Science.gov

Sample records for average burned area

  1. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Donovan S.; Morgan, Penelope; Kolden, Crystal A.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M. S.

    2014-05-01

    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall τ = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day.

  2. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity analyses of key model parameters caused estimates of global burned area increases from small fires to vary between 24% and 54%. Biomass burning carbon emissions increased by 35% at a global scale when small fires were included in GFED3, from 1.9 Pg C/yr to 2.5 Pg C/yr. The contribution of tropical forest fires to year-to-year variability in carbon fluxes increased because small fires amplified emissions from Central America, South America and Southeast Asiaregions where drought stress and burned area varied considerably from year to year in response to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes.

  3. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity analyses of key model parameters caused estimates of global burned area increases from small fires to vary between 24% and 54%. Biomass burning carbon emissions increased by 35% at a global scale when small fires were included in GFED3, from 1.9 Pg C/yr to 2.5 Pg C/yr. The contribution of tropical forest fires to year-to-year variability in carbon fluxes increased because small fires amplified emissions from Central America, South America and Southeast Asia-regions where drought stress and burned area varied considerably from year to year in response to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and other climate modes.

  4. Burned area, active fires and biomass burning - approaches to account for emissions from fires in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruecker, Gernot; Hoffmann, Anja; Leimbach, David; Tiemann, Joachim; Ng'atigwa, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Eleven years of data from the globally available MODIS burned area and the MODS Active Fire Product have been analysed for Tanzania in conjunction with GIS data on land use and cover to provide a baseline for fire activity in this East African country. The total radiated energy (FRE) emitted by fires that were picked up by the burned area and active fire product is estimated based on a spatio-temporal clustering algorithm over the burned areas, and integration of the fire radiative power from the MODIS Active Fires product over the time of burning and the area of each burned area cluster. Resulting biomass combusted by unit area based on Woosteŕs scaling factor for FRE to biomass combusted is compared to values found in the literature, and to values found in the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Pyrogenic emissions are then estimated using emission factors. According to our analysis, an average of 11 million ha burn annually (ranging between 8.5 and 12.9 million ha) in Tanzania corresponding to between 10 and 14 % of Tanzaniás land area. Most burned area is recorded in the months from May to October. The land cover types most affected are woodland and shrubland cover types: they comprise almost 70 % of Tanzania's average annual burned area or 6.8 million ha. Most burning occurs in gazetted land, with an annual average of 3.7 million ha in forest reserves, 3.3 million ha in game reserves and 1.46 million ha in national parks, totalling close to 8.5 million ha or 77 % of the annual average burned area of Tanzania. Annual variability of burned area is moderate for most of the analysed classes, and in most cases there is no clear trend to be detected in burned area, except for the Lindi region were annual burned area appears to be increasing. Preliminary results regarding emissions from fires show that for larger fires that burn over a longer time, biomass burned derived through the FRP method compares well to literature values, while the integration over smaller fires with fewer observations yields unstable results due to undersampling issues and uncertainty in the start and end time of the fire events. Options for mitigating these issues using ancillary data such as fire weather information are discussed.

  5. Beaver Creek Burn Area Precipitation Gage

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    During August 2013, the Beaver Creek wildfire burned more than 114,000 acres near the south-central Idaho communities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, and Hailey. Partnering with Blaine County, the USGS installed a network of real-time precipitation gages in the burn area. Real-time information from the gage...

  6. Climate Effect on Wildfire Burned Area in Alberta (1961-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hung-I.; Wang, Shih-Luen; Li, Sai-Ping

    2013-08-01

    The spread and burned areas of wildfires in Alberta, Canada during a 50 year period, from 1961 through 2010 are studied here. Meteorological factors that control the spread and burn area have been discussed for a long time. In this paper, we analyze the temperature rise that could drastically enhance the spread and average burned area of wildfires. A simple lattice model that mimics meteorological factors is also introduced to simulate the temperature effect on the spread and burned areas of wildfires. The numerical results demonstrate the temperature effects on wildfires when compared to the empirical data.

  7. Vegetation burning in the year 2000: Global burned area estimates from SPOT VEGETATION data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tansey, Kevin; GrGoire, Jean-Marie; Stroppiana, Daniela; Sousa, AdLia; Silva, JoO.; Pereira, Jos M. C.; Boschetti, Luigi; Maggi, Marta; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro; Fraser, Robert; Flasse, StPhane; Ershov, Dmitry; Binaghi, Elisabetta; Graetz, Dean; Peduzzi, Pascal

    2004-07-01

    The scientific community interested in atmospheric chemistry, gas emissions from vegetation fires, and carbon cycling is currently demanding information on the extent and timing of biomass burning at the global scale. In fact, the area and type of vegetation that is burned on a monthly or annual basis are two of the parameters that provide the greatest uncertainty in the calculation of gas and aerosol emissions and burned biomass. To address this need, an inventory of burned areas at monthly time periods for the year 2000 at a resolution of 1 km2 has been produced using satellite data and has been made freely available to the scientific community. In this paper, estimates of burned area and number of burn scars for four broad vegetation classes and reported at the country level for the year 2000 are presented using data taken from the inventory. Over 3.5 million km2 of burned areas were detected in the year 2000, of which approximately 80% occurred in areas described as woodlands and shrublands. Approximately 17% of the burned area occurred in grasslands and croplands, the remaining 3% occurred in forests. Almost 600,000 separate burn scars were detected. Descriptions of vegetation burning activity are given for ten regions. Finally, monthly burned area estimates are presented for the Central African Republic to illustrate the usefulness of these data for understanding, monitoring and managing vegetation burning activities.

  8. An assessment of vegetation fire in Africa (1981-1991): Burned areas, burned biomass, and atmospheric emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Paulo Marinho; Stroppiana, Daniela; GréGoire, Jean-Marie; Cardoso Pereira, José Miguel

    1999-12-01

    This paper presents the first published time series of burned area maps of Africa, covering an 8 year period, 1981-1983 and 1985-1991. These maps were derived from the analysis of the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) global area coverage (GAC) images at 5 km resolution. The burned area maps for the period 1985-1991 were used with biomass density and burning efficiency figures, to estimate the quantity of burned biomass during this 6 year period. Emission factors were further used to estimate the trace gas and aerosol emissions produced by vegetation fires. Biomass density was estimated based on values found in the literature and on the accumulated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as derived from the remote sensing images. Burning efficiency was assessed with a dryness index that was based on the relative greenness index (RGI), also derived from the NDVI. Average emission factors were retrieved from the literature. The uncertainties in the burned area, biomass density, combustion efficiency, and emission factors were considered, with a total error of 51% for the burned biomass and 58% for the emission estimates. The results obtained for the burned biomass in Africa were compared with other values found in the literature and showed values lower by a factor of 1.1-3.3. The annual burned biomass from vegetation fires in Africa on average was estimated between 704 and 2168 Tg . In the same way, the atmospheric emissions on average ranges are as follows: CO2 (990-3726 Tg), CO (40-151 Tg), CH4 (1.2-4.4 Tg), NOx (2.8-10.6 Tg), and PM (< 2.5 μm) (3.3-12.4Tg).

  9. Improving global fire carbon emissions estimates by combining moderate resolution burned area and active fire observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; Giglio, L.; Rogers, B. M.; van der Werf, G.

    2011-12-01

    In several important biomes, including croplands and tropical forests, many small fires exist that have sizes that are well below the detection limit for the current generation of burned area products derived from moderate resolution spectroradiometers. These fires likely have important effects on greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and regional air quality. Here we developed an approach for combining 1km thermal anomalies (active fires; MOD14A2) and 500m burned area observations (MCD64A1) to estimate the prevalence of these fires and their likely contribution to burned area and carbon emissions. We first estimated active fires within and outside of 500m burn scars in 0.5 degree grid cells during 2001-2010 for which MCD64A1 burned area observations were available. For these two sets of active fires we then examined mean fire radiative power (FRP) and changes in enhanced vegetation index (EVI) derived from 16-day intervals immediately before and after each active fire observation. To estimate the burned area associated with sub-500m fires, we first applied burned area to active fire ratios derived solely from within burned area perimeters to active fires outside of burn perimeters. In a second step, we further modified our sub-500m burned area estimates using EVI changes from active fires outside and within of burned areas (after subtracting EVI changes derived from control regions). We found that in northern and southern Africa savanna regions and in Central and South America dry forest regions, the number of active fires outside of MCD64A1 burned areas increased considerably towards the end of the fire season. EVI changes for active fires outside of burn perimeters were, on average, considerably smaller than EVI changes associated with active fires inside burn scars, providing evidence for burn scars that were substantially smaller than the 25 ha area of a single 500m pixel. FRP estimates also were lower for active fires outside of burn perimeters. In our analysis we quantified how including sub-500m burned area influenced global burned area, carbon emissions, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in different continental regions using the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) biogeochemical model. We conclude by discussing validation needs using higher resolution visible and thermal imagery.

  10. Timing constraints on remote sensing of wildland fire burned area in the southeastern US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Picotte, Joshua J.; Robertson, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery is increasingly used for mapping wildland fire burned area and burn severity, owing to its frequency of collection, relatively high resolution, and availability free of charge. However, rapid response of vegetation following fire and frequent cloud cover pose challenges to this approach in the southeastern US. We assessed these timing constraints by using a series of Landsat TM images to determine how rapidly the remotely sensed burn scar signature fades following prescribed burns in wet flatwoods and depression swamp community types in the Apalachicola National Forest, Florida, USA during 2006. We used both the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) of reflectance bands sensitive to vegetation and exposed soil cover, as well as the change in NBR from before to after fire (dNBR), to estimate burned area. We also determined the average and maximum amount of time following fire required to obtain a cloud-free image for burns in each month of the year, as well as the predicted effect of this time lag on percent accuracy of burn scar estimates. Using both NBR and dNBR, the detectable area decreased linearly 9% per month on average over the first four months following fire. Our findings suggest that the NBR and dNBR methods for monitoring burned area in common southeastern US vegetation community types are limited to an average of 7890% accuracy among months of the year, with individual burns having values as low as 38%, if restricted to use of Landsat 5 TM imagery. However, the majority of burns can still be mapped at accuracies similar to those in other regions of the US, and access to additional sources of satellite imagery would improve overall accuracy.

  11. Timing constraints on remote sensing of wildland fire burned area in the southeastern US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Picotte, J.J.; Robertson, K.

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery is increasingly used for mapping wildland fire burned area and burn severity, owing to its frequency of collection, relatively high resolution, and availability free of charge. However, rapid response of vegetation following fire and frequent cloud cover pose challenges to this approach in the southeastern US. We assessed these timing constraints by using a series of Landsat TM images to determine how rapidly the remotely sensed burn scar signature fades following prescribed burns in wet flatwoods and depression swamp community types in the Apalachicola National Forest, Florida, USA during 2006. We used both the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) of reflectance bands sensitive to vegetation and exposed soil cover, as well as the change in NBR from before to after fire (dNBR), to estimate burned area. We also determined the average and maximum amount of time following fire required to obtain a cloud-free image for burns in each month of the year, as well as the predicted effect of this time lag on percent accuracy of burn scar estimates. Using both NBR and dNBR, the detectable area decreased linearly 9% per month on average over the first four months following fire. Our findings suggest that the NBR and dNBR methods for monitoring burned area in common southeastern US vegetation community types are limited to an average of 78-90% accuracy among months of the year, with individual burns having values as low as 38%, if restricted to use of Landsat 5 TM imagery. However, the majority of burns can still be mapped at accuracies similar to those in other regions of the US, and access to additional sources of satellite imagery would improve overall accuracy. ?? 2011 by the authors.

  12. Determination of burning area and port volume in complex burning regions of a solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsbury, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of the geometry of the burning in both star-cylindrical port interface regions and regions of partially inhibited slots is presented. Some characteristics parameters are defined and illustrated. Methods are proposed for calculating burning areas which functionally depend only on the total distance burned. According to this method, several points are defined where abrupt changes in geometry occur, and these are tracked throughout the burn. Equations are developed for computing port perimeter and port area at pre-established longitudinal positions. Some common formulas and some newly developed formulas are then used to compute burning surface area and port volume. Some specific results are presented for the solid rocket motor committed to the space shuttle project.

  13. [Burns].

    PubMed

    Arai, Takao

    2016-02-01

    Burns extending deep into the skin and those affecting a wide surface area trigger various responses in the body and pose a serious threat to life. Therefore, the degree of severity needs to be determined accurately, and appropriate transfusion and local management should be provided accordingly. Systematic and meticulous management that considers not just the risk of death but also functional prognosis is essential from the early stage of burn injuries. Such management requires comprehensive care by a medical team concerning infections, nutrition and rehabilitation. This article outlines the current status of intensive care for severe burns. PMID:26915244

  14. Impact of burned area on African seasonal climate in regional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sales, F.; Xue, Y.; Okin, G. S.

    2013-12-01

    The WRF/SSiB2 model has been employed on a series of regional simulations to investigate the impact of burned areas associated with wildfires on African seasonal climate and surface energy balances. Burned areas are characterized by deposits of charcoal and ash, removal of vegetation, and alteration of the vegetation structure. Burned area information for the experiments was based on the MODIS burn date maps with an 8-day interval on 500m spatial resolution. Monthly burned area maps averaged over 2000-2011, and aggregated from the MODIS resolution, were created and incorporated in the regional model (50km resolution), whereby vegetation was reduced according to the percentage of grid cell area burned and ground albedo was reduced to 0.1 for a 10-day period after burning to reproduce the ground darkening associated with the amount of grid cell burned. Control (unburned) and burned preliminary experiments were carried out between 01 Oct 2010 and 31 Sep 2011 and compared to examine the sensitivity of different wildfire parameters on precipitation and surface fluxes; including sensitivity to ground albedo recovery time and vegetation resistance to fire. Vegetation cover, greenness, and LAI information were taken from the Fourier-Adjusted, Sensor and Solar zenith angle corrected, Interpolated, Reconstructed data set. Analysis of annual burned area maps revealed extensive burning, especially in the Sahel and between latitudes 0 and 15S (Central Africa), with both regions exhibiting 50% or more of the area of a grid cell burned. Most of burning in Sahel occurred between November and February, while in the southern hemisphere it took place between June and September. Extensive burning was also found along eastern South Africa and Mozambique between 25 and 40 W, where some grid cells were 10% to 30% burned in August and September. Preliminary results indicated that the WRF/SSiB2 is sensitive to the land degradation associated with the burned areas. Areas with widespread burning experienced a reduction in evapotranspiration in the Sahel especially during the pre-monsoon months, and during monsoon withdrawal. In the Central and Southern Africa, the largest difference took place between January and April, and later August. In general, the impact on sensible heat flux was of opposite sign and significantly weaker than that of evapotranspiration in the Sahel. Changes to surface albedo in the model depends on two distinct processes; ground darkening associated with burning (direct effect) and changes in soil moisture associated with precipitation variability (indirect effect). The patterns of precipitation change resulting from burn degradation were complex, with areas of positive and negative changes within both regions. On average, annual precipitation was reduced in the Sahel by approximately 3.5%. Most of the change occurred during the monsoon season. In contrast, Central and Southern Africa experienced increase in rainfall in the austral winter but decrease in the summer months, resulting in nearly no annual change. Results also revealed that vegetation resistance to fire and ground albedo recovery time are important factors that must be accounted for to realistically simulate the impact of burned area in Africa.

  15. Spectral Characterization of Agricultural Burned Areas for Satellite Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boren, Erik J.

    Burned area detection with remotely sensed satellite data in agricultural landscapes is not only necessary for the estimation of global biomass burning emissions, but also has gained attention from managers interested in improved methods for the quantification of local scale emissions which affect air quality and human health. Mapping agricultural burned areas accurately, precisely and reliably, with methods that can be applied globally, is difficult because of the spectral and temporal characteristics of agricultural regions and prescribed cropland fires. These challenges have not been fully addressed by the scientific literature. Chapter 1 of this thesis presents an extensive literature review on the methods currently used for agricultural burned area mapping. Chapter 2 presents original research on the spectral characterization of agricultural burned areas, using field data and mixture models to analyze the response of spectral indices to the changes induced by fire and agricultural practices. The conclusions summarize the significance of the presented research for understanding the potential and limits of satellite data for agricultural burned area monitoring, and outline the directions for future work.

  16. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.

    2012-05-07

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  17. Preliminary assessment of the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity burned area accuracy for shrub-steppe wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argona, A. K.; Sparks, A. M.; Tinkham, W.; Smith, A. M.; Boschetti, L.; Newingham, B. A.; Lannom, K. O.

    2013-12-01

    Fire is a common disturbance in shrub-steppe, but unlike other ecosystems, few studies have specifically tested burned area mapping methods in these semi-arid to arid environments. The Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project is an initiative by the United States Forest Service (USFS) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) aimed at mapping burned area perimeters and burn severity for the entire territory of the United States. We conducted a preliminary assessment of the accuracy of the MTBS burned area perimeters on wildfires that exhibited varying degrees of within-fire patch heterogeneity. We cross-compared the MTBS perimeters with a classification produced using both the Relativised differenced Normalized Burn Index (RdNBR) and the mid-infrared burn index (MIRBI). Overall, MIRBI provided the most consistent accuracies, with only small commission errors. The MTBS-based fire perimeters had high burned area commission errors, primarily due to inclusion of unburned islands and fingers within the fire perimeter. The RdNBR burned area maps exhibited very high commission errors, however, when constrained by the MTBS perimeter provided accuracies comparable to MIRBI. Studies seeking to use MTBS data for assessing trends in burned area should use spectral indices able to discriminate burned versus unburned pixels and constrain them by the MTBS perimeters.

  18. 78 FR 34031 - Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ...The Forest Service is issuing an interim directive to guide its employees in revised procedures for Burned Area Emergency Response. The interim directive provides direction and guidance specific to assessing, planning and implementing post-fire emergency response actions on National Forest System (NFS) lands to ensure consistent and adequate analyses for evaluating post-fire risks and......

  19. Comparative analysis of mapping burned areas from landsat TM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazher, A.

    2013-06-01

    Remote sensing is a major source of mapping the burned area caused by forest fire. The focus in this application is to map a single class of interest, i.e. burned area. In this study, three different data combinations were classified using different classifiers and quantitatively compared. The adopted classifiers are Support Vector Data Description (SVDD), a one-class classifier, Binary classifier Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and traditional Maximum Likelihood classifier (ML). At first, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract the best possible features form the original multispectral image (OMI) and calculated spectral indices (SI). Then the resulting subset of features was applied to the classifiers. The comparative study has undertaken to find firstly, the best possible set of features (data combination) and secondly, an effective classifier to map the burned areas. The best possible set of features was attained by data combination- II (i.e., OMI information). Furthermore, the results of the SVM showed the high classification accuracies than ML. Experimental results demonstrate that even though the SVDD for mapping the burned areas doesn't showed the higher classification accuracy than SVM, but it shows the suitability for the cases with few or poorly represented labelled samples available. The parameters should be further optimized through the use of intelligent training for improving the accuracy of SVDD.

  20. Burns.

    PubMed

    McLoughlin, E; Crawford, J D

    1985-02-01

    The authors present an extensive review of burn epidemiology. They review sources of burns, preventive tools, emergency behaviors to reduce severity, and rehabilitation. Ways are sketched in which the pediatrician can be an effective advocate against burn injuries. PMID:3975098

  1. Using MODIS time series for burn area mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huesca, M.; Palacios-Orueta, A.; Merino-de-Miguel, S.; Litago, J.

    2009-04-01

    Wildfire significantly impacts forest ecosystems throughout the world. At the regional scale, wildfire affects a wide range of ecological, economic and social values related to forests. At the global scale, forest fire emissions of greenhouse gases, particulates and aerosols emissions into the atmosphere, direct and significantly impacts on atmospheric and biogeochemical cycles and the Earth radiative budget. The assessment of the timing and spatial extent of biomass burning, as needed for different tasks, is a mission that nowadays is only affordable using remote sensing techniques. Since forest fires are a major cause of surface change mainly due to vegetation combustion, burn are mapping is a task that can be achieved as a change detection process. The present study describes an algorithm developed to map fire-affected areas at regional scale (Spain) using MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series data. In particular, we used MODIS surface reflectance data (MOD09A product) as well as MODIS hotspot data for two fires seasons. Burned area maps as resulted from this work were compared to official fire statistics and perimeters from the Spanish Ministry of Environment. Results were also tested against burns perimeters as derived from finer spatial resolution satellite images. Reached results showed that this method would be of great interest at regional to national scales, since it was proved to be quick, accurate and cost-effective.

  2. Modeling the Spatial Pattern of Wildfire Ignition and Burned Area in Southern Californian Mediterranean Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faivre, N.; Jin, Y.; Goulden, M.; Randerson, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    Wildfire ignition requires a combination of an ignition source and suitable weather and fuel conditions. Models of fire occurrence and burned area provide a good understanding of the physical and climatic factors that constrain and promote fire spread and recurrence, but information on how humans influence ignition patterns and burned area is still lacking at a scale compatible with integrated fire management. We first investigated the relative importance of the physical, climatic, and human factors regulating ignition probability across Southern California. A 30-year exploratory analysis of one-way relationships indicated that distance to roads, distance to housing, and topographic slope were the major determinants of ignition occurrence and frequency. A logistic regression model explained 70% of spatial variability in ignition occurrence (presence or absence of an ignition in each 3 km grid cell) whereas a Poisson-type regression model explained 45% of the spatial variability in ignition frequency in national forests across Southern California. Predicted ignition probability was a key indicator of the spatial variability of burned area, explaining approximately 9% of the variance for Santa Ana fires and 21% of the variance for non-Santa Ana fires across Southern California. In a second step we combined the previous ignition modeling framework with other data sources to model the spatial distribution of burned area. Preliminary results showed that average wind speed alone explained approximately 30% of the spatial variation in burned area from Santa Ana fires. Further integration of the effects of fuel continuity, moisture, and accumulation and their interaction with wind speed and direction improved our spatial assessment of burned area risk in Southern California. Our results may have implications for strategic fire management in the region.

  3. Data Summary Report D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.R.

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to verify that all analytical data collected at the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits at the Savannah River Site for use in developing risk assessment and potential remediation procedures have been validated at the appropriate level. Any discrepancies or reasons why the data should be rejected for this purpose will be addressed. This report documents the data validation procedures used by Environmental Monitoring Section, Exploration Resources, and RUST Environment {ampersand} Infrastructure for Assigning qualifiers.

  4. Burns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... doing so puts you in danger as well. Chemical and Electrical Burns For chemical and electrical burns, ... putting a child in the bathtub. Cover unused electric outlets with safety caps, and replace damaged, frayed ...

  5. Burns

    MedlinePLUS

    A burn is damage to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight or radiation. Scalds from hot ... and gases are the most common causes of burns. Another kind is an inhalation injury, caused by ...

  6. Analysis of daily, monthly, and annual burned area using the fourth-generation global fire emissions database (GFED4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, Louis; Randerson, James T.; Werf, Guido R.

