching enzyme i results in altered starch fine structure, decreased digestibility and reduced coleoptile growth during germination

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Two distinct starch branching enzyme (SBE) isoforms predate the divergence of monocots and dicots and have been conserved in plants since then. This strongly suggests that both SBEI and SBEII provide unique selective advantages to plants. However, no phenotype for the SBEI mutation, sbe1a, had been previously observed. To explore this incongruity the objective of the present work was to characterize functional and molecular phenotypes of both sbe1a and wild-type (Wt) in the W64A maize inbred line. Results Endosperm starch granules from the sbe1a mutant were more resistant to digestion by pancreatic α-amylase, and the sbe1a mutant starch had an altered branching pattern for amylopectin and amylose. When kernels were germinated, the sbe1a mutant was associated with shorter coleoptile length and higher residual starch content, suggesting that less efficient starch utilization may have impaired growth during germination. Conclusions The present report documents for the first time a molecular phenotype due to the absence of SBEI, and suggests strongly that it is associated with altered physiological function of the starch in vivo. We believe that these results provide a plausible rationale for the conservation of SBEI in plants in both monocots and dicots, as greater seedling vigor would provide an important survival advantage when resources are limited. PMID:21599988

  4. Elongation dynamics of amyloid fibrils: A rugged energy landscape picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chiu Fan; Loken, James; Jean, Létitia; Vaux, David J.

    2009-10-01

    Protein amyloid fibrils are a form of linear protein aggregates that are implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we study the dynamics of amyloid fibril elongation by performing Langevin dynamic simulations on a coarse-grained model of peptides. Our simulation results suggest that the elongation process is dominated by a series of local minimum due to frustration in monomer-fibril interactions. This rugged energy landscape picture indicates that the amount of recycling of monomers at the fibrils’ ends before being fibrilized is substantially reduced in comparison to the conventional two-step elongation model. This picture, along with other predictions discussed, can be tested with current experimental techniques.

  5. Primary photophysics of the FMN binding LOV2 domain of the plant blue light receptor phototropin of Avena sativa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüttrigkeit, Tanja A.; Kompa, Christian K.; Salomon, Michael; Rüdiger, Wolfhart; Michel-Beyerle, Maria E.

    2003-11-01

    The temporal evolution of the initially excited singlet state of flavine mononucleotide, which is the cofactor in the LOV2 domain of the blue photoreceptor phototropin, has been studied in picosecond time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond time-resolved absorption experiments. In the LOV2-WT protein of Avena sativa singlet-triplet intersystem crossing proceeding within 2.3 ns is the primary process which increases the triplet yield by a factor of 1.23 as compared to a mutant where cysteine 39 is replaced by alanine. This flavin triplet state is responsible for the formation of a cysteinyl-flavin adduct which triggers the unique photocycle of the LOV2 domain and thus the sensoric function of the blue light receptor phototropin.

  6. The Occurrence of Two Species of Entomophthorales (Entomophthoromycota), Pathogens of Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Boukhris-Bouhachem, Sonia; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Allagui, Mohamed Bechir; Jensen, Annette Bruun

    2013-01-01

    The natural occurrence of entomophthoralean fungi pathogenic towards aphids on cereal and potato crops was investigated in the years 2009, 2010, and 2011. Infected aphids were sampled in three bioclimatic zones in Tunisia (Beja, Cap bon, and Kairouan) and fungal species were determined based on morphological characters such as shape, size, and number of nuclei in the primary conidia. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on the internal transcribed spacer 1 region (ITS1) was used to verify morphological determination. Both methods gave consistent results and we documented for the first time the natural occurrence of two fungal species from the order Entomophthorales (phylum Entomophthoromycota), Pandora neoaphidis and Entomophthora planchoniana. Both fungi were recorded on the aphid species Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae on barley ears and potato leaves, respectively. Moreover, natural mixed infections by both species (P. neoaphidis and E. planchoniana) were documented on the target aphids. This investigation provides basic information of entomopathogenic fungi infecting economically important aphids in Tunisia. PMID:23862158

  7. Substrate specificity screening of oat (Avena sativa) seeds aminopeptidase demonstrate unusually broad tolerance in S1 pocket.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Anna D; Pawełczak, Małgorzata; Drag, Marcin

    2012-05-01

    Aminopeptidases are proteolytic enzymes that remove one amino acid at a time from N-terminus of peptidic substrates. In plants, inhibitors of aminopeptidases can find potential applications in agriculture as herbicides. In this report we have used a library of fluorogenic derivatives of natural and unnatural amino acids for substrate specificity profiling of oat (Avena sativa) aminopeptidase. Interestingly, we have found that this enzyme recognizes effectively among the natural amino acids basic residues like Arg and Lys, hydrophobic Phe, Leu and Met, but also to some extent acidic residues Asp and Glu. In the case of unnatural amino acids hydrophobic residues (hPhe and hCha) and basic hArg were preferentially recognized. PMID:22366636

  8. Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Salve, R.; Torn, M.S.

    2011-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe plant manipulation of soil moisture during well-defined periods during the growing season. We found that the amount of water partitioned to evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil storage varied among different growth stages. Further, both soil type and precipitation regimes had a significant impact on redistributing soil moisture. Whereas in the low-precipitation treatments most water was released to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, major losses from the high-precipitation treatment occurred as gravity drainage. Observations from this study emphasize the importance of understanding intra-seasonal relationships between vegetation, soil, and water.

  9. Direct Characterization of Transcription Elongation by RNA Polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Ucuncuoglu, Suleyman; Engel, Krysta L; Purohit, Prashant K; Dunlap, David D; Schneider, David A; Finzi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcribes ribosomal DNA and is responsible for more than 60% of transcription in a growing cell. Despite this fundamental role that directly impacts cell growth and proliferation, the kinetics of transcription by Pol I are poorly understood. This study provides direct characterization of S. Cerevisiae Pol I transcription elongation using tethered particle microscopy (TPM). Pol I was shown to elongate at an average rate of approximately 20 nt/s. However, the maximum speed observed was, in average, about 60 nt/s, comparable to the rate calculated based on the in vivo number of active genes, the cell division rate and the number of engaged polymerases observed in EM images. Addition of RNA endonucleases to the TPM elongation assays enhanced processivity. Together, these data suggest that additional transcription factors contribute to efficient and processive transcription elongation by RNA polymerase I in vivo. PMID:27455049

  10. Power losses in bent and elongated polymer optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Chuan

    2007-07-20

    This study performs experimental and numerical investigations into the power losses induced in bent, elongated polymer optical fibers (POFs). The theoretical analysis is based on a three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite-element model and makes the assumption of a planar waveguide. The finite-element model is used to calculate the deformation of the elongated POFs such that the power loss can be analytically derived. The effect of bending on the power loss is examined by considering seven different bend radii ranging from 10 to 50 mm. The results show that bending and elongation have a significant effect on the power loss in POFs. The contribution of skew rays to the overall power loss in bent, elongated POFs is not obvious at large radii of curvature but becomes more significant as the radius is reduced. PMID:17609702

  11. Direct Characterization of Transcription Elongation by RNA Polymerase I

    PubMed Central

    Ucuncuoglu, Suleyman; Engel, Krysta L.; Purohit, Prashant K.; Dunlap, David D.; Schneider, David A.

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcribes ribosomal DNA and is responsible for more than 60% of transcription in a growing cell. Despite this fundamental role that directly impacts cell growth and proliferation, the kinetics of transcription by Pol I are poorly understood. This study provides direct characterization of S. Cerevisiae Pol I transcription elongation using tethered particle microscopy (TPM). Pol I was shown to elongate at an average rate of approximately 20 nt/s. However, the maximum speed observed was, in average, about 60 nt/s, comparable to the rate calculated based on the in vivo number of active genes, the cell division rate and the number of engaged polymerases observed in EM images. Addition of RNA endonucleases to the TPM elongation assays enhanced processivity. Together, these data suggest that additional transcription factors contribute to efficient and processive transcription elongation by RNA polymerase I in vivo. PMID:27455049

  12. Morphological and Chemical Mechanisms of Elongated Mineral Particle Toxicities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of our understanding regarding the mechanisms for induction of disease following inhalation of respirable elongated mineral particles (REMPs) is based on studies involving the biological effects of asbestos fibers. The factors governing the disease potential of an exposure i...

  13. The Emerging Role of Forces in Axonal Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Daniel M.; Miller, Kyle E.

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of how axons elongate is needed to develop rational strategies to treat neurological diseases and nerve injury. Growth cone-mediated neuronal elongation is currently viewed as occurring through cytoskeletal dynamics involving the polymerization of actin and tubulin subunits at the tip of the axon. However, recent work suggests that axons and growth cones also generate forces (through cytoskeletal dynamics, kinesin, dynein, and myosin), forces induce axonal elongation, and axons lengthen by stretching. This review highlights results from various model systems (Drosophila, Aplysia, Xenopus, chicken, mouse, rat, and PC12 cells), supporting a role for forces, bulk microtubule movements, and intercalated mass addition in the process of axonal elongation. We think that a satisfying answer to the question, “How do axons grow?” will come by integrating the best aspects of biophysics, genetics, and cell biology. PMID:21527310

  14. Shear and effective elongational rheology and polymer molecular characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaoling

    Extensional deformations play a significant role in many processing operations which involve a rapid change of shape such as fiber spinning, film blowing, blow molding, and nonwoven melt processing. To develop real time, on-line process and quality control analysis in these operations, knowledge of the molecular weight (MW) and molecular weight distribution (MWD), effects of molecular characteristics and processing conditions on the elongational rheology, and orientation of polymeric materials in these operations is essential. In this work, shear rheology of six polyethylenes (PE), one polyisobutylene (PIB), and five cellulose solutions was measured at different temperatures using a rotational rheometer. Effective elongational viscosity of polyethylenes and polyisobutylene was also measured at different Hencky strains and temperatures using a capillary rheometer by replacing the capillary cylindrical die with a hyperbolic converging die. The hyperbolic shape of the dies establishes a purely elongational flow field at a constant elongational strain rate throughout the die. The effect of molecular characteristics such as MW, MWD, and long chain branches and the processing conditions such as temperature and Hencky strain on the elongational rheology of PE and PIB samples was studied. The results from the hyperbolic dies were compared with results from other techniques, namely Rheometrics Extensional Rheometer (RER) and Elongational Rheometer for Melts (RME). Good master curves were generated for the temperature and Hencky strain shifting, and simultaneous shifting with respect to both temperature and Hencky strain. The enthalpy and entropy changes were calculated from the effective elongational and shear viscosities to investigate flow induced orientation of the polymer melts in hyperbolic dies. The enthalpy and entropy changes increase in magnitude with higher elongational strain rate and higher Hencky strain. The storage and loss moduli were used to determine and

  15. Prevalence of Elongated Styloid Process in a Central Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Evanice Menezes Marçal; Morais, Sylvania De; Musis, Carlo Ralph De; Albuquerque, Paulo Artur Andrade De; Borges, Álvaro Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Background Eagle’s syndrome comprises a rare disorder caused by compression of an elongated or deformed styloid process or ossified/calcified stylohyoid ligament on neural and vascular structures. It is characterized by facial and neck pain and can be confused with a wide variety of facial neuralgias, oral and dental diseases and temporomandibular disorders. An imaging evaluation associated with a careful clinical examination, are mandatory in structuring a correct differential diagnosis and in the establishment of a proper therapeutic protocol. Aim To investigate the prevalence of the elongated styloid process in a Central Brazilian population and its relation to gender, age and side. Materials and Methods Digital panoramic radiographs of 736 patients (412 female and 324 male, with a mean age of 35.03 years) were consecutively selected from a private radiology clinic’s secondary database. The apparent length of the styloid process was measured from the point where the styloid left the tympanic plate to the tip of the process by two specialists in dental radiology, with the help of the measuring tools on the accompanying software. Styloid process measuring more than 30 mm was considered elongated. The statistical analysis included frequency distribution and cross tabulation. The data were analysed by using Chi-squared tests. The level of significance was set at 5% for all analyses. Results A total of 323 (43.89%) radiographic images were suggestive of elongated styloid process. No statistically significant difference was found between the genders, although a higher prevalence was noticed in female participants. Approximately, 31% of the elongated styloid process was observed in 18-53-year-old participants (p < 0.05). Two hundred and sixty seven styloid processes (36.28%) were elongated on both right and left sides. Conclusion The prevalence of elongated styloid process was high and no statistically significant correlation was found between the presence of

  16. Simultaneous detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli and Didymella bryoniae in cucurbit seedlots using magnetic capture hybridization and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Ha, Y; Fessehaie, A; Ling, K S; Wechter, W P; Keinath, A P; Walcott, R R

    2009-06-01

    To improve the simultaneous detection of two pathogens in cucurbit seed, a combination of magnetic capture hybridization (MCH) and multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. Single-stranded DNA hybridization capture probes targeting DNA of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch, and Didymella bryoniae, causal agent of gummy stem blight, were covalently attached to magnetic particles and used to selectively concentrate template DNA from cucurbit seed samples. Sequestered template DNAs were subsequently amplified by multiplex real-time PCR using pathogen-specific TaqMan PCR assays. The MCH multiplex real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold of A. avenae subsp. citrulli at 10 CFU/ml and D. bryoniae at 10(5) conidia/ml in mixtures of pure cultures of the two pathogens, which was 10-fold more sensitive than the direct real-time PCR assays for the two pathogens separately. Although the direct real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold for A. avenae subsp. citrulli DNA of 100 fg/microl in 25% (1/4 samples) of the samples assayed, MCH real-time PCR demonstrated 100% detection frequency (4/4 samples) at the same DNA concentration. MCH did not improve detection sensitivity for D. bryoniae relative to direct real-time PCR using conidial suspensions or seed washes from D. bryoniae-infested cucurbit seed. However, MCH real-time PCR facilitated detection of both target pathogens in watermelon and melon seed samples (n = 5,000 seeds/sample) in which 0.02% of the seed were infested with A. avenae subsp. citrulli and 0.02% were infested with D. bryoniae. PMID:19453225

  17. Correlation Between NDE Measurements and Elongation of Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R. Bruce; Margetan, Frank J.; Nakagawa, Norio; Haldipur, Pranaam

    2007-03-21

    Complex aluminum forgings can have engineering properties which vary with position due to changes in the underlying local metal microstructure. Consequently, the material properties may be in compliance with production requirements in some regions of the forging, but out of compliance in others. One conical Al-7050 forging of interest was found to have elongation properties which failed required tests in certain regions. NDE measurements sensitive to microstructural changes were carried out to search for correlations with elongation properties. The results of a set of initial feasibility experiments will be reported. Both ultrasonic and eddy current NDE methods were used, with the goal being to determine which properties were sensitive to the elongation. Ultrasonic testing included the measurement of longitudinal and shear-wave velocity, longitudinal wave attenuation, and longitudinal and shear-wave backscattered grain noise. All tests were performed with the sonic beam entering through the coupon face that would be adjacent to the outer surface of the forging. Only modest differences in wave speed and attenuation values were seen among the suite of coupons, but significant differences were seen in backscattered noise levels. These appeared to indicate changes in grain structure but only exhibited partial correlation with elongation. The eddy current measurements were designed to be sensitive to the electrical resistivity. Included were a number of measurement configurations and frequencies. The signals exhibited a significant correlation with elongation.

  18. Deepwater rice: A model plant to study stem elongation

    SciTech Connect

    Kende, H.; Knaap, E. van der; Cho, H.T.

    1998-12-01

    Semiaquatic plants grow mostly in flood plains and along river beds and are adapted to survive partial submergence during periods of flooding. Among their adaptive features are the development of internal air channels (aerenchyma) that facilitate aeration of submerged organs and the capacity for rapid elongation when the plants become partially covered by floodwaters. In addition to its importance as a crop plant, deepwater rice is also excellent for studying basic aspects of plant growth. The growth response is induced by an environmental signal and is mediated by at least three interacting hormones, namely ethylene, ABA, and GA. Internodal elongation is based on increased cell-division activity and enhanced cell elongation in well-delineated zones of the internode. This allows one to study both processes of growth in an integrated manner. Also, the unusually high growth rates magnify growth-related cellular, physiological, biochemical, and molecular processes, thereby facilitating their analysis. In addition to yielding fundamental insights into the growth process, studies of internodal elongation in deepwater rice may ultimately help to identify genes that could confer at least limited elongation capacity onto modern, high-yielding cultivars.

  19. The Jasper Ridge elevated CO{sub 2} experiment: Root acid phosphatase activity in Bromus hordeaceus and Avena barbata remains unchanged under elevated [CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Cardon, Z.G.; Jackson, R.

    1995-06-01

    Root acid phosphatase activity increases phosphate available to plants by cleaving phosphate esters in soil organic matter. Because of increased plant growth potential under elevated [CO{sub 2}], we hypothesized that high [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants might exhibit higher phosphatase activity than low [CO{sub 2}]-grown plants. We assayed phosphatase activity in two species grown on two substrates (Bromus on serpentine soil and Bromus and Avena on sandstone soil) under high and low [CO{sub 2}] and under several nutrient treatments. Phosphatase activity was expressed per gram fresh weight of roots. Phosphatase activity of Bromus roots (on sandstone) was first assayed in treatments where only P and K, or only N, were added to soil. Bromus roots in this case showed strong induction of phosphatase activity when N only had been added to soil, indicating that Bromus regulated its phosphatase activity in response to phosphate availability. Both Bromus and Avena growing in sandstone, and Bromus growing in serpentine, showed enhanced phosphatase activity at high nutrient (N, P, and K) levels over that at low nutrient levels, but no differences between phosphatase activity were apparent between [CO{sub 2}] treatments. The increased phosphatase activity at high N, P, and K may indicate enhanced {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (reflected in higher biomass) in both Avena and Bromus. In contrast, though Bromus {open_quotes}growth demand{close_quotes} (biomass) increased under high [CO{sub 2}] on sandstone, phosphatase activity did not increase.

  20. Wnt5a is essential for intestinal elongation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes, Sara; Yamaguchi, Terry P.; Hebrok, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Summary Morphogenesis of the mammalian small intestine entails extensive elongation and folding of the primitive gut into a tightly coiled digestive tube. Surprisingly, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate the morphological aspects of small intestine formation. Here, we demonstrate that Wnt5a, a member of the Wnt family of secreted proteins, is essential for the development and elongation of the small intestine from the midgut region. We found that the small intestine in mice lacking Wnt5a was dramatically shortened and duplicated, forming a bifurcated lumen instead of a single tube. In addition, cell proliferation was reduced and re-intercalation of post-mitotic cells into the elongating gut tube epithelium was disrupted. Thus, our study demonstrates that Wnt5a functions as a critical regulator of midgut formation and morphogenesis in mammals. PMID:19100728

  1. Elongate summit calderas as Neogene paleostress indicators in Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulsen, T.S.; Wilson, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    The orientations and ages of elongate summit calderas on major polygenetic volcanoes were compiled to document Miocene to Pleistocene Sh (minimum horizontal stress) directions on the western and northern flanks of the West Antarctic rift system. Miocene to Pleistocene summit calderas along the western Ross Sea show relatively consistent ENE long axis trends, which are at a high angle to the Transantarctic Mountain Front and parallel to the N77ºE Sh direction at Cape Roberts. The elongation directions of many Miocene to Pleistocene summit calderas in Marie Byrd Land parallel the alignment of polygenetic volcanoes in which they occur, except several Pleistocene calderas with consistent NNE to NE trends. The overall pattern of elongate calderas in Marie Byrd Land is probably due to a combination of structurally controlled orientations and regional stress fields in which Sh is oriented NNE to NE at a moderate to high angle to the trace of the West Antarctic rift system.

  2. Progressive cis-inhibition of telomerase upon telomere elongation.

    PubMed Central

    Marcand, S; Brevet, V; Gilson, E

    1999-01-01

    In yeast, the constant length of telomeric DNA results from a negative regulation of telomerase by the telomere itself. Here we follow the return to equilibrium of an abnormally shortened telomere. We observe that telomere elongation is restricted to a few base pairs per generation and that its rate decreases progressively with increasing telomere length. In contrast, in the absence of telomerase or in the presence of an over-elongated telomere, the degradation rate linked to the succession of generations appears to be constant, i.e. independent of telomere length. Together, these results indicate that telomerase is gradually inhibited at its site of action by the elongating telomere. The implications of this finding for the dynamics of telomere length regulation are discussed in this study. PMID:10369690

  3. Protein Elongation, Co-translational Folding and Targeting.

    PubMed

    Rodnina, Marina V; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang

    2016-05-22

    The elongation phase of protein synthesis defines the overall speed and fidelity of protein synthesis and affects protein folding and targeting. The mechanisms of reactions taking place during translation elongation remain important questions in understanding ribosome function. The ribosome-guided by signals in the mRNA-can recode the genetic information, resulting in alternative protein products. Co-translational protein folding and interaction of ribosomes and emerging polypeptides with associated protein biogenesis factors determine the quality and localization of proteins. In this review, we summarize recent findings on mechanisms of translation elongation in bacteria, including decoding and recoding, peptide bond formation, tRNA-mRNA translocation, co-translational protein folding, interaction with protein biogenesis factors and targeting of ribosomes synthesizing membrane proteins to the plasma membrane. The data provide insights into how the ribosome shapes composition and quality of the cellular proteome. PMID:27038507

  4. An Elongated Tetrakaidecahedron Model for Open-Celled Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2007-01-01

    A micro-mechanics model for non-isotropic, open-celled foams is developed using an elongated tetrakaidecahedron (Kelvin model) as the repeating unit cell. The micro-mechanics model employs an elongated Kelvin model geometry which is more general than that employed by previous authors. Assuming the cell edges possess axial and bending rigidity, the mechanics of deformation of the elongated tetrakaidecahedron lead to a set of equations for the Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and strength of the foam in the principal material directions. These equations are written as a function of the cell edge lengths and cross-section properties, the inclination angle and the strength and stiffness of the solid material. The model is applied to predict the strength and stiffness of several polymeric foams. Good agreement is observed between the model results and the experimental measurements.

  5. Electrical conductivity and rheology of carbon black composites under elongation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starý, Zdeněk

    2015-04-01

    Electrical properties of conductive polymer composites are governed by filler particle structures which are formed in the material during the mixing. Therefore, knowledge of the behavior of conductive particle structures under defined conditions of deformation is necessary to produce materials with balanced electrical and rheological properties. Whereas the electrical conductivity evolution under shear can be nowadays studied even with the commercial rheometers, the investigations under elongation were not performed up to now. In this work simultaneous electrical and rheological measurements in elongation on polystyrene/carbon black composites are introduced. Such kind of experiment can help in understanding the relationships between processing conditions and properties of conductive polymer composites.

  6. Shade-induced stem elongation in rice seedlings: Implication of tissue-specific phytohormone regulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huihui; Yang, Chuanwei; Li, Lin

    2016-07-01

    A better understanding of shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) is an urgent need because of its effect on energy reallocation. Leverage-related mechanism in crops is of potential economic interest for agricultural applications. Here we report the SAS phenotype at tissue level rice seedlings. Tissue-specific RNA-sequencing indicates auxin plays different roles between coleoptile and the first leaf. Phenotypes of wild type treated by gibberellin and brassinosteroid biosynthesis inhibitors and of related mutants suggest these two hormones positively regulate SAS. Our work reveals the diversity of hormone responses in different organs and different species in shade conditions. PMID:26888633

  7. Osteogenetic changes in elongated styloid processes of Eagle syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soung Min; Seo, Mi Hyun; Myoung, Hoon; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Yeon Sook; Lee, Suk Keun

    2014-07-01

    Abnormal elongation of the styloid process, or Eagle syndrome, can be painful, and is associated with differential diagnoses including cranio-facial malformations and vasculo-neurological disturbances. The precise molecular mechanism leading to styloid process elongation is unknown. In this study, elongated styloid processes with periosteal fibrous ligament tissue were obtained from three patients with Eagle syndrome and examined by immunohistochemical methods using different antisera. In all cases, marked bony deposition was found at the apex of the styloid process. The osteogenetic proteins, such as osteonectin, osteocalcin, BMP-2, BMP-4, and RANKL were strongly positive by immunohistochemistry in both the ligament fibers and the periosteal membrane attached to the styloid process apex. Staining for protective proteins, HO-1, HSP-70, and HSP-90 was also positive. These results suggest that styloid process elongation is related to increased expression of osteogenetic and protective proteins. Therefore, we propose that Eagle syndrome results from a protective response to increased tensile stress in the ligament attached to the styloid process, which could also signal osteogenetic protein expression in the periosteal fibrous tissue. PMID:24161467

  8. Quantitative regulation of FLC via coordinated transcriptional initiation and elongation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhe; Ietswaart, Robert; Liu, Fuquan; Yang, Hongchun; Howard, Martin; Dean, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The basis of quantitative regulation of gene expression is still poorly understood. In Arabidopsis thaliana, quantitative variation in expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) influences the timing of flowering. In ambient temperatures, FLC expression is quantitatively modulated by a chromatin silencing mechanism involving alternative polyadenylation of antisense transcripts. Investigation of this mechanism unexpectedly showed that RNA polymerase II (Pol II) occupancy changes at FLC did not reflect RNA fold changes. Mathematical modeling of these transcriptional dynamics predicted a tight coordination of transcriptional initiation and elongation. This prediction was validated by detailed measurements of total and chromatin-bound FLC intronic RNA, a methodology appropriate for analyzing elongation rate changes in a range of organisms. Transcription initiation was found to vary ∼25-fold with elongation rate varying ∼8- to 12-fold. Premature sense transcript termination contributed very little to expression differences. This quantitative variation in transcription was coincident with variation in H3K36me3 and H3K4me2 over the FLC gene body. We propose different chromatin states coordinately influence transcriptional initiation and elongation rates and that this coordination is likely to be a general feature of quantitative gene regulation in a chromatin context. PMID:26699513

  9. Molecular development of the mid-stage elongating cotton fiber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber is one of the leading natural textile fibers and is the leading value added crop in the USA. The annual business revenue from the cotton industry exceeds $120 billion. The growth of the cotton fiber is divided into four unique, yet overlapping stages; initiation, elongation, secondary w...

  10. THE BRASSICA RAPA ELONGATED INTERNODE (EIN) GENE ENCODES PHYTOCHROME B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elongated internode (ein) mutation of Brassica rapa leads to a deficiency in immunochemically detectable phytochrome B. Molecular analysis of the PHYB gene from ein indicates a deletion in the flanking DNA 5' of the ATG start codon, which could interfere either with PHYB transcription or process...

  11. Collisional diffusion in toroidal plasmas with elongation and triangularity

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.; Castro, E.; Haines, M. G.

    2007-05-15

    Collisional diffusion is analyzed for plasma tokamaks with different ellipticities and triangularities. Improved nonlinear equations for the families of magnetic surfaces are used here. Dimensionless average velocities are calculated as a function of the inductive electric field, elongation, triangularity, and Shafranov shift. Confinement has been found to depend significantly on triangularity.

  12. Effect of aglycon structure on saccharide elongation by cells.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tamami; Kasuya, Maria Carmelita Z; Hatanaka, Kenichi; Matsuoka, Koji

    2015-02-01

    Alkyl N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide (GlcNAc primers) with different aglycon moieties were synthesized and used to determine the effect of the aglycon structure on cellular saccharide elongation. Dodecyl N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide (GlcNAc-C12), tridecan-7-yl N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide (GlcNAc-2C6), and pentacosan-13-yl N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide (GlcNAc-2C12) primers were synthesized by glycosylation of dodecan-1-ol, tridecan-7-ol, and pentacosan-13-ol, respectively, with peracetylglucosamine. These primers were introduced to mouse B16 melanoma cells to prepare glycolipids. After 48 h incubation, results showed that GlcNAc-C12 was elongated to give NeuAc-Gal-GlcNAc-C12. GlcNAc-2C6 was also elongated to afford Gal-GlcNAc-2C6 and NeuAc-Gal-GlcNAc-2C6. On the other hand, GlcNAc-2C12 primer was not elongated. Significantly, the results demonstrated that the amount of glycosylated product increased 1.5-times by modifying the aglycon structure of GlcNAc from C12 to 2 C6 despite having almost the same number of C-units. PMID:25676505

  13. Quadratic elongation: A quantitative measure of distortion in coordination polyhedra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Gibbs, G.V.; Ribbe, P.H.

    1971-01-01

    Quadratic elongation and the variance of bond angles are linearly correlated for distorted octahedral and tetrahedral coordination complexes, both of which show variations in bond length and bond angle. The quadratic elonga tion is dimensionless, giving a quantitative measure of polyhedral distortion which is independent of the effective size of the polyhedron.

  14. Molecular landscape of cotton fiber in early elongation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fibers are the dominant source of natural fibers used in the textile industry and contribute significantly to the world economy. Adverse environmental conditions negatively affect fiber characteristics, especially when the fibers are in the elongation phase of development. Improvement in the...

  15. Self-paired monoclonal antibody lateral flow immunoassay strip for rapid detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Haijuan; Guo, Wenbo; Liang, Beibei; Li, Jianwu; Zhai, Xuzhao; Song, Chunmei; Zhao, Wenjun; Fan, Enguo; Liu, Qing

    2016-09-01

    We screened a highly specific monoclonal antibody (McAb), named 6D, against Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac). Single McAb 6D was used as both nanogold-labeled antibody and test antibody to develop a single self-paired colloidal gold immunochromatographic test strip (Sa-GICS). The detection limit achieved using the Sa-GICS approach was 10(5) CFU/mL, with a result that can be observed by the naked eye within 10 min. Moreover, Sa-GICS can detect eight strains of Aac and display no cross-reactions with other pathogenic plant microorganisms. Artificial contamination experiments demonstrated that Sa-GICS would not be affected by impurities in the leaves or stems of the plants and were consistent with the PCR results. This is the first report on the development of a colloidal gold immunoassay strip with self-paired single McAb for the rapid detection of Aac. Graphical Abstract Schematic representation of the test strip. PMID:27370686

  16. Isolation and Identification of Potential Allelochemicals from Aerial Parts of Avena fatua L. and Their Allelopathic Effect on Wheat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingang; Tian, Fajun; Tian, Yingying; Wu, Yanbing; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-05-11

    Five compounds (syringic acid, tricin, acacetin, syringoside, and diosmetin) were isolated from the aerial parts of wild oats (Avena fatua L.) using chromatography columns of silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their chemical structures were identified by means of electrospray ionization and high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses. Bioassays showed that the five compounds had significant allelopathic effects on the germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The five compounds inhibited fresh wheat as well as the shoot and root growth of wheat by approximately 50% at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, except for tricin and syringoside for shoot growth. The results of activity testing indicated that the aerial parts of wild oats had strong allelopathic potential and could cause different degrees of influence on surrounding plants. Moreover, these compounds could be key allelochemicals in wild-oat-infested wheat fields and interfere with wheat growth via allelopathy. PMID:27079356

  17. Identification of Genes in a Partially Resistant Genotype of Avena sativa Expressed in Response to Puccinia coronata Infection.

    PubMed

    Loarce, Yolanda; Navas, Elisa; Paniagua, Carlos; Fominaya, Araceli; Manjón, José L; Ferrer, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated oat (Avena sativa), an important crop in many countries, can suffer significant losses through infection by the fungus Puccinia coronata, the causal agent of crown rust disease. Understanding the molecular basis of existing partial resistance to this disease might provide targets of interest for crop improvement programs. A suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was constructed using cDNA from the partially resistant oat genotype MN841801-1 after inoculation with the pathogen. A total of 929 genes returned a BLASTx hit and were annotated under different GO terms, including 139 genes previously described as participants in mechanisms related to the defense response and signal transduction. Among these were genes involved in pathogen recognition, cell-wall modification, oxidative burst/ROS scavenging, and abscisic acid biosynthesis, as well genes related to inducible defense responses mediated by salicylic and jasmonic acid (although none of which had been previously reported involved in strong responses). These findings support the hypothesis that basal defense mechanisms are the main systems operating in oat partial resistance to P. coronata. When the expression profiles of 20 selected genes were examined at different times following inoculation with the pathogen, the partially resistant genotype was much quicker in mounting a response than a susceptible genotype. Additionally, a number of genes not previously described in oat transcriptomes were identified in this work, increasing our molecular knowledge of this crop. PMID:27303424

  18. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Tolerance in Spring Oat (Avena sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Foresman, Bradley J; Oliver, Rebekah E; Jackson, Eric W; Chao, Shiaoman; Arruda, Marcio P; Kolb, Frederic L

    2016-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) are responsible for the disease barley yellow dwarf (BYD) and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.). Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-trait association studies to determine the genetic mechanisms for tolerance. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 428 spring oat lines using a recently developed high-density oat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array as well as a SNP-based consensus map. Marker-trait associations were performed using a Q-K mixed model approach to control for population structure and relatedness. Six significant SNP-trait associations representing two QTL were found on chromosomes 3C (Mrg17) and 18D (Mrg04). This is the first report of BYDV tolerance QTL on chromosome 3C (Mrg17) and 18D (Mrg04). Haplotypes using the two QTL were evaluated and distinct classes for tolerance were identified based on the number of favorable alleles. A large number of lines carrying both favorable alleles were observed in the panel. PMID:27175781

  19. Use of High-Resolution Multispectral Imagery to Estimate Chlorophyll and Plant Nitrogen in Oats (Avena sativa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ELarab, M.; Ticlavilca, A. M.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; Maslova, I.; McKee, M.

    2013-12-01

    Precision agriculture requires high spatial resolution in the application of the inputs to agricultural production. This requires that actionable information about crop and field status be acquired at the same high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. In this study, high-resolution imagery was obtained through the use of a small, unmanned aerial vehicle, called AggieAirTM, that provides spatial resolution as fine as 6 cm. Simultaneously with AggieAir flights, intensive ground sampling was conducted at precisely determined locations for plant chlorophyll, plant nitrogen, and other parameters. This study investigated the spectral signature of a crop of oats (Avena sativa) and formulated machine learning regression models of reflectance response between the multi-spectral bands available from AggieAir (red, green, blue, near infrared, and thermal), plant chlorophyll and plant nitrogen. We tested two, separate relevance vector machines (RVM) and a single multivariate relevance vector machine (MVRVM) to develop the linkages between the remotely sensed data and plant chlorophyll and nitrogen at approximately 15-cm resolution. The results of this study are presented, including a statistical evaluation of the performance of the different models and a comparison of the RVM modeling methods against more traditional approaches that have been used for estimation of plant chlorophyll and nitrogen.

  20. [A sudden rise in INR due to combination of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa, and Panax ginseng (Clavis Panax)].

    PubMed

    Turfan, Murat; Tasal, Abdurrahman; Ergun, Fatih; Ergelen, Mehmet

    2012-04-01

    Warfarin sodium is an antithrombin agent used in patients with prosthetic valve and atrial fibrillation. However, there are many factors that can change the effectiveness of the drug. Today, herbal mixtures promoted through targeted print and visual media can lead to sudden activity changes in patients using warfarin. In this case report we will present two cases with a sudden rise in INR due to using combination of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa and Panax ginseng (Panax Clavis). Two patients who used warfarin due to a history of aortic valve replacement (case 1) and atrial fibrillation (case 2) were admitted to the hospital due very high levels of INR detected during routine follow-up. Both patients had used an herbal medicine called ''Panax'' during the last month. The patients gave no indication regarding a change in diet or the use of another agent that might interact with warfarin. In cases where active bleeding could not be determinated, we terminated the use of the drug and re-evaluated dosage of warfarin before finally discharging the patient. PMID:22864323

  1. Orco mediates olfactory behaviors and winged morph differentiation induced by alarm pheromone in the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jia; Zhang, Yong; Francis, Frédéric; Cheng, Dengfa; Sun, Jingrun; Chen, Julian

    2015-09-01

    Olfaction is crucial for short distance host location and pheromone detection by insects. Complexes of olfactory receptors (ORs) are composed of odor-specific ORs and OR co-receptors (Orco). Orcos are widely co-expressed with odor-specific ORs and are conserved across insect taxa. A number of Orco orthologs have been studied to date, although none has been identified in cereal aphids. In this study, an Orco gene ortholog was cloned from the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, and named "SaveOrco"; RNA interference (RNAi) reduced the expression of SaveOrco to 34.11% in aphids, resulting in weaker EAG (electroantennogram) responses to plant volatiles (Z-3-hexene-1-ol; methyl salicylate, MeSA) and aphid alarm pheromone (E-β-farnesene, EBF). Aphid wing differentiation induced by EBF was investigated in both RNAi treated and untreated aphids. EBF induced production of winged aphids in both pre-natal and post-natal periods in untreated aphids, but no such induction was observed in the RNAi-treated aphids. We conclude that SaveOrco is crucial for the aphid's response to pheromones and other volatiles, and is involved in wing differentiation triggered by EBF. PMID:26187252

  2. Comparison of fitness traits and their plasticity on multiple plants for Sitobion avenae infected and cured of a secondary endosymbiont

    PubMed Central

    Da Wang; Shi, Xiaoqin; Dai, Peng; Liu, Deguang; Dai, Xinjia; Shang, Zheming; Ge, Zhaohong; Meng, Xiuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Regiella insecticola has been found to enhance the performance of host aphids on certain plants, but its functional role in adaptation of host aphids to plants is still controversial. Here we evaluate the impacts of R. insecticola infections on vital life-history traits of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), and their underlying genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity on three plants. It was shown that effects of R. insecticola on S. avenae’s fitness (i.e., developmental time and fecundity) were neutral on oat or wheat, but negative on rye. Infections of R. insecticola modified genetic variation that underlies S. avenae’s life-history traits. This was demonstrated by comparing life-history trait heritabilities between aphid lines with and without R. insecticola. Moreover, there were enhanced negative genetic correlations between developmental time and fecundity for R. insecticola infected lines, and structural differences in G-matrices of life-history traits for the two types of aphid lines. In R. insecticola-infected aphid lines, there were increases in plasticities for developmental times of first and second instar nymphs and for fecundity, showing novel functional roles of bacterial symbionts in plant-insect interactions. The identified effects of R. insecticola infections could have significant implications for the ecology and evolution of its host populations in natural conditions. PMID:26979151

  3. Toxicity of methyl tert-butyl ether to plants (Avena sativa, Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, and Lactuca sativa).

    PubMed

    An, Youn-Joo; Kampbell, Donald H; McGill, Mary E

    2002-08-01

    Influence of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of seedling plants were studied in laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oats (Avena sativa), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination, shoot growth, and root growth of plants exposed to different concentrations of MTBE in a moist soil were examined. Seed germination and seedling growth in MTBE-contaminated soil were markedly reduced in all test plants. The median lethal concentration values for seed germination tests and the median effective concentration values for shoot or root growth were calculated. The values for lettuce, wild oats, wheat, and sweet corn were in the range of 18 to 91, 362 to 459, 432 to 751, and 672 to 964 mg MTBE/kg soil as dry weight, respectively. Lettuce was most sensitive to MTBE, followed (in order of decreasing sensitivity) by wild oats, wheat, and sweet corn. Because MTBE can be readily absorbed by plants due to its high solubility in water, plant growth was a more sensitive endpoint than seed germination. Shoot length was more reduced in MTBE-contaminated soil than was the root length, which indicated that MTBE might be transported within the plant from the roots to the shoots. PMID:12152769

  4. Vitamin E levels in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) expressing a p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate gene from oat (Avena sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Kramer, Catherine M; Launis, Karen L; Traber, Maret G; Ward, Dennis P

    2014-04-16

    The enzyme p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is ubiquitous in plants and functions in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, resulting in the formation of homogentisate. Homogentisate is the aromatic precursor of all plastoquinones and tocochromanols, including tocopherols and tocotrienols. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has been genetically modified to express the gene avhppd-03 that encodes the protein AvHPPD-03 derived from oat (Avena sativa L.). The AvHPPD-03 isozyme has an inherent reduced binding affinity for mesotrione, a herbicide that inhibits the wild-type soybean HPPD enzyme. Expression of avhppd-03 in soybean plants confers a mesotrione-tolerant phenotype. Seeds from three different avhppd-03-expressing soybean events were quantitatively assessed for content of eight vitamin E isoforms. Although increased levels of two tocopherol isoforms were identified for each of the three soybean events, they were within, or not substantially different from, the ranges of these isoforms found in nontransgenic soybean varieties. The increases of these tocopherols in the avhppd-03-expressing soybean events may have a slight benefit with regard to vitamin E nutrition but, given the commercial processing of soybeans, are unlikely to have a material impact on human nutrition with regard to vitamin E concentrations in soybean oil. PMID:24684596

  5. Identification of Genes in a Partially Resistant Genotype of Avena sativa Expressed in Response to Puccinia coronata Infection

    PubMed Central

    Loarce, Yolanda; Navas, Elisa; Paniagua, Carlos; Fominaya, Araceli; Manjón, José L.; Ferrer, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated oat (Avena sativa), an important crop in many countries, can suffer significant losses through infection by the fungus Puccinia coronata, the causal agent of crown rust disease. Understanding the molecular basis of existing partial resistance to this disease might provide targets of interest for crop improvement programs. A suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was constructed using cDNA from the partially resistant oat genotype MN841801-1 after inoculation with the pathogen. A total of 929 genes returned a BLASTx hit and were annotated under different GO terms, including 139 genes previously described as participants in mechanisms related to the defense response and signal transduction. Among these were genes involved in pathogen recognition, cell-wall modification, oxidative burst/ROS scavenging, and abscisic acid biosynthesis, as well genes related to inducible defense responses mediated by salicylic and jasmonic acid (although none of which had been previously reported involved in strong responses). These findings support the hypothesis that basal defense mechanisms are the main systems operating in oat partial resistance to P. coronata. When the expression profiles of 20 selected genes were examined at different times following inoculation with the pathogen, the partially resistant genotype was much quicker in mounting a response than a susceptible genotype. Additionally, a number of genes not previously described in oat transcriptomes were identified in this work, increasing our molecular knowledge of this crop. PMID:27303424

  6. Impact of Biotic and Abiotic Stresses on the Competitive Ability of Multiple Herbicide Resistant Wild Oat (Avena fatua)

    PubMed Central

    Lehnhoff, Erik A.; Keith, Barbara K.; Dyer, William E.; Menalled, Fabian D.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological theory predicts that fitness costs of herbicide resistance should lead to the reduced relative abundance of resistant populations upon the cessation of herbicide use. This greenhouse research investigated the potential fitness costs of two multiple herbicide resistant (MHR) wild oat (Avena fatua) populations, an economically important weed that affects cereal and pulse crop production in the Northern Great Plains of North America. We compared the competitive ability of two MHR and two herbicide susceptible (HS) A. fatua populations along a gradient of biotic and abiotic stresses The biotic stress was imposed by three levels of wheat (Triticum aestivum) competition (0, 4, and 8 individuals pot−1) and an abiotic stress by three nitrogen (N) fertilization rates (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha−1). Data were analyzed with linear mixed-effects models and results showed that the biomass of all A. fatua populations decreased with increasing T. aestivum competition at all N rates. Similarly, A. fatua relative growth rate (RGR) decreased with increasing T. aestivum competition at the medium and high N rates but there was no response with 0 N. There were no differences between the levels of biomass or RGR of HS and MHR populations in response to T. aestivum competition. Overall, the results indicate that MHR does not confer growth-related fitness costs in these A. fatua populations, and that their relative abundance will not be diminished with respect to HS populations in the absence of herbicide treatment. PMID:23696896

  7. Inhibition of Fusarium graminearum growth in flour gel cultures by hexane-soluble compounds from oat (Avena sativa L.) flour.

    PubMed

    Doehlert, Douglas C; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; McMullen, Michael S

    2011-12-01

    Fusarium head blight, incited by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, primarily affects wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgarum), while oat (Avena sativa) appears to be more resistant. Although this has generally been attributed to the open panicle of oats, we hypothesized that a chemical component of oats might contribute to this resistance. To test this hypothesis, we created culture media made of wheat, barley, and oat flour gels (6 g of flour in 20 ml of water, gelled by autoclaving) and inoculated these with plugs of F. graminearum from actively growing cultures. Fusarium growth was measured from the diameter of the fungal plaque. Plaque diameter was significantly smaller on oat flour cultures than on wheat or barley cultures after 40 to 80 h of growth. Ergosterol concentration was also significantly lower in oat cultures than in wheat cultures after growth. A hexane extract from oats added to wheat flour also inhibited Fusarium growth, and Fusarium grew better on hexane-defatted oat flour. The growth of Fusarium on oat flour was significantly and negatively affected by the oil concentration in the oat, in a linear relationship. A hexane-soluble chemical in oat flour appears to inhibit Fusarium growth and might contribute to oat's resistance to Fusarium head blight. Oxygenated fatty acids, including hydroxy, dihydroxy, and epoxy fatty acids, were identified in the hexane extracts and are likely candidates for causing the inhibition. PMID:22186063

  8. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Tolerance in Spring Oat (Avena sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Foresman, Bradley J.; Oliver, Rebekah E.; Jackson, Eric W.; Chao, Shiaoman; Arruda, Marcio P.; Kolb, Frederic L.

    2016-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) are responsible for the disease barley yellow dwarf (BYD) and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.). Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-trait association studies to determine the genetic mechanisms for tolerance. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 428 spring oat lines using a recently developed high-density oat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array as well as a SNP-based consensus map. Marker-trait associations were performed using a Q-K mixed model approach to control for population structure and relatedness. Six significant SNP-trait associations representing two QTL were found on chromosomes 3C (Mrg17) and 18D (Mrg04). This is the first report of BYDV tolerance QTL on chromosome 3C (Mrg17) and 18D (Mrg04). Haplotypes using the two QTL were evaluated and distinct classes for tolerance were identified based on the number of favorable alleles. A large number of lines carrying both favorable alleles were observed in the panel. PMID:27175781

  9. Binary asteroid population. 3. Secondary rotations and elongations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravec, P.; Scheirich, P.; Kušnirák, P.; Hornoch, K.; Galád, A.; Naidu, S. P.; Pray, D. P.; Világi, J.; Gajdoš, Š.; Kornoš, L.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Cooney, W. R.; Gross, J.; Terrell, D.; Gaftonyuk, N.; Pollock, J.; Husárik, M.; Chiorny, V.; Stephens, R. D.; Durkee, R.; Reddy, V.; Dyvig, R.; Vraštil, J.; Žižka, J.; Mottola, S.; Hellmich, S.; Oey, J.; Benishek, V.; Kryszczyńska, A.; Higgins, D.; Ries, J.; Marchis, F.; Baek, M.; Macomber, B.; Inasaridze, R.; Kvaratskhelia, O.; Ayvazian, V.; Rumyantsev, V.; Masi, G.; Colas, F.; Lecacheux, J.; Montaigut, R.; Leroy, A.; Brown, P.; Krzeminski, Z.; Molotov, I.; Reichart, D.; Haislip, J.; LaCluyze, A.

    2016-03-01

    We collected data on rotations and elongations of 46 secondaries of binary and triple systems among near-Earth, Mars-crossing and small main belt asteroids. 24 were found or are strongly suspected to be synchronous (in 1:1 spin-orbit resonance), and the other 22, generally on more distant and/or eccentric orbits, were found or are suggested to have asynchronous rotations. For 18 of the synchronous secondaries, we constrained their librational angles, finding that their long axes pointed to within 20° of the primary on most epochs. The observed anti-correlation of secondary synchroneity with orbital eccentricity and the limited librational angles agree with the theories by Ćuk and Nesvorný (Ćuk, M., Nesvorný, D. [2010]. Icarus 207, 732-743) and Naidu and Margot (Naidu, S.P., Margot, J.-L. [2015]. Astron. J. 149, 80). A reason for the asynchronous secondaries being on wider orbits than synchronous ones may be longer tidal circularization time scales at larger semi-major axes. The asynchronous secondaries show relatively fast spins; their rotation periods are typically < 10 h. An intriguing observation is a paucity of chaotic secondary rotations; with an exception of (35107) 1991 VH, the secondary rotations are single-periodic with no signs of chaotic rotation and their periods are constant on timescales from weeks to years. The secondary equatorial elongations show an upper limit of a2 /b2 ∼ 1.5 . The lack of synchronous secondaries with greater elongations appears consistent, considering uncertainties of the axis ratio estimates, with the theory by Ćuk and Nesvorný that predicts large regions of chaotic rotation in the phase space for a2 /b2 ≳√{ 2 } . Alternatively, secondaries may not form or stay very elongated in gravitational (tidal) field of the primary. It could be due to the secondary fission mechanism suggested by Jacobson and Scheeres (Jacobson, S.A., Scheeres, D.J. [2011]. Icarus 214, 161-178), as its efficiency is correlated with the

  10. Stimulation of root elongation and curvature by calcium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, H.; Scott, T. K.; Suge, H.

    1992-01-01

    Ca2+ has been proposed to mediate inhibition of root elongation. However, exogenous Ca2+ at 10 or 20 millimolar, applied directly to the root cap, significantly stimulated root elongation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Furthermore, Ca2+ at 1 to 20 millimolar, applied unilaterally to the caps of Alaska pea roots, caused root curvature away from the Ca2+ source, which was caused by an acceleration of elongation growth on the convex side (Ca2+ side) of the roots. Roots of an agravitropic pea mutant, ageotropum, responded to a greater extent. Roots of Merit and Silver Queen corn also responded to Ca2+ in similar ways but required a higher Ca2+ concentration than that of pea roots. Roots of all other cultivars tested (additional four cultivars of pea and one of corn) curved away from the unilateral Ca2+ source as well. The Ca(2+)-stimulated curvature was substantially enhanced by light. A Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, at 20 micromolar or abscisic acid at 0.1 to 100 micromolar partially substituted for the light effect and enhanced the Ca(2+)-stimulated curvature in the dark. Unilateral application of Ca2+ to the elongation zone of intact roots or to the cut end of detipped roots caused either no curvature or very slight curvature toward the Ca2+. Thus, Ca2+ action on root elongation differs depending on its site of application. The stimulatory action of Ca2+ may involve an elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in root cap cells and may partipate in root tropisms.

  11. Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J.; Rattner, Jerome B.; Hoorn, Frans A. van der

    2009-10-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3{beta} by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.

  12. ADENYLATE CYCLASE REGULATES ELONGATION OF MAMMALIAN PRIMARY CILIA

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J.; Rattner, Jerome B.; van der Hoorn, Frans A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3β by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1–2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway. PMID:19576885

  13. Quantifying elongation rhythm during full-length protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Gabriel; Chen, Chunlai; Kaur, Jaskiran; Cui, Xiaonan; Zhang, Haibo; Asahara, Haruichi; Chong, Shaorong; Smilansky, Zeev; Goldman, Yale E; Cooperman, Barry S

    2013-07-31

    Pauses regulate the rhythm of ribosomal protein synthesis. Mutations disrupting even minor pauses can give rise to improperly formed proteins and human disease. Such minor pauses are difficult to characterize by ensemble methods, but can be readily examined by single-molecule (sm) approaches. Here we use smFRET to carry out real-time monitoring of the expression of a full-length protein, the green fluorescent protein variant Emerald GFP. We demonstrate significant correlations between measured elongation rates and codon and isoacceptor tRNA usage, and provide a quantitative estimate of the effect on elongation rate of replacing a codon recognizing an abundant tRNA with a synonymous codon cognate to a rarer tRNA. Our results suggest that tRNA selection plays an important general role in modulating the rates and rhythms of protein synthesis, potentially influencing simultaneous co-translational processes such as folding and chemical modification. PMID:23822614

  14. Kinetics of protein fibrillation controlled by fibril elongation.

    PubMed

    Kashchiev, Dimo

    2014-09-01

    Numerous proteins have the ability to assemble into fibrillar aggregates which are of great interest, because they feature in scores of human diseases and many technological products. In the present work, we analyze the kinetics of protein fibrillation when the process is governed solely by elongation of initially appeared fibrils in the protein solution. We derive exact expressions for the time dependences of the fibrillation degree, the concentration of monomeric protein in the solution, and the average fibril size. Furthermore, we present formulas for the initial fibrillation rate and the half-fibrillation time in terms of experimentally controllable quantities. The results obtained provide a mechanistic insight into the kinetics of protein fibrillation mediated by fibril elongation. We confront theory with experiment and find that it allows a good description of available experimental data for fibrillation of the Alzheimer's disease-associated protein Aβ(1-40) and the yeast prion protein Sup35. PMID:24753319

  15. TERRA promotes telomerase-mediated telomere elongation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Martin; Wischnewski, Harry; Bah, Amadou; Hu, Yan; Liu, Na; Lafranchi, Lorenzo; King, Megan C; Azzalin, Claus M

    2016-07-01

    Telomerase-mediated telomere elongation provides cell populations with the ability to proliferate indefinitely. Telomerase is capable of recognizing and extending the shortest telomeres in cells; nevertheless, how this mechanism is executed remains unclear. Here, we show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, shortened telomeres are highly transcribed into the evolutionarily conserved long noncoding RNA TERRA A fraction of TERRA produced upon telomere shortening is polyadenylated and largely devoid of telomeric repeats, and furthermore, telomerase physically interacts with this polyadenylated TERRA in vivo We also show that experimentally enhanced transcription of a manipulated telomere promotes its association with telomerase and concomitant elongation. Our data represent the first direct evidence that TERRA stimulates telomerase recruitment and activity at chromosome ends in an organism with human-like telomeres. PMID:27154402

  16. Elongated solid electrolyte cell configurations and flexible connections therefor

    DOEpatents

    Reichner, Philip

    1989-01-01

    A flexible, high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cell stack configuration is made, comprising a plurality of flattened, elongated, connected cell combinations 1, each cell combination containing an interior electrode 2 having a top surface and a plurality of interior gas feed conduits 3, through its axial length, electrolyte 5 contacting the interior electrode and exterior electrode 8 contacting electrolyte, where a major portion of the air electrode top surface 7 is covered by interconnection material 6, and where each cell has at least one axially elongated, electronically conductive, flexible, porous, metal fiber felt material 9 in electronic connection with the air electrode 2 through contact with a major portion of the interconnection material 6, the metal fiber felt being effective as a shock absorbent body between the cells.

  17. New Insights on Plant Cell Elongation: A Role for Acetylcholine

    PubMed Central

    Di Sansebastiano, Gian-Pietro; Fornaciari, Silvia; Barozzi, Fabrizio; Piro, Gabriella; Arru, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of auxin and acetylcholine on the expression of the tomato expansin gene LeEXPA2, a specific expansin gene expressed in elongating tomato hypocotyl segments. Since auxin interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, in order to regulate cellular and developmental responses we produced protoplasts from tomato elongating hypocotyls and followed the endocytotic marker, FM4-64, internalization in response to treatments. Tomato protoplasts were observed during auxin and acetylcholine treatments after transient expression of chimerical markers of volume-control related compartments such as vacuoles. Here we describe the contribution of auxin and acetylcholine to LeEXPA2 expression regulation and we support the hypothesis that a possible subcellular target of acetylcholine signal is the vesicular transport, shedding some light on the characterization of this small molecule as local mediator in the plant physiological response. PMID:24642879

  18. New insights on plant cell elongation: a role for acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Di Sansebastiano, Gian-Pietro; Fornaciari, Silvia; Barozzi, Fabrizio; Piro, Gabriella; Arru, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of auxin and acetylcholine on the expression of the tomato expansin gene LeEXPA2, a specific expansin gene expressed in elongating tomato hypocotyl segments. Since auxin interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, in order to regulate cellular and developmental responses we produced protoplasts from tomato elongating hypocotyls and followed the endocytotic marker, FM4-64, internalization in response to treatments. Tomato protoplasts were observed during auxin and acetylcholine treatments after transient expression of chimerical markers of volume-control related compartments such as vacuoles. Here we describe the contribution of auxin and acetylcholine to LeEXPA2 expression regulation and we support the hypothesis that a possible subcellular target of acetylcholine signal is the vesicular transport, shedding some light on the characterization of this small molecule as local mediator in the plant physiological response. PMID:24642879

  19. Elongated solid electrolyte cell configurations and flexible connections therefor

    DOEpatents

    Reichner, P.

    1989-10-17

    A flexible, high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cell stack configuration is made, comprising a plurality of flattened, elongated, connected cell combinations, each cell combination containing an interior electrode having a top surface and a plurality of interior gas feed conduits, through its axial length, electrolyte contacting the interior electrode and exterior electrode contacting electrolyte, where a major portion of the air electrode top surface is covered by interconnection material, and where each cell has at least one axially elongated, electronically conductive, flexible, porous, metal fiber felt material in electronic connection with the air electrode through contact with a major portion of the interconnection material, the metal fiber felt being effective as a shock absorbent body between the cells. 4 figs.

  20. Accumulation of motile elongated micro-organisms in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Caijuan; Sardina, Gaetano; Lushi, Enkeleida; Brandt, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of turbulence on marine life by performing numerical simulations of motile microorganisms, modelled as prolate spheroids, in isotropic homogeneous turbulence. We show that the clustering and patchiness observed in laminar flows, linear shear and vortex flows, are significantly reduced in a three-dimensional turbulent flow mainly because of the complex topology; elongated micro-orgamisms show some level of clustering in the case of swimmers without any preferential alignment whereas spherical swimmers remain uniformly distributed. Micro-organisms with one preferential swimming direction (e.g. gyrotaxis) still show significant clustering if spherical in shape, whereas prolate swimmers remain more uniformly distributed. Due to their large sensitivity to the local shear, these elongated swimmers react slower to the action of vorticity and gravity and therefore do not have time to accumulate in a turbulent flow. These results show how purely hydrodynamic effects can alter the ecology of microorganisms that can vary their shape and their preferential orientation.

  1. Enhanced delivery of nano- and submicron particles using elongated microparticles.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Anthony P; Sisney, John P; Liu, David C; Prow, Tarl W

    2015-01-01

    Nanodermatology is a rapidly emerging field of study receiving significant interest because of its potential application in the prevention and treatment of skin diseases. However, nanoparticulate penetration into and through the skin is not feasible through topical application alone. Many physical and chemical approaches have been developed to enhance particulate penetration into skin. The most successful have been physical penetration enhancers. We have found that elongated microparticles can significantly improve topical nano- and microsphere delivery in an in vivo porcine model. The delivery efficiency was inversely related to the diameter of the payload. These data support a role for elongated microparticle enhanced delivery of nano- and submicron particulate cosmeceutical or therapeutic applications. PMID:25176162

  2. Visualizing the elongated vortices in γ -Ga nanostrips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui-Min; Li, Zi-Xiang; Peng, Jun-Ping; Song, Can-Li; Guan, Jia-Qi; Li, Zhi; Wang, Lili; He, Ke; Ji, Shuai-Hua; Chen, Xi; Yao, Hong; Ma, Xu-Cun; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2016-01-01

    We study the magnetic response of superconducting γ -Ga via low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The magnetic vortex cores rely substantially on the Ga geometry, and exhibit an unexpectedly large axial elongation with aspect ratio up to 40 in rectangular Ga nanostrips (width l <100 nm). This is in stark contrast with the isotropic circular vortex core in a larger round-shaped Ga island. We suggest that the unusual elongated vortices in Ga nanostrips originate from geometric confinement effect probably via the strong repulsive interaction between the vortices and Meissner screening currents at the sample edge. Our finding provides novel conceptual insights into the geometrical confinement effect on magnetic vortices and forms the basis for the technological applications of superconductors.

  3. Noise regulation and symmetry breaking during vertebrate body elongation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emonet, Thierry; Das, Dipjyoti; Holley, Scott A.

    Elongation of the vertebrate body axis is driven by collective cell migration and cell proliferation at the posteriorly advancing embryonic tailbud. Within the Zebrafish tailbud an ordered stream of cells symmetrically bifurcates to form the left and right halves of the presomitic mesoderm. Maintaining bilateral symmetry during this process is critical to avoid catastrophic spine deformation. Using direct comparison between experimental data and a simple model of cell migration we identified the dynamic regulation of the noise in the direction of motion of individual cells as a critical factor in maintaining symmetric cell flow. Genetic perturbations that reduced noise led to body axis deformation whereas an increase in noise led to retarded elongation as predicted by our model.

  4. Role of tooth elongation in promoting fracture resistance.

    PubMed

    Barani, Amir; Keown, Amanda J; Bush, Mark B; Lee, James J-W; Lawn, Brian R

    2012-04-01

    A study is made of the role of tooth height on the resistance to side-wall longitudinal fracture under axial occlusal loading, building on earlier analyses for molar teeth with low dome-like ('bunodont') crown structures characteristic of primates and several other omnivorous mammals. The present study extends the analysis by considering molar teeth with an elongate columnar structure below the crown, more characteristic of grazing mammals. Extended finite element modeling is used to determine the evolution of longitudinal cracking, from initial growth to final failure. Experimental tests on sheep teeth confirm the predicted behavior of the longitudinal fracture mode, at least in its early stages. It is demonstrated that elongate tooth structures have a substantially increased resistance to longitudinal fracture, by restricting crack growth along the extended side walls. Biological implications concerning the adaptation of tooth structure to meet changes in the dietary habits of herbivores, and of some carnivores, are considered. PMID:22402152

  5. Mapping the Escherichia coli transcription elongation complex with exonuclease III

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaokun; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Summary RNA polymerase interactions with the nucleic acids control every step of the transcription cycle. These contacts mediate RNA polymerase recruitment to promoters; induce pausing during RNA chain synthesis, and control transcription termination. These interactions are dissected using footprinting assays, in which a bound protein protects nucleic acids from the digestion by nucleases or modification by chemical probes. Exonuclease III is frequently employed to study protein-DNA interactions owing to relatively simple procedures and low background. Exonuclease III has been used to determine RNA polymerase position in transcription initiation and elongation complexes and to infer the translocation register of the enzyme. In this chapter, we describe probing the location and the conformation of transcription elongation complexes formed by walking of the RNA polymerase along an immobilized template. PMID:25665555

  6. Toll Genes Have an Ancestral Role in Axis Elongation.

    PubMed

    Benton, Matthew A; Pechmann, Matthias; Frey, Nadine; Stappert, Dominik; Conrads, Kai H; Chen, Yen-Ta; Stamataki, Evangelia; Pavlopoulos, Anastasios; Roth, Siegfried

    2016-06-20

    One of the key morphogenetic processes used during development is the controlled intercalation of cells between their neighbors. This process has been co-opted into a range of developmental events, and it also underlies an event that occurs in each major group of bilaterians: elongation of the embryo along the anterior-posterior axis [1]. In Drosophila, a novel component of this process was recently discovered by Paré et al., who showed that three Toll genes function together to drive cell intercalation during germband extension [2]. This finding raises the question of whether this role of Toll genes is an evolutionary novelty of flies or a general mechanism of embryonic morphogenesis. Here we show that the Toll gene function in axis elongation is, in fact, widely conserved among arthropods. First, we functionally demonstrate that two Toll genes are required for cell intercalation in the beetle Tribolium castaneum. We then show that these genes belong to a previously undescribed Toll subfamily and that members of this subfamily exhibit striped expression (as seen in Tribolium and previously reported in Drosophila [3-5]) in embryos of six other arthropod species spanning the entire phylum. Last, we show that two of these Toll genes are required for normal morphogenesis during anterior-posterior embryo elongation in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum, a member of the most basally branching arthropod lineage. From our findings, we hypothesize that Toll genes had a morphogenetic function in embryo elongation in the last common ancestor of all arthropods, which existed over 550 million years ago. PMID:27212406

  7. Solitary waves in elongated clouds of strongly interacting bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Oegren, M.; Kavoulakis, G.M.; Jackson, A.D.

    2005-08-15

    We examine the propagation of solitary waves in elongated clouds of trapped bosonic atoms as the confinement, the strength of the interatomic interaction, and the atom density are varied. We identify three different physical regimes and develop a general formalism that allows us to interpolate between them. Finally we pay special attention to the transition to the Tonks-Girardeau limit of strongly interacting bosons.

  8. Origins of improved carrier multiplication efficiency in elongated semiconductor nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Sills, Andrew; Califano, Marco

    2015-01-28

    Nanorod solar cells have been attracting a lot of attention recently, as they have been shown to exhibit a lower carrier multiplication onset and a higher quantum efficiency than quantum dots with similar bandgaps. The underpinning theory for this phenomenon is not yet completely understood, and is still the subject of ongoing study. Here we conduct a theoretical investigation into CM efficiency in elongated semiconductor nanostructures with square cross section made of different materials (GaAs, GaSb, InAs, InP, InSb, CdSe, Ge, Si and PbSe), using a single-band effective mass model. Following Luo, Franceschetti and Zunger we adopt the CM figure of merit (the ratio between biexciton and single-exciton density of states) as a measure of CM efficiency and investigate its dependence on the aspect ratio for both (a) constant cross section (i.e. varying the volume) and (b) constant volume (i.e., varying the cross section), by decoupling electronic structure effects from surface-related effects, increased absorption and Coulomb coupling effects. The results show that in both (a) and (b) cases elongation causes an increase in both single- and bi-exciton density of states, with the latter, however, growing much faster with increasing energy. This leads to the availability of more bi-exciton states than single-exciton states for photon energies just above the bi-exciton ground state and therefore suggests a higher probability of CM at these energies for elongated structures. Our results therefore show that the origin of the observed decrease of the CM threshold in elongated structures can be attributed purely to electronic structure effects, paving the way to the implementation of CM-efficiency-boosting strategies in nanostructures based on the lowering of the CM onset. PMID:25493662

  9. A Note on Elongations of Summable QTAG-Modules

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Alveera; Naji, Sabah A. R. K.

    2013-01-01

    A right module M over an associative ring with unity is a QTAG-module if every finitely generated submodule of any homomorphic image of M is a direct sum of uniserial modules. In this paper we find a suitable condition under which a special ω-elongation of a summable QTAG-module by a (ω+k)-projective QTAG-module is also a summable QTAG-module. PMID:24459429

  10. Neuroprotective copper bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complexes promote neurite elongation.

    PubMed

    Bica, Laura; Liddell, Jeffrey R; Donnelly, Paul S; Duncan, Clare; Caragounis, Aphrodite; Volitakis, Irene; Paterson, Brett M; Cappai, Roberto; Grubman, Alexandra; Camakaris, James; Crouch, Peter J; White, Anthony R

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal biometal homeostasis is a central feature of many neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and motor neuron disease. Recent studies have shown that metal complexing compounds behaving as ionophores such as clioquinol and PBT2 have robust therapeutic activity in animal models of neurodegenerative disease; however, the mechanism of neuroprotective action remains unclear. These neuroprotective or neurogenerative processes may be related to the delivery or redistribution of biometals, such as copper and zinc, by metal ionophores. To investigate this further, we examined the effect of the bis(thiosemicarbazonato)-copper complex, Cu(II)(gtsm) on neuritogenesis and neurite elongation (neurogenerative outcomes) in PC12 neuronal-related cultures. We found that Cu(II)(gtsm) induced robust neurite elongation in PC12 cells when delivered at concentrations of 25 or 50 nM overnight. Analogous effects were observed with an alternative copper bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complex, Cu(II)(atsm), but at a higher concentration. Induction of neurite elongation by Cu(II)(gtsm) was restricted to neurites within the length range of 75-99 µm with a 2.3-fold increase in numbers of neurites in this length range with 50 nM Cu(II)(gtsm) treatment. The mechanism of neurogenerative action was investigated and revealed that Cu(II)(gtsm) inhibited cellular phosphatase activity. Treatment of cultures with 5 nM FK506 (calcineurin phosphatase inhibitor) resulted in analogous elongation of neurites compared to 50 nM Cu(II)(gtsm), suggesting a potential link between Cu(II)(gtsm)-mediated phosphatase inhibition and neurogenerative outcomes. PMID:24587210

  11. Mechanism of gibberellin-dependent stem elongation in peas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.; Sovonick-Dunford, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    Stem elongation in peas (Pisum sativum L.) is under partial control by gibberellins, yet the mechanism of such control is uncertain. In this study, we examined the cellular and physical properties that govern stem elongation, to determine how gibberellins influence pea stem growth. Stem elongation of etiolated seedlings was retarded with uniconozol, a gibberellin synthesis inhibitor, and the growth retardation was reversed by exogenous gibberellin. Using the pressure probe and vapor pressure osmometry, we found little effect of uniconozol and gibberellin on cell turgor pressure or osmotic pressure. In contrast, these treatments had major effects on in vivo stress relaxation, measured by turgor relaxation and pressure-block techniques. Uniconozol-treated plants exhibited reduced wall relaxation (both initial rate and total amount). The results show that growth retardation is effected via a reduction in the wall yield coefficient and an increase in the yield threshold. These effects were largely reversed by exogenous gibberellin. When we measured the mechanical characteristics of the wall by stress/strain (Instron) analysis, we found only minor effects of uniconozol and gibberellin on the plastic compliance. This observation indicates that these agents did not alter wall expansion through effects on the mechanical (viscoelastic) properties of the wall. Our results suggest that wall expansion in peas is better viewed as a chemorheological, rather than a viscoelastic, process.

  12. Telomerase Efficiently Elongates Highly Transcribing Telomeres in Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Rajika; Lorenzi, Luca E.; Azzalin, Claus M.

    2012-01-01

    RNA polymerase II transcribes the physical ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes into a variety of long non-coding RNA molecules including telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA). Since TERRA discovery, advances have been made in the characterization of TERRA biogenesis and regulation; on the contrary its associated functions remain elusive. Most of the biological roles so far proposed for TERRA are indeed based on in vitro experiments carried out using short TERRA-like RNA oligonucleotides. In particular, it has been suggested that TERRA inhibits telomerase activity. We have exploited two alternative cellular systems to test whether TERRA and/or telomere transcription influence telomerase-mediated telomere elongation in human cancer cells. In cells lacking the two DNA methyltransferases DNMT1 and DNMT3b, TERRA transcription and steady-state levels are greatly increased while telomerase is able to elongate telomeres normally. Similarly, telomerase can efficiently elongate transgenic inducible telomeres whose transcription has been experimentally augmented. Our data challenge the current hypothesis that TERRA functions as a general inhibitor of telomerase and suggest that telomere length homeostasis is maintained independently of TERRA and telomere transcription. PMID:22558207

  13. Ethylene-promoted Elongation: an Adaptation to Submergence Stress

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    Background A sizeable minority of taxa is successful in areas prone to submergence. Many such plants elongate with increased vigour when underwater. This helps to restore contact with the aerial environment by shortening the duration of inundation. Poorly adapted species are usually incapable of this underwater escape. Scope Evidence implicating ethylene as the principal factor initiating fast underwater elongation by leaves or stems is evaluated comprehensively along with its interactions with other hormones and gases. These interactions make up a sequence of events that link the perception of submergence to a prompt acceleration of extension. The review encompasses whole plant physiology, cell biology and molecular genetics. It includes assessments of how submergence threatens plant life and of the extent to which the submergence escape demonstrably improves the likelihood of survival. Conclusions Experimental testing over many years establishes ethylene-promoted underwater extension as one of the most convincing examples of hormone-mediated stress adaptation by plants. The research has utilized a wide range of species that includes numerous angiosperms, a fern and a liverwort. It has also benefited from detailed physiological and molecular studies of underwater elongation by rice (Oryza sativa) and the marsh dock (Rumex palustris). Despite complexities and interactions, the work reveals that the signal transduction pathway is initiated by the simple expediency of physical entrapment of ethylene within growing cells by a covering of water. PMID:17956854

  14. Mechanism of gibberellin-dependent stem elongation in peas.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, D J; Sovonick-Dunford, S A

    1989-01-01

    Stem elongation in peas (Pisum sativum L.) is under partial control by gibberellins, yet the mechanism of such control is uncertain. In this study, we examined the cellular and physical properties that govern stem elongation, to determine how gibberellins influence pea stem growth. Stem elongation of etiolated seedlings was retarded with uniconozol, a gibberellin synthesis inhibitor, and the growth retardation was reversed by exogenous gibberellin. Using the pressure probe and vapor pressure osmometry, we found little effect of uniconozol and gibberellin on cell turgor pressure or osmotic pressure. In contrast, these treatments had major effects on in vivo stress relaxation, measured by turgor relaxation and pressure-block techniques. Uniconozol-treated plants exhibited reduced wall relaxation (both initial rate and total amount). The results show that growth retardation is effected via a reduction in the wall yield coefficient and an increase in the yield threshold. These effects were largely reversed by exogenous gibberellin. When we measured the mechanical characteristics of the wall by stress/strain (Instron) analysis, we found only minor effects of uniconozol and gibberellin on the plastic compliance. This observation indicates that these agents did not alter wall expansion through effects on the mechanical (viscoelastic) properties of the wall. Our results suggest that wall expansion in peas is better viewed as a chemorheological, rather than a viscoelastic, process. PMID:11537446

  15. Proteomic and Physiological Analysis of the Response of Oat (Avena sativa) Seeds to Heat Stress under Different Moisture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Kong, Lingqi; Xia, Fangshan; Yan, Huifang; Zhu, Yanqiao; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Seeds lose their viability when they are exposed to high temperature and moisture content (MC) during storage. The expression and metabolism of proteins plays a critical role in seed resistance to heat stress. However, the proteome response to heat stress in oat (Avena sativa) seeds during storage has not been revealed. To understand mechanisms of heat stress acclimation and tolerance in oat seeds, an integrated physiological and comparative proteomic analysis was performed on oat seeds with different MC during heat stress. Oat seeds with 10% and 16% MC were subjected to high temperatures (35, 45, and 50°C) for 24 and 2 days, respectively, and changes in physiological and biochemical characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that seed vigor decreased significantly with temperature increase from 35 to 50°C. Also, the proline content in 10% MC seeds decreased significantly (p < 0.05) whereas that in 16% MC seeds increased significantly (p < 0.05) during heat treatment from 35 to 50°C. There were no significant differences in malondialdehyde content in 10% MC seeds with temperature from 35 to 50°C, but a significant (p < 0.05) decline occurred in 16% MC seeds at 45°C. Proteome analysis revealed 21 significantly different proteins, including 19 down-regulated and two up-regulated proteins. The down-regulated proteins, notably six heat shock proteins and two ATP synthases, have important roles in the mobilization of carbohydrates and energy, and in the balance between synthesis and degradation of other proteins during seed deterioration. The up-regulation of argininosuccinate synthase participated in proline biosynthesis at 16% MC, which is important for maintaining reactive oxygen species homeostasis for the resistance of heat stress. In summary, heat-responsive protein species and mitochondrial respiratory metabolism were sensitive to high temperature and MC treatment. These studies provide a new insight into acclimation and tolerance to heat stress in

  16. Low-temperature and time-resolved spectroscopic characterization of the LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauden, Magdalena; Crosson, Sean; van Stokkum, I. H. M.; van Grondelle, Rienk; Moffat, Keith; Kennis, John T. M.

    2004-09-01

    The phototropins are plant blue-light receptors that base their light-dependent action on the reversible formation of a covalent bond between a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor and a conserved cysteine residue in light, oxygen or voltage (LOV) domains. The spectroscopic properties of the LOV2 domain of phototropin 1 of Avena sativa (oat) have been investigated by means of low-temperature absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The low-temperature absorption spectrum of the LOV2 domain showed a fine structure around 473 nm, indicating heterogeneity in the flavin binding pocket. The fluorescence quantum yield of the flavin cofactor increased from 0.13 to 0.41 upon cooling the sample from room temperature to 77 K. A pronounced phosphorescence emission around 600 nm was observed in the LOV2 domain between 77 and 120 K, allowing for an accurate positioning of the flavin triplet state in the LOV2 domain at 16900 cm-1. Fluorescence from the cryotrapped covalent adduct state was extremely weak, with a fluorescence spectrum showing a maximum at 440 nm. Time-resolved fluorescence experiments utilizing a synchroscan streak camera revealed a singlet-excited state lifetime of the LOV2 domain of 2.4 ns. FMN dissolved in aqueous solution showed a pH-dependent lifetime ranging between 2.9 ns at pH 2.0 to 4.7 ns at pH 8.0. No spectral shifting of the flavin emission was observed in the LOV2 domain nor in FMN in aqueous solution.

  17. Basis for changes in the auxin-sensitivity of Avena sativa (oat) leaf-sheath pulvini during the gravitropic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, D.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1995-01-01

    During the gravitropic response, auxin-sensitivity of the lower flanks of leaf-sheath pulvini of Avena sativa (oat) is at least 1000-fold higher than those of the upper flanks and non-gravistimulated pulvini. When the pulvini are treated with 1 mM Ca2+, a 10-fold increase in auxin-sensitivity of the pulvini is observed. Related to this difference in auxin-sensitivity, in vitro activation of the vanadate-sensitive H(-)-ATPase by IAA was observed. Results show that the activation of the H(+)-ATPase by IAA is probably mediated by soluble protein factors and that the H(+)-ATPase prepared from the lower flanks is activated by IAA with a 1000-fold higher auxin-sensitivity as compared with that from the upper flanks of the graviresponding pulvini. Ammonium sulfate fractionation experiments show that these soluble protein factors are in the 30 to 60% fraction. Auxin-binding assays reveal that lower flanks contain more high-affinity soluble auxin-binding sites (kD; on the order of 10(-9) M) and less low-affinity soluble auxin-binding sites (kD; on the order of 10(-6) M) than upper flanks. It is concluded that differential auxin-sensitivity of graviresponding oat-shoot pulvini is achieved by the modulation of affinities of auxin-binding sites in upper and lower flanks of the pulvini, that Ca2+ is involved in such modulation, and that one of the probable cellular functions of these auxin binding sites is the activation of the proton pump on the plasma membranes.