    2013-03-01

    Abstract We describe the fourth generation of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED4) <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data set, which provides global monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> at 0.25 spatial resolution from mid-1995 through the present and daily <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> for the time series extending back to August 2000. We produced the full data set by combining 500 m MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps with active fire data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) family of sensors. We found that the global annual <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> for the years 1997 through 2011 varied from 301 to 377Mha, with an <span class="hlt">average</span> of 348Mha. We assessed the interannual variability and trends in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> on the basis of a region-specific definition of fire years. With respect to trends, we found a gradual decrease of 1.7Mhayr - 1 ( - 1.4%yr - 1) in Northern Hemisphere Africa since 2000, a gradual increase of 2.3Mhayr - 1 (+1.8%yr - 1) in Southern Hemisphere Africa also since 2000, a slight increase of 0.2Mhayr - 1 (+2.5%yr - 1) in Southeast Asia since 1997, and a rapid decrease of approximately 5.5Mhayr - 1 ( - 10.7%yr - 1) from 2001 through 2011 in Australia, followed by a major upsurge in 2011 that exceeded the annual <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in at least the previous 14 years. The net trend in global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from 2000 to 2012 was a modest decrease of 4.3Mhayr - 1 ( - 1.2%yr - 1). We also performed a spectral analysis of the daily <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> time series and found no vestiges of the 16 day MODIS repeat cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A11F0104P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A11F0104P"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating the accuracy of a MODIS direct broadcast algorithm for mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> over Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petkov, A.; Hao, W. M.; Nordgren, B.; Corley, R.; Urbanski, S. P.; Ponomarev, E. I.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Emission inventories for open <span class="hlt">area</span> biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> rely on <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates as a key component. We have developed an automated algorithm based on MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite instrument data for estimating <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from biomass fires. The algorithm is based on active fire detections, <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars from MODIS calibrated radiances (MOD02HKM), and MODIS land cover classification (MOD12Q1). Our <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product combines active fires and <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar detections using spatio-temporal criteria, and has a resolution of 500 x 500 meters. The algorithm has been used for smoke emission estimates over the western United States. We will present the assessed accuracy of our algorithm in different regions of Russia with intense wildfire activity by comparing our results with the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product from the Sukachev Institute of Forest (SIF) of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Krasnoyarsk, Russia, as well as <span class="hlt">burn</span> scars extracted from Landsat imagery. Landsat <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> extraction was based on threshold classification using the Jenks Natural Breaks algorithm to the histogram for each singe scene Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio (NBR) image. The final evaluation consisted of a grid-based approach, where the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in each 3 km x 3 km grid cell was calculated and compared with the other two sources. A comparison between our <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates and those from SIF showed strong correlation (R2=0.978), although our estimate is approximately 40% lower than the SIF <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The linear fit between the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from Landsat scenes and our MODIS algorithm over 18,754 grid cells resulted with a slope of 0.998 and R2=0.7, indicating that our algorithm is suitable for mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> for fires in boreal forests and other ecosystems. The results of our <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> algorithm will be used for estimating emissions of trace gasses and aerosol particles (including black carbon) from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Northern Eurasia for the period of 2002-2011.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nigms.nih.gov/Education/Pages/Factsheet_Burns.aspx','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nigms.nih.gov/Education/Pages/Factsheet_Burns.aspx"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... complete destruction of the skin to its full depth and damage to underlying tissues. How does the body react to a severe <span class="hlt">burn</span>? The swelling and blistering characteristic of <span class="hlt">burns</span> is caused by the loss of fluid from damaged blood vessels. In severe cases, such fluid loss can cause shock . <span class="hlt">Burns</span> often ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23500819','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23500819"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating future <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> under changing climate in the EU-Mediterranean countries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amatulli, Giuseppe; Camia, Andrea; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jess</p> <p>2013-04-15</p> <p>The impacts of climate change on forest fires have received increased attention in recent years at both continental and local scales. It is widely recognized that weather plays a key role in extreme fire situations. It is therefore of great interest to analyze projected changes in fire danger under climate change scenarios and to assess the consequent impacts of forest fires. In this study we estimated <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the European Mediterranean (EU-Med) countries under past and future climate conditions. Historical (1985-2004) monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in EU-Med countries were modeled by using the Canadian Fire Weather Index (CFWI). Monthly <span class="hlt">averages</span> of the CFWI sub-indices were used as explanatory variables to estimate the monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in each of the five most affected countries in Europe using three different modeling approaches (Multiple Linear Regression - MLR, Random Forest - RF, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines - MARS). MARS outperformed the other methods. Regression equations and significant coefficients of determination were obtained, although there were noticeable differences from country to country. Climatic conditions at the end of the 21st Century were simulated using results from the runs of the regional climate model HIRHAM in the European project PRUDENCE, considering two IPCC SRES scenarios (A2-B2). The MARS models were applied to both scenarios resulting in projected <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in each country and in the EU-Med region. Results showed that significant increases, 66% and 140% of the total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, can be expected in the EU-Med region under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. PMID:23500819</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/201144','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/201144"><span id="translatedtitle">Methodology for estimating <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from AVHRR reflectance data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Razafimpanilo, H.; Frouin, R.; Iacobellis, S.F.; Somerville, R.C.J.</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>It is well recognized that global fire activity needs to be monitored closely, because of its potential impact on climate and the environment. Two methods are described to determined <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The first method, or the linear method, employs Channel 2 reflectance, R{sub 2}, and is based on the nearly linear relationship between the fraction of pixel <span class="hlt">burned</span>, P, and R{sub 2}. The second method, or the nonlinear method, employs the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Channels 1 and 2 reflectances, and is based on the nonlinear relationship P = f(NDVI), a polynomial of order 2 in NDVI. The coefficients of the polynomial are parameterized as a function of the NDVI of the background before the fire event. Radiative transfer simulations indicate that the linear method, unlike the nonlinear method, must be applied to top-of-atmosphere reflectances that have been corrected for atmospheric influence. Sensitivity studies suggest that the methods are subject to some limitations. To avoid discontinuity problems, the original background (just before the fire) must be characterized by a Channel 2 reflectance above 0.07 and by a positive NDVI. To separate the useful signal from atmospheric effects, the fire scar must occupy at least 20% and 12% of the pixel <span class="hlt">area</span> in the case of savanna and green vegetation (e.g., forest), respectively. When applied to uniform pixels, the mean relative error on the fraction of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> is about 20% for the linear method and 10% for the nonlinear method. The linear method gives better results for nonuniform pixels, but neither method can be used when the pixel contains low reflectance backgrounds (e.g., water).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-98PC-0768&hterms=Burns&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBurns','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-98PC-0768&hterms=Burns&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBurns"><span id="translatedtitle">A fire <span class="hlt">burns</span> in a wooded <span class="hlt">area</span> on KSC property</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A wooded section of the southeast corner of Kennedy Space Center <span class="hlt">burns</span> on Monday, June 22, after lightning touched off three different fires Sunday evening in and around Tel IV, Ransom Road and Pine Island Road. This <span class="hlt">area</span> is part of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge operated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The fires were a short distance from operational facilities at the space center and forced the closing of Florida State Route 3. The fires are being contained by firefighters from Kennedy Space Center and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy..tmp...64D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ClDy..tmp...64D"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> on the northern African seasonal climate from the perspective of regional modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Sales, Fernando; Xue, Yongkang; Okin, Gregory S.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>This study investigates the impact of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> on the surface energy balance and monthly precipitation in northern Africa as simulated by a state-of-the-art regional model. Mean <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> fraction derived from MODIS date of <span class="hlt">burning</span> product was implemented in a set of 1-year long WRF-NMM/SSiB2 model simulations. Vegetation cover fraction and LAI were degraded daily based on mean <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> fraction and on the survival rate for each vegetation land cover type. Additionally, ground darkening associated with wildfire-induced ash and charcoal deposition was imposed through lower ground albedo for a period after <span class="hlt">burning</span>. In general, wildfire-induced vegetation and ground condition deterioration increased mean surface albedo by exposing the brighter bare ground, which in turn caused a decrease in monthly surface net radiation. On <span class="hlt">average</span>, the wildfire-season albedo increase was approximately 6.3 % over the Sahel. The associated decrease in surface available energy caused a drop in surface sensible heat flux to the atmosphere during the dry months of winter and early spring, which gradually transitioned to a more substantial decrease in surface evapotranspiration in April and May that lessened throughout the rainy season. Overall, post-fire land condition deterioration resulted in a decrease in precipitation over sub-Saharan Africa, associated with the weakening of the West African monsoon progression through the region. A decrease in atmospheric moisture flux convergence was observed in the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> simulations, which played a dominant role in reducing precipitation in the <span class="hlt">area</span>, especially in the months preceding the monsoon onset. The <span class="hlt">areas</span> with the largest precipitation impact were those covered by savannas and rainforests, where annual precipitation decreased by 3.8 and 3.3 %, respectively. The resulting precipitation decrease and vegetation deterioration caused a drop in gross primary productivity in the region, which was strongest in late winter and early spring. This study suggests the cooling and drying of atmosphere induced by <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> caused the strengthening of subsidence during pre-onset and weakening of upward atmospheric motion during onset and mature stages of the monsoon leading to a waning of convective instability and precipitation. Monthly mid-tropospheric vertical wind showed a strengthening of downward motion in winter and spring seasons, and weakening of upward movement during the rainy months. Furthermore, precipitation energy analysis revealed that most of precipitation decrease originated from convective events, which supports the hypothesis of reduced convective instability due to wildfires.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-98PC-0767&hterms=Burns&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBurns','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=KSC-98PC-0767&hterms=Burns&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBurns"><span id="translatedtitle">A fire <span class="hlt">burns</span> in a wooded <span class="hlt">area</span> on KSC property</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A fire <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the background as members of the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service operate firefighting equipment soaking the grass and underbrush in an attempt to keep the fire away from Kennedy Parkway and the wooded <span class="hlt">area</span> on the other side of the road. Lightning touched off three different fires Sunday evening in and around Kennedy Space Center at Tel IV, Ransom Road and Pine Island Road. This <span class="hlt">area</span> is part of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge operated by the service. The fires were a short distance from operational facilities at the space center and forced the closing of Florida State Route 3. The fires are being contained by firefighters from Kennedy Space Center and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26081738','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26081738"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting annual <span class="hlt">average</span> particulate concentration in urban <span class="hlt">areas</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Progiou, Athena G; Ziomas, Ioannis C</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Particulate matter concentrations are in most cities a major environmental problem. This is also the case in Greece where, despite the various measures taken in the past, the problem still persists. In this aspect, a cost efficient, comprehensive method was developed in order to help decision makers to take the most appropriate measures towards particulates pollution abatement. The method is based on the source apportionment estimation from the application of 3D meteorological and dispersion modeling and is validated with the use of 10 years (2002-2012) PM10 monitoring data, in Athens, Greece, as well as using PM10 emission data for the same <span class="hlt">area</span> and time period. It appears that the methodology can be used for estimating yearly <span class="hlt">average</span> PM10 concentrations in a quite realistic manner, giving thus the decision makers the possibility to evaluate ex ante the effectiveness of specific abatement measures. PMID:26081738</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000030.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000030.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... of <span class="hlt">burns</span> from most to least common are: Fire/flame Scalding from steam or hot liquids Touching ... can be the result of: House and industrial fires Car accidents Playing with matches Faulty space heaters, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26117890','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26117890"><span id="translatedtitle">[Estimating Biomass <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Areas</span> from Multispectral Dataset Detected by Multiple-Satellite].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Chao; Chen, Liang-fu; Li, Shen-shen; Tao, Jin-hua; Su, Lin</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> makes up an important part of both trace gases and particulate matter emissions, which can efficiently degrade air quality and reduce visibility, destabilize the global climate system at regional to global scales. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is one of the primary parameters necessary to estimate emissions, and considered to be the largest source of error in the emission inventory. Satellite-based fire observations can offer a reliable source of fire occurrence data on regional and global scales, a variety of sensors have been used to detect and map fires in two general approaches: <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar mapping and active fire detection. However, both of the two approaches have limitations. In this article, we explore the relationship between hotspot data and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> for the Southeastern United States, where a significant amount of biomass <span class="hlt">burnings</span> from both prescribed and wild fire took place. MODIS (Moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) data, which has high temporal-resolution, can be used to monitor ground biomass. <span class="hlt">burning</span> in time and provided hot spot data in this study. However, pixel size of MODIS hot spot can't stand for the real ground <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Through analysis of the variation of vegetation band reflectance between pre- and post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>, we extracted the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from Landsat-5 TM (Thematic Mapper) images by using the differential normalized <span class="hlt">burn</span> ratio (dNBR) which is based on TM band4 (0.84 ?m) and TM band 7(2.22 ?m) data. We combined MODIS fire hot spot data and Landsat-5 TM <span class="hlt">burned</span> scars data to build the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimation model, results showed that the linear correlation coefficient is 0.63 and the relationships vary as a function of vegetation cover. Based on the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), we built <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimation model over different vegetation cover, and got effective <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> per fire pixel, values for forest, grassland, shrub, cropland and wetland are 0.69, 1.27, 0.86, 0.72 and 0.94 km2 respectively. We validated the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates by using the ground survey data from National interagency Fire Center (NIFC), our results are more close to the ground survey data than <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> from Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) and MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product (MCD45), which omitted many small prescribed fires. We concluded that our model can provide more accurate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> parameters for developing fire emission inventory, and be better for estimating emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>. PMID:26117890</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23064248','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23064248"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of antecedent fire <span class="hlt">area</span> on <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in southern California coastal ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Price, Owen F; Bradstock, Ross A; Keeley, Jon E; Syphard, Alexandra D</p> <p>2012-12-30</p> <p>Frequent wildfire disasters in southern California highlight the need for risk reduction strategies for the region, of which fuel reduction via prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> is one option. However, there is no consensus about the effectiveness of prescribed fire in reducing the <span class="hlt">area</span> of wildfire. Here, we use 29 years of historical fire mapping to quantify the relationship between annual wildfire <span class="hlt">area</span> and antecedent fire <span class="hlt">area</span> in predominantly shrub and grassland fuels in seven southern California counties, controlling for annual variation in weather patterns. This method has been used elsewhere to measure leverage: the reduction in wildfire <span class="hlt">area</span> resulting from one unit of prescribed fire treatment. We found little evidence for a leverage effect (leverage = zero). Specifically our results showed no evidence that wildfire <span class="hlt">area</span> was negatively influenced by previous fires, and only weak relationships with weather variables rainfall and Santa Ana wind occurrences, which were variables included to control for inter-annual variation. We conclude that this is because only 2% of the vegetation <span class="hlt">burns</span> each year and so wildfires rarely encounter <span class="hlt">burned</span> patches and chaparral shrublands can carry a fire within 1 or 2 years after previous fire. Prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> is unlikely to have much influence on fire regimes in this <span class="hlt">area</span>, though targeted treatment at the urban interface may be effective at providing defensible space for protecting assets. These results fit an emerging global model of fire leverage which position California at the bottom end of a continuum, with tropical savannas at the top (leverage = 1: direct replacement of wildfire by prescribed fire) and Australian eucalypt forests in the middle (leverage ~ 0.25). PMID:23064248</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040161152&hterms=deforestation+rates&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Ddeforestation%2Brates','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040161152&hterms=deforestation+rates&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Ddeforestation%2Brates"><span id="translatedtitle">Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burned</span> and Committed Carbon Emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Ver-Diaz, M. Del. C.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>"Understory fires" that <span class="hlt">burn</span> the floor of standing forests are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, we are aware of no estimates of the areal extent of these fires for the Brazilian Amazon and, hence, of their contribution to Amazon carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. We calculated the <span class="hlt">area</span> of forest understory fires for the Brazilian Amazon region during an El Nino (1998) and a non El Nino (1995) year based on forest fire scars mapped with satellite images for three locations in eastern and southern Amazon, where deforestation is concentrated. The three study sites represented a gradient of both forest types and dry season severity. The <span class="hlt">burning</span> scar maps were used to determine how the percentage of forest that <span class="hlt">burned</span> varied with distance from agricultural clearings. These spatial functions were then applied to similar forest/climate combinations outside of the study sites to derive an initial estimate for the Brazilian Amazon. Ninety-one percent of the forest <span class="hlt">area</span> that <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the study sites was within the first kilometer of a clearing for the non ENSO year and within the first four kilometers for the ENSO year. The <span class="hlt">area</span> of forest <span class="hlt">burned</span> by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (3.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> during the <span class="hlt">average</span> rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the <span class="hlt">area</span> of annual deforestation rate. Dense forest was, proportionally, the forest <span class="hlt">area</span> most affected by understory fires during the El Nino year, while understory fires were concentrated in transitional forests during the year of <span class="hlt">average</span> rainfall. Our estimate of aboveground tree biomass killed by fire ranged from 0.06 Pg to 0.38 Pg during the ENSO and from 0,004 Pg to 0,024 Pg during the non ENSO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3865302','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3865302"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationships between Human Population Density and <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> at Continental and Global Scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bistinas, Ioannis; Oom, Duarte; Sá, Ana C. L.; Harrison, Sandy P.; Prentice, I. Colin; Pereira, José M. C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We explore the large spatial variation in the relationship between population density and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, using continental-scale Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) based on 13 years of satellite-derived <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps from the global fire emissions database (GFED) and the human population density from the gridded population of the world (GPW 2005). Significant relationships are observed over 51.5% of the global land <span class="hlt">area</span>, and the <span class="hlt">area</span> affected varies from continent to continent: population density has a significant impact on fire over most of Asia and Africa but is important in explaining fire over < 22% of Europe and Australia. Increasing population density is associated with both increased and decreased in fire. The nature of the relationship depends on land-use: increasing population density is associated with increased <span class="hlt">burned</span> are in rangelands but with decreased <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in croplands. Overall, the relationship between population density and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is non-monotonic: <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> initially increases with population density and then decreases when population density exceeds a threshold. These thresholds vary regionally. Our study contributes to improved understanding of how human activities relate to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, and should contribute to a better estimate of atmospheric emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>. PMID:24358108</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17046310','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17046310"><span id="translatedtitle">Fatal <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Manipal <span class="hlt">area</span>: a 10 year study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar, Virendra; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Kanth, Sarita</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate the causes and the magnitude of the fatal <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries retrospectively. An analysis of autopsy records revealed 19.4% cases of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries amongst the total autopsies done over 10years period (1993-2002) in the mortuary of the department of Forensic Medicine of Kasturba medical College, Manipal. The majority of deaths (78.5%) occurred between 11 and 40years of age group with preponderance of females (74.8%). The flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> were seen in 94.1% of the victims followed by scalds and electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> in 2.8% and 2.5% cases, respectively. The majority of <span class="hlt">burn</span> incidents were accidental (75.8%) in nature followed by suicidal (11.5%) and homicidal (3.1%) deaths. The percentage of <span class="hlt">burn</span> (TBSA) over 40% were observed in most of the cases (92.5%). The majority of deaths occurred within a week (69.87%) and most the victims died because of septicemia (50.9%). PMID:17046310</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1992/4134/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1992/4134/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrology of, and water quality in, the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and vicinity, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, 1989-90</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Storck, D.A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This report presents the results of a study to determine whether shallow ground water at Picatinny Arsenal Morris County, New Jersey, has been con- taminated as a result of operations at the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, which is used for <span class="hlt">burning</span> of waste explosives and materials contaminated with explosives. Results of previous investigations indicate that the soil in this <span class="hlt">area</span> is contaminated with metals and organic compounds. Twenty-seven wells were sampled for analysis for inorganic constituents, nutrients, and explosive compounds. Selected wells also were sampled for analysis for base/neutral- and acid-extractable compounds, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and dioxin and furan compounds. Surface-water and streambed- material samples were collected at three sites in Green Pond Brook. Water-level measurements indicate that ground-water flow generally is nearly horizontal and toward Green Pond Brook. The <span class="hlt">average</span> velocity of the ground water is estimated to be 0.03 to 1.8 feet per day. Concentrations of iron and manganese in ground-water samples from the unconfined aquifer were consistently greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary drinking-water regulations. Because similarly high concentrations of these constituents have been found in ground-water samples at the arsenal, they are not considered to be a consequence of activities at the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Contaminants from the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> appear to be contributing to elevated concentratons of lead, zinc, and explosive com- pounds found in the streambed material. Other trace element and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons probably are derived from both the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and upstream sources. Volatile organic compounds were detected in surface-water samples at low concentrations, although most were found upstream from the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. No inorganic or organic constituents were detected in ground-water or surface-water samples in concentrations that exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water regulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESASP.704E..32Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESASP.704E..32Z"><span id="translatedtitle">A Semi-Automated Methodology for <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Mapping Using HJ-CCD Data in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Xi; Qin, Xianlin; Yang, Fei; Hu, Bo; Casanova, Jose-Luis</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study focused on the development of a semi-automated methodology for <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping using HJ-CCD image. The method can be divided into two main phases. First, to minimize commission errors, a semi-adaptable threshold has been used to extract more severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> pixels as core pixels based on spectral reflectance and vegetation indices (VI).Then, to minimize omission errors and to enlarge the severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patches previously, a logistic regression model has been made built on the information of multi-temporal vegetation indices and spectral channels. The core pixels extracted in the first phase have been processed to apply a region grow algorithm constrained by the result of canny edge detection algorithm, and the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> can be shaped. The results showed this approach using HJ-CCD sensor produced promising results for study <span class="hlt">areas</span> and could be suitable for <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/797471','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/797471"><span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>K. B. Campbell</p> <p>2002-04-01</p> <p>Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). CAU 490 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and includes for Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) Fire Training <span class="hlt">Area</span> (CAS 03-56-001-03BA); (2) Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (CAS RG-56-001-RGBA); (3) Sandia Service Yard (CAS 03-58-001-03FN); and (4) Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (CAS 09-54-001-09L2).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.106..154H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.106..154H"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparative analysis of potential impact <span class="hlt">area</span> of common sugar cane <span class="hlt">burning</span> methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hiscox, A. L.; Flecher, S.; Wang, J. J.; Viator, H. P.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The negative effects of agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span> are well-known, although the actual impact <span class="hlt">area</span> of different activities has not previously been quantified. An elastic backscatter lidar system was used to examine the impact-<span class="hlt">area</span> size and dispersion of smoke generated from different types of sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> activities; pre-harvest (standing) <span class="hlt">burning</span> and post-harvest (ground) <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Experiments were conducted in the sugarcane harvest season of 2010 and 2011 at two locations in Louisiana, USA. Current dispersion theory would suggest that the primary difference between <span class="hlt">burn</span> types would be primarily in the initial plume rise, but that the overall plume shape would remain the same. However, remotely sensed lidar data with the capability to measure plume dispersion and the short time dynamics of plume location showed pre-harvest (standing) <span class="hlt">burning</span> produced a larger plume with greater rise and more spread within the 300 m of the plume, but a decrease in dispersion, but not concentration further downwind. Post-harvest (ground) <span class="hlt">burning</span> produced a more traditional plume shape, but still exceeded impact <span class="hlt">area</span> predictions near the source. Moreover, large changes in plume size can occur with small increases in wind speed. These are the first instrumented measurements of the meteorological effects of the different types of sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span>. These results indicate that ground <span class="hlt">burning</span> is preferable, but should be avoided in lower wind speed conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......299B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......299B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> severity and <span class="hlt">areas</span> of daily fire growth for 42 forest fires in Idaho and Montana, 2005 - 2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Birch, Donovan Shayne</p> <p></p> <p>This work consisted of two studies of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity using infrared perimeter maps and satellite-inferred <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity data, differenced Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio, from 42 wildland fires from central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007, and 2011. Study 1 examined the proportion of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity categories for individual daily <span class="hlt">areas</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. We defined 2,697 <span class="hlt">areas</span>, from which we calculated the proportion of three <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity classes. The proportion of high severity was weakly correlated with size of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Large <span class="hlt">areas</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> do not consistently produced larger proportions of high severity. Study 2 analyzed <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity relative to 20 environmental variables using the Random Forest machine learning algorithm. We used ten daily weather observations, eight 34-yr climate percentiles, seven topographical index measurements, and four vegetation characteristics from 10,819 randomly located points. We found that higher percentage existing vegetation cover had larger influences on changes in <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN53A3786M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN53A3786M"><span id="translatedtitle">A Spatio-temporal Data Mining Approach to Global scale <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Monitoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mithal, V.; Khandelwal, A.; Nayak, G.; Kumar, V.; Nemani, R. R.; Oza, N.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We present a novel technique for <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping in forests using the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from the MODIS 16-day Level 3 1km Vegetation Indices (MOD13A2) and the Active Fire (AF) from the MODIS 8-day Level 3 1km Thermal Anomalies and Fire products (MOD14A2). The proposed method leverages the spatial and temporal co-occurrence of thermal anomalies and vegetation loss caused due to forest fires to detect <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Our approach derives features from Enhanced Vegetation Index that target locations which show an abrupt change in their vegetation time series that take at least several months to recover. One unique aspect of our approach is that it uses data from multiple months around the fire event and is therefore more robust to issues in data quality. Comparison with other <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products show that our approach detects several large previously undetected <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> across multiple geographical regions. In particular, we found that our approach detects several large <span class="hlt">burned</span> regions in the tropical forests of Indonesia and South America that had been missed by the state-of-arts <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> approaches. For example, using our approach in Indonesia we discovered that the state-of-the-art MODIS <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product had missed around 20,000 sq. km. of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (nearly as much <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> as it has reported). We show that all these previously unreported <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> detected by our approach are actually significant fires which suffered a large, abrupt loss in their vegetation at the time of the fire event and take at least several months to recover back to their normal vegetation. To evaluate these <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> we compared the Landsat-based composites before and after the date of the event. Our Landsat analysis shows that the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> detected by the proposed approach are true <span class="hlt">burns</span> with a very small error of commission. We believe our work has the potential to provide a scalable approach to global forest monitoring as well as reduce the uncertainty in quantifying the carbon emissions from forests due to fire activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020034899&hterms=wildland+fire&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dwildland%2Bfire','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020034899&hterms=wildland+fire&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dwildland%2Bfire"><span id="translatedtitle">Brazil Fire Characterization and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Estimation Using the Airborne Infrared Disaster Assessment (AIRDAS) System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brass, J. A.; Riggan, P. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Lockwood, R. N.; Pereira, J. A.; Higgins, R. G.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Remotely sensed estimations of regional and global emissions from biomass combustion have been used to characterize fire behavior, determine fire intensity, and estimate <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Highly temporal, low resolution satellite data have been used to calculate estimates of fire numbers and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. These estimates of fire activity and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> have differed dramatically, resulting in a wide range of predictions on the ecological and environmental impacts of fires. As part of the Brazil/United States Fire Initiative, an aircraft campaign was initiated in 1992 and continued in 1994. This multi-aircraft campaign was designed to assist in the characterization of fire activity, document fire intensity and determine <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> over prescribed, agricultural and wildland fires in the savanna and forests of central Brazil. Using a unique, multispectral scanner (AIRDAS), designed specifically for fire characterization, a variety of fires and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were flown with a high spatial and high thermal resolution scanner. The system was used to measure flame front size, rate of spread, ratio of smoldering to flaming fronts and fire intensity. In addition, long transects were flown to determine the size of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> within the cerrado and transitional ecosystems. The authors anticipate that the fire activity and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates reported here will lead to enhanced information for precise regional trace gas prediction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..71..115V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..71..115V"><span id="translatedtitle">Methane emissions from 2000 to 2011 wildfires in Northeast Eurasia estimated with MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vasileva, Anastasia; Moiseenko, Konstantin</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Estimates of methane wildfire emissions from Northeast Eurasia for years 2000-2011 are reported on the basis of satellite <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS MCD45 data product) and ecosystem-dependent fire emission parameters. <span class="hlt">Average</span> (with standard deviations) emissions are 1.0 0.2 Tg CH4 year-1, with interannual variations of 0.4-2.3 Tg CH4 year-1. Most of the emissions are located within 48-55N, in the southern part of the boreal forest zone, mostly in Siberia and Far East. The largest discrepancies among independent present-day estimates are found in the sub-polar regions of West Siberia and Far East (60-65N). Compared to the methane wetland emissions reported in literature, the wildfire emissions in the south add about 5-20% to their estimated <span class="hlt">average</span> annual values and are compared with the magnitudes of their interannual variability. <span class="hlt">Average</span> seasonal cycle peaks in April-May and July-August, which partially overlaps the summertime peak in wetland emissions. The independent estimates from version 3 of Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) are by 50% higher (compared to this study) for <span class="hlt">average</span> annual emissions over the decade (which is quite good regarding the uncertainties) and showed larger differences for individual years. Possible applications of the results are considered for climate research and inverse modeling studies, as well as for assessment of the uncertainties in the present-day wildfire emission estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol3-sec54-1309.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol3-sec54-1309.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 54.1309 - National and study <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">average</span> unseparated loop costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National and study <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">average</span> unseparated... 54.1309 National and study <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">average</span> unseparated loop costs. (a) National <span class="hlt">average</span> unseparated loop... the Loop Costs for each study <span class="hlt">area</span> in the country as calculated pursuant to 54.1308(a) divided...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25831541','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25831541"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the western United States is unaffected by recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hart, Sarah J; Schoennagel, Tania; Veblen, Thomas T; Chapman, Teresa B</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In the western United States, mountain pine beetles (MPBs) have killed pine trees across 71,000 km(2) of forest since the mid-1990s, leading to widespread concern that abundant dead fuels may increase <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> and exacerbate fire behavior. Although stand-level fire behavior models suggest that bark beetle-induced tree mortality increases flammability of stands by changing canopy and forest floor fuels, the actual effect of an MPB outbreak on subsequent wildfire activity remains widely debated. To address this knowledge gap, we superimposed <span class="hlt">areas</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> on <span class="hlt">areas</span> infested by MPBs for the three peak years of wildfire activity since 2002 across the western United States. Here, we show that the observed effect of MPB infestation on the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in years of extreme fire appears negligible at broad spatial extents. Contrary to the expectation of increased wildfire activity in recently infested red-stage stands, we found no difference between observed <span class="hlt">area</span> and expected <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in red-stage or subsequent gray-stage stands during three peak years of wildfire activity, which account for 46% of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> during the 2002-2013 period. Although MPB infestation and fire activity both independently increased in conjunction with recent warming, our results demonstrate that the annual <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the western United States has not increased in direct response to bark beetle activity. Therefore, policy discussions should focus on societal adaptation to the effects of recent increases in wildfire activity related to increased drought severity. PMID:25831541</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4394269','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4394269"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the western United States is unaffected by recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hart, Sarah J.; Schoennagel, Tania; Veblen, Thomas T.; Chapman, Teresa B.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In the western United States, mountain pine beetles (MPBs) have killed pine trees across 71,000 km2 of forest since the mid-1990s, leading to widespread concern that abundant dead fuels may increase <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> and exacerbate fire behavior. Although stand-level fire behavior models suggest that bark beetle-induced tree mortality increases flammability of stands by changing canopy and forest floor fuels, the actual effect of an MPB outbreak on subsequent wildfire activity remains widely debated. To address this knowledge gap, we superimposed <span class="hlt">areas</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> on <span class="hlt">areas</span> infested by MPBs for the three peak years of wildfire activity since 2002 across the western United States. Here, we show that the observed effect of MPB infestation on the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in years of extreme fire appears negligible at broad spatial extents. Contrary to the expectation of increased wildfire activity in recently infested red-stage stands, we found no difference between observed <span class="hlt">area</span> and expected <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in red-stage or subsequent gray-stage stands during three peak years of wildfire activity, which account for 46% of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> during the 2002–2013 period. Although MPB infestation and fire activity both independently increased in conjunction with recent warming, our results demonstrate that the annual <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the western United States has not increased in direct response to bark beetle activity. Therefore, policy discussions should focus on societal adaptation to the effects of recent increases in wildfire activity related to increased drought severity. PMID:25831541</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13G3266D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13G3266D"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> on the northern African seasonal climate from the perspective of regional modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Sales, F.; Xue, Y.; Okin, G. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This study presents an investigation of the impact of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> on the surface energy balance and monthly precipitation in the northern Africa as simulated by a state-of-the-art regional model. Mean <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> fraction derived from MODIS approximate date of <span class="hlt">burning</span> product were implemented in a set of 1-year long WRF/NMM/SSiB2 model simulations. Vegetation cover fraction and LAI were degraded daily based on mean <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> fraction and on the survival rate for each vegetation land cover type. Additionally, ground darkening associated with wildfire-induced ash and charcoal deposition was temporarily imposed through lower ground albedo for a period of 10 days after <span class="hlt">burning</span>. In general, wildfire-induced vegetation and ground degradation increased surface albedo by exposing the brighter bare ground of the region, which in turn caused a decrease in surface net radiation and evapotranspiration in northern sub-saharan Africa. A decrease in atmospheric moisture flux convergence was simulated in the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> experiments, which plays a dominant role in reducing precipitation over the <span class="hlt">area</span>, especially in the months preceding the West African monsoon onset. The <span class="hlt">areas</span> with largest impacts were those covered by forests and savanna, where annual precipitation decreased by 4.2% and 3.6%, respectively. This study suggests the cooling and drying of atmosphere induced by <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> led to strengthening of subsidence during pre-onset and weakening of upward motion during onset and mature stages of the monsoon leading to a waning of convective instability and precipitation. Monthly vertical wind over the <span class="hlt">area</span> showed a strengthening of downward motion in winter and spring seasons, and weakening of upward movement during the rainy months. Furthermore, precipitation energy analysis revealed that most of precipitation decrease originated from convective events, especially for those with daily precipitation rates above 2.0 mm day-1, which substantiates the hypothesis of convective instability decreasing resultant from <span class="hlt">burned-area</span>-induced land degradation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B53B0182K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B53B0182K"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> and Severity with MODIS Satellite Images and Spatial Autocorrelation Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaya, S.; Kavzoglu, T.; Tonbul, H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Effects of forest fires and implications are one of the most important natural disasters all over the world. Statistical data observed that forest fires had a variable structure in the last century in Turkey, but correspondingly the population growth amount of forest fires and <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> increase widely in recent years. Depending on this, erosion, landslides, desertification and mass loss come into existence. In addition; after forest fires, renewal of forests and vegetation are very important for land management. Classic methods used for detection of <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and severity requires a long and challenging process due to time and cost factors. Thanks to advanced techniques used in the field of Remote Sensing, <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and severity can be determined with high detail and precision. The purpose of this study based on blending MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectradiometer) satellite images and spatial autocorrelation techniques together, thus detect <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and severity absolutely. In this context, spatial autocorrelation statistics like Moran's I and Get is-Ord Local Gi indexes were used to measure and analyze to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> characteristics. Prefire and postfire satellite images were used to determine fire severity depending on spectral indexes corresponding to biomass loss and carbon emissivity intensities. Satellite images have used for identification of fire damages and risks in terms of fire management for a long time. This study was performed using prefire and postfire satellite images and spatial autocorrelation techniques to determining and analyzing forest fires in Antalya, Turkey region which serious fires occurred. In this context, this approach enables the characterization of distinctive texture of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and helps forecasting more precisely. Finally, it is observed that mapping of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and severity could be performed from local scale to national scale. Key Words: Spatial autocorrelation, MODIS, Fire, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1737c/plate-1.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1737c/plate-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineral Resources of the Black Mountains North and <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Areas</span>, Mohave County, Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Conrad, James E.; Hill, Randall H.; Jachens, Robert C.; Neubert, John T.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 19,300 acres of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> (AZ-020-009) and 23,310 acres of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> (AZ-02D-010) were evaluated for mineral resources and mineral resource potential. In this report, the <span class="hlt">area</span> studied is referred to, collectively or individually, as the 'wilderness study <span class="hlt">area</span>' or simply 'the study <span class="hlt">area</span>'; any reference to the Black Mountains North or <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Areas</span> refers only to that part of the wilderness study <span class="hlt">area</span> for which a mineral survey was requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. The study <span class="hlt">area</span> is located in western Arizona, about 30 mi northwest of Kingman. There are no identified resources in the study <span class="hlt">area</span>. An <span class="hlt">area</span> surrounding the Portland mine and including the southern part of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> and the extreme northwestern part of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> has high resource potential for gold and moderate resource potential for silver, lead, and mercury. The <span class="hlt">area</span> surrounding this and including much of the northern part of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> has moderate potential for gold, silver, and lead. The northeastern corner of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> has moderate potential for gold and low potential for silver, copper, and molybdenum resources. The central part, including the narrow strip of land just west of the central part, of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> and the southern and extreme eastern parts of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> have low resource potential for gold. The central and southern parts of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> and all but the southwestern part of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> have moderate resource potential for perlite. Moderate resource potential for zeolites is assigned to a large <span class="hlt">area</span> around the Portland mine that includes parts of both study <span class="hlt">areas</span>, to a narrow strip of land just west of the central part of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span>, and to all but the southwest corner of the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Spring Wilderness Study <span class="hlt">Area</span>. There is no potential for oil and gas in either study <span class="hlt">area</span>. Sand and gravel are present in both study <span class="hlt">areas</span>, but abundant quantities of these resources are available closer to existing markets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3683486','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3683486"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comparative Analysis of <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Datasets in Canadian Boreal Forest in 2000</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nez-Casillas, Laia; Moreno-Ruiz, Jos Andrs</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The turn of the new millennium was accompanied by a particularly diverse group of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> datasets from different sensors in the Canadian boreal forests, brought together in a year of low global fire activity. This paper provides an assessment of spatial and temporal accuracy, by means of a fire-by-fire comparison of the following: two <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> datasets obtained from SPOT-VEGETATION (VGT) imagery, a MODIS Collection 5 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> dataset, and three different datasets obtained from NOAA-AVHRR. Results showed that <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data from MODIS provided accurate dates of <span class="hlt">burn</span> but great omission error, partially caused by calibration problems. One of the VGT-derived datasets (L3JRC) represented the largest number of fire sites in spite of its great overall underestimation, whereas the GBA2000 dataset achieved the best <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> quantification, both showing delayed and very variable fire timing. Spatial accuracy was comparable between the 5?km and the 1?km AVHRR-derived datasets but was remarkably lower in the 8?km dataset leading, us to conclude that at higher spatial resolutions, temporal accuracy was lower. The probable methodological and contextual causes of these differences were analyzed in detail. PMID:23818817</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036234','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036234"><span id="translatedtitle">Fire frequency, <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, and severity: A quantitative approach to defining a normal fire year</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lutz, J.A.; Key, C.H.; Kolden, C.A.; Kane, J.T.; van Wagtendonk, J.W.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Fire frequency, <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, and fire severity are important attributes of a fire regime, but few studies have quantified the interrelationships among them in evaluating a fire year. Although <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> is often used to summarize a fire season, <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> may not be well correlated with either the number or ecological effect of fires. Using the Landsat data archive, we examined all 148 wildland fires (prescribed fires and wildfires) >40 ha from 1984 through 2009 for the portion of the Sierra Nevada centered on Yosemite National Park, California, USA. We calculated mean fire frequency and mean annual <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> from a combination of field- and satellite-derived data. We used the continuous probability distribution of the differenced Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio (dNBR) values to describe fire severity. For fires >40 ha, fire frequency, annual <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, and cumulative severity were consistent in only 13 of 26 years (50 %), but all pair-wise comparisons among these fire regime attributes were significant. Borrowing from long-established practice in climate science, we defined "fire normals" to be the 26 year means of fire frequency, annual <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, and the <span class="hlt">area</span> under the cumulative probability distribution of dNBR. Fire severity normals were significantly lower when they were aggregated by year compared to aggregation by <span class="hlt">area</span>. Cumulative severity distributions for each year were best modeled with Weibull functions (all 26 years, r2 ??? 