  18. Proteomic and Physiological Analysis of the Response of Oat (Avena sativa) Seeds to Heat Stress under Different Moisture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Kong, Lingqi; Xia, Fangshan; Yan, Huifang; Zhu, Yanqiao; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Seeds lose their viability when they are exposed to high temperature and moisture content (MC) during storage. The expression and metabolism of proteins plays a critical role in seed resistance to heat stress. However, the proteome response to heat stress in oat (Avena sativa) seeds during storage has not been revealed. To understand mechanisms of heat stress acclimation and tolerance in oat seeds, an integrated physiological and comparative proteomic analysis was performed on oat seeds with different MC during heat stress. Oat seeds with 10% and 16% MC were subjected to high temperatures (35, 45, and 50°C) for 24 and 2 days, respectively, and changes in physiological and biochemical characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that seed vigor decreased significantly with temperature increase from 35 to 50°C. Also, the proline content in 10% MC seeds decreased significantly (p < 0.05) whereas that in 16% MC seeds increased significantly (p < 0.05) during heat treatment from 35 to 50°C. There were no significant differences in malondialdehyde content in 10% MC seeds with temperature from 35 to 50°C, but a significant (p < 0.05) decline occurred in 16% MC seeds at 45°C. Proteome analysis revealed 21 significantly different proteins, including 19 down-regulated and two up-regulated proteins. The down-regulated proteins, notably six heat shock proteins and two ATP synthases, have important roles in the mobilization of carbohydrates and energy, and in the balance between synthesis and degradation of other proteins during seed deterioration. The up-regulation of argininosuccinate synthase participated in proline biosynthesis at 16% MC, which is important for maintaining reactive oxygen species homeostasis for the resistance of heat stress. In summary, heat-responsive protein species and mitochondrial respiratory metabolism were sensitive to high temperature and MC treatment. These studies provide a new insight into acclimation and tolerance to heat stress in

  19. Evolving California genotypes of Avena barbata are derived from multiple introductions but still maintain substantial population structure

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Taylor O.; Latta, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple introductions are thought to enhance the chance of successful colonization, in part because recombination may generate adaptive variation to a new environment. Avena barbata (slender wild oat) is a successful colonist in California, historically noted for striking genetic divergence into two multilocus genotypes, but is still undergoing adaptive change. We sought to understand whether multiple introductions might be contributing to this change. We used cpDNA phylogeography of A. barbata within its home range and in its invaded range in California to determine the minimum number of separate introductions, and the spatial distribution of these introduced lineages. We collected from sites throughout the state of California, where it is an invasive species. Accessions from a representative portion of A. barbata’s full native range were obtained from germplasm repositories. We sequenced seven intergenic chloroplast DNA loci for A. barbata individuals both in California (novel geographic range) and its ancestral range. 204 individuals were assayed for chloroplast haplotype within California using single strand conformational polymorphism SSCPs. Genome size was determined by flow cytometry. Californian accessions are tetraploid as expected, but their genome sizes were smaller than the Old World accessions. There were three haplotypes present in California that were identical to haplotypes in the native range. Within California, the presence of multiple haplotypes at a site was observed primarily in Northern and Central populations. Between populations there was still substantial structure with FST ∼ 0.33, due to a shallow latitudinal cline caused by a preponderance of xeric haplotypes in Southern California. There was a minimum of three seed introductions to California. Recombination is thus likely to occur, and contribute to adaptation in new range in this highly-selfing, invader. PMID:25392753

  20. Immunochemical Analysis of the Temporal and Tissue-Specific Expression of an Avena sativa Plasma Membrane Determinant 1

    PubMed Central

    Lynes, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    An immunoglobulin Mk monoclonal (F8IVE9) antibody raised against oat (Avena sativa cv Garry) root homogenate has been produced and characterized. The predominant target bound by this antibody is a 62-kilodalton protein (p62) that is expressed in both oat root and oat shoot cells. Treatment of the oat antigen with periodate, or with recombinant N-glycanase, affects the F8IVE9 binding to the antigen, suggesting that the specific epitope for this monoclonal antibody involves a carbohydrate determinant. Levels of p62 present in cells of the oat root increase approximately twofold as the root tissue matures during the first 11 days postgermination. In contrast, levels of expression in shoot tissue remain relatively constant during the same period. The p62 antigen has been shown to be expressed at the plasma membrane by immunohistochemical means, by immunofluorescent labeling of protoplasts, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis of purified plasma membrane. The F8IVE9 antigenic target appears to be uniformly distributed through root tissue but is differentially expressed in specific sections of the shoot. F8IVE9 antibody also binds to antigens expressed in a number of other species, including clover, corn, pea, broccoli, mustard, and bean, and has been shown to bind to Samanea protoplast plasma membranes. This monoclonal antibody may prove to be useful for a variety of investigations, including an analysis of the specific patterns of cellular differentiation that occur during early morphogenesis, and the characterization of plasma membrane-associated elements in plants. ImagesFigure 3Figure 5Figure 7 PMID:16668621

  1. Grain Size Dependence of Uniform Elongation in Single-Phase FCC/BCC Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haiting; Shen, Yao; Ma, Jiawei; Zheng, Pengfei; Zhang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    We studied the dependence of uniform elongation on grain size in the range of submicron to millimeter for single-phase FCC/BCC metals by reviewing recent experimental results and applying crystal plasticity finite element method simulation. In the order of increasing grain size, uniform elongation can be divided into three stages, namely low elongation stage, nearly constant elongation stage, and decreased elongation with large scatters stage. Low elongation stage features a dramatic increase near the critical grain size at the end of the stage, which is primarily attributed to the emergence of dislocation cell size transition from ultrafine to mid-size grain. Other factors can be neglected due to their negligible influence on overall variation trend. In nearly constant elongation stage, uniform elongation remains unchanged at a high level in general. As grain size keeps growing, uniform elongation starts decreasing and becomes scattered upon a certain grain size, indicating the initiation of decreased elongation with large scatters stage. It is shown that the increase is not linear or smooth but rather sharp at the end of low elongation stage, leading to a wider range in nearly constant elongation stage. The grain size dependence of uniform elongation can serve as a guiding principle for designing small uniaxial tensile specimens for mechanical testing, where size effect matters in most cases.

  2. Relative Mesothelioma Potencies for Unregulated Respirable Elongated Mineral and Synthetic Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    For decades uncertainties and contradictions have surrounded the issue of whether exposures to respirable elongated mineral and synthetic particles (REMPs and RESPs) present health risks such as those recognized for exposures to elongated asbestiform mineral particles from the fi...

  3. Simulations of nucleation and elongation of amyloid fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianing; Muthukumar, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a coarse-grained model for the growth kinetics of amyloid fibrils from solutions of peptides and address the fundamental mechanism of nucleation and elongation by using a lattice Monte Carlo procedure. We reproduce the three main characteristics of nucleation of amyloid fibrils: (1) existence of lag time, (2) occurrence of a critical concentration, and (3) seeding. We find the nucleation of amyloid fibrils to require a quasi-two-dimensional configuration, where a second layer of β sheet must be formed adjunct to a first layer, which in turn leads to a highly cooperative nucleation barrier. The elongation stage is found to involve the Ostwald ripening (evaporation-condensation) mechanism, whereby bigger fibrils grow at the expense of smaller ones. This new mechanism reconciles the debate as to whether protofibrils are precursors or monomer reservoirs. We have systematically investigated the roles of time, peptide concentration, temperature, and seed size. In general, we find that there are two kinds of lag time arising from two different mechanisms. For higher temperatures or low enough concentrations close to the disassembly boundary, the fibrillization follows the nucleation mechanism. However, for low temperatures, where the nucleation time is sufficiently short, there still exists an apparent lag time due to slow Ostwald ripening mechanism. Consequently, the lag time is nonmonotonic with temperature, with the shortest lag time occurring at intermediate temperatures, which in turn depend on the peptide concentration. While the nucleation dominated regime can be controlled by seeding, the Ostwald ripening regime is insensitive to seeding. Simulation results from our coarse-grained model on the fibril size, lag time, elongation rate, and solubility are consistent with available experimental observations on many specific amyloid systems. PMID:19173542

  4. How do roots elongate in a structured soil?

    PubMed

    Jin, Kemo; Shen, Jianbo; Ashton, Rhys W; Dodd, Ian C; Parry, Martin A J; Whalley, William R

    2013-11-01

    In this review, we examine how roots penetrate a structured soil. We first examine the relationship between soil water status and its mechanical strength, as well as the ability of the soil to supply water to the root. We identify these as critical soil factors, because it is primarily in drying soil that mechanical constraints limit root elongation. Water supply to the root is important because root water status affects growth pressures and root stiffness. To simplify the bewildering complexity of soil-root interactions, the discussion is focused around the special cases of root elongation in soil with pores much smaller than the root diameter and the penetration of roots at interfaces within the soil. While it is often assumed that the former case is well understood, many unanswered questions remain. While low soil-root friction is often viewed as a trait conferring better penetration of strong soils, it may also increase the axial pressure on the root tip and in so doing reduce the rate of cell division and/or expansion. The precise trade-off between various root traits involved in root elongation in homogeneous soil remains to be determined. There is consensus that the most important factors determining root penetration at an interface are the angle at which the root attempts to penetrate the soil, root stiffness, and the strength of the soil to be penetrated. The effect of growth angle on root penetration implicates gravitropic responses in improved root penetration ability. Although there is no work that has explored the effect of the strength of the gravitropic responses on penetration of hard layers, we attempt to outline possible interactions. Impacts of soil drying and strength on phytohormone concentrations in roots, and consequent root-to-shoot signalling, are also considered. PMID:24043852

  5. Fruiting Branch K+ Level Affects Cotton Fiber Elongation Through Osmoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Wenqing; Chen, Binglin; Wang, Youhua; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Potassium (K) deficiency in cotton plants results in reduced fiber length. As one of the primary osmotica, K+ contributes to an increase in cell turgor pressure during fiber elongation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that fiber length is affected by K deficiency through an osmotic pathway, so in 2012 and 2013, an experiment was conducted to test this hypothesis by imposing three potassium supply regimes (0, 125, 250 kg K ha-1) on a low-K-sensitive cultivar, Siza 3, and a low-K-tolerant cultivar, Simian 3. We found that fibers were longer in the later season bolls than in the earlier ones in cotton plants grown under normal growth conditions, but later season bolls showed a greater sensitivity to low-K stress, especially the low-K sensitive genotype. We also found that the maximum velocity of fibre elongation (Vmax) is the parameter that best reflects the change in fiber elongation under K deficiency. This parameter mostly depends on cell turgor, so the content of the osmotically active solutes was analyzed accordingly. Statistical analysis showed that K+ was the major osmotic factor affecting fiber length, and malate was likely facilitating K+ accumulation into fibers, which enabled the low-K-tolerant genotype to cope with low-K stress. Moreover, the low-K-tolerant genotype tended to have greater K+ absorptive capacities in the upper fruiting branches. Based on our findings, we suggest a fertilization scheme for Gossypium hirsutum that adds extra potash fertilizer or distributes it during the development of late season bolls to mitigate K deficiency in the second half of the growth season and to enhance fiber length in late season bolls. PMID:26834777

  6. Morphological and Chemical Mechanisms of Elongated Mineral Particle Toxicities

    PubMed Central

    Aust, Ann E.; Cook, Philip M.; Dodson, Ronald F.

    2011-01-01

    Much of our understanding regarding the mechanisms for induction of disease following inhalation of respirable elongated mineral particles (REMP) is based on studies involving the biological effects of asbestos fibers. The factors governing the disease potential of an exposure include duration and frequency of exposures; tissue-specific dose over time; impacts on dose persistence from in vivo REMP dissolution, comminution, and clearance; individual susceptibility; and the mineral type and surface characteristics. The mechanisms associated with asbestos particle toxicity involve two facets for each particle's contribution: (1) the physical features of the inhaled REMP, which include width, length, aspect ratio, and effective surface area available for cell contact; and (2) the surface chemical composition and reactivity of the individual fiber/elongated particle. Studies in cell-free systems and with cultured cells suggest an important way in which REMP from asbestos damage cellular molecules or influence cellular processes. This may involve an unfortunate combination of the ability of REMP to chemically generate potentially damaging reactive oxygen species, through surface iron, and the interaction of the unique surfaces with cell membranes to trigger membrane receptor activation. Together these events appear to lead to a cascade of cellular events, including the production of damaging reactive nitrogen species, which may contribute to the disease process. Thus, there is a need to be more cognizant of the potential impact that the total surface area of REMP contributes to the generation of events resulting in pathological changes in biological systems. The information presented has applicability to inhaled dusts, in general, and specifically to respirable elongated mineral particles. PMID:21534085

  7. Single-Plane Magnetically Focused Elongated Small Field Proton Beams.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Grant A; Slater, James M; Wroe, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    We previously performed Monte Carlo simulations of magnetically focused proton beams shaped by a single quadrapole magnet and thereby created narrow elongated beams with superior dose delivery characteristics (compared to collimated beams) suitable for targets of similar geometry. The present study seeks to experimentally validate these simulations using a focusing magnet consisting of 24 segments of samarium cobalt permanent magnetic material adhered into a hollow cylinder. Proton beams with properties relevant to clinical radiosurgery applications were delivered through the magnet to a water tank containing a diode detector or radiochromic film. Dose profiles were analyzed and compared with analogous Monte Carlo simulations. The focused beams produced elongated beam spots with high elliptical symmetry, indicative of magnet quality. Experimental data showed good agreement with simulations, affirming the utility of Monte Carlo simulations as a tool to model the inherent complexity of a magnetic focusing system. Compared to target-matched unfocused simulations, focused beams showed larger peak to entrance ratios (26% to 38%) and focused simulations showed a two-fold increase in beam delivery efficiency. These advantages can be attributed to the magnetic acceleration of protons in the transverse plane that tends to counteract the particle outscatter that leads to degradation of peak to entrance performance in small field proton beams. Our results have important clinical implications and suggest rare earth focusing magnet assemblies are feasible and could reduce skin dose and beam number while delivering enhanced dose to narrow elongated targets (eg, in and around the spinal cord) in less time compared to collimated beams. PMID:25414143

  8. Fruiting Branch K(+) Level Affects Cotton Fiber Elongation Through Osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Wenqing; Chen, Binglin; Wang, Youhua; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Potassium (K) deficiency in cotton plants results in reduced fiber length. As one of the primary osmotica, K(+) contributes to an increase in cell turgor pressure during fiber elongation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that fiber length is affected by K deficiency through an osmotic pathway, so in 2012 and 2013, an experiment was conducted to test this hypothesis by imposing three potassium supply regimes (0, 125, 250 kg K ha(-1)) on a low-K-sensitive cultivar, Siza 3, and a low-K-tolerant cultivar, Simian 3. We found that fibers were longer in the later season bolls than in the earlier ones in cotton plants grown under normal growth conditions, but later season bolls showed a greater sensitivity to low-K stress, especially the low-K sensitive genotype. We also found that the maximum velocity of fibre elongation (V max) is the parameter that best reflects the change in fiber elongation under K deficiency. This parameter mostly depends on cell turgor, so the content of the osmotically active solutes was analyzed accordingly. Statistical analysis showed that K(+) was the major osmotic factor affecting fiber length, and malate was likely facilitating K(+) accumulation into fibers, which enabled the low-K-tolerant genotype to cope with low-K stress. Moreover, the low-K-tolerant genotype tended to have greater K(+) absorptive capacities in the upper fruiting branches. Based on our findings, we suggest a fertilization scheme for Gossypium hirsutum that adds extra potash fertilizer or distributes it during the development of late season bolls to mitigate K deficiency in the second half of the growth season and to enhance fiber length in late season bolls. PMID:26834777

  9. Tbx1 is Necessary for Palatal Elongation and Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Goudy, Steven; Law, Amy; Sanchez, Gabriela; Baldwin, H. Scott; Brown, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The transcription factor TBX1 is a key mediator of developmental abnormalities associated with DiGeorge/Velocardiofacial Syndrome. Studies in mice have demonstrated that decreased dosage of Tbx1 results in defects in pharyngeal arch, cardiovascular, and craniofacial development. The role of Tbx1 in cardiac development has been intensely studied; however, its role in palatal development is poorly understood. By studying the Tbx1-/- mice we found defects during the critical points of palate elongation and elevation. The intrinsic palate defects in the Tbx1-/- mice were determined by measuring changes in palate shelf length, proliferation, apoptosis, expression of relevant growth factors, and in palate fusion assays. Tbx1-/- embryos exhibit cleft palate with failed palate elevation in 100% and abnormal palatal-oral fusions in 50%. In the Tbx1-/- mice the palate shelf length was reduced and tongue height was greater, demonstrating a physical impediment to palate elevation and apposition. In vitro palate fusion assays demonstrate that Tbx1-/- palate shelves are capable of fusion but a roller culture assay showed that the null palatal shelves were unable to elongate. Diminished hyaluronic acid production in the Tbx1-/- palate shelves may explain failed palate shelf elevation. In addition, cell proliferation and apoptosis were perturbed in Tbx1-/- palates. A sharp decrease of Fgf8 expression was detected in the Tbx1-/- palate shelves, suggesting that Fgf8 is dependent on Tbx1 in the palate. Fgf10 is also up-regulated in the Tbx1-/- palate shelves and tongue. These data demonstrate that Tbx1 is a critical transcription factor that guides palatal elongation and elevation and that Fgf8 expression in the palate is Tbx1-dependent. PMID:20214979

  10. Hypocrea/Trichoderma: species with conidiophore elongations and green conidia.

    PubMed

    Chaverri, Priscila; Castlebury, Lisa A; Overton, Barrie E; Samuels, Gary J

    2003-01-01

    Species of Trichoderma and Hypocrea that have green conidia and sterile or fertile elongations of their conidiophores are described or redescribed and their phylogenetic position explored. The described species include T. crassum, T. fasciculatum, T. fertile, T. hamatum, T. longipile, T. oblongisporum, T. pubescens, T. spirale, T. strictipile, T. strigosum, T. stromaticum, T. tomentosum, Hypocrea aureoviridis f. macrospora, H. ceramica. and H. semiorbis. Trichoderma fasciculatum originally was described from cultures from ascospores of an unidentified Hypocrea specimen; it is considered to be a synonym of T. strictipile. The remaining species of Trichoderma considered here have not been linked to teleomorphs, and the Trichoderma anamorphs of H. aureoviridis f. macrospora and H. semiorbis have not been named. Five new species of Hypocrea are described, viz. H. cremea, H. cuneispora, H. estonica, H. strictipilosa and H. surrotunda. The phylogenetic relationships of these species were inferred based on partial RPB2 and EF-1α DNA sequence data and phenotypic characteristics, including teleomorph, anamorph, colony and growth rates. Trichoderma crassum was found to be a sister species to T. virens, based on molecular sequences and phenotypic data. Hypocrea surrotunda and H. cremea, H. cuneispora and T. longipile, T. fertile and T. oblongisporum, T. tomentosum and H. atrogelatinosa, and T. hamatum and T. pubescens, respectively, were found to be closely related phylogenetically, based on RPB2 and EF-1α gene genealogies. Anamorph and teleomorph phenotype, including conidiophore elongations, phialide morphology, conidial morphology, stroma anatomy and ascospore morphology are not useful predictors of relationships. Despite the shared phenotypic characters of these Trichoderma and Hypocrea species, they are distributed between two major clades of Trichoderma/Hypocrea. Redescriptions and a key to species of Hypocrea/Trichoderma with green conidia and conidiophore

  11. Elongated optical bottle beams generated by composite binary axicons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfirev, A. P.; Skidanov, R. V.

    2016-04-01

    We provide analytical, numerical and experimental study of the possibility of forming elongated optical bottle beams (OBBs) using composite binary phase axicons. In this case, the OBB is generated by the superposition of Bessel beams in the near-field region on the axicon. To generate the OBB experimentally, we utilized a spatial light modulator. The experimental results are qualitatively consistent with the results of numerical simulations performed using Fresnel transform. Such type of optical trap can be applied in many applications of microbiology, micromechanics and meteorology to manipulate micro- and nanoobjects in liquid or gaseous medium.

  12. Connectedness Percolation of Elongated Hard Particles in an External Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Ronald H. J.; van der Schoot, Paul

    2012-02-01

    A theory is presented of how orienting fields and steric interactions conspire against the formation of a percolating network of, in some sense, connected elongated colloidal particles in fluid dispersions. We find that the network that forms above a critical loading breaks up again at higher loadings due to interaction-induced enhancement of the particle alignment. Upon approach of the percolation threshold, the cluster dimensions diverge with the same critical exponent parallel and perpendicular to the field direction, implying that connectedness percolation is not in the universality class of directed percolation.

  13. Experiments at high elongations in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, E.A. ); Turnbull, A.D.; Kellman, A.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Helton, F.J.; Lao, L.L.; Leuer, J.A.; Strait, E.J.; Taylor, T.S. )

    1990-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the limitation to elongation observed in D-shaped plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak. We find that as the triangularity is increased and {ell}{sub i} is decreased that the n = 0 mode takes on an increasingly non-rigid character. Our analysis shows two aspects of the behavior; first, an increasing variation of the m/n = 1/0 component across flux surfaces and second, an increase in the relative amplitude of a m/n = 3/0 component which couples to the m/n = 1/0 component and further destabilizes the mode.

  14. High Fat Feeding Induces Hepatic Fatty Acid Elongation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oosterveer, Maaike H.; van Dijk, Theo H.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Boer, Theo; Havinga, Rick; Stellaard, Frans; Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan

    2009-01-01

    Background High-fat diets promote hepatic lipid accumulation. Paradoxically, these diets also induce lipogenic gene expression in rodent liver. Whether high expression of these genes actually results in an increased flux through the de novo lipogenic pathway in vivo has not been demonstrated. Methodology/Principal Findings To interrogate this apparent paradox, we have quantified de novo lipogenesis in C57Bl/6J mice fed either chow, a high-fat or a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-enriched high-fat diet. A novel approach based on mass isotopomer distribution analysis (MIDA) following 1-13C acetate infusion was applied to simultaneously determine de novo lipogenesis, fatty acid elongation as well as cholesterol synthesis. Furthermore, we measured very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) production rates. High-fat feeding promoted hepatic lipid accumulation and induced the expression of lipogenic and cholesterogenic genes compared to chow-fed mice: induction of gene expression was found to translate into increased oleate synthesis. Interestingly, this higher lipogenic flux (+74 µg/g/h for oleic acid) in mice fed the high-fat diet was mainly due to an increased hepatic elongation of unlabeled palmitate (+66 µg/g/h) rather than to elongation of de novo synthesized palmitate. In addition, fractional cholesterol synthesis was increased, i.e. 5.8±0.4% vs. 8.1±0.6% for control and high fat-fed animals, respectively. Hepatic VLDL-TG production was not affected by high-fat feeding. Partial replacement of saturated fat by fish oil completely reversed the lipogenic effects of high-fat feeding: hepatic lipogenic and cholesterogenic gene expression levels as well as fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis rates were normalized. Conclusions/Significance High-fat feeding induces hepatic fatty acid synthesis in mice, by chain elongation and subsequent desaturation rather than de novo synthesis, while VLDL-TG output remains unaffected. Suppression of lipogenic fluxes

  15. Collisions of Dark Solitons in Elongated Bose-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Stellmer, S.; Becker, C.; Soltan-Panahi, P.; Richter, E.-M.; Doerscher, S.; Baumert, M.; Kronjaeger, J.; Sengstock, K.; Bongs, K.

    2008-09-19

    We present experimental data showing the head-on collision of dark solitons generated in an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate. No discernable interaction can be recorded, in full agreement with the fundamental theoretical concepts of solitons as mutually transparent quasiparticles. Our soliton generation technique allows for the creation of solitons with different depths; hence, they can be distinguished and their trajectories be followed. Simulations of the 1D-Gross-Pitaevskii equation have been performed to compare the experiment with a mean-field description.

  16. Connectedness percolation of elongated hard particles in an external field.

    PubMed

    Otten, Ronald H J; van der Schoot, Paul

    2012-02-24

    A theory is presented of how orienting fields and steric interactions conspire against the formation of a percolating network of, in some sense, connected elongated colloidal particles in fluid dispersions. We find that the network that forms above a critical loading breaks up again at higher loadings due to interaction-induced enhancement of the particle alignment. Upon approach of the percolation threshold, the cluster dimensions diverge with the same critical exponent parallel and perpendicular to the field direction, implying that connectedness percolation is not in the universality class of directed percolation. PMID:22463580

  17. Controlled laser production of elongated articles from particulates

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, Raymond D.; Lewis, Gary K.; Milewski, John O.

    2002-01-01

    It has been discovered that wires and small diameter rods can be produced using laser deposition technology in a novel way. An elongated article such as a wire or rod is constructed by melting and depositing particulate material into a deposition zone which has been designed to yield the desired article shape and dimensions. The article is withdrawn from the deposition zone as it is formed, thus enabling formation of the article in a continuous process. Alternatively, the deposition zone is moved along any of numerous deposition paths away from the article being formed.

  18. Fluorescent Methods to Study Transcription Initiation and Transition into Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Aishwarya P.; Sultana, Shemaila

    2015-01-01

    The DNA-dependent RNA polymerases induce specific conformational changes in the promoter DNA during transcription initiation. Fluorescence spectroscopy sensitively monitors these DNA conformational changes in real time and at equilibrium providing powerful ways to estimate interactions in transcriptional complexes and to assess how transcription is regulated by the promoter DNA sequence, transcription factors, and small ligands. Ensemble fluorescence methods described here probe the individual steps of promoter binding, bending, opening, and transition into the elongation using T7 phage and mitochondrial transcriptional systems as examples. PMID:25095993

  19. Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. J.; Adkins, S.; Gavel, D.; Fusco, T.; Michau, V.

    2008-06-01

    Over the past decade, adaptive optics (AO) has become an established method for overcoming the effects of atmospheric turbulence on both astronomical imaging and spectroscopic observations. These systems are now beginning to make extensive use of laser guide star (LGS) techniques to improve performance and provide increased sky coverage. Sodium LGS AO employs one or more lasers at 589-nm wavelength to produce an artificial guide star through excitation of sodium atoms in the mesosphere (90 km altitude). Because of its dependence on the abundance and distribution of sodium atoms in the mesosphere, this approach has its own unique set of difficulties not seen with natural stars. The sodium layer exhibits time-dependent variations in density and altitude, and since it is at a finite range, the LGS images become elongated due to the thickness of the layer and the offset between the laser projection point and the subapertures of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS). Elongation causes the LGS image to be spread out resulting in a decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio which, in turn, leads to an increase in SHWFS measurement error and therefore an increased error in wavefront phase reconstruction. To address the problem of elongation, and also to provide a higher level of readout performance and reduced readout noise, a new type of charge-coupled device (CCD) is now under development for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing called the polar coordinate CCD. In this device, discrete imaging arrays are provided in each SHWFS subaperture and the size, shape and orientation of each discrete imaging array are adjusted to optimally sample the LGS image. The device is referred to as the polar coordinate CCD because the location of each imager is defined by a polar coordinate system centred on the laser guide star projection point. This concept is especially suited to Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) where the effect of perspective elongation is a significant factor. In this

  20. New Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers for tetraploid oat (Avena magna Murphy et Terrell) provide the first complete oat linkage map and markers linked to domestication genes from hexaploid A. sativa L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional benefits of cultivated oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42, AACCDD genomes) are well recognized; however, seed protein levels are modest and genetic resources for protein improvement are scarce. The wild tetraploid A. magna Ladiz. contains approximately 31% seed protein and has been hybr...

  1. Characterization of three novel fatty acid- and retinoid-binding protein genes (Ha-far-1, Ha-far-2 and Hf-far-1) from the cereal cyst nematodes Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi are major parasites of wheat, reducing production worldwide. Both are sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, and their development and parasitism depend strongly on nutrients obtained from hosts. Secreted fatty acid- and retinoid-binding (FAR) proteins are nematode-spe...

  2. Elongation of discotic liquid crystal strands and lubricant effects.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Surjya Sarathi; Galerne, Yves

    2014-05-19

    After a short review on the physics of pulled threads and their mechanical properties, the paper reports and discusses the strand elongation of disordered columnar phases, hexagonal or lamella-columnar, of small molecules or polymers. The mechanical properties appear to be relevant to the length of the columns of molecules compared to the thread length, instead of the usual correlation length. If, taking the entanglement effect into account, the column length is short, the strand exhibits rather fluid-like properties that may even look nematic-like at the macroscopic scale. The Plateau-Rayleigh instability breaks the thread shortly thereafter. However, because the hydrodynamic objects are the columns instead of the molecules, the viscosity is anomalously large. The observations show that the strands in the columnar phases are made of filaments, or fibrils, which are bundles of columns of molecules. This explains the grooves and rings, which are observed on the antenna or bamboo-like strand profiles. On pulling a strand, the elongation stress eventually exceeds the plasticity threshold, thus breaking the columns and the filaments. As a result, cracks, more exactly, giant dislocations are formed. These change the strand thickness by steps of different birefringence colors. Interestingly, the addition of a solute may drastically change the effective viscosity of the columnar phase and its mechanical properties. Some solutes, such as alkanes, exhibit lubricant and detangling properties, whereas others such as triphenylene, are antilubricant. PMID:24302445

  3. Molecular mechanism of viomycin inhibition of peptide elongation in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Mikael; Borg, Anneli; Ehrenberg, Måns; Sanyal, Suparna

    2016-01-01

    Viomycin is a tuberactinomycin antibiotic essential for treating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. It inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by blocking elongation factor G (EF-G) catalyzed translocation of messenger RNA on the ribosome. Here we have clarified the molecular aspects of viomycin inhibition of the elongating ribosome using pre-steady-state kinetics. We found that the probability of ribosome inhibition by viomycin depends on competition between viomycin and EF-G for binding to the pretranslocation ribosome, and that stable viomycin binding requires an A-site bound tRNA. Once bound, viomycin stalls the ribosome in a pretranslocation state for a minimum of ∼45 s. This stalling time increases linearly with viomycin concentration. Viomycin inhibition also promotes futile cycles of GTP hydrolysis by EF-G. Finally, we have constructed a kinetic model for viomycin inhibition of EF-G catalyzed translocation, allowing for testable predictions of tuberactinomycin action in vivo and facilitating in-depth understanding of resistance development against this important class of antibiotics. PMID:26755601

  4. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene.

  5. Directed 3D cell alignment and elongation in microengineered hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Hug; Nichol, Jason W; Hutson, Ché B; Bae, Hojae; Sieminski, Alisha L; Cropek, Donald M; Akhyari, Payam; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2010-09-01

    Organized cellular alignment is critical to controlling tissue microarchitecture and biological function. Although a multitude of techniques have been described to control cellular alignment in 2D, recapitulating the cellular alignment of highly organized native tissues in 3D engineered tissues remains a challenge. While cellular alignment in engineered tissues can be induced through the use of external physical stimuli, there are few simple techniques for microscale control of cell behavior that are largely cell-driven. In this study we present a simple and direct method to control the alignment and elongation of fibroblasts, myoblasts, endothelial cells and cardiac stem cells encapsulated in microengineered 3D gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels, demonstrating that cells with the intrinsic potential to form aligned tissues in vivo will self-organize into functional tissues in vitro if confined in the appropriate 3D microarchitecture. The presented system may be used as an in vitro model for investigating cell and tissue morphogenesis in 3D, as well as for creating tissue constructs with microscale control of 3D cellular alignment and elongation, that could have great potential for the engineering of functional tissues with aligned cells and anisotropic function. PMID:20638973

  6. Elongated quantum dots of Ge on Si formation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozovoy, K. A.; Kokhanenko, A. P.; Voitsekhovskiy, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) of Ge on Si grown using the method of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are examined in this paper. A comparative analysis of growth kinetics of elongated QDs with different length to width ratio was carried out. Calculations of pyramidal and wedge-like clusters formation energy were made. The increase in islands' surface energy, elastic strain relaxation, and the decrease in the atoms' attraction to substrate were taken into account. By using a well-known model based on the generalization of classical nucleation theory it was shown that elongated islands emerge after pyramidal clusters but begin to dominate in the QDs array on the later stages of growth. Calculations of QDs surface density and size distribution function for wedge-like clusters with different length to width ratio were performed. The existence of a special geometry of islands was discovered. Surface density and the average size of islands reach points of extremum for this geometry. Theoretical conclusions correlate with the experimental results.

  7. Local auxin metabolism regulates environment-induced hypocotyl elongation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zuyu; Guo, Yongxia; Novák, Ondřej; Chen, William; Ljung, Karin; Noel, Joseph P; Chory, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of plants is their adaptability of size and form in response to widely fluctuating environments. The metabolism and redistribution of the phytohormone auxin play pivotal roles in establishing active auxin gradients and resulting cellular differentiation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cotyledons and leaves synthesize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from tryptophan through indole-3-pyruvic acid (3-IPA) in response to vegetational shade. This newly synthesized auxin moves to the hypocotyl where it induces elongation of hypocotyl cells. Here we show that loss of function of VAS2 (IAA-amido synthetase Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3).17) leads to increases in free IAA at the expense of IAA-Glu (IAA-glutamate) in the hypocotyl epidermis. This active IAA elicits shade- and high temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation largely independently of 3-IPA-mediated IAA biosynthesis in cotyledons. Our results reveal an unexpected capacity of local auxin metabolism to modulate the homeostasis and spatial distribution of free auxin in specialized organs such as hypocotyls in response to shade and high temperature. PMID:27249562

  8. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, N; Hasenstein, K H

    1999-01-01

    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene. PMID:11542270

  9. Application of an Elongated Kelvin Model to Space Shuttle Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2009-01-01

    The space shuttle foams are rigid closed-cell polyurethane foams. The two foams used most-extensively oil space shuttle external tank are BX-265 and NCFL4-124. Because of the foaming and rising process, the foam microstructures are elongated in the rise direction. As a result, these two foams exhibit a nonisotropic mechanical behavior. A detailed microstructural characterization of the two foams is presented. Key features of the foam cells are described and the average cell dimensions in the two foams are summarized. Experimental studies are also conducted to measure the room temperature mechanical response of the two foams in the two principal material directions (parallel to the rise and perpendicular to the rise). The measured elastic modulus, proportional limit stress, ultimate tensile strength, and Poisson's ratios are reported. The generalized elongated Kelvin foam model previously developed by the authors is reviewed and the equations which result from this model are summarized. Using the measured microstructural dimensions and the measured stiffness ratio, the foam tensile strength ratio and Poisson's ratios are predicted for both foams and are compared with the experimental data. The predicted tensile strength ratio is in close agreement with the measured strength ratio for both BX-265 and NCFI24-124. The comparison between the predicted Poisson's ratios and the measured values is not as favorable.

  10. Device for measuring hole elongation in a bolted joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichorek, Gregory R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A device to determine the operable failure mode of mechanically fastened lightweight composite joints by measuring the hole elongation of a bolted joint is disclosed. The double-lap joint test apparatus comprises a stud, a test specimen having a hole, two load transfer plates, and linear displacement measuring instruments. The test specimen is sandwiched between the two load transfer plates and clamped together with the stud. Spacer washers are placed between the test specimen and each load transfer plate to provide a known, controllable area for the determination of clamping forces around the hole of the specimen attributable to bolt torque. The spacer washers also provide a gap for the mounting of reference angles on each side of the test specimen. Under tensile loading, elongation of the hole of the test specimen causes the stud to move away from the reference angles. This displacement is measured by the voltage output of two linear displacement measuring instruments that are attached to the stud and remain in contact with the reference angles throughout the tensile loading. The present invention obviates previous problems in obtaining specimen deformation measurements by monitoring the reference angles to the test specimen and the linear displacement measuring instruments to the stud.

  11. Gibberellin biosynthesis and signal transduction is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice

    PubMed Central

    Ayano, Madoka; Kani, Takahiro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kitaoka, Takuya; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Kitano, Hidemi; Nagai, Keisuke; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Under flooded conditions, the leaves and internodes of deepwater rice can elongate above the water surface to capture oxygen and prevent drowning. Our previous studies showed that three major quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulate deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. In this study, we investigated the age-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. We also investigated the relationship between deepwater-dependent internode elongation and the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) by physiological and genetic approach using a QTL pyramiding line (NIL-1 + 3 + 12). Deepwater rice did not show internode elongation before the sixth leaf stage under deepwater condition. Additionally, deepwater-dependent internode elongation occurred on the sixth and seventh internodes during the sixth leaf stage. These results indicate that deepwater rice could not start internode elongation until the sixth leaf stage. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the phytohormone contents showed a deepwater-dependent GA1 and GA4 accumulation in deepwater rice. Additionally, a GA inhibitor abolished deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. On the contrary, GA feeding mimicked internode elongation under ordinary growth conditions. However, mutations in GA biosynthesis and signal transduction genes blocked deepwater-dependent internode elongation. These data suggested that GA biosynthesis and signal transduction are essential for deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. Deepwater rice obtained the ability for rapid internode elongation to avoid drowning and adapt to flooded condition. How does it regulate internode elongation? Using both physiological and genetic approach, this paper shows that the plant hormone, gibberellin (GA) regulates internode elongation. PMID:24891164

  12. Modes of Action of ADP-Ribosylated Elongation Factor 2 in Inhibiting the Polypeptide Elongation Cycle: A Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kevin C.; Xie, Honglin; Cai, Yujie

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that ADP-ribosylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (EF2) leads to inhibition of protein synthesis, the mechanism by which ADP-ribosylated EF2 (ADPR•EF2) causes this inhibition remains controversial. Here, we applied modeling approaches to investigate the consequences of various modes of ADPR•EF2 inhibitory actions on the two coupled processes, the polypeptide chain elongation and ADP-ribosylation of EF2. Modeling of experimental data indicates that ADPR•EF2 fully blocks the late-phase translocation of tRNAs; but the impairment in the translocation upstream process, mainly the GTP-dependent factor binding with the pretranslocation ribosome and/or the guanine nucleotide exchange in EF2, is responsible for the overall inhibition kinetics. The reduced ADPR•EF2-ribosome association spares the ribosome to bind and shield native EF2 against toxin attack, thereby deferring the inhibition of protein synthesis inhibition and inactivation of EF2. Minimum association with the ribosome also keeps ADPR•EF2 in an accessible state for toxins to catalyze the reverse reaction when nicotinamide becomes available. Our work underscores the importance of unveiling the interactions between ADPR•EF2 and the ribosome, and argues against that toxins inhibit protein synthesis through converting native EF2 to a competitive inhibitor to actively disable the ribosome. PMID:23861744

  13. Gain and loss of elongation factor genes in green algae

    PubMed Central

    Cocquyt, Ellen; Verbruggen, Heroen; Leliaert, Frederik; Zechman, Frederick W; Sabbe, Koen; De Clerck, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Background Two key genes of the translational apparatus, elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) and elongation factor-like (EFL) have an almost mutually exclusive distribution in eukaryotes. In the green plant lineage, the Chlorophyta encode EFL except Acetabularia where EF-1α is found, and the Streptophyta possess EF-1α except Mesostigma, which has EFL. These results raise questions about evolutionary patterns of gain and loss of EF-1α and EFL. A previous study launched the hypothesis that EF-1α was the primitive state and that EFL was gained once in the ancestor of the green plants, followed by differential loss of EF-1α or EFL in the principal clades of the Viridiplantae. In order to gain more insight in the distribution of EF-1α and EFL in green plants and test this hypothesis we screened the presence of the genes in a large sample of green algae and analyzed their gain-loss dynamics in a maximum likelihood framework using continuous-time Markov models. Results Within the Chlorophyta, EF-1α is shown to be present in three ulvophycean orders (i.e., Dasycladales, Bryopsidales, Siphonocladales) and the genus Ignatius. Models describing gene gain-loss dynamics revealed that the presence of EF-1α, EFL or both genes along the backbone of the green plant phylogeny is highly uncertain due to sensitivity to branch lengths and lack of prior knowledge about ancestral states or rates of gene gain and loss. Model refinements based on insights gained from the EF-1α phylogeny reduce uncertainty but still imply several equally likely possibilities: a primitive EF-1α state with multiple independent EFL gains or coexistence of both genes in the ancestor of the Viridiplantae or Chlorophyta followed by differential loss of one or the other gene in the various lineages. Conclusion EF-1α is much more common among green algae than previously thought. The mutually exclusive distribution of EF-1α and EFL is confirmed in a large sample of green plants. Hypotheses about the gain

  14. Gibberellins accumulate in the elongating endodermal cells of Arabidopsis root

    PubMed Central

    Shani, Eilon; Weinstain, Roy; Zhang, Yi; Castillejo, Cristina; Kaiserli, Eirini; Chory, Joanne; Tsien, Roger Y.; Estelle, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Plant hormones are small-molecule signaling compounds that are collectively involved in all aspects of plant growth and development. Unlike animals, plants actively regulate the spatial distribution of several of their hormones. For example, auxin transport results in the formation of auxin maxima that have a key role in developmental patterning. However, the spatial distribution of the other plant hormones, including gibberellic acid (GA), is largely unknown. To address this, we generated two bioactive fluorescent GA compounds and studied their distribution in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. The labeled GAs specifically accumulated in the endodermal cells of the root elongation zone. Pharmacological studies, along with examination of mutants affected in endodermal specification, indicate that GA accumulation is an active and highly regulated process. Our results strongly suggest the presence of an active GA transport mechanism that would represent an additional level of GA regulation. PMID:23382232

  15. Dynamics of macroscopic tunneling in elongated Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekel, G.; Farberovich, V.; Fleurov, V.; Soffer, A.

    2010-06-01

    We investigate macroscopic tunneling from an elongated quasi-one-dimensional trap, forming a “cigar-shaped” Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Using a recently developed formalism we get the leading analytical approximation for the right-hand side of the potential wall, i.e., outside the trap, and a formalism based on Wigner functions, for the left side of the potential wall, i.e., inside the BEC. We then present accomplished results of numerical calculations, which show a “blip” in the particle density traveling with an asymptotic shock velocity, as resulted from previous works on a dotlike trap but with significant differences from the latter. Inside the BEC a pattern of a traveling dispersive shock wave is revealed. In the attractive case, we find trains of bright solitons frozen near the boundary.

  16. Radiation Guiding In a Dense, Elongated Cold-Atom Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Andira; Chen, Yun-Jhih; Maclennan, Jamie; Raithel, Georg

    2016-05-01

    Radiation guiding through a dense, elongated cold-atom cloud in a deep optical lattice created by an in-vacuum cavity has been experimentally observed. When atoms are loaded into the optical lattice, a cylindrically symmetric depletion zone surrounding the lattice location is created. This variation in atomic density gives rise to a position-dependent index of refraction which allows for a probe beam properly coupled into the atomic cloud to be guided through it. For a Hermite-Gaussian mode (HG00) , this mini fiber exhibits a transmission pattern consisting of a central feature and multiple concentric rings around it, with higher cavity modes also being accessible in the current experimental setup. Simulations that look to properly model these features are presented. This form of radiation guiding can be useful for Rydberg polariton and EIT experiments, where the atomic fiber would guide one or more trains of single-photon pulses, depending on the cavity mode.

  17. Dynamic tracking of tendon elongation in ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimpoor, Mahta; Screen, Hazel; Morrissey, Dylan

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the elongation of the Achilles tendon by looking at the changing position of Myo-Tendenious Junction (MTJ) using ultrasound during isometric contraction on an Isometric dynamometer. A sequence of ultrasound images in the form of movie, obtained from a unit operating at a frequency of 12MHz during isometric contraction, was analyzed offline using MATLAB to track the MTJ. This investigation has implemented important techniques for in vivo feature extraction of Achilles tendon. Prior to feature extraction, the images were filtered by anisotropic diffusion method and morphological enhancements. The cross correlation search algorithm with an adaptive mask was utilized to track MTJ by comparing adjacent segmented frames. The present method was studied on seventeen subjects, where it was able to measure the related movement accurately.

  18. The fine structure of elongate gametocytes of Leucocytozoon ziemanni (Laveran).

    PubMed

    Kocan, A A; Kocan, K M

    1978-12-01

    In an effort to establish comparative data within the genus Leucocytozoon, elongate gametocytes of L. ziemanni from naturally infected great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were examined by electron microscopy. Micro- and macrogametocytes proved to be easily distinguishable at the electron microscopic level due to dramatic dimorphism at maturity and cytoplasmic and nuclear morphology. The parasite membrane architecture, number and type of cytoplasmic ribosomes of both micro- and macrogametocytes, presence and arrangement of osmiophilic bodies and electron dense spheres, mitochondrial morphology, endoplasmic reticulum cisternae morphology, mitochondria containing pocket infoldings of the nuclear membrane of the microgametocytes, and cytostome and food vacuole formation compare favorably with available information on L. simondi and L. smithi. Comparative variations exist only in that L. ziemanni gametocytes apparently lack compartmentalization of the cytoplasm by aligned unit membranes and parasite induced separations of the host cell nucleus as reported for L. simondi. PMID:105117

  19. Dynamics of macroscopic tunneling in elongated Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Dekel, G.; Farberovich, V.; Fleurov, V.; Soffer, A.

    2010-06-15

    We investigate macroscopic tunneling from an elongated quasi-one-dimensional trap, forming a 'cigar-shaped' Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Using a recently developed formalism we get the leading analytical approximation for the right-hand side of the potential wall, i.e., outside the trap, and a formalism based on Wigner functions, for the left side of the potential wall, i.e., inside the BEC. We then present accomplished results of numerical calculations, which show a 'blip' in the particle density traveling with an asymptotic shock velocity, as resulted from previous works on a dotlike trap but with significant differences from the latter. Inside the BEC a pattern of a traveling dispersive shock wave is revealed. In the attractive case, we find trains of bright solitons frozen near the boundary.

  20. Reconstruction of recurrent diaphragmatic eventration with an elongated polytetrafluoroethylene sheet

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Masaki; Sonobe, Makoto; Bando, Toru; Date, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 31-year old woman with recurrence of left diaphragmatic eventration 3 years after a previous surgery for this condition. At the initial occurrence, she had experienced dyspnoea on exercise and subsequently underwent laparoscopic plication of the diaphragm with an endo-stapler at a local hospital. Immediately after the operation, the diaphragm was torn and the intestine entered the thorax. Therefore, plication involving sewing was performed. Then, 3 years later, the patient again experienced dyspnoea and was diagnosed as having recurrence of left diaphragmatic eventration. Observation under thoracoscopy revealed that the centre of the left diaphragm was thin but not torn. We reconstructed the left diaphragm with an elongated polytetrafluoroethylene sheet on the naïve diaphragm. The patient was discharged from our hospital 5 days after surgery. Her respiratory function improved and she has not experienced recurrence. PMID:23644727

  1. Legionella pneumophila glucosyltransferase inhibits host elongation factor 1A

    PubMed Central

    Belyi, Yury; Niggeweg, Ricarda; Opitz, Bastian; Vogelsgesang, Martin; Hippenstiel, Stefan; Wilm, Matthias; Aktories, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causal agent of Legionnaires' disease, is an intracellular parasite and invades and proliferates within different eukaryotic cells, including human alveolar macrophages. After several 100-fold multiplication within host cells, the pathogens are released for new invasion by induction of apoptosis or necrosis. Here we report that L. pneumophila produces a glucosyltransferase, which selectively modifies an ≈50-kDa mammalian protein by using UDP-glucose as a cosubstrate. MS analysis identified the protein substrate as the mammalian elongation factor (EF)1A. Legionella glucosyltransferase modifies its eukaryotic protein substrate at serine-53, which is located in the GTPase domain of the EF. Glucosylation of EF1A results in inhibition of eukaryotic protein synthesis and death of target cells. Our findings show a mode of inhibition of protein synthesis by microbial pathogens and offer a perspective for understanding of the host-pathogen interaction of L. pneumophila. PMID:17068130

  2. Laser diffraction particle sizing: Instrument probe volume relocation and elongation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Robert C.; Buchele, Donald R.; Hovenac, Edward A.; Lock, James A.

    1990-01-01

    The effective probe volume of laser diffraction particle sizing instruments depends on many instrument parameters. In particular the probe volume axial boundaries and its location along laser beam are essentially defined by the onset of a vignetting effect where light scattered at large angles from small particles misses the transform lens. This vignetting effect results in a probe volume that must be inconveniently close to the lens in order to detect smaller diameter particles (less than 100 micrometers). With the addition of an appropriately designed Keplerian telescope, the probe volume may be relocated and elongated. The theory of operation of this supplemental optical system is described. Design considerations for these supplemental optical systems are described, including recommendations for lens specifications, assembly and use. An image transfer system is described which has been designed for use on a Malvern 2600HSD instrument. Experimental validation of this image transfer system is described.

  3. Observation of Universal Solidification in the Elongated Water Nanomeniscus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwoo; Won, Donghyun; Sung, Baekman; Jhe, Wonho

    2014-02-20

    The ubiquitous capillary water bridge in nature plays an important role in interfacial phenomena under ambient conditions such as adhesion and friction. We present experimental measurements of the mechanical properties of the nanometric water column by using noncontact atomic force microscopy. We observe the universal behaviors that the relaxation time (RT) associated with the meniscus increases with its elongation and ruptures at the same value of RT, independent of the meniscus volume. In particular, the enhancement of RT between formation and rupture of the meniscus is indicative of the increased solid-like response, similar to that observed in nanoconfined water layers. Our results that the longer water column is more solid-like and less stable suggest (i) water at the vapor/liquid interface is more solid-like than that inside the meniscus and (ii) the associated smaller mobility of the interfacial water molecules is responsible for the structural stability of the water meniscus. PMID:26270845

  4. Longitudinal domain wall formation in elongated assemblies of ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Varón, Miriam; Beleggia, Marco; Jordanovic, Jelena; Schiøtz, Jakob; Kasama, Takeshi; Puntes, Victor F.; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    Through evaporation of dense colloids of ferromagnetic ~13 nm ε-Co particles onto carbon substrates, anisotropic magnetic dipolar interactions can support formation of elongated particle structures with aggregate thicknesses of 100–400 nm and lengths of up to some hundred microns. Lorenz microscopy and electron holography reveal collective magnetic ordering in these structures. However, in contrast to continuous ferromagnetic thin films of comparable dimensions, domain walls appear preferentially as longitudinal, i.e., oriented parallel to the long axis of the nanoparticle assemblies. We explain this unusual domain structure as the result of dipolar interactions and shape anisotropy, in the absence of inter-particle exchange coupling. PMID:26416297

  5. Elongation method for electronic structure calculations of random DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Orimoto, Yuuichi; Liu, Kai; Aoki, Yuriko

    2015-10-30

    We applied ab initio order-N elongation (ELG) method to calculate electronic structures of various deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) models. We aim to test potential application of the method for building a database of DNA electronic structures. The ELG method mimics polymerization reactions on a computer and meets the requirements for linear scaling computational efficiency and high accuracy, even for huge systems. As a benchmark test, we applied the method for calculations of various types of random sequenced A- and B-type DNA models with and without counterions. In each case, the ELG method maintained high accuracy with small errors in energy on the order of 10(-8) hartree/atom compared with conventional calculations. We demonstrate that the ELG method can provide valuable information such as stabilization energies and local densities of states for each DNA sequence. In addition, we discuss the "restarting" feature of the ELG method for constructing a database that exhaustively covers DNA species. PMID:26337429

  6. Elongational rheology and cohesive fracture of photo-oxidated LDPE

    SciTech Connect

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H. Wagner, Manfred H.

    2014-01-15

    It was found recently that low-density polyethylene (LDPE) samples with different degrees of photo-oxidation represent an interesting system to study the transition from ductile to cohesive fracture and the aspects of the cohesive rupture in elongational flow. Sheets of LDPE were subjected to photo-oxidation in the presence of air using a xenon lamp to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Characterisation methods included Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solvent extraction method, and rheology in shear and uniaxial extensional flows. Linear viscoelasticity was increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by the carbonyl index, acid and aldehydes groups, and gel fraction. The molecular stress function model was used to quantify the experimental data, and the nonlinear model parameter β was found to be correlated with the gel content. The uniaxial data showed that the transition from ductile to cohesive fracture was shifted to lower elongational rates, the higher the gel content was. From 2 weeks photo-oxidation onwards, cohesive rupture occurred at every strain rate investigated. The true strain and true stress at cohesive fracture as well as the energy density applied to the sample up to fracture were analyzed. At low gel content, rupture was mainly determined by the melt fraction while at high gel content, rupture occurred predominantly in the gel structure. The strain at break was found to be independent of strain rate, contrary to the stress at break and the energy density. Thus, the true strain and not the stress at break or the energy density was found to be the relevant physical quantity to describe cohesive fracture behavior of photo-oxidated LDPE. The equilibrium modulus of the gel structures was correlated with the true strain at rupture. The stiffer the gel structure, the lower was the deformation tolerated before the sample breaks.

  7. Effect of elongational flow on ferrofuids under a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Altmeyer, S; Do, Younghae; Lopez, J M

    2013-07-01

    To set up a mathematical model for the flow of complex magnetic fluids, noninteracting magnetic particles with a small volume or an even point size are typically assumed. Real ferrofluids, however, consist of a suspension of particles with a finite size in an almost ellipsoid shape as well as with particle-particle interactions that tend to form chains of various lengths. To come close to the realistic situation for ferrofluids, we investigate the effect of elongational flow incorporated by the symmetric part of the velocity gradient field tensor, which could be scaled by a so-called transport coefficient λ(2). Based on the hybrid finite-difference and Galerkin scheme, we study the flow of a ferrofluid in the gap between two concentric rotating cylinders subjected to either a transverse or an axial magnetic field with the transport coefficient. Under the influence of a transverse magnetic field with λ(2)=0, we show that basic state and centrifugal unstable flows are modified and are inherently three-dimensional helical flows that are either left-winding or right-winding in the sense of the azimuthal mode-2, which is in contrast to the generic cases. That is, classical modulated rotating waves rotate, but these flows do not. We find that under elongational flow (λ(2)≠0), the flow structure from basic state and centrifugal instability flows is modified and their azimuthal vorticity is linearly changed. In addition, we also show that the bifurcation threshold of the supercritical centrifugal unstable flows under a magnetic field depends linearly on the transport coefficient, but it does not affect the general stabilization effect of any magnetic field. PMID:23944545

  8. Identification of autophosphorylation sites in eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Pyr Dit Ruys, Sébastien; Wang, Xuemin; Smith, Ewan M.; Herinckx, Gaëtan; Hussain, Nusrat; Rider, Mark H.; Vertommen, Didier; Proud, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    eEF2K [eEF2 (eukaryotic elongation factor 2) kinase] phosphorylates and inactivates the translation elongation factor eEF2. eEF2K is not a member of the main eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily, but instead belongs to a small group of so-called α-kinases. The activity of eEF2K is normally dependent upon Ca2+ and calmodulin. eEF2K has previously been shown to undergo autophosphorylation, the stoichiometry of which suggested the existence of multiple sites. In the present study we have identified several autophosphorylation sites, including Thr348, Thr353, Ser366 and Ser445, all of which are highly conserved among vertebrate eEF2Ks. We also identified a number of other sites, including Ser78, a known site of phosphorylation, and others, some of which are less well conserved. None of the sites lies in the catalytic domain, but three affect eEF2K activity. Mutation of Ser78, Thr348 and Ser366 to a non-phosphorylatable alanine residue decreased eEF2K activity. Phosphorylation of Thr348 was detected by immunoblotting after transfecting wild-type eEF2K into HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells, but not after transfection with a kinase-inactive construct, confirming that this is indeed a site of autophosphorylation. Thr348 appears to be constitutively autophosphorylated in vitro. Interestingly, other recent data suggest that the corresponding residue in other α-kinases is also autophosphorylated and contributes to the activation of these enzymes [Crawley, Gharaei, Ye, Yang, Raveh, London, Schueler-Furman, Jia and Cote (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 2607–2616]. Ser366 phosphorylation was also detected in intact cells, but was still observed in the kinase-inactive construct, demonstrating that this site is phosphorylated not only autocatalytically but also in trans by other kinases. PMID:22216903

  9. Dendrosomatic Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Hippocampal Neurons Regulates Axon Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Petralia, Ronald S.; Ott, Carolyn; Wang, Ya-Xian; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and its signaling components in the neurons of the hippocampus raises a question about what role the Shh signaling pathway may play in these neurons. We show here that activation of the Shh signaling pathway stimulates axon elongation in rat hippocampal neurons. This Shh-induced effect depends on the pathway transducer Smoothened (Smo) and the transcription factor Gli1. The axon itself does not respond directly to Shh; instead, the Shh signal transduction originates from the somatodendritic region of the neurons and occurs in neurons with and without detectable primary cilia. Upon Shh stimulation, Smo localization to dendrites increases significantly. Shh pathway activation results in increased levels of profilin1 (Pfn1), an actin-binding protein. Mutations in Pfn1's actin-binding sites or reduction of Pfn1 eliminate the Shh-induced axon elongation. These findings indicate that Shh can regulate axon growth, which may be critical for development of hippocampal neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although numerous signaling mechanisms have been identified that act directly on axons to regulate their outgrowth, it is not known whether signals transduced in dendrites may also affect axon outgrowth. We describe here a transcellular signaling pathway in embryonic hippocampal neurons in which activation of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) receptors in dendrites stimulates axon growth. The pathway involves the dendritic-membrane-associated Shh signal transducer Smoothened (Smo) and the transcription factor Gli, which induces the expression of the gene encoding the actin-binding protein profilin 1. Our findings suggest scenarios in which stimulation of Shh in dendrites results in accelerated outgrowth of the axon, which therefore reaches its presumptive postsynaptic target cell more quickly. By this mechanism, Shh may play critical roles in the development of hippocampal neuronal circuits. PMID:26658865

  10. The Effects of Microgravity on Seated Height (Spinal Elongation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K. S.; Rajulu, S.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many physiological factors, such as spinal elongation, fluid shifts, bone atrophy, and muscle loss, occur during an exposure to a microgravity environment. Spinal elongation is just one of the factors that can also affect the safety and performance of a crewmember while in space. Spinal elongation occurs due to the lack of gravity/compression on the spinal column. This allows for the straightening of the natural spinal curve. There is a possible fluid shift in the inter-vertebral disks that may also result in changes in height. This study aims at collecting the overall change in seated height for crewmembers exposed to a microgravity environment. During previous Programs, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) and Skylab, spinal elongation data was collected from a small number of subjects in a standing posture but were limited in scope. Data from these studies indicated a quick increase in stature during the first few days of weightlessness, after which stature growth reached a plateau resulting in up to a 3% increase of the original measurement [1-5]. However, this data was collected only for crewmembers in standing posture and not in a seated posture. Seated height may have a different effect than standing height due to a change in posture as well as due to a compounded effect of wearing restraints and a potential compression of the gluteal area. Seated height was deemed as a critical measurement in the design of the Constellation Program s (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), called Orion which is now the point-of-departure vehicle for the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program; therefore a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on seated height is necessary. Potential changes in seated height that may not have impacted crew accommodation in previous Programs will have significant effects on crew accommodation due to the layout of seats in the Orion.. The current and existing configuration is such that the four crewmembers are stacked two by

  11. Complete Turgor Maintenance at Low Water Potentials in the Elongating Region of Maize Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Michelena, V. Arturo; Boyer, John S.

    1982-01-01

    Leaf elongation rate, water potential, and osmotic potential were measured in the fifth leaf of maize (Zea mays L.) plants growing in soil from which water was withheld for varying times. Elongation occurred in the basal region, which was enclosed by other leaf sheaths. When water was withheld from the soil, leaf elongation decreased and eventually ceased even though enough solutes accumulated in the elongating region to maintain turgor virtually constant. In the exposed blade, however, turgor was lost and wilt symptoms developed. If the night was prolonged, the elongating region lost much of its ability to accumulate solute, which suggests that the accumulating solutes were of recent photosynthetic origin. Under these conditions, leaf elongation was restricted to higher water potentials than under the usual photoperiodic regime. The solute accumulation and turgor maintenance of the elongating region at low water potentials indicate that differences in water status and physiological behavior exist along grass leaves and that the water status of the elongating region cannot be inferred from measurements on the exposed blade. The increased sensitivity of leaf elongation to low water potentials in prolonged darkness indicates that accumulation of solute and maintenance of turgor play a role in maintaining leaf growth. However, the inhibition of elongation that occurred even when solute accumulation was sufficient to completely maintain turgor indicates that some factor other than photosynthate supply and turgor also affected growth and caused most of the losses in growth under dry conditions. Images PMID:16662360

  12. Oat (Avena sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Gasparis, Sebastian; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a suitable method to transform different cultivars using different systems of A. tumefaciens strains and binary vectors as well as selection cassettes. We describe here a detailed protocol for two cultivars, one naked and one husked, using the AGL1 strain and the pGreen vector containing the nptII selection cassette ( http://www.pgreen.ac.uk/ ), suitable for oat as well as other cereals. The pGreen vector system was recently developed for pBract ( http://www.bract.org/ ) and its transformation ability for cereals was proved. Assuming our experience and the latest knowledge on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cereals, we suggest using in the protocol one of the newly developed pBract or pCAMBIA ( http://www.cambia.org/daisy/cambia/ ) vector systems which carry different selection cassettes. The commonly used selection genes nptII, bar, and hpt were proved to be applicable for oat transformation and might be used as needed. PMID:25300837

  13. Transcription elongation regulator 1 (TCERG1) regulates competent RNA polymerase II-mediated elongation of HIV-1 transcription and facilitates efficient viral replication

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Control of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) release from pausing has been proposed as a checkpoint mechanism to ensure optimal RNAPII activity, especially in large, highly regulated genes. HIV-1 gene expression is highly regulated at the level of elongation, which includes transcriptional pausing that is mediated by both viral and cellular factors. Here, we present evidence for a specific role of the elongation-related factor TCERG1 in regulating the extent of HIV-1 elongation and viral replication in vivo. Results We show that TCERG1 depletion diminishes the basal and viral Tat-activated transcription from the HIV-1 LTR. In support of a role for an elongation mechanism in the transcriptional control of HIV-1, we found that TCERG1 modifies the levels of pre-mRNAs generated at distal regions of HIV-1. Most importantly, TCERG1 directly affects the elongation rate of RNAPII transcription in vivo. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that TCERG1 regulates HIV-1 transcription by increasing the rate of RNAPII elongation through the phosphorylation of serine 2 within the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNAPII and suggest a mechanism for the involvement of TCERG1 in relieving pausing. Finally, we show that TCERG1 is required for HIV-1 replication. Conclusions Our study reveals that TCERG1 regulates HIV-1 transcriptional elongation by increasing the elongation rate of RNAPII and phosphorylation of Ser 2 within the CTD. Based on our data, we propose a general mechanism for TCERG1 acting on genes that are regulated at the level of elongation by increasing the rate of RNAPII transcription through the phosphorylation of Ser2. In the case of HIV-1, our evidence provides the basis for further investigation of TCERG1 as a potential therapeutic target for the inhibition of HIV-1 replication PMID:24165037

  14. Getting up to speed with transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Jonkers, Iris; Lis, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in sequencing techniques that measure nascent transcripts and that reveal the positioning of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) have shown that the pausing of Pol II in promoter-proximal regions and its release to initiate a phase of productive elongation are key steps in transcription regulation. Moreover, after the release of Pol II from the promoter-proximal region, elongation rates are highly dynamic throughout the transcription of a gene, and vary on a gene-by-gene basis. Interestingly, Pol II elongation rates affect co-transcriptional processes such as splicing, termination and genome stability. Increasing numbers of factors and regulatory mechanisms have been associated with the steps of transcription elongation by Pol II, revealing that elongation is a highly complex process. Elongation is thus now recognized as a key phase in the regulation of transcription by Pol II. PMID:25693130

  15. Actin Filament Elongation in Arp2/3-derived Networks is Controlled by Three Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Michelot, Alphée; Grassart, Alexandre; Okreglak, Voytek; Costanzo, Michael; Boone, Charles; Drubin, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Spatial and temporal control of actin filament barbed end elongation is crucial for force generation by actin networks. In this study, genetics, cell biology, and biochemistry were used to reveal three complementary mechanisms that regulate actin filament barbed end elongation in Arp2/3-derived networks. Aip1 inhibits elongation of aged ADP-actin filaments decorated with cofilin, and together with capping protein (CP), maintains a high level of assembly-competent actin species. We identified Abp1 and Aim3 as two additional proteins that work together to inhibit barbed end elongation. Abp1/Aim3 collaborates with CP to control elongation of newly assembled ATP-actin filaments to organize filament polarity within actin networks. Thus, three distinct mechanisms control filament elongation in different regions of Arp2/3 networks, maintaining pools of assembly-competent actin species while ensuring proper filament polarity and facilitating force production. PMID:23333351

  16. Actin filament elongation in Arp2/3-derived networks is controlled by three distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Michelot, Alphée; Grassart, Alexandre; Okreglak, Voytek; Costanzo, Michael; Boone, Charles; Drubin, David G

    2013-01-28

    Spatial and temporal control of actin filament barbed end elongation is crucial for force generation by actin networks. In this study, genetics, cell biology, and biochemistry were used to reveal three complementary mechanisms that regulate actin filament barbed end elongation in Arp2/3-derived networks. Aip1 inhibits elongation of aged ADP-actin filaments decorated with cofilin and, together with capping protein (CP), maintains a high level of assembly-competent actin species. We identified Abp1 and Aim3 as two additional proteins that work together to inhibit barbed end elongation. Abp1/Aim3 collaborates with CP to control elongation of newly assembled ATP-actin filaments to organize filament polarity within actin networks. Thus, three distinct mechanisms control filament elongation in different regions of Arp2/3 networks, maintaining pools of assembly-competent actin species while ensuring proper filament polarity and facilitating force production. PMID:23333351

  17. Radiostereometric Evaluation of Tendon Elongation after Distal Biceps Repair

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Nathan; Keller, Robert A.; Guest, John-Michael; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Operative repair of distal biceps tendon ruptures have shown successful outcomes. However, little is known about the amount of tendon or repair site lengthening or creep. Treatment algorithms in regards to repair fixation, immobilization, initiation of activity and physical therapy are largely made on previous tendon healing principles and anecdotal findings. The purpose of our study was to evaluate distal biceps tendon repair via intratendinous radiostereometric analysis to evaluate tendon lengthening/creep at different time intervals of healing. Methods: Ten patients were recruited who sustained a distal biceps rupture requiring operative repair. Distal biceps repairs were performed using an endobutton only, single incision technique. Intraoperatively, two 2-mm tantalum beads with laser-etched holes were sutured to the distal biceps tendon. One bead was placed at the radius tendon interface and the other placed 1cm proximal to the first bead. Beads were evaluated via both CT scans immediately post-operatively and at 16 weeks and x-rays obtained at time 0 and then at 4, 8, and 16 weeks. Measurements were made using the endobutton to bead and bead-to-bead distances in order to assess repair site elongation as well as tendon elongation over time. Following final follow-up, patients underwent a DASH questionnaire and ultrasound to confirm the integrity of the tendon. Results: Ten patients were included in the study. Nine patients had complete ruptures with one having a partial rupture that underwent completion and subsequent repair. All patients showed statistically significant lengthening after surgery. The mean amount of lengthening after surgery was 21.8 mm (range 10.1-29.7 mm, p < 0.05). The repair site lengthened a mean of 12.5 mm (range 8.8-17.0 mm, p <0.05) and the tendon lengthened a mean of 9.4 mm (range: 4.0-18.8 mm, p<0.05) from surgery to final follow-up. The greatest change in lengthening was noted between time 0 and week 4 (mean: 11.8 mm

  18. Elongation Kinetics of Polyglutamine Peptide Fibrils: A Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Study

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Robert H.; Jacobson, Kurt H.; Pedersen, Joel A.; Murphy, Regina M.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormally expanded polyglutamine domains in proteins are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease. Expansion of the polyglutamine (polyQ) domain facilitates aggregation of the affected protein, and several studies directly link aggregation to neurotoxicity. Studies of synthetic polyQ peptides have contributed substantially to our understanding of the mechanism of aggregation. In this report, polyQ fibrils were immobilized onto a sensor, and their elongation by polyQ peptides of various length and conformation was examined using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The rate of elongation increased as the peptide length increased from 8 to 24 glutamines (Q8, Q20, and Q24). Monomer conformation affected elongation rates: insertion of a β-turn template d-Pro-Gly in the center of the peptide increased elongation rates several-fold, while insertion of Pro-Pro dramatically slowed elongation. Dissipation measurements of the QCM-D provided qualitative information about mechanical properties of the elongating fibrils. These data showed clear differences in the characteristics of the elongating aggregates, depending on the specific identity of the associating polyQ peptide. Elongation rates were sensitive to the pH and ionic strength of the buffer. Comparison of QCM-D data with those obtained by optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy revealed that very little water was associated with the elongation of fibrils by the peptide containing d-Pro-Gly, but a significant amount of water was associated when the fibrils were elongated by Q20. Together, the data indicate that elongation of polyQ fibrils can occur without full consolidation to the fibril structure, resulting in variations to the aggregate structure during elongation. PMID:22459263

  19. Application of an Elongated Kelvin Model to Space Shuttle Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2008-01-01

    Spray-on foam insulation is applied to the exterior of the Space Shuttle s External Tank to limit propellant boil-off and to prevent ice formation. The Space Shuttle foams are rigid closed-cell polyurethane foams. The two foams used most extensively on the Space Shuttle External Tank are BX-265 and NCFI24-124. Since the catastrophic loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia, numerous studies have been conducted to mitigate the likelihood and the severity of foam shedding during the Shuttle s ascent to space. Due to the foaming and rising process, the foam microstructures are elongated in the rise direction. As a result, these two foams exhibit a non-isotropic mechanical behavior. In this paper, a detailed microstructural characterization of the two foams is presented. The key features of the foam cells are summarized and the average cell dimensions in the two foams are compared. Experimental studies to measure the room temperature mechanical response of the two foams in the two principal material directions (parallel to the rise and perpendicular to the rise) are also reported. The measured elastic modulus, proportional limit stress, ultimate tensile stress and the Poisson s ratios for the two foams are compared. The generalized elongated Kelvin foam model previously developed by the authors is reviewed and the equations which result from this model are presented. The resulting equations show that the ratio of the elastic modulus in the rise direction to that in the perpendicular-to-rise direction as well as the ratio of the strengths in the two material directions is only a function of the microstructural dimensions. Using the measured microstructural dimensions and the measured stiffness ratio, the foam tensile strength ratio and Poisson s ratios are predicted for both foams. The predicted tensile strength ratio is in close agreement with the measured strength ratios for both BX-265 and NCFI24-124. The comparison between the predicted Poisson s ratios and the measured

  20. Effect of elongation on the electrical properties and morphology of polypropylene

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, D.Y.; Hwangbo, S.; Han, M.K.; Park, D.H.

    1996-12-31

    Variations of electrical properties of Polypropylene (PP) film due to the elongation have been investigated. The conductivities of PP films have been decreased with the increase of elongation ratio({lambda}) and the activation energy({phi}) of elongated PP films were slightly higher than that of non-elongated PP film. From TSC experimental data, in the elongated PP films({lambda} = 6,8), that trap density shows the slight increase trend with the increase of elongation ratio for peak P{sub 1}, but trap density for second P{sub 2} decreased largely in the elongated samples. The authors have also observed the increase trend of AC breakdown strength with the increase of elongation ratio. They conclude that the decrease of conductivity and increase of dielectric strength with elongation were originated from the increase of trap density and trap depth for TSC peak P{sub 1}, and also may be attributed to the dominance of dipolar process at room temperature.

  1. Histone Variant H2A.Z and RNA Polymerase II Transcription Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Santisteban, Maria Soledad; Hang, Mingda; Smith, M. Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    Nucleosomes containing histone variant H2A.Z (Htz1) serve to poise quiescent genes for activation and transcriptional initiation. However, little is known about their role in transcription elongation. Here we show that dominant mutations in the elongation genes SPT5 and SPT16 suppress the hypersensitivity of htz1Δ strains to drugs that inhibit elongation, indicating that Htz1 functions at the level of transcription elongation. Direct kinetic measurements of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) movement across the 9.5-kb GAL10p-VPS13 gene revealed that the elongation rate of polymerase is 24% slower in the absence of Htz1. We provide evidence for two nonexclusive mechanisms. First, we observed that both the phospho-Ser2 levels in the elongating isoform of Pol II and the loading of Spt5 and Elongator over the GAL1 open reading frame (ORF) depend on Htz1. Second, in the absence of Htz1, the density of nucleosome occupancy is increased over the GAL10p-VPS13 ORF and the chromatin is refractory to remodeling during active transcription. These results establish a mechanistic role for Htz1 in transcription elongation and suggest that Htz1-containing nucleosomes facilitate Pol II passage by affecting the correct assembly and modification status of Pol II elongation complexes and by favoring efficient nucleosome remodeling over the gene. PMID:21357739

  2. Micro- and Nanoscale Capacitors that Incorporate an Array of Conductive Elements Having Elongated Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Del Castillo, Linda Y. (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammed M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement micro- and nanoscale capacitors that incorporate a conductive element that conforms to the shape of an array elongated bodies. In one embodiment, a capacitor that incorporates a conductive element that conforms to the shape of an array of elongated bodies includes: a first conductive element that conforms to the shape of an array of elongated bodies; a second conductive element that conforms to the shape of an array of elongated bodies; and a dielectric material disposed in between the first conductive element and the second conductive element, and thereby physically separates them.

  3. Pleiohomeotic Interacts with the Core Transcription Elongation Factor Spt5 to Regulate Gene Expression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Barbara H.

    2013-01-01

    The early elongation checkpoint regulated by Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) is a critical control point for the expression of many genes. Spt5 interacts directly with RNA polymerase II and has an essential role in establishing this checkpoint, and also for further transcript elongation. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila Spt5 interacts both physically and genetically with the Polycomb Group (PcG) protein Pleiohomeotic (Pho), and the majority of Pho binding sites overlap with Spt5 binding sites across the genome in S2 cells. Our results indicate that Pho can interact with Spt5 to regulate transcription elongation in a gene specific manner. PMID:23894613

  4. Low melatonin production by suppression of either serotonin N-acetyltransferase or N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase in rice causes seedling growth retardation with yield penalty, abiotic stress susceptibility, and enhanced coleoptile growth under anoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Yeong; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2016-04-01

    Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase (ASMT) are the last two key enzymes for melatonin biosynthesis in living organisms. In this study, we demonstrated that transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants, in which expression of either endogenous SNAT or ASMT was suppressed, had reduced melatonin synthesis, confirming that both SNAT and ASMT are functionally involved in melatonin synthesis. The melatonin-deficient SNAT rice had retarded seedling growth, which was partially restored by exogenous melatonin application, suggesting melatonin's role in seedling growth. In addition, the plants were more sensitive to various abiotic stresses, including salt and cold, compared with the wild type. Melatonin-deficient SNAT rice had increased coleoptile growth under anoxic conditions, indicating that melatonin also inversely regulates plant growth under anaerobic conditions with the concomitant high expression of alcohol dehydrogenase genes. Similarly, the melatonin-deficient ASMT rice exhibited accelerated senescence in detached flag leaves, as well as significantly reduced yield. These loss-of-function studies on the melatonin biosynthetic genes confirmed most previous pharmacological reports that melatonin not only promotes plant growth but also mitigates various abiotic stresses. PMID:26919041

  5. 5'-Azido-[3,6-3H2]-1-napthylphthalamic acid, a photoactivatable probe for naphthylphthalamic acid receptor proteins from higher plants: identification of a 23-kDa protein from maize coleoptile plasma membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Zettl, R; Feldwisch, J; Boland, W; Schell, J; Palme, K

    1992-01-01

    1-Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) is a specific inhibitor of polar auxin transport that blocks carrier-mediated auxin efflux from plant cells. To allow identification of the NPA receptor thought to be part of the auxin efflux carrier, we have synthesized a tritiated, photolabile NPA analogue, 5'-azido-[3,6-3H2]NPA ([3H2]N3NPA). This analogue was used to identify NPA-binding proteins in fractions highly enriched for plasma membrane vesicles isolated from maize coleoptiles (Zea mays L.). Competition studies showed that binding of [3H2]N3NPA to maize plasma membrane vesicles was blocked by nonradioactive NPA but not by benzoic acid. After incubation of plasma membrane vesicles with [3H2]N3NPA and exposure to UV light, we observed specific photoaffinity labeling of a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 23 kDa. Pretreatment of the plasma membrane vesicles with indole-3-acetic acid or with the auxin-transport inhibitors NPA and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid strongly reduced specific labeling of this protein. This 23-kDa protein was also labeled by addition of 5-azido-[7-3H]indole-3-acetic acid to plasma membranes prior to exposure to UV light. The 23-kDa protein was solubilized from plasma membranes by 1% Triton X-100. The possibility that this 23-kDa polypeptide is part of the auxin efflux carrier system is discussed. Images PMID:11607252

  6. Chain elongation analog of resveratrol as potent cancer chemoprevention agent.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yan-Fei; Qiao, Hai-Xia; Xin, Long-Zuo; Ge, Li-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Resveratrol is identified as a natural cancer chemoprevention agent. There has been a lot of interest in designing and developing resveratrol analogs with cancer chemoprevention activity superior to that of parent molecule and exploring their action mechanism in the past several decades. In this study, we have synthesized resveratrol analogs of compounds A-C via conjugated chain elongation based on isoprene unit retention strategy. Remarkably, cytotoxic activity analysis results indicated that compound B possesses the best proliferation inhibition activity for NCI-H460 cells in all the test compounds. Intriguingly, compound B displayed a higher cytotoxicity against human non-small cell lung cancer cells (NCI-H460) compared to normal human embryonic lung fibroblasts (MRC-5). Afterward, flow cytometry analysis showed that compound B would induce cell apoptosis. We further researched the action mechanism. When NCI-H460 cells were incubated by compound B for 6 or 9 h, respectively, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was enhanced obviously. With elevation of intracellular ROS level, flow cytometry measurement verified mitochondrial transmembrane potential collapse, which was accompanied by the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2. More interestingly, compound B increased the expression of caspase-9 and caspase-3, which induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, compound B arrested cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. These are all to provide useful information for designing resveratrol-based chemoprevention agent and understanding the action mechanism. PMID:27160168

  7. Amplitude-dependent contraction/elongation of nonlinear Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packo, Pawel; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Uhl, Tadeusz; Leamy, Michael J.

    2016-04-01

    Nonlinear elastic guided waves find application in various disciplines of science and engineering, such as non- destructive testing and structural health monitoring. Recent recognition and quantification of their amplitude- dependent changes in spectral properties has contributed to the development of new monitoring concepts for mechanical structures. The focus of this work is to investigate and predict amplitude-dependent shifts in Lamb wave dispersion curves. The theory for frequency/wavenumber shifts for plate waves, based on a Lindstedt-Poincaré perturbation approach, was presented by the authors in previous years. Equivalently, spectral properties changes can be seen as wavelength contraction/elongation. Within the proposed framework, the wavelength of a Lamb wave depends on several factors; e.g., wave amplitude and second-, third- and fourth-order elastic constants, and others. Various types of nonlinear effects are considered in presented studies. Sensitivity studies for model parameters, i.e. higher-order elastic constants, are performed to quantify their influence on Lamb wave frequency/wavenumber shifting, and to identify the key parameters governing wavelength tuning.

  8. A case of arterial switch operation with coronary elongation technique.

    PubMed

    Matsuba, Tomoyuki; Shigehisa, Yoshiya; Imagama, Itsumi; Imoto, Yutaka

    2016-12-01

    A 28-day-old infant with D-transposition of the great arteries underwent arterial switch operation. The coronary pattern was Yacoub type A, in which coronary transfer is usually thought to be easy. However, a dominant conus branch diverged from the proximal portion of the left coronary artery (LCA). Moreover, the LCA ostium itself was near the remote commissure in sinus 1, very far from the target re-implantation point. All of these conditions made LCA transfer very difficult. We used a coronary elongation technique to solve this problem. An inverted U-shaped flap was made in the wall of the neoaorta, and the LCA cuff was anastomosed to this flap (the inferior half from the neoaortic flap and the superior half from the LCA cuff). To prevent compression of the LCA, the neopulmonary trunk was shifted rightward. Postoperative echocardiography showed good left ventricular wall motion, and the LCA was easily visualized on chest computed tomography, with no compression from the neopulmonary artery. PMID:26943683

  9. Structure and freezing of a fluid of long elongated molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Pankaj; Ram, Jokhan; Singh, Yashwant

    2004-03-01

    The pair correlation functions of a fluid of long elongated molecules interacting via the Gay-Berne pair potential are calculated using the Percus-Yevick integral equation theory. Numerical accuracy has been examined by considering a large number of spherical harmonic coefficients for each orientation-dependent functions for a system of molecules having a length-to-breadth ratio equal to 4.4 at different densities and temperatures. The pair correlation functions of the isotropic fluid found from the Percus-Yevick theory have been used in the density-functional theory to locate the isotropic-nematic, isotropic-smectic A and nematic-smectic A transitions. It is found that at low temperatures the fluid freezes directly into the smectic A phase on increasing the density. The nematic phase is found to stabilize in between the isotropic and smectic A phases only at high temperatures and high densities. The calculated phase diagram is in good qualitative agreement with computer simulation results.