0.99; P < 0.001). Explicit modeling of the cumulative severity distributions may allow more comprehensive modeling of climate-severity and <span class="hlt">area</span>-severity relationships. Together, the three metrics of number of fires, size of fires, and severity of fires provide land managers with a more comprehensive summary of a given fire year than any single metric.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25178190','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25178190"><span id="translatedtitle">Itch in <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> after skin transplantation: patient characteristics, influencing factors and therapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuipers, Hester C; Bremer, Marco; Braem, Leen; Goemanne, Anne-Sofie; Middelkoop, Esther; van Loey, Nancy E E</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Pruritus is a frequently encountered symptom following <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Higher intensity of itching has been associated with depth of the wounds and specific body locations but these differences are not well understood. Our aim was to investigate the intensity of post <span class="hlt">burn</span> pruritus in grafted and non-grafted <span class="hlt">burns</span> across anatomic <span class="hlt">areas</span> and to report on itch-inducing factors and applied treatments. The study included 226 patients prospectively followed for 18 months. Results showed that grafted patients and non-grafted patients reported similar overall itch intensity in-hospital. At 3 months post <span class="hlt">burn</span>, grafted patients had higher overall itch scores, a difference that was found robust across the study period. Grafted wounds were found to produce higher mean itch intensity at 3 months post <span class="hlt">burn</span> but this difference disappeared at 12 months post <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Differences in itch prevalence rates were found across anatomic <span class="hlt">areas</span>, but only in non-grafted <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The differences in itch intensity on patient level versus wound level suggest that on the longer run, peripheral mechanism do not explain the higher itch scores in grafted patients. PMID:25178190</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GBioC..29..207P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GBioC..29..207P"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of global terrestrial carbon cycle dynamics to variability in satellite-observed <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poulter, Benjamin; Cadule, Patricia; Cheiney, Audrey; Ciais, Philippe; Hodson, Elke; Peylin, Philippe; Plummer, Stephen; Spessa, Allan; Saatchi, Sassan; Yue, Chao; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Fire plays an important role in terrestrial ecosystems by regulating biogeochemistry, biogeography, and energy budgets, yet despite the importance of fire as an integral ecosystem process, significant advances remain to improve its prognostic representation in carbon cycle models. To recommend and to help prioritize model improvements, this study investigates the sensitivity of a coupled global biogeography and biogeochemistry model, LPJ, to observed <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> measured by three independent satellite-derived products, GFED v3.1, L3JRC, and GlobCarbon. Model variables are compared with benchmarks that include pantropical aboveground biomass, global tree cover, and CO2 and CO trace gas concentrations. Depending on prescribed <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product, global aboveground carbon stocks varied by 300 Pg C, and woody cover ranged from 50 to 73 Mkm2. Tree cover and biomass were both reduced linearly with increasing <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, i.e., at regional scales, a 10% reduction in tree cover per 1000 km2, and 0.04-to-0.40 Mg C reduction per 1000 km2. In boreal regions, satellite <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> improved simulated tree cover and biomass distributions, but in savanna regions, model-data correlations decreased. Global net biome production was relatively insensitive to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, and the long-term land carbon sink was robust, ~2.5 Pg C yr-1, suggesting that feedbacks from ecosystem respiration compensated for reductions in fuel consumption via fire. CO2 transport provided further evidence that heterotrophic respiration compensated any emission reductions in the absence of fire, with minor differences in modeled CO2 fluxes among <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products. CO was a more sensitive indicator for evaluating fire emissions, with MODIS-GFED <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> producing CO concentrations largely in agreement with independent observations in high latitudes. This study illustrates how ensembles of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data sets can be used to diagnose model structures and parameters for further improvement and also highlights the importance in considering uncertainties and variability in observed <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data products for model applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B41D0441B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B41D0441B"><span id="translatedtitle">MODIS-Landsat data fusion for automated continental 30 m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.; Baraldi, A.; Humber, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Satellite data have been used to monitor fire for more than three decades using computer algorithms that detect the location of active fires at the time of satellite overpass and the spatial extent of the <span class="hlt">areas</span> affected by fire. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors have dedicated fire monitoring capabilities and their data are used to systematically generate daily global 1km active fire and monthly 500m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products. Neither MODIS product can detect the incidence or extent of fire reliably at the scale of 10's of meters. The free Landsat data policy now provides the opportunity for continental to global scale Landsat 30m resolution processing. We present a multi-temporal methodology to fuse the MODIS active fire and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products with Landsat data to map <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> at 30m on a temporally rolling basis. To demonstrate the methodology, 30m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps of the Western United States are generated using the freely available Web Enabled Landsat (WELD) mosaics (http://landsat.usgs.gov/WELD.php). Validation is conducted by systematic comparison with fire perimeter vectors provided by the USGS Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity project. Prospects for future development and continental application are discussed. The methodology demonstrates the potential use of the Landsat archive to generate a long term 30m fire data record.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMIN52B..06B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMIN52B..06B"><span id="translatedtitle">Design-based validation of the MODIS Global <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Product</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.; Stehman, S. V.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The potential research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on providing statements about their accuracy. Product comparison with independent reference data is needed to determine product accuracy. Design-based accuracy assessment methods select the independent reference data using a probability sampling and are preferred as the reference data can subsequently be used to compute accuracy metrics that explicitly take into account the sampling probability. To date, no global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product has been validated using a design-based methodology due to the technical challenges of designing an appropriate independent reference data sampling strategy, and, until recently, due to the high cost of independent reference data collection. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product errors are not randomly distributed in space and time and tend to be linked to seasonal phenomena that can be confused with <span class="hlt">burning</span>. This paper describes the design-based sampling strategy developed for the validation of the MODIS Global <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Products using more than 200 globally distributed multi-temporal pairs of Landsat scenes, processed following the recommendations of the CEOS Cal/Val <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Validation Protocol. The sampling design is illustrated and the advantages of the design-based sampling discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL8.1429S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAr.XL8.1429S"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Delineation Using IRS AWiFS satellite data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singhal, J.; Kiranchand, T. R.; Rajashekar, G.; Jha, C. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>India is endowed with a rich forest cover. Over 21% of country's <span class="hlt">area</span> is covered by forest of varied composition and structure. Out of 67.5 million ha of Indian forests, about 55% of the forest cover is being subjected to fires each year, causing an economic loss of over 440 crores of rupees apart from other ecological effects. Studies carried out by Forest Survey of India reveals that on an <span class="hlt">average</span> 53% forest cover of the country is prone to fires and 6.17% of the forests are prone to severe fire damage. Forest Survey of India in a countrywide study in 1995 estimated that about 1.45 million hectares of forest are affected by fire annually. According to Forest Protection Division of the Ministry of Environment and Forest (GOI), 3.73 million ha of forests are affected by fire annually in India. Karnataka is one of the southern states of India extending in between latitude 110 30' and 180 25' and longitudes 740 10' and 780 35'. As per Forest Survey of India's State of Forest Report (SFR) 2009, of the total geographic <span class="hlt">area</span> of 191791sq.km, the state harbors 38284 sq.km of recorded forest <span class="hlt">area</span>. Major forest types occurring in the study <span class="hlt">area</span> are tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen, tropical moist and dry deciduous forests along with tropical scrub and dry grasslands. Typical forest fire season in the study <span class="hlt">area</span> is from February-May with a peak during March-April every year, though sporadic fire episodes occur in other parts of the year sq.km, the state harbors 38284 sq.km of recorded forest <span class="hlt">area</span>. Major forest types occurring in the study <span class="hlt">area</span> are tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen, tropical moist and dry deciduous forests along with tropical scrub and dry grasslands. Significant <span class="hlt">area</span> of the deciduous forests, scrub and grasslands is prone to recurrent forest fires every year. In this study we evaluate the feasibility of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping over a large <span class="hlt">area</span> (Karnataka state, India) using a semi-automated detection algorithm applied to medium resolution multi spectral data from the IRS AWiFS sensor. The method is intended to be used by non-specialist users for diagnostic rapid burnt <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESASP.734...41A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESASP.734...41A"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of PROBA-V Data for Discriminating <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Areas</span> in Minas Gerais State, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arantes Pereira, Allan; Pereira, J. M. C.; Oom, Duarte; Tavares de Carvalho, Luis Marcelo</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>High spatio-temporal resolution optical remote sensing data provides opportunities to monitor and discriminate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in a accurate way. This study has the purpose to assess the discriminatory performance of multi-spectral reflectance values of PROBA-V sensor and on normalized difference spectral indices (NDSIs), such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in <span class="hlt">burned</span> land discrimination a in different land-cover types across Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The M separability index was calculated in each land-cover type including Cerrado (Tropical Savanna), Atlantic Forest, agricultural crops, and pastures, to determine the most powerful band(s) combinations among the PROBA-V reflective bands for discrimination between burnt and unburnt <span class="hlt">areas</span> The results showed that the BLUE channel is potentially effective for burntarea discrimination in the majority of all land cover types ,. Moreover results showed that spectral indexes used for discriminating <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> are vegetation type dependant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/ofr03500/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/ofr03500/"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Logistic Regression To Predict the Probability of Debris Flows Occurring in <span class="hlt">Areas</span> Recently <span class="hlt">Burned</span> By Wildland Fires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rupert, Michael G.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of debris flows occurring in <span class="hlt">areas</span> recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> by wildland fires. Multiple logistic regression is conceptually similar to multiple linear regression because statistical relations between one dependent variable and several independent variables are evaluated. In logistic regression, however, the dependent variable is transformed to a binary variable (debris flow did or did not occur), and the actual probability of the debris flow occurring is statistically modeled. Data from 399 basins located within 15 wildland fires that <span class="hlt">burned</span> during 2000-2002 in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, and New Mexico were evaluated. More than 35 independent variables describing the <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, geology, land surface gradient, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated. The models were developed as follows: (1) Basins that did and did not produce debris flows were delineated from National Elevation Data using a Geographic Information System (GIS). (2) Data describing the <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, geology, land surface gradient, rainfall, and soil properties were determined for each basin. These data were then downloaded to a statistics software package for analysis using logistic regression. (3) Relations between the occurrence/non-occurrence of debris flows and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, geology, land surface gradient, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated and several preliminary multivariate logistic regression models were constructed. All possible combinations of independent variables were evaluated to determine which combination produced the most effective model. The multivariate model that best predicted the occurrence of debris flows was selected. (4) The multivariate logistic regression model was entered into a GIS, and a map showing the probability of debris flows was constructed. The most effective model incorporates the percentage of each basin with slope greater than 30 percent, percentage of land <span class="hlt">burned</span> at medium and high <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity in each basin, particle size sorting, <span class="hlt">average</span> storm intensity (millimeters per hour), soil organic matter content, soil permeability, and soil drainage. The results of this study demonstrate that logistic regression is a valuable tool for predicting the probability of debris flows occurring in recently-<span class="hlt">burned</span> landscapes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B51M0587B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B51M0587B"><span id="translatedtitle">MODIS-Landsat data fusion for continental scale <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Satellite data have been used to monitor fire for more than two decades using computer algorithms that detect the location of active fires at the time of satellite overpass, and in the last decade using <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping algorithms that map the spatial extent of the <span class="hlt">areas</span> affected by fires. Until the successful launch of the polar-orbiting NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors there were no environmental satellite systems with dedicated fire monitoring capabilities. The MODIS design includes bands specifically selected for fire detection and MODIS data are being used to systematically generate the daily global 1km active fire and the monthly 500m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products. However, neither MODIS product can detect fires reliably at the scale of 10's of meters. The recent U.S. free Landsat data policy now provides the opportunity for continental to global scale Landsat 30m resolution processing. This paper presents a multi-temporal methodology to fuse the MODIS active fire and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products with Landsat data to map <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> at 30m on a temporally rolling basis. To demonstrate the fusion methodology, 30m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps of the conterminous United States (CONUS) are generated using the freely available Web Enabled Landsat (WELD) ETM+ mosaics (http://landsat.usgs.gov/WELD.php). Validation is conducted by systematic comparison with the fire perimeter vectors provided by the USGS Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity project. Prospects for future developments and continental application are discussed. The presented methodology demonstrates the potential for the fusion of the planned NPP/NPOESS VIIRS active fire product with reflectance data sensed by the planned Landsat Data Continuity missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880050191&hterms=flint&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dflint%252C','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880050191&hterms=flint&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dflint%252C"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiative surface temperatures of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> and unburned <span class="hlt">areas</span> in a tallgrass prairie</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Asrar, G.; Harris, T. R.; Lapitan, R. L.; Cooper, D. I.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>This study was conducted in a natural tallgrass prairie <span class="hlt">area</span> in the Flint Hills of Kansas. The objective was to evaluate the surface radiative temperatures of <span class="hlt">burned</span> and unburned treatments of the grassland as a means of delineating the <span class="hlt">areas</span> covered by each treatment. <span class="hlt">Burning</span> is used to remove the senescent vegetation resulting from the previous year's growth. Surface temperatures were obtained in situ and by an airborne scanner. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> and unburned grass canopies had distinctly different diurnal surface radiative temperatures. Measurements of surface energy balance components revealed a difference in partitioning of the available energy between the two canopies, which resulted in the difference in their measured surface temperatures. The magnitude of this difference is dependent on the time of measurements and topographic conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......168M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......168M"><span id="translatedtitle">Accuracy assessment of photogrammetric digital elevation models generated for the Schultz Fire <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muise, Danna K.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper evaluates the accuracy of two digital photogrammetric software programs (ERDAS Imagine LPS and PCI Geomatica OrthoEngine) with respect to high-resolution terrain modeling in a complex topographic setting affected by fire and flooding. The site investigated is the 2010 Schultz Fire <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, situated on the eastern edge of the San Francisco Peaks approximately 10 km northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona. Here, the fire coupled with monsoon rains typical of northern Arizona drastically altered the terrain of the steep mountainous slopes and residential <span class="hlt">areas</span> below the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. To quantify these changes, high resolution (1 m and 3 m) digital elevation models (DEMs) were generated of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> using color stereoscopic aerial photographs taken at a scale of approximately 1:12000. Using a combination of pre-marked and post-marked ground control points (GCPs), I first used ERDAS Imagine LPS to generate a 3 m DEM covering 8365 ha of the affected <span class="hlt">area</span>. This data was then compared to a reference DEM (USGS 10 m) to evaluate the accuracy of the resultant DEM. Findings were then divided into blunders (errors) and bias (slight differences) and further analyzed to determine if different factors (elevation, slope, aspect and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity) affected the accuracy of the DEM. Results indicated that both blunders and bias increased with an increase in slope, elevation and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity. It was also found that southern facing slopes contained the highest amount of bias while northern facing slopes contained the highest proportion of blunders. Further investigations compared a 1 m DEM generated using ERDAS Imagine LPS with a 1 m DEM generated using PCI Geomatica OrthoEngine for a specific region of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. This <span class="hlt">area</span> was limited to the overlap of two images due to OrthoEngine requiring at least three GCPs to be located in the overlap of the imagery. Results indicated that although LPS produced a less accurate DEM, it was much more flexible than OrthoEngine. It was also determined that the most amount of difference between the DEMs occurred in unburned <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the fire while the least amount of difference occurred in <span class="hlt">areas</span> that were highly <span class="hlt">burned</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21703768','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21703768"><span id="translatedtitle">A system for 3D representation of <span class="hlt">burns</span> and calculation of burnt skin <span class="hlt">area</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prieto, María Felicidad; Acha, Begoña; Gómez-Cía, Tomás; Fondón, Irene; Serrano, Carmen</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>In this paper a computer-based system for burnt surface <span class="hlt">area</span> estimation (BAI), is presented. First, a 3D model of a patient, adapted to age, weight, gender and constitution is created. On this 3D model, physicians represent both <span class="hlt">burns</span> as well as <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth allowing the burnt surface <span class="hlt">area</span> to be automatically calculated by the system. Each patient models as well as photographs and <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimation can be stored. Therefore, these data can be included in the patient's clinical records for further review. Validation of this system was performed. In a first experiment, artificial known sized paper patches were attached to different parts of the body in 37 volunteers. A panel of 5 experts diagnosed the extent of the patches using the Rule of Nines. Besides, our system estimated the <span class="hlt">area</span> of the "artificial <span class="hlt">burn</span>". In order to validate the null hypothesis, Student's t-test was applied to collected data. In addition, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated and a value of 0.9918 was obtained, demonstrating that the reliability of the program in calculating the <span class="hlt">area</span> is of 99%. In a second experiment, the burnt skin <span class="hlt">areas</span> of 80 patients were calculated using BAI system and the Rule of Nines. A comparison between these two measuring methods was performed via t-Student test and ICC. The hypothesis of null difference between both measures is only true for deep dermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> and the ICC is significantly different, indicating that the <span class="hlt">area</span> estimation calculated by applying classical techniques can result in a wrong diagnose of the burnt surface. PMID:21703768</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/977788','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/977788"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Area-averaged</span> profiles over the mock urban setting test array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nelson, M. A.; Brown, M. J.; Pardyjak, E. R.; Klewicki, J. C.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Urban <span class="hlt">areas</span> have a large effect on the local climate and meteorology. Efforts have been made to incorporate the bulk dynamic and thermodynamic effects of urban <span class="hlt">areas</span> into mesoscale models (e.g., Chin et al., 2000; Holt et al., 2002; Lacser and Otte, 2002). At this scale buildings cannot be resolved individually, but parameterizations have been developed to capture their aggregate effect. These urban canopy parameterizations have been designed to account for the <span class="hlt">area-average</span> drag, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production, and surface energy balance modifications due to buildings (e.g., Sorbjan and Uliasz, 1982; Ca, 1999; Brown, 2000; Martilli et al., 2002). These models compute an <span class="hlt">area-averaged</span> mean profile that is representative of the bulk flow characteristics over the entire mesoscale grid cell. One difficulty has been testing of these parameterizations due to lack of <span class="hlt">area-averaged</span> data. In this paper, <span class="hlt">area-averaged</span> velocity and turbulent kinetic energy profiles are derived from data collected at the Mock Urban Setting Test (MUST). The MUST experiment was designed to be a near full-scale model of an idealized urban <span class="hlt">area</span> imbedded in the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL). It's purpose was to study airflow and plume transport in urban <span class="hlt">areas</span> and to provide a test case for model validation. A large number of velocity measurements were taken at the test site so that it was possible to derive <span class="hlt">area-averaged</span> velocity and TKE profiles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN11B3607B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMIN11B3607B"><span id="translatedtitle">Validation of the 2008 Landsat <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Ecv Product for North America Using Stratified Random Sampling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brunner, N. M.; Mladinich, C. S.; Caldwell, M. K.; Beal, Y. J. G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The U.S. Geological Survey is generating a suite of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) products, as defined by the Global Climate Observing System, from the Landsat data archive. Validation protocols for these products are being established, incorporating the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Land Product Validation Subgroup's best practice guidelines and validation hierarchy stages. The sampling design and accuracy measures follow the methodology developed by the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Fire Disturbance (fire_cci) project (Padilla and others, 2014). A rigorous validation was performed on the 2008 <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> ECV (BAECV) prototype product, using a stratified random sample of 48 Thiessen scene <span class="hlt">areas</span> overlaying Landsat path/rows distributed across several terrestrial biomes throughout North America. The validation reference data consisted of fourteen sample sites acquired from the fire_cci project and the remaining new samples sites generated from a densification of the stratified sampling for North America. The reference <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> polygons were generated using the ABAMS (Automatic <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Mapping) software (Bastarrika and others, 2011; Izagirre, 2014). Accuracy results will be presented indicating strengths and weaknesses of the BAECV algorithm.Bastarrika, A., Chuvieco, E., and Martín, M.P., 2011, Mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> from Landsat TM/ETM+ data with a two-phase algorithm: Balancing omission and commission errors: Remote Sensing of Environment, v. 115, no. 4, p. 1003-1012.Izagirre, A.B., 2014, Automatic <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Mapping Software (ABAMS), Preliminary Documentation, Version 10 v4,: Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, University of Basque Country, p. 27.Padilla, M., Chuvieco, E., Hantson, S., Theis, R., and Sandow, C., 2014, D2.1 - Product Validation Plan: UAH - University of Alcalá de Henares (Spain), 37 p.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=145670','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=145670"><span id="translatedtitle">BIG SAGEBRUSH LEAF <span class="hlt">AREA</span> DYNAMICS ON A <span class="hlt">BURNED</span>, GRAZED AND CONTROL SITE IN THE SAGEBRUSH STEPPE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) is an important shrub for wildlife habitat and carbon sequestration in the western U.S. The effects of fire and grazing on leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> development of big sagebrush were investigated in plots established on a 16-ha <span class="hlt">burned</span> site, a 12-ha grazed site and 16-ha c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023939','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023939"><span id="translatedtitle">Long lead statistical forecasts of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in western U.S. wildfires by ecosystem province</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Westerling, A.L.; Gershunov, A.; Cayan, D.R.; Barnett, T.P.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A statistical forecast methodology exploits large-scale patterns in monthly U.S. Climatological Division Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) values over a wide region and several seasons to predict <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in western U.S. wildfires by ecosystem province a season in advance. The forecast model, which is based on canonical correlations, indicates that a few characteristic patterns determine predicted wildfire season <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Strong negative associations between anomalous soil moisture (inferred from PDSI) immediately prior to the fire season and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> dominate in most higher elevation forested provinces, while strong positive associations between anomalous soil moisture a year prior to the fire season and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> dominate in desert and shrub and grassland provinces. In much of the western U.S., above- and below-normal fire season forecasts were successful 57% of the time or better, as compared with a 33% skill for a random guess, and with a low probability of being surprised by a fire season at the opposite extreme of that forecast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/630832','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/630832"><span id="translatedtitle">Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Palmer, E.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003482','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003482"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Average</span> Cross-Sectional <span class="hlt">Area</span> of DebriSat Fragments Using Volumetrically Constructed 3D Representations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Scruggs, T.; Moraguez, M.; Patankar, K.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Liou, J.-C.; Sorge, M.; Huynh, T.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Debris fragments from the hypervelocity impact testing of DebriSat are being collected and characterized for use in updating existing satellite breakup models. One of the key parameters utilized in these models is the ballistic coefficient of the fragment which is directly related to its <span class="hlt">area</span>-to-mass ratio. However, since the attitude of fragments varies during their orbital lifetime, it is customary to use the <span class="hlt">average</span> cross-sectional <span class="hlt">area</span> in the calculation of the <span class="hlt">area</span>-to-mass ratio. The <span class="hlt">average</span> cross-sectional <span class="hlt">area</span> is defined as the <span class="hlt">average</span> of the projected surface <span class="hlt">areas</span> perpendicular to the direction of motion and has been shown to be equal to one-fourth of the total surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of a convex object. Unfortunately, numerous fragments obtained from the DebriSat experiment show significant concavity (i.e., shadowing) and thus we have explored alternate methods for computing the <span class="hlt">average</span> cross-sectional <span class="hlt">area</span> of the fragments. An imaging system based on the volumetric reconstruction of a 3D object from multiple 2D photographs of the object was developed for use in determining the size characteristic (i.e., characteristics length) of the DebriSat fragments. For each fragment, the imaging system generates N number of images from varied azimuth and elevation angles and processes them using a space-carving algorithm to construct a 3D point cloud of the fragment. This paper describes two approaches for calculating the <span class="hlt">average</span> cross-sectional <span class="hlt">area</span> of debris fragments based on the 3D imager. Approach A utilizes the constructed 3D object to generate equally distributed cross-sectional <span class="hlt">area</span> projections and then <span class="hlt">averages</span> them to determine the <span class="hlt">average</span> cross-sectional <span class="hlt">area</span>. Approach B utilizes a weighted <span class="hlt">average</span> of the <span class="hlt">area</span> of the 2D photographs to directly compute the <span class="hlt">average</span> cross-sectional <span class="hlt">area</span>. A comparison of the accuracy and computational needs of each approach is described as well as preliminary results of an analysis to determine the "optimal" number of images needed for the 3D imager to accurately measure the <span class="hlt">average</span> cross sectional <span class="hlt">area</span> of objects with known dimensions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032401','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032401"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the response of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> to changing climate in western boreal North America using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Balshi, M. S.; McGuire, A.D.; Duffy, P.; Flannigan, M.; Walsh, J.; Melillo, J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Fire is a common disturbance in the North American boreal forest that influences ecosystem structure and function. The temporal and spatial dynamics of fire are likely to be altered as climate continues to change. In this study, we ask the question: how will <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in boreal North America by wildfire respond to future changes in climate? To evaluate this question, we developed temporally and spatially explicit relationships between air temperature and fuel moisture codes derived from the Canadian Fire Weather Index System to estimate annual <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> at 2.5?? (latitude ?? longitude) resolution using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) approach across Alaska and Canada. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was substantially more predictable in the western portion of boreal North America than in eastern Canada. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was also not very predictable in <span class="hlt">areas</span> of substantial topographic relief and in <span class="hlt">areas</span> along the transition between boreal forest and tundra. At the scale of Alaska and western Canada, the empirical fire models explain on the order of 82% of the variation in annual <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> for the period 1960-2002. July temperature was the most frequently occurring predictor across all models, but the fuel moisture codes for the months June through August (as a group) entered the models as the most important predictors of annual <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. To predict changes in the temporal and spatial dynamics of fire under future climate, the empirical fire models used output from the Canadian Climate Center CGCM2 global climate model to predict annual <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> through the year 2100 across Alaska and western Canada. Relative to 1991-2000, the results suggest that <span class="hlt">average</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> per decade will double by 2041-2050 and will increase on the order of 3.5-5.5 times by the last decade of the 21st century. To improve the ability to better predict wildfire across Alaska and Canada, future research should focus on incorporating additional effects of long-term and successional vegetation changes on <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> to account more fully for interactions among fire, climate, and vegetation dynamics. ?? 2009 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11..890M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11..890M"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of vegetation spatial heterogeneity on soil enzyme activity in <span class="hlt">burned</span> Mediterranean <span class="hlt">areas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mayor, Á. G.; Goirán, S.; Bautista, S.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly considered resilient to wildfires. However, depending on fire severity and recurrence, post-fire climatic conditions and plant community type, the recovery rate of the vegetation can greatly vary. Often, the post-fire vegetation cover remains low and sparsely distributed many years after the wildfire, which could have profound impacts on ecosystem functioning. In this work, we studied the influence of vegetation patchiness on soil enzyme activity (acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase and urease), at the patch and landscape scales, in degraded dry Mediterranean shrublands affected by wildfires. At the patch scale, we assessed the variation in soil enzyme between bare soils and vegetation patches. At the landscape scale, we studied the relationships between soil enzyme activity and various landscape metrics (total patch cover, <span class="hlt">average</span> interpatch length, <span class="hlt">average</span> patch width, and patch density). The study was conducted in 19 sites in the Valencia Region (eastern Spain), which had been affected by large wildfires in 1991. Site selection aimed at capturing a wide range of the variability of post-fire plant recovery rates in Mediterranean <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The activities of the three enzymes were significantly higher in soils under the vegetation canopies than in adjacent bare <span class="hlt">areas</span>, which we attributed to the effect of plants on the soil amount of both enzyme substrates and enzymes. The differences between bare and plant microsites were larger in the case of the acid phosphatase and less marked for urease. The activity of acid phosphatase was also higher under patches of resprouter species than under patches of seeder species, probably due to the faster post-fire recovery and older age of resprouter patches in fire-prone ecosystems. Soil enzyme activities of β-glucosidase and urease in both bare soils and vegetation patches showed no relationships with any of the landscape metrics analysed. However, the activity of acid phosphatase increased linearly with the total cover of vegetation patches, which is consistent with the strong effect of plant patches on the activity of this enzyme. According to our results, variations in the cover and composition of vegetation patches may have profound impacts on the soil enzyme activity and associated nutrient cycling processes in <span class="hlt">burned</span> Mediterranean <span class="hlt">areas</span>, particularly in the case of phosphorus. Keywords: wildfires, landscape metrics, Mediterranean shrublands, soil enzyme activity, resprouter species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC24A..07K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC24A..07K"><span id="translatedtitle">Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Evaluation of Uncertainties in <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burned</span>, Land Cover, and Fuel Consumption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kukavskaya, E.; Soja, A. J.; Ivanova, G. A.; Petkov, A.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Conard, S. G.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Wildfire is one of the main disturbance factors in the boreal zone of Russia. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russia vary substantially due to differences in ecosystem classification and mapping, <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> calculations, and estimates of fuel consumption. We examined uncertainties in different parameters used to estimate biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions. Several fire datasets (Institute of Forest <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product, MCD45, MCD64, MOD14/MYD14, official data) were compared to estimate uncertainties in <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in Siberia. <span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> was found to differ significantly by data source, with satellite data being by an order of magnitude greater than ground-based data. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted on the basis of five land cover maps (GLC-2000, Globcover-2009, MODIS Collection 4 and 5 Global Land Cover, and the Digitized Ecosystem map of the Former Soviet Union) to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. The examination of land cover maps showed that estimates of relative proportion of fire by ecosystem type varied substantially for the same year from map to map. Fuel consumption remains one of the main uncertainties in estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in Siberia. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Global climate change is expected to result in increase of fire hazard and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, leading to impacts on global air quality and human health. Accurate emission estimates are required by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts. This research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, Fulbright Program, and Russian Academy of Sciences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec36-622.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol2-sec36-622.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 36.622 - National and study <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">average</span> unseparated loop costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National and study <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">average</span> unseparated... Universal Service Fund Calculation of Loop Costs for Expense Adjustment 36.622 National and study <span class="hlt">area</span>... provided in paragraph (c) of this section, this is equal to the sum of the Loop Costs for each study...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec36-622.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol2-sec36-622.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 36.622 - National and study <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">average</span> unseparated loop costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National and study <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">average</span> unseparated...-Cost Loop Support Calculation of Loop Costs for Expense Adjustment 36.622 National and study <span class="hlt">area</span>... provided in paragraph (c) of this section, this is equal to the sum of the Loop Costs for each study...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec36-622.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol2-sec36-622.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 36.622 - National and study <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">average</span> unseparated loop costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National and study <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">average</span> unseparated... Universal Service Fund Calculation of Loop Costs for Expense Adjustment 36.622 National and study <span class="hlt">area</span>... provided in paragraph (c) of this section, this is equal to the sum of the Loop Costs for each study...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec36-622.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol2-sec36-622.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">47 CFR 36.622 - National and study <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">average</span> unseparated loop costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National and study <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">average</span> unseparated...-Cost Loop Support Calculation of Loop Costs for Expense Adjustment 36.622 National and study <span class="hlt">area</span>... provided in paragraph (c) of this section, this is equal to the sum of the Loop Costs for each study...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.H54B..08S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.H54B..08S"><span id="translatedtitle">On the theory relating changes in <span class="hlt">area-average</span> and pan evaporation (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shuttleworth, W.; Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Roderick, M. L.; Scott, R.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Theory relating changes in <span class="hlt">area-average</span> evaporation with changes in the evaporation from pans or open water is developed. Such changes can arise by Type (a) processes related to large-scale changes in atmospheric concentrations and circulation that modify surface evaporation rates in the same direction, and Type (b) processes related to coupling between the surface and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at the landscape scale that usually modify <span class="hlt">area-average</span> evaporation and pan evaporation in different directions. The interrelationship between evaporation rates in response to Type (a) changes is derived. They have the same sign and broadly similar magnitude but the change in <span class="hlt">area-average</span> evaporation is modified by surface resistance. As an alternative to assuming the complementary evaporation hypothesis, the results of previous modeling studies that investigated surface-atmosphere coupling are parameterized and used to develop a theoretical description of Type (b) coupling via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in the ABL. The interrelationship between appropriately normalized pan and <span class="hlt">area-average</span> evaporation rates is shown to vary with temperature and wind speed but, on <span class="hlt">average</span>, the Type (b) changes are approximately equal and opposite. Long-term Australian pan evaporation data are analyzed to demonstrate the simultaneous presence of Type (a) and (b) processes, and observations from three field sites in southwestern USA show support for the theory describing Type (b) coupling via VPD. England's victory over Australia in 2009 Ashes cricket test match series will not be mentioned.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A11H0140A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A11H0140A"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> plume modeling with WRF-Chem in tropical forest regions to evaluate the added benefit of active fire detections over <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> datasets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Fires are routinely monitored from space, either by detecting fires that <span class="hlt">burn</span> at the time of overpass or by investigating satellite time series to map <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. While <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> datasets have largely replaced active fires as the preferential product to use when mapping the spatial extent of fires, they have limited success in detecting small fires, such as agricultural <span class="hlt">burns</span>. In addition, late season fires may be more easily detected using active fires. Here we investigated whether including active fires that are not associated with <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> improved the match between bottom-up fire emissions modeling and top-down constraints. We used the WRF-Chem model to transport several modified versions of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) into the atmosphere and used observation of MOPITT carbon monoxide as a top-down constraint. We focus on emissions over Indonesia and the Amazon, and show that including active fires leads to a longer modeled fire season, which is in better correspondence with top-down constraints. In the future, merging both datasets may lead to a better representation of fire emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513633M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513633M"><span id="translatedtitle">Dominating soil typologies in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> of Dzu kija National Park (Lithuania)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin-Gallego, David; Lapele, Mindaugas; Pereira, Paulo</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>A big part of the scientific community consider fire disturbance as an ecological factor which becomes an integral part of the structure and dynamics of the biotic components of forests. In Dz?kija National Park, likewise occurs in other boreal forests, fire perturbation has become over time one of the main natural components which models and structures the landscape. It is indeed know that park's forest territory presents a high sensitivity to wildfire and soil typologies could have certain implications when evaluating vulnerability to fire. To carry out this study, a total of 28 <span class="hlt">burned</span>-stands were explored. Information collected in the forest related to fire concurrence as well as current dominating overgrowing were registered. In this way, interpretation of field work results was aimed to elucidate dominating soils in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> which potentially are more prone to wildfire. The majority of fire-affected stands were found on soils of type "Na" -78% of total sites-, a few ones of "Nb" -18% of <span class="hlt">burned</span> plots- and, eventually, fire was also evidenced in "Lb" soils -4%. "Na" typology belongs to very dry and unfertilized soils and, thus, very sensitive to fire, with dominating community of Cladonio-pinetum sylvestris. In "Nb" stands there are more fertilized soils with Vaccinium vitis-idaea in some cases with transitional associations of Vaccinium myrtillus. "Lb" typology refers to wetter soils with undergrown of Vaccinium myrtillus. Overall, fire has regularly been occurring in dried and non-fertilized soils, were preconditions for <span class="hlt">burning</span> increase; whereas <span class="hlt">burned</span> stands within more humid environments were rarely found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26700877','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26700877"><span id="translatedtitle">Standardised mortality ratio based on the sum of age and percentage total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> is an adequate quality indicator in <span class="hlt">burn</span> care: An exploratory review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steinvall, Ingrid; Elmasry, Moustafa; Fredrikson, Mats; Sjoberg, Folke</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) based on generic mortality predicting models is an established quality indicator in critical care. <span class="hlt">Burn</span>-specific mortality models are preferred for the comparison among patients with <span class="hlt">burns</span> as their predictive value is better. The aim was to assess whether the sum of age (years) and percentage total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (which constitutes the Baux score) is acceptable in comparison to other more complex models, and to find out if data collected from a separate <span class="hlt">burn</span> centre are sufficient for SMR based quality assessment. The predictive value of nine <span class="hlt">burn</span>-specific models was tested by comparing values from the <span class="hlt">area</span> under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and a non-inferiority analysis using 1% as the limit (delta). SMR was analysed by comparing data from seven reference sources, including the North American National <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Repository (NBR), with the observed mortality (years 1993-2012, n=1613, 80 deaths). The AUC values ranged between 0.934 and 0.976. The AUC 0.970 (95% CI 0.96-0.98) for the Baux score was non-inferior to the other models. SMR was 0.52 (95% CI 0.28-0.88) for the most recent five-year period compared with NBR based data. The analysis suggests that SMR based on the Baux score is eligible as an indicator of quality for setting standards of mortality in <span class="hlt">burn</span> care. More advanced modelling only marginally improves the predictive value. The SMR can detect mortality differences in data from a single centre. PMID:26700877</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC33E0565B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC33E0565B"><span id="translatedtitle">Continental scale 30m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping: demonstration and validation for the conterminous United States and Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Fire products derived from coarse (500m to 1km) spatial resolution satellite data have become an important source of information for the fire science and applications communities. There is however a demand for moderate spatial resolution <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps that are systematically generated at regional to global scale. This paper presents a multi-temporal methodology to fuse the MODIS 1km active fire product with Landsat data to map <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> at 30m on a temporally rolling basis. A multistage mapping approach is used, with an initial per-pixel change detection on Landsat 30m time series to identify candidate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The candidate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> objects are then either retained or discarded by comparison with contemporaneous MODIS active fire detections. Results are illustrated showing 30m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps of the conterminous United States and Alaska for two years (2002 and 2008) generated from weekly Web Enabled Landsat (WELD) Landsat mosaics and daily Terra and Aqua MODIS active fire detections. Validation is conducted by systematic comparison with all the fire perimeter vectors provided by the USGS Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity project. The presented methodology pathfinds the use of the Landsat archive to contribute to a long term <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data record. Prospects for future developments and global application are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..SHK.G7003R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..SHK.G7003R"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the Asymmetric <span class="hlt">Burning</span> of Agglomerate Particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Richmond, Clinton</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>A model has been developed to describe asymmetric <span class="hlt">burning</span> effects due to oxide caps or other substances on the surface of agglomerate particles. The model accounts for the <span class="hlt">burning</span> behavior of single particles when they are combined together in an agglomerate of particles. The model calculates the available surface <span class="hlt">area</span> that is exposed to <span class="hlt">burning</span> by the geometric formation of the agglomerate of the combining particles. <span class="hlt">Averaging</span> analytic techniques are applied to the <span class="hlt">burning</span> behavior of the agglomerate of particles so that its <span class="hlt">burning</span> effects can be compared to the <span class="hlt">burning</span> effects from the uncombined, single particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..955..861R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..955..861R"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the Asymmetric <span class="hlt">Burning</span> of Agglomerate Particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Richmond, Clinton T.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>A model has been developed to describe asymmetric <span class="hlt">burning</span> effects on the surface of particles in agglomerate. The model calculates the surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of the particles that is available to <span class="hlt">burning</span> from the geometric formation of the agglomerate. <span class="hlt">Average</span> diameter of particles bonded in agglomerate is shown to have a <span class="hlt">burning</span> time commensurate to the <span class="hlt">burning</span> time of a single particle. Nevertheless, the <span class="hlt">burning</span> time of agglomerate formed by the coalescing of liquid droplets, is shown to be greater than the <span class="hlt">burning</span> time of a single particle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H31B1154C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H31B1154C"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrologic Impact of Straw Mulch On Runoff from a <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> for Various Soil Water Content</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carnicle, M. M.; Moody, J. A.; Ahlstrom, A. K.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Mountainous watersheds often exhibit increases in runoff and flash floods after wildfires. During 11 days of September 2010, the Fourmile Canyon wildfire <span class="hlt">burned</span> 2500 hectares of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado. In an effort to minimize the risk of flash floods after the wildfire, Boulder County aerially applied straw mulch on high-risk <span class="hlt">areas</span> selected primarily on the basis of their slopes and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severities. The purpose of this research is to investigate the hydrologic response, specifically runoff, of a <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> where straw mulch is applied. We measured the runoff, at different soil water contents, from 0.8-m diameter plots. Paired plots were installed in June 2011 in a basin <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Fourmile Canyon Fire. Two sets of bounded, paired plot (two control and two experimental plots) were calibrated for 35 days without straw on either plot by measuring volumetric soil water content 2-3 times per week and measuring total runoff from each storm. Straw (5 cm thick) was added to the two experimental plots on 19 July 2011 and also to the funnels of two visual rain gages in order to measure the amount of rainfall absorbed by the straw. Initial results during the calibration period showed nearly linear relations between the volumetric soil water content of the control and experimental plots. The regression line for the runoff from the control versus the runoff from the experiment plot did not fit a linear trend; the variability may have been caused by two intense storms, which produced runoff that exceeded the capacity of the runoff gages. Also, during the calibration period, when soil water content was low the runoff coefficients were high. It is anticipated that the final results will show that the total runoff is greater on plots with no straw compared to those with straw, under conditions of various antecedent soil water content. We are continuing to collect data during the summer of 2011 to test this hypothesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H53E1583B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H53E1583B"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling daily <span class="hlt">average</span> stream temperature from air temperature and watershed <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Butler, N. L.; Hunt, J. R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Habitat restoration efforts within watersheds require spatial and temporal estimates of water temperature for aquatic species especially species that migrate within watersheds at different life stages. Monitoring programs are not able to fully sample all aquatic environments within watersheds under the extreme conditions that determine long-term habitat viability. Under these circumstances a combination of selective monitoring and modeling are required for predicting future geospatial and temporal conditions. This study describes a model that is broadly applicable to different watersheds while using readily available regional air temperature data. Daily water temperature data from thirty-eight gauges with drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> from 2 km2 to 2000 km2 in the Sonoma Valley, Napa Valley, and Russian River Valley in California were used to develop, calibrate, and test a stream temperature model. Air temperature data from seven NOAA gauges provided the daily maximum and minimum air temperatures. The model was developed and calibrated using five years of data from the Sonoma Valley at ten water temperature gauges and a NOAA air temperature gauge. The daily <span class="hlt">average</span> stream temperatures within this watershed were bounded by the preceding maximum and minimum air temperatures with smaller upstream watersheds being more dependent on the minimum air temperature than maximum air temperature. The model assumed a linear dependence on maximum and minimum air temperature with a weighting factor dependent on upstream <span class="hlt">area</span> determined by error minimization using observed data. Fitted minimum air temperature weighting factors were consistent over all five years of data for each gauge, and they ranged from 0.75 for upstream drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> less than 2 km2 to 0.45 for upstream drainage <span class="hlt">areas</span> greater than 100 km2. For the calibration data sets within the Sonoma Valley, the <span class="hlt">average</span> error between the model estimated daily water temperature and the observed water temperature data ranged from 0.7 C to 1.5 C for the different gauges. To test the model, the <span class="hlt">average</span> water temperature was estimated at the six locations within the Sonoma Valley not used in the calibration. For each water temperature record, the prior <span class="hlt">area</span> dependent weighting factor was used. Regional maximum and minimum air temperature data were then used to estimate the <span class="hlt">average</span> stream water temperature over the period of recorded water temperature. The <span class="hlt">average</span> error between model-estimated and observed water temperature for the additional locations in the Sonoma Valley ranged from 0.7 C to 3.5 C. The model estimated water temperature for gauges with upstream drainage <span class="hlt">area</span> less than 50 km2 had <span class="hlt">average</span> error between estimated and observed water temperature less than 1.7 C. When upstream drainage <span class="hlt">area</span> was greater than 50 km2, the <span class="hlt">average</span> error increased up to 3.5C for some gauge locations. The model could also estimate water temperature in streams in other basins using the same <span class="hlt">area</span>-dependent weighting factor. For eighteen gauges in the Napa Valley to the east , the <span class="hlt">average</span> error between estimated and observed water temperature ranged from 0.7 C to 1.9 C, while for four gauges in the Russian River Valley to the northwest, the <span class="hlt">average</span> error ranged from 1.2 C to 3.2 C. We speculate the <span class="hlt">area</span>-dependent weighting factor reflects the temperature of groundwater contributions to stream flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.5260C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.5260C"><span id="translatedtitle">Wet deposition of major ions in a rural <span class="hlt">area</span> impacted by biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coelho, Cidelmara H.; Allen, Andrew G.; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Orlando, Eduardo A.; Grigoletto, Tahuana L. B.; Campos, M. Lucia A. M.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>This work concerns the influence of industrialized agriculture in the tropics on precipitation chemistry. A total of 264 rain events were sampled using a wet-only collector in central São Paulo State, Brazil, between January 2003 and July 2007. Electroneutrality balance calculations (considering H +, K +, Na +, NH4+, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Cl -, NO3-, SO42-, F -, PO43-, H 3CCOO -, HCOO -, CO42- and HCO3-) showed that there was an excess of cations (˜15%), which was attributed to the presence of unmeasured organic anion species originating from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and biogenic emissions. On <span class="hlt">average</span>, the three ions NH4+, NO 3- and H + were responsible for >55% of the total ion concentrations in the rainwater samples. Concentrations (except of H +) were significantly higher ( t-test; P = 0.05), by between two to six-fold depending on species, during the winter sugar cane harvest period, due to the practice of pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> of the crop. Principal component analysis showed that three components could explain 88% of the variance for measurements made throughout the year: PC1 (52%, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and soil dust resuspension); PC2 (26%, secondary aerosols); PC3 (10%, road transport emissions). Differences between harvest and non-harvest periods appeared to be mainly due to an increased relative importance of road transport/industrial emissions during the summer (non-harvest) period. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of ammonium (23.4 μmol L -1) and nitrate (17.5 μmol L -1) in rainwater samples collected during the harvest period were similar to those found in rainwater from São Paulo city, which emphasizes the importance of including rural agro-industrial emissions in regional-scale atmospheric chemistry and transport models. Since there was evidence of a biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> source throughout the year, it appears that rainwater composition will continue to be affected by vegetation fires, even after sugar cane <span class="hlt">burning</span> is phased out as envisaged by recent São Paulo State legislation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19544740','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19544740"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate and wildfire <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in western U.S. ecoprovinces, 1916-2003.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Littell, Jeremy S; McKenzie, Donald; Peterson, David L; Westerling, Anthony L</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to quantify climatic controls on the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by fire in different vegetation types in the western United States. We demonstrate that wildfire <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (WFAB) in the American West was controlled by climate during the 20th century (1916-2003). Persistent ecosystem-specific correlations between climate and WFAB are grouped by vegetation type (ecoprovinces). Most mountainous ecoprovinces exhibit strong year-of-fire relationships with low precipitation, low Palmer drought severity index (PDSI), and high temperature. Grass- and shrub-dominated ecoprovinces had positive relationships with antecedent precipitation or PDSI. For 1977-2003, a few climate variables explain 33-87% (mean = 64%) of WFAB, indicating strong linkages between climate and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. For 1916-2003, the relationships are weaker, but climate explained 25-57% (mean = 39%) of the variability. The variance in WFAB is proportional to the mean squared for different data sets at different spatial scales. The importance of antecedent climate (summer drought in forested ecosystems and antecedent winter precipitation in shrub and grassland ecosystems) indicates that the mechanism behind the observed fire-climate relationships is climatic preconditioning of large <span class="hlt">areas</span> of low fuel moisture via drying of existing fuels or fuel production and drying. The impacts of climate change on fire regimes will therefore vary with the relative energy or water limitations of ecosystems. Ecoprovinces proved a useful compromise between ecologically imprecise state-level and localized gridded fire data. The differences in climate-fire relationships among the ecoprovinces underscore the need to consider ecological context (vegetation, fuels, and seasonal climate) to identify specific climate drivers of WFAB. Despite the possible influence of fire suppression, exclusion, and fuel treatment, WFAB is still substantially controlled by climate. The implications for planning and management are that future WFAB and adaptation to climate change will likely depend on ecosystem-specific, seasonal variation in climate. In fuel-limited ecosystems, fuel treatments can probably mitigate fire vulnerability and increase resilience more readily than in climate-limited ecosystems, in which large severe fires under extreme weather conditions will continue to account for most <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. PMID:19544740</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910033960&hterms=channel+estimation&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dchannel%2Bestimation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910033960&hterms=channel+estimation&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dchannel%2Bestimation"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of <span class="hlt">area-averaged</span> rainfall over tropical oceans from microwave radiometry - A single channel approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shin, Kyung-Sup; Riba, Phil E.; North, Gerald R.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a new simple retrieval algorithm for estimating <span class="hlt">area</span>-time <span class="hlt">averaged</span> rain rates over tropical oceans by using single channel microwave measurements from satellites. The algorithm was tested by using the Nimbus-5 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer and a simple microwave radiative transfer model to retrieve seasonal 5-deg x 5-deg <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">averaged</span> rainrate over the tropical Atlantic and Pacific from December 1973 to November 1974. The brightness temperatures were collected and analyzed into histograms for each season and in each grid box from December 1973 to November 1974. The histograms suggest a normal distribution of background noise plus a skewed rain distribution at the higher brightness temperatures. By using a statistical estimation procedure based upon normally distributed background noise, the rain distribution was separated from the raw histogram. The radiative transfer model was applied to the rain-only distribution to retrieve <span class="hlt">area</span>-time <span class="hlt">averaged</span> rainrates throughout the tropics. Despite limitations of single channel information, the retrieved seasonal rain rates agree well in the open ocean with expectations based upon previous estimates of tropical rainfall over the oceans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1370/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1370/"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Logistic Regression to Predict the Probability of Debris Flows in <span class="hlt">Areas</span> <span class="hlt">Burned</span> by Wildfires, Southern California, 2003-2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rupert, Michael G.; Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Helsel, Dennis R.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Logistic regression was used to develop statistical models that can be used to predict the probability of debris flows in <span class="hlt">areas</span> recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> by wildfires by using data from 14 wildfires that <span class="hlt">burned</span> in southern California during 2003-2006. Twenty-eight independent variables describing the basin morphology, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, rainfall, and soil properties of 306 drainage basins located within those <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were evaluated. The models were developed as follows: (1) Basins that did and did not produce debris flows soon after the 2003 to 2006 fires were delineated from data in the National Elevation Dataset using a geographic information system; (2) Data describing the basin morphology, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, rainfall, and soil properties were compiled for each basin. These data were then input to a statistics software package for analysis using logistic regression; and (3) Relations between the occurrence or absence of debris flows and the basin morphology, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, rainfall, and soil properties were evaluated, and five multivariate logistic regression models were constructed. All possible combinations of independent variables were evaluated to determine which combinations produced the most effective models, and the multivariate models that best predicted the occurrence of debris flows were identified. Percentage of high <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity and 3-hour peak rainfall intensity were significant variables in all models. Soil organic matter content and soil clay content were significant variables in all models except Model 5. Soil slope was a significant variable in all models except Model 4. The most suitable model can be selected from these five models on the basis of the availability of independent variables in the particular <span class="hlt">area</span> of interest and field checking of probability maps. The multivariate logistic regression models can be entered into a geographic information system, and maps showing the probability of debris flows can be constructed in recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> of southern California. This study demonstrates that logistic regression is a valuable tool for developing models that predict the probability of debris flows occurring in recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> landscapes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900037418&hterms=measuring+distance&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmeasuring%2Bdistance','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900037418&hterms=measuring+distance&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmeasuring%2Bdistance"><span id="translatedtitle">An analysis of the threshold method for measuring <span class="hlt">area-average</span> rainfall</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kedem, Benjamin; Chiu, Long S.; Karni, Zvi</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Experimental evidence shows that the <span class="hlt">area-average</span> rain rate and the fractional <span class="hlt">area</span> covered by rain rate exceeding a fixed threshold are highly correlated; that is, are highly linearly related. A precise theoretical explanation of this fact is given. The explanation is based on the observation that rain rate has a mixed distribution, one that is a mixture of a discrete distribution and a continuous distribution. Under a homogeneity assumption, the slope of the linear relationship depends only on the continuous part of the distribution and as such is found to be markedly immune to parameter changes. This is illustrated by certain slope surfaces obtained from three specific distributions. The threshold level can be chosen in an optimal way by minimizing a certain distance function defined over the threshold range. In general, the threshold level should be not too far from the mean rain rate conditional on rain. The so-called threshold method advocates measuring rainfall from fractional <span class="hlt">area</span> exploiting the observed linear relationship of the later with the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">average</span> rain rate. The method is potentially useful for the estimation of rainfall from space via satellites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..38...25H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..38...25H"><span id="translatedtitle">Semi-automated mapping of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in semi-arid ecosystems using MODIS time-series imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hardtke, Leonardo A.; Blanco, Paula D.; Valle, Hctor F. del; Metternicht, Graciela I.; Sione, Walter F.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Understanding spatial and temporal patterns of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> at regional scales, provides a long-term perspective of fire processes and its effects on ecosystems and vegetation recovery patterns, and it is a key factor to design prevention and post-fire restoration plans and strategies. Remote sensing has become the most widely used tool to detect fire affected <span class="hlt">areas</span> over large tracts of land (e.g., ecosystem, regional and global levels). Standard satellite <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and active fire products derived from the 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) are available to this end. However, prior research caution on the use of these global-scale products for regional and sub-regional applications. Consequently, we propose a novel semi-automated algorithm for identification and mapping of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> at regional scale. The semi-arid Monte shrublands, a biome covering 240,000 km2 in the western part of Argentina, and exposed to seasonal bushfires was selected as the test <span class="hlt">area</span>. The algorithm uses a set of the normalized <span class="hlt">burned</span> ratio index products derived from MODIS time series; using a two-phased cycle, it firstly detects potentially <span class="hlt">burned</span> pixels while keeping a low commission error (false detection of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>), and subsequently labels them as seed patches. Region growing image segmentation algorithms are applied to the seed patches in the second-phase, to define the perimeter of fire affected <span class="hlt">areas</span> while decreasing omission errors (missing real <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>). Independently-derived Landsat ETM+ <span class="hlt">burned-area</span> reference data was used for validation purposes. Additionally, the performance of the adaptive algorithm was assessed against standard global fire products derived from MODIS Aqua and Terra satellites, total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (MCD45A1), the active fire algorithm (MOD14); and the L3JRC SPOT VEGETATION 1 km GLOBCARBON products. The correlation between the size of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> detected by the global fire products and independently-derived Landsat reference data ranged from R2 = 0.01-0.28, while our algorithm performed showed a stronger correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.96). Our findings confirm prior research calling for caution when using the global fire products locally or regionally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10k4009L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10k4009L"><span id="translatedtitle">Fire history reconstruction in grassland ecosystems: amount of charcoal reflects local <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leys, Bérangère; Brewer, Simon C.; McConaghy, Scott; Mueller, Joshua; McLauchlan, Kendra K.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Fire is one of the most prevalent disturbances in the Earth system, and its past characteristics can be reconstructed using charcoal particles preserved in depositional environments. Although researchers know that fires produce charcoal particles, interpretation of the quantity or composition of charcoal particles in terms of fire source remains poorly understood. In this study, we used a unique four-year dataset of charcoal deposited in traps from a native tallgrass prairie in mid-North America to test which environmental factors were linked to charcoal measurements on three spatial scales. We investigated small and large charcoal particles commonly used as a proxy of fire activity at different spatial scales, and charcoal morphotypes representing different types of fuel. We found that small (125–250 μm) and large (250 μm–1 mm) particles of charcoal are well-correlated (Spearman correlation = 0.88) and likely reflect the same spatial scale of fire activity in a system with both herbaceous and woody fuels. There was no significant relationship between charcoal pieces and fire parameters <500 m from the traps. Moreover, local <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (<5 km distance radius from traps) explained the total charcoal amount, and regional <span class="hlt">burning</span> (200 km radius distance from traps) explained the ratio of non arboreal to total charcoal (NA/T ratio). Charcoal variables, including total charcoal count and NA/T ratio, did not correlate with other fire parameters, vegetation cover, landscape, or climate variables. Thus, in long-term studies that involve fire history reconstructions, total charcoal particles, even of a small size (125–250 μm), could be an indicator of local <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Further studies may determine relationships among amount of charcoal recorded, fire intensity, vegetation cover, and climatic parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6586629','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6586629"><span id="translatedtitle">Permitting a wood-<span class="hlt">burning</span> boiler in a major metropolitan <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Foster, K.L.; Scherr, R.C.; Dickson, R.E.</p> <p>1982-08-01</p> <p>With the cost of fuel continuing to fluctuate, alternate energy sources continue to be examined. In 1980, The Procter and Gamble Company began investigating the feasibility of <span class="hlt">burning</span> wood waste as an alternate fuel source. The paper describes the necessary steps and data required to obtain federal, state, and local air construction permits for this modification. The first step was to determine the regulatory classification for the Staten Island <span class="hlt">area</span>. It was nonattainment for CO, HC, and attainment for TSP, NO/sub x/, and SO/sub x/. The second step was to determine the wood-<span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions. This was done after an extensive literature search was completed. The result was a significant reduction in the pollutant factors from those published earlier by EPA. The next step was to analyze the air quality impact from the change in pollutant emissions. Due to the projected increase in TSP and CO in excess of 100 tpy, the modification was classified as major under current PSD and nonattainment rules. New York had no approved SIP for CO, so construction of the modification was blocked by the construction moratorium under the 1977 Clean Air Act. After lengthy negotiations with the state and federal agencies, efforts were begun to redesignate the <span class="hlt">area</span> for CO through modeling. Redesignation and final permit approvals were received by Feb. 1, 1982.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/922680','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/922680"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Transverse Spatial-Hole <span class="hlt">Burning</span> on Beam Quality in Large-Mode-<span class="hlt">Area</span> Yb-Doped Fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jiang, Z.; Marciante, J.R.</p> <p>2008-01-30</p> <p>The beam-quality factor of an amplified spontaneous emission source based on an ytterbium-doped, large-mode-<span class="hlt">area</span>, multi-mode fiber was found to be optimized when the gain became saturated. A model using spatially resolved gain and transverse-mode decomposition of the optical field showed that transverse spatial-hole <span class="hlt">burning</span> was responsible for the observed behavior. A simplified model without transverse spatial-hole <span class="hlt">burning</span> failed to predict the observed behavior of beam quality. A comparison of both models shows transverse spatial-hole <span class="hlt">burning</span> is also critical for properly modeling beam quality in LMA fiber amplifiers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhPro..70..139A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhPro..70..139A"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> of a Reverberant Plate Using <span class="hlt">Average</span> Reverberation Properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Achdjian, Hossep; Moulin, Emmanuel; Benmeddour, Farouk; Assaad, Jamal</p> <p></p> <p>This paper aims to present an original method for the estimation of the <span class="hlt">area</span> of thin plates of arbitrary geometrical shapes. This method relies on the acquisition and ensemble processing of reverberated elastic signals on few sensors. The acoustical Green's function in a reverberant solid medium is modeled by a nonstationary random process based on the image-sources method. In that way, mathematical expectations of the signal envelopes can be analytically related to reverberation properties and structural parameters such as plate <span class="hlt">area</span>, group velocity, or source-receiver distance. Then, a simple curve fitting applied to an ensemble <span class="hlt">average</span> over N realizations of the late envelopes allows to estimate a global term involving the values of structural parameters. From simple statistical modal arguments, it is shown that the obtained relation depends on the plate <span class="hlt">area</span> and not on the plate shape. Finally, by considering an additional relation obtained from the early characteristics (treated in a deterministic way) of the reverberation signals, it is possible to deduce the <span class="hlt">area</span> value. This estimation is performed without geometrical measurements and requires an access to only a small portion of the plate. Furthermore, this method does not require any time measurement nor trigger synchronization between the input channels of instrumentation (between measured signals), thus implying low hardware constraints. Experimental results obtained on metallic plates with free boundary conditions and embedded window glasses will be presented. <span class="hlt">Areas</span> of up to several meter-squares are correctly estimated with a relative error of a few percents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26741544','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26741544"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical and toxicological effects of medicinal Baccharis trimera extract from coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Menezes, Ana Paula S; da Silva, Juliana; Fisher, Camila; da Silva, Fernanda R; Reyes, Juliana M; Picada, Jaqueline N; Ferraz, Alice G; Corrêa, Dione S; Premoli, Suziane M; Dias, Johnny F; de Souza, Claudia T; Ferraz, Alexandre de B F</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The entire process of power generation, extraction, processing and use of coal strongly impact water resources, soil, air quality and biota leads to changes in the fauna and flora. Pollutants generated by coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> have been contaminating plants that grow in <span class="hlt">area</span> impacted by airborne pollution with high metal contents. Baccharis trimera is popularly consumed as tea, and is widely developed in Candiota (Brazil), one of the most important coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> regions of the Brazil. This study aims to investigate the phytochemical profile, in vivo genotoxic and mutagenic potential of extracts of B. trimera collected from an exposed region to pollutants generated by coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> (Candiota City) and other unexposed region (Bagé City), using the Comet assay and micronucleus test in mice and the Salmonella/microsome short-term assay. The HPLC analyses indicated higher levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids for B. trimera aqueous extract from Bagé and absence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for both extracts. The presence of toxic elements such as cobalt, nickel and manganese was statistically superior in the extract from Candiota. For the Comet assay and micronucleus test, the mice were treated with Candiota and Bagé B. trimera aqueous extracts (500-2000 mg/kg). Significant genotoxicity was observed at higher doses treated with B. trimera aqueous extract from Candiota in liver and peripheral blood cells. Micronuclei were not observed but the results of the Salmonella/microsome short-term assay showed a significant increase in TA98 revertants for B. trimera aqueous extract from Candiota. The extract of B. trimera from Candiota bioacumulated higher levels of trace elements which were associated with the genotoxic effects detected in liver and peripheral blood cells. PMID:26741544</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DPPBP8002F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DPPBP8002F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Area</span> preserving map models of gyro-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> ExB chaotic transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fonseca, J.; Del-Castillo-Negrete, D.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Area</span> preserving maps have been extensively used to model 2-dimensional chaotic transport in plasmas. Here we focus on drift-wave maps describing chaotic transport in E B zonal flows perturbed by electrostatic drift waves. Going beyond previous studies, we include finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects by gyro-<span class="hlt">averaging</span> the corresponding Hamiltonian of the map. In the limit of zero Larmor radius, the gyro-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> map reduces to the standard Chirikov map in the case of monotonic E B shear flows, and to the standard non-twist map in the case of non-monotonic E B shear flows. Like in the case of continuous E B drift wave models, we show that in the gyro-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> maps, FLR effects lead to chaos suppression, bifurcation of the shearless curve, and a complex phase space topology. Dynamical systems methods are used to quantify the dependence on the Larmor radius of the threshold for the destruction of transport barriers, and the transport properties of an ensemble of test particles with a Maxwellian distribution. J.F. acknowledges support from the Brazilian government agency FAPESP. D. dCN acknowledges support from the U.S. Department of Energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhLB..736..267D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhLB..736..267D"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum black hole wave packet: <span class="hlt">Average</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> entropy and temperature dependent width</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davidson, Aharon; Yellin, Ben</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>A quantum Schwarzschild black hole is described, at the mini super spacetime level, by a non-singular wave packet composed of plane wave eigenstates of the momentum Dirac-conjugate to the mass operator. The entropy of the mass spectrum acquires then independent contributions from the <span class="hlt">average</span> mass and the width. Hence, Bekenstein's <span class="hlt">area</span> entropy is formulated using the <mass> <span class="hlt">average</span>, leaving the <mass> <span class="hlt">average</span> to set the Hawking temperature. The width function peaks at the Planck scale for an elementary (zero entropy, zero free energy) micro black hole of finite rms size, and decreases Doppler-like towards the classical limit. If ?0=0, we recover the Bekenstein-Hawking black hole thermodynamics of Schwarzschild spacetime. If ?0>?, the entropy function develops a local maximum at m=0. This in turn causes the small-m section of S(m) to be negative, and hence must be rejected on entropy positivity grounds. If ?0<?, the entropy S(m) exhibits an absolute minimum at m=0. The minimal entropy is still proportional to SBH=m2/2?2, but is suppressed now by a factor of 1-?02/?2. If ?0=? (accompanied by cS=-1/2 >), the black hole entropy barely keeps its minimum at m=0, and the internal energy gives up its linear small-m behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10169422','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10169422"><span id="translatedtitle">Geophysical investigation of <span class="hlt">burn</span> pit, 128-H-1, 100-H <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Szwartz, G.J.</p> <p>1994-07-11</p> <p>The 128-H-1 <span class="hlt">burn</span> pit is located in the northeast corner of 100-H <span class="hlt">Area</span>. The objective of the survey was to delineate subsurface features in the 128-H-1 <span class="hlt">burn</span> pit that may affect the emplacement of soil-gas probes. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) were the two techniques used in the investigation. The methods were selected because they are non-intrusive, relatively fast, economical, and have been used successfully in other geophysical investigations on the Hanford Site. The GPR system used for this work utilized a 300-MHz antenna to transmit the Em energy into the ground. The transmitted energy is reflected back to a receiving antenna where variations in the return signal are recorded. Common reflectors include natural geologic conditions such as bedding, cementation, moisture, and clay, or man-made objects such as pipes, barrels, foundations, and buried wires. The studied depth, which varies from site to site, was 0--11 ft for this survey. The method is limited in depth by transmit power, receiver sensitivity, and attenuation of the transmitted energy. Depth of investigation is influenced by highly conductive material, such as metal drums, which reflect all the energy back to the receiver. Therefore, the method cannot ``see`` below such objects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AtmEn..39.6430S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AtmEn..39.6430S"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical mass balance source apportionment of TSP in a lignite-<span class="hlt">burning</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> of Western Macedonia, Greece</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samara, Constantini</p> <p></p> <p>Total suspended particle mass concentrations (TSP) were determined in the Kozani-Ptolemais-Florina basin (western Macedonia, Greece), an <span class="hlt">area</span> with intensive lignite <span class="hlt">burning</span> for power generation. The study was conducted over a 1-year period (November 2000-November 2001) at 10 receptor sites located at variable distances from the power plants. Ambient TSP samples were analyzed for 27 major, minor and trace elements. Particulate emissions were also collected from a variety of sources including fly ash, lignite dust, automobile traffic, domestic heating, and open-air <span class="hlt">burning</span> of agricultural biomass and refuse, and analyzed for the same chemical components. Ambient and source chemical profiles were used for source identification and apportionment of TSP by employing a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Diesel <span class="hlt">burning</span> in vehicular traffic and in the power plants for generator start up was found to be the major contributor to ambient TSP levels at all 10 sites. Other sources with significant contributions were domestic coal <span class="hlt">burning</span>, vegetative <span class="hlt">burning</span> (wood combustion and agricultural <span class="hlt">burns</span>) and refuse open-air <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Fly ash escaping the electrostatic precipitators of the power plants was a minor contributor to ambient TSP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESS..14...53B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESS..14...53B"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the predictability of fire occurrence and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> across phytoclimatic regions in Spain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bedia, J.; Herrera, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Most fire protection agencies throughout the world have developed forest fire risk forecast systems, usually building upon existing fire danger indices and meteorological forecast data. In this context, the daily predictability of wildfires is of utmost importance in order to allow the fire protection agencies to issue timely fire hazard alerts. In this study, we address the predictability of daily fire occurrence using the components of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) System and related variables calculated from the latest ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts) reanalysis, ERA-Interim. We develop daily fire occurrence models in peninsular Spain for the period 1990-2008 and, considering different minimum <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> thresholds for fire definition, assess their ability to reproduce the inter-annual fire frequency variability. We based the analysis on a phytoclimatic classification aiming the stratification of the territory into homogeneous units in terms of climatic and fuel type characteristics, allowing to test model performance under different climate/fuel conditions. We then extend the analysis in order to assess the predictability of monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The sensitivity of the models to the level of spatial aggregation of the data is also evaluated. Additionally, we investigate the gain in model performance with the inclusion of socioeconomic and land use/land cover (LULC) covariates in model formulation. Fire occurrence models have attained good performance in most of the phytoclimatic zones considered, being able to faithfully reproduce the inter-annual variability of fire frequency. Total <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> has exhibited some dependence on the meteorological drivers, although model performance was poor in most cases. We identified temperature and some FWI system components as the most important explanatory variables, highlighting the adequacy of the FWI system for fire occurrence prediction in the study <span class="hlt">area</span>. The results were improved when using aggregated data across regions compared to when data were sampled at the grid-box level. The inclusion of socioeconomic and LULC covariates contributed marginally to the improvement of the models, and in most cases attained no relevant contribution to total explained variance - excepting northern Spain, where anthropogenic factors are known to be the major driver of fires. Models of monthly fire counts performed better in the case of fires larger than 0.1 ha, and for the rest of the thresholds (1, 10 and 100 ha) the daily occurrence models improved the predicted inter-annual variability, indicating the added value of daily models. Fire frequency predictions may provide a preferable basis for past fire history reconstruction, long-term monitoring and the assessment of future climate impacts on fire regimes across regions, posing several advantages over <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> as a response variable. Our results leave the door open to the development a more complex modelling framework based on daily data from numerical climate model outputs based on the FWI system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24477336','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24477336"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and spatial variation of organic tracers for biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in PM1 aerosols from highly insolated urban <span class="hlt">areas</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Drooge, B L; Fontal, M; Bravo, N; Fernández, P; Fernández, M A; Muñoz-Arnanz, J; Jiménez, B; Grimalt, J O</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>PM1 aerosol characterization on organic tracers for biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> (levoglucosan and its isomers and dehydroabietic acid) was conducted within the AERTRANS project. PM1 filters (N = 90) were sampled from 2010 to 2012 in busy streets in the urban centre of Madrid and Barcelona (Spain) at ground-level and at roof sites. In both urban <span class="hlt">areas</span>, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> was not expected to be an important local emission source, but regional emissions from wildfires, residential heating or biomass removal may influence the air quality in the cities. Although both <span class="hlt">areas</span> are under influence of high solar radiation, Madrid is situated in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, while Barcelona is located at the Mediterranean Coast and under influence of marine atmospheres. Two extraction methods were applied, i.e. Soxhlet and ASE, which showed equivalent results after GC-MS analyses. The ambient air concentrations of the organic tracers for biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> increased by an order of magnitude at both sites during winter compared to summer. An exception was observed during a PM event in summer 2012, when the atmosphere in Barcelona was directly affected by regional wildfire smoke and levels were four times higher as those observed in winter. Overall, there was little variation between the street and roof sites in both cities, suggesting that regional biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> sources influence the urban <span class="hlt">areas</span> after atmospheric transport. Despite the different atmospheric characteristics in terms of air relative humidity, Madrid and Barcelona exhibit very similar composition and concentrations of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> organic tracers. Nevertheless, levoglucosan and its isomers seem to be more suitable for source apportionment purposes than dehydroabietic acid. In both urban <span class="hlt">areas</span>, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> contributions to PM were generally low (2 %) in summer, except on the day when wildfire smoke arrive to the urban <span class="hlt">area</span>. In the colder periods the contribution increase to around 30 %, indicating that regional biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> has a substantial influence on the urban air quality. PMID:24477336</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B33D0513W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B33D0513W"><span id="translatedtitle">Multidecadal trends in <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity and patch size in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness <span class="hlt">Area</span>, 1900-2007</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wells, A.; Morgan, P.; Smith, A. M.; Hudak, A. T.; Hicke, J. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>How the proportion of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> severely has changed over time is critical to understanding trends in the ecological effects of fire, but most assessments over large <span class="hlt">areas</span> are limited to 30 years of satellite data. Little is known about multidecadal trends in <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, patch size, and implications for species diversity. Our objective was to analyze the change in proportion of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> severely and patch size across 346,304 ha in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness <span class="hlt">Area</span> in Idaho and Montana, USA. We used 30-meter fire perimeters and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity classes inferred from 1984-2007 satellite imagery from the Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity project and 1900-2000 aerial photography. We also analyzed the effect of patch size on species diversity of understory vegetation from field data collected from 20 sites <span class="hlt">burned</span> in 2000, a year of widespread fires in the region. Fires occurred in 38 out of the 107 years in the record; 13 of these in the early period (1900-1934), 4 in the middle (1935-1974), and 21 in the late (1975-2007). Although 78% (270,918 ha) <span class="hlt">burned</span> at least once and 48% (131,198) of the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> severely with >70% tree mortality, there was no trend in total <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> severely through time (n=38, Spearman's Rank Correlation r = -0.14, p = 0.39), nor in proportion of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> severely through time (n=38, Spearman's Rank Correlation r = -00.27, p = 0.09). Median patch size decreased through time (n= 38, Spearman's Rank Correlation r = -0.73 and p<0.01) and the number of high severity patches increased (n = 38, Spearman's Rank Correlation r = 0.35 and p = 0.02). Median perimeter-to-<span class="hlt">area</span> ratio of high severity patches increased (n = 38, Spearman's Rank Sum Test r = 0.79 and p <.01); the greater perimeter-to-<span class="hlt">area</span> ratio and shorter distance to the unburned edge through time is not an artifact of satellite data as patch size inferred from aerial photography 1900-2000 decreased (n= 31, Spearman's Rank, r = -0.42 and p <0.01), but did not for satellite data 1984-2007(n = 16, Spearman's Rank Correlation r = -0.12 and p = 0.64). Total tree seedling density 12 years post-fire was lower in large patches (Kruskal Wallis ANOVA p = 0.005) with fewer trees at 40 m and 80 m than at 10 m from unburned edges in severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patches (respectively, Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test p = 0.03 and 0.01). Understory species richness and diversity did not differ with distance from unburned edge, likely because many species resprout or establish from existing seed banks. Understanding how proportion of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> severely is changing over multiple decades will help ecologists and land managers better understand where, when, and why fires <span class="hlt">burn</span> severely and their past, present, and future consequences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B21A0033C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B21A0033C"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and Enhanced Vegetation Index in <span class="hlt">Areas</span> <span class="hlt">Burned</span> by the Jasper Wildfire of Black Hills South Dakota</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, X.; Zhu, Z.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The Jasper wildfire of August and September 2000 was the largest fire to occur in the Black Hills in at least a century. The disturbance on ecosystem characteristics will be widespread and long-term. Monitoring postfire vegetation changes using remote sensing data can provide unique and timely information about ecosystem dynamics. In this study, the Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio (NBR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data were derived from Landsat imagery and compared before and after the Jasper fire. Landsat 5 images acquired on June 2, 2000 (preburn), and June 5, 2001 (10 months postburn), were analyzed. In addition, a Landsat 7 image acquired on May 31, 2002 (22 months postburn), was used in the study. Landsat data were converted to at-sensor reflectance, and NBR, NDVI, and EVI values were calculated for low, moderate, and high <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity <span class="hlt">areas</span> defined by using the difference of NBR between 2001 and 2000. NBR values in <span class="hlt">areas</span> characterized as low <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity changed very little between 2001 and 2002. Meanwhile, <span class="hlt">areas</span> characterized as moderate or high severity showed substantial increases in NBR values between 2001 and 2002, implying some ecosystem recovery occurring for these <span class="hlt">areas</span> over a relatively short time. EVI and NDVI show similar patterns of change, but it was found that EVI and NBR indices are more sensitive than is NDVI for capturing vegetation cover changes during the early postfire years. Further research is planned to use Landsat and MODIS imagery to assess spectral trends as a function of time in <span class="hlt">areas</span> affected by fire.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.3579V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.3579V"><span id="translatedtitle">Daily <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and carbon emissions from boreal fires in Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Veraverbeke, S.; Rogers, B. M.; Randerson, J. T.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Boreal fires <span class="hlt">burn</span> into carbon-rich organic soils, thereby releasing large quantities of trace gases and aerosols that influence atmospheric composition and climate. To better understand the factors regulating boreal fire emissions, we developed a statistical model of carbon consumption by fire for Alaska with a spatial resolution of 450 m and a temporal resolution of 1 day. We used the model to estimate variability in carbon emissions between 2001 and 2012. Daily <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was mapped using imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer combined with perimeters from the Alaska Large Fire Database. Carbon consumption was calibrated using available field measurements from black spruce forests in Alaska. We built two nonlinear multiplicative models to separately predict above- and belowground carbon consumption by fire in response to environmental variables including elevation, day of <span class="hlt">burning</span> within the fire season, pre-fire tree cover and the differenced normalized <span class="hlt">burn</span> ratio (dNBR). Higher belowground carbon consumption occurred later in the season and for mid-elevation forests. Topographic slope and aspect did not improve performance of the belowground carbon consumption model. Aboveground and belowground carbon consumption also increased as a function of tree cover and the dNBR, suggesting a causal link between the processes regulating these two components of carbon consumption. Between 2001 and 2012, the median carbon consumption was 2.54 kg C m-2. <span class="hlt">Burning</span> in land-cover types other than black spruce was considerable and was associated with lower levels of carbon consumption than for pure black spruce stands. Carbon consumption originated primarily from the belowground fraction (median = 2.32 kg C m-2 for all cover types and 2.67 kg C m-2 for pure black spruce stands). Total carbon emissions varied considerably from year to year, with the highest emissions occurring during 2004 (69 Tg C), 2005 (46 Tg C), 2009 (26 Tg C), and 2002 (17 Tg C) and a mean of 15 Tg C year-1 between 2001 and 2012. Mean uncertainty of carbon consumption for the domain, expressed as 1 standard deviation (SD), was 0.50 kg C m-2. Uncertainties in the multiplicative regression model used to estimate belowground consumption in black spruce stands and the land-cover classification were primary contributors to uncertainty estimates. Our analysis highlights the importance of accounting for the spatial heterogeneity of fuels and combustion when extrapolating emissions in space and time, and the need for of additional field campaigns to increase the density of observations as a function of tree cover and other environmental variables influencing consumption. The daily emissions time series from the Alaskan Fire Emissions Database (AKFED) presented here creates new opportunities to study environmental controls on daily fire dynamics, optimize boreal fire emissions in biogeochemical models, and quantify potential feedbacks from changing fire regimes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/243444','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/243444"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of soil contamination at the Riot Control <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Pit <span class="hlt">area</span> in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Ying-Ya; Yuen, C.R.; Martino, L.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>A remedial investigation was conducted to identify soil contamination in the Riot Control <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Pit <span class="hlt">area</span> in J-field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The investigation included geophysical surveys to delineate the filled section of the pit, soil-gas surveys to locate the organic contamination <span class="hlt">area</span>, field X-ray fluorescence measurements along the <span class="hlt">burning</span> pit to identify the major metal contamination, and surface and subsurface soil analyses to investigate the nature and extent of contamination. This paper presents the results of this investigation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16837134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16837134"><span id="translatedtitle">Hemostasis by means of a cautery knife equipped with an air spray for <span class="hlt">burns</span> over a large <span class="hlt">area</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Kaneshige; Hosaka, Yoshiaki</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>In operations in which debridement is performed over a large <span class="hlt">area</span> (e.g., surgery for whole-body <span class="hlt">burns</span>), it is necessary to keep the length of the operation short and the amount of blood loss as small as possible to minimize stress to the patient's body. In this study, we developed a cautery knife to which an air spray is attached for surgical procedures in which debridement is performed as treatment for <span class="hlt">burns</span> over a large <span class="hlt">area</span>. We have demonstrated herein that this device is very effective for reducing both blood loss and the duration of surgery as well as for simplifying the achievement of hemostasis. PMID:16837134</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6447O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6447O"><span id="translatedtitle">Annual <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> across a precipitation gradient in northwestern patagonia steppe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oddi, Facundo; Ghermandi, Luciana; Lasaponara, Rosa</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Fire is one of the most important disturbances on the Earth affecting most terrestrial ecosystems. Evidence suggests that since the last glaciations there has been a substantial interaction among climate, vegetation and fire. In fact fire is recognized as an emergent property of climate and vegetation type, which determine that distinct regions are differently affected by wildfires. For instance, it has been suggest that relative roles of weather/climate and fuel on fire activity change along the global productivity/aridity (intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis). At one extreme of the gradient we find dry-unproductive regions (deserts) where fire is absent owing to very low fuel loads, while at the other extreme we have wet-productive environments (rain forest) with fire being unlikely due to high fuel moisture. Environments located around middle of the gradient, such as Mediterranean ecosystems, have a high fire activity but is difficult to predict if the fuel moisture conditions are a stronger constrain on the fire regime or it is constrained by biomass production (i.e. fuel load). The intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis has been tested in recent works at global scale. However, data resolution at global scale is coarse and thus is not possible know the fire variability occurring at scales of more spatial detail. Therefore, it is necessary to complement the information obtained at global scale with studies at finer scales exploring fire-productivity/aridity relationships in particular portions of the gradient. We elaborate fire cartography from Landsat temporal series (1973-2011) for a portion (560250 ha - regional scale) of northwestern Patagonian steppe. The study zone corresponds to a Mediterranean environment and is part of a gradient defined by a sharp drop in the precipitation regime (600mm to 280mm). This environmental gradient predisposes a change in fuel load and fuel moisture and therefore could be affecting the fire regime. We divided the study <span class="hlt">area</span> in relation to precipitation gradient establishing two zones (wet and xeric). To delimit <span class="hlt">area</span> of wildfires on Landsat scenes we used the NBR index. Then, we calculated the annual <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in each zone, compared the annual <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> between zones and also explored relationships between that variable of the fire regime and precipitation/temperature data. We expect to contribute to the discussions about the importance of drought/fuel on the fire activity across the productivity/aridity gradient, specifically on Mediterranean environments. Finally, with this work we expect to improve future management and conservation practices in Northwestern Patagonia grasslands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1158/OF12-1158.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1158/OF12-1158.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Probability and volume of potential postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 Waldo Canyon <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> near Colorado Springs, Colorado</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Verdin, Kristine L.; Dupree, Jean A.; Elliott, John G.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2012 Waldo Canyon fire near Colorado Springs in El Paso County, Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and potential volume of debris flows along the drainage network of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and to estimate the same for 22 selected drainage basins along U.S. Highway 24 and the perimeter of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Input data for the models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm (29 millimeters); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm (42 millimeters); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm (48 millimeters). Estimated debris-flow probabilities at the pour points of the the drainage basins of interest ranged from less than 1 to 54 percent in response to the 2-year storm; from less than 1 to 74 percent in response to the 10-year storm; and from less than 1 to 82 percent in response to the 25-year storm. Basins and drainage networks with the highest probabilities tended to be those on the southern and southeastern edge of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> where soils have relatively high clay contents and gradients are steep. Nine of the 22 drainage basins of interest have greater than a 40-percent probability of producing a debris flow in response to the 10-year storm. Estimated debris-flow volumes for all rainfalls modeled range from a low of 1,500 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters. Estimated debris-flow volumes increase with basin size and distance along the drainage network, but some smaller drainages were also predicted to produce substantial volumes of material. The predicted probabilities and some of the volumes predicted for the modeled storms indicate a potential for substantial debris-flow impacts on structures, reservoirs, roads, bridges, and culverts located both within and immediately downstream from the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. U.S. Highway 24, on the southern edge of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, is also susceptible to impacts from debris flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B23E0263C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B23E0263C"><span id="translatedtitle">The Development and Application of a Harmonized <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Data Set for North America to Assess the Effects of Fire Disturbance on the Continental Carbon Budget</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, G.; Hayes, D. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Fires <span class="hlt">burn</span> an annual <span class="hlt">average</span> of about 40,000 km2 in Canada and the U.S., making it an important feature of North American ecosystems through renewing ecosystem conditions and vegetation dynamics. Fire disturbances substantially modify ecosystem carbon dynamics both temporally and spatially. Ecosystems generally lose carbon for several years to decades following fire disturbance, but our understanding of the duration and dynamics of post-disturbance carbon fluxes remains limited. Owing to the prevailing collection of inventory data for fire <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, intensity, distribution, and associated carbon-related parameters in North America, we are able to more accurately estimate carbon dynamics following fire disturbances. In our study, we integrated four major fire datasets (i.e., U.S. Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity dataset, Bureau of Land Management Alaska Fire Service dataset, and Canadian National Fire Database, and GFEDv3.1 fire dataset) and other auxiliary data to generate a comprehensive and continuous <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> history dataset, which covers the 1920 to 2012 time period and is gridded at quarter-degree resolution for the North American continent. Driven by this new dataset, we used the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM6.0) to simulate the impacts of fire disturbance on carbon dynamics across North American ecosystems. The results indicate that large amount of carbon was emitted due to fire disturbances during the study period, especially for the boreal ecosystems with slow recovery. The modeling results were also evaluated with the field measurements along a fire chronosequence and compared to estimates from other approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21639045','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21639045"><span id="translatedtitle">Scale-dependent controls on the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the boreal forest of Canada, 1980-2005.