  10. Negative elongation factor controls energy homeostasis in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haihui; Qin, Kunhua; Guo, Zhanyong; Ma, Yonggang; April, Craig; Gao, Xiaoli; Andrews, Thomas G; Bokov, Alex; Zhang, Jianhua; Chen, Yidong; Weintraub, Susan T; Fan, Jian-Bing; Wang, Degeng; Hu, Yanfen; Aune, Gregory J; Lindsey, Merry L; Li, Rong

    2014-04-10

    Negative elongation factor (NELF) is known to enforce promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), a pervasive phenomenon observed across multicellular genomes. However, the physiological impact of NELF on tissue homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we show that whole-body conditional deletion of the B subunit of NELF (NELF-B) in adult mice results in cardiomyopathy and impaired response to cardiac stress. Tissue-specific knockout of NELF-B confirms its cell-autonomous function in cardiomyocytes. NELF directly supports transcription of those genes encoding rate-limiting enzymes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. NELF also shares extensively transcriptional target genes with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a master regulator of energy metabolism in the myocardium. Mechanistically, NELF helps stabilize the transcription initiation complex at the metabolism-related genes. Our findings strongly indicate that NELF is part of the PPARα-mediated transcription regulatory network that maintains metabolic homeostasis in cardiomyocytes. PMID:24656816

  11. Architecture and RNA binding of the human negative elongation factor

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Seychelle M; Pöllmann, David; Caizzi, Livia; Hofmann, Katharina B; Rombaut, Pascaline; Zimniak, Tomasz; Herzog, Franz; Cramer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Transcription regulation in metazoans often involves promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase (Pol) II, which requires the 4-subunit negative elongation factor (NELF). Here we discern the functional architecture of human NELF through X-ray crystallography, protein crosslinking, biochemical assays, and RNA crosslinking in cells. We identify a NELF core subcomplex formed by conserved regions in subunits NELF-A and NELF-C, and resolve its crystal structure. The NELF-AC subcomplex binds single-stranded nucleic acids in vitro, and NELF-C associates with RNA in vivo. A positively charged face of NELF-AC is involved in RNA binding, whereas the opposite face of the NELF-AC subcomplex binds NELF-B. NELF-B is predicted to form a HEAT repeat fold, also binds RNA in vivo, and anchors the subunit NELF-E, which is confirmed to bind RNA in vivo. These results reveal the three-dimensional architecture and three RNA-binding faces of NELF. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14981.001 PMID:27282391

  12. Mammalian elongation factor 4 regulates mitochondrial translation essential for spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanyan; Bai, Xiufeng; Zhang, Dejiu; Han, Chunsheng; Yuan, Jing; Liu, Wenbin; Cao, Xintao; Chen, Zilei; Shangguan, Fugen; Zhu, Zhenyuan; Gao, Fei; Qin, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Elongation factor 4 (EF4) is a key quality-control factor in translation. Despite its high conservation throughout evolution, EF4 deletion in various organisms has not yielded a distinct phenotype. Here we report that genetic ablation of mitochondrial EF4 (mtEF4) in mice causes testis-specific dysfunction in oxidative phosphorylation, leading to male infertility. Deletion of mtEF4 accelerated mitochondrial translation at the cost of producing unstable proteins. Somatic tissues overcame this defect by activating mechanistic (mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR), thereby increasing rates of cytoplasmic translation to match rates of mitochondrial translation. However, in spermatogenic cells, the mTOR pathway was downregulated as part of the developmental program, and the resulting inability to compensate for accelerated mitochondrial translation caused cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. We detected the same phenotype and molecular defects in germline-specific mtEF4-knockout mice. Thus, our study demonstrates cross-talk between mtEF4-dependent quality control in mitochondria and cytoplasmic mTOR signaling. PMID:27065197

  13. Electrostatics control actin filament nucleation and elongation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Crevenna, Alvaro H; Naredi-Rainer, Nikolaus; Schönichen, André; Dzubiella, Joachim; Barber, Diane L; Lamb, Don C; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland

    2013-04-26

    The actin cytoskeleton is a central mediator of cellular morphogenesis, and rapid actin reorganization drives essential processes such as cell migration and cell division. Whereas several actin-binding proteins are known to be regulated by changes in intracellular pH, detailed information regarding the effect of pH on the actin dynamics itself is still lacking. Here, we combine bulk assays, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy techniques, and theory to comprehensively characterize the effect of pH on actin polymerization. We show that both nucleation and elongation are strongly enhanced at acidic pH, with a maximum close to the pI of actin. Monomer association rates are similarly affected by pH at both ends, although dissociation rates are differentially affected. This indicates that electrostatics control the diffusional encounter but not the dissociation rate, which is critical for the establishment of actin filament asymmetry. A generic model of protein-protein interaction, including electrostatics, explains the observed pH sensitivity as a consequence of charge repulsion. The observed pH effect on actin in vitro agrees with measurements of Listeria propulsion in pH-controlled cells. pH regulation should therefore be considered as a modulator of actin dynamics in a cellular environment. PMID:23486468

  14. 2008 OG19: a highly elongated Trans-Neptunian object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Valenzuela, E.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Morales, N.

    2016-03-01

    From two observing runs during the 2014 summer at the Calar Alto Observatory in Almería (Spain) and at the Sierra Nevada Observatory in Granada (Spain), we were able to derive CCD photometry of the Trans-Neptunian object 2008 OG19. We analysed the time series and obtained a double-peaked light curve with a peak-to-valley amplitude of 0.437 ± 0.011 mag and a rotational period of 8.727 ± 0.003 h. This implies that this object is very elongated, closely resembling the case of Varuna. The photometry also allowed us to obtain an absolute magnitude in the R band of 4.39 ± 0.07 mag. From this result, we estimated an equivalent diameter of 2008 OG19 of 619^{+56}_{-113} km using an average albedo for scattered disc objects. Finally, we interpreted the results under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium and found a lower limit for the density of 544^{+42}_{-4} kg m-3. However, a more likely density is 609 ± 4 kg m-3 using an aspect angle of 60°, which corresponds to the most likely configuration for the spin axis with respect to the observer assuming random orientations.

  15. Functional interaction of yeast elongation factor 3 with yeast ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Chakraburtty, K

    1999-01-01

    Elongation factor 3 (EF-3) is a unique and essential requirement of the fungal translational apparatus. EF-3 is a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 116,000. EF-3 is required by yeast ribosomes for in vitro translation and for in vivo growth. The protein stimulates the binding of EF-1 alpha :GTP:aa-tRNA ternary complex to the ribosomal A-site by facilitating release of deacylated-tRNA from the E-site. The reaction requires ATP hydrolysis. EF-3 contains two ATP-binding sequence motifs (NBS). NBSI is sufficient for the intrinsic ATPase function. NBSII is essential for ribosome-stimulated activity. By limited proteolysis, EF-3 was divided into two distinct functional domains. The N-terminal domain lacking the highly charged lysine blocks failed to bind ribosomes and was inactive in the ribosome-stimulated ATPase activity. The C-terminally derived lysine-rich fragment showed strong binding to yeast ribosomes. The purported S5 homology region of EF-3 at the N-terminal end has been reported to interact with 18S ribosomal RNA. We postulate that EF-3 contacts rRNA and/or protein(s) through the C-terminal end. Removal of these residues severely weakens its interaction mediated possibly through the N-terminal domain of the protein. PMID:10216951

  16. The impact of aminoglycosides on the dynamics of translation elongation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Albert; Uemura, Sotaro; Johansson, Magnus; Puglisi, Elisabetta Viani; Marshall, R Andrew; Aitken, Colin Echeverría; Korlach, Jonas; Ehrenberg, Måns; Puglisi, Joseph D

    2013-02-21

    Inferring antibiotic mechanisms on translation through static structures has been challenging, as biological systems are highly dynamic. Dynamic single-molecule methods are also limited to few simultaneously measurable parameters. We have circumvented these limitations with a multifaceted approach to investigate three structurally distinct aminoglycosides that bind to the aminoacyl-transfer RNA site (A site) in the prokaryotic 30S ribosomal subunit: apramycin, paromomycin, and gentamicin. Using several single-molecule fluorescence measurements combined with structural and biochemical techniques, we observed distinct changes to translational dynamics for each aminoglycoside. While all three drugs effectively inhibit translation elongation, their actions are structurally and mechanistically distinct. Apramycin does not displace A1492 and A1493 at the decoding center, as demonstrated by a solution nuclear magnetic resonance structure, causing only limited miscoding; instead, it primarily blocks translocation. Paromomycin and gentamicin, which displace A1492 and A1493, cause significant miscoding, block intersubunit rotation, and inhibit translocation. Our results show the power of combined dynamics, structural, and biochemical approaches to elucidate the complex mechanisms underlying translation and its inhibition. PMID:23416053

  17. Delineating the glycoproteome of elongating cotton fiber cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Saravanan; Pandey, Pankaj; Kumar, Krishan; Rajamani, Vijayalakshmi; Padmalatha, Kethireddy Venkata; Dhandapani, Gurusamy; Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Reddy, Vanga Siva

    2015-01-01

    The data presented here delineates the glycoproteome component in the elongating cotton fiber cells attained using complementary proteomic approaches followed by protein and N-linked glycosylation site identification (Kumar et al., 2013) [1]. Utilizing species specific protein sequence databases in proteomic approaches often leads to additional information that may not be obtained using cross-species databases. In this context we have reanalyzed our glycoproteome dataset with the Gossypium arboreum, Gossypium raimondii (version 2.0) and Gossypium hirsutum protein databases that has led to the identification of 21 N-linked glycosylation sites and 18 unique glycoproteins that were not reported in our previous study. The 1D PAGE and solution based glycoprotein identification data is publicly available at the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository (Vizcaíno et al., 2013) [2] using the dataset identifier PXD000178 and the 2D PAGE based protein identification and glycopeptide approach based N-linked glycosylation site identification data is available at the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository (Vizcaíno et al., 2013) [2] using the dataset identifier PXD002849. PMID:26693171

  18. Fgf9 signaling regulates small intestinal elongation and mesenchymal development.

    PubMed

    Geske, Michael J; Zhang, Xiuqin; Patel, Khushbu K; Ornitz, David M; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S

    2008-09-01

    Short bowel syndrome is an acquired condition in which the length of the small intestine is insufficient to perform its normal absorptive function. Current therapies are limited as the developmental mechanisms that normally regulate elongation of the small intestine are poorly understood. Here, we identify Fgf9 as an important epithelial-to-mesenchymal signal required for proper small intestinal morphogenesis. Mouse embryos that lack either Fgf9 or the mesenchymal receptors for Fgf9 contained a disproportionately shortened small intestine, decreased mesenchymal proliferation, premature differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and significantly elevated Tgfbeta signaling. These findings suggest that Fgf9 normally functions to repress Tgfbeta signaling in these cells. In vivo, a small subset of mesenchymal cells expressed phospho-Erk and the secreted Tgfbeta inhibitors Fst and Fstl1 in an Fgf9-dependent fashion. The p-Erk/Fst/Fstl1-expressing cells were most consistent with intestinal mesenchymal stem cells (iMSCs). We found that isolated iMSCs expressed p-Erk, Fst and Fstl1, and could repress the differentiation of intestinal myofibroblasts in co-culture. These data suggest a model in which epithelial-derived Fgf9 stimulates iMSCs that in turn regulate underlying mesenchymal fibroblast proliferation and differentiation at least in part through inhibition of Tgfbeta signaling in the mesenchyme. Taken together, the interaction of FGF and TGFbeta signaling pathways in the intestinal mesenchyme could represent novel targets for future short bowel syndrome therapies. PMID:18653563

  19. Movement of Elongation Factor G between Compact and Extended Conformations

    PubMed Central

    Salsi, Enea; Farah, Elie; Netter, Zoe; Dann, Jillian; Ermolenko, Dmitri N.

    2014-01-01

    Previous structural studies suggested that ribosomal translocation is accompanied by large interdomain rearrangements of elongation factor G (EF-G). Here, we follow the movement of domain IV of EF-G relative to domain II of EF-G using ensemble and single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET). Our results indicate that ribosome-free EF-G predominantly adopts a compact conformation that can also, albeit infrequently, transition into a more extended conformation in which domain IV moves away from domain II. By contrast, ribosome-bound EF-G predominantly adopts an extended conformation regardless of whether it is interacting with pre- or posttranslocation ribosomes. Our data suggest that ribosome-bound EF-G may also occasionally sample at least one more compact conformation. GTP hydrolysis catalyzed by EF-G does not affect the relative stability of the observed conformations in ribosome-free and ribosome-bound EF-G. Our data support a model suggesting that, upon binding to a pretranslocation ribosome, EF-G moves from a compact to a more extended conformation. This transition is not coupled to, but likely precedes both GTP hydrolysis and mRNA/tRNA translocation. PMID:25463439

  20. Genetic separation of phototropism and blue light inhibition of stem elongation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liscum, E.; Young, J. C.; Poff, K. L.; Hangarter, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    Blue light-induced regulation of cell elongation is a component of the signal response pathway for both phototropic curvature and inhibition of stem elongation in higher plants. To determine if blue light regulates cell elongation in these responses through shared or discrete pathways, phototropism and hypocotyl elongation were investigated in several blue light response mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Specifically, the blu mutants that lack blue light-dependent inhibition of hypocotyl elongation were found to exhibit a normal phototropic response. In contrast, a phototropic null mutant (JK218) and a mutant that has a 20- to 30-fold shift in the fluence dependence for first positive phototropism (JK224) showed normal inhibition of hypocotyl elongation in blue light. F1 progeny of crosses between the blu mutants and JK218 showed normal phototropism and inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, and approximately 1 in 16 F2 progeny were double mutants lacking both responses. Thus, blue light-dependent inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and phototropism operate through at least some genetically distinct components.

  1. Cotton properties: relative humidity and its effect on flat bundle strength elongation and fracture morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of the relative humidity (RH) of testing conditions on stelometer cotton flat bundle strength and elongation measurements, and on the morphology of fiber fractures will be discussed in this talk. We observed a trend for stelometer strength and elongations measurements. Testing in conditi...

  2. Mechanisms of elongation on the ribosome: dynamics of a macromolecular machine.

    PubMed

    Wintermeyer, W; Peske, F; Beringer, M; Gromadski, K B; Savelsbergh, A; Rodnina, M V

    2004-11-01

    Protein synthesis in the cell is performed on ribosomes, large ribonucleoprotein particles, which in bacteria consist of three RNA molecules and over 50 proteins. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of the elongation phase of protein synthesis. Results from rapid kinetic analysis of elongation reactions are discussed in the light of recent structural data. PMID:15494001

  3. Genetic separation of phototropism and blue light inhibition of stem elongation.

    PubMed Central

    Liscum, E; Young, J C; Poff, K L; Hangarter, R P

    1992-01-01

    Blue light-induced regulation of cell elongation is a component of the signal response pathway for both phototropic curvature and inhibition of stem elongation in higher plants. To determine if blue light regulates cell elongation in these responses through shared or discrete pathways, phototropism and hypocotyl elongation were investigated in several blue light response mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Specifically, the blu mutants that lack blue light-dependent inhibition of hypocotyl elongation were found to exhibit a normal phototropic response. In contrast, a phototropic null mutant (JK218) and a mutant that has a 20- to 30-fold shift in the fluence dependence for first positive phototropism (JK224) showed normal inhibition of hypocotyl elongation in blue light. F1 progeny of crosses between the blu mutants and JK218 showed normal phototropism and inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, and approximately 1 in 16 F2 progeny were double mutants lacking both responses. Thus, blue light-dependent inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and phototropism operate through at least some genetically distinct components. Images Figure 1 PMID:11538049

  4. Influence of gradual elongation to the patella tendon insertion in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Nakajima, Hiromi; Wadano, Yasuyoshi; Watanabe, Shintarou; Sakane, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the histological changes at the patella tendon (PT) insertion site under gradual elongation in rabbits. Gradual elongation of the PT was performed using external fixation for 4 weeks, with a lengthening speed of 0.5 mm/day (elongation group; n = 24). Rabbits in the sham group underwent the same surgical procedure without gradual elongation (sham group; n = 24). Eight animals were sacrificed 1, 2 and 4 weeks after surgery in each group, respectively. Average thicknesses of stained glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) areas by Safranin-O staining in the total cartilage layer and the uncalcified fibrocartilage layer in the elongation group were significantly higher than that in the sham group at 4 weeks (p < 0.05) and that in the intact PT group (n = 6, p < 0.05). In the elongation group, the peak in the average thicknesses of the stained GAGs areas in the total cartilage layer and the uncalcified fibrocartilage layer were observed at 4 weeks. Gradual elongation of PT insertion significantly affected the increase in the average thicknesses of the stained GAGs areas in the cartilage layer especially in the uncalcified fibrocartilage layer at 4 weeks in rabbits. Clinically, insertions of tendon and ligament can extend during gradual elongation using external fixation more than 4 weeks after the operation. PMID:25153635

  5. Distribution of sodium channels during nerve elongation in rat peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Ichimura, Harumitsu; Shiga, Takashi; Abe, Ichiro; Hara, Yuki; Terui, Naoto; Tsujino, Akihito; Ochiai, Naoyuki

    2005-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated electrophysiological and morphological changes of peripheral nerves during gradual elongation. There has been, however, no report on the distribution of sodium channels at Ranvier's nodes during peripheral nerve elongation. We investigated peripheral nerve injury after the gradual elongation of rat sciatic nerves. Indirect nerve elongation was induced by leg lengthening at a rate of 3 mm/day by 15 or 30 mm. At 7 days after the leg lengthening, the electrophysiological properties of sciatic nerves, the ultrastructures of the Ranvier's nodes and axons, and the distribution of voltage-dependent sodium channels were examined. In the control nerves, most sodium channels were localized at Ranvier's nodes in myelinated axons, providing the physiological basis of saltatory conduction. In the elongated nerves, both the amplitude and conduction velocity of compound nerve action potential decreased following leg lengthening. The elongated nerves also showed paranodal demyelination in Ranvier's nodes longer than those in the control group. In addition, the distribution of sodium channels became diffuse or disappeared at Ranvier's nodes of elongated nerves. The diffuse distribution and/or disappearance of sodium channels may underlie the electrophysiological changes in compound nerve action potential induced by nerve elongation. PMID:15815871

  6. Elongation factor G initiates translocation through a power stroke.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunlai; Cui, Xiaonan; Beausang, John F; Zhang, Haibo; Farrell, Ian; Cooperman, Barry S; Goldman, Yale E

    2016-07-01

    During the translocation step of prokaryotic protein synthesis, elongation factor G (EF-G), a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase), binds to the ribosomal PRE-translocation (PRE) complex and facilitates movement of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and messenger RNA (mRNA) by one codon. Energy liberated by EF-G's GTPase activity is necessary for EF-G to catalyze rapid and precise translocation. Whether this energy is used mainly to drive movements of the tRNAs and mRNA or to foster EF-G dissociation from the ribosome after translocation has been a long-lasting debate. Free EF-G, not bound to the ribosome, adopts quite different structures in its GTP and GDP forms. Structures of EF-G on the ribosome have been visualized at various intermediate steps along the translocation pathway, using antibiotics and nonhydolyzable GTP analogs to block translocation and to prolong the dwell time of EF-G on the ribosome. However, the structural dynamics of EF-G bound to the ribosome have not yet been described during normal, uninhibited translocation. Here, we report the rotational motions of EF-G domains during normal translocation detected by single-molecule polarized total internal reflection fluorescence (polTIRF) microscopy. Our study shows that EF-G has a small (∼10°) global rotational motion relative to the ribosome after GTP hydrolysis that exerts a force to unlock the ribosome. This is followed by a larger rotation within domain III of EF-G before its dissociation from the ribosome. PMID:27313204

  7. Nanosecond plasma-mediated electrosurgery with elongated electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vankov, Alexander; Palanker, Daniel

    2007-06-01

    Progress in interventional medicine is associated with the development of more delicate and less invasive surgical procedures, which requires more precise and less traumatic, yet affordable, surgical instruments. Previously we reported on the development of the pulsed electron avalanche knife for dissection of soft tissue in liquid media using the 100 ns plasma-mediated electric discharges applied via a 25 μm disk microelectrode. Cavitation bubbles accompanying explosive vaporization of the liquid medium in front of such a pointed electrode produced a series of craters that did not always merge into a continuous cut. In addition, this approach of surface ablation provided a limited depth of cutting. Application of an elongated electrode capable of cutting with its edge rather than just with its pointed apex faces a problem of nonuniformity of the electric field on a nonspherical electrode. In this article we explore dynamics of the plasma-mediated nanosecond discharges in liquid medium in positive and negative polarities and describe the geometry of an electrode that provides a sufficiently uniform electric field along an extended edge of a surgical probe. A highly enhanced and uniform electric field was obtained on very sharp (2.5 μm) exposed edges of a planar electrode insulated on its flat sides. Uniform ionization and simultaneous vaporization was obtained along the whole edge of such a blade with 100 ns pulses at 4-6 kV. A continuous cutting rate of 1 mm/s in the retina and in soft membranes was achieved at a pulse repetition rate of 100 Hz. The collateral damage zone at the edges of incision did not exceed 80 μm. Negative polarity was found advantageous due to the lower rate of electrode erosion and due to better spatial confinement of the plasma-mediated discharge in liquid.

  8. Germination and root elongation bioassays in six different plant species for testing Ni contamination in soil.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Giovanna; Conti, Federica D; Gardi, Ciro; Menta, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    In vitro short-term chronic phytotoxicity germination and root elongation test were applied to test the effects of nickel (Ni) in seed germination and root elongation in six plants species: Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae), Lepidium sativum and Brassica nigra (Brassicaceae), Trifolium alexandrinum and Medicago sativa (Fabaceae), Phacelia tanacetifolia (Boraginaceae). A naturally Ni rich soil was used to compare the results obtained. Unlike root elongation, germination was not affected by Ni in any of the six species tested. EC50 values, calculated on the root elongation, showed that Ni toxicity decreases in the following order: P. tanacetifolia > B. nigra > C. sativus > L. sativum > M. sativa > T. alexandrinum. The test conducted using soil elutriate revealed a significantly lower effect in both seed germination and root elongation when compared to the results obtained using untreated soil. Conversely, the test performed on soil confirmed the high sensitivity of C. sativus, P. tanacetifolia and L. sativum to Ni. PMID:24288040

  9. Molecular dynamics study on effect of elongational flow on morphology of immiscible mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Chau; Kalra, Vibha

    2014-04-01

    We studied the effect of elongational flow on structure and kinetics of phase separation in immiscible blends using molecular dynamics simulations. Two different blend systems have been investigated—binary blend of polymers and binary mixture of molecular fluids. The interaction potential parameters in both material systems were chosen to ensure complete phase-separation in equilibrium. We found that elongational flow, beyond a certain rate, significantly alters the steady state morphology in such immiscible mixtures. For the case of polymer blends, perpendicular lamellar morphology was formed under elongation rates (dot \\varepsilon) from 0.05 to 0.5 MD units possibly due to the interplay of two opposing phenomena—domain deformation/rupture under elongation and aggregation of like-domains due to favorable energetic interactions. The elongation timescale at the critical rate of transition from phase-separated to the lamellar structure (dot \\varepsilon = 0.05) was found to be comparable to the estimated polymer relaxation time, suggesting a cross-over to the elongation/rupture-dominant regime. Under strong elongational flow rate, dot \\varepsilon > 0.5, the formation of disordered morphology was seen in polymer blend systems. The kinetics of phase separation was monitored by calculating domain size as a function of time for various elongational flow rates. The domain growth along the vorticity-axis was shown to follow a power law, Rz(t) ˜ t α. A growth exponent, α of 1/3 for the polymer blend and 0.5-0.6 for the fluid molecular mixture was found under elongation rates from 0.005 to 0.1. The higher growth exponent in the fluid mixture is a result of its faster diffusion time scale compared to that of polymer chains. The steady state end-to-end distance of polymer chains and viscosity of the polymer blend were examined and found to depend on the steady state morphology and elongation rate.

  10. Molecular dynamics study on effect of elongational flow on morphology of immiscible mixtures.

    PubMed

    Tran, Chau; Kalra, Vibha

    2014-04-01

    We studied the effect of elongational flow on structure and kinetics of phase separation in immiscible blends using molecular dynamics simulations. Two different blend systems have been investigated-binary blend of polymers and binary mixture of molecular fluids. The interaction potential parameters in both material systems were chosen to ensure complete phase-separation in equilibrium. We found that elongational flow, beyond a certain rate, significantly alters the steady state morphology in such immiscible mixtures. For the case of polymer blends, perpendicular lamellar morphology was formed under elongation rates (ε̇) from 0.05 to 0.5 MD units possibly due to the interplay of two opposing phenomena-domain deformation/rupture under elongation and aggregation of like-domains due to favorable energetic interactions. The elongation timescale at the critical rate of transition from phase-separated to the lamellar structure (ε̇ = 0.05) was found to be comparable to the estimated polymer relaxation time, suggesting a cross-over to the elongation/rupture-dominant regime. Under strong elongational flow rate, ε̇ > 0.5, the formation of disordered morphology was seen in polymer blend systems. The kinetics of phase separation was monitored by calculating domain size as a function of time for various elongational flow rates. The domain growth along the vorticity-axis was shown to follow a power law, Rz(t) ∼ t( α). A growth exponent, α of 1/3 for the polymer blend and 0.5-0.6 for the fluid molecular mixture was found under elongation rates from 0.005 to 0.1. The higher growth exponent in the fluid mixture is a result of its faster diffusion time scale compared to that of polymer chains. The steady state end-to-end distance of polymer chains and viscosity of the polymer blend were examined and found to depend on the steady state morphology and elongation rate. PMID:24712811

  11. Synthesis and optical property characterization of elongated AuPt and Pt@Au metal nanoframes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangji; Jang, Hee-Jeong; Jang, Ho Young; Hong, Soonchang; Moh, Sang Hyun; Park, Sungho

    2016-02-01

    We report a facile method to synthesize elongated nanoframes consisting of Pt and Au in solution. Pentagonal Au nanorods served as templates and successfully led to an elongated AuPt nanoframe after etching the core Au. Subsequently, the coating of Au around Pt ridges resulted in Pt@Au metal nanoframes. The resulting elongated nanostructure exhibited 5 well-defined ridges continuously connected along the long axis. During the shape evolution from pure Au nanorods to elongated Pt@Au metal nanoframes, their corresponding localized surface plasmon resonance bands were monitored. Especially, unique surface plasmon features were observed for elongated Pt@Au nanoframes where the short-axis oscillation of surface free electrons is strongly coupled but the long-axis oscillation is not coupled among the ridges.We report a facile method to synthesize elongated nanoframes consisting of Pt and Au in solution. Pentagonal Au nanorods served as templates and successfully led to an elongated AuPt nanoframe after etching the core Au. Subsequently, the coating of Au around Pt ridges resulted in Pt@Au metal nanoframes. The resulting elongated nanostructure exhibited 5 well-defined ridges continuously connected along the long axis. During the shape evolution from pure Au nanorods to elongated Pt@Au metal nanoframes, their corresponding localized surface plasmon resonance bands were monitored. Especially, unique surface plasmon features were observed for elongated Pt@Au nanoframes where the short-axis oscillation of surface free electrons is strongly coupled but the long-axis oscillation is not coupled among the ridges. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08200e

  12. RNA-Seq Based Identification of Candidate Parasitism Genes of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) during Incompatible Infection to Aegilops variabilis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Minghui; Long, Hai; Zhao, Yun; Li, Lin; Xu, Delin; Zhang, Haili; Liu, Feng; Deng, Guangbing; Pan, Zhifen; Yu, Maoqun

    2015-01-01

    One of the reasons for the progressive yield decline observed in cereals production is the rapid build-up of populations of the cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae). These nematodes secrete so-call effectors into their host plant to suppress the plant defense responses, alter plant signaling pathways and then induce the formation of syncytium after infection. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism and parasitism during incompatible infection. To gain insight into its repertoire of parasitism genes, we investigated the transcriptome of the early parasitic second-stage (30 hours, 3 days and 9 days post infection) juveniles of the CCN as well as the CCN infected tissue of the host Aegilops variabilis by Illumina sequencing. Among all assembled unigenes, 681 putative genes of parasitic nematode were found, in which 56 putative effectors were identified, including novel pioneer genes and genes corresponding to previously reported effectors. All the 681 CCN unigenes were mapped to 229 GO terms and 200 KEGG pathways, including growth, development and several stimulus-related signaling pathways. Sixteen clusters were involved in the CCN unigene expression atlas at the early stages during infection process, and three of which were significantly gene-enriched. Besides, the protein-protein interaction network analysis revealed 35 node unigenes which may play an important role in the plant-CCN interaction. Moreover, in a comparison of differentially expressed genes between the pre-parasitic juveniles and the early parasitic juveniles, we found that hydrolase activity was up-regulated in pre J2s whereas binding activity was upregulated in infective J2s. RT-qPCR analysis on some selected genes showed detectable expression, indicating possible secretion of the proteins and putative role in infection. This study provided better insights into the incompatible interaction between H. avenae and the host plant Ae. varabilis. Moreover, RNAi targets with

  13. RNA-Seq Based Identification of Candidate Parasitism Genes of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) during Incompatible Infection to Aegilops variabilis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Minghui; Long, Hai; Zhao, Yun; Li, Lin; Xu, Delin; Zhang, Haili; Liu, Feng; Deng, Guangbing; Pan, Zhifen; Yu, Maoqun

    2015-01-01

    One of the reasons for the progressive yield decline observed in cereals production is the rapid build-up of populations of the cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae). These nematodes secrete so-call effectors into their host plant to suppress the plant defense responses, alter plant signaling pathways and then induce the formation of syncytium after infection. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism and parasitism during incompatible infection. To gain insight into its repertoire of parasitism genes, we investigated the transcriptome of the early parasitic second-stage (30 hours, 3 days and 9 days post infection) juveniles of the CCN as well as the CCN infected tissue of the host Aegilops variabilis by Illumina sequencing. Among all assembled unigenes, 681 putative genes of parasitic nematode were found, in which 56 putative effectors were identified, including novel pioneer genes and genes corresponding to previously reported effectors. All the 681 CCN unigenes were mapped to 229 GO terms and 200 KEGG pathways, including growth, development and several stimulus-related signaling pathways. Sixteen clusters were involved in the CCN unigene expression atlas at the early stages during infection process, and three of which were significantly gene-enriched. Besides, the protein-protein interaction network analysis revealed 35 node unigenes which may play an important role in the plant-CCN interaction. Moreover, in a comparison of differentially expressed genes between the pre-parasitic juveniles and the early parasitic juveniles, we found that hydrolase activity was up-regulated in pre J2s whereas binding activity was upregulated in infective J2s. RT-qPCR analysis on some selected genes showed detectable expression, indicating possible secretion of the proteins and putative role in infection. This study provided better insights into the incompatible interaction between H. avenae and the host plant Ae. varabilis. Moreover, RNAi targets with

  14. Product Diversity Linked to Substrate Usage in Chain Elongation by Mixed-Culture Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Coma, Marta; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Roume, Hugo; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar H; Rabaey, Korneel

    2016-06-21

    Acetate and ethanol can be converted to caproic acid by microorganisms through reverse β-oxidation. There is limited insight into the versatility of chain elongation in view of different starting substrates, including even- and odd-carbon carboxylates and alcohols other than ethanol. Thermodynamic analyses show that most elongation pathways are energetically feasible. Through incubations of microbial communities with different substrate-pair combinations, we established that ethanol and propanol were both highly suitable for chain elongation. As an electron acceptor, acetate, propionate, and butyrate readily elongated with ethanol, whereas an adaptation period was necessary for formate. Isobutyrate and longer-chained fatty acids above butyrate were not elongated. The microbial communities converged, and consistent enrichment of Clostridium spp. was observed, independent of the supplied alcohol or carboxylate, with a strain related to Clostridium kluyveri dominating the enrichments. Community analysis also showed phylotypes related to Bacteroidaceae and Microbacteriaceae families in all tests that are capable of converting the base substrates to useful intermediates. These organisms were mainly enriched with methanol or formate. Our overall conclusion is thus that multiple substrates can be used for chain elongation and that this process is carried out by highly similar organisms for direct chain elongation irrespective of the substrate. PMID:27162101

  15. Ethylene Promotes Elongation Growth and Auxin Promotes Radial Growth in Ranunculus sceleratus Petioles 1

    PubMed Central

    Smulders, Marinus J. M.; Horton, Roger F.

    1991-01-01

    Submergence induces elongation in the petioles of Ranunculus sceleratus L., after a rise in endogenous ethylene levels in the tissue. Petioles of isolated leaves also elongate 100% in 24 hours when treated with ethylene gas, without a change in the radius. Application of silver thiosulfate, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), abscisic acid (ABA), or methyl jasmonate inhibits this elongation response. Gibberellic acid treatment promotes ethylene-induced elongation, without an effect on the radius. Indoelastic acid (IAA) induces radial growth in the petioles, irrespective of the presence or absence of added ethylene. High concentrations of IAA will also induce elongation growth, but this is largely due to auxin-induced ethylene synthesis; treatment with silver thiosulfate, AVG, ABA, or methyl jasmonate inhibit this auxin-promoted elongation growth. However, the radial growth induced by IAA is not affected by gibberellic acid, and not specifically inhibited by ABA, methyl jasmonate, silver thiosulfate, or AVG. These results support the idea that petiole cell elongation during “accommodation growth” can be separated from radial expansion. The radial expansion may well be regulated by IAA. However, effects of high levels of IAA are probably anomalous, since they do not mimic normal developmental patterns. PMID:16668257

  16. Theoretical Modeling and Experimental High-Speed Imaging of Elongated Vocal Folds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Regner, Michael F.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the role of vocal fold elongation in governing glottal movement dynamics was theoretically and experimentally investigated. A theoretical model was first proposed to incorporate vocal fold elongation into the two-mass model. This model predicted the direct and nondirect components of the glottal time series as a function of vocal fold elongation. Furthermore, high-speed digital imaging was applied in excised larynx experiments to visualize vocal fold vibrations with variable vocal fold elongation from –10% to 50% and subglottal pressures of 18- and 24-cm H2O. Comparison between theoretical model simulations and experimental observations showed good agreement. A relative maximum was seen in the nondirect component of glottal area, suggesting that an optimal elongation could maximize the vocal fold vibratory power. However, sufficiently large vocal fold elongations caused the nondirect component to approach zero and the direct component to approach a constant. These results showed that vocal fold elongation plays an important role in governing the dynamics of glottal area movement and validated the applicability of the proposed theoretical model and high-speed imaging to investigate laryngeal activity. PMID:21118763

  17. The Effects of High Steady State Auxin Levels on Root Cell Elongation in Brachypodium.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Villalobos, David; Díaz-Moreno, Sara M; van der Schuren, Alja; Tamaki, Takayuki; Kang, Yeon Hee; Gujas, Bojan; Novak, Ondrej; Jaspert, Nina; Li, Zhenni; Wolf, Sebastian; Oecking, Claudia; Ljung, Karin; Bulone, Vincent; Hardtke, Christian S

    2016-05-01

    The long-standing Acid Growth Theory of plant cell elongation posits that auxin promotes cell elongation by stimulating cell wall acidification and thus expansin action. To date, the paucity of pertinent genetic materials has precluded thorough analysis of the importance of this concept in roots. The recent isolation of mutants of the model grass species Brachypodium distachyon with dramatically enhanced root cell elongation due to increased cellular auxin levels has allowed us to address this question. We found that the primary transcriptomic effect associated with elevated steady state auxin concentration in elongating root cells is upregulation of cell wall remodeling factors, notably expansins, while plant hormone signaling pathways maintain remarkable homeostasis. These changes are specifically accompanied by reduced cell wall arabinogalactan complexity but not by increased proton excretion. On the contrary, we observed a tendency for decreased rather than increased proton extrusion from root elongation zones with higher cellular auxin levels. Moreover, similar to Brachypodium, root cell elongation is, in general, robustly buffered against external pH fluctuation in Arabidopsis thaliana However, forced acidification through artificial proton pump activation inhibits root cell elongation. Thus, the interplay between auxin, proton pump activation, and expansin action may be more flexible in roots than in shoots. PMID:27169463

  18. The Effects of High Steady State Auxin Levels on Root Cell Elongation in Brachypodium[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Villalobos, David; Tamaki, Takayuki; Gujas, Bojan; Jaspert, Nina; Oecking, Claudia; Bulone, Vincent; Hardtke, Christian S.

    2016-01-01

    The long-standing Acid Growth Theory of plant cell elongation posits that auxin promotes cell elongation by stimulating cell wall acidification and thus expansin action. To date, the paucity of pertinent genetic materials has precluded thorough analysis of the importance of this concept in roots. The recent isolation of mutants of the model grass species Brachypodium distachyon with dramatically enhanced root cell elongation due to increased cellular auxin levels has allowed us to address this question. We found that the primary transcriptomic effect associated with elevated steady state auxin concentration in elongating root cells is upregulation of cell wall remodeling factors, notably expansins, while plant hormone signaling pathways maintain remarkable homeostasis. These changes are specifically accompanied by reduced cell wall arabinogalactan complexity but not by increased proton excretion. On the contrary, we observed a tendency for decreased rather than increased proton extrusion from root elongation zones with higher cellular auxin levels. Moreover, similar to Brachypodium, root cell elongation is, in general, robustly buffered against external pH fluctuation in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, forced acidification through artificial proton pump activation inhibits root cell elongation. Thus, the interplay between auxin, proton pump activation, and expansin action may be more flexible in roots than in shoots. PMID:27169463

  19. Gibberellin Substitution for the Requirement of the Cotyledons in Stem Elongation in Pisum sativum Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Shininger, T L

    1972-03-01

    The removal of the cotyledons from 8-day-old light-grown Pisum sativum cv. Alaska seedlings caused a reduction in the rate of stem elongation to 50% of the intact control value. Gibberellic acid restored the stem elongation rate of decotylized plants to the level of the intact controls. The effect of decotylization was to lower both the rate of node formation and the rate of internode elongation. The steady state rate of internode elongation was reduced to 50% of the control rate by decotylization. Applied gibberellic acid did not restore the normal rate of node formation nor the lag in internode elongation caused by decotylization, but gibberellic acid did restore the normal steady state rate of internode elongation. Analysis of variance demonstrated an interaction between the cotyledons and applied gibberellic acid. 2-Isopropyl-4-dimethylamino-5-methyl phenyl-1-piperidine carboxylate methyl chloride inhibited internode elongation to the same extent in both intact and decotylized plants. The results indicate that the cotyledons are an effective source of gibberellin for the young pea seedling. PMID:16657957

  20. Theoretical modeling and experimental high-speed imaging of elongated vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Regner, Michael F; Jiang, Jack J

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, the role of vocal fold elongation in governing glottal movement dynamics was theoretically and experimentally investigated. A theoretical model was first proposed to incorporate vocal fold elongation into the two-mass model. This model predicted the direct and nondirect components of the glottal time series as a function of vocal fold elongation. Furthermore, high-speed digital imaging was applied in excised larynx experiments to visualize vocal fold vibrations with variable vocal fold elongation from -10% to 50% and subglottal pressures of 18- and 24-cm H(2)O. Comparison between theoretical model simulations and experimental observations showed good agreement. A relative maximum was seen in the nondirect component of glottal area, suggesting that an optimal elongation could maximize the vocal fold vibratory power. However, sufficiently large vocal fold elongations caused the nondirect component to approach zero and the direct component to approach a constant. These results showed that vocal fold elongation plays an important role in governing the dynamics of glottal area movement and validated the applicability of the proposed theoretical model and high-speed imaging to investigate laryngeal activity. PMID:21118763

  1. HIV-1 Tat protein promotes formation of more-processive elongation complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Marciniak, R A; Sharp, P A

    1991-01-01

    The Tat protein of HIV-1 trans-activates transcription in vitro in a cell-free extract of HeLa nuclei. Quantitative analysis of the efficiency of elongation revealed that a majority of the elongation complexes generated by the HIV-1 promoter were not highly processive and terminated within the first 500 nucleotides. Tat trans-activation of transcription from the HIV-1 promoter resulted from an increase in processive character of the elongation complexes. More specifically, the analysis suggests that there exist two classes of elongation complexes initiating from the HIV promoter: a less-processive form and a more-processive form. Addition of purified Tat protein was found to increase the abundance of the more-processive class of elongation complex. The purine nucleoside analog, 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) inhibits transcription in this reaction by decreasing the efficiency of elongation. Surprisingly, stimulation of transcription elongation by Tat was preferentially inhibited by the addition of DRB. Images PMID:1756726

  2. 5 prime -Azido-(3,6- sup 3 H sub 2 )-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, a photoactivatable probe for naphthylphthalamic acid receptor proteins from higher plants: Identification of a 23-kDa protein from maize coleoptile plasma membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Zettl, R.; Feldwisch, J.; Schell, J.; Palme, K. ); Boland, W. )

    1992-01-15

    1-Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) is a specific inhibitor of polar auxin transport that blocks carrier mediated auxin efflux from plant cells. To allow identification of the NPA receptor thought to be part of the auxin efflux carrier, the authors have synthesized a tritiated, photolabile NPA analogue, 5{prime}-azido-(3,6-{sup 3}H{sub 2})NPA (({sup 3}H{sub 2})N{sub 3}NPA). This analogue was used to identify NPA-binding proteins in fractions highly enriched for plasma membrane vesicles isolated from maize coleoptiles (Zea mays L.). Competition studies showed that binding of ({sup 3}H{sub 2})N{sub 3}NPA to maize plasma membrane vesicles was blocked by nonradioactive NPA but not by benzoic acid. After incubation of plasma membrane vesicles with ({sup 3}H{sub 2})N{sub 3}NPA and exposure to UV light, they observed specific photoaffinity labeling of a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 23 kDa. Pretreatment of the plasma membrane vesicles with indole-3-acetic acid or with the auxin-transport inhibitors NPA and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid strongly reduced specific labeling of this protein. This 23-kDa protein was also labeled by addition of 5-azido-(7-{sup 3}H)indole-3-acetic acid to plasma membranes prior to exposure to UV light. The 23-kDa protein was solubilized from plasma membranes by 1% Triton X-100. The possibility that this 23-kDa polypeptide is part of the auxin efflux carrier system is discussed.