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parisien, Marc-Andr; Parks, Sean A; Krawchuk, Meg A; Flannigan, Mike D; Bowman, Lynn M; Moritz, Max A</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>In the boreal forest of North America, as in any fire-prone biome, three environmental factors must coincide for a wildfire to occur: an ignition source, flammable vegetation, and weather that is conducive to fire. Despite recent advances, the relative importance of these factors remains the subject of some debate. The aim of this study was to develop models that identify the environmental controls on spatial patterns in <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> for the period 1980-2005 at several spatial scales in the Canadian boreal forest. Boosted regression tree models were built to relate high-resolution data for <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> to an array of explanatory variables describing ignitions, vegetation, and long-term patterns in fire-conducive weather (i.e., fire climate) at four spatial scales (10(2) km2, 10(3) km2, 10(4) km2, and 10(5) km2). We evaluated the relative contributions of these controls on <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, as well as their functional relationships, across spatial scales. We also assessed geographic patterns of the influence of wildfire controls. The results indicated that extreme temperature during the fire season was a top control at all spatial scales, followed closely by a wind-driven index of ease of fire spread. However, the contributions of some variables differed substantially among the spatial scales, as did their relationship to <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. In fact, for some key variables the polarity of relationships was inverted from the finest to the broadest spatial scale. It was difficult to unequivocally attribute values of relative importance to the variables chosen to represent ignitions, vegetation, and climate, as the interdependence of these factors precluded clear partitioning. Furthermore, the influence of a variable on patterns of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> often changed enormously across the biome, which supports the idea that fire-environment relationships in the boreal forest are complex and nonstationary. PMID:21639045</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25749620','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25749620"><span id="translatedtitle">PCDD/Fs in air and soil around an e-waste dismantling <span class="hlt">area</span> with open <span class="hlt">burning</span> of insulated wires in south China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ren, M; Tang, Y H; Peng, P A; Cai, Y</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in ambient air and farmland soil sampled in 2006 around an e-waste dismantling <span class="hlt">area</span> with open <span class="hlt">burning</span> of insulated wires in Longtang in south China were investigated. The total toxic equivalent concentrations of PCDD/Fs were 3.2-31.7 pg/m(3) in air and 5.8 12.4 ng/kg in farmland soil at an e-waste site and 0.063-0.091 pg/m(3) in air at a background site. PCDD/Fs in the air at the e-waste site were characterized with dominant 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF and OCDF and higher concentrations of furans than dioxins, suggesting open <span class="hlt">burning</span> of insulated wires was likely to be the main source of PCDD/Fs. Compared with the results in this study, the level of PCDD/F tended to lessen with the <span class="hlt">average</span> TEQ concentration decreasing by 41 % and the pattern changed to be dominated by OCDD in the air of Longtang in 2010 when insulated wires were openly <span class="hlt">burned</span> in only a small scale. Our results indicate that the lower chlorinated congeners with higher vapor pressures have enhanced atmospheric transport tendencies. PMID:25749620</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9625244','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9625244"><span id="translatedtitle">Successful recovery of 14 patients afflicted with full-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> for more than 70 per cent body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Y P; Zhou, Z H; Zhou, W M; Ren, J L; Wu, Y H; Rong, X Z; Yang, L</p> <p>1998-03-01</p> <p>Fourteen cases suffering full-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> of more than 70 per cent total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) have been successfully treated during the last 8 years (1988-1995). Among these patients, 10 cases suffered from <span class="hlt">burns</span> of more than 90 per cent TBSA. Five cases had full-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> of 80-90 per cent TBSA. Escharectomy, followed by coverage of wounds with a homograft to the lower surface of which, adjacent to the wound bed, microautoskin grafts had been attached was employed to close wounds in the early stages after <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The remaining non-surgically treated wound was treated by exposure and topical silver sulfadiazine. The temperature and humidity of the ward was controlled by air conditioning and dehumidification. Aggressive excision of eschar and auto-skingrafting was carried out 3 weeks post-injury. Strictly limiting the uncovered wound to less than 5 per cent appeared to be the major effective measure in preventing <span class="hlt">burn</span> infection. PMID:9625244</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....9.7853M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....9.7853M"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite-based assessment of climate controls on US <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Wang, D.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Chen, Y.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate-fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (BA), the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED, 1997-2010) and Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity (MTBS, 1984-2009) BA products. For each US National Climate Assessment (NCA) region, we analyzed the relationships between monthly BA and potential evaporation (PE) derived from reanalysis climate data at 0.5° resolution. US fire activity increased over the past 25 yr, with statistically significant increases in MTBS BA for entire US and the Southeast and Southwest NCA regions. Monthly PE was strongly correlated with US fire activity, yet the climate driver of PE varied regionally. Fire season temperature and shortwave radiation were the primary controls on PE} and fire activity in the Alaska, while water deficit (precipitation - PE) was strongly correlated with fire activity in the Plains regions and Northwest US. BA and precipitation anomalies were negatively correlated in all regions, although fuel-limited ecosystems in the Southern Plains and Southwest exhibited positive correlations with longer lead times (6-12 months). Fire season PE increased from the 1980s-2000s, enhancing climate-driven fire risk in the southern and western US where PE-BA correlations were strongest. Spatial and temporal patterns of increasing fire season PE and BA during the 1990s-2000s highlight the potential sensitivity of US fire activity to climate change in coming decades. However, climate-fire relationships at the national scale are complex, based on the diversity of fire types, ecosystems, and ignition sources within each NCA region. Changes in the seasonality or magnitude of climate anomalies are therefore unlikely to result in uniform changes in US fire activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10..247M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10..247M"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite-based assessment of climate controls on US <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Wang, D.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Chen, Y.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate-fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (BA), the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED, 1997-2010) and Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity (MTBS, 1984-2009) BA products. For each US National Climate Assessment (NCA) region, we analyzed the relationships between monthly BA and potential evaporation (PE) derived from reanalysis climate data at 0.5° resolution. US fire activity increased over the past 25 yr, with statistically significant increases in MTBS BA for the entire US and the Southeast and Southwest NCA regions. Monthly PE was strongly correlated with US fire activity, yet the climate driver of PE varied regionally. Fire season temperature and shortwave radiation were the primary controls on PE and fire activity in Alaska, while water deficit (precipitation - PE) was strongly correlated with fire activity in the Plains regions and Northwest US. BA and precipitation anomalies were negatively correlated in all regions, although fuel-limited ecosystems in the Southern Plains and Southwest exhibited positive correlations with longer lead times (6-12 months). Fire season PE increased from the 1980's-2000's, enhancing climate-driven fire risk in the southern and western US where PE-BA correlations were strongest. Spatial and temporal patterns of increasing fire season PE and BA during the 1990's-2000's highlight the potential sensitivity of US fire activity to climate change in coming decades. However, climate-fire relationships at the national scale are complex, based on the diversity of fire types, ecosystems, and ignition sources within each NCA region. Changes in the seasonality or magnitude of climate anomalies are therefore unlikely to result in uniform changes in US fire activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120013612','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120013612"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite-based Assessment of Climate Controls on US <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.; Wang, D.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Chen, Y.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Climate regulates fire activity through the buildup and drying of fuels and the conditions for fire ignition and spread. Understanding the dynamics of contemporary climate-fire relationships at national and sub-national scales is critical to assess the likelihood of changes in future fire activity and the potential options for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we conducted the first national assessment of climate controls on US fire activity using two satellite-based estimates of monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (BA), the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED, 1997 2010) and Monitoring Trends in <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity (MTBS, 1984 2009) BA products. For each US National Climate Assessment (NCA) region, we analyzed the relationships between monthly BA and potential evaporation (PE) derived from reanalysis climate data at 0.5 resolution. US fire activity increased over the past 25 yr, with statistically significant increases in MTBS BA for entire US and the Southeast and Southwest NCA regions. Monthly PE was strongly correlated with US fire activity, yet the climate driver of PE varied regionally. Fire season temperature and shortwave radiation were the primary controls on PE and fire activity in the Alaska, while water deficit (precipitation PE) was strongly correlated with fire activity in the Plains regions and Northwest US. BA and precipitation anomalies were negatively correlated in all regions, although fuel-limited ecosystems in the Southern Plains and Southwest exhibited positive correlations with longer lead times (6 12 months). Fire season PE in creased from the 1980s 2000s, enhancing climate-driven fire risk in the southern and western US where PE-BA correlations were strongest. Spatial and temporal patterns of increasing fire season PE and BA during the 1990s 2000s highlight the potential sensitivity of US fire activity to climate change in coming decades. However, climatefire relationships at the national scale are complex, based on the diversity of fire types, ecosystems, and ignition sources within each NCA region. Changes in the seasonality or magnitude of climate anomalies are therefore unlikely to result in uniform changes in US fire activity.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H33H..06C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H33H..06C"><span id="translatedtitle">Bare soil erosion modelling with rainfall simulations: experiments on crop and recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Catani, F.; Menci, S.; Moretti, S.; Keizer, J.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The use of numerical models is of fundamental importance in the comprehension and prediction of soil erosion. At the very basis of the calibration process of the numerical models are the direct measurements of the governing parameters, carried out during field or laboratory tests. To measure and model soil erosion rainfall simulations can be used, that allow the reproduction of project rainfall having chosen characteristics of intensity and duration. The main parameters that rainfall simulators can measure are hydraulic conductivity, parameters of soil erodibility, rate and features of splash erosion, discharge coefficient and sediment yield. Other important parameters can be estimated during the rainfall simulations through the use of photogrammetric instruments able to memorize high definition stereographic models of the soil plot under analysis at different time steps. In this research rainfall simulator experiments (rse) were conducted to measure and quantify runoff and erosion processes on selected bare soil plots. The selected plots are located in some vineyards, olive groves and crops in central Italy and in some recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in north-central Portugal, affected by a wildfire during early July 2005 and, at the time, largely covered by commercial eucalypt plantations. On the Italian crops the choice of the rainfall intensities and durations were performed on the basis of the previous knowledge of the selected test <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The procedure was based on an initial phase of soil wetting and a following phase of 3 erosion cycles. The first should reproduce the effects of a normal rainfall with a return time of 2 years (23 mm/h). The second should represent a serious episode with a return time of 10 years (34 mm/h). The third has the objective to reproduce and understand the effects of an intense precipitation event, with a return time of 50 years (41 mm/h). During vineyards experiments some photogrammetric surveys were carried out as well. In the Portugal <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, to measure the influence of rain intensities, two rainfall simulations have been carried out simultaneously, one with an intensity of 45 mm/h and one with 85 mm/h. In both cases, before the experiments, soil and vegetation cover description have been made and soil samples have been taken. During the simulations soil samples leaving the parcels were taken at suitable time intervals to measure the sediment yield and the runoff. The rse data have been thought to provide a sufficient basis for erosion modelling at the small-plot scale and, through upscaling, for predicting erosion rates at the slope scale. For this purpose two soil erosion models, WEPP and MEFIDIS, have been selected and then compared. The comparison has shown a certain degree of uncertainty in numeric erosion prediction, due to the non linearity of the overland erosion processes, and to technical and conceptual difficulties, including the data collection. In the following laboratory phase high resolution (2 by 2 mm) DEMs of the vineyards plot are being produced for each meaningful processing phase. The digital elevation models will then be analysed to asses calibration parameters such as soil roughness (expressed by standard deviation of elevations, fractal dimension and local relief energy), soil and sediment transfer (hypsometric curves, local elevation and volume differences) and rill network evolution (Horton ordering, stream lengths, contributing <span class="hlt">area</span>, drainage density, Hack's law)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310084&keyword=biomass&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55730589&CFTOKEN=31845970','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=310084&keyword=biomass&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55730589&CFTOKEN=31845970"><span id="translatedtitle">Emissions from Combustion of Open <span class="hlt">Area</span> Sources: Prescribed Forest and Agricultural <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Emissions from wildfires and prescribed forest and agricultural <span class="hlt">burns</span> generate a variety of emissions that can cause adverse health effects for humans, contribute to climate change, and decrease visibility. Only limited pollutant data are available for these sources, particularly...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4525846','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4525846"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of systemic inflammation response and vital organ damage induced by severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> in different <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Lingying; Li, Xiao; Yang, Jing; Chai, Jiake; Yu, Yonghui; Duan, Hongjie; Song, Huifeng; Feng, Rui; Wang, Tongming; Yin, Huinan; Hu, Quan; Wang, Shaoxia; Du, Jundong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: In this study, we will establish a stable and optimized rat model that can meet strictly diagnosed criteria and serve as a tool to investigate the potential of novel therapeutics in this preclinical model through comparative analysis of systemic alterations, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and infiltrated numbers of inflammatory cells in distant organ between 30% and 50% TBSA with a full-thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Materials and methods: The adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following groups: control group, 30% TBSA with a full-thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span> group, and 50% TBSA with a full-thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span> group. The blood and serum samples in the 3 groups were collected and detected by blood routine examination and biochemical detection at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h post <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in serum were detected by ELISA. The sections of lung, renal, liver and heart were analyzed by H&E and immunohistochemical staining detection. Results: Our results showed that temperature in 50% TBSA with a full-thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span> group was always hypothermia, and lower than 36°C at defined timepoints post <span class="hlt">burn</span>, that was in 30% TBSA with a full-thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span> group was lower than 36°C only at 48 h post <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly increased in 30% and 50% groups at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h post <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The apoptosis in distant organs and the biochemical parameters such as ALT, AST, troponin, CK, CK-MB, LDH, urea and creatinine in 30% and 50% groups were also increased at different degrees at defined timepoints after <span class="hlt">burn</span>, but changes in 50% group were more obvious than that in 30% group. Conclusion: We choose 50% TBSA with a full-thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span> to establish a stable and optimized rat model that can meet strictly diagnosed criteria and serve as a tool to investigate the potential of novel therapeutics in this preclinical model. PMID:26261512</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.6033F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.6033F"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationships between <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, forest cover loss, and land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon based on satellite data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fanin, T.; van der Werf, G. R.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Fires are used as a tool in the deforestation process. Yet, the relationship between fire and deforestation may vary temporally and spatially depending on the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal dynamics of deforestation and fire represented by <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> over the 2002-2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. As a first step, we compared newly available Landsat-based maps of gross forest cover loss from the Global Forest Change (GFC) project with maps of deforestation extent from the Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Project (PRODES) produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). As a second step, we rescaled the Landsat-based data to the 500 m resolution of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data (MCD64A1) and stratified this using MODIS land cover data to study the role of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in forest cover loss and deforestation. We found that while GFC forest cover loss and PRODES deforestation generally agreed on spatial and temporal dynamics, there were several key differences between the data sets. Both showed a decrease in the extent of forest cover loss or deforestation after 2004, but the drop was larger and more continuous in PRODES than in GFC. The observed decrease in forest cover loss or deforestation rates over our study period was mainly due to lower clearing rates in the evergreen broadleaf forests in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia. GFC indicated anomalously high forest cover loss in the years 2007 and 2010, which was not reported by PRODES. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data indicated that this was predominantly related to increased <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> occurring outside of the tropical forest <span class="hlt">area</span> during these dry years, mainly in Pará. This indicated that fire and forest loss dynamics in woodlands or secondary forests may be equally important as deforestation in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In addition to the decrease in forest cover loss rates, we also found that post-deforestation fire use declined; <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> within 5 years after forest cover loss decreased from 54 to 39 % during our study period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.safekids.org/sites/default/files/documents/skw_burns_fact_sheet_feb_2015.pdf','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.safekids.org/sites/default/files/documents/skw_burns_fact_sheet_feb_2015.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> and Fire Safety</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... were seen in emergency rooms for fire and <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in 2013. 1 Additional Statistics Working smoke alarms ... Medical costs for hospital admissions for unintentional fire/<span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in children 19 and under <span class="hlt">average</span> $14,498 ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B13B0555K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B13B0555K"><span id="translatedtitle">Reclassified Cropland Active Fire and <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Detections by the MODIS 1 km Sensor in Canadian Provinces by land cover type, 2001 - 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kerr, T. F.; Ernst, C. L.; McCarty, J. L.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Fire is a primary disturbance agent in Canadian ecosystems and has significant social, environmental, and economic consequences. Accurate location and identification of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is critical to understanding the transfer of gases and particles into earth's atmosphere, especially in Northern latitudes. This data is an important aid in producing accurate atmospheric models that estimate black carbon (BC) deposition on arctic snow. Previous research has indicated that cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> contributes to BC distribution in the arctic which alters the balance in snow-albedo reflectance and radiation transmission in the atmosphere. The locations and numbers of fires were identified using the 1km MODIS Active Fire Product and the 500m MODIS <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Product. Land cover type was assigned based on the 1 km MODIS Land Cover Product, to the post-processed active fire points. They were then reclassified into seven (7) classes: Croplands, Forest, Grasslands, Urban, Water Bodies, Wetlands, and Barren. The results show that Forest, Cropland, and Grassland land cover types are the main sources of active fire detections in Canada from 2001 to 2010. The peak fire months are April, May, September, and October for Cropland active fire <span class="hlt">burns</span> in all Canadian Provinces from 2001 to 2010. By province, Saskatchewan and Manitoba are the leading sources of Cropland detected active fires. Cropland <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimations were calculated using the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> pixel count (post-processing of MODIS <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Product) within cropland identified by the 1 km MODIS Land Cover data set (LC-12) for the years 2003-2010. Cropland <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> detection was most significant in 2003 during which 27.3% of all detected hectares <span class="hlt">burned</span> from 2003 to 2010 occurred. The year with least impact was 2004 in which 3.5% of all detected hectares <span class="hlt">burned</span>. The peak months for Cropland <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> detections were May, September, and October across all Canadian Provinces from 2003 to 2010. Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Alberta are the leading sources for Cropland <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> detections. Field research conducted during April of 2011 in the Peace River Agricultural <span class="hlt">Area</span> in British Columbia and Alberta revealed that cropland identified by the MODIS 1 km Land Cover Product appeared to be undergoing land-use conversion. Scrubland and mixed forest tree lines are being cleared to create more field space during the winter months. However, these woody brush piles are <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the middle of fallow fields and as such are detected as Cropland <span class="hlt">burnings</span>. From this analysis of fire activity in Canadian provinces we can identify the major land cover sources of <span class="hlt">burn</span> and provide an in-depth look at cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span>'s temporal and spatial patterns over the last decade based on data from the MODIS sensor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H53D0661Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H53D0661Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Debris Flows Generated in Adjacent Unburned and Recently-<span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Areas</span>, Coronado National Memorial, Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Youberg, A.; Pearthree, P. A.; Baker, V. R.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>An extreme precipitation sequence that set up over Arizona in late July, 2006, generated numerous debris flows in several <span class="hlt">areas</span> in southern Arizona. A weak but persistent cut-off low pressure system centered in eastern-central Arizona interacted with a moist monsoon flow from the south to trigger a series of rain events in late July. These increasingly wet storms culminated on July 31, when floods of record occurred and debris flows were generated at numerous mountain locations throughout southeastern Arizona. Intense precipitation in the Coronado National Memorial near the international border generated more than 20 debris flows in steep mountain drainages. Coronado NM encompasses 1924 ha, of which approximately 135 ha were <span class="hlt">burned</span> by a wildfire in May, 2006. Debris flows of various sizes were generated in both unburned and recently-<span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, providing an opportunity to evaluate the influence of wildfires on debris-flow generation. We mapped each debris flow, identified probable initiation mechanisms, and, for selected debris flows, surveyed channels or fans to estimate debris-flow volumes. Preliminary observations suggest that debris flows in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> initiated by intense runoff and failures in multiple small hillslope rills, whereas most debris flows in unburned <span class="hlt">areas</span> initiated as discrete shallow failures of colluvium over bedrock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AtmEn..35.3841Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AtmEn..35.3841Z"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of subgrid velocity scale on site-specific/subgrid <span class="hlt">area</span> and grid-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> dry deposition velocities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Leiming; Brook, Jeffrey R.</p> <p></p> <p>A method for deriving the site-specific and subgrid <span class="hlt">area</span> wind speed and friction velocity from regional model output and detailed land type information is developed. The "subgrid velocity scale" is introduced to account for generation of turbulent fluxes by subgrid motions. The grid vector <span class="hlt">averaged</span> wind speed is adjusted by adding the subgrid velocity scale. This is to account for the fact that the spatial <span class="hlt">average</span> of the local wind speed is usually larger than the absolute value of the vector <span class="hlt">averaged</span> velocity ( | limitV?| ), especially when there are different land or surface types within the spatial <span class="hlt">averaging</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and when limitV? is small. The assumption of uu*=constant is then applied within a model grid <span class="hlt">area</span> to obtain wind speed and friction velocity for specific sites and subgrid <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Using this method, the site-specific and subgrid <span class="hlt">area</span> wind speed and friction velocity can be estimated from grid-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> model output. In addition, more realistic air pollutant dry deposition velocities for specific locations and subgrid <span class="hlt">areas</span> can be calculated. Grid-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> deposition velocity values calculated using this approach tend to be about 30% different (either larger or smaller) for HNO 3 and sulphate and about 10% different for SO 2 and O 3 compared to values calculated by assuming a constant wind speed over the whole model grid <span class="hlt">area</span>. These differences are found to be even larger at specific sites or over some subgrid <span class="hlt">areas</span>. This method can be applied to determine a more realistic wind speed, friction velocity and pollutant dry deposition velocity at specific locations using gridded meteorological data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112829N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112829N"><span id="translatedtitle">Can post-wildfire <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Emergency Response treatments mitigate watershed degradation?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neary, D.; Ffolliott, P.; Bautista, S.; Wittenberg, L.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Wildfire is a natural phenomenon that began with the development of terrestrial vegetation in a lightning-filled atmosphere 350 million years ago. As human populations developed in the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs, mankind transformed fire into one of its oldest tools. A negative impact of prime concern in the 21st Century is desertification. This term refers to land degradation, not the immediate creation of classical deserts. It is about the loss of the land's proper hydrologic function and biological productivity as a result of human activities and climate change. It affects 33% of the earth's surface and over a billion people. Fire-related desertification has a number of environmental, social, and economic consequences. The two key environmental consequences are soil erosion and exotic plant invasions. Wildfires typically have exotic plant species abundances ten times that of undisturbed forests (Neary et al. 2003). Seeding has been used for many years in the USA as a prime <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Emergency Response (BAER) treatment. Until recently, this seeding contributed to exotic plant invasions since fast-growing, but non native plants seeds were used. The use of native plant seeds and sterile hybrids has reduced this problem somewhat. Erosion after wildfires documented in the USA can be in the range of <1 to 370 Mg/ha, depending on fire severity, degree of water repellency, slope, and post-fire rainfall events. Soil losses in the high end of that range definitely exceed soil loss tolerances and contribute to desertification. Soil disturbance and degradation after wildfires is a function of fire severity, and the impacts can range from the minimal to catastrophic and long-lasting. The most obvious impact is the loss of organic matter from combustion of the forest floor. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties with high-severity wildfire can produce water repellency, aggravating rainfall runoff and erosion. Since soils take long times to form (50 to 75,000 years), degradation as a result of wildfire-related erosion or soil property changes can result in severe and rapid desertification. Soil degradation is a "one-way street" not easily reversed. Although trees can be replanted on <span class="hlt">burned</span> sites, soil lost in erosion is rarely replaced, just rehabilitated. There are techniques to rehabilitate these degraded soils but they are quite expensive. Disruptions to soil micro-fauna and micro-flora can also reduce post-fire site vegetation productivity. An environmental consequence of wildfire related to soil disturbance, is the loss of hydrologic function. Again, the level of hydrologic function loss is related to fire severity. Although this ecosystem function tends to recover within 5 - 10 years after wildfire as vegetation cover returns, the immediate impacts can be considerable. The removal of the protective layer of the forest floor by combustion, and the development of water repellent layers in the soil combine to aggrevate flood potentials. Flood peak flows after wildfires with high percentages of high severity wildfire (>30%) commonly have increases of 10-fold. Higher increases (20 to 2,000 fold) have been measured as the percentage of high-severity soil damage approaches 100%. The other side of high flood runoff is the reduction in baseflow that sustains stream flow due to the reduction in rainfall infiltration. This has water supply implications for forested watersheds that are sources for municipal water supplies. In addition, post-wildfire ash slurry flows can substantially degrade the quality of municipal water sources. Although this phenomenon is relatively short lived (<2 years), it can have serious supply impacts. This paper examines the capabilities of BAER treatments in dealing with this problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/269024','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/269024"><span id="translatedtitle">Focused feasibility study for surface soil at the main pits and pushout <span class="hlt">area</span>, J-field toxic <span class="hlt">burning</span> pits <span class="hlt">area</span>, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J.</p> <p>1996-06-01</p> <p>The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field <span class="hlt">area</span> at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open <span class="hlt">burning</span>/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open <span class="hlt">burning</span>/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPRS...79..199P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPRS...79..199P"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of spectral reflectance values to different <span class="hlt">burn</span> and vegetation ratios: A multi-scale approach applied in a fire affected <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pleniou, Magdalini; Koutsias, Nikos</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The aim of our study was to explore the spectral properties of fire-scorched (<span class="hlt">burned</span>) and non fire-scorched (vegetation) <span class="hlt">areas</span>, as well as <span class="hlt">areas</span> with different <span class="hlt">burn</span>/vegetation ratios, using a multisource multiresolution satellite data set. A case study was undertaken following a very destructive wildfire that occurred in Parnitha, Greece, July 2007, for which we acquired satellite images from LANDSAT, ASTER, and IKONOS. Additionally, we created spatially degraded satellite data over a range of coarser resolutions using resampling techniques. The panchromatic (1 m) and multispectral component (4 m) of IKONOS were merged using the Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening method. This very high-resolution imagery served as the basis to estimate the cover percentage of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, bare land and vegetation at pixel level, by applying the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. Finally, multiple linear regression models were fit to estimate each land-cover fraction as a function of surface reflectance values of the original and the spatially degraded satellite images. The main findings of our research were: (a) the Near Infrared (NIR) and Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) are the most important channels to estimate the percentage of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, whereas the NIR and red channels are the most important to estimate the percentage of vegetation in fire-affected <span class="hlt">areas</span>; (b) when the bi-spectral space consists only of NIR and SWIR, then the NIR ground reflectance value plays a more significant role in estimating the percent of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, and the SWIR appears to be more important in estimating the percent of vegetation; and (c) semi-<span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> comprising 45-55% <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and 45-55% vegetation are spectrally closer to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the NIR channel, whereas those <span class="hlt">areas</span> are spectrally closer to vegetation in the SWIR channel. These findings, at least partially, are attributed to the fact that: (i) completely <span class="hlt">burned</span> pixels present low variance in the NIR and high variance in the SWIR, whereas the opposite is observed in completely vegetated <span class="hlt">areas</span> where higher variance is observed in the NIR and lower variance in the SWIR, and (ii) bare land modifies the spectral signal of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> more than the spectral signal of vegetated <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the NIR, while the opposite is observed in SWIR region of the spectrum where the bare land modifies the spectral signal of vegetation more than the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> because the bare land and the vegetation are spectrally more similar in the NIR, and the bare land and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> are spectrally more similar in the SWIR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC21C0855K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC21C0855K"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting high severity fire occurrence and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in a changing climate for three regions in the Western US</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Keyser, A.; Westerling, A. L.; Milostan, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A long history of fire suppression in the western United States has interrupted the fire regimes of many forest types. This interruption has significantly changed forest structure and ecological function and led to increasingly uncharacteristic fires in terms of size and severity. Research has shown that climate variability drives the occurrence of large fires and is important to predicting fire severity. We found that Western US <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in high severity fire can be accurately predicted using a generalized Pareto distribution model with covariates of climate, weather, topography, and vegetation. Our model was robust in all but the most extreme fire years, e.g. 1988, 2000, 2002, and 2003, where <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in high severity was significantly greater than in other years. We modeled the Northern Rocky Mountains, the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the Southwestern US to determine if regional differences in controls on severity were at play in extreme years. The regional analysis improved model performance by capturing extreme fire years and identified regionally unique covariates. For the Northern Rocky Mountains the addition of elevation and fire regime condition class improved the prediction in extreme years. In the Southwest relative humidity and moisture deficit in the month of fire and total fire size were critical to capturing extreme fire years. The Sierra Nevada model had the most complex set of covariates that included: vegetation, moisture deficit, evapotranspiration, precipitation, and fire regime condition class. By incorporating regionally specific variables, our models were robust in prediction of high severity <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in all years. For this work, we will apply high and low CO2 emission scenarios from three general circulation models to our regional statistical models to predict probability of high severity fire occurrence as well as <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in high severity for the period 1950-2099. We used the downscaled climate as an input into the VIC hydrologic model to generate independent variable sets for each future scenario. The modeling output will allow us to identify potential changes in the annual <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> with high severity fire under future climate as well as <span class="hlt">areas</span> where the probable occurrence of high severity fires might increase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....12.8235F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....12.8235F"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationships between <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, forest cover loss and land use change in the Brazilian Amazon based on satellite data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fanin, T.; van der Werf, G. R.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Fires are used as a tool in the deforestation process. Yet, the relationship between fire and deforestation may vary temporally and spatially depending on the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal dynamics of deforestation and fire represented by <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> over the 2002-2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. As a first step, we compared newly available Landsat-based maps of gross forest cover loss from the Global Forest Change (GFC) project with maps of deforestation extent from the Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Project (PRODES) produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). As a second step, we rescaled the Landsat-based data to the 500 m resolution of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data (MCD64A1) and stratified this using MODIS land cover data to study the role of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in forest cover loss and deforestation. We found that while GFC forest cover loss and PRODES deforestation generally agreed on spatial and temporal dynamics, there were several key differences between the datasets. Both showed a decrease in the extent of forest cover loss or deforestation after 2004, but the drop was larger and more continuous in PRODES than in GFC. The observed decrease in forest cover loss or deforestation rates over our study period was mainly due to lower clearing rates in the evergreen broadleaf forests in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará and Rondônia. GFC indicated anomalous high forest cover loss in the years 2007 and 2010 not reported by PRODES. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data showed that this was predominantly related to increased fire activity occurring outside of the tropical forest <span class="hlt">area</span> during these dry years, mainly in Pará. This indicates that fire and forest loss dynamics in woodlands or secondary forests may be equally important as deforestation in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In addition to the decrease in forest cover loss rates, we also found that post-deforestation fire use declined; <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> within 5 years after forest cover loss decreased from 54 to 39% during our study period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.169..271U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.169..271U"><span id="translatedtitle">Organic aerosols in a Brazilian agro-industrial <span class="hlt">area</span>: Speciation and impact of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Urban, R. C.; Alves, C. A.; Allen, A. G.; Cardoso, A. A.; Campos, M. L. A. M.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>This work presents the first comprehensive organic characterization of atmospheric aerosols from an agro-industrial region (São Paulo State, Brazil) highly impacted by biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The organic speciation was performed using different solvents of increasing polarity, enabling the identification and quantification of 172 different organic species by GC-MS. The mass of organic compounds reached 123 μg m- 3 in an aerosol sample collected during the sugar cane harvest period compared with 0.82 μg m- 3 in the non-harvest period. The samples most impacted by biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> were those with the highest percentages of non-polar compounds (n-alkanes; up to 96%). However, in absolute terms, the total mass of polar compounds in such samples was greater than for samples less impacted by this activity. Retene (a marker for biomass combustion) was the most abundant of the 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons quantified, corresponding to 14%-84%. This work shows that biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> was responsible for a benzo(a)pyrene equivalent index value that exceeded the recommendation of the World Health Organization. Principal component analysis indicated that agricultural biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and emissions from crop processing facilities explained 42% of the variance of the data, while 37% was explained by urban emissions, 10% by vehicle emissions, and 10% by biogenic sources. This study provides insights into the emissions of a suite of organic compounds that could participate in anthropic alteration of regional cloud formation and precipitation patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25501787','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25501787"><span id="translatedtitle">Recovery trajectories after <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury in young adults: does <span class="hlt">burn</span> size matter?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ryan, Colleen M; Lee, Austin; Kazis, Lewis E; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Sheridan, Robert L; Meyer, Walter J; Palmieri, Tina; Pidcock, Frank S; Reilly, Debra; Tompkins, Ronald G</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The impact of <span class="hlt">burn</span> size on mortality is well known, but the association of <span class="hlt">burn</span> size with the trajectories of long-term functional outcomes remains poorly studied. This prospective multi-center study included <span class="hlt">burned</span> adults ages 19 to 30 years who completed the Young Adult <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Outcome Questionnaire at initial baseline contact, 2 weeks, and at 6 and 12 months after initial questionnaire administration. Non-<span class="hlt">burned</span> adults of comparable ages also completed the questionnaire as a reference group. The association between functional recovery and TBSA <span class="hlt">burned</span> was analyzed longitudinally using generalized linear models with the generalized estimation equation technique. Functional status was characterized in 15 domains: physical function, fine motor function, pain, itch, social function limited by physical function, perceived appearance, social function limited by appearance, sexual function, emotion, family function, family concern, satisfaction with symptom relief, satisfaction with role, work reintegration, and religion. Scores were standardized to a mean of 50 and a SD of 10 based on non-<span class="hlt">burned</span> controls. There were 153 <span class="hlt">burned</span> and 112 non-<span class="hlt">burned</span> subjects with a total of 620 questionnaires. TBSA <span class="hlt">burned</span> was 11 14% (mean SD); 31% had face involvement and 57% had hand involvement. The lag time from <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury to questionnaire administration was on <span class="hlt">average</span> 7 7.7 months, with a maximum of 36 months. Lower recovery levels were associated with increasing <span class="hlt">burn</span> size for physical function, pain, itch, work reintegration, emotion, satisfaction with symptom relief, satisfaction with role, family function, and family concern (P value ranged from .04-<.0001). No significant differences in recovery levels were found with increasing <span class="hlt">burn</span> size for fine motor function, social function limited by physical function, sexual function, and religion; these <span class="hlt">areas</span> tracked toward the age-matched non-<span class="hlt">burned</span> group regardless of <span class="hlt">burn</span> size. Perceived appearance and social function limited by appearance remained below the non-<span class="hlt">burn</span> levels throughout the 3-year period regardless of <span class="hlt">burn</span> size. Three-year recovery trajectories of survivors with larger <span class="hlt">burn</span> size showed improvements in most <span class="hlt">areas</span>, but these improvements lagged behind those with smaller <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Poor perceived appearance was persistent and prevalent regardless of <span class="hlt">burn</span> size and was found to limit social function in these young adult <span class="hlt">burn</span> survivors. Expectations for multidimensional recovery from <span class="hlt">burns</span> in young adults can be benchmarked based on <span class="hlt">burn</span> size with important implications for patient monitoring and intervening in clinical care. PMID:25501787</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1257/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1257/"><span id="translatedtitle">Postwildfire debris flows hazard assessment for the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2011 Track Fire, northeastern New Mexico and southeastern Colorado</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In June 2011, the Track Fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> 113 square kilometers in Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, and Las Animas County, southeastern Colorado, including the upper watersheds of Chicorica and Raton Creeks. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Track Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. The models incorporate measures of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of post-fire debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 38 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence-interval), the probability of debris flow estimated for basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Track fire ranged between 2 and 97 percent, with probabilities greater than 80 percent identified for the majority of the tributary basins to Raton Creek in Railroad Canyon; six basins that flow into Lake Maloya, including the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins; two tributary basins to Sugarite Canyon, and an unnamed basin on the eastern flank of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 30 cubic meters to greater than 100,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 100,000 cubic meters) were estimated for Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins, which drain into Lake Maloya. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking identifies the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins as having the highest probability of producing the largest debris flows. This finding indicates the greatest post-fire debris-flow impacts may be expected to Lake Maloya. In addition, Interstate Highway 25, Raton Creek and the rail line in Railroad Canyon, County road A-27, and State Highway 526 in Sugarite Canyon may also be affected where they cross drainages downstream from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> basins. Although this assessment indicates that a rather large debris flow (approximately 42,000 cubic meters) may be generated from the basin above the City of Raton (basin 9) in response to the design storm, the probability of such an event is relatively low (approximately 10 percent). Additional assessment is necessary to determine if the estimated volume of material is sufficient to travel into the City of Raton. In addition, even small debris flows may affect structures at or downstream from basin outlets and increase the threat of flooding downstream by damaging or blocking flood mitigation structures. The maps presented here may be used to prioritize <span class="hlt">areas</span> where erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be necessary within a 2- to 3-year window of vulnerability following the Track Fire.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..77..725L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..77..725L"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluoride and sulfur dioxide indoor pollution situation and control in coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> endemic <span class="hlt">area</span> in Zhaotong, Yunnan, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Yonglin; Luo, Kunli; Li, Ling; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The presented study aims to investigate the gaseous fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2) pollution level in the kitchen, traditional flue-curing barn and outdoor environment and to find economically feasible method to reduce fluorine and sulfur release. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentrations in air of outdoor environment, kitchen and traditional flue-curing barn were determined in 56 households in coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> endemic fluorosis <span class="hlt">areas</span> of Zhaotong. Among these, 21 households in Yujiawan Village, Zhenxiong County, Zhaotong City were chosen for this experiment to reduce gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in traditional flue-curing barn air by using calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone (CDSL) instead of clay mixed with coal. The result showed that: (1) gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the outdoor air in Mangbu Township <span class="hlt">area</span> was 0.51 ?g dm-2?day and <0.05 mg m-3, respectively and in Xiaolongdong Township was 2.7 ?g dm-2 day and <0.05 mg m-3, respectively while in Zhaotong City these concentration were lower than the ambient air standard (3 ?g dm-2?day and 0.5 mg m-3, respectively). (2) The indoor gaseous fluoride concentration (3.7 ?g m-3) in air of kitchen with the improved coal stove was within the reference value (10 ?g m-3); SO2 concentration (0.94 mg m-3) in kitchen air had decline, but its concentration was still higher than indoor air quality standard (0.5 mg m-3). (3) <span class="hlt">Average</span> concentration of gaseous fluoride and SO2 in air of traditional flue-curing barn of Xiaolongdong Township was 7.2 ?g m-3 and 6.8 mg m-3 respectively, and in Yujiawan village were 10.1 ?g m-3 and 14.4 mg m-3, respectively. (4) After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air decreased of 45% and 91%, respectively. The gaseous fluoride and SO2 pollution in the traditional flue-curing barn is very serious. The corn and chili baked by open stoves in traditional flue-curing barn (baking room) was also seriously polluted by fluoride and sulfur. After using the calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay mixed with coal, gaseous fluoride and SO2 concentration in the traditional flue-curing barn air have declined markedly. The way of adding calcined dolomitic siliceous limestone instead of clay as a binder for briquette-making is an economically feasible way to control the indoor pollution of fluorine and sulfur in coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> endemic in Zhaotong, Yunnan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4077511','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4077511"><span id="translatedtitle">Survey of one-year <span class="hlt">average</span> Rn levels in Pittsburgh <span class="hlt">area</span> homes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cohen, B L</p> <p>1985-12-01</p> <p>Radon concentrations <span class="hlt">averaged</span> over 1 yr were measured in 169 homes selected without regard to factors known to influence Rn levels. The <span class="hlt">average</span> level was 6.3 pCi/l in basements, 2.4 pCi/l on first floors, and 2.0 pCi/l on second floors; medians were considerably smaller, 2.6, 1.20, and 0.95 pCi/l, respectively. Distributions deviate considerably from log normal in having an excess of very large values and a deficiency of very low values. Levels in upper floors were somewhat lower where the basement was isolated by closed doors than where it was not. Drafty houses had lower Rn levels than less drafty ones. Houses exposed to wind had higher levels than those well sheltered from wind. There was little correlation between Rn concentration and age of the house, indicating that Rn exposures may not have changed appreciably during the past 50 yr; this is important for estimating risks of Rn-induced lung cancer. Houses with forced air heating systems seemed to have higher Rn levels in the upper floors than those with steam or hot water heat. No strong correlations were found between Rn levels and cooking with natural gas, or river vs well-water supplies. PMID:4077511</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1188/ofr2012-1188_pl2.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1188/ofr2012-1188_pl2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimated probability of postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 Whitewater-Baldy Fire <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, southwestern New Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Tillery, Anne C.; Matherne, Anne Marie; Verdin, Kristine L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In May and June 2012, the Whitewater-Baldy Fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> approximately 1,200 square kilometers (300,000 acres) of the Gila National Forest, in southwestern New Mexico. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 128 basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Whitewater-Baldy Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed by using data from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> basins throughout the intermountain Western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> drainage network and for selected drainage basins within the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. The models incorporate measures of areal <span class="hlt">burned</span> extent and severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall intensity to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to the 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, modeling indicated that four basins have high probabilities of debris-flow occurrence (greater than or equal to 80 percent). For the 10-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, an additional 14 basins are included, and for the 25-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, an additional eight basins, 20 percent of the total, have high probabilities of debris-flow occurrence. In addition, probability analysis along the stream segments can identify specific reaches of greatest concern for debris flows within a basin. Basins with a high probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in the west and central parts of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, including tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Mineral Creek, and Willow Creek. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from about 3,000-4,000 cubic meters (m3) to greater than 500,000 m3 for all design storms modeled. Drainage basins with estimated volumes greater than 500,000 m3 included tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Willow Creek, Iron Creek, and West Fork Mogollon Creek. Drainage basins with estimated debris-flow volumes greater than 100,000 m3 for the 25-year-recurrence event, 24 percent of the basins modeled, also include tributaries to Deep Creek, Mineral Creek, Gilita Creek, West Fork Gila River, Mogollon Creek, and Turkey Creek, among others. Basins with the highest combined probability and volume relative hazard rankings for the 25-year-recurrence rainfall include tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Mineral Creek, Willow Creek, West Fork Gila River, West Fork Mogollon Creek, and Turkey Creek. Debris flows from Whitewater, Mineral, and Willow Creeks could affect the southwestern New Mexico communities of Glenwood, Alma, and Willow Creek. The maps presented herein may be used to prioritize <span class="hlt">areas</span> where emergency erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be necessary within a 2- to 3-year period of vulnerability following the Whitewater-Baldy Fire. This work is preliminary and is subject to revision. It is being provided because of the need for timely "best science" information. The assessment herein is provided on the condition that neither the U.S. Geological Survey nor the U.S. Government may be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=146423&keyword=large+AND+array+AND+data&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55738415&CFTOKEN=77215446','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=146423&keyword=large+AND+array+AND+data&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55738415&CFTOKEN=77215446"><span id="translatedtitle">EXPERIMENTAL AND MODEL-COMPUTED <span class="hlt">AREA</span> <span class="hlt">AVERAGED</span> VERTICAL PROFILES OF WIND SPEED FOR EVALUATION OF MESOSCALE URBAN CANOPY SCHEMES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Numerous urban canopy schemes have recently been developed for mesoscale models in order to approximate the drag and turbulent production effects of a city on the air flow. However, little data exists by which to evaluate the efficacy of the schemes since "<span class="hlt">area-averaged</span>&quo...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.7115C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmEn..42.7115C"><span id="translatedtitle">Dissolved organic carbon in rainwater from <span class="hlt">areas</span> heavily impacted by sugar cane <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coelho, C. H.; Francisco, J. G.; Nogueira, R. F. P.; Campos, M. L. A. M.