  3. MAOHUZI6/ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE2 Regulate Ethylene Response of Roots and Coleoptiles and Negatively Affect Salt Tolerance in Rice1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao; Ma, Biao; He, Si-Jie; Xiong, Qing; Duan, Kai-Xuan; Yin, Cui-Cui; Chen, Hui; Lu, Xiang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene plays important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. The ethylene signaling pathway has been studied extensively, mainly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, the molecular mechanism of ethylene signaling is largely unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). Previously, we have isolated a set of rice ethylene-response mutants. Here, we characterized the mutant maohuzi6 (mhz6). Through map-based cloning, we found that MHZ6 encodes ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (OsEIL1), a rice homolog of ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3), which is the master transcriptional regulator of ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Disruption of MHZ6/OsEIL1 caused ethylene insensitivity mainly in roots, whereas silencing of the closely related OsEIL2 led to ethylene insensitivity mainly in coleoptiles of etiolated seedlings. This organ-specific functional divergence is different from the functional features of EIN3 and EIL1, both of which mediate the incomplete ethylene responses of Arabidopsis etiolated seedlings. In Arabidopsis, EIN3 and EIL1 play positive roles in plant salt tolerance. In rice, however, lack of MHZ6/OsEIL1 or OsEIL2 functions improves salt tolerance, whereas the overexpressing lines exhibit salt hypersensitivity at the seedling stage, indicating that MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 negatively regulate salt tolerance in rice. Furthermore, this negative regulation by MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 in salt tolerance is likely attributable in part to the direct regulation of HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER2;1 expression and Na+ uptake in roots. Additionally, MHZ6/OsEIL1 overexpression promotes grain size and thousand-grain weight. Together, our study provides insights for the functional diversification of MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 in ethylene response and finds a novel mode of ethylene-regulated salt stress response that could be helpful for engineering salt-tolerant crops. PMID:25995326

  4. Elongation in translation as a dynamic interaction among the ribosome, tRNA, and elongation factors EF-G and EF-Tu

    PubMed Central

    Agirrezabala, Xabier; Frank, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The ribosome is a complex macromolecular machine that translates the message encoded in the messenger RNA and synthesizes polypeptides by linking the individual amino acids carried by the cognate transfer RNAs (tRNAs). The protein elongation cycle, during which the tRNAs traverse the ribosome in a coordinated manner along a path of more than 100 Å, is facilitated by large-scale rearrangements of the ribosome. These rearrangements go hand in hand with conformational changes of tRNA as well as elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-G – GTPases that catalyze tRNA delivery and translocation, respectively. This review focuses on the structural data related to the dynamics of the ribosomal machinery, which are the basis, in conjunction with existing biochemical, kinetic, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer data, of our knowledge of the decoding and translocation steps of protein elongation. PMID:20025795

  5. Elongation in translation as a dynamic interaction among the ribosome, tRNA, and elongation factors EF-G and EF-Tu.

    PubMed

    Agirrezabala, Xabier; Frank, Joachim

    2009-08-01

    The ribosome is a complex macromolecular machine that translates the message encoded in the messenger RNA and synthesizes polypeptides by linking the individual amino acids carried by the cognate transfer RNAs (tRNAs). The protein elongation cycle, during which the tRNAs traverse the ribosome in a coordinated manner along a path of more than 100 A, is facilitated by large-scale rearrangements of the ribosome. These rearrangements go hand in hand with conformational changes of tRNA as well as elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-G - GTPases that catalyze tRNA delivery and translocation, respectively. This review focuses on the structural data related to the dynamics of the ribosomal machinery, which are the basis, in conjunction with existing biochemical, kinetic, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer data, of our knowledge of the decoding and translocation steps of protein elongation. PMID:20025795

  6. The role of the distal elongation zone in the response of maize roots to auxin and gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1993-01-01

    We used a video digitizer system to (a) measure changes in the pattern of longitudinal surface extension in primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) upon application and withdrawal of auxin and (b) compare these patterns during gravitropism in control roots and roots pretreated with auxin. Special attention was paid to the distal elongation zone (DEZ), arbitrarily defined as the region between the meristem and the point within the elongation zone at which the rate of elongation reaches 0.3 of the peak rate. For roots in aqueous solution, the basal limit of the DEZ is about 2.5 mm behind the tip of the root cap. Auxin suppressed elongation throughout the elongation zone, but, after 1 to 3 h, elongation resumed, primarily as a result of induction of rapid elongation in the DEZ. Withdrawal of auxin during the period of strong inhibition resulted in exceptionally rapid elongation attributable to the initiation of rapid elongation in the DEZ plus recovery in the main elongation zone. Gravistimulation of auxin-inhibited roots induced rapid elongation in the DEZ along the top of the root. This resulted in rapid gravitropism even though the elongation rate of the root was zero before gravistimulation. The results indicate that cells of the DEZ differ from cells in the bulk of the elongation zone with respect to auxin sensitivity and that DEZ cells play an important role in gravitropism.

  7. The role of the distal elongation zone in the response of maize roots to auxin and gravity.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, H; Evans, M L

    1993-08-01

    We used a video digitizer system to (a) measure changes in the pattern of longitudinal surface extension in primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) upon application and withdrawal of auxin and (b) compare these patterns during gravitropism in control roots and roots pretreated with auxin. Special attention was paid to the distal elongation zone (DEZ), arbitrarily defined as the region between the meristem and the point within the elongation zone at which the rate of elongation reaches 0.3 of the peak rate. For roots in aqueous solution, the basal limit of the DEZ is about 2.5 mm behind the tip of the root cap. Auxin suppressed elongation throughout the elongation zone, but, after 1 to 3 h, elongation resumed, primarily as a result of induction of rapid elongation in the DEZ. Withdrawal of auxin during the period of strong inhibition resulted in exceptionally rapid elongation attributable to the initiation of rapid elongation in the DEZ plus recovery in the main elongation zone. Gravistimulation of auxin-inhibited roots induced rapid elongation in the DEZ along the top of the root. This resulted in rapid gravitropism even though the elongation rate of the root was zero before gravistimulation. The results indicate that cells of the DEZ differ from cells in the bulk of the elongation zone with respect to auxin sensitivity and that DEZ cells play an important role in gravitropism. PMID:11536543

  8. The role of the distal elongation zone in the response of maize roots to auxin and gravity.

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, H; Evans, M L

    1993-01-01

    We used a video digitizer system to (a) measure changes in the pattern of longitudinal surface extension in primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) upon application and withdrawal of auxin and (b) compare these patterns during gravitropism in control roots and roots pretreated with auxin. Special attention was paid to the distal elongation zone (DEZ), arbitrarily defined as the region between the meristem and the point within the elongation zone at which the rate of elongation reaches 0.3 of the peak rate. For roots in aqueous solution, the basal limit of the DEZ is about 2.5 mm behind the tip of the root cap. Auxin suppressed elongation throughout the elongation zone, but, after 1 to 3 h, elongation resumed, primarily as a result of induction of rapid elongation in the DEZ. Withdrawal of auxin during the period of strong inhibition resulted in exceptionally rapid elongation attributable to the initiation of rapid elongation in the DEZ plus recovery in the main elongation zone. Gravistimulation of auxin-inhibited roots induced rapid elongation in the DEZ along the top of the root. This resulted in rapid gravitropism even though the elongation rate of the root was zero before gravistimulation. The results indicate that cells of the DEZ differ from cells in the bulk of the elongation zone with respect to auxin sensitivity and that DEZ cells play an important role in gravitropism. PMID:11536543

  9. pix-1 controls early elongation in parallel with mel-11 and let-502 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emmanuel; Harel, Sharon; Nkengfac, Bernard; Hamiche, Karim; Neault, Mathieu; Jenna, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Cell shape changes are crucial for metazoan development. During Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis, epidermal cell shape changes transform ovoid embryos into vermiform larvae. This process is divided into two phases: early and late elongation. Early elongation involves the contraction of filamentous actin bundles by phosphorylated non-muscle myosin in a subset of epidermal (hypodermal) cells. The genes controlling early elongation are associated with two parallel pathways. The first one involves the rho-1/RHOA-specific effector let-502/Rho-kinase and mel-11/myosin phosphatase regulatory subunit. The second pathway involves the CDC42/RAC-specific effector pak-1. Late elongation is driven by mechanotransduction in ventral and dorsal hypodermal cells in response to body-wall muscle contractions, and involves the CDC42/RAC-specific Guanine-nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) pix-1, the GTPase ced-10/RAC and pak-1. In this study, pix-1 is shown to control early elongation in parallel with let-502/mel-11, as previously shown for pak-1. We show that pix-1, pak-1 and let-502 control the rate of elongation, and the antero-posterior morphology of the embryos. In particular, pix-1 and pak-1 are shown to control head, but not tail width, while let-502 controls both head and tail width. This suggests that let-502 function is required throughout the antero-posterior axis of the embryo during early elongation, while pix-1/pak-1 function may be mostly required in the anterior part of the embryo. Supporting this hypothesis we show that low pix-1 expression level in the dorsal-posterior hypodermal cells is required to ensure high elongation rate during early elongation. PMID:24732978

  10. Developmental and molecular physiological evidence for the role of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in rapid cotton fibre elongation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Rong; Wang, Lu; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Cotton fibres are hair-like single-cells that elongate to several centimetres long after their initiation from the ovule epidermis at anthesis. The accumulation of malate, along with K+ and sugars, is thought to play an important role in fibre elongation through osmotic regulation and charge balance. However, there is a lack of evidence for or against such an hypothesis. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a key enzyme responsible for the synthesis of malate. The potential role of PEPC in cotton fibre elongation is examined here. Developmentally, PEPC activity was higher at the rapid elongation phase than that at the slow elongation stage. Genotypically, PEPC activity correlated positively with the rate of fibre elongation and the final fibre length attained. Importantly, suppression of PEPC activity by LiCl that reduces its phosphorylation status decreased fibre length. To examine the molecular basis underlying PEPC activity, two cDNAs encoding PEPC, GhPEPC1 and 2, were cloned, which represents the major PEPC genes expressed in cotton fibre. RT-PCR analyses revealed that GhPEPC1 and 2 were highly expressed at the rapid elongation phase but weakly at the slow-to-terminal elongation period. In situ hybridization detected mRNA of GhPEPC1 and 2 in 1 d young fibres but not in the ovule epidermis prior to fibre initiation. Collectively, the data indicate that cotton fibre elongation requires high activity of PEPC, probably through the expression of the GhPEPC1 and 2 genes. PMID:19815688

  11. pix-1 Controls Early Elongation in Parallel with mel-11 and let-502 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Nkengfac, Bernard; Hamiche, Karim; Neault, Mathieu; Jenna, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Cell shape changes are crucial for metazoan development. During Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis, epidermal cell shape changes transform ovoid embryos into vermiform larvae. This process is divided into two phases: early and late elongation. Early elongation involves the contraction of filamentous actin bundles by phosphorylated non-muscle myosin in a subset of epidermal (hypodermal) cells. The genes controlling early elongation are associated with two parallel pathways. The first one involves the rho-1/RHOA-specific effector let-502/Rho-kinase and mel-11/myosin phosphatase regulatory subunit. The second pathway involves the CDC42/RAC-specific effector pak-1. Late elongation is driven by mechanotransduction in ventral and dorsal hypodermal cells in response to body-wall muscle contractions, and involves the CDC42/RAC-specific Guanine-nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) pix-1, the GTPase ced-10/RAC and pak-1. In this study, pix-1 is shown to control early elongation in parallel with let-502/mel-11, as previously shown for pak-1. We show that pix-1, pak-1 and let-502 control the rate of elongation, and the antero-posterior morphology of the embryos. In particular, pix-1 and pak-1 are shown to control head, but not tail width, while let-502 controls both head and tail width. This suggests that let-502 function is required throughout the antero-posterior axis of the embryo during early elongation, while pix-1/pak-1 function may be mostly required in the anterior part of the embryo. Supporting this hypothesis we show that low pix-1 expression level in the dorsal-posterior hypodermal cells is required to ensure high elongation rate during early elongation. PMID:24732978

  12. Evolution and Allometry of Calcaneal Elongation in Living and Extinct Primates

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Doug M.; Seiffert, Erik R.; Gladman, Justin T.; Bloch, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Specialized acrobatic leaping has been recognized as a key adaptive trait tied to the origin and subsequent radiation of euprimates based on its observed frequency in extant primates and inferred frequency in extinct early euprimates. Hypothesized skeletal correlates include elongated tarsal elements, which would be expected to aid leaping by allowing for increased rates and durations of propulsive acceleration at takeoff. Alternatively, authors of a recent study argued that pronounced distal calcaneal elongation of euprimates (compared to other mammalian taxa) was related primarily to specialized pedal grasping. Testing for correlations between calcaneal elongation and leaping versus grasping is complicated by body size differences and associated allometric affects. We re-assess allometric constraints on, and the functional significance of, calcaneal elongation using phylogenetic comparative methods, and present an evolutionary hypothesis for the evolution of calcaneal elongation in primates using a Bayesian approach to ancestral state reconstruction (ASR). Results show that among all primates, logged ratios of distal calcaneal length to total calcaneal length are inversely correlated with logged body mass proxies derived from the area of the calcaneal facet for the cuboid. Results from phylogenetic ANOVA on residuals from this allometric line suggest that deviations are explained by degree of leaping specialization in prosimians, but not anthropoids. Results from ASR suggest that non-allometric increases in calcaneal elongation began in the primate stem lineage and continued independently in haplorhines and strepsirrhines. Anthropoid and lorisid lineages show stasis and decreasing elongation, respectively. Initial increases in calcaneal elongation in primate evolution may be related to either development of hallucal-grasping or a combination of grasping and more specialized leaping behaviors. As has been previously suggested, subsequent increases in calcaneal

  13. A novel tomato mutant, Solanum lycopersicum elongated fruit1 (Slelf1), exhibits an elongated fruit shape caused by increased cell layers in the proximal region of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Chusreeaeom, Katarut; Ariizumi, Tohru; Asamizu, Erika; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Shirasawa, Kenta; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Genes controlling fruit morphology offer important insights into patterns and mechanisms determining organ shape and size. In cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), a variety of fruit shapes are displayed, including round-, bell pepper-, pear-, and elongate-shaped forms. In this study, we characterized a tomato mutant possessing elongated fruit morphology by histologically analyzing its fruit structure and genetically analyzing and mapping the genetic locus. The mutant line, Solanum lycopersicum elongated fruit 1 (Slelf1), was selected in a previous study from an ethylmethane sulfonate-mutagenized population generated in the background of Micro-Tom, a dwarf and rapid-growth variety. Histological analysis of the Slelf1 mutant revealed dramatically increased elongation of ovary and fruit. Until 6 days before flowering, ovaries were round and they began to elongate afterward. We also determined pericarp thickness and the number of cell layers in three designated fruit regions. We found that mesocarp thickness, as well as the number of cell layers, was increased in the proximal region of immature green fruits, making this the key sector of fruit elongation. Using 262 F2 individuals derived from a cross between Slelf1 and the cultivar Ailsa Craig, we constructed a genetic map, simple sequence repeat (SSR), cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence (CAPS), and derived CAPS (dCAPS) markers and mapped to the 12 tomato chromosomes. Genetic mapping placed the candidate gene locus within a 0.2 Mbp interval on the long arm of chromosome 8 and was likely different from previously known loci affecting fruit shape. PMID:24519535

  14. The marine polyketide myriaporone 3/4 stalls translation by targeting the elongation phase.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Yazh; Roy, Myriam; Raja, Aruna; Taylor, Richard E; Sasse, Florenz

    2013-01-21

    Myriaporone 3/4, a cytotoxic polyketide, has been reported as an inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits translation was unknown. Here we show that myriaporone 3/4 stalls protein synthesis in the elongation phase by inducing phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2. The phosphorylation results from direct binding of myriaporone 3/4 to eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase. Our study also shows that myriaporone 3/4 in the nanomolar range inhibits in vitro tube formation by endothelial cells without being cytotoxic. In general, myriaporone 3/4 was at least 300 times less toxic to primary cells than to tumor cells. PMID:23303710

  15. Manipulating Archaeal Systems to Permit Analyses of Transcription Elongation-Termination Decisions In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Alexandra M.; Santangelo, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Transcription elongation by multisubunit RNA polymerases (RNAPs) is processive, but neither uniform nor continuous. Regulatory events during elongation include pausing, backtracking, arrest, and transcription termination, and it is critical to determine whether the absence of continued synthesis is transient or permanent. Here we describe mechanisms to generate large quantities of stable archaeal elongation complexes on a solid support to permit (1) single-round transcription, (2) walking of RNAP to any defined template position, and (3) discrimination of transcripts that are associated with RNAP from those that are released to solution. This methodology is based on untagged proteins transcribing biotin- and digoxigenin-labeled DNA templates in association with paramagnetic particles. PMID:25665569

  16. Physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.) grown in soil with interaction of high doses of copper and zinc.

    PubMed

    Tiecher, Tadeu L; Tiecher, Tales; Ceretta, Carlos A; Ferreira, Paulo A A; Nicoloso, Fernando T; Soriani, Hilda H; Tassinari, Adriele; Paranhos, Juçara Terezinha; De Conti, Lessandro; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2016-09-01

    Vineyard sandy acid soils from South Brazil have experienced heavy metal contamination due to replacement of copper (Cu)-based by zinc (Zn)-based products to control foliar diseases. Thus, we evaluate physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.), a common interrow crop in vineyards from this region. Soil was collected in a natural field from Santana do Livramento, in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. Black oat was cultivated for 30 days in a greenhouse with application of 0, 30, and 60 mg Cu kg(-1) combined with 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 mg Zn kg(-1). After the trial period, dry matter accumulation of roots and shoots, Cu and Zn contents in roots and shoots, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) activity were determined. Cu and Zn toxicity was evidenced by the decrease in plant growth of black oat as well as by the decrease of photochemical efficiency associated with the decrease in photosynthetic pigment content, especially with the highest doses of Cu and Zn. Furthermore, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and POD) was increased in intermediate doses of Zn, indicating the activation of the antioxidant system, but the stress condition in treatments with high levels of Cu and Zn was not reversed. PMID:27209215

  17. The role of calcium in growth induced by indole-3-acetic acid and gravity in the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Burg, J.; Ghosheh, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1992-01-01

    Leaf-sheath pulvini of excised segments from oat (Avena sativa L.) were induced to grow by treatment with 10 micromoles indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gravistimulation, or both, and the effects of calcium, EGTA, and calcium channel blockers on growth were evaluated. Unilaterally applied calcium (10 mM CaCl2) significantly inhibited IAA-induced growth in upright pulvini but had no effect on growth induced by either gravity or gravity plus IAA. Calcium alone had no effect on upright pulvini. The calcium chelator EGTA alone (10 mM) stimulated growth in upright pulvini. However, EGTA had no effect on either IAA- or gravity-induced growth but slightly diminished growth in IAA-treated gravistimulated pulvini. The calcium channel blockers lanthanum chloride (25 mM), verapamil (2.5 mM), and nifedipine (2.5 mM) greatly inhibited growth as induced by IAA (> or = 50% inhibition) or IAA plus gravity (20% inhibition) but had no effect on gravistimulated pulvini. Combinations of channel blockers were similar in effect on IAA action as individual blockers. Since neither calcium ions nor EGTA significantly affected the graviresponse of pulvini, we conclude that apoplastic calcium is unimportant in leaf-sheath pulvinus gravitropism. The observation that calcium ions and calcium channel blockers inhibit IAA-induced growth, but have no effect on gravistimulated pulvini, further supports previous observations that gravistimulation alters the responsiveness of pulvini to IAA.

  18. Dissipation of pH gradients in tonoplast vesicles and liposomes by mixtures of acridine orange and anions. [Avena sativa L. ; Beta vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, A.J.; Leigh, R.A. )

    1988-04-01

    Acridine orange altered the response to anions of both ATP and inorganic pyrophosphate-dependent pH gradient formation in tonoplast vesicles isolated from oat (Avena sativa L.) roots and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage tissue. When used as a fluorescent pH probe in the presence of I{sup {minus}}, ClO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, Br{sup {minus}}, or SCN{sup {minus}}, acridine orange reported lower pH gradients than either quinacrine or ({sup 14}C)methylamine. Acridine orange, but not quinacrine, reduced ({sup 14}C)methylamine accumulation when NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} was present indicating that the effect was due to a real decrease in the size of the pH gradient, not a misreporting of the gradient by acridine orange. Other experiments indicated that acridine orange and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} increased the rate of pH gradient collapse both in tonoplast vesicles and in liposomes of phosphatidylcholine and that the effect in tonoplast vesicles was greater at 24{degree}C than at 12{degree}C. It is suggested that acridine orange and certain anions increase the permeability of membranes to H{sup +}, possibly because protonated acridine orange and the anions form a lipophilic ion pair within the vesicle which diffuses across the membrane thus discharging the pH gradient.

  19. A metabolomic study in oats (Avena sativa) highlights a drought tolerance mechanism based upon salicylate signalling pathways and the modulation of carbon, antioxidant and photo-oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Heald, Jim; Kingston-Smith, Alison; Winters, Ana; Rubiales, Diego; Sanz, Mariluz; Mur, Luis A J; Prats, Elena

    2015-07-01

    Although a wealth of information is available on the induction of one or several drought-related responses in different species, little is known of how their timing, modulation and crucially integration influence drought tolerance. Based upon metabolomic changes in oat (Avena sativa L.), we have defined key processes involved in drought tolerance. During a time course of increasing water deficit, metabolites from leaf samples were profiled using direct infusion-electrospray mass spectroscopy (DI-ESI-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ESI-MS/MS and analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The involvement of metabolite pathways was confirmed through targeted assays of key metabolites and physiological experiments. We demonstrate an early accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) influencing stomatal opening, photorespiration and antioxidant defences before any change in the relative water content. These changes are likely to maintain plant water status, with any photoinhibitory effect being counteracted by an efficient antioxidant capacity, thereby representing an integrated mechanism of drought tolerance in oats. We also discuss these changes in relation to those engaged at later points, consequence of the different water status in susceptible and resistant genotypes. PMID:25533379

  20. Effects of intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on the mobility of target elements for phytoremediation and phytomining in soil solution.

    PubMed

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate how intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) affects the mobile fractions of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Th, U, Sc, La, Nd, Ge) in soil solution. Oat and white lupin were cultivated in monocultures and mixed cultures with differing oat/white lupin ratios (11% and 33% lupin, respectively). Temporal variation of soil solution chemistry was compared with the mobilization of elements in the rhizosphere of white lupin and concentrations in plant tissues. Relative to the monocrops, intercropping of oat with 11% white lupin significantly increased the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, La and Nd in soil solution as well as the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, Sc, La and Nd in tissues of oat. Enhanced mobility of the mentioned elements corresponded to a depletion of elements in the rhizosphere soil of white lupin. In mixed cultures with 33% lupin, concentrations in soil solution only slightly increased. We conclude that intercropping with 11% white lupin might be a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research enhancing mobility of essential trace metals as well as elements with relevance for phytoremediation (Pb, Th) and phytomining (La, Nd, Sc) in soil. PMID:26940160

  1. Pro-apoptotic properties of (1,3)(1,4)-β-D-glucan from Avena sativa on human melanoma HTB-140 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Parzonko, Andrzej; Makarewicz-Wujec, Magdalena; Jaszewska, Edyta; Harasym, Joanna; Kozłowska-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the growth-inhibitory effect of polysaccharide (1,3)(1,4)-β-D-glucan from oat, Avena sativa L. grains was explored on the human skin melanoma HTB-140 cells in vitro. The oat β-D-glucan (OBG) exerted cytotoxic action on HTB-140 cells. After 24h of incubation, LD50 (concentration at which 50% of the cells were found dead) was obtained of 194.6 ± 9.8 μg/mL. The oat β-D-glucan caused a concentration-dependent increase of caspase-3/-7 activation and appearance of phosphatidylserine on the external surface of cellular membranes where it was bound to annexin V-FITC, demonstrating the induction of apoptosis. Intracellular ATP level decreased along with the mitochondrial potential, which suggested a mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. A cell cycle analysis showed increase in the number of apoptotic cells, increase in the number of cells in G1 phase and decrease in the number of cells in G2/M. Although the detailed mechanism for the anti-tumor activity of the oat β-D-glucan still needs further investigation, this study provides preliminary insights into this direction along with perspectives of developing it as an anti-tumor agent. PMID:25285849

  2. Elongator, a conserved complex required for wobble uridine modifications in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Karlsborn, Tony; Tükenmez, Hasan; Mahmud, A K M Firoj; Xu, Fu; Xu, Hao; Byström, Anders S

    2014-01-01

    Elongator is a 6 subunit protein complex highly conserved in eukaryotes. The role of this complex has been controversial as the pleiotropic phenotypes of Elongator mutants have implicated the complex in several cellular processes. However, in yeast there is convincing evidence that the primary and probably only role of this complex is in formation of the 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl (mcm5) and 5-carbamoylmethyl (ncm5) side chains on uridines at wobble position in tRNA. In this review we summarize the cellular processes that have been linked to the Elongator complex and discuss its role in tRNA modification and regulation of translation. We also describe additional gene products essential for formation of ncm5 and mcm5 side chains at U34 and their influence on Elongator activity. PMID:25607684

  3. Gibberellin-enhanced elongation of inverted Pharbitis nil shoot prevents the release of apical dominance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

    1987-01-01

    Ethylene evolution resulting from the gravity stress of shoot inversion appears to induce the release of apical dominance in Pharbitis nil (L.) by inhibiting elongation of the inverted shoot. It has been previously demonstrated that this shoot inversion release of apical dominance can be prevented by promoting elongation in the inverted shoot via interference with ethylene synthesis or action. In the present study it was shown that apical dominance release can also be prevented by promoting elongation of the inverted shoot via treatment with gibberellic acid (GA3). A synergistic effect was observed when AgNO3, the ethylene action inhibitor, was applied with GA3. Both GA3 and AgNO3 increased ethylene production in the inverted shoot. These results are consistent with the view that it is ethylene-induced inhibition of elongation and not any direct effect of ethylene per se which is responsible for the outgrowth of the highest lateral bud.

  4. Quantitative structure - mesothelioma Potency Model Optimization for Complex Mixtures of Elongated Particles in Rat Pleura

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cancer potencies of mineral and synthetic elongated particle (EP) mixtures, including fibers from asbestos, are influenced by changes in fiber dose composition, bioavailability and biodurability in combination with relevant cytotoxic dose-response relationships. A unique and com...

  5. The Spt4-Spt5 complex: a multi-faceted regulator of transcription elongation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    In all domains of life, elongating RNA polymerases require the assistance of accessory factors to maintain their processivity and regulate their rate. Among these elongation factors, the Spt5/NusG factors stand out. Members of this protein family appear to be the only transcription accessory proteins that are universally conserved across all domains of life. In archaea and eukaryotes, Spt5 associates with a second protein, Spt4. In addition to regulating elongation, the eukaryotic Spt4-Spt5 complex appears to couple chromatin modification states and RNA processing to transcription elongation. This review discusses the experimental bases for our current understanding of Spt4-Spt5 function and recent studies that are beginning to elucidate the structure of Spt4-Spt5/RNA polymerase complexes and mechanism of Spt4-Spt5 action. PMID:22982195

  6. Shear Modulus for Nonisotropic, Open-Celled Foams Using a General Elongated Kelvin Foam Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2008-01-01

    An equation for the shear modulus for nonisotropic, open-celled foams in the plane transverse to the elongation (rise) direction is derived using an elongated Kelvin foam model with the most general geometric description. The shear modulus was found to be a function of the unit cell dimensions, the solid material properties, and the cell edge cross-section properties. The shear modulus equation reduces to the relation derived by others for isotropic foams when the unit cell is equiaxed.

  7. Movement of endogenous calcium in the elongating zone of graviresponding roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Cameron, I. L.; Smith, N. K.

    1989-01-01

    Endogenous calcium (Ca) accumulates along the lower side of the elongating zone of horizontally oriented roots of Zea mays cv. Yellow Dent. This accumulation of Ca correlates positively with the onset of gravicurvature, and occurs in the cytoplasm, cell walls and mucilage of epidermal cells. Corresponding changes in endogenous Ca do not occur in cortical cells of the elongating zone of intact roots. These results indicate that the calcium asymmetries associated with root gravicurvature occur in the outermost layers of the root.

  8. Multiple signaling pathways control nitrogen-mediated root elongation in maize

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fanjun; Zhang, Fusuo

    2008-01-01

    Response of root system architecture to nutrient availability is an essential way for plants to adapt to soil environments. Nitrogen can affect root development either as a result of changes in the external concentration, or through changes in the internal nutrient status of the plant. Low soil N stimulates root elongation in maize. Recent evidence suggests that plant hormones auxin and cytokinin, as well as NO signaling pathway, are involved in the regulation of root elongation by low nitrogen nutrition. PMID:19704443

  9. Coupling of RNA Polymerase II Transcription Elongation with Pre-mRNA Splicing.

    PubMed

    Saldi, Tassa; Cortazar, Michael A; Sheridan, Ryan M; Bentley, David L

    2016-06-19

    Pre-mRNA maturation frequently occurs at the same time and place as transcription by RNA polymerase II. The co-transcriptionality of mRNA processing has permitted the evolution of mechanisms that functionally couple transcription elongation with diverse events that occur on the nascent RNA. This review summarizes the current understanding of the relationship between transcriptional elongation through a chromatin template and co-transcriptional splicing including alternative splicing decisions that affect the expression of most human genes. PMID:27107644

  10. The initiation factor TFE and the elongation factor Spt4/5 compete for the RNAP clamp during transcription initiation and elongation.

    PubMed

    Grohmann, Dina; Nagy, Julia; Chakraborty, Anirban; Klose, Daniel; Fielden, Daniel; Ebright, Richard H; Michaelis, Jens; Werner, Finn

    2011-07-22

    TFIIE and the archaeal homolog TFE enhance DNA strand separation of eukaryotic RNAPII and the archaeal RNAP during transcription initiation by an unknown mechanism. We have developed a fluorescently labeled recombinant M. jannaschii RNAP system to probe the archaeal transcription initiation complex, consisting of promoter DNA, TBP, TFB, TFE, and RNAP. We have localized the position of the TFE winged helix (WH) and Zinc ribbon (ZR) domains on the RNAP using single-molecule FRET. The interaction sites of the TFE WH domain and the transcription elongation factor Spt4/5 overlap, and both factors compete for RNAP binding. Binding of Spt4/5 to RNAP represses promoter-directed transcription in the absence of TFE, which alleviates this effect by displacing Spt4/5 from RNAP. During elongation, Spt4/5 can displace TFE from the RNAP elongation complex and stimulate processivity. Our results identify the RNAP "clamp" region as a regulatory hot spot for both transcription initiation and transcription elongation. PMID:21777815

  11. Use of nerve elongator to repair short-distance peripheral nerve defects: a prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Lu; Wang, Tian-bing; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Wei-wen; Xu, Ji-hai; Cai, Xiao-ming; Zhou, Dan-ya; Cai, Li-bing; Pan, Jia-dong; Tian, Min-tao; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Dian-ying; Fu, Zhong-guo; Zhang, Pei-xun; Jiang, Bao-guo

    2015-01-01

    Repair techniques for short-distance peripheral nerve defects, including adjacent joint flexion to reduce the distance between the nerve stump defects, “nerve splint” suturing, and nerve sleeve connection, have some disadvantages. Therefore, we designed a repair technique involving intraoperative tension-free application of a nerve elongator and obtained good outcomes in the repair of short-distance peripheral nerve defects in a previous animal study. The present study compared the clinical outcomes between the use of this nerve elongator and performance of the conventional method in the repair of short-distance transection injuries in human elbows. The 3-, 6-, and 12-month postoperative follow-up results demonstrated that early neurological function recovery was better in the nerve elongation group than in the conventional group, but no significant difference in long-term neurological function recovery was detected between the two groups. In the nerve elongation group, the nerves were sutured without tension, and the duration of postoperative immobilization of the elbow was decreased. Elbow function rehabilitation was significantly better in the nerve elongation group than in the control group. Moreover, there were no security risks. The results of this study confirm that the use of this nerve elongator for repair of short-distance peripheral nerve defects is safe and effective. PMID:25788924

  12. Polar transport of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. S.; Evans, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    The movement of calcium across the elongation zone of gravistimulated primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) was measured using 45Ca2+. Radioactive calcium was applied to one side of the elongation zone about 4 mm back from the root tip and the distribution of radioactivity across the root in the region of application was determined using scintillation spectrometry. The movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone was non-polar in vertically oriented roots. In gravistimulated roots the movement of label was polarized with about twice as much label moving from top to bottom as from bottom to top. A variety of treatments which interfere with gravitropism was found to eliminate the polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. In maize cultivars which require light for gravitropic competency, dark grown roots exhibited neither gravitropism nor polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. Upon illumination the roots developed but gravitropic competency and gravity-induced polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. Similarly, roots of light-grown seedlings lost both gravitropic competency and 45Ca2+ transport polarity upon transfer to the dark. The results indicate a close correlation between calcium movement and gravitropism in primary roots in maize.

  13. Synthetic lethal interactions suggest a role for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rtf1 protein in transcription elongation.

    PubMed Central

    Costa, P J; Arndt, K M

    2000-01-01

    Strong evidence indicates that transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (pol II) is a highly regulated process. Here we present genetic results that indicate a role for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rtf1 protein in transcription elongation. A screen for synthetic lethal mutations was carried out with an rtf1 deletion mutation to identify factors that interact with Rtf1 or regulate the same process as Rtf1. The screen uncovered mutations in SRB5, CTK1, FCP1, and POB3. These genes encode an Srb/mediator component, a CTD kinase, a CTD phosphatase, and a protein involved in the regulation of transcription by chromatin structure, respectively. All of these gene products have been directly or indirectly implicated in transcription elongation, indicating that Rtf1 may also regulate this process. In support of this view, we show that RTF1 functionally interacts with genes that encode known elongation factors, including SPT4, SPT5, SPT16, and PPR2. We also show that a deletion of RTF1 causes sensitivity to 6-azauracil and mycophenolic acid, phenotypes correlated with a transcription elongation defect. Collectively, our results suggest that Rtf1 may function as a novel transcription elongation factor in yeast. PMID:11014804

  14. Constructing kinetic models to elucidate structural dynamics of a complete RNA polymerase II elongation cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jin; Da, Lin-Tai; Huang, Xuhui

    2015-02-01

    The RNA polymerase II elongation is central in eukaryotic transcription. Although multiple intermediates of the elongation complex have been identified, the dynamical mechanisms remain elusive or controversial. Here we build a structure-based kinetic model of a full elongation cycle of polymerase II, taking into account transition rates and conformational changes characterized from both single molecule experimental studies and computational simulations at atomistic scale. Our model suggests a force-dependent slow transition detected in the single molecule experiments corresponds to an essential conformational change of a trigger loop (TL) opening prior to the polymerase translocation. The analyses on mutant study of E1103G and on potential sequence effects of the translocation substantiate this proposal. Our model also investigates another slow transition detected in the transcription elongation cycle which is independent of mechanical force. If this force-independent slow transition happens as the TL gradually closes upon NTP binding, the analyses indicate that the binding affinity of NTP to the polymerase has to be sufficiently high. Otherwise, one infers that the slow transition happens pre-catalytically but after the TL closing. Accordingly, accurate determination of intrinsic properties of NTP binding is demanded for an improved characterization of the polymerase elongation. Overall, the study provides a working model of the polymerase II elongation under a generic Brownian ratchet mechanism, with most essential structural transition and functional kinetics elucidated.