</p> <p></p> <p>This work reports on rainwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from Ribeirão Preto (RP) and Araraquara over a period of 3 years. The economies of these two cities, located in São Paulo state (Brazil), are based on agriculture and related industries, and the region is strongly impacted by the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of sugar cane foliage before harvesting. Highest DOC concentrations were obtained when air masses traversed sugar cane fields <span class="hlt">burned</span> on the same day as the rain event. Significant increases in the DOC volume weighted means (VWM) during the harvest period, for both sites, and a good linear correlation ( r = 0.83) between DOC and K (a biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> marker) suggest that regional scale organic carbon emissions prevail over long-range transport. The DOC VWMs and standard deviations were 272 ± 22 μmol L -1 ( n = 193) and 338 ± 40 μmol L -1 ( n = 80) for RP and Araraquara, respectively, values which are at least two times higher than those reported for other regions influenced by biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>, such as the Amazon. These high DOC levels are discussed in terms of agricultural activities, particularly the large usage of biogenic fuels in Brazil, as well as the analytical method used in this work, which includes volatile organic carbon when reporting DOC values. Taking into account rainfall volume, estimated annual rainwater DOC fluxes for RP (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1) and Araraquara (5.4 g C m -2 yr -1) were close to that previously found for the Amazon region (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1). This work also discusses whether previous calculations of the global rainwater carbon flux may have been underestimated, since they did not consider large inputs from biomass combustion sources, and suffered from a possible analytical bias.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510247O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510247O"><span id="translatedtitle">Fire spatial heterogeneity, fire seasonality and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping accuracy in the tropical savannas of Northern Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; Campagnolo, Manuel L.; Pereira, Jose M. C.; Russell-Smith, Jeremy</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Accurate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping from remotely sensed data should be able to identify spatial heterogeneity within a fire perimeter, for an improved representation of fire effects as experienced by plants and animals. In order to derive a very high spatial resolution characterization of fire patterns in the tropical savannas of the Northern Territory, Australia, we walked 38.2km of line transects, sampling the presence/absence of <span class="hlt">burning</span> evidence at 1m intervals, in 35 different fires that occurred between 2009 and 2011. Transects were sampled in the early and in the late dry season, and in five dominant vegetation classes. We used lacunarity analysis and spatial autocorrelation to assess the dominant scale of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> patches, which turns out to be approximately 200m. Lacunarity analysis also suggests that burnt <span class="hlt">areas</span> exhibit a clustered pattern and that fire heterogeneity is more pronounced in the early dry season. This is consistent with our observation that patches in the late dry season tend to be smaller and more randomly distributed. Finally, we used our high resolution data date to simulate remote sensing detection of burnt <span class="hlt">areas</span> for a range of spatial resolutions. We quantify the omission error for each sensor and conclude that if resolution is lower than the dominant scale, then the error tends to be small. Our results also suggest that sensors with spatial resolution higher than the dominant scale have similar omission errors over a broad range of resolution values. The forthcoming Sentinel-2 satellites, which combine 5-day revisit, and systematic acquisition of all land surfaces at 10-20 m spatial resolution, with a large number of spectral bands, ought to allow for very accurate and timely mapping of fire heterogeneity, for improved assessment of fire impacts on biodiversity and pyrogenic emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AcO....49....1M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AcO....49....1M"><span id="translatedtitle">Responses of a small-mammal community to habitat management through controlled <span class="hlt">burning</span> in a protected Mediterranean <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Fire is widely used as a management tool to achieve conservation goals. However, the consequences of such management on non-target species are frequently neglected and unknown. This study examines the effects of traditional management practices of scrubland clearance by controlled <span class="hlt">burning</span> to improve menaced carnivores on non-target species: rodent and insectivores in Doñana National Park (SW of Iberian Peninsula). We used capture-recapture methods to examine changes in abundance in <span class="hlt">areas</span> that were burnt one and three years ago, compared with unburnt <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Results showed that burnt <span class="hlt">areas</span> had higher species abundances, but mainly on the ecotonal boundaries. Species abundances showed dramatic seasonal differences with high abundances in autumn and winter, and very low abundance in summer. Our study revealed that scrubland management by controlled fires increases the abundance of small mammal species, mainly Mus spretus and Apodemus sylvaticus. We found only four small mammal species between the different treatments. However, some species that were formerly abundant in Doñana, such as Elyomis quercinus, were found only in burnt <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Our results suggest that controlled <span class="hlt">burning</span> is not contributing to the current loss of biotic diversity in this community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/prevention-wellness/staying-healthy/first-aid/first-aid-burns.printerview.all.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/prevention-wellness/staying-healthy/first-aid/first-aid-burns.printerview.all.html"><span id="translatedtitle">First Aid: <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... You can get <span class="hlt">burned</span> by heat, fire, radiation, sunlight, electricity, chemicals or hot or boiling water. There ... skin. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> will be sensitive to sunlight for up to one year, so you should ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1308/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1308/"><span id="translatedtitle">Postwildfire preliminary debris flow hazard assessment for the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in north-central New Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Las Conchas Fire during the summer of 2011 was the largest in recorded history for the state of New Mexico, <span class="hlt">burning</span> 634 square kilometers in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 321 basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Las Conchas Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> basins throughout the intermountain western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. The models incorporate measures of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 28.0 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence interval), the probabilities of debris flows estimated for basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Las Conchas Fire were greater than 80 percent for two-thirds (67 percent) of the modeled basins. Basins with a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in tributaries to Santa Clara and Rio del Oso Canyons in the northeastern part of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>; some steep <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, Los Alamos, and Guaje Canyons in the east-central part of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>; tributaries to Peralta, Colle, Bland, and Cochiti canyons in the southwestern part of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>; and tributaries to Frijoles, Alamo, and Capulin Canyons in the southeastern part of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (within Bandelier National Monument). Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 400 cubic meters to greater than 72,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 40,000 cubic meters) were estimated for basins in Santa Clara, Los Alamos, and Water Canyons, and for two basins at the northeast edge of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> tributary to Rio del Oso and Vallecitos Creek. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings identify the <span class="hlt">areas</span> of highest probability of the largest debris flows. Basins with high Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings include upper Santa Clara Canyon in the northern section of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar, and portions of Peralta, Colle, Bland, Cochiti, Capulin, Alamo, and Frijoles Canyons in the southern section of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar. Three basins with high Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Rankings also occur in <span class="hlt">areas</span> upstream from the city of Los Alamos—the city is home to and surrounded by numerous technical sites for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Potential debris flows in the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> could affect the water supply for Santa Clara Pueblo and several recreational lakes, as well as recreational and archeological resources in Bandelier National Monument. Debris flows could damage bridges and culverts along State Highway 501 and other roadways. Additional assessment is necessary to determine if the estimated volume of material is sufficient to travel into <span class="hlt">areas</span> downstream from the modeled basins along the valley floors, where they could affect human life, property, agriculture, and infrastructure in those <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Additionally, further investigation is needed to assess the potential for debris flows to affect structures at or downstream from basin outlets and to increase the threat of flooding downstream by damaging or blocking flood mitigation structures. The maps presented here may be used to prioritize <span class="hlt">areas</span> where erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be necessary within a 2- to 3-year window of vulnerability following the Las Conchas Fire.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19647857','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19647857"><span id="translatedtitle">The spatial and temporal distribution of crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the contiguous United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McCarty, Jessica L; Korontzi, Stefania; Justice, Christopher O; Loboda, Tatiana</p> <p>2009-10-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burning</span> crop residue before and/or after harvest is a common farming practice however; there is no baseline estimate for cropland <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in the contiguous U.S. (CONUS). We present the results of a study, using five years of remotely sensed satellite data to map the location and areal extent of crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the CONUS. Our <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> approach combines 500 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio (dNBR) data, with 1 km MODIS active fire counts calibrated using coincident high resolution satellite data to generate <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates. Our results show that cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> is an extensive and recurring annual event in several states in the CONUS. On <span class="hlt">average</span>, 1,239,000 ha of croplands <span class="hlt">burn</span> annually, which is equivalent to 43% of the annual <span class="hlt">average</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> of wildland fires in the U.S., as reported by the United States Forest Service for the same period. Several states experience high levels (>30,000 ha yr(-1)) of crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>, including Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Kansas, Louisiana, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, and Washington. Validation with high resolution <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar imagery and GPS data collected during targeted field campaigns showed a moderate to high-level accuracy for our <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates, ranging from 78 to 90%. Our approach provides a more consistent methodology for quantifying cropland <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> at regional scales than the previously available U.S. national and state-level statistics on crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>. PMID:19647857</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3793879','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3793879"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of major <span class="hlt">burns</span> at the Lebanese <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center in Geitawi, Lebanon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ghanimé, G.; Rizkallah, N.; Said, J.M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Summary <span class="hlt">Burn</span> care is one of the few <span class="hlt">areas</span> in medicine considered both medically and surgically challenging, with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries affecting people of all ages and both sexes. Between May 1992 and March 2012, 1,524 patients were admitted to the Lebanese <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center in Geitawi, with an <span class="hlt">average</span> length of stay (LOS) of 36.5 days. The most frequently encountered injuries were thermal <span class="hlt">burns</span>, generally resulting from domestic accidents. Of our patients, 47% were from rural <span class="hlt">areas</span> and <span class="hlt">burned</span> body surface (BBS) was the most serious factor, with 36% of all those admitted having suffered <span class="hlt">burns</span> of 20% to 40% of their total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA). Our team of experienced physicians, nurses, nutritionists and physical therapists was essential to successful <span class="hlt">burn</span> care and outcomes were improved with adequate early fluid intake. The main causes of death were multiple organ failure due to hemodynamic instability, followed by respiratory failure from inhalation injury. A week after the injury, risk of infection was the main threat to the <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims. Although this threat was compounded by malnutrition and immunodeficiency, excessive use of antibiotics was not justified. The fatality rate was about 18% and correlates with higher TBSA <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:24133397</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11939594','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11939594"><span id="translatedtitle">Novel computer program for fast exact calculation of accessible and molecular surface <span class="hlt">areas</span> and <span class="hlt">average</span> surface curvature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsodikov, Oleg V; Record, M Thomas; Sergeev, Yuri V</p> <p>2002-04-30</p> <p>New computer programs, SurfRace and FastSurf, perform fast calculations of the solvent accessible and molecular (solvent excluded) surface <span class="hlt">areas</span> of macromolecules. Program SurfRace also calculates the <span class="hlt">areas</span> of cavities inaccessible from the outside. We introduce the definition of <span class="hlt">average</span> curvature of molecular surface and calculate <span class="hlt">average</span> molecular surface curvatures for each atom in a structure. All surface <span class="hlt">area</span> and curvature calculations are analytic and therefore yield exact values of these quantities. High calculation speed of this software is achieved primarily by avoiding computationally expensive mathematical procedures wherever possible and by efficient handling of surface data structures. The programs are written initially in the language C for PCs running Windows 2000/98/NT, but their code is portable to other platforms with only minor changes in input-output procedures. The algorithm is robust and does not ignore either multiplicity or degeneracy of atomic overlaps. Fast, memory-efficient and robust execution make this software attractive for applications both in computationally expensive energy minimization algorithms, such as docking or molecular dynamics simulations, and in stand-alone surface <span class="hlt">area</span> and curvature calculations. PMID:11939594</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930036583&hterms=image+lidar&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dimage%2Blidar','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930036583&hterms=image+lidar&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dimage%2Blidar"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculation of <span class="hlt">area-averaged</span> vertical profiles of the horizontal wind velocity from volume-imaging lidar data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schols, J. L.; Eloranta, E. W.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Area-averaged</span> horizontal wind measurements are derived from the motion of spatial inhomogeneities in aerosol backscattering observed with a volume-imaging lidar. Spatial <span class="hlt">averaging</span> provides high precision, reducing sample variations of wind measurements well below the level of turbulent fluctuations, even under conditions of very light mean winds and strong convection or under the difficult conditions represented by roll convection. Wind velocities are measured using the two-dimensional spatial cross correlation computed between successive horizontal plane maps of aerosol backscattering, assembled from three-dimensional lidar scans. Prior to calculation of the correlation function, three crucial steps are performed: (1) the scans are corrected for image distortion by the wind during a finite scan time; (2) a temporal high pass median filtering is applied to eliminate structures that do not move with the wind; and (3) a histogram equalization is employed to reduce biases to the brightest features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.burninstitute.org/','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.burninstitute.org/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Institute</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Now Help keep local seniors safe from fire! <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Survivor Support If you are reading this, chances ... year – a <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Learn more Fire and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Prevention Each year, the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Institute provides fire ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4186812','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4186812"><span id="translatedtitle">To <span class="hlt">Burn</span> or Not to <span class="hlt">Burn</span>? Effect of Management Strategy on North American Prairie Vegetation for Public Urban <span class="hlt">Areas</span> in Germany</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schmithals, Anja; Khn, Norbert</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>North American prairie vegetation has been a role model for designing highly attractive plantings for German urban green spaces for the past decade. In combination with gravel mulch top layers on planting sites and non-selective maintenance techniques like mowing or <span class="hlt">burning</span>, prairie plantings are considered to be cost-effective and low-maintenance. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of different maintenance strategies and especially the necessity of fire management on the development success of ornamental prairie plantings in central Europe. A four factorial split-plot-block design was set up for investigation of different mixtures of prairie species under varying management conditions (mow-only, mowing plus selective weeding, mowing plus weeding and <span class="hlt">burning</span>) on two differing soil types (in-situ topsoil and in-situ topsoil with a graywacke gravel mulch top layer) over three years. Significant effects of maintenance strategy on mortality rates and vitality were documented for a number of target species, which responded species specifically, either being slightly affected by the <span class="hlt">burning</span> or thriving on it. Those effects were mostly restricted to topsoil sites. A strong impact on weed species presence and abundance and resulting maintenance times was found on both soil types. On topsoil sites, mow-only treatment resulted in a short-term loss of the original planting due to extensive weed growth. Corresponding gravel mulch sites were generally less colonised and visually dominated by weeds. Differences between weeded and weeded plus <span class="hlt">burned</span> sites were minor. Unexpectedly, weed species populations were mostly unaffected by the additional <span class="hlt">burning</span> treatment, while maintenance times and costs increased. No overall benefit of fire management for the establishment of prairie plantings was documented. The most effective management combination proved to be mowing plus regular selective weeding measures on gravel mulched planting sites. PMID:25286061</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25286061','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25286061"><span id="translatedtitle">To <span class="hlt">burn</span> or not to <span class="hlt">burn</span>? Effect of management strategy on North American prairie vegetation for public urban <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Germany.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmithals, Anja; Khn, Norbert</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>North American prairie vegetation has been a role model for designing highly attractive plantings for German urban green spaces for the past decade. In combination with gravel mulch top layers on planting sites and non-selective maintenance techniques like mowing or <span class="hlt">burning</span>, prairie plantings are considered to be cost-effective and low-maintenance. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of different maintenance strategies and especially the necessity of fire management on the development success of ornamental prairie plantings in central Europe. A four factorial split-plot-block design was set up for investigation of different mixtures of prairie species under varying management conditions (mow-only, mowing plus selective weeding, mowing plus weeding and <span class="hlt">burning</span>) on two differing soil types (in-situ topsoil and in-situ topsoil with a graywacke gravel mulch top layer) over three years. Significant effects of maintenance strategy on mortality rates and vitality were documented for a number of target species, which responded species specifically, either being slightly affected by the <span class="hlt">burning</span> or thriving on it. Those effects were mostly restricted to topsoil sites. A strong impact on weed species presence and abundance and resulting maintenance times was found on both soil types. On topsoil sites, mow-only treatment resulted in a short-term loss of the original planting due to extensive weed growth. Corresponding gravel mulch sites were generally less colonised and visually dominated by weeds. Differences between weeded and weeded plus <span class="hlt">burned</span> sites were minor. Unexpectedly, weed species populations were mostly unaffected by the additional <span class="hlt">burning</span> treatment, while maintenance times and costs increased. No overall benefit of fire management for the establishment of prairie plantings was documented. The most effective management combination proved to be mowing plus regular selective weeding measures on gravel mulched planting sites. PMID:25286061</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/273755','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/273755"><span id="translatedtitle">An optimized groundwater extraction system for the toxic <span class="hlt">burning</span> pits <span class="hlt">area</span> of J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Quinn, J.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Patton, T.L.; Martino, L.E.</p> <p>1996-06-01</p> <p>Testing and disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals at the J-Field <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) have resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater. The discharge of contaminated groundwater to on-site marshes and adjacent estuaries poses a potential risk to ecological receptors. The Toxic <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Pits (TBP) <span class="hlt">area</span> is of special concern because of its disposal history. This report describes a groundwater modeling study conducted at J-Field that focused on the TBP <span class="hlt">area</span>. The goal of this modeling effort was optimization of the groundwater extraction system at the TBP <span class="hlt">area</span> by applying linear programming techniques. Initially, the flow field in the J-Field vicinity was characterized with a three-dimensional model that uses existing data and several numerical techniques. A user-specified border was set near the marsh and used as a constraint boundary in two modeled remediation scenarios: containment of the groundwater and containment of groundwater with an impermeable cap installed over the TBP <span class="hlt">area</span>. In both cases, the objective was to extract the minimum amount of water necessary while satisfying the constraints. The smallest number of wells necessary was then determined for each case. This optimization approach provided two benefits: cost savings, in that the water to be treated and the well installation costs were minimized, and minimization of remediation impacts on the ecology of the marsh.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://newsinhealth.nih.gov/issue/Dec2013/Feature2','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://newsinhealth.nih.gov/issue/Dec2013/Feature2"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Issue: Handling Household <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... hot objects or liquid, fire, friction, the sun, electricity, or certain chemicals. Each year, about a half- ... infant or elderly. the <span class="hlt">burn</span> was caused by electricity, which can lead to “invisible” <span class="hlt">burns</span>. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> <span class="hlt">Burns</span> ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575152','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575152"><span id="translatedtitle">Early excision and grafting versus delayed excision and grafting of deep thermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> up to 40% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>: a comparison of outcome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Saaiq, M.; Zaib, S.; Ahmad, S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Summary This is a study of 120 patients of either sex and all ages who had sustained deep <span class="hlt">burns</span> of up to 40% of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. Half the patients underwent early excision and skin autografting (i.e., within 4-7 days of sustaining <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury) while the rest underwent delayed excision and skin autografting (i.e., within 1-4 weeks post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>). Significant differences were found in favour of the early excision and grafting group with regard to the various <span class="hlt">burn</span> management outcome parameters taken into consideration, i.e. culture positivity of wounds, graft take, duration of post-graft hospitalization, and mortality. PMID:23467391</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18650705','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18650705"><span id="translatedtitle">Economics of pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Sustaining a <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span>, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood <span class="hlt">burns</span> are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> units that treat <span class="hlt">burns</span> >10% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> and operative treatment of pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> economic data. More research is needed to address <span class="hlt">areas</span> of pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures. PMID:18650705</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21146315','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21146315"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of adult scald <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients-a single center study in western Kanagawa Prefecture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morita, S; Higami, S; Aoki, H; Yamagiwa, T; Akieda, K; Inokuchi, S</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burns</span> sustained in bathtubs are a social and medical problem in Japan, especially among the elderly. Between October 2003 and March 2009, 22 adult scald <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients (men, 17; <span class="hlt">average</span> age, 65.3 21.2 years) were transferred to Tokai University. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of these patients, and compared clinical parameters among patients with <span class="hlt">burns</span> sustained in a bathtub (n = 10) and those with <span class="hlt">burns</span> sustained due to other causes (n = 12). The <span class="hlt">average</span> percentage total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (%TBSA), dermal and deep <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, and abbreviated <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity index (ABSI) were 27.6 23.8, 19.9 20.5%, 7.8 13.1%, and 7.7 3.1, respectively. All patients in the bathtub <span class="hlt">burn</span> group were elderly, 6 developed internal diseases, 3 had alcohol-related <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and 4 died. Additionally, their %TBSA and ABSI were higher than those of the non-bathtub <span class="hlt">burn</span> group patients. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> sustained in bathtubs were more severe than those sustained due to other causes. The bathtub-related <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients were elderly, and their <span class="hlt">burns</span> were extensive and deep; hence, they were at a higher risk of developing internal diseases. Thus, introduction of safer bathing styles and bath systems will decrease incidences of bathtub-related <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:21146315</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8150840','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8150840"><span id="translatedtitle">The use of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene gloves for care of upper-extremity <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schiller, W R; Leukens, C; Neve, D</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The combination of a glove made of an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane-based laminate and silver sulfadiazine cream was evaluated as a treatment for <span class="hlt">burned</span> hands. Eight patients who had <span class="hlt">burns</span> <span class="hlt">averaging</span> 25% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> and who had 11 extensive partial thickness hand <span class="hlt">burns</span> (2% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>) were treated with an <span class="hlt">average</span> of 17 gloves over 9 days. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds healed with no unusual or unexpected outcomes. Nurses and therapists agreed that dressing changes were quick and easy and that the gloves provided greater range of motion and function in the hands. Patients also expressed a preference for this method of treatment. PMID:8150840</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21950526','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21950526"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Xin; Li, Mengmeng; Friedli, Hans R; Song, Yu; Chang, Di; Zhu, Lei</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> covers open fires (forest and grassland fires, crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in fields, etc.) and biofuel combustion (crop residues and wood, etc., used as fuel). As a large agricultural country, China may produce large quantities of mercury emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>. A new mercury emission inventory in China is needed because previous studies reflected outdated biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> with coarse resolution. Moreover, these studies often adopted the emission factors (mass of emitted species per mass of biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span>) measured in North America. In this study, the mercury emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in China (excluding small islands in the South China Sea) were estimated, using recently measured mercury concentrations in various biomes in China as emission factors. Emissions from crop residues and fuelwood were estimated based on annual reports distributed by provincial government. Emissions from forest and grassland fires were calculated by combining moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product with combustion efficiency (ratio of fuel consumption to total available fuels) considering fuel moisture. The <span class="hlt">average</span> annual emission from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> was 27 (range from 15.1 to 39.9) Mg/year. This inventory has high spatial resolution (1 km) and covers a long period (2000-2007), making it useful for air quality modeling. PMID:21950526</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20131108','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20131108"><span id="translatedtitle">Postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2012 Little Bear Fire, south-central New Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Tillery, Anne C.; Matherne, Anne Marie</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A preliminary hazard assessment was developed of the debris-flow potential from 56 drainage basins <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Little Bear Fire in south-central New Mexico in June 2012. The Little Bear Fire <span class="hlt">burned</span> approximately 179 square kilometers (km2) (44,330 acres), including about 143 km2 (35,300 acres) of National Forest System lands of the Lincoln National Forest. Within the Lincoln National Forest, about 72 km2 (17,664 acres) of the White Mountain Wilderness were <span class="hlt">burned</span>. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> also included about 34 km2 (8,500 acres) of private lands. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> severity was high or moderate on 53 percent of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. The <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> is at risk of substantial postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. A postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the Little Bear Fire was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Lincoln National Forest. A set of two empirical hazard-assessment models developed by using data from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> drainage basins throughout the intermountain Western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> drainage network and for selected drainage basins within the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. The models incorporate measures of areal <span class="hlt">burn</span> extent and severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall intensity to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. Relative hazard rankings of postwildfire debris flows were produced by summing the estimated probability and volume ranking to illustrate those <span class="hlt">areas</span> with the highest potential occurrence of debris flows with the largest volumes. The probability that a drainage basin could produce debris flows and the volume of a possible debris flow at the basin outlet were estimated for three design storms: (1) a 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall of 27 millimeters (mm) (a 50 percent chance of occurrence in any given year); (2) a 10-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall of 42 mm (a 10 percent chance of occurrence in any given year); and (3) a 25-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall of 51 mm (a 4 percent chance of occurrence in any given year). Thirty-nine percent of the 56 drainage basins modeled have a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris flows in response to the 2-year design storm; 80 percent of the modeled drainage basins have a high probability of debris flows in response to the 25-year design storm. For debris-flow volume, 7 percent of the modeled drainage basins have an estimated debris-flow volume greater than 100,000 cubic meters (m3) in response to the 2-year design storm; 9 percent of the drainage basins are included in the greater than 100,000 m3 category for both the 10-year and the 25-year design storms. Drainage basins in the greater than 100,000 m3 volume category also received the highest combined hazard ranking. The maps presented herein may be used to prioritize <span class="hlt">areas</span> where emergency erosion mitigation or other protective measures may be needed prior to rainstorms within these drainage basins, their outlets, or <span class="hlt">areas</span> downstream from these drainage basins within the 2- to 3-year period of vulnerability. This work is preliminary and is subject to revision. The assessment herein is provided on the condition that neither the U.S. Geological Survey nor the U.S. Government may be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the assessment.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12927984','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12927984"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of hospitalized <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients in Taiwan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chien, Wu-Chien; Pai, Lu; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Heng-Chang</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>Previous studies based on either single hospital data or sampling of specific groups of hospitalized <span class="hlt">burns</span> victims in Taiwan have provided only minimal epidemiological information. The study is designed to provide additional data on the epidemiology of hospitalized <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Injury Information System (BIIS), which brings together information supplied by 34 contracted hospitals. The study time course spanned a 2-year period from July 1997 to June 1999. Patient characteristics (age, sex, education level, etc.), causes and severity of injuries, and medical care measures were explored. A total of 4741 patients were registered with BIIS over the study period. The majority of hospitalized patients (67%) were male. The age distribution of <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients showed peaks occurring at the age groups of 0-5 and 35-44 years. Over the time course of a day, <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries occurred more frequently from 10:00 to 12:00 h and 16:00 to 18:00 h. Injuries suspected as the result of suicide, homicide or child abuse accounted for 4.8% of hospitalized cases. More than 48% of the <span class="hlt">burns</span> occurred in the home. The leading type of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury was scalding, followed by naked flame, explosion, electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> due to caustic or corrosive substances. The mean percent total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (%TBSA) for adults was 19%, and for young children was 12%. The <span class="hlt">average</span> length of hospital stay was 18 days. In conclusion, children under 5 years and adults between 35 and 44 years of age are two high-risk groups for <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Corresponding to meal preparation time, hot substances such as boiling water, hot soup, etc. are the most common agents responsible for scalds. Prevention programs for reducing the risk of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries during cooking and eating are required, especially for parents with young children. PMID:12927984</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DPPTP8084F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DPPTP8084F"><span id="translatedtitle">Hamiltonian gyro-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> preserving map models of finite Larmor radius effects on ExB chaotic transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fonseca, Julio; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Caldas, Ibere</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Area</span> preserving maps have been extensively used to model 2-dimensional chaotic transport in plasmas and fluids. Here we focus on three types of <span class="hlt">area</span> preserving maps describing ExB chaotic transport in magnetized plasmas with zonal flows perturbed by electrostatic drift waves. We include finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects by gyro-<span class="hlt">averaging</span> the corresponding Hamiltonians of the maps. The Hamiltonians have frequencies with monotonic and non-monotonic profiles. In the limit of zero Larmor radius, the monotonic frequency map reduces to the standard Chirikov-Taylor map, and, in the case of non-monotonic frequency, the map reduces to the standard nontwist map. We show that FLR leads to chaos suppression, modifies the stability of fixed points, and changes the robustness of transport barriers. FLR effects also modify the phase space topology and give rise to bifurcations of the zonal flow ExB velocity profile. Dynamical systems methods based on recurrence time statistics are used to quantify the dependence on the Larmor radius of the threshold for the destruction of transport barriers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRG..120.2256W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRG..120.2256W"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in Europe to climate change, atmospheric CO2 levels, and demography: A comparison of two fire-vegetation models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Minchao; Knorr, Wolfgang; Thonicke, Kirsten; Schurgers, Guy; Camia, Andrea; Arneth, Almut</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Global environmental changes and human activity influence wildland fires worldwide, but the relative importance of the individual factors varies regionally and their interplay can be difficult to disentangle. Here we evaluate projected future changes in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> at the European and sub-European scale, and we investigate uncertainties in the relative importance of the determining factors. We simulated future <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> with LPJ-GUESS-SIMFIRE, a patch-dynamic global vegetation model with a semiempirical fire model, and LPJmL-SPITFIRE, a dynamic global vegetation model with a process-based fire model. Applying a range of future projections that combine different scenarios for climate changes, enhanced CO2 concentrations, and population growth, we investigated the individual and combined effects of these drivers on the total <span class="hlt">area</span> and regions affected by fire in the 21st century. The two models differed notably with respect to the dominating drivers and underlying processes. Fire-vegetation interactions and socioeconomic effects emerged as important uncertainties for future <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> in some European regions. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> of eastern Europe increased in both models, pointing at an emerging new fire-prone region that should gain further attention for future fire management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881500','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881500"><span id="translatedtitle">Explanation of Significant Difference (ESD) for the A-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) (U)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morgan, Randall</p> <p>2000-11-17</p> <p>The A-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) (ABRP) operable unit (OU) is located in the northwest portion of Savannah River Site (SRS), approximately 2.4 kilometers (1.5 miles) south of the A/M <span class="hlt">Area</span> operations. Between 1951 and 1973, Pits 731-A and 731-1A were used to <span class="hlt">burn</span> paper, plastics, wood, rubber, rags, cardboard, oil, degreasers, and solvents. Combustible materials were <span class="hlt">burned</span> monthly. After <span class="hlt">burning</span> was discontinued in 1973, Pits 731-A and 731-1A were also converted to rubble pits and used to dispose of concrete rubble, bricks, tile, asphalt, plastics, metal, wood products, and rubber until about 1978. When the pits were filled to capacity, there were covered with compacted clay-rich native soils and vegetation was established. Pit 731-2A was only used as a rubble pit until 1983 after which the <span class="hlt">area</span> was backfilled and seeded. Two other potential source <span class="hlt">areas</span> within the OU were investigated and found to be clean. The water table aquifer (M-<span class="hlt">Area</span> aquifer) was also investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/biomass-burning','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/biomass-burning"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-07-27</p> <p>Projects:  Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Definition/Description:  Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span>: This data set represents the geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span>. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/82463','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/82463"><span id="translatedtitle">Work plan for focused feasibility study of the toxic <span class="hlt">burning</span> pits <span class="hlt">area</span> at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Biang, C.; Benioff, P.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field <span class="hlt">area</span> at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCIA). J-Field is within the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open <span class="hlt">burning</span> and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood <span class="hlt">Area</span> conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA)(predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-0021355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today-</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988SPIE..914..500A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988SPIE..914..500A"><span id="translatedtitle">Multispectral Imaging Of <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Wounds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Afromowitz, Martin A.; Callis, James B.; Heimbach, David M.; DeSoto, Larry A.; Norton, Mary K.</p> <p>1988-06-01</p> <p>This research program successfully developed a real-time video imaging system (the Imaging <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Depth Indicator, or IBDI) which can discriminate <span class="hlt">areas</span> of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds expected to heal in three weeks or less from the day of injury from those <span class="hlt">areas</span> not expected to heal in that time period. The analysis can be performed on or about the third day post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> on debrided <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds. Early evaluation of <span class="hlt">burn</span> healing probability is a crucial factor in the decision to tangentially excise the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound. The IBDI measures the reflectivity of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound in the red, green, and near infrared wavelength bands, which data correlate with <span class="hlt">burn</span> healing probability. The instrument uses an algorithm established in an earlier study to translate the optical data into <span class="hlt">burn</span> healing probabilities. The IBDI produces two types of images: a true-color image of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> and a false-color image of the <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The false-color image consists of up to four colors, each of which indicates a distinct range of probability that the <span class="hlt">area</span> of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> so colored will heal within 21 days. Over 100 <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound sites were studied. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> sites were evaluated on day three post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> by our instrument and by the attending physician. Of 55 sites considered to be of intermediate depth, the IBDI predicted the healing outcome accurately in 84% of the cases. By comparison, the predictions of <span class="hlt">burn</span> surgeons supervising the care of these patients were accurate in 62% of the cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1442M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1442M"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of the vegetation cover in a <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> 22-years ago using remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis (Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martnez-Murillo, Juan F.; Remond, Ricardo; Ruiz-Sinoga, Jos D.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The study aim was to characterize the vegetation cover in a <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> 22-years ago considering the previous situation to wildfire in 1991 and the current one in 2013. The objectives were to: (i) compare the current and previous vegetation cover to widlfire; (ii) evaluate whether the current vegetation has recovered the previous cover to wildfire; and (iii) determine the spatial variability of vegetation recovery after 22-years since the wildfire. The study <span class="hlt">area</span> is located in Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain. It corresponds to an <span class="hlt">area</span> affected by a wildfire in August 8th, 1991. The <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was equal to 8156 ha. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity was spatially very high. The main geographic features of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> are: mountainous topography (altitudes ranging from 250 m to 1500 m; slope gradient >25%; exposure mainly southfacing); igneous (peridotites), metamorphic (gneiss) and calcareous rocks (limestones); and predominant forest land use (Pinus pinaster sp. woodlands, 10%; pinus opened forest + shrubland, 40%; shrubland, 35%; and bare soil + grassland, 15%). Remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis has been applied to achieve the objectives. Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images were used: July 13th, 1991 and July 1st, 2013, for the previous wildfire situation and 22-years after, respectively. The 1990 CORINE land cover was also considered to map 1991 land uses prior the wildfire. Likewise, the Andaluca Regional Government wildfire historic records were used to select the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and its geographical limit. 1991 and 2013 land cover map were obtained by means of object-oriented classifications. Also, NDVI and PVI1 vegetation indexes were calculated and mapped for both years. Finally, some images transformations and kernel density images were applied to determine the most recovered <span class="hlt">areas</span> and to map the spatial concentration of bare soil and pine cover <span class="hlt">areas</span> in 1991 and 2013, respectively. According to the results, the combination of remote sensing and GIS analysis let map the most recovered <span class="hlt">areas</span> affected by the wildfire in 1991. The vegetation indexes indicated that the vegetation cover in 2013 was still lower than that mapped just before the 1991 widlfire in most of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> after 22-years. This result was also confirmed by other techniques applied. Finally, the kernel density surface let identify and locate the most recovered <span class="hlt">areas</span> of pine cover as well as those <span class="hlt">areas</span> that still remain totally or partially uncovered (bare soil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.4891B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.4891B"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling fire frequency and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> across phytoclimatic regions in Spain using reanalysis data and the Canadian Fire Weather Index System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bedia, J.; Herrera, S.; Gutirrez, J. M.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>We develop fire occurrence and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> models in peninsular Spain, an <span class="hlt">area</span> of high variability in climate and fuel types, for the period 1990-2008. We based the analysis on a phytoclimatic classification aiming to the stratification of the territory into homogeneous units in terms of climatic and fuel type characteristics, allowing to test model performance under different climatic and fuel conditions. We used generalized linear models (GLM) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) as modelling algorithms and temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and wind speed, taken from the ERA-Interim reanalysis, as well as the components of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System as predictors. We also computed the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) as an additional predictor for the models of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. We found two contrasting fire regimes in terms of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> and number of fires: one characterized by a bimodal annual pattern, characterizing the Nemoral and Oro-boreal phytoclimatic types, and another one exhibiting an unimodal annual cycle, with the fire season concentrated in the summer months in the Mediterranean and Arid regions. The fire occurrence models attained good skill in most of the phytoclimatic zones considered, yielding in some zones notably high correlation coefficients between the observed and modelled inter-annual fire frequencies. Total <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> also exhibited a high dependence on the meteorological drivers, although their ability to reproduce the observed annual <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> time series was poor in most cases. We identified temperature and some FWI system components as the most important explanatory variables, and also SPEI in some of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> models, highlighting the adequacy of the FWI system for fire modelling applications and leaving the door opened to the development a more complex modelling framework based on these predictors. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential usefulness of ERA-Interim reanalysis data for the reconstruction of historical fire-climate relationships at the scale of analysis. Fire frequency predictions may provide a preferable basis for past fire history reconstruction, long-term monitoring and the assessment of future climate impacts on fire regimes across regions, posing several advantages over <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> as response variable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC33E0569L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC33E0569L"><span id="translatedtitle">Inter-Annual Variability of <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> in Brazil Based on a Synergistic use of Information Derived from MODIS and Landsat-TM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Libonati, R.; Dacamara, C. C.; Setzer, A. W.; Morelli, F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A procedure is presented that allows using information from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to improve the quality of monthly <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates over Brazil. The method integrates MODIS derived information from two sources; the NASA MCD64A1 Direct Broadcast Monthly <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Product and INPE's Monthly <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> MODIS product (AQM-MODIS). The latter product relies on an algorithm that was specifically designed for ecosystems in Brazil, taking advantage of the ability of MIR reflectances to discriminate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Information from both MODIS products is incorporated by means of a linear regression model where an optimal estimate of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is obtained as a linear combination of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates from MCD64A1 and AQM-MODIS. The linear regression model is calibrated using as optimal estimates values of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> derived from Landsat TM during 2005 and 2006 over Jalapão, a region of Cerrado covering an <span class="hlt">area</span> of 187 x 187 km2. Obtained values of coefficients for MCD64A1 and AQM-MODIS were 0.51 and 0.35, respectively and the root mean square error was 7.6 km2. Robustness of the model was checked by calibrating the model separately for 2005 and 2006 and cross-validating with 2006 and 2005; coefficients for 2005 (2006) were 0.46 (0.54) for MCD64A1 and 0.35 (0.35) for AQM-MODIS and the corresponding root mean square errors for 2006 (2005) were 7.8 (7.4) km2. The linear model was then applied to Brazil as well as to the six Brazilian main biomes, namely Cerrado, Amazônia, Caatinga, Pantanal, Mata Atlântica and Pampa. As to be expected the interannual variability based on the proposed synergistic use of MCD64A1, AQM-MODIS and Landsat Tm data for the period 2005-2010 presents marked differences with the corresponding amounts derived from MCD64A1 alone. For instance during the considered period, values (in 103 km2) from the proposed approach (from MCD64A1) are 399 (142), 232 (62), 559 (259), 274 (73), 219 (31) and 415 (251). Values obtained with the proposed approach may be viewed as an improved alternative to the currently available products over Brazil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20423752','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20423752"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of elderly Japanese patients with severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morita, Seiji; Higami, Shigeo; Yamagiwa, Takeshi; Iizuka, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Yoshihide; Yamamoto, Isotoshi; Inokuchi, Sadaki</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>In this study, we report the clinical characteristics of elderly Japanese patients with severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>. We studied the clinical features of 76 adult patients with severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>, 35 of whom (46.1%) were ?65 years old. We evaluated the characteristics of patients with respect to each type of <span class="hlt">burn</span>. In addition, we studied the rate of death and survival in the elderly and also between the elderly and non-elderly patients. The following parameters were either assessed or compared between the elderly and non-elderly: gender, <span class="hlt">average</span> age, vital signs (Glasgow Coma Scale, systolic blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate) and PaO(2)/FiO(2) (P/F) ratio at admission, cause of <span class="hlt">burn</span> and a history of physical or psychiatric disease. Further, we investigated whether the <span class="hlt">burn</span> was caused by attempting suicide and determined the percent total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (%TBSA), second- and third-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, <span class="hlt">burn</span> index (BI), prognostic <span class="hlt">burn</span> index (PBI), presence of tracheal <span class="hlt">burns</span>, presence of alcohol intoxication and overdose poisoning, presence of tracheal intubation, outcome and cause of death. The male:female ratio of the elderly patients was 17:18 (<span class="hlt">average</span> age, 78.1 (8.2) years). <span class="hlt">Burns</span> were mostly caused by flame (26/35), followed by scalding (8/35). Ten patients had attempted suicide. The %TBSA, second-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, third-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, BI and PBI, respectively were 46.6% (26.7%), 15.3% (19.0%), 35.6% (26.0%), 41.1 (25.2) and 119.2 (25.9). Of the 35 patients, 23 died. The notable characteristics of the elderly patients who died were flame as the cause of the <span class="hlt">burns</span>: high %TBSA, BI and PBI, and a high rate of tracheal intubation. Elderly patients constituted approximately 45% of our study population. Most <span class="hlt">burns</span> were caused by flames. The incidence of accidental bathtub-related <span class="hlt">burns</span> was higher and that of suicide attempts was lower in the elderly patients, as compared with the non-elderly patients. Severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> were fatal for elderly patients. Therefore, elderly Japanese people should be educated on how to prevent non-intentional <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:20423752</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/626453','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/626453"><span id="translatedtitle">D-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (431-D and 431-1D) Corrective Measures Study/Focused Feasibility Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Palmer, E.R.; Mason, J.T.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>The purpose of this report is to determine alternatives which may be used to remediate the D-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (DBRP). An objective of this process is to provide decision makers adequate information to compare alternatives, select an appropriate remediation for the DBRP, and demonstrate the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements in the Record of Decision.