  15. Unilateral nephrectomy elongates primary cilia in the remaining kidney via reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Jun; Jang, Hee-Seong; Kim, Jee In; Lipschutz, Joshua H.; Park, Kwon Moo

    2016-01-01

    The length of primary cilia is associated with normal cell and organ function. In the kidney, the change of functional cilia length/mass is associated with various diseases such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, polycystic kidney disease, and congenital solitary kidney. Here, we investigate whether renal mass reduction affects primary cilia length and function. To induce renal mass reduction, mice were subjected to unilateral nephrectomy (UNx). UNx increased kidney weight and superoxide formation in the remaining kidney. Primary cilia were elongated in proximal tubule cells, collecting duct cells and parietal cells of the remaining kidney. Mn(III) Tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (MnTMPyP), an antioxidant, reduced superoxide formation in UNx-mice and prevented the elongation of primary cilia. UNx increased the expression of phosphorylated ERK, p21, and exocyst complex members Sec8 and Sec10, in the remaining kidney, and these increases were prevented by MnTMPyP. In MDCK, a kidney tubular epithelial cell line, cells, low concentrations of H2O2 treatment elongated primary cilia. This H2O2-induced elongation of primary cilia was also prevented by MnTMPyP treatment. Taken together, these data demonstrate that kidney compensation, induced by a reduction of renal mass, results in primary cilia elongation, and this elongation is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:26923764

  16. Use of Digital Panoramic Radiographs in the Study of Styloid Process Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Lins, Carla Cabral dos Santos Accioly; Tavares, Renan Macêdo Cutrim; da Silva, Camila Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the occurrence of suggestive images of styloid process elongation in panoramic radiographs, noting their frequency according to sex, age, and location, as well as measure and classify the types and patterns of calcification of elongated styloid processes. 2,500 panoramic radiographs were evaluated in a Radiology Clinic in Recife, PE, Brazil, performed between 2008 and 2010, with the age ranging from 25 to 80 years old. 560 of the radiographs analyzed fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of this total, 216 (38.57%) presented suggestive images of the styloid process elongation, 45 (20.8%) belonging to male and 171 (79.2%) to female, and 84.7% were bilateral. After all measurements, mean values of 35.5 mm (left side) and 37.6 mm (right side) were obtained and these differences were statistically significant (p < 0.001). The most common type of stretching found was elongated (type I) with 73.1%, and the pattern of calcification was partially calcified (62.5%). It was found that the elongation of the styloid process is an anatomical variation, which must be taken into account by dentists, and because panoramic radiography is a technique of easy approach and low cost and routine, it can be used to aid in the diagnosis of elongated styloid process. PMID:26290756

  17. Polar transport of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Evans, M L

    1985-01-01

    The movement of calcium across the elongation zone of gravistimulated primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.) was measured using 45Ca2+. Radioactive calcium was applied to one side of the elongation zone about 4 mm back from the root tip and the distribution of radioactivity across the root in the region of application was determined using scintillation spectrometry. The movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone was non-polar in vertically oriented roots. In gravistimulated roots the movement of label was polarized with about twice as much label moving from top to bottom as from bottom to top. A variety of treatments which interfere with gravitropism was found to eliminate the polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. In maize cultivars which require light for gravitropic competency, dark grown roots exhibited neither gravitropism nor polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. Upon illumination the roots developed but gravitropic competency and gravity-induced polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the elongation zone. Similarly, roots of light-grown seedlings lost both gravitropic competency and 45Ca2+ transport polarity upon transfer to the dark. The results indicate a close correlation between calcium movement and gravitropism in primary roots in maize. PMID:11539697

  18. Engineering of methionine chain elongation part of glucoraphanin pathway in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Nadia; Crocoll, Christoph; Erik Olsen, Carl; Ann Halkier, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    The methionine-derived glucosinolate glucoraphanin is associated with the health-promoting properties of broccoli. This has developed a strong interest in producing this compound in high amounts from a microbial source. Glucoraphanin synthesis starts with a five-gene chain elongation pathway that converts methionine to dihomo-methionine, which is subsequently converted to glucoraphanin by the seven-gene glucosinolate core structure pathway. As dihomo-methionine is the precursor amino acid for glucoraphanin production, a first challenge is to establish an expression system for production of dihomo-methionine. In planta, the methionine chain elongation enzymes are physically separated within the cell with the first enzyme in the cytosol while the rest are located in the chloroplast. A de-compartmentalization approach was applied to produce dihomo-methionine by expression of the respective plant genes in Escherichia coli cytosol. Introduction of two plasmids encoding the methionine chain elongation pathway into E. coli resulted in production of 25mgL(-1) of dihomo-methionine. In addition to chain-elongated methionine products, side-products from chain elongation of leucine were produced. Methionine supplementation enhanced dihomo-methionine production to 57mgL(-1), while keeping a steady level of the chain-elongated leucine products. Engineering of the de-compartmentalized pathway of dihomo-methionine in E. coli cytosol provides an important first step for microbial production of the health-promoting glucoraphanin. PMID:26410451

  19. Use of Digital Panoramic Radiographs in the Study of Styloid Process Elongation.

    PubMed

    Lins, Carla Cabral Dos Santos Accioly; Tavares, Renan Macêdo Cutrim; da Silva, Camila Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the occurrence of suggestive images of styloid process elongation in panoramic radiographs, noting their frequency according to sex, age, and location, as well as measure and classify the types and patterns of calcification of elongated styloid processes. 2,500 panoramic radiographs were evaluated in a Radiology Clinic in Recife, PE, Brazil, performed between 2008 and 2010, with the age ranging from 25 to 80 years old. 560 of the radiographs analyzed fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of this total, 216 (38.57%) presented suggestive images of the styloid process elongation, 45 (20.8%) belonging to male and 171 (79.2%) to female, and 84.7% were bilateral. After all measurements, mean values of 35.5 mm (left side) and 37.6 mm (right side) were obtained and these differences were statistically significant (p < 0.001). The most common type of stretching found was elongated (type I) with 73.1%, and the pattern of calcification was partially calcified (62.5%). It was found that the elongation of the styloid process is an anatomical variation, which must be taken into account by dentists, and because panoramic radiography is a technique of easy approach and low cost and routine, it can be used to aid in the diagnosis of elongated styloid process. PMID:26290756

  20. Bacterial Cellulose-Binding Domain Modulates in Vitro Elongation of Different Plant Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Shpigel, Etai; Roiz, Levava; Goren, Raphael; Shoseyov, Oded

    1998-01-01

    Recombinant cellulose-binding domain (CBD) derived from the cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium cellulovorans was found to modulate the elongation of different plant cells in vitro. In peach (Prunus persica L.) pollen tubes, maximum elongation was observed at 50 μg mL−1 CBD. Pollen tube staining with calcofluor showed a loss of crystallinity in the tip zone of CBD-treated pollen tubes. At low concentrations CBD enhanced elongation of Arabidopsis roots. At high concentrations CBD dramatically inhibited root elongation in a dose-responsive manner. Maximum effect on root hair elongation was at 100 μg mL−1, whereas root elongation was inhibited at that concentration. CBD was found to compete with xyloglucan for binding to cellulose when CBD was added first to the cellulose, before the addition of xyloglucan. When Acetobacter xylinum L. was used as a model system, CBD was found to increase the rate of cellulose synthase in a dose-responsive manner, up to 5-fold compared with the control. Electron microscopy examination of the cellulose ribbons produced by A. xylinum showed that CBD treatment resulted in a splayed ribbon composed of separate fibrillar subunits, compared with a thin, uniform ribbon in the control. PMID:9701575

  1. Local mechanical forces promote polarized junctional assembly and axis elongation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jessica C; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Axis elongation is a conserved process in which the head-to-tail or anterior-posterior (AP) axis of an embryo extends. In Drosophila, cellular rearrangements drive axis elongation. Cells exchange neighbours by converging into transient multicellular vertices which resolve through the assembly of new cell interfaces parallel to the AP axis. We found that new interfaces elongate in pulses correlated with periodic contractions of the surrounding cells. Inhibiting actomyosin contractility globally, or specifically in the cells around multicellular vertices, disrupted the rate and directionality of new interface assembly. Laser ablation indicated that new interfaces sustained greater tension than non-elongating ones. We developed a method to apply ectopic tension and found that increasing AP tension locally increased the elongation rate of new edges by more than twofold. Increasing dorsal-ventral tension resulted in vertex resolution perpendicular to the AP direction. We propose that local, periodic contractile forces polarize vertex resolution to drive Drosophila axis elongation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10757.001 PMID:26747941

  2. Mid-infrared interferometry of 23 AGN tori: On the significance of polar-elongated emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Gonzaga, N.; Burtscher, L.; Tristram, K. R. W.; Meisenheimer, K.; Schartmann, M.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Detailed high-resolution studies of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with mid-infrared (MIR) interferometry have revealed parsec-sized dust emission that is elongated in the polar direction in four sources. Aims: Using a larger, coherently analyzed sample of AGN observed with MIR interferometry, we aim to identify elongated MIR emission in a statistical sample of sources. More specifically, we wish to determine if there is indeed a preferred direction of the elongation and whether this direction is consistent with a torus-like structure or with a polar emission. Methods: We investigated the significance of the detection of an elongated shape in the MIR emission by fitting elongated Gaussian models to the interferometric data at 12 μm. We paid special attention to (1) the uncertainties caused by an inhomogeneous (u,v) coverage; (2) the typical errors in the measurements; and (3) the spatial resolution achieved for each object. Results: From our sample of 23 sources, we are able to find elongated parsec-scale, MIR emission in five sources: three type 2s, one type 1i, and one type 1. Elongated emission in four of these sources has been published before; NGC 5506 is a new detection. The observed axis ratios are typically around 2 and the position angle of the 12 μm emission for all the elongated sources always seems to be closer to the polar axis of the system than to the equatorial axis. Two other objects, NGC 4507 and MCG-5-23-16, with reasonably well-mapped (u,v) coverage and good signal-to-noise ratios, appear to have a less elongated 12 μm emission. Conclusions: Our finding that sources showing elongated MIR emission are preferentially extended in polar direction sets strong constraints on torus models or implies that both the torus and NLR/outflow region have to be modeled together. In addition, models used for SED fitting will have to be revised to include emission from polar dust.

  3. A Morphospace for Reef Fishes: Elongation Is the Dominant Axis of Body Shape Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Claverie, Thomas; Wainwright, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical reef fishes are widely regarded as being perhaps the most morphologically diverse vertebrate assemblage on earth, yet much remains to be discovered about the scope and patterns of this diversity. We created a morphospace of 2,939 species spanning 56 families of tropical Indo-Pacific reef fishes and established the primary axes of body shape variation, the phylogenetic consistency of these patterns, and whether dominant patterns of shape change can be accomplished by diverse underlying changes. Principal component analysis showed a major axis of shape variation that contrasts deep-bodied species with slender, elongate forms. Furthermore, using custom methods to compare the elongation vector (axis that maximizes elongation deformation) and the main vector of shape variation (first principal component) for each family in the morphospace, we showed that two thirds of the families diversify along an axis of body elongation. Finally, a comparative analysis using a principal coordinate analysis based on the angles among first principal component vectors of each family shape showed that families accomplish changes in elongation with a wide range of underlying modifications. Some groups such as Pomacentridae and Lethrinidae undergo decreases in body depth with proportional increases in all body regions, while other families show disproportionate changes in the length of the head (e.g., Labridae), the trunk or caudal region in all combinations (e.g., Pempheridae and Pinguipedidae). In conclusion, we found that evolutionary changes in body shape along an axis of elongation dominates diversification in reef fishes. Changes in shape on this axis are thought to have immediate implications for swimming performance, defense from gape limited predators, suction feeding performance and access to some highly specialized habitats. The morphological modifications that underlie changes in elongation are highly diverse, suggesting a role for a range of developmental processes

  4. Impaired rate of microsomal fatty acid elongation in undernourished neonatal rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Y.Y.

    1986-05-01

    Hypomyelination caused by undernourishment in characterized by low concentrations of myelin lipids and marked reduction in lignocerate (C/sub 24:0/) and nervonate (C/sub 24:1/) moiety of cerebroside and sulfatide. Since microsomal elongation is the major source of long chain (22 to 24 carbons) fatty acids in the brain, the effect of neonatal undernourishment on acyl elongation was investigated. Undernourishment of suckling rats were induced after birth by restricting maternal dietary intake to 40% of that consumed by dams fed ad libitum. Neonates suckled by the normally fed dams served as controls. Microsomal elongation was measured as nmol from (2-/sup 14/C) malonyl CoA incorporated/h per mg of protein. At 19 days of age, rates of behenoyl CoA (C/sub 22:0/) and erucoyl CoA (C/sub 22:1/) elongation in whole brain of undernourished neonates were 30-40% lower than that of the control, whereas the elongation rates of acyl CoA 16, 18 and 20 carbons in length either saturated or monounsaturated were similar in both groups. Undernourishment had no effect on cytoplasmic de novo fatty acid synthesis from acetyl CoA. If there are multiple elongation factors, the results indicate that the depressed activity of elongating enzyme(s) for C/sub 22:0/ and C/sub 22:1/ is an important contributing factor in lowering S/sub 24:0/ and C/sub 24:1/ content in cerebroside and sulfatide. This impairment may be a specific lesion leading to hypomyelination in undernourished rats.

  5. Identification of the gene encoding the mitochondrial elongation factor G in mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, C; Makris, A; Patriotis, C; Bear, S E; Tsichlis, P N

    1993-01-01

    Protein synthesis in cytosolic and rough endoplasmic reticulum associated ribosomes is directed by factors, many of which have been well characterized. Although these factors have been the subject of intense study, most of the corresponding factors regulating protein synthesis in the mitochondrial ribosomes remain unknown. In this report we present the cloning and initial characterization of the gene encoding the rat mitochondrial elongation factor-G (rEF-Gmt). The rat gene encoding EF-Gmt (rMef-g) maps to rat chromosome 2 and it is expressed in all tissues with highest levels in liver, thymus and brain. Its DNA sequence predicts a 752 amino acid protein exhibiting 72% homology to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial elongation factor-G (YMEF-G), 62% and 61% homology to the Thermus thermophilus and E. coli elongation factor-G (EF-G) respectively and 52% homology to the rat elongation factor-2 (EF-2). The deduced amino acid sequence of EF-G contains characteristic motifs shared by all GTP binding proteins. Therefore, similarly to other elongation factors, the enzymatic function of EF-Gmt is predicted to depend on GTP binding and hydrolysis. EF-Gmt differs from its cytoplasmic homolog, EF-2, in that it contains an aspartic acid residue at amino acid position 621 which corresponds to the EF-2 histidine residue at position 715. Since this histidine residue, following posttranslational modification into diphthamide, appears to be the sole cellular target of diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas aeruginosa endotoxin A, we conclude that EF-Gmt will not be inactivated by these toxins. The severe effects of these toxins on protein elongation in tissues expressing EF-Gmt suggest that EF-Gmt and EF-2 exhibit nonoverlapping functions. The cloning and characterization of the mammalian mitochondrial elongation factor G will permit us to address its role in the regulation of normal mitochondrial function and in disease states attributed to mitochondrial dysfunction. Images

  6. A subgroup of MATE transporter genes regulates hypocotyl cell elongation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Xiayan; Liang, Shuang; Ge, Qing; Li, Yuanfeng; Shao, Jingxia; Qi, Yafei; An, Lijun; Yu, Fei

    2015-10-01

    The growth of higher plants is under complex regulation to ensure the elaboration of developmental programmes under a changing environment. To dissect these regulatory circuits, we carried out genetic screens for Arabidopsis abnormal shoot (abs) mutants with altered shoot development. Here, we report the isolation of two dominant mutants, abs3-1D and abs4-1D, through activation tagging. Both mutants showed a 'bushy' loss of apical dominance phenotype. ABS3 and ABS4 code for two closely related putative Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion (MATE) family of efflux transporters, respectively. ABS3 and ABS4, as well as two related MATE genes, ABS3-Like1 (ABS3L1) and ABS3L2, showed diverse tissue expression profiles but their gene products all localized to the late endosome/prevacuole (LE/PVC) compartment. The over-expression of these four genes individually led to the inhibition of hypocotyl cell elongation in the light. On the other hand, the quadruple knockout mutant (mateq) showed the opposite phenotype of an enhanced hypocotyl cell elongation in the light. Hypocotyl cell elongation and de-etiolation processes in the dark were also affected by the mutations of these genes. Exogenously applied sucrose attenuated the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation caused by abs3-1D and abs4-1D in the dark, and enhanced the hypocotyl elongation of mateq under prolonged dark treatment. We determined that ABS3 genetically interacts with the photoreceptor gene PHYTOCHROME B (PHYB). Our results demonstrate that ABS3 and related MATE family transporters are potential negative regulators of hypocotyl cell elongation and support a functional link between the endomembrane system, particularly the LE/PVC, and the regulation of plant cell elongation. PMID:26160579

  7. Prevalence of elongated styloid process in Saudi population of Aseer region

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Mohammed Asif; Naheeda; Kaleem, Sultan Mohammed; Wahab, Abdul; Hameed, Shahul

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was performed to investigate the prevalence, morphology and calcification pattern of elongated styloid process in Saudi population of Aseer (Southern) region and its relation to gender and sub-age groups. Materials and Methods: This study was analyzed digital panoramic radiographs of 1,162 adults. Any radiograph with questionable styloid process was excluded from the study. The apparent length of the styloid process was measured by a single experienced dental and maxillofacial Radiologist. The elongated styloid process was classified with the radiographic appearance based on the morphology and calcification pattern. The data were analyzed by using Student's t-test and Chi-square test with P value less than 0.05. Results: A total of 1,085 Digital panoramic radiographs showed elongated styloid process of which 686 (63.2%) were noticed in males and 399 (36.8%) were noticed in female patients. There was a statistical significant difference noticed in the mean difference of elongated styloid process between 20-29, 50-59 and 60 years and above sub-age groups. The elongated styloid process was more prevalent in elderly aged male patients (P < 0.05). Type I morphology with calcified out line (a) was the most frequent pattern of calcification noticed in the present study. Conclusion: The panoramic radiographs are economical, easily accessible and useful diagnostic tool for early detection of elongated styloid process with or without symptoms. However, studies with larger sample size would further help to assess the prevalence of this elongated styloid process in Saudi population of various other regions. PMID:24932120

  8. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Madsen, Lone Søvad; Petersen, Jørgen; Andersen, Jesper Tapdrup; Hansen, Anne Maria; Beck, Hans Christian

    2010-03-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread to prevent the formation of P. roqueforti colonies. Proteins in the oat seed extracts were fractionated by column chromatography and proteins in fractions containing antifungal activity were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database searches. Identified antifungal candidates included thaumatin-like proteins, 1,3-beta-glucanase, permatin precursor, pathogenesis-related protein type 1, and chitinases of class I and II. Class I chitinase could be specifically removed from the extracts and was found to be indispensable for 50% of the P. roqueforti inhibiting activity. The purified class I chitinase has a molecular weight of approximately 34 kDa, optimal chitinase activity at pH 7, and exists as at least two basic isoforms (pI values of 7.6 and 8.0). Partial sequencing of the class I chitinase isoforms by LC-MS/MS revealed a primary structure with high similarity to class I chitinases of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale). Oat, wheat, barley, and rye seed extracts were compared with respect to the abundance of the class I chitinase and decrease in antifungal activity when class I chitinase is removed. We found that the oat seed class I chitinase is at least ten times more abundant than the wheat, barley, and rye homologs and that oat seed extracts are highly active toward P. roqueforti as opposed to extracts of other cereal seeds. PMID:19224400

  9. Fossil evidence and stages of elongation of the Giraffa camelopardalis neck.

    PubMed

    Danowitz, Melinda; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Kortlandt, Victoria; Solounias, Nikos

    2015-10-01

    Several evolutionary theories have been proposed to explain the adaptation of the long giraffe neck; however, few studies examine the fossil cervical vertebrae. We incorporate extinct giraffids, and the okapi and giraffe cervical vertebral specimens in a comprehensive analysis of the anatomy and elongation of the neck. We establish and evaluate 20 character states that relate to general, cranial and caudal vertebral lengthening, and calculate a length-to-width ratio to measure the relative slenderness of the vertebrae. Our sample includes cervical vertebrae (n=71) of 11 taxa representing all seven subfamilies. We also perform a computational comparison of the C3 of Samotherium and Giraffa camelopardalis, which demonstrates that cervical elongation occurs disproportionately along the cranial-caudal vertebral axis. Using the morphological characters and calculated ratios, we propose stages in cervical lengthening, which are supported by the mathematical transformations using fossil and extant specimens. We find that cervical elongation is anisometric and unexpectedly precedes Giraffidae. Within the family, cranial vertebral elongation is the first lengthening stage observed followed by caudal vertebral elongation, which accounts for the extremely long neck of the giraffe. PMID:26587249

  10. Control of transcription elongation by GreA determines rate of gene expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yuzenkova, Yulia; Gamba, Pamela; Herber, Martijn; Attaiech, Laetitia; Shafeeq, Sulman; Kuipers, Oscar P; Klumpp, Stefan; Zenkin, Nikolay; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2014-01-01

    Transcription by RNA polymerase may be interrupted by pauses caused by backtracking or misincorporation that can be resolved by the conserved bacterial Gre-factors. However, the consequences of such pausing in the living cell remain obscure. Here, we developed molecular biology and transcriptome sequencing tools in the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and provide evidence that transcription elongation is rate-limiting on highly expressed genes. Our results suggest that transcription elongation may be a highly regulated step of gene expression in S. pneumoniae. Regulation is accomplished via long-living elongation pauses and their resolution by elongation factor GreA. Interestingly, mathematical modeling indicates that long-living pauses cause queuing of RNA polymerases, which results in 'transcription traffic jams' on the gene and thus blocks its expression. Together, our results suggest that long-living pauses and RNA polymerase queues caused by them are a major problem on highly expressed genes and are detrimental for cell viability. The major and possibly sole function of GreA in S. pneumoniae is to prevent formation of backtracked elongation complexes. PMID:25190458

  11. Control of transcription elongation by GreA determines rate of gene expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Yuzenkova, Yulia; Gamba, Pamela; Herber, Martijn; Attaiech, Laetitia; Shafeeq, Sulman; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Klumpp, Stefan; Zenkin, Nikolay; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2014-01-01

    Transcription by RNA polymerase may be interrupted by pauses caused by backtracking or misincorporation that can be resolved by the conserved bacterial Gre-factors. However, the consequences of such pausing in the living cell remain obscure. Here, we developed molecular biology and transcriptome sequencing tools in the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and provide evidence that transcription elongation is rate-limiting on highly expressed genes. Our results suggest that transcription elongation may be a highly regulated step of gene expression in S. pneumoniae. Regulation is accomplished via long-living elongation pauses and their resolution by elongation factor GreA. Interestingly, mathematical modeling indicates that long-living pauses cause queuing of RNA polymerases, which results in ‘transcription traffic jams’ on the gene and thus blocks its expression. Together, our results suggest that long-living pauses and RNA polymerase queues caused by them are a major problem on highly expressed genes and are detrimental for cell viability. The major and possibly sole function of GreA in S. pneumoniae is to prevent formation of backtracked elongation complexes. PMID:25190458

  12. The Influence of Shear Thinning on Elongation Hardening of Long-Chain Branched Polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Gerold; Schausberger, Alois

    2008-07-01

    Long-chain branched polypropylenes show pronounced strain hardening in elongation. This property, important for various applications is strongly reduced by shear applied to the melt before elongation. In this work the influence of shear history on the rheological properties of blends from a linear (L-PP) and a long-chain branched (LCB-PP) polypropylene was studied in detail. Shear thinning is produced in a cone-plate device and the annealing of it is recorded by the storage modulus, G'(ω), immediately after applying the shear deformation. In the case of L-PP this recovery function is simple exponential, whereas additional relaxation processes are found with the presence of LCB-PP in the blend. In order to investigate the elongational behaviour after various shear histories the sheared sample is removed from the cone-plate system, compressed into a flat sheet and quenched very fast to ensure residual shear thinning. Constant elongation rate experiments have been performed using a uniaxial extensional rheometer, the SER universal testing platform where the tensile stress growth coefficient, ηE+(t,ɛ˙0), is recorded. Shear thinning reduces elongation hardening reversible. The annealing of this reduction depends on the shear history and the degree of long chain branching.

  13. Species-specific contribution of volumetric growth and tissue convergence to posterior body elongation in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Steventon, Ben; Duarte, Fernando; Lagadec, Ronan; Mazan, Sylvie; Nicolas, Jean-François; Hirsinger, Estelle

    2016-05-15

    Posterior body elongation is a widespread mechanism propelling the generation of the metazoan body plan. The posterior growth model predicts that a posterior growth zone generates sufficient tissue volume to elongate the posterior body. However, there are energy supply-related differences between vertebrates in the degree to which growth occurs concomitantly with embryogenesis. By applying a multi-scalar morphometric analysis in zebrafish embryos, we show that posterior body elongation is generated by an influx of cells from lateral regions, by convergence-extension of cells as they exit the tailbud, and finally by a late volumetric growth in the spinal cord and notochord. Importantly, the unsegmented region does not generate additional tissue volume. Fibroblast growth factor inhibition blocks tissue convergence rather than volumetric growth, showing that a conserved molecular mechanism can control convergent morphogenesis through different cell behaviours. Finally, via a comparative morphometric analysis in lamprey, dogfish, zebrafish and mouse, we propose that elongation via posterior volumetric growth is linked to increased energy supply and is associated with an overall increase in volumetric growth and elongation. PMID:26989170

  14. Role of lipids on elongation of the preimplantation conceptus in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Eduardo S; Santos, José E P; Thatcher, William W

    2016-10-01

    Elongation of the preimplantation conceptus is a prerequisite for successful pregnancy in ruminants and depends on histotroph secretion by the endometrium. Lipids are an essential component of the histotroph, and recent studies indicate that lipids have important roles in the elongation phase of conceptus development. The onset of elongation is marked by dynamic changes in the transcriptome of trophectoderm cells, which are associated with lipid metabolism. During elongation, the trophectoderm increases transcript expression of genes related to uptake, metabolism and de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids and prostaglandins. Expression of the gene PPARG increases substantially, and activation of the transcription factor PPARG by binding of lipid ligands appears to be crucial for the coordination of cell biology during elongation. Lipids accumulated in the epithelial cells of the endometrium during diestrus are likely the most important source of fatty acids for utilization by the conceptus and become available in the uterine lumen through exporting of exosomes, microvesicles, carrier proteins and lipoproteins. Targeting of uterine lipid metabolism and PPARG activity during preimplantation conceptus development through nutraceutical diets may be a good strategy to improve pregnancy survival and reproductive efficiency in ruminants. PMID:27335133

  15. Fossil evidence and stages of elongation of the Giraffa camelopardalis neck

    PubMed Central

    Danowitz, Melinda; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Kortlandt, Victoria; Solounias, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    Several evolutionary theories have been proposed to explain the adaptation of the long giraffe neck; however, few studies examine the fossil cervical vertebrae. We incorporate extinct giraffids, and the okapi and giraffe cervical vertebral specimens in a comprehensive analysis of the anatomy and elongation of the neck. We establish and evaluate 20 character states that relate to general, cranial and caudal vertebral lengthening, and calculate a length-to-width ratio to measure the relative slenderness of the vertebrae. Our sample includes cervical vertebrae (n=71) of 11 taxa representing all seven subfamilies. We also perform a computational comparison of the C3 of Samotherium and Giraffa camelopardalis, which demonstrates that cervical elongation occurs disproportionately along the cranial–caudal vertebral axis. Using the morphological characters and calculated ratios, we propose stages in cervical lengthening, which are supported by the mathematical transformations using fossil and extant specimens. We find that cervical elongation is anisometric and unexpectedly precedes Giraffidae. Within the family, cranial vertebral elongation is the first lengthening stage observed followed by caudal vertebral elongation, which accounts for the extremely long neck of the giraffe. PMID:26587249

  16. Ptch1 is required locally for mammary gland morphogenesis and systemically for ductal elongation.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Ricardo C; Chang, Hong; Harrington, Nikesha; Landua, John D; Prigge, Jonathan T; Lane, Timothy F; Wainwright, Brandon J; Hamel, Paul A; Lewis, Michael T

    2009-05-01

    Systemic hormones and local growth factor-mediated tissue interactions are essential for mammary gland development. Using phenotypic and transplantation analyses of mice carrying the mesenchymal dysplasia (mes) allele of patched 1 (Ptch1(mes)), we found that Ptch1(mes) homozygosity led to either complete failure of gland development, failure of post-pubertal ductal elongation, or delayed growth with ductal dysplasia. All ductal phenotypes could be present in the same animal. Whole gland and epithelial fragment transplantation each yielded unique morphological defects indicating both epithelial and stromal functions for Ptch1. However, ductal elongation was rescued in all cases, suggesting an additional systemic function. Epithelial function was confirmed using a conditional null Ptch1 allele via MMTV-Cre-mediated disruption. In Ptch1(mes) homozygotes, failure of ductal elongation correlated with diminished estrogen and progesterone receptor expression, but could not be rescued by exogenous ovarian hormone treatment. By contrast, pituitary isografts were able to rescue the ductal elongation phenotype. Thus, Ptch1 functions in the mammary epithelium and stroma to regulate ductal morphogenesis, and in the pituitary to regulate ductal elongation and ovarian hormone responsiveness. PMID:19297414

  17. Ptch1 is required locally for mammary gland morphogenesis and systemically for ductal elongation

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Ricardo C.; Chang, Hong; Harrington, Nikesha; Landua, John D.; Prigge, Jonathan T.; Lane, Timothy F.; Wainwright, Brandon J.; Hamel, Paul A.; Lewis, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Systemic hormones and local growth factor-mediated tissue interactions are essential for mammary gland development. Using phenotypic and transplantation analyses of mice carrying the mesenchymal dysplasia (mes) allele of patched 1 (Ptch1mes), we found that Ptch1mes homozygosity led to either complete failure of gland development, failure of post-pubertal ductal elongation, or delayed growth with ductal dysplasia. All ductal phenotypes could be present in the same animal. Whole gland and epithelial fragment transplantation each yielded unique morphological defects indicating both epithelial and stromal functions for Ptch1. However, ductal elongation was rescued in all cases, suggesting an additional systemic function. Epithelial function was confirmed using a conditional null Ptch1 allele via MMTV-Cre-mediated disruption. In Ptch1mes homozygotes, failure of ductal elongation correlated with diminished estrogen and progesterone receptor expression, but could not be rescued by exogenous ovarian hormone treatment. By contrast, pituitary isografts were able to rescue the ductal elongation phenotype. Thus, Ptch1 functions in the mammary epithelium and stroma to regulate ductal morphogenesis, and in the pituitary to regulate ductal elongation and ovarian hormone responsiveness. PMID:19297414

  18. Brevis plant1, a putative inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, is required for internode elongation in maize.

    PubMed

    Avila, Luis M; Cerrudo, Diego; Swanton, Clarence; Lukens, Lewis

    2016-03-01

    In maize (Zea mays L.), as in other grass species, stem elongation occurs during growth and most noticeably upon the transition to flowering. Genes that reduce stem elongation have been important to reduce stem breakage, or lodging. Stem elongation has been mediated by dwarf and brachytic/brevis plant mutants that affect giberellic acid and auxin pathways, respectively. Maize brevis plant1 (bv1) mutants, first identified over 80 years ago, strongly resemble brachytic2 mutants that have shortened internodes, short internode cells, and are deficient in auxin transport. Here, we characterized two novel bv1 maize mutants. We found that an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase orthologue of the rice gene dwarf50 was the molecular basis for the bv1 phenotype, implicating auxin-mediated inositol polyphosphate and/or phosphoinositide signalling in stem elongation. We suggest that auxin-mediated internode elongation involves processes that also contribute to stem gravitropism. Genes misregulated in bv1 mutants included genes important for cell wall synthesis, transmembrane transport, and cytoskeletal function. Mutant and wild-type plants were indistinguishable early in development, responded similarly to changes in light quality, had unaltered flowering times, and had normal flower development. These attributes suggest that breeding could utilize bv1 alleles to increase crop grain yields. PMID:26767748

  19. Divergence of a conserved elongation factor and transcription regulation in budding and fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Booth, Gregory T; Wang, Isabel X; Cheung, Vivian G; Lis, John T

    2016-06-01

    Complex regulation of gene expression in mammals has evolved from simpler eukaryotic systems, yet the mechanistic features of this evolution remain elusive. Here, we compared the transcriptional landscapes of the distantly related budding and fission yeast. We adapted the Precision Run-On sequencing (PRO-seq) approach to map the positions of RNA polymerase active sites genome-wide in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Additionally, we mapped preferred sites of transcription initiation in each organism using PRO-cap. Unexpectedly, we identify a pause in early elongation, specific to S. pombe, that requires the conserved elongation factor subunit Spt4 and resembles promoter-proximal pausing in metazoans. PRO-seq profiles in strains lacking Spt4 reveal globally elevated levels of transcribing RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) within genes in both species. Messenger RNA abundance, however, does not reflect the increases in Pol II density, indicating a global reduction in elongation rate. Together, our results provide the first base-pair resolution map of transcription elongation in S. pombe and identify divergent roles for Spt4 in controlling elongation in budding and fission yeast. PMID:27197211

  20. Biosynthesis and Elongation of Short- and Medium-Chain-Length Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    van der Hoeven, Rutger S.; Steffens, John C.

    2000-01-01

    Short- and medium-chain-length fatty acids (FAs) are important constituents of a wide array of natural products. Branched and straight short-chain-length FAs originate from branched chain amino acid metabolism, and serve as primers for elongation in FA synthase-like reactions. However, a recent model proposes that the one-carbon extension reactions that utilize 2-oxo-3-methylbutyric acid in leucine biosynthesis also catalyze a repetitive one-carbon elongation of short-chain primers to medium-chain-length FAs. The existence of such a mechanism would require a novel form of regulation to control carbon flux between amino acid and FA biosynthesis. A critical re-analysis of the data used to support this pathway fails to support the hypothesis for FA elongation by one-carbon extension cycles of α-ketoacids. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis experimentally using criteria that distinguish between one- and two-carbon elongation mechanisms: (a) isotopomer patterns in terminal carbon atom pairs of branched and straight FAs resulting from differential labeling with [13C]acetate; (b) [13C]threonine labeling patterns in odd- and even chain length FAs; and (c) differential sensitivity of elongation reactions to inhibition by cerulenin. All three criteria indicated that biosynthesis of medium-chain length FAs is mediated primarily by FA synthase-like reactions. PMID:10631271

  1. Fine-Tuning of FACT by the Ubiquitin Proteasome System in Regulation of Transcriptional Elongation.

    PubMed

    Sen, Rwik; Ferdoush, Jannatul; Kaja, Amala; Bhaumik, Sukesh R

    2016-06-01

    FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription), an evolutionarily conserved histone chaperone involved in transcription and other DNA transactions, is upregulated in cancers, and its downregulation is associated with cellular death. However, it is not clearly understood how FACT is fine-tuned for normal cellular functions. Here, we show that the FACT subunit Spt16 is ubiquitylated by San1 (an E3 ubiquitin ligase) and degraded by the 26S proteasome. Enhanced abundance of Spt16 in the absence of San1 impairs transcriptional elongation. Likewise, decreased abundance of Spt16 also reduces transcription. Thus, an optimal level of Spt16 is required for efficient transcriptional elongation, which is maintained by San1 via ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. Consistently, San1 associates with the coding sequences of active genes to regulate Spt16's abundance. Further, we found that enhanced abundance of Spt16 in the absence of San1 impairs chromatin reassembly at the coding sequence, similarly to the results seen following inactivation of Spt16. Efficient chromatin reassembly enhances the fidelity of transcriptional elongation. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time a fine-tuning of FACT by a ubiquitin proteasome system in promoting chromatin reassembly in the wake of elongating RNA polymerase II and transcriptional elongation, thus revealing novel regulatory mechanisms of gene expression. PMID:27044865

  2. Brevis plant1, a putative inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, is required for internode elongation in maize

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Luis M.; Cerrudo, Diego; Swanton, Clarence

    2016-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays L.), as in other grass species, stem elongation occurs during growth and most noticeably upon the transition to flowering. Genes that reduce stem elongation have been important to reduce stem breakage, or lodging. Stem elongation has been mediated by dwarf and brachytic/brevis plant mutants that affect giberellic acid and auxin pathways, respectively. Maize brevis plant1 (bv1) mutants, first identified over 80 years ago, strongly resemble brachytic2 mutants that have shortened internodes, short internode cells, and are deficient in auxin transport. Here, we characterized two novel bv1 maize mutants. We found that an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase orthologue of the rice gene dwarf50 was the molecular basis for the bv1 phenotype, implicating auxin-mediated inositol polyphosphate and/or phosphoinositide signalling in stem elongation. We suggest that auxin-mediated internode elongation involves processes that also contribute to stem gravitropism. Genes misregulated in bv1 mutants included genes important for cell wall synthesis, transmembrane transport, and cytoskeletal function. Mutant and wild-type plants were indistinguishable early in development, responded similarly to changes in light quality, had unaltered flowering times, and had normal flower development. These attributes suggest that breeding could utilize bv1 alleles to increase crop grain yields. PMID:26767748

  3. An attempt to estimate out-of-plane lung nodule elongation in tomosynthesis images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodorowski, Artur; Arvidsson, Jonathan; Söderman, Christina; Svalkvist, Angelica; Johnsson, Šse A.; Bâth, Magnus

    2015-03-01

    In chest tomosynthesis (TS) the most commonly used reconstruction methods are based on Filtered Back Projection (FBP) algorithms. Due to the limited angular range of x-ray projections, FBP reconstructed data is typically associated with a low spatial resolution in the out-of-plane dimension. Lung nodule measures that depend on depth information such as 3D shape and volume are therefore difficult to estimate. In this paper the relation between features from FBP reconstructed lung nodules and the true out-of-plane nodule elongation is investigated and a method for estimating the out-of-plane nodule elongation is proposed. In order to study these relations a number of steps that include simulation of spheroidal-shaped nodules, insertion into synthetic data volumes, construction of TS-projections and FBP-reconstruction were performed. In addition, the same procedure was used to simulate nodules and insert them into clinical chest TS projection data. The reconstructed nodule data was then investigated with respect to in-plane diameter, out-of-plane elongation, and attenuation coefficient. It was found that the voxel value in each nodule increased linearly with nodule elongation, for nodules with a constant attenuation coefficient. Similarly, the voxel value increased linearly with in-plane diameter. These observations indicate the possibility to predict the nodule elongation from the reconstructed voxel intensity values. Such a method would represent a quantitative approach to chest tomosynthesis that may be useful in future work on volume and growth rate estimation of lung nodules.

  4. Wall Analyses of Lophocolea Seta Cells (Bryophyta) Before and After Elongation 1

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Robert J.

    1977-01-01

    Lophocolea heterophylla (Schrad.) Dum. (a leafy liverwort) produces sporophytes with seta cells that elongate 50-fold in 3 to 4 days. Wall components of these cells have been characterized by microscopic histochemistry, colorimetry, and gas chromatography of neutral sugars. Seta cell walls are qualitatively similar to primary cell walls of higher plants. The pectic fraction, however, responds differently to standard histochemical staining and extraction. Quantitatively, mannose, fucose, and rhamnose are in higher percentage, and arabinose and xylose are lower than typically found in vascular plants. Hexuronic acids increase on a percentage basis during elongation; pentoses decrease slightly, while hexose levels remain about the same. Increase in total wall carbohydrate after 2,400% elongation of setae was 1.8-fold. Images PMID:16659846

  5. Ardnamurchan 3D cone-sheet architecture explained by a single elongate magma chamber.

    PubMed

    Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R; Mathieu, Lucie; Emeleus, Henry C; Donaldson, Colin H

    2013-01-01

    The Palaeogene Ardnamurchan central igneous complex, NW Scotland, was a defining place for the development of the classic concepts of cone-sheet and ring-dyke emplacement and has thus fundamentally influenced our thinking on subvolcanic structures. We have used the available structural information on Ardnamurchan to project the underlying three-dimensional (3D) cone-sheet structure. Here we show that a single elongate magma chamber likely acted as the source of the cone-sheet swarm(s) instead of the traditionally accepted model of three successive centres. This proposal is supported by the ridge-like morphology of the Ardnamurchan volcano and is consistent with the depth and elongation of the gravity anomaly underlying the peninsula. Our model challenges the traditional model of cone-sheet emplacement at Ardnamurchan that involves successive but independent centres in favour of a more dynamical one that involves a single, but elongate and progressively evolving magma chamber system. PMID:24100542

  6. Elongator Protein 3 (Elp3) stabilizes Snail1 and regulates neural crest migration in Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiangcai; Li, Jiejing; Zeng, Wanli; Li, Chaocui; Mao, Bingyu

    2016-01-01

    Elongator protein 3 (Elp3) is the enzymatic unit of the elongator protein complex, a histone acetyltransferase complex involved in transcriptional elongation. It has long been shown to play an important role in cell migration; however, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, we showed that Elp3 is expressed in pre-migratory and migrating neural crest cells in Xenopus embryos, and knockdown of Elp3 inhibited neural crest cell migration. Interestingly, Elp3 binds Snail1 through its zinc-finger domain and inhibits its ubiquitination by β-Trcp without interfering with the Snail1/Trcp interaction. We showed evidence that Elp3-mediated stabilization of Snail1 was likely involved in the activation of N-cadherin in neural crest cells to regulate their migratory ability. Our findings provide a new mechanism for the function of Elp3 in cell migration through stabilizing Snail1, a master regulator of cell motility. PMID:27189455

  7. Ardnamurchan 3D cone-sheet architecture explained by a single elongate magma chamber

    PubMed Central

    Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R.; Mathieu, Lucie; Emeleus, Henry C.; Donaldson, Colin H.

    2013-01-01

    The Palaeogene Ardnamurchan central igneous complex, NW Scotland, was a defining place for the development of the classic concepts of cone-sheet and ring-dyke emplacement and has thus fundamentally influenced our thinking on subvolcanic structures. We have used the available structural information on Ardnamurchan to project the underlying three-dimensional (3D) cone-sheet structure. Here we show that a single elongate magma chamber likely acted as the source of the cone-sheet swarm(s) instead of the traditionally accepted model of three successive centres. This proposal is supported by the ridge-like morphology of the Ardnamurchan volcano and is consistent with the depth and elongation of the gravity anomaly underlying the peninsula. Our model challenges the traditional model of cone-sheet emplacement at Ardnamurchan that involves successive but independent centres in favour of a more dynamical one that involves a single, but elongate and progressively evolving magma chamber system. PMID:24100542

  8. A putative transcriptional elongation factor hIws1 is essential for mammalian cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zhangguo; Zhou Zhongwei; Chen Guohong; Bao Shilai . E-mail: slbao@genetics.ac.cn

    2007-02-02

    Iws1 has been implicated in transcriptional elongation by interaction with RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and elongation factor Spt6 in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and association with transcription factor TFIIS in mammalian cells, but its role in controlling cell growth and proliferation remains unknown. Here we report that the human homolog of Iws1, hIws1, physically interacts with protein arginine methyltransferases PRMT5 which methylates elongation factor Spt5 and regulates its interaction with RNA polymerase II. Gene-specific silencing of hIws1 by RNA interference reveals that hIws1 is essential for cell viability. GFP fusion protein expression approaches demonstrate that the hIws1 protein is located in the nucleus, subsequently, two regions harbored within the hIws1 protein are demonstrated to contain nuclear localization signals (NLSs). In addition, mouse homolog of hiws1 is found to express ubiquitously in various tissues.

  9. The blue light receptor Phototropin 1 suppresses lateral root growth by controlling cell elongation.

    PubMed

    Moni, A; Lee, A-Y; Briggs, W R; Han, I-S

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between the blue light receptor phototropin 1 (phot1) and lateral root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy images, as well as PHOT1 mRNA expression studies provide evidence that it is highly expressed in the elongation zone of lateral roots where auxin is accumulating. However, treatment with the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid significantly reduced PHOT1 expression in this zone. In addition, PHOT1 expression was higher in darkness than in light. The total number of lateral roots was higher in the phot1 mutant than in wild-type Arabidopsis. Cells in the elongation zone of lateral roots of the phot1 mutant were longer than those of wild-type lateral roots. These findings suggest that PHOT1 plays a role(s) in elongation of lateral roots through the control of an auxin-related signalling pathway. PMID:24803136

  10. Enhancing the linear flow of fine granules through the addition of elongated particles

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiguo; Chen, Xueli; Xu, Yang; Liu, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    Sandglasses have been used to record time for thousands of years because of their constant flow rates; however, they now are drawing attention for their substantial scientific importance and extensive industrial applications. The presence of elongated particles in a binary granular system is believed to result in undesired flow because their shape implies a larger resistance to flow. However, our experiments demonstrate that the addition of elongated particles can substantially reduce the flow fluctuation of fine granules and produce a stable linear flow similar to that in an hourglass. On the basis of experimental data and previous reports of flow dynamics, we observed that the linear flow is driven by the “needle particle effect,” including flow orientation, reduced agglomeration, and local perturbation. This phenomenon is observed in several binary granular systems, including fine granules and secondary elongated particles, which demonstrates that our simple method can be widely applied to the accurate measurement of granular flows in industry. PMID:26551736

  11. Cell elongation is an adaptive response for clearing long chromatid arms from the cleavage plane

    PubMed Central

    Kotadia, Shaila; Montembault, Emilie; Sullivan, William

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell cleavage to ensure correct transmission of the genome to daughter cells. Here we identify a novel mechanism by which Drosophila melanogaster neuronal stem cells coordinate sister chromatid segregation with cleavage furrow ingression. Cells adapted to a dramatic increase in chromatid arm length by transiently elongating during anaphase/telophase. The degree of cell elongation correlated with the length of the trailing chromatid arms and was concomitant with a slight increase in spindle length and an enlargement of the zone of cortical myosin distribution. Rho guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (Pebble)–depleted cells failed to elongate during segregation of long chromatids. As a result, Pebble-depleted adult flies exhibited morphological defects likely caused by cell death during development. These studies reveal a novel pathway linking trailing chromatid arms and cortical myosin that ensures the clearance of chromatids from the cleavage plane at the appropriate time during cytokinesis, thus preserving genome integrity. PMID:23185030

  12. Measuring the Elongational Properties of Polymer Melts—a Simple Task?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaschta, Joachim; Münstedt, Helmut

    2008-07-01

    Elongational flow measurements were performed on a number of samples under similar conditions using two different elongational rheometers, a Münstedt type oil bath rheometer (MTR) and the elongational viscosity fixture (EVF) of TA Instruments in an ARES rheometer. Deviations of several degrees from the set temperature are found in the case of the EVF/ARES and had to be corrected before comparing results. Inhomogeneous deformation, e.g. due to sagging, leads to an artificial strain-hardening of the EVF. For strain-hardening and/or high viscous materials a good agreement between measurements from both rheometers is found. The strain hardening measured in the EVF/ARES starts at smaller strains compared the MTR. This effect is more pronounced for weakly strain-hardening materials. The possibility of creep and creep-recovery experiments performed by the MTR demonstrates its wide application range.

  13. Regulation of RNA polymerase II-mediated transcriptional elongation: Implications in human disease.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nimisha

    2016-09-01

    Expression of protein-coding genes is primarily regulated at the level of transcription. Most of the earlier studies focussed on understanding the assembly of the pre-initiation complex at the promoter of genes and subsequent initiation of transcription as the regulatory steps in transcription. However, research over the last decade has demonstrated the significance of regulating transcription of genes at the elongation stage. Several new proteins have been identified that control this step and our knowledge about their functions is expanding rapidly. Moreover, an increasing body of evidence suggests that a dysfunction of these transcription elongation factors is related to several diseases. Here, we review the latest advances in our understanding about the in vivo roles of the transcription elongation factors and their link with diseases. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(9):709-716, 2016. PMID:27473825

  14. Nannocystin A: an Elongation Factor 1 Inhibitor from Myxobacteria with Differential Anti-Cancer Properties.

    PubMed

    Krastel, Philipp; Roggo, Silvio; Schirle, Markus; Ross, Nathan T; Perruccio, Francesca; Aspesi, Peter; Aust, Thomas; Buntin, Kathrin; Estoppey, David; Liechty, Brigitta; Mapa, Felipa; Memmert, Klaus; Miller, Howard; Pan, Xuewen; Riedl, Ralph; Thibaut, Christian; Thomas, Jason; Wagner, Trixie; Weber, Eric; Xie, Xiaobing; Schmitt, Esther K; Hoepfner, Dominic

    2015-08-24

    Cultivation of myxobacteria of the Nannocystis genus led to the isolation and structure elucidation of a class of novel cyclic lactone inhibitors of elongation factor 1. Whole genome sequence analysis and annotation enabled identification of the putative biosynthetic cluster and synthesis process. In biological assays the compounds displayed anti-fungal and cytotoxic activity. Combined genetic and proteomic approaches identified the eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) as the primary target for this compound class. Nannocystin A (1) displayed differential activity across various cancer cell lines and EEF1A1 expression levels appear to be the main differentiating factor. Biochemical and genetic evidence support an overlapping binding site of 1 with the anti-cancer compound didemnin B on EF-1α. This myxobacterial chemotype thus offers an interesting starting point for further investigations of the potential of therapeutics targeting elongation factor 1. PMID:26179970

  15. Shape elongation of Zn nanoparticles in silica irradiated with swift heavy ions of different species and energies: scaling law and some insights on the elongation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Amekura, H; Mohapatra, S; Singh, U B; Khan, S A; Kulriya, P K; Ishikawa, N; Okubo, N; Avasthi, D K

    2014-10-31

    Zinc nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in silica were irradiated with swift heavy ions (SHIs) of seven different combinations of species and energies. The shape elongation induced by the irradiations was evaluated by optical linear dichroism (OLD) spectroscopy, which is a sensitive tool for determining the change in the mean aspect ratio (AR) of NPs. Although the mean AR change indicated a linear fluence dependence in the low- and medium-fluence regions, it indicated a nonlinear dependence in the high-fluence region. The data reveal that the elongation efficiency of Zn is correlated with the electronic stopping power 'Se in silica' and is not correlated with either the 'Se in Zn' or the nuclear stopping power. The elongation efficiency plotted as a function of the 'Se in silica' revealed a linear relationship, with a threshold value of ∼2 keV nm(-1), which is the same dependence exhibited by the ion-track formation in silica. The log-log plot showed that the elongation efficiency increased linearly with Se above a critical value of ∼3 keV nm(-1) and steeply decreased with Se to the power of 5 below the critical Se. The steep decrease can be ascribed to the discontinuous nature of the ion tracks, which is expected at Se ∼ 2-4 keV nm(-1) in silica. The fluence Φ dependences of AR - 1 under various irradiations are well-normalized with the electronic energy deposition of SHIs, i.e., the product of Se and Φ, with a Se greater than the same critical value of ∼3 keV nm(-1). The normalized data above the critical value fell on a linear relation, AR(Φ) - 1 ∝ SeΦ, for SeΦ < 2 keV nm(-3) and a sublinear relation, AR(Φ) - 1 ∝ (SeΦ)(1/2) for SeΦ > 2 keV nm(-3). On the basis of these experimental results, we discuss some insights into the elongation mechanism. PMID:25288109

  16. Shape elongation of Zn nanoparticles in silica irradiated with swift heavy ions of different species and energies: scaling law and some insights on the elongation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amekura, H.; Mohapatra, S.; Singh, U. B.; Khan, S. A.; Kulriya, P. K.; Ishikawa, N.; Okubo, N.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2014-10-01

    Zinc nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in silica were irradiated with swift heavy ions (SHIs) of seven different combinations of species and energies. The shape elongation induced by the irradiations was evaluated by optical linear dichroism (OLD) spectroscopy, which is a sensitive tool for determining the change in the mean aspect ratio (AR) of NPs. Although the mean AR change indicated a linear fluence dependence in the low- and medium-fluence regions, it indicated a nonlinear dependence in the high-fluence region. The data reveal that the elongation efficiency of Zn is correlated with the electronic stopping power ‘Se in silica’ and is not correlated with either the ‘Se in Zn’ or the nuclear stopping power. The elongation efficiency plotted as a function of the ‘Se in silica’ revealed a linear relationship, with a threshold value of ˜2 keV nm-1, which is the same dependence exhibited by the ion-track formation in silica. The log-log plot showed that the elongation efficiency increased linearly with Se above a critical value of ˜3 keV nm-1 and steeply decreased with Se to the power of 5 below the critical Se. The steep decrease can be ascribed to the discontinuous nature of the ion tracks, which is expected at Se ˜ 2-4 keV nm-1 in silica. The fluence Φ dependences of AR - 1 under various irradiations are well-normalized with the electronic energy deposition of SHIs, i.e., the product of Se and Φ, with a Se greater than the same critical value of ˜3 keV nm-1. The normalized data above the critical value fell on a linear relation, AR(Φ) - 1 ∝ SeΦ, for SeΦ < 2 keV nm-3 and a sublinear relation, AR(Φ) - 1 ∝ (SeΦ)1/2 for SeΦ > 2 keV nm-3. On the basis of these experimental results, we discuss some insights into the elongation mechanism.

  17. Wnt5a and Wnt11 regulate mammalian anterior-posterior axis elongation

    PubMed Central

    Andre, Philipp; Song, Hai; Kim, Wantae; Kispert, Andreas; Yang, Yingzi

    2015-01-01

    Mesoderm formation and subsequent anterior-posterior (A-P) axis elongation are fundamental aspects of gastrulation, which is initiated by formation of the primitive streak (PS). Convergent extension (CE) movements and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are important for A-P axis elongation in vertebrate embryos. The evolutionarily conserved planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway regulates CE, and Wnts regulate many aspects of gastrulation including CE and EMT. However, the Wnt ligands that regulate A-P axis elongation in mammalian development remain unknown. Wnt11 and Wnt5a regulate axis elongation in lower vertebrates, but only Wnt5a, not Wnt11, regulates mammalian PCP signaling and A-P axis elongation in development. Here, by generating Wnt5a; Wnt11 compound mutants, we show that Wnt11 and Wnt5a play redundant roles during mouse A-P axis elongation. Both genes regulate trunk notochord extension through PCP-controlled CE of notochord cells, establishing a role for Wnt11 in mammalian PCP. We show that Wnt5a and Wnt11 are required for proper patterning of the neural tube and somites by regulating notochord formation, and provide evidence that both genes are required for the generation and migration of axial and paraxial mesodermal precursor cells by regulating EMT. Axial and paraxial mesodermal precursors ectopically accumulate in the PS at late gastrula stages in Wnt5a−/−; Wnt11−/− embryos and these cells ectopically express epithelial cell adhesion molecules. Our data suggest that Wnt5a and Wnt11 regulate EMT by inducing p38 (Mapk14) phosphorylation. Our findings provide new insights into the role of Wnt5a and Wnt11 in mouse early development and also in cancer metastasis, during which EMT plays a crucial role. PMID:25813538

  18. Preliminary Results of the Effect of Spinal Elongation in Microgravity on Seated Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Young, Karen; Mesloh, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    The Constellation Program is designing a new vehicle for future space travel to the International Space Station and to the Moon and beyond. One major accommodation and design issue that needs to be addressed with the current seat layout design is spinal elongation. Spinal elongation is the spinal growth that occurs due to straightening of the spinal curve and expansion of the inter-verbal discs in microgravity. Spinal elongation is critical to the design of the seats, seat layout, suit fit, and crew accommodation because of the implications it can have on the a safe return of the crewmembers or during the mission. Inadequate clearance between crewmembers and/or between crewmember hardware interfaces may potentially result in injury during the mission or upon returning to earth. Therefore, design requirements need to be determined that will allow for the elongation of the spine. The current requirement as specified in the Human Systems Integration Requirement (HSIR) document states that a 3% increase in standing height must be accommodated. However, it cannot be assumed that the amount of standing height growth is equivalent to the amount of spinal elongation because of the variation in body proportions between the lower body and torso. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the amount of spinal elongation for a seated posture for 6 Shuttle and 7 ISS missions. Crewmembers seated heights were collected before, during, and after spaceflight to determine the change in seated height and the amount of spinal growth that occurs due to microgravity. The changes in seated height will provide the designers with a design requirement that will allow for change in spinal growth for a seated posture. Preliminary results have shown that increase in seated height is greater than the 3% increase currently stated in the requirement.

  19. DNA Double Strand Break Response and Limited Repair Capacity in Mouse Elongated Spermatids

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Emad A.; Scherthan, Harry; de Rooij, Dirk G.

    2015-01-01

    Spermatids are extremely sensitive to genotoxic exposures since during spermiogenesis only error-prone non homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathways are available. Hence, genomic damage may accumulate in sperm and be transmitted to the zygote. Indirect, delayed DNA fragmentation and lesions associated with apoptotic-like processes have been observed during spermatid elongation, 27 days after irradiation. The proliferating spermatogonia and early meiotic prophase cells have been suggested to retain a memory of a radiation insult leading later to this delayed fragmentation. Here, we used meiotic spread preparations to localize phosphorylate histone H2 variant (γ-H2AX) foci marking DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in elongated spermatids. This technique enabled us to determine the background level of DSB foci in elongated spermatids of RAD54/RAD54B double knockout (dko) mice, severe combined immunodeficiency SCID mice, and poly adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor (DPQ)-treated mice to compare them with the appropriate wild type controls. The repair kinetics data and the protein expression patterns observed indicate that the conventional NHEJ repair pathway is not available for elongated spermatids to repair the programmed and the IR-induced DSBs, reflecting the limited repair capacity of these cells. However, although elongated spermatids express the proteins of the alternative NHEJ, PARP1-inhibition had no effect on the repair kinetics after IR, suggesting that DNA damage may be passed onto sperm. Finally, our genetic mutant analysis suggests that an incomplete or defective meiotic recombinational repair of Spo11-induced DSBs may lead to a carry-over of the DSB damage or induce a delayed nuclear fragmentation during the sensitive programmed chromatin remodeling occurring in elongated spermatids. PMID:26694360

  20. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Transcription Elongation Mutants Are Defective in PUR5 Induction in Response to Nucleotide Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Randal J.; Reines, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides. It is a target of therapeutically useful drugs and is implicated in the regulation of cell growth rate. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mutations in components of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription elongation machinery confer increased sensitivity to a drug that inhibits IMPDH, 6-azauracil (6AU), by a mechanism that is poorly understood. This phenotype is thought to reflect the need for an optimally functioning transcription machinery under conditions of lowered intracellular GTP levels. Here we show that in response to the application of IMPDH inhibitors such as 6AU, wild-type yeast strains induce transcription of PUR5, one of four genes encoding IMPDH-related enzymes. Yeast elongation mutants sensitive to 6AU, such as those with a disrupted gene encoding elongation factor SII or those containing amino acid substitutions in Pol II subunits, are defective in PUR5 induction. The inability to fully induce PUR5 correlates with mutations that effect transcription elongation since 6AU-sensitive strains deleted for genes not related to transcription elongation are competent to induce PUR5. DNA encompassing the PUR5 promoter and 5′ untranslated region supports 6AU induction of a luciferase reporter gene in wild-type cells. Thus, yeast sense and respond to nucleotide depletion via a mechanism of transcriptional induction that restores nucleotides to levels required for normal growth. An optimally functioning elongation machinery is critical for this response. PMID:11003640

  1. Genetic evidence supports a role for the yeast CCR4-NOT complex in transcriptional elongation.

    PubMed Central

    Denis, C L; Chiang, Y C; Cui, Y; Chen, J

    2001-01-01

    The CCR4-NOT complex is involved in the regulation of gene expression both positively and negatively. The repressive effects of the complex appear to result in part from restricting TBP access to noncanonical TATAA binding sites presumably through interaction with multiple TAF proteins. We provide here genetic evidence that the CCR4-NOT complex also plays a role in transcriptional elongation. First, defects in CCR4-NOT components as well as overexpression of the NOT4 gene elicited 6-azauracil (6AU) and mycophenolic acid sensitivities, hallmarks of transcriptional elongation defects. A number of other transcription initiation factors known to interact with the CCR4-NOT complex did not elicit these phenotypes nor did defects in factors that reduced mRNA degradation and hence the recycling of NTPs. Second, deletion of ccr4 resulted in severe synthetic effects with mutations or deletions in the known elongation factors RPB2, TFIIS, and SPT16. Third, the ccr4 deletion displayed allele-specific interactions with rpb1 alleles that are thought to be important in the control of elongation. Finally, we found that a ccr4 deletion as well as overexpression of the NOT1 gene specifically suppressed the cold-sensitive phenotype associated with the spt5-242 allele. The only other known suppressors of this spt5-242 allele are factors involved in slowing transcriptional elongation. These genetic results are consistent with the model that the CCR4-NOT complex, in addition to its known effects on initiation, plays a role in aiding the elongation process. PMID:11404327

  2. Europium Uptake and Partitioning in Oat (Avena sativa) Roots as studied By Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Confocal Microscopy Profiling Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J.; Wang, Zheming; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2003-11-15

    The uptake of Eu3+ by elongating oat plant roots was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime measurement, as well as laser excitation time-resolved confocal fluorescence profiling technique. The results of this work indicated that the initial uptake of Eu(III) by oat root was most evident within the apical meristem of the root just proximal to the root cap. Distribution of assimilated Eu(III) within the roots differentiation and elongation zone was non-uniform. Higher concentrations were observed within the vascular cylinder, specifically in the phloem and developing xylem parenchyma. Elevated levels of the metal were also observed in the root hairs of the mature root. The concentration of assimilated Eu3+ dropped sharply from the apical meristem to the differentiation and elongation zone and then gradually decreased as the distance from the root cap increased. Fluorescence spectroscopic characteristics of the assimilated Eu3+ suggested that the Eu3+ exists a s inner-sphere mononuclear complexes inside the root. This work has also demonstrated the effectiveness of a time-resolved Eu3+ fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence profiling techniques for the in vivo, real-time study of metal[Eu3+] accumulation by a functioning intact plant root. This approach can prove valuable for basic and applied studies in plant nutrition and environmental uptake of actinide radionuclides.

  3. Stereotypical reaching movements of the octopus involve both bend propagation and arm elongation.

    PubMed

    Hanassy, S; Botvinnik, A; Flash, T; Hochner, B

    2015-06-01

    The bend propagation involved in the stereotypical reaching movement of the octopus arm has been extensively studied. While these studies have analyzed the kinematics of bend propagation along the arm during its extension, possible length changes have been ignored. Here, the elongation profiles of the reaching movements of Octopus vulgaris were assessed using three-dimensional reconstructions. The analysis revealed that, in addition to bend propagation, arm extension movements involve elongation of the proximal part of the arm, i.e., the section from the base of the arm to the propagating bend. The elongations are quite substantial and highly variable, ranging from an average strain along the arm of -0.12 (i.e. shortening) up to 1.8 at the end of the movement (0.57 ± 0.41, n = 64 movements, four animals). Less variability was discovered in an additional set of experiments on reaching movements (0.64 ± 0.28, n = 30 movements, two animals), where target and octopus positions were kept more stationary. Visual observation and subsequent kinematic analysis suggest that the reaching movements can be broadly segregated into two groups. The first group involves bend propagation beginning at the base of the arm and propagating towards the arm tip. In the second, the bend is formed or present more distally and reaching is achieved mainly by elongation and straightening of the segment proximal to the bend. Only in the second type of movements is elongation significantly positively correlated with the distance of the bend from the target. We suggest that reaching towards a target is generated by a combination of both propagation of a bend along the arm and arm elongation. These two motor primitives may be combined to create a broad spectrum of reaching movements. The dynamical model, which recapitulates the biomechanics of the octopus muscular hydrostatic arm, suggests that achieving the observed elongation requires an extremely low ratio of longitudinal to transverse muscle

  4. Suppression and acceleration of cell elongation by integration of xyloglucans in pea stem segments

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Takumi; Furuta, Yuzo; Awano, Tatsuya; Mizuno, Koichi; Mitsuishi, Yasushi; Hayashi, Takahisa

    2002-01-01

    Xyloglucan is a key polymer in the walls of growing plant cells. Using split pea stem segments and stem segments from which the epidermis had been peeled off, we demonstrate that the integration of xyloglucan mediated by the action of wall-bound xyloglucan endotransglycosylase suppressed cell elongation, whereas that of its fragment oligosaccharide accelerated it. Whole xyloglucan was incorporated into the cell wall and induced the rearrangement of cortical microtubules from transverse to longitudinal; in contrast, the oligosaccharide solubilized xyloglucan from the cell wall and maintained the microtubules in a transverse orientation. This paper proposes that xyloglucan metabolism controls the elongation of plant cells. PMID:12084943

  5. Positive grid corrosion elongation analysis using CAE with corrosion deformation transformed into thermal phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukaitani, Ichiroh; Hayashi, Koji; Shimoura, Ichiro; Takemasa, Arihiko; Takahashi, Isamu; Tsubakino, Harushige

    Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries have been commercially available for more than 20 years and have been enthusiastically embraced by users of uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) because of the anticipated reduction in installation and operating costs, smaller footprint and fewer environmental concerns. In Japan, communication networks are demanding reduced costs and longer life from their batteries. Among the factors limiting the life of VRLA batteries, the corrosion of positive grid material has been proven to cause elongation of the plates, loss of electrical contact and shorter lifetime. The content of Sn is also a key factor and addition of Sn in the grid alloy results in better performance in creep resistance, tensile strength and corrosion resistance [R. David Prenagaman, The Battery Man, vol. 39, September 1997, p. 16. I. Mukaitani, T. Sakamoto, T. Kikuoka, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Tsubakino, Proceedings of the 40th Battery Symposium in Japan, 1999, p. 99]. A key point is what the ratio of Sn to Ca should be, since too much Sn may lead to even worse elongation of the plates [I. Mukaitani, T. Sakamoto, T. Kikuoka, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Tsubakino, Proceedings of the 40th Battery Symposium in Japan, 1999, p. 99]. We have determined that microstructure control with a composition of lead-calcium-tin (Pb-Ca-Sn) alloy is optimal for better performance of the plates [I. Mukaitani, T. Sakamoto, T. Kikuoka, Y. Yamaguchi, H. Tsubakino, Proceedings of the 40th Battery Symposium in Japan, 1999, p. 99]. We developed a "simulation of current collector corrosion elongation" which is a technique of estimating corrosion elongation from the current collector design [I. Mukaitani, K. Hayashi, I. Shimoura, H. Takabayashi, M. Terada, A. Takemasa, I. Takahashi, K. Okamoto, Proceedings of the 44th Battery Symposium in Japan, 2003, p. 652]. Corrosion elongation occurs as the corrosion material layer grows out of the current collector metal. We resolved this problem using generally CAD

  6. Geometry Dependent Evolution of the Resonant Mode in ZnO Elongated Hexagonal Microcavity

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hongxing; Liu, Yang; Sun, Shulin; Li, Jingzhou; Zhan, Jinxin; Chen, Zhanghai; Zhang, Long

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a novel but simple approach to obtain ZnO microcombs with parallelogram stems and elongated hexagonal branches. We found that the present elongated hexagonal microcavity exhibited quite different features for its optical resonant modes due to the broken hexagonal symmetry. The resonant mode evolution of such microcavity was investigated systemically by using a spatially resolved spectroscopic technique. Theoretical analyses based on the plane wave mode and FEM simulations agreed well with the experimental results. We believe that our research allows us to have a deeper understanding of the controllable growth of novel optical cavities and the shape-dependent optical resonant modes. PMID:26763937

  7. Apparatus and systems for measuring elongation of objects, methods of measuring, and reactor

    DOEpatents

    Rempe, Joy L.; Knudson, Darrell L.; Daw, Joshua E.; Condie, Keith G.; Stoots, Carl M.

    2011-11-29

    Elongation measurement apparatuses and systems comprise at least two Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs) with a push rod coupled to each of the at least two LVDTs at one longitudinal end thereof. At least one push rod extends to a base and is coupled thereto at an opposing longitudinal end, and at least one other push rod extends to a location spaced apart from the base and is configured to receive a sample between an opposing longitudinal end of the at least one other push rod and the base. Nuclear reactors comprising such apparatuses and systems and methods of measuring elongation of a material are also disclosed.

  8. A Conserved Nuclear Cyclophilin Is Required for Both RNA Polymerase II Elongation and Co-transcriptional Splicing in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jeong H.; Rechsteiner, Andreas; Strome, Susan; Kelly, William G.

    2016-01-01

    The elongation phase of transcription by RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) involves numerous events that are tightly coordinated, including RNA processing, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling. RNA splicing factors are associated with elongating Pol II, and the interdependent coupling of splicing and elongation has been documented in several systems. Here we identify a conserved, multi-domain cyclophilin family member, SIG-7, as an essential factor for both normal transcription elongation and co-transcriptional splicing. In embryos depleted for SIG-7, RNA levels for over a thousand zygotically expressed genes are substantially reduced, Pol II becomes significantly reduced at the 3’ end of genes, marks of transcription elongation are reduced, and unspliced mRNAs accumulate. Our findings suggest that SIG-7 plays a central role in both Pol II elongation and co-transcriptional splicing and may provide an important link for their coordination and regulation. PMID:27541139

  9. A Conserved Nuclear Cyclophilin Is Required for Both RNA Polymerase II Elongation and Co-transcriptional Splicing in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jeong H; Rechsteiner, Andreas; Strome, Susan; Kelly, William G

    2016-08-01

    The elongation phase of transcription by RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) involves numerous events that are tightly coordinated, including RNA processing, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling. RNA splicing factors are associated with elongating Pol II, and the interdependent coupling of splicing and elongation has been documented in several systems. Here we identify a conserved, multi-domain cyclophilin family member, SIG-7, as an essential factor for both normal transcription elongation and co-transcriptional splicing. In embryos depleted for SIG-7, RNA levels for over a thousand zygotically expressed genes are substantially reduced, Pol II becomes significantly reduced at the 3' end of genes, marks of transcription elongation are reduced, and unspliced mRNAs accumulate. Our findings suggest that SIG-7 plays a central role in both Pol II elongation and co-transcriptional splicing and may provide an important link for their coordination and regulation. PMID:27541139

  10. Identifying potential RNAi targets in grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) based on transcriptome profiling of its alimentary canal after feeding on wheat plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) is a major agricultural pest which causes significant yield losses of wheat in China, Europe and North America annually. Transcriptome profiling of the grain aphid alimentary canal after feeding on wheat plants could provide comprehensive gene expression information involved in feeding, ingestion and digestion. Furthermore, selection of aphid-specific RNAi target genes would be essential for utilizing a plant-mediated RNAi strategy to control aphids via a non-toxic mode of action. However, due to the tiny size of the alimentary canal and lack of genomic information on grain aphid as a whole, selection of the RNAi targets is a challenging task that as far as we are aware, has never been documented previously. Results In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and gene expression analyses of the alimentary canals of grain aphids before and after feeding on wheat plants using Illumina RNA sequencing. The transcriptome profiling generated 30,427 unigenes with an average length of 664 bp. Furthermore, comparison of the transcriptomes of alimentary canals of pre- and post feeding grain aphids indicated that 5490 unigenes were differentially expressed, among which, diverse genes and/or pathways were identified and annotated. Based on the RPKM values of these unigenes, 16 of them that were significantly up or down-regulated upon feeding were selected for dsRNA artificial feeding assay. Of these, 5 unigenes led to higher mortality and developmental stunting in an artificial feeding assay due to the down-regulation of the target gene expression. Finally, by adding fluorescently labelled dsRNA into the artificial diet, the spread of fluorescence signal in the whole body tissues of grain aphid was observed. Conclusions Comparison of the transcriptome profiles of the alimentary canals of pre- and post-feeding grain aphids on wheat plants provided comprehensive gene expression information that could facilitate our

  11. The unstable 'clone': evidence from monitoring AFLP-based mutations for short-term clonal genetic variation in two asexual lineages of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.).

    PubMed

    Loxdale, H D; Vorwerk, S; Forneck, A

    2013-02-01

    Clones have been in the forefront of biological interest for many years. Even so, open discussions continue to surround the concept of clonality, which has been recently much debated in the scientific literature, both in terms of philosophical meaning as well as empirical determination. Philosophically, the clone is the horizontally produced lineage from a single fertlized egg (e.g. mammals by division of the fertilized egg and representing a single generation) or vertically produced offspring (e.g. aphids representing different successive generations) from a single asexual stem mother (originally for a particular lineage, following hatching of the overwintering sexual egg in the spring); empirically, the aspect of genetic fidelity is also considered important, so-called clones being assumed to have an identical genome among clone mates. In reality of course, such members of a clonal lineage must differ at various regions of the genome, since mutation is a fundamental property of the DNA itself. Yet few studies have so far set out to show this empirically in eukaryotic organisms, which indulge in periods of asexual reproduction, sometimes, as in aphids, over many generations. In the present study, we have investigated asexual lineages of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), a global pest of cereals, over five successive generations employing AFLP-PCR molecular techniques. Our main interest was to see how much variation was present in the early generations and if this variation was transmitted through the asexual lineages. By monitoring AFLP-based polymorphisms, we show that, in this aphid species, of a total of 110 individuals from two lineages tested (termed SA and SB), random mutations (band deletions, more rarely additions) were apparent from the third generation onwards, and although some mutations were found to be transmitted transgenerationally, others were rarely transmitted through the particular lineages they were detected in. Using Arlequin v. 2

  12. Synergistic action of auxin and ethylene on root elongation inhibition is caused by a reduction of epidermal cell length.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, M Victoria; Lloret, Pedro G; Salguero, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Auxin and ethylene have been largely reported to reduce root elongation in maize primary root. However the effects of auxin are greater than those caused by ethylene. Although auxin stimulates ethylene biosynthesis through the specific increase of ACC synthase, the auxin inhibitory effect on root elongation is not mediated by the auxin-induced increase of ethylene production. Recently it has been demonstrated that root inhibition by the application of the synthetic auxin NAA (1-naphtalenacetic acid) is increased if combined with the ethylene precursor ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxilic acid) when both compounds are applied at very low concentrations.   Root elongation is basically the result of two processes: a) cell divisions in the meristem where meristematic cells continuously generate new cells and b) subsequently polarized growth by elongation along the root axis as cells leave the meristem and enter the root elongation zone. Our results indicate that exogenous auxin reduced both root elongation and epidermal cell length. In a different way, ethylene at very low concentrations only inhibited root elongation without affecting significantly epidermal cell length. However, these concentrations of ethylene increased the inhibitory effect of auxin on root elongation and cell length. Consequently the results support the hypothesis that ethylene acts synergistically with auxin in the regulation of root elongation and that inhibition by both hormones is due, at least partially, to the reduction of cell length in the epidermal layer. PMID:24598313

  13. Stunt or elongate? Two opposite strategies by which rice adapts to floods.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Keisuke; Hattori, Yoko; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2010-05-01

    Expansion of habitat is important for the perpetuation of species. In particular, plants which are sedentary must evolve specialized functions to adapt itself to new environment. Deepwater rice is cultivated mainly in the lowland areas of South and Southeast Asia that are flooded during the rainy season. The internodes of deepwater rice elongates in response to increasing water level to keep its leaves above the water surface and avoid anoxia. This elongation is stimulated by ethylene-regulated genes, Snorkel1 and Snorkel2. In contrast, when a flash flood occurs at the seedling stage, submergence-tolerant rice, which carries Submergence-1A, remains stunted and survives in water for a few weeks to avoid the energy consumption associated with plant elongation, and restarts its growth using its conserved energy after the water recedes. Interestingly, both Snorkel genes and Submergence-1A encode ethylene-responsive factor-type transcription factor and are connected to gibberellin biosynthesis or signal transduction. However, deepwater and submergence-tolerant rice seem to have opposite flooding response; namely, escape by elongation or remain stunted under water until flood recedes. PMID:20354754

  14. Methods and computer executable instructions for marking a downhole elongate line and detecting same

    DOEpatents

    Watkins, Arthur D.

    2003-05-13

    Methods and computer executable instructions are provided for making an elongate line (22) with a plurality of marks (30) and detecting those marks (30) to determine a distance of the elongate line (22) in a downhole or a physical integrity thereof. In a preferred embodiment, each mark comprises a plurality of particles (44) having a substantially permanent magnetizing capability adhered to an exterior surface of the elongate line (22) at preselected intervals with an epoxy paint. The particles (44) are arranged at each interval as a plurality of bands (40). Thereafter, the particles are oriented into a magnetic signature for that interval by magnetizing the particles to create a magnetic field substantially normal to the exterior surface. This facilitates detection by a Hall effect probe. The magnetic signatures are stored in a computing configuration and, once a mark is detected, a correlation is made to a unique position on the elongate line by comparison with the stored magnetic signatures. Preferred particles include samarium-cobalt and neodymium-iron-boride.

  15. Termination of Protofilament Elongation by Eribulin Induces Lattice Defects that Promote Microtubule Catastrophes.

    PubMed

    Doodhi, Harinath; Prota, Andrea E; Rodríguez-García, Ruddi; Xiao, Hui; Custar, Daniel W; Bargsten, Katja; Katrukha, Eugene A; Hilbert, Manuel; Hua, Shasha; Jiang, Kai; Grigoriev, Ilya; Yang, Chia-Ping H; Cox, David; Horwitz, Susan Band; Kapitein, Lukas C; Akhmanova, Anna; Steinmetz, Michel O

    2016-07-11

    Microtubules are dynamic polymers built of tubulin dimers that attach in a head-to-tail fashion to form protofilaments, which further associate laterally to form a tube. Asynchronous elongation of individual protofilaments can potentially lead to an altered microtubule-end structure that promotes sudden depolymerization, termed catastrophe [1-4]. However, how the dynamics of individual protofilaments relates to overall growth persistence has remained unclear. Here, we used the microtubule targeting anti-cancer drug Eribulin [5-7] to explore the consequences of stalled protofilament elongation on microtubule growth. Using X-ray crystallography, we first revealed that Eribulin binds to a site on β-tubulin that is required for protofilament plus-end elongation. Based on the structural information, we engineered a fluorescent Eribulin molecule. We demonstrate that single Eribulin molecules specifically interact with microtubule plus ends and are sufficient to either trigger a catastrophe or induce slow and erratic microtubule growth in the presence of EB3. Interestingly, we found that Eribulin increases the frequency of EB3 comet "splitting," transient events where a slow and erratically progressing comet is followed by a faster comet. This observation possibly reflects the "healing" of a microtubule lattice. Because EB3 comet splitting was also observed in control microtubules in the absence of any drugs, we propose that Eribulin amplifies a natural pathway toward catastrophe by promoting the arrest of protofilament elongation. PMID:27321995

  16. Kinetic separation of phototropism from blue-light inhibition of stem elongation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    These experiments tested the hypothesis that phototropic bending arises when a light gradient across the stem differentially inhibits cell elongation because of direct inhibition of cell elongation by light (the Blaauw hypothesis). Continuous irradiation of dark-grown cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L.) with unilateral blue light inhibited hypocotyl elongation within 30 s, but did not induce phototropic curvature until 4.5 h after the start of irradiation. Marking experiments showed that curvature began simultaneously at the top and bottom of the growing region. In situ measurements of the light gradient across the stem with a glass fiber optic indicated that a 5- to 6-fold difference in fluence rate was established on the two sides of the stem. The light gradient established at the start of irradiation was the same as that after 6 h of irradiation. Changes in gravitropic responsiveness during this period were also ruled out. Calculations show that the light gradient should have caused curvature which would be detectable within 30 to 60 min and which would extrapolate to the start of irradiation--if the Blaauw hypothesis were correct. The long lag for phototropism in this case indicates that rapid inhibition of cell elongation by blue light does not cause the asymmetrical growth of phototropism. Rather, phototropism is superimposed upon this separate light growth response.

  17. Heat-induced Accumulation of Chloroplast Protein Synthesis Elongation Factor, EF-TU, in Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factor, EF-Tu, has been implicated in heat tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.). Chloroplast EF-Tu is highly conserved, and it is possible that this protein may be of importance to heat tolerance in other species including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this ...

  18. SEED GERMINATION AND ROOT ELONGATION TOXICITY TESTS IN HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE EVALUATION: METHODS DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seed germination tests measure soil toxicity directly, while root elongation tests consider the indirect effects of water-soluble constituents which may be present in site-samples. n the seed germination toxicity test, site-soil is mixed with a reference soil to yield exposure co...

  19. Persistent Elongated Particle Total Surface Area Dose to Rat Pleura is Optimum Predictor of Mesothelioma Incidence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on preliminary statistical analyses of 29 reanalyzed (quantitative TEM) diverse elongated particle (EP) test samples from the well known and often cited study of Stanton et al. 1981, total surface area (TSA) of biodurable EPs was reported at the 2008 Johnson Conference to b...

  20. Improved Criteria for Acceptable Yield Point Elongation in Surface Critical Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. David Matlock; Dr. John Speer

    2007-05-30

    Yield point elongation (YPE) is considered undesirable in surface critical applications where steel is formed since "strain lines" or Luders bands are created during forming. This project will examine in detail the formation of luders bands in industrially relevant strain states including the influence of substrate properties and coatings on Luders appearance. Mechanical testing and surface profilometry were the primary methods of investigation.