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70155970','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70155970"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring boreal forest leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> index across a Siberian <span class="hlt">burn</span> chronosequence: a MODIS validation study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cheng, X.; Vierling, Lee; Deering, D.; Conley, A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Landscapes containing differing amounts of ecological disturbance provide an excellent opportunity to validate and better understand the emerging Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) vegetation products. Four sites, including 1?year post?fire coniferous, 13?year post?fire deciduous, 24?year post?fire deciduous, and >100 year old post?fire coniferous forests, were selected to serve as a post?fire chronosequence in the central Siberian region of Krasnoyarsk (57.3N, 91.6E) with which to study the MODIS leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> index (LAI) and vegetation index (VI) products. The collection 4 MODIS LAI product correctly represented the summer site phenologies, but significantly underestimated the LAI value of the >100 year old coniferous forest during the November to April time period. Landsat 7?derived enhanced vegetation index (EVI) performed better than normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to separate the deciduous and conifer forests, and both indices contained significant correlation with field?derived LAI values at coniferous forest sites (r2=0.61 andr2=0.69, respectively). The reduced simple ratio (RSR) markedly improved LAI prediction from satellite measurements (r2=0.89) relative to NDVI and EVI. LAI estimates derived from ETM+ images were scaled up to evaluate the 1km resolution MODIS LAI product; from this analysis MODIS LAI overestimated values in the low LAI deciduous forests (where LAI<5) and underestimated values in the high LAI conifer forests (where LAI>6). Our results indicate that further research on the MODIS LAI product is warranted to better understand and improve remote LAI quantification in disturbed forest landscapes over the course of the year.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030949','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030949"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Alaskan <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity patterns using remotely sensed data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Duffy, P.A.; Epting, J.; Graham, J.M.; Rupp, T.S.; McGuire, A.D.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Wildland fire is the dominant large-scale disturbance mechanism in the Alaskan boreal forest, and it strongly influences forest structure and function. In this research, patterns of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity in the Alaskan boreal forest are characterised using 24 fires. First, the relationship between <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity and <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> is quantified using a linear regression. Second, the spatial correlation of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity as a function of topography is modelled using a variogram analysis. Finally, the relationship between vegetation type and spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity is quantified using linear models where variograms account for spatial correlation. These results show that: 1) <span class="hlt">average</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity increases with the natural logarithm of the <span class="hlt">area</span> of the wildfire, 2) <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity is more variable in topographically complex landscapes than in flat landscapes, and 3) there is a significant relationship between <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity and vegetation type in flat landscapes but not in topographically complex landscapes. These results strengthen the argument that differential flammability of vegetation exists in some boreal landscapes of Alaska. Additionally, these results suggest that through feedbacks between vegetation and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, the distribution of forest vegetation through time is likely more stable in flat terrain than it is in <span class="hlt">areas</span> with more complex topography. ?? IAWF 2007.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..36...94A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..36...94A"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite-based automated <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> detection: A performance assessment of the MODIS MCD45A1 in the Brazilian savanna</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Araújo, Fernando Moreira De; Ferreira, Laerte G.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burnings</span>, which cause major changes to the environment, can be effectively monitored via satellite data, regarding both the identification of active fires and the estimation of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Among the many orbital sensors suitable for mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> on global and regional scales, the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), on board the Terra and Aqua platforms, has been the most widely utilized. In this study, the performance of the MODIS MCD45A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product was thoroughly evaluated in the Brazilian savanna, the second largest biome in South America and a global biodiversity hotspot, characterized by a conspicuous climatic seasonality and the systematic occurrence of natural and anthropogenic fires. Overall, September MCD45A1 polygons (2000-2012) compared well to the Landsat-based reference mapping (r2 = 0.92) and were closely accompanied, on a monthly basis, by MOD14 and MYD14 hotspots (r2 = 0.89), although large omissions errors, linked to landscape patterns, structures, and overall conditions depicted in each reference image, were observed. In spite of its spatial and temporal limitations, the MCD45A1 product proved instrumental for mapping and understanding fire behavior and impacts on the Cerrado landscapes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2465679','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2465679"><span id="translatedtitle">Air pollution from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and asthma hospital admissions in a sugar cane plantation <span class="hlt">area</span> in Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Martins, Lourdes Conceio; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Arbex, Flvio Ferlin; Canado, Jos Eduardo Delfini; Saldiva, Paulo Hilrio Nascimento; Braga, Alfsio Lus Ferreira</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Objective To evaluate the association between the total suspended particles (TSPs) generated from preharvest sugar cane <span class="hlt">burning</span> and hospital admission due to asthma (asthma hospital admissions) in the city of Araraquara. Design An ecological time?series study. Total daily records of asthma hospital admissions (ICD 10th J15) were obtained from one of the main hospitals in Araraquara, So Paulo State, Brazil, from 23 March 2003 to 27 July 2004. The daily concentration of TSP (?g/m3) was obtained using Handi?vol equipment (Energtica, Brazil) placed in downtown Araraquara. The local airport provided the daily mean figures of temperature and humidity. The daily number of asthma hospital admissions was considered as the dependent variable in Poisson's regression models and the daily concentration of TSP was considered the independent variable. The generalised linear model with natural cubic spline was adopted to control for long?time trend. Linear terms were used for weather variables. Results TSP had an acute effect on asthma admissions, starting 1?day after TSP concentrations increased and remaining almost unchanged for the next four days. A 10??g/m3 increase in the 5?day moving <span class="hlt">average</span> (lag15) of TSP concentrations was associated with an increase of 11.6% (95% CI 5.4 to 17.7) in asthma hospital admissions. Conclusion Increases in TSP concentrations were definitely associated with asthma hospital admissions in Araraquara and, despite using sugar cane alcohol to reduce air pollution from automotive sources in large Brazilian urban centres, the cities where sugar cane is harvested pay a high toll in terms of public health. PMID:17435205</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/766540','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/766540"><span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office</p> <p>2000-06-09</p> <p>This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training <span class="hlt">Area</span> (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near <span class="hlt">Areas</span> 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> was used from the 1960s to 1980s to <span class="hlt">burn</span> excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the <span class="hlt">area</span> was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve the question of whether or not potentially hazardous wastes were generated at three of the four CASs within CAU 490, and whether or not potentially hazardous and radioactive wastes were generated at the fourth CAS in CAU 490 (CAS 09-54-001-09L2). Suspected CAS-specific COPCs include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, explosives, and uranium and plutonium isotopes. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23644947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23644947"><span id="translatedtitle">Concentrations and source apportionment of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species in a lignite-<span class="hlt">burning</span> power generation <span class="hlt">area</span> of southern Greece.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Argyropoulos, G; Grigoratos, Th; Voutsinas, M; Samara, C</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Ambient concentrations of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species were measured over the cold and the warm months of 2010 at an urban and two rural sites located in the lignite-fired power generation <span class="hlt">area</span> of Megalopolis in Peloponnese, southern Greece. The PM10 concentrations at the urban site (44.2 ± 33.6 μg m(-3)) were significantly higher than those at the rural sites (23.7 ± 20.4 and 22.7 ± 26.9 μg m(-3)). Source apportionment of PM10 and associated components was accomplished by an advanced computational procedure, the robotic chemical mass balance model (RCMB), using chemical profiles for a variety of local fugitive dust sources (power plant fly ash, flue gas desulfurization wet ash, feeding lignite, infertile material from the opencast mines, paved and unpaved road dusts, soil), which were resuspended and sampled through a PM10 inlet onto filters and then chemically analyzed, as well as of other common sources such as vehicular traffic, residential oil combustion, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>, uncontrolled waste <span class="hlt">burning</span>, marine aerosol, and secondary aerosol formation. Geological dusts (road/soil dust) were found to be major PM10 contributors in both the cold and warm periods of the year, with <span class="hlt">average</span> annual contribution of 32.6 % at the urban site vs. 22.0 and 29.0 % at the rural sites. Secondary aerosol also appeared to be a significant source, contributing 22.1 % at the urban site in comparison to 30.6 and 28.7 % at the rural sites. At all sites, the contribution of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> was most significant in winter (28.2 % at the urban site vs. 14.6 and 24.6 % at the rural sites), whereas vehicular exhaust contribution appeared to be important mostly in the summer (21.9 % at the urban site vs. 11.5 and 10.5 % at the rural sites). The highest contribution of fly ash (33.2 %) was found at the rural site located to the north of the power plants during wintertime, when winds are favorable. In the warm period, the highest contribution of fly ash was found at the rural site located to the south of the power plants, although it was less important (7.2 %). Moderate contributions of fly ash were found at the urban site (5.4 and 2.7 % in the cold and the warm period, respectively). Finally, the mine field was identified as a minor PM10 source, occasionally contributing with lignite dust and/or deposited wet ash dust under dry summer conditions, with the summertime contributions ranging between 3.1 and 11.0 % among the three sites. The non-parametric bootstrapped potential source contribution function analysis was further applied to localize the regions of sources apportioned by the RCMB. For the majority of sources, source regions appeared as being located within short distances from the sampling sites (within the Peloponnesse Peninsula). More distant Greek <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the NNE sector also appeared to be source regions for traffic emissions and secondary calcium sulfate dust. PMID:23644947</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22325849','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22325849"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of <span class="hlt">burns</span> throughout the World. Part II: intentional <span class="hlt">burns</span> in adults.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peck, Michael D</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>A significant number of <span class="hlt">burns</span> and deaths from fire are intentionally wrought. Rates of intentional <span class="hlt">burns</span> are unevenly distributed throughout the world; India has a particularly high rate in young women whereas in Europe rates are higher in men in mid-life. Data from hospitalized <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients worldwide reveal incidence rates for assault by fire and scalds ranging from 3% to 10%. The <span class="hlt">average</span> proportion of the body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> in an assault by fire or scalds is approximately 20%. In different parts of the world, attempted <span class="hlt">burning</span> of others or oneself can be attributed to different motives. Circumstances under which assaults occur fall largely into the categories of interpersonal conflict, including spousal abuse, elder abuse, or interactions over contentious business transactions. Contributing social factors to assaults by <span class="hlt">burning</span> include drug and alcohol abuse, non-constructive use of leisure time, non-participation in religious and community activities, unstable relationships, and extramarital affairs. Although the incidence of self-mutilation and suicide attempts by <span class="hlt">burning</span> are relatively low, deliberate self-harm carries a significant risk of death, with an overall mortality rate of 65% worldwide. In those who resort to self-immolation, circumstantial themes reflect domestic discord, family dysfunction, and the social ramifications of unemployment. Preventing injurious <span class="hlt">burn</span>-related violence requires a multifaceted approach, including legislation and enforcement, education, and advocacy. Better standardized assessment tools are needed to screen for risks of abuse and for psychiatric disorders in perpetrators. PMID:22325849</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMED41A0619Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMED41A0619Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping the time-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> distribution of combustion-derived air pollutants in the San Francisco Bay <span class="hlt">Area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, C.; Zinniker, D. A.; Moldowan, J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Urban air pollution is an ongoing and complicated problem for both residents and policy makers. This study aims to provide a better understanding of the geographic source and fate of organic pollutants in a dynamic urban environment. Natural and artificial hydrophobic substrates were employed for the passive monitoring and mapping of ground-level organic pollutants in the San Francisco Bay <span class="hlt">area</span>. We focused specifically on volatile and semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These compounds are proxies for a broad range of combustion related air pollutants derived from local, regional, and global combustion sources. PAHs include several well-studied carcinogens and can be measured easily and accurately across a broad range of concentrations. Estimates of time-integrated vapor phase and particle deposition were made from measuring accumulated PAHs in the leaves of several widely distributed tree species (including the Quercus agrifolia and Sequoia sempervirens) and an artificial wax film. Samples were designed to represent pollutant exposure over a period of one to several months. The selective sampling and analysis of hydrophobic substrates providess insight into the <span class="hlt">average</span> geographic distribution of ground-level air pollutants in a simple and inexpensive way. However, accumulated organics do not directly correlated with human exposure and the source signature of PAHs may be obscured by transport, deposition, and flux processes. We attempted to address some of these complications by studying 1) PAH accumulation rates within substrates in a controlled microcosm, 2) differences in PAH abundance in different substrate types at the same locality, and 3) samples near long-term high volume air sampling stations. We also set out to create a map of PAH concentrations based on our measurements. This map can be directly compared with interpolated data from high-volume sampling stations and used to address questions concerning atmospheric heterogeneity of these pollutants (i.e. due to both source localization and dominant wind patterns). Our initial results indicate that exposure to PAHs in the bay <span class="hlt">area</span> is geographically heterogeneous and individual exposure may vary by more than two orders of magnitude. The signatures of PAH contamination also varies considerably, indicating different sources and differing transportation mechanisms may be important at different sites and times.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3187958','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3187958"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> and Diabetes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shalom, A.; Friedman, T.; Wong, L.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Summary Diabetes is often considered a risk factor for poor wound healing and increased complication rates for plastic surgery procedures. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injury in diabetic patients may have implications for the length of stay and number of operations required. We therefore we examined the characteristics of diabetic patients admitted to our <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit and the impact of their condition on their hospital course. Charts of all patients with diabetes admitted to the <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit from 1995 to 2000 were reviewed (n = 73). Demographic data, percent body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, anatomical location of the <span class="hlt">burn</span>, number of surgical procedures required, length and cost of stay, and outcome were noted. The control population included 150 consecutive patients without diabetes treated during the same period. Diabetic patients were older and underwent a higher number of surgical procedures, with increased length of stay and increased mortality, despite an equivalent body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. They had a higher incidence of scald <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the lower extremities than the non-diabetic population. This work shows that diabetic patients constitute a unique group. They are significantly older, have an increased rate of surgical interventions, increased hospital stay, and significantly increased mortality compared to a control group with similar surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burns</span>. This group is also more likely to have scald <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the lower extremities, mostly due to diabetic neuropathy. This work emphasizes the importance of education and prevention programmes directed towards this group of patients, in order to decrease morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs. PMID:21990975</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/787386','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/787386"><span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, February 2001)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>DOE /NV</p> <p>2001-02-23</p> <p>This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended Corrective Action Alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 490 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range and is approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training <span class="hlt">Area</span> (located southwest of <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (located west of Main Lake); 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard (located north of the northwest corner of <span class="hlt">Area</span> 3); and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (located south of the <span class="hlt">Area</span> 9 Compound on the TTR). A Corrective Action Investigation was performed in July and August 2000, and analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified in soil at the Gun Propellant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> or the Station 44 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>; therefore, there is no need for corrective actions at these two sites. Five soil samples at the Fire Training <span class="hlt">Area</span> and seven at the Sandia Service Yard exceeded PALs for total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel. Upon the identification of COCs specific to CAU 490, Corrective Action Objectives were developed based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the TTR, with the following three CAAs under consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure In Place - No Further Action With Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on the results of this evaluation, the preferred choice for CAU 490 was Alternative 3. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at this site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GMDD....7.2377Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GMDD....7.2377Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE - Part 1: Simulating historical global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and fire regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Cadule, P.; Thonicke, K.; Archibald, S.; Poulter, B.; Hao, W. M.; Hantson, S.; Mouillot, F.; Friedlingstein, P.; Maignan, F.; Viovy, N.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Fire is an important global ecological process that determines the distribution of biomes, with consequences for carbon, water, and energy budgets. The modelling of fire is critical for understanding its role in both historical and future changes in terrestrial ecosystems and the climate system. This study incorporates the process-based prognostic fire module SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE, which was then used to simulate the historical <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and the fire regime for the 20th century. For 2001-2006, the simulated global spatial extent of fire occurrence agrees well with that given by the satellite-derived <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> datasets (L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, GFED3.1) and captures 78-92% of global total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> depending on which dataset is used for comparison. The simulated global annual <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is 329 Mha yr-1, which falls within the range of 287-384 Mha yr-1 given by the three global observation datasets and is close to the 344 Mha yr-1 given by GFED3.1 data when crop fires are excluded. The simulated long-term trends of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> agree best with the observation data in regions where fire is mainly driven by the climate variation, such as boreal Russia (1920-2009), and the US state of Alaska and Canada (1950-2009). At the global scale, the simulated decadal fire trend over the 20th century is in moderate agreement with the historical reconstruction, possibly because of the uncertainties of past estimates, and because land-use change fires and fire suppression are not explicitly included in the model. Over the globe, the size of large fires (the 95th quantile fire size) is systematically underestimated by the model compared with the fire patch data as reconstructed from MODIS 500 m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data. Two case studies of fire size distribution in boreal North America and southern Africa indicate that both the number and the size of big fires are underestimated, which could be related with too low fire spread rate (in the case of static vegetation) and fire duration time. Future efforts should be directed towards building consistent spatial observation datasets for key parameters of the model in order to constrain the model error at each key step of the fire modelling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16824578','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16824578"><span id="translatedtitle">Trace elements in atmospheric particulate matter over a coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> power production <span class="hlt">area</span> of western Macedonia, Greece.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petaloti, Christina; Triantafyllou, Athanasios; Kouimtzis, Themistoklis; Samara, Constantini</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Total suspended particle (TSP) concentrations were determined in the Eordea basin (western Macedonia, Greece), an <span class="hlt">area</span> with intensive lignite <span class="hlt">burning</span> for power generation. The study was conducted over a one-year period (November 2000-November 2001) at 10 sites located at variable distances from the power plants. Ambient TSP samples were analyzed for 27 major, minor and trace elements. Annual means of TSP concentrations ranged between 47+/-33 microg m(-3) and 110+/-50 microg m(-3) at 9 out of the 10 sites. Only the site closest to the power stations and the lignite conveyor belts exhibited annual TSP levels (210+/-97 microg m(-3)) exceeding the European standard (150 microg m(-3), 80/779/EEC). Concentrations of TSP and almost all elemental components exhibited significant spatial variations; however, the elemental profiles of TSP were quite similar among all sites suggesting that they are affected by similar source types. At all sites, statistical analysis indicated insignificant (P<0.05) seasonal variation for TSP concentrations. Some elements (Cl, As, Pb, Br, Se, S, Cd) exhibited significantly higher concentrations at certain sites during the cold period suggesting more intense emissions from traffic, domestic heating and other combustion sources. On the contrary, concentrations significantly higher in the warm period were found at other sites mainly for crustal elements (Ti, Mn, K, P, Cr, etc.) suggesting stronger influence from soil resuspension and/or fly ash in the warm months. The most enriched elements against local soil or road dust were S, Cl, Cu, As, Se, Br, Cd and Pb, whereas negligible enrichment was found for Ti, Mn, Mg, Al, Si, P, Cr. At most sites, highest concentrations of TSP and elemental components were associated with low- to moderate-speed winds favoring accumulation of emissions from local sources. Influences from the power generation were likely at those sites located closest to the power plants and mining activities. PMID:16824578</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6476367','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6476367"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Sigmar, D.J. )</p> <p>1990-10-01</p> <p>The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three <span class="hlt">areas</span> of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-<span class="hlt">burning</span> phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-<span class="hlt">burning</span> projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R D <span class="hlt">areas</span> that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613380L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613380L"><span id="translatedtitle">Slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> versus "agronegcio". Tales of forest degradation in the maroon <span class="hlt">area</span> of Vila Bela da SantssimaTrindade, Mato Grosso, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leite, Jos C.; Ferreira, Antnio A. J.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Over the last four decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the <span class="hlt">area</span> known as the "arcof deforestation", an extensive geographical <span class="hlt">area</span> located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. The deforestation process replaces the forest and the slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> agriculture systems by modern intensive agriculture systems targeted at the production of cash crops like cotton, maize or soybeans, and to graze cattle.The so called "agronegcio" system. The reduction of pristine forest <span class="hlt">areas</span> where traditional (indigenous, maroons and riverside) population conduct slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> agriculture, reduces the recovery time of the abandoned fields after exhaustion by agriculture crops, reason why the return to the same spots for another cycle of slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> occurs before the forest recovers completely from the previous cycle. In fact, the frequency of the cycles is increasing with the expansion of farm land and the reduction of available forest. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of the deforestation trends in the Vila Bela da SantssimaTrindade, near the Bolivian border of Mato Grosso in Brazil, over a time span of four decades. The arc of deforestation has passed the region in the 1980's, leaving yet a large <span class="hlt">area</span> of pristine forest where the traditional communities kept practicing a slash and <span class="hlt">burn</span> agriculture system. Nevertheless, due to the reduction of available <span class="hlt">area</span>, and specially due to the exposure of traditional communities to the "western civilization culture", there is an increasing abandonment of the traditional systems and associated culture and knowledge. In this context, the traditional communities may become a deforestation/degradation factor. To prevent this situation, the GUYAGROFOR project was implemented, to value traditional knowledge, identify bottlenecks in the increase of added value to the local traditional products, and to test methodologies to maintain and if possible improve soil fertility near the small households. The deforestation/degradation processes and the impacts of the proposed mitigation action are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ds866','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ds866"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Area</span>- and depth- weighted <span class="hlt">averages</span> of selected SSURGO variables for the conterminous United States and District of Columbia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wieczorek, Michael E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This digital data release consists of seven data files of soil attributes for the United States and the District of Columbia. The files are derived from National Resources Conservations Service’s (NRCS) Soil Survey Geographic database (SSURGO). The data files can be linked to the raster datasets of soil mapping unit identifiers (MUKEY) available through the NRCS’s Gridded Soil Survey Geographic (gSSURGO) database (http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/soils/survey/geo/?cid=nrcs142p2_053628). The associated files, named DRAINAGECLASS, HYDRATING, HYDGRP, HYDRICCONDITION, LAYER, TEXT, and WTDEP are <span class="hlt">area</span>- and depth-weighted <span class="hlt">average</span> values for selected soil characteristics from the SSURGO database for the conterminous United States and the District of Columbia. The SSURGO tables were acquired from the NRCS on March 5, 2014. The soil characteristics in the DRAINAGE table are drainage class (DRNCLASS), which identifies the natural drainage conditions of the soil and refers to the frequency and duration of wet periods. The soil characteristics in the HYDRATING table are hydric rating (HYDRATE), a yes/no field that indicates whether or not a map unit component is classified as a "hydric soil". The soil characteristics in the HYDGRP table are the percentages for each hydrologic group per MUKEY. The soil characteristics in the HYDRICCONDITION table are hydric condition (HYDCON), which describes the natural condition of the soil component. The soil characteristics in the LAYER table are available water capacity (AVG_AWC), bulk density (AVG_BD), saturated hydraulic conductivity (AVG_KSAT), vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity (AVG_KV), soil erodibility factor (AVG_KFACT), porosity (AVG_POR), field capacity (AVG_FC), the soil fraction passing a number 4 sieve (AVG_NO4), the soil fraction passing a number 10 sieve (AVG_NO10), the soil fraction passing a number 200 sieve (AVG_NO200), and organic matter (AVG_OM). The soil characteristics in the TEXT table are percent sand, silt, and clay (AVG_SAND, AVG_SILT, and AVG_CLAY). The soil characteristics in the WTDEP table are the annual minimum water table depth (WTDEP_MIN), available water storage in the 0-25 cm soil horizon (AWS025), the minimum water table depth for the months April, May and June (WTDEPAMJ), the available water storage in the first 25 centimeters of the soil horizon (AWS25), the dominant drainage class (DRCLSD), the wettest drainage class (DRCLSWET), and the hydric classification (HYDCLASS), which is an indication of the proportion of the map unit, expressed as a class, that is "hydric", based on the hydric classification of a given MUKEY. (See Entity_Description for more detail). The tables were created with a set of arc macro language (aml) and awk (awk was created at Bell Labsin the 1970s and its name is derived from the first letters of the last names of its authors – Alfred Aho, Peter Weinberger, and Brian Kernighan) scripts. Send an email to mewieczo@usgs.gov to obtain copies of the computer code (See Process_Description.) The methods used are outlined in NRCS's "SSURGO Data Packaging and Use" (NRCS, 2011). The tables can be related or joined to the gSSURGO rasters of MUKEYs by the item 'MUKEY.' Joining or relating the tables to a MUKEY grid allows the creation of grids of <span class="hlt">area</span>- and depth-weighted soil characteristics. A 90-meter raster of MUKEYs is provided which can be used to produce rasters of soil attributes. More detailed resolution rasters are available through NRCS via the link above.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26648640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26648640"><span id="translatedtitle">Minor <span class="hlt">burn</span> management: potions and lotions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hyland, Ela J; Connolly, Siobhan M; Fox, Jade A; Harvey, John G</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The first aid for <span class="hlt">burns</span> is to run cold water over the <span class="hlt">burn</span> for 20 minutes. This is effective for up to three hours after the injury. Assess the affected body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> using the rule of nines. Consult a <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit if more than 5% of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> is burnt in a child or if more than 10% in an adult. Extensive or deep <span class="hlt">burns</span> and <span class="hlt">burns</span> to special <span class="hlt">areas</span>, such as the hands, should be referred. Chemical or electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> should also be assessed by a <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit. For minor <span class="hlt">burns</span>, antimicrobial dressings are recommended, but oral antibiotics should be avoided unless there are signs of infection. As <span class="hlt">burns</span> are tetanus prone, check the patient's immunisation status. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> that become infected or are slow to heal should be discussed with a <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit can also provide advice if there are uncertainties about how to manage a patient. PMID:26648640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4653976','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4653976"><span id="translatedtitle">Minor <span class="hlt">burn</span> management: potions and lotions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hyland, Ela J; Connolly, Siobhan M; Fox, Jade A; Harvey, John G</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Summary The first aid for <span class="hlt">burns</span> is to run cold water over the <span class="hlt">burn</span> for 20 minutes. This is effective for up to three hours after the injury. Assess the affected body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> using the rule of nines. Consult a <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit if more than 5% of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> is burnt in a child or if more than 10% in an adult. Extensive or deep <span class="hlt">burns</span> and <span class="hlt">burns</span> to special <span class="hlt">areas</span>, such as the hands, should be referred. Chemical or electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> should also be assessed by a <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit. For minor <span class="hlt">burns</span>, antimicrobial dressings are recommended, but oral antibiotics should be avoided unless there are signs of infection. As <span class="hlt">burns</span> are tetanus prone, check the patients immunisation status. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> that become infected or are slow to heal should be discussed with a <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit can also provide advice if there are uncertainties about how to manage a patient. PMID:26648640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/656906','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/656906"><span id="translatedtitle">Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan for the F-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (231-F, 231-1F, and 231-2F)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Palmer, E.</p> <p>1996-08-01</p> <p>The purpose of this source unit Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan is to describe the preferred alternative for addressing the F-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (231-F and 231-1F) and Rubble Pit (231-2F) (FBRP) source unit located at SRS, in southwestern Aiken County, South Carolina and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPRS...69...88S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPRS...69...88S"><span id="translatedtitle">A method for extracting <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> from Landsat TM/ETM+ images by soft aggregation of multiple Spectral Indices and a region growing algorithm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stroppiana, D.; Bordogna, G.; Carrara, P.; Boschetti, M.; Boschetti, L.; Brivio, P. A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Since fire is a major threat to forests and wooded <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the Mediterranean environment of Southern Europe, systematic regional fire monitoring is a necessity. Satellite data constitute a unique cost-effective source of information on the occurrence of fire events and on the extent of the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Our objective is to develop a (semi-)automated algorithm for mapping <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> from medium spatial resolution (30 m) satellite data. In this article we present a multi-criteria approach based on Spectral Indices, soft computing techniques and a region growing algorithm; theoretically this approach relies on the convergence of partial evidence of <span class="hlt">burning</span> provided by the indices. Our proposal features several innovative aspects: it is flexible in adapting to a variable number of indices and to missing data; it exploits positive and negative evidence (bipolar information) and it offers different criteria for aggregating partial evidence in order to derive the layers of candidate seeds and candidate region growing boundaries. The study was conducted on a set of Landsat TM images, acquired for the year 2003 over Southern Europe and pre-processed with the LEDAPS (Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System) processing chain for deriving surface spectral reflectance ?i in the TM bands. The proposed method was applied to show its flexibility and the sensitivity of the accuracy of the resulting <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> maps to different aggregation criteria and thresholds for seed selection. Validation performed over an entire independent Landsat TM image shows the commission and omission errors to be below 21% and 3%, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26188887','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26188887"><span id="translatedtitle">A review of community management of paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cox, S G; Martinez, R; Glick, A; Numanoglu, A; Rode, H</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This study was a component of a broader review to evaluate <span class="hlt">burn</span> care in South Africa. A prospective audit of 353 children with thermal injuries admitted to the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town was performed during 2012/2013. The audit was based to assess the adherence of initial <span class="hlt">burn</span> management to the provincial policy guidelines on the clinical management of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound. The community management of each patient prior to admission to a <span class="hlt">burns</span> centre was assessed for the following: basic demographics, emergency home management, wound cover, analgesia and transport to medical facilities. Their ages ranged from 1 month to 14 years. The <span class="hlt">average</span> total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> [TBSA] was 15% [1-86%]. Most of the injuries were due to hot water accidents [78.5%] followed by flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> (9%), direct contact and electricity <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Two hundred and twenty five children [63%] received first aid measures at home, including cooling with water [166] ice [30] and a cooling agent. No cooling was instituted in 130 and 65% of the patient's wounds were cooled for 10min or less. Eighty percent proceeded to the referral centre or <span class="hlt">burns</span> unit without their wounds being covered; with only 19 patients having any medical type of dressing available at home. Two hundred and ninety five children [83.6%] received pain medication prior to admission at the <span class="hlt">burns</span> unit. Of the 316 patients not directly attending the <span class="hlt">burns</span> unit, 137 received IV fluids of which 95 had <span class="hlt">burns</span> greater than 10% TBSA. None of the patients were in shock on admission and all IV lines were functioning. Forty-four children with <span class="hlt">burns</span> greater than 10% did not receive IV fluids. The audit identified six factors that were inadequately addressed during the pre-admission period: first aid, cooling of the wound, early covering of the wound, resuscitation, pain management and transfer. If these could be readdressed, basic <span class="hlt">burn</span> care would be substantially improved in the study <span class="hlt">area</span>. PMID:26188887</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/1078.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/1078.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> (image)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> damage the outer layer of skin (epidermis) and cause pain, redness and swelling (erythema). Second degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> damage the epidermis and the inner layer, the dermis, causing erythema ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/09_19_2011_yETg83Jwv6_09_19_2011_1','SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS'); return false;" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/09_19_2011_yETg83Jwv6_09_19_2011_1"><span id="translatedtitle">Controlled <span class="hlt">Burn</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>GULF OF MEXICO — Dark clouds of smoke and fire emerge as oil <span class="hlt">burns</span> during a controlled <span class="hlt">burn</span> in the Gulf of Mexico. The U.S. Coast Guard working in partnership with BP PLC, local residents, and other Federal agencies conducted the controlled <span class="hlt">burn</span> to aid in preventing the spread of oil following...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.burninstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/ScaldBurns-factsheet.pdf','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.burninstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/ScaldBurns-factsheet.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Scald <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Safety Tips & Info Scald <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Thousands of scald <span class="hlt">burns</span> occur annually, and ALL are preventable! The two high-risk populations are children under the age ... the single most important factor in preventing scald <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Increased awareness is the key to scald prevention! ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24906348','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24906348"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> care in South Africa: a micro cosmos of Africa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rode, H; Cox, S G; Numanoglu, A; Berg, A M</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries in Africa are common with between 300,000 and 17.5 million children under 5 years sustaining <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries annually, resulting in a high estimated fatality rate. These <span class="hlt">burns</span> are largely environmentally conditioned and therefore preventable. The Western Cape Province in South Africa can be regarded as a prototype of paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> seen on the continent, with large numbers, high morbidity and mortality rates and an <span class="hlt">area</span> inclusive of all factors contributing to this extraordinary burden of injury. Most of the mechanisms to prevent <span class="hlt">burns</span> are not easily modified due to the restraint of low socio-economic homes, overcrowding, unsafe appliances, multiple and complex daily demands on families and multiple psycho-social stressors. Children <4 years are at highest risk of <span class="hlt">burns</span> with an <span class="hlt">average</span> annual rate of 6.0/10,000 child-years. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> care in South Africa is predominantly emergency driven and variable in terms of organization, clinical management, facilities and staffing. Various treatment strategies were introduced. The management of HIV positive children poses a problem, as well as the conflict of achieving equity of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care for all children. Without alleviating poverty, developing minimum standards for housing, <span class="hlt">burn</span> education, safe appliances and legislation, we will not be able to reduce the "curse of poor people" and will continue to treat the consequences. PMID:24906348</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4024C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4024C"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of emissions from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Tropical Asia during 2000-2007</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, D.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in tropical Asia emits large amounts of trace gases and particulate matters to atmosphere, which have significant influence in climate change and atmospheric chemistry. Emissions from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in tropical Asia are estimated during seven fire years 2000-2006 (i.e., April 1st 2000-March 31st 2007), using newly released L3JRC <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product and MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product (MCD45A1). Over seven fire years, both <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and fire emissions showed clearly spatial and inter-annual variations. The L3JRC <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 31.3×103 km2 for fire year 2005 to 57.5×103 km2 for 2000, while the MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 64.9×103 km2 for fire year 2002 to 127.0×103 km2 for 2004. We compared the total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and forest <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> derived from the two separate products with publication data for several typical countries and found that the L3JRC results were comparable to previous studies and the MODIS results showed significant overestimation. The annual <span class="hlt">average</span> L3JRC-based emissions were 29915, 1948, 90, 30, 12, 105, and 871 Gg yr-1 for CO2, CO, CH4, NOx, BC, OC, and PM2.5 respectively, while MODIS-based emissions were 86740, 5222, 230, 83, 33, 296, and 2188 Gg yr-1, 60.2%-65.5% higher than L3JRC. Forest fires were the largest contributor to fire emissions, though <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> within forest biomes only constituted a minority of total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Fire emissions were mainly concentrated in Myanmar, Cambodia and India. Furthermore, the seasonal distribution of fire emissions was in good agreement with that of total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000086135','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000086135"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric Effects of Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> in Madagascar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Aikin, Arthur C.; Hoegy, Walter R.; Ziemke, Jerry R.; Thorpe, Arthur; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Simultaneous tropospheric ozone and aerosols observed using the TOMS satellite instrument are reported for Madagascar during the 1979 through 1999 time period Ozone observations made using the TOMS tropospheric ozone convective-cloud differential method show that the tropospheric ozone amount associated with Madagascar has an <span class="hlt">average</span> monthly value of 30 DU (Dobson units). The <span class="hlt">average</span> value is enhanced by 10 to 15 DU in October This maximum coincides with the time of maximum biomass <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Madagascar and parts of southern Africa. The aerosol index derived from TOMS is examined for correlation with biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Madagascar and southern Africa. There is good correlation between a satellite observation derived fire index for different parts of Madagascar, tropospheric ozone and the TOMS aerosol index in the same geographical <span class="hlt">area</span>. Aerosols from fires were found to reach their peak in November and to persist over Madagascar until sometime in December.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11307683','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11307683"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> and military clothing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McLean, A D</p> <p>2001-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burn</span> injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Over the last hundred years, the <span class="hlt">burn</span> threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of <span class="hlt">burn</span> casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from <span class="hlt">burns</span> is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of <span class="hlt">burn</span>--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a <span class="hlt">burn</span>. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a <span class="hlt">burn</span> threat. This paper explores the incidence of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash <span class="hlt">burns</span>; the most vulnerable <span class="hlt">areas</span> are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under high heat loads in the laboratory, combat clothing can ignite, but there is little evidence that clothing ignition is a common occurrence in military <span class="hlt">burn</span> casualties. Thermoplastic materials have many benefits in civil and military clothing. There is little objective evidence that they exacerbate <span class="hlt">burns</span>, or complicate <span class="hlt">burn</span> management. Their use in military clothing must be based on objective evidence, not hearsay. PMID:11307683</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PCE....21..399S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996PCE....21..399S"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of <span class="hlt">area-averaged</span> turbulent energy fluxes in a convectively driven boundary layer using aircraft measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scherf, A.; Roth, R.</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>During the field campaign of EFEDA II several aircraft measurements were performed in order to evaluate <span class="hlt">area</span> mean values of turbulent energy fluxes over a relatively flat terrain in a desertification threatened <span class="hlt">area</span> in Spain. Since earlier field experiments indicated differences between airborne measurements and surface observations, we tried to close the gap by carefully analysing the turbulence measurements. In order to evaluate the influence of the temporal variation of the convective boundary layer, the rise of the inversion, derived from simultaneously performed radiosonde ascents, was taken into account. By estimating the linear approximated fields of the meteorological parameters, it was possible to calculate the mean values of these quantities as well as the temporal and spatial derivatives, which are necessary for the evaluation of the advective terms of the energy budget. In this way is possible to examine the terms of the conservation equations in a supplementary way.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030022710','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030022710"><span id="translatedtitle">An Exploration of Discontinuous Time Synchronous <span class="hlt">Averaging</span> for Helicopter HUMS Using Cruise and Terminal <span class="hlt">Area</span> Vibration Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huff, Edward M.; Mosher, Marianne; Barszcz, Eric</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Recent research using NASA Ames AH-1 and OH-58C helicopters, and NASA Glenn test rigs, has shown that in-flight vibration data are typically non-stationary [l-4]. The nature and extent of this non-stationarity is most likely produced by several factors operating simultaneously. The aerodynamic flight environment and pilot commands provide continuously changing inputs, with a complex dynamic response that includes automatic feedback control from the engine regulator. It would appear that the combined effects operate primarily through an induced torque profile, which causes concomitant stress modulation at the individual internal gear meshes in the transmission. This notion is supported by several analyses, which show that upwards of 93% of the vibration signal s variance can be explained by knowledge of torque alone. That this relationship is stronger in an AH-1 than an OH-58, where measured non-stationarity is greater, suggests that the overall mass of the vehicle is an important consideration. In the lighter aircraft, the unsteady aerodynamic influences transmit relatively greater unsteady dynamic forces on the mechanical components, quite possibly contributing to its greater non-stationarity . In a recent paper using OH-58C pinion data [5], the authors have shown that in computing a time synchronous <span class="hlt">average</span> (TSA) for various single-value metric computations, an effective trade-off can be obtained between sample size and measured stationarity by using data from only a single mesh cycle. A mesh cycle, which is defined as the number of rotations required for the gear teeth to return to their original mating position, has the property of representing all of the discrete phase angles of the opposing gears exactly once in the <span class="hlt">average</span>. Measured stationarity is probably maximized because a single mesh cycle of the pinion gear occurs over a very short span of time, during which time-dependent non-stationary effects are kept to a minimum. Clearly, the advantage of local stationarity diminishes as the temporal duration of the cycle increases. This is most evident for a planetary mesh cycle, which can take several minutes to complete.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26204384','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26204384"><span id="translatedtitle">Review of <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Research for Year 2014.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Management of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries requires treatments and interventions from many disciplines. Worldwide, <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients suffer from physical and psychological challenges that impact their lives socially and economically. In this review, we will highlight a handful of the numerous articles published in multiple <span class="hlt">areas</span> of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care. The <span class="hlt">areas</span> of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care addressed in the article are: epidemiology; <span class="hlt">burn</span> resuscitation, critical care, and infection; nutrition and metabolism; pain and rehabilitation; prevention and firefighter safety; psychology; and reconstruction and wounds. PMID:26204384</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6525537','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6525537"><span id="translatedtitle">'Therapeutic' <span class="hlt">burns</span> (Maqua).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baruchin, A M</p> <p>1984-12-01</p> <p>Cauterization of the skin by a red-hot iron, a pinch of hot cinder or a <span class="hlt">burning</span> coal, is a form of 'treatment' used by lay healers in some parts of Africa and the Middle East. The <span class="hlt">burns</span> are limited to small circular <span class="hlt">areas</span>, and are usually full-thickness skin loss. Most frequently, the patients do not seek medical treatment and the <span class="hlt">burns</span> heal by secondary intention. Sometimes, however, disastrous complications such as infectious osteomyelitis, septicaemia and death may occur. PMID:6525537</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1225158','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1225158"><span id="translatedtitle">How Well Can We Estimate Areal-<span class="hlt">Averaged</span> Spectral Surface Albedo from Ground-Based Transmission in an Atlantic Coastal <span class="hlt">Area</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Marinovici, Maria C.</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p>Areal-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> albedos are particularly difficult to measure in coastal regions, because the surface is not homogenous, consisting of a sharp demarcation between land and water. With this difficulty in mind, we evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone under fully overcast conditions. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we find the areal-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> albedo using measurements from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm). These MFRSR data are collected at a coastal site in Graciosa Island, Azores supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The areal-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo at four nominal wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm). These comparisons are made during a 19-month period (June 2009 - December 2010). We also calculate composite-based spectral values of surface albedo by a weighted-<span class="hlt">average</span> approach using estimated fractions of major surface types observed in an <span class="hlt">area</span> surrounding this coastal site. Taken as a whole, these three methods of finding albedo show spectral and temporal similarities, and suggest that our simple, transmission-based technique holds promise, but with estimated errors of about ±0.03. Additional work is needed to reduce this uncertainty in <span class="hlt">areas</span> with inhomogeneous surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9640E..0KK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9640E..0KK"><span id="translatedtitle">How well can we estimate areal-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> spectral surface albedo from ground-based transmission in the Atlantic coastal <span class="hlt">area</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kassianov, Evgueni; Barnard, James; Flynn, Connor; Riihimaki, Laura; Marinovici, Cristina</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Areal-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> albedos are particularly difficult to measure in coastal regions, because the surface is not homogenous, consisting of a sharp demarcation between land and water. With this difficulty in mind, we evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone under fully overcast conditions. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we find the areal-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> albedo using measurements from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm). These MFRSR data are collected at a coastal site in Graciosa Island, Azores supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The areal-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) whitesky albedo at four nominal wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm). These comparisons are made during a 19-month period (June 2009 - December 2010). We also calculate composite-based spectral values of surface albedo by a weighted-<span class="hlt">average</span> approach using estimated fractions of major surface types observed in an <span class="hlt">area</span> surrounding this coastal site. Taken as a whole, these three methods of finding albedo show spectral and temporal similarities, and suggest that our simple, transmission-based technique holds promise, but with estimated errors of about 0.03. Additional work is needed to reduce this uncertainty in <span class="hlt">areas</span> with inhomogeneous surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21119409','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21119409"><span id="translatedtitle">Sprayed cultured mucosal epithelial cell for deep dermal <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ueda, Minoru</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Mucosal epithelial cells have various advantages compared with epidermal cells, such as their high proliferation ability and long biologic activity. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical results after sprayed application of cultured mucosal epithelial autograft (CMEA) suspensions onto deep dermal <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds. Ten patients with deep dermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> were included in a prospective study. The <span class="hlt">average</span> total-body-surface-<span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span> was 17.7% (8%-45%). The <span class="hlt">average</span> Abbreviated <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity Index was 6.3 points (4-9 points). The application of sprayed CMEA suspension was performed onto an <span class="hlt">average</span> body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of 2.05% (0.5%-5%; median, 2%). Eight patients were recruited for clinical follow-up after an <span class="hlt">average</span> of 10 months (3-18 months). The <span class="hlt">average</span> Vancouver Scar Scale score at follow-up was 1.5 points (range, 0-5 points). The <span class="hlt">average</span> period of epithelialization in wound surface was 12.5 days. Our data show that enzymatic and careful surgical debridement and consecutive application of CMEA suspensions using a spray technique result in excellent cosmetic outcomes compared with any other methods. PMID:21119409</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20131273','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20131273"><span id="translatedtitle">Post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment of the <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, central Idaho</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Skinner, Kenneth D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A preliminary hazard assessment was developed for debris-flow hazards in the 465 square-kilometer (115,000 acres) <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2013 Beaver Creek fire near Hailey in central Idaho. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> covers all or part of six watersheds and selected basins draining to the Big Wood River and is at risk of substantial post-fire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently <span class="hlt">burned</span> basins throughout the Intermountain Region in Western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and to estimate the same for analyzed drainage basins within the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Input data for the empirical models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm (13 mm); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm (19 mm); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm (22 mm). Estimated debris-flow probabilities for drainage basins upstream of 130 selected basin outlets ranged from less than 1 to 78 percent with the probabilities increasing with each increase in storm magnitude. Probabilities were high in three of the six watersheds. For the 25-year storm, probabilities were greater than 60 percent for 11 basin outlets and ranged from 50 to 60 percent for an additional 12 basin outlets. Probability estimates for stream segments within the drainage network can vary within a basin. For the 25-year storm, probabilities for stream segments within 33 basins were higher than the basin outlet, emphasizing the importance of evaluating the drainage network as well as basin outlets. Estimated debris-flow volumes for the three modeled storms range from a minimal debris flow volume of 10 cubic meters [m3]) to greater than 100,000 m3. Estimated debris-flow volumes increased with basin size and distance downstream. For the 25-year storm, estimated debris-flow volumes were greater than 100,000 m3 for 4 basins and between 50,000 and 100,000 m3 for 10 basins. The debris-flow hazard rankings did not result in the highest hazard ranking of 5, indicating that none of the basins had a high probability of debris-flow occurrence and a high debris-flow volume estimate. The hazard ranking was 4 for one basin using the 10-year-recurrence storm model and for three basins using the 25-year-recurrence storm model. The maps presented herein may be used to prioritize <span class="hlt">areas</span> where post-wildfire remediation efforts should take place within the 2- to 3-year period of increased erosional vulnerability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070017872','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070017872"><span id="translatedtitle">Quaternion <span class="hlt">Averaging</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Markley, F. Landis; Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Oshman, Yaakov</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Many applications require an algorithm that <span class="hlt">averages</span> quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly <span class="hlt">average</span> the quaternions without recomputing the attitude from the the raw star tracker data. Other applications requiring some sort of optimal quaternion <span class="hlt">averaging</span> include particle filtering and multiple-model adaptive estimation, where weighted quaternions are used to determine the quaternion estimate. For spacecraft attitude estimation applications, derives an optimal <span class="hlt">averaging</span> scheme to compute the <span class="hlt">average</span> of a set of weighted attitude matrices using the singular value decomposition method. Focusing on a 4-dimensional quaternion Gaussian distribution on the unit hypersphere, provides an approach to computing the <span class="hlt">average</span> quaternion by minimizing a quaternion cost function that is equivalent to the attitude matrix cost function Motivated by and extending its results, this Note derives an algorithm that deterniines an optimal <span class="hlt">average</span> quaternion from a set of scalar- or matrix-weighted quaternions. Rirthermore, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the <span class="hlt">average</span> quaternion, and the equivalence of the mininiization problem, stated herein, to maximum likelihood estimation, are shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23799482','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23799482"><span id="translatedtitle">Lightning <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Russell, Katie W; Cochran, Amalia L; Mehta, Sagar T; Morris, Stephen E; McDevitt, Marion C</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present the case of a lightning-strike victim. This case illustrates the importance of in-field care, appropriate referral to a <span class="hlt">burn</span> center, and the tendency of lightning <span class="hlt">burns</span> to progress to full-thickness injury. PMID:23799482</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12792547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12792547"><span id="translatedtitle">Ball lightning <span class="hlt">burn</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic <span class="hlt">area</span> and deep second-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds on his right hand (total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds (total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications. PMID:12792547</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4381017','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4381017"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of infant <span class="hlt">burn</span> in Eastern Saudi Arabia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Alsalman, Abdulla K.; Algadiem, Emran A.; Alalwan, Maysaa A.; Farag, Tarek S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: To identify the epidemiology, pattern, outcome, and impact of infant <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of admitted infants charts over 4 years (2008-2013) at the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Unit of King Fahad Hospital, Hofuf, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. The charts were reviewed for age, gender, etiology, site of injury, total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA), depth of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, hospital stay, and discharge status. Results: The total number of admissions to the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Unit was 510 cases. Out of these cases, 84 were infants, constituting 16.5% of total admissions. Scald <span class="hlt">burn</span> was the most common etiology affecting 73 infants (86.9%). The highest percentage of total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> was between 5-10%, which occurred in 41 infants (48.8%). The <span class="hlt">average</span> hospital stay was 10 days. No infant mortality was reported during this period. Conclusion: The prevalence of <span class="hlt">burns</span> among infants in our hospital is high, and preventive measures must be implemented to decrease the occurrence of <span class="hlt">burns</span> in this age group. PMID:25737175</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19506502','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19506502"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> in mobile home fires--descriptive study at a regional <span class="hlt">burn</span> center.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mullins, Robert F; Alarm, Badrul; Huq Mian, Mohammad Anwarul; Samples, Jancie M; Friedman, Bruce C; Shaver, Joseph R; Brandigi, Claus; Hassan, Zaheed</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Death from fires and <span class="hlt">burns</span> are the sixth most common cause of unintentional injury death in the United States. More than (3/4) of <span class="hlt">burn</span> deaths occurring in the United States are in the home. Mobile home fires carry twice the death rate as other dwellings. The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of deaths and injuries in mobile home fire admitted in a regional <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center and to identify possible risk factors. A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out among all <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients admitted to a regional <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center between January 2002 and December 2004 (3469 patients). The study included patients who suffered a <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury from a mobile home fire. The demographic characteristics of the patients, location of mobile home, associated inhalation injury, source of fire, comorbidity of the victims, employment status, insurance status, family history of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and outcomes of the treatment were incorporated in a data collection record. There were 65 <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients in mobile home fires admitted to the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center during the studied period. The <span class="hlt">average</span> age of the patients was 39 years (ranging from 2 to 81 years, SD=16.06), 77% were male, 67% were white, and 79% were the residents in the suburban <span class="hlt">areas</span> of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Florida. The <span class="hlt">average</span> TBSA of <span class="hlt">burns</span> was about 21% (ranging from 1 to 63%, SD=17.66), 63% of the patients had associated inhalation, three inhalation injury only, and 69% patients required ventilator support. The <span class="hlt">average</span> length of stay per TBSA percentage of <span class="hlt">burn</span> was 1.01 days (P=0.00), controlling for age, preexisting medical comorbidities, and inhalation injury. About 88% of the patients had preexisting medical comorbid conditions, 74% were smokers, 64% reported as alcoholic, and 72% had at least some form of health insurance coverage. In 40% of the cases, the cause of the fire was unknown, 31% were caused by accidental explosions, such as electric, gasoline, or kerosene appliances, and 29% were due to other causes. About 40% of <span class="hlt">burns</span> took place between December and February. Among the studied cohorts, 32% were unemployed, 15% were disabled, and 14% did not have any information about their employment status. One in every four patients had a family history of a <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Eight (12%) died in the hospital during treatment. There was a higher prevalence of inhalation injury and higher case fatality among the <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients in mobile home fires compared with the statistics of the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center. Observation showed a higher number of smokers and alcoholics among the <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients. The main sources of fire were from home appliances. Fewer people had health insurance coverage than the national standard and more people suffered from some sort of chronic illness compared with the national morbidity data. PMID:19506502</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AtmEn..40.1266Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AtmEn..40.1266Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Source identification and size distribution of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during rice straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> period</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Chao, Mu-Rong; Su, Yi-Ling; Chien, Shu-Mei</p> <p></p> <p>Atmospheric particulate and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) size distributions were measured at a suburban <span class="hlt">area</span> in central Taiwan during the rice straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> and non-<span class="hlt">burning</span> periods. Samples were acquired using a semi-volatile sampling train (PS-1 sampler) and a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). The collected materials were extracted and then analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass selective detector for 21 PAHs. The <span class="hlt">average</span> total PAH concentrations of particulate and gaseous phases were 33.0 and 1160 ng m -3, respectively, in the rice straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> period, which were higher than those on the non-<span class="hlt">burning</span> days. Potential sources of PAHs were identified using the characteristic ratios. Benzo[ a]pyrene/benzo[ ghi]perylene ratio indicates the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of rice straw is a significant source for PAH contribution at the sampling <span class="hlt">area</span>. It also suggests that the rice straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> primarily contribute fine particulate PAHs. Bimodal size distributions are obtained with a predominance of total PAHs in the accumulation mode during rice straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> periods and in ultra-fine mode during non-<span class="hlt">burning</span> periods. The particulate and particulate phase PAHs from rice straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> are coarser than those from vehicle exhaust. The results also suggest that the amounts of PAHs per unit mass of particulate are less for the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of rice straw than those of vehicle emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ExFl...49.1147H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ExFl...49.1147H"><span id="translatedtitle">On the use of <span class="hlt">area-averaged</span> void fraction and local bubble chord length entropies as two-phase flow regime indicators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hernndez, Leonor; Juli, J. Enrique; Paranjape, Sidharth; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>In this work, the use of the <span class="hlt">area-averaged</span> void fraction and bubble chord length entropies is introduced as flow regime indicators in two-phase flow systems. The entropy provides quantitative information about the disorder in the <span class="hlt">area-averaged</span> void fraction or bubble chord length distributions. The CPDF (cumulative probability distribution function) of void fractions and bubble chord lengths obtained by means of impedance meters and conductivity probes are used to calculate both entropies. Entropy values for 242 flow conditions in upward two-phase flows in 25.4 and 50.8-mm pipes have been calculated. The measured conditions cover ranges from 0.13 to 5 m/s in the superficial liquid velocity j f and ranges from 0.01 to 25 m/s in the superficial gas velocity j g. The physical meaning of both entropies has been interpreted using the visual flow regime map information. The <span class="hlt">area-averaged</span> void fraction and bubble chord length entropies capability as flow regime indicators have been checked with other statistical parameters and also with different input signals durations. The <span class="hlt">area-averaged</span> void fraction and the bubble chord length entropies provide better or at least similar results than those obtained with other indicators that include more than one parameter. The entropy is capable to reduce the relevant information of the flow regimes in only one significant and useful parameter. In addition, the entropy computation time is shorter than the majority of the other indicators. The use of one parameter as input also represents faster predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/831230','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/831230"><span id="translatedtitle">Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bechel Nevada</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and <span class="hlt">Burn</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> (Tonopah Test Range). CAU 484 consists of sites located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 484 consists of the following six Corrective Action Sites: (1) CAS RG-52-007-TAML, Davis Gun Penetrator Test; (2) CAS TA-52-001-TANL, NEDS Detonation <span class="hlt">Area</span>; (3) CAS TA-52-004-TAAL, Metal Particle Dispersion Test; (4) CAS TA-52-005-TAAL, Joint Test Assembly DU Sites; (5) CAS TA-52-006-TAPL, Depleted Uranium Site; and (6) CAS TA-54-001-TANL, Containment Tank and Steel Structure</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15344466','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15344466"><span id="translatedtitle">CAD tool for <span class="hlt">burn</span> diagnosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Acha, Begoña; Serrano, Carmen; Acha, José I; Roa, Laura M</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>In this paper a new system for <span class="hlt">burn</span> diagnosis is proposed. The aim of the system is to separate <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds from healthy skin, and the different types of <span class="hlt">burns</span> (<span class="hlt">burn</span> depths) from each other, identifying each one. The system is based on the colour and texture information, as these are the characteristics observed by physicians in order to give a diagnosis. We use a perceptually uniform colour space (L*u*v*), since Euclidean distances calculated in this space correspond to perceptually colour differences. After the <span class="hlt">burn</span> is segmented, some colour and texture descriptors are calculated and they are the inputs to a Fuzzy-ARTMAP neural network. The neural network classifies them into three types of bums: superficial dermal, deep dermal and full thickness. Clinical effectiveness of the method was demonstrated on 62 clinical <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound images obtained from digital colour photographs, yielding an <span class="hlt">average</span> classification success rate of 82% compared to expert classified images. PMID:15344466</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960026667','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960026667"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B43C0395E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B43C0395E"><span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution <span class="hlt">Average</span> Forest Phenology and Annual Residuals for Quantifying the Start of Spring and Summer Leaf-<span class="hlt">area</span> Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elmore, A. J.; Guinn, S. M.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Land surface phenology (LSP) is the seasonal pattern of vegetation dynamics that occur each spring and fall. Multiple drivers of spatial variation in LSP and its variation over time have been analyzed using satellite remote sensing. Until recently, these observations have been restricted to moderate- and low-resolution data, as it is only at these spatial resolutions for which temporally continuous data is available. However, understanding small scale variation in LSP over space and time may be key to linking pattern to process, and in particular, could be used to understand how ecological processes at the stand level scale to landscapes and continents. Through utilization of the large, and now free, Landsat record, recent research has led to the development of robust methods for calculating <span class="hlt">average</span> phenological patterns at 30-m resolution by stacking two decades worth of data by acquisition day of year (DOY). Here we have extended these techniques to calculate the deviation from the <span class="hlt">average</span> LSP for any given acquisition DOY-year combination. We model the <span class="hlt">average</span> LSP as two sigmoid functions, one increasing in spring and a second decreasing in fall, connected by a sloped line representing gradual summer leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> changes (see Figure). Deviation from the <span class="hlt">average</span> LSP is considered here to take two forms: (1) residual vegetation cover in mid- to late-summer represent locations in which disturbance, drought, or (alternatively) better than <span class="hlt">average</span> growing conditions have resulted a separation (either negative or positive) from the <span class="hlt">average</span> vegetation cover for that DOY, and (2) climate conditions that result in an earlier or later onset of greenness, exhibited as a separation from the <span class="hlt">average</span> spring onset of greenness curve in the DOY direction (either early or late.) Our study system for this work is the deciduous forests of the mid-Atlantic, USA, where we show that late summer vegetation cover is tied to edaphic properties governing the site specific soil moisture balance. Additionally, we show that climatic factors (mostly related to topography) strongly influence the <span class="hlt">average</span> start of spring. Annual deviations in the start of spring do not always scale linearly suggesting a spatially complex relationship between climate and the onset of spring. Model fit for a single pixel of mid-Atlantic deciduous forest. Shades of gray represent the weight each datum has on the model fit (increasing, white to black). Data weights account for variable atmospheric conditions between acquisitions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMNS31A1217K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMNS31A1217K"><span id="translatedtitle">Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Coal Seam in Fire- Zone 18 of the Coal Mining <span class="hlt">Area</span> Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Lindner, H.; Rueter, H.; Wuttke, M. W.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The localization of the <span class="hlt">burning</span> centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire zone 18 of the coal mining <span class="hlt">area</span> of Wuda (InnerMongolia, PR China) serves as a test <span class="hlt">area</span> for geophysical measurements. For the geothermal and geochemical mapping 25 up to 1m deep boreholes with a diameter of approx. 30 mm are distributed over the particular fire-zone with an extension of 320 × 180 m2. To avoid the highly dynamic gas flow processes in fire induced fractures caused by weather conditions, all boreholes were situated in the undisturbed rock compartments. In these boreholes, plastic tubes of 12 mm diameter provide access to the borehole ground filled with highly permeable gravel. The boreholes are otherwise sealed to the atmosphere by clay. The geothermal observations consist of measurements of temperature profiles in the boreholes and thermal conductivity measurement on rock samples in the lab. For depths greater then 0.2 m diurnal variations in the temperature gradient were neglected. The derived heat flow with maximum values of 80 W/m2 is more then three orders of magnitude higher than the natural undisturbed heat flow. The high heat flow suggests that the dominant heat transport is gas convection through the system of porous rock and fractures. Any temperature anomaly caused by the <span class="hlt">burning</span> coal in a depth of more than 18 m would need years to reach the surface by a heat transport restricted to conduction. The geochemical soil gas probing is performed by gas extraction from the boreholes. Measured are the concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, H2S and CH4. The O2 deficit in the soil air and the concentrations of the other combustion products compared to the concentrations in the free atmosphere are related to the combustion <span class="hlt">area</span>. The magnetic mapping with point distances of 2 m and profile-distances of 3 to 4 m covered an <span class="hlt">area</span> of 350 × 300m with 7913 points. The detected anomalies lie in a range between -130 and 176 nT. The maxima are most likely caused by heating of the top sandstones by <span class="hlt">burning</span> coal, the origin for the high magnetization being the conversion of pyrite and markasit into maghemite, hematite and magnetite. Susceptibility measurements of clinkers in firezone 18 demonstrate this effect. Therefore the identified patches with high magnetic anomalies should have a direct connection to ranges with <span class="hlt">burning</span> coal within firezone 18. Al the discussed geophysical measurements together allow an integrated interpretation. Each result can be related to the combustion process with a particular likelihood for the vertical projection to the combustion centre. Probability calculations with chosen weight factors for each observation method are discussed. References: Kessels, W., Wuttke, M. W., Wessling, S., and Li, X. Coalfires between self ignition and fire fighting: Numerical modeling and basic geophysical measurements. In ERSEC Ecological Book Series - 4 on Coal Fire Research (2007).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881498','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/881498"><span id="translatedtitle">Interim Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the A-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) (U)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morgan, Randall</p> <p>2000-11-17</p> <p>The A-<span class="hlt">Area</span> <span class="hlt">Burning</span>/Rubble Pits (731-A/1A) and Rubble Pit (731-2A) Operable Unit (OU)(ABRP) is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(u) Solid Waste Management Unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken County, South Carolina. The following media are associated with this OU: surface soil and groundwater. An SRS RCRA permit modification is not required at this time since this is an interim action. However, the final permit modification will (1) include the final selection of remedial alternatives under RCRA, (2) be sought for the entire ABRP with the final Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan (SB/PP), and (3) will include the necessary public involvement and regulatory approvals. This Interim Record of Decision (IROD) also satisfies the RCRA requirements for an Interim Measures Work Plan.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25167821','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25167821"><span id="translatedtitle">The daily fluorine and arsenic intake for residents with different dietaries and fluorosis risk in coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> fluorosis <span class="hlt">area</span>, Yunnan, Southwest China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Ling; Luo, Kun-Li; Tang, Yue-Gang; Liu, Yong-Lin</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The daily fluorine (F)/arsenic (As) intake (DFI/DAsI) for residents at different ages with different dietaries and dietary changes was investigated to analyze the fluorosis risk in coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> fluorosis <span class="hlt">area</span> in Yunnan, Southwest China. The DFI for residents with a dietary of roasted corn and roasted chili was 5.06, 9.60, and 14.38 mg for age groups 3-7, 8-15, and over 15 years, respectively. Over 90 % of DFI was from roasted foodstuffs. The DFI for residents of the same age group living on rice and roasted chili was 1.94, 3.50, and 4.95 mg, respectively, which were less than that for the former dietary type, and 65 % of DFI was from roasted chili. The main sources for their DFI are roasted foodstuffs. Both were higher than the dietaries with non-roasted foodstuffs and the recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for USA and China at different levels. The DAsI for all residents ranged from 25 to 135 ?g, and at this level of DAsI, it would not influence human health. However, As pollution of roasted foodstuffs might have an important influence for the fluorosis. Residents are changing their staple food from roasted corn to rice, and especially, younger people are more focused on quality life. However, even if residents change their staple food, the habit of eating chili will not change, which also may cause them getting fluorosis. Developing economy, changing dietary types, and changing the habit of drying and keeping chili will help to reduce the fluorosis risk in coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> fluorosis <span class="hlt">area</span> of Southwest China. PMID:25167821</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4204778','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4204778"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of variation of <span class="hlt">average</span> pore size and specific surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of ZnO electrode (WE) on efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized with tremendous increase in specific surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of up to 578m2/g which was 5.54m2/g in previous reports (J. Phys. Chem. C 113:14676-14680, 2009). Different mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles with <span class="hlt">average</span> pore sizes ranging from 7.22 to 13.43nm and specific surface <span class="hlt">area</span> ranging from 50.41 to 578m2/g were prepared through the sol-gel method via a simple evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The hydrolysis rate of zinc acetate was varied using different concentrations of sodium hydroxide. Morphology, crystallinity, porosity, and J-V characteristics of the materials have been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and Keithley instruments. PMID:25339855</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JARS....8.3629O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JARS....8.3629O"><span id="translatedtitle">Scaling effects on <span class="hlt">area-averaged</span> fraction of vegetation cover derived using a linear mixture model with two-band spectral vegetation index constraints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Obata, Kenta; Huete, Alfredo R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the scaling effects that apply to a fraction of vegetation cover (FVC) estimates derived using two-band spectral vegetation index (VI) isoline-based linear mixture models (VI isoline-based LMM). The VIs included the normalized difference vegetation index, a soil-adjusted vegetation index, and a two-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2). This study focused in part on the monotonicity of an <span class="hlt">area-averaged</span> FVC estimate as a function of spatial resolution. The proof of monotonicity yielded measures of the intrinsic <span class="hlt">area-averaged</span> FVC uncertainties due to scaling effects. The derived results demonstrate that a factor ξ, which was defined as a function of "true" and "estimated" endmember spectra of the vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces, was responsible for conveying monotonicity or nonmonotonicity. The monotonic FVC values displayed a uniform increasing or decreasing trend that was independent of the choice of the two-band VI. Conditions under which scaling effects were eliminated from the FVC were identified. Numerical simulations verifying the monotonicity and the practical utility of the scaling theory were evaluated using numerical experiments applied to Landsat7-Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. The findings contribute to developing scale-invariant FVC estimation algorithms for multisensor and data continuity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/burns.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/burns.html"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> (For Parents)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... these steps until medical personnel arrive: Keep your child lying down with the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> elevated. Follow the instructions ... morning, when it's had a chance to cool down during the night. Remove your child's safety seat or stroller from the hot sun ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....919599C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....919599C"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in tropical Asia based on satellite-derived data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, D.; Song, Y.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in tropical Asia emits large amounts of trace gases and particulate matters into the atmosphere, which has significant implications for atmospheric chemistry and climatic change. In this study, emissions from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> over tropical Asia were evaluated during seven fire years from 2000-2006 (1 April 2000-31 March 2007). <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were estimated from newly published 1-km L3JRC and 500-m MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products (MCD45A1). Available fuel loads and emission factors were assigned for each vegetation type in a GlobCover characterisation map, and fuel moisture content was taken into account when calculating combustion factors. Over the whole period, both <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and fire emissions clearly showed spatial and seasonal variations. The L3JRC <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 31 165 km2 in fire year 2005 to 57 313 km2 in 2000, while the MCD45A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 54 260 km2 in fire year 2001 to 127 068 km2 in 2004. Comparisons of L3JRC and MCD45A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> with ground-based measurements and other satellite information were constructed in several major <span class="hlt">burning</span> regions, and results suggested that MCD45A1 performed better in most <span class="hlt">areas</span> than L3JRC did although with a certain degree of underestimation of <span class="hlt">burned</span> forest <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The <span class="hlt">average</span> annual L3JRC-based emissions were 125, 12, 0.98, 1.91, 0.11, 0.89, 0.044, 0.022, 0.42, 3.40, and 3.68 Tg yr<sup-1 for CO2, CO, CH4, NMHCs, NOx, NH3, SO2, BC, OC, PM2.5, and PM10, respectively, while MCD45A1-based emissions were 130, 9.79, 0.65, 1.14, 0.12, 0.56, 0.046, 0.036, 0.42, 3.21, and 3.49 Tg yr-1. Forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> was determined as the major source of the fire emissions due to the high carbon density. Although agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span> was the second important contributor, a great deal of crop residue combustion could probably be missed by satellite observations when compared to previously published data, which may be because of its small <span class="hlt">burning</span> size. Fire emissions were mainly concentrated in Indonesia, India, Myanmar, and Cambodia. Furthermore, the peak in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was generally found in the early fire season, while the maximum fire emissions often occurred in the late fire season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRG..120.2095C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRG..120.2095C"><span id="translatedtitle">Forest edge <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the Brazilian Amazon promoted by escaping fires from managed pastures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cano-Crespo, Ana; Oliveira, Paulo J. C.; Boit, Alice; Cardoso, Manoel; Thonicke, Kirsten</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Understanding to what extent different land uses influence fire occurrence in the Amazonian forest is particularly relevant for its conservation. We evaluate the relationship between forest fires and different anthropogenic activities linked to a variety of land uses in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia. We combine the new high-resolution (30 m) TerraClass land use database with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data for 2008 and the extreme dry year of 2010. Excluding the non-forest class, most of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was found in pastures, primary and secondary forests, and agricultural lands across all three states, while only around 1% of the total was located in deforested <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The trend in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> did not follow the declining deforestation rates from 2001 to 2010, and the spatial overlap between deforested and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> was only 8% on <span class="hlt">average</span>. This supports the claim of deforestation being disconnected from <span class="hlt">burning</span> since 2005. Forest degradation showed an even lower correlation with <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. We found that fires used in managing pastoral and agricultural lands that escape into the neighboring forests largely contribute to forest fires. Such escaping fires are responsible for up to 52% of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> forest edges adjacent to <span class="hlt">burned</span> pastures and up to 22% of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> forest edges adjacent to <span class="hlt">burned</span> agricultural fields, respectively. Our findings call for the development of control and monitoring plans to prevent fires from escaping from managed lands into forests to support effective land use and ecosystem management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Burns&pg=2&id=EJ748543','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Burns&pg=2&id=EJ748543"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Man</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cech, Scott J.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Former Baltimore cop and teacher Ed <span class="hlt">Burns</span> isn't a masochist. The writer-producer for "The Wire," a critically applauded HBO series about life and death on the streets of Baltimore, is just feverishly trying to save public schools. He thinks American education is hopelessly screwed up, but that it's also the country's only hope. So it makes sense…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/01_19_2016_i41Ph76gfa_01_19_2016_8','SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS'); return false;" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/01_19_2016_i41Ph76gfa_01_19_2016_8"><span id="translatedtitle">Prescribed <span class="hlt">Burn</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Iowa State Grad students Devan McGranahan and Torre Hovick, along with DNR private land specialist Josh Rusk and ISU Research Technician Shannon Rusk ignite a prescribed fire on a patch-<span class="hlt">burn</span> grazing research pasture in southern Iowa. The goals of the prescribed fire include reducing invasive eastern...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11722304P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11722304P"><span id="translatedtitle">Emission ratio of carbonaceous aerosols observed near crop residual <span class="hlt">burning</span> sources in a rural <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Yangtze River Delta Region, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pan, X. L.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z. F.; Taketani, F.; Tanimoto, H.; Irie, H.; Takashima, H.; Inomata, S.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Intensive open crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> (OCRB) has a great impact on regional air quality and climate. A field observation campaign in a rural <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Yangtze River Delta Region (YRDR) was performed during the harvest season, and Elemental carbon (ECa), organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BCe), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and PM2.5mass were concurrently measured. During the observation period, urban pollution and OCRB-impact episodes were classified. The emission ratio of ECa mass (defined as the ΔECa/ΔCO ratio) from OCRB was estimated to be 18.2 ± 4.6 ng/m3/ppbv, much higher than that (3.0 ± 0.3 ng/m3/ppbv) of urban pollution from the YRDR. A significant amount of OC was emitted from OCRB with ΔOC/ΔCO ratio of 101.3 ± 41.6 ng/m3/ppbv. The value found in the present study was near the upper limit of OC emission ratios in the literature, implying great impacts from combustion conditions, types of biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span> and subsequent evolution. Regarding urban pollution episodes, the ΔOC/ΔCO ratio was found to be 23.7 ± 2.4 ng/m3/ppbv, and secondary organics accounted for the major fraction of OC mass. Combustions phases of OCRB were classified according to a modified combustion efficiency (MCE, defined as ΔCO2/(ΔCO + ΔCO2)). Our results support the view that ECa tend to be produced in flaming combustions (MCE > 0.95) than in smoldering combustions (MCE < 0.95), whereas OC is emitted preferentially from smoldering combustions. Based on our observed carbonaceous aerosol correlations, we estimate that the ECa and OC emissions from OCRB in East Asia might be underestimated by at least 50%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20947259','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20947259"><span id="translatedtitle">Prevention of <span class="hlt">burns</span>: 13 years' experience in Northeastern India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sarma, Bhupendra Prasad</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burns</span> are noteworthy causes of morbidity and mortality in India. Community-based interventions in the forms of multi-strategic and multi-focussed preventive programs are, however, lacking. This study, undertaken in the remote corner of Northeastern India, aims at reducing the incidence of <span class="hlt">burns</span> through focussed attention towards sensitising the community with well-structured preventive programmes. Participatory community seminars, shop floor visit to industrial locations, use of print and electronic media and lectures and demonstrations in schools were the tools used in the preventive programmes. Analysis of inpatient and outpatient records of <span class="hlt">burn</span>-injured patients treated in the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Unit and a scoring system in the school education programme helped in the assessment of the impact of <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Preventive Programs (BPPs). For convenience of assessment, a comparative analysis of the results in early (block I) and later part (block II) of the study period was made. Results showed reduction of admission and also reduction in percent total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (%TBSA) <span class="hlt">burn</span> in the majority of the patients in block II in comparison to block I. Water was used to extinguish fire in 36.1% patients in block I and 73.4% patients in block II. Water was also used to cool <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds by 31% patients in Block I, and by 72% patients in block II. While 80% of the patients made inappropriate topical applications on the wounds in block I, only 34.4% did so in block II. Increased awareness amongst the general population was reflected by reduction of <span class="hlt">average</span> reporting time in hospital after injury and significant reduction of firecracker <span class="hlt">burns</span> from 21.5% (block I) to 14.6% (block II). Similarly, improved awareness amongst the students was evident from the improved scoring by the majority of the students and reduction in <span class="hlt">burns</span> amongst them in the later part of block II. The results indicate that BPP has made a positive impact in society. PMID:20947259</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MAR.S1160D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MAR.S1160D"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluorescence Measurement of <span class="hlt">Burned</span> Skin Tissues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Pedro, Hector Michael; Chang, Chuan-I.; Nguyen, Hue; Malko, Anton; Zarnani, Faranak; Glosser, Robert; Maas, D.; Idris, A.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Early removal of affected tissues from <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients can significantly increase the success of their recovery, since <span class="hlt">burns</span> continue to spread and damage surrounding tissues after hours of injury. The rationale behind this procedure is that <span class="hlt">burns</span> trigger the body's immune system to overreact, causing additional damage. Therefore it is important to locate and identify the <span class="hlt">burn</span> (<span class="hlt">area</span> and thickness) so that it can be removed as quickly as possible. Our project explores the use of autofluorescence as a tool to identify the <span class="hlt">burned</span> tissues from healthy ones. Here we present that our fluorescence results show differences between <span class="hlt">burned</span> and normal skin in both its spectra and lifetime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4396790','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4396790"><span id="translatedtitle">Smartphones and <span class="hlt">burn</span> size estimation: Rapid <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Assessor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kamolz, L.P.; Lumenta, D.B.; Parvizi, D.; Dirnberger, J.; Owen, R.; Hller, J.; Giretzlehner, M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Summary Estimation of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (%TBSA) following a <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury is used in determining whether to transfer the patient to a <span class="hlt">burn</span> center and the required fluid resuscitation volumes. Unfortunately, the commonly applied methods of estimation have revealed inaccuracies, which are mostly related to human error. To calculate the %TBSA (quotient), it is necessary to divide the <span class="hlt">burned</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (<span class="hlt">Burned</span> BSA) (numerator in cm2) by the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (Total BSA) (denominator in cm2). By using everyday objects (eg. credit cards, smartphones) with well-defined surface <span class="hlt">areas</span> as reference for estimations of <span class="hlt">Burned</span> BSA on the one hand and established formulas for Total BSA calculation on the other (eg. Mosteller), we propose an approximation method to assess %TBSA more accurately than the established methods. To facilitate distribution, and respective user feedback, we have developed a smartphone app integrating all of the above parameters, available on popular mobile device platforms. This method represents a simple and ready-to-use clinical decision support system which addresses common errors associated with estimations of <span class="hlt">Burned</span> BSA (=numerator). Following validation and respective user feedback, it could be deployed for testing in future clinical trials. This study has a level of evidence of IV and is a brief report based on clinical observation, which points to further study. PMID:26170784</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26170784','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26170784"><span id="translatedtitle">Smartphones and <span class="hlt">burn</span> size estimation: "Rapid <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Assessor".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kamolz, L P; Lumenta, D B; Parvizi, D; Dirnberger, J; Owen, R; Hller, J; Giretzlehner, M</p> <p>2014-06-30</p> <p>Estimation of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (%TBSA) following a <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury is used in determining whether to transfer the patient to a <span class="hlt">burn</span> center and the required fluid resuscitation volumes. Unfortunately, the commonly applied methods of estimation have revealed inaccuracies, which are mostly related to human error. To calculate the %TBSA (quotient), it is necessary to divide the <span class="hlt">burned</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (<span class="hlt">Burned</span> BSA) (numerator in cm2) by the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (Total BSA) (denominator in cm2). By using everyday objects (eg. credit cards, smartphones) with well-defined surface <span class="hlt">areas</span> as reference for estimations of <span class="hlt">Burned</span> BSA on the one hand and established formulas for Total BSA calculation on the other (eg. Mosteller), we propose an approximation method to assess %TBSA more accurately than the established methods. To facilitate distribution, and respective user feedback, we have developed a smartphone app integrating all of the above parameters, available on popular mobile device platforms. This method represents a simple and ready-to-use clinical decision support system which addresses common errors associated with estimations of <span class="hlt">Burned</span> BSA (=numerator). Following validation and respective user feedback, it could be deployed for testing in future clinical trials. This study has a level of evidence of IV and is a brief report based on clinical observation, which points to further study. PMID:26170784</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/822594','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/822594"><span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pits, and Storage <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office</p> <p>2003-10-17</p> <p>This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140: Waste Dumps, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pits, and Storage <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in <span class="hlt">Areas</span> 5, 22, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 140 consists of nine corrective action sites (CASs). Investigation activities were performed from November 13 through December 11, 2002, with additional sampling to delineate the extent of contaminants of concern (COCs) conducted on February 4 and March 18 and 19, 2003. Results obtained from the investigation activities and sampling indicated that only 3 of the 9 CASs at CAU 140 had COCs identified. Following a review of existing data, future land use, and current operations at the NTS, the following preferred alternatives were developed for consideration: (1) No Further Action - six CASs (05-08-02, 05-17-01, 05-19-01, 05-35-01, 05-99-04, and 22-99-04); (2) Clean Closure - one CAS (05-08-01), and (3) Closure-in-Place - two CASs (05-23-01 and 23-17-01). These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternatives meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 140.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JHyd..519.1779G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JHyd..519.1779G"><span id="translatedtitle">Runoff coefficient and <span class="hlt">average</span> yearly natural aquifer recharge assessment by physiography-based indirect methods for the island of Sardinia (Italy) and its NW <span class="hlt">area</span> (Nurra)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghiglieri, Giorgio; Carletti, Alberto; Pittalis, Daniele</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Runoff estimation and water budget in ungauged basins is a challenge for hydrological researchers and planners. The principal aim of this study was the application and validation of the Kennessey method, which is a physiography-based indirect process for determining the <span class="hlt">average</span> annual runoff coefficient and the basin-scale water balance. The coefficient can be calculated using specific physiographic characteristics (slope, permeability and vegetation cover) and a parameter that defines climatic conditions and does not require instrumental data. One of the main purposes of this study was to compare the <span class="hlt">average</span> annual runoff coefficient obtained using the Kennessey method with the coefficients calculated using data from 30 instrumented drainage basins in Sardinia (Italy) over 71 years (from 1922 to 1992). These measurements represent an important and complete historical dataset from the study <span class="hlt">area</span>. Using the runoff coefficient map, the method was also applied to assess the effective annual recharge rate of the aquifers of the Calich hydrogeological basin in the Nurra Plain (Alghero, NW Sardinia-Italy). The groundwater recharge rate was compared with rates calculated using the standard water balance method. The implementation of the method at the regional and basin scales was supported by GIS analyses. The results of the method are promising but show some discrepancies with other methodologies due to the higher weights given to the physiographic parameters than to the meteorological parameters. However, even though the weights assigned to the parameters require improvements, the Kennessey method is a useful tool for evaluating hydrologic processes, particularly for water management in <span class="hlt">areas</span> where instrumental data are not available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25958356','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25958356"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential PM2.5 impacts of festival-related <span class="hlt">burning</span> and other inputs on air quality in an urban <span class="hlt">area</span> of southern Taiwan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsai, Ying I; Sopajaree, Khajornsak; Kuo, Su-Ching; Yu, Sung-Po</p> <p>2015-09-15</p> <p>The Mid-Autumn Festival (MAF), or Moon Festival, is a harvest festival in Taiwan, celebrated by families across the island with evening barbecues outside. This study investigated the potential impact of these activities on the air quality in Tainan, a city in southern Taiwan. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was examined in the period leading up to the MAF (pre-MAF), during the Festival (MAF), after the Festival (post-MAF), and in the period after this (a period of moderate air quality: MAQ). Gaseous pollutants in PM2.5 were, from highest to lowest mean concentration, NH3, SO2, HCl, HNO3, HNO2, and oxalic acid, while inorganic salts were mainly in the form of the photochemical products SO4(2-), NH4(+), and NO3(-). These inorganic salts accounted for 37.6%-44.5% of the PM2.5 mass concentration, while a further 26.3%-42.8% of the PM2.5 mass was total carbon (TC). TC was mostly composed of organic carbon (OC) produced by photochemical reactions. Of this, 9.8%-14.9% was carboxylates, of which oxalate was the most abundant compound, accounting for 22.8%-31.9% of carboxylates. The presence of phthalates in the PM2.5 indicated emissions from the plastics industry. Although a noticeable amount of aerosol was produced by festival activities and <span class="hlt">burning</span> of softwood and hardwood, onshore air currents during the festival prevented potential high aerosol loading. During the moderate air quality period following post-MAF, the concentration of total carbohydrates was 1.44-2.64 times the amount during the festival. Levoglucosan and myo-inositol accounted for 81.7%-89.6% of the total carbohydrate concentration. The <span class="hlt">average</span> Levo/Manno ratio was 18.64 5.24. The concentration of levoglucosan was closely related to that of PO4(3-), erythritol, and galactose. Backward trajectories indicated that biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in China affected the air quality of Tainan City. PMID:25958356</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/presentations/100213_1.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/presentations/100213_1.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Minor <span class="hlt">burn</span> - first aid - series (image)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>To treat a minor <span class="hlt">burn</span>, run cool water over the <span class="hlt">area</span> of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> or soak it in a cool water bath (not ice water). ... flushing or soaking for several minutes, cover the <span class="hlt">burn</span> with a sterile bandage or a clean cloth. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1001684','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1001684"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span> on nesting waterfowl</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fritzell, E.K.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span> in an intensively farmed region within Manitoba's pothole district is shown to affect the nesting activities of ground-nesting ducks. All species, except Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), preferred unburned nest cover, although success was higher in <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, where predators may have exerted less influence. Attitudes of farmers, <span class="hlt">burning</span> chronology, and nest destruction by fires are also reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18535476','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18535476"><span id="translatedtitle">Scald <span class="hlt">burns</span> in young children--a review of Arizona <span class="hlt">burn</span> center pediatric patients and a proposal for prevention in the Hispanic community.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rimmer, Ruth B; Weigand, Shannon; Foster, Kevin N; Wadsworth, Michelle M; Jacober, Katie; Matthews, Marc R; Drachman, David; Caruso, Daniel M</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Arizona <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center staff observed an increasing number of pediatric scald <span class="hlt">burn</span> admissions. Therefore, a retrospective study was conducted to identify scald demographics and etiologies. Focus groups were subsequently conducted to determine <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention knowledge in the target community. Arizona <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center scald admission variables (ages 0-5 years) reviewed included age, sex, ethnicity, TBSA, body parts <span class="hlt">burned</span>, occurrence month and location, caregiver present, child and caregiver activities when injured, payor source, length of stay, parental language, and zip code. High-risk zip code <span class="hlt">area</span> focus groups were then conducted. There were a total of 170 pediatric patients, aged 0 to 5 years, admitted to the <span class="hlt">burn</span> center during 2005 to 2006. Of this total, 124 of the patients were admitted for scald <span class="hlt">burns</span>, accounting for 59% of all pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> admissions. Scald <span class="hlt">burn</span> patient's demographics included male (52%), female (48%) with a mean age of 1.7 years. Majority ethnicity was Hispanic (63%). The mean TBSA was 8% with mean length of stay of 8 days. The remaining pediatric admissions for children aged 0 to 5 were for <span class="hlt">burns</span> caused by fire or flame 15%, contact with a hot object 13%, friction <span class="hlt">burns</span> 7%, chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> 3%, and electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> 3%. Demographics for the combined etiologies included an identical sex breakdown with male (52%) and female (48%). The majority ethnicity in the nonscald group was also Hispanic at 59% with a mean length of stay of 7 days and an <span class="hlt">average</span> TBSA of 9.5%. Main etiologies of scald <span class="hlt">burns</span> included hot water (25%), soup (24%), and coffee or tea (21%). Most common child behaviors were pulling hot substance from stove (24%), from countertop (13%), and having liquid spilled on them (13%) typically while caregiver was cooking. Mean TBSA was 8% with mean length of stay (8 days). Scalds occurred in the kitchen (83%) and mainly in child's home (94%). Mother was primary caregiver (78%). Payor source was Medicaid (86%) and the <span class="hlt">average</span> admission cost was dollars 60,075. Only 36% of parents spoke Spanish as their primary language. Scalds (43%) usually occurred during year's first quarter (P < .001). Focus group participants (85%) reported receiving no prior <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention education and preferred to receive prevention instruction in small groups through established community agencies. Results suggest that culturally sensitive, bilingual scald prevention education, targeting Hispanics, is needed to create awareness of the frequency, severity, and danger associated with pediatric scalds. PMID:18535476</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJAEO..26...64M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJAEO..26...64M"><span id="translatedtitle">Ten years of global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products from spaceborne remote sensing-A review: Analysis of user needs and recommendations for future developments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mouillot, Florent; Schultz, Martin G.; Yue, Chao; Cadule, Patricia; Tansey, Kevin; Ciais, Philippe; Chuvieco, Emilio</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Early global estimates of carbon emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> were based on empirical assumptions of fire return interval in different biomes in the 1980s. Since then, significant improvements of spaceborne remote sensing sensors have resulted in an increasing number of derived products characterizing the detection of active fire or the subsequent <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> (GFED, MODIS MCD45A1, L3JRC, Globcarbon, GBS, GLOBSCAR, GBA2000). When coupled with global land cover and vegetation models allowing for spatially explicit fuel biomass estimates, the use of these products helps to yield important information about the spatial and the temporal variability of emission estimates. The availability of multi-year products (>10 years) leads to a better understanding of uncertainties in addition to increasing accuracy. We surveyed a wide range of users of global fire data products whilst also undertaking a review of the latest scientific literature. Two user groups were identified, the first being global climate and vegetation modellers and the second being regional land managers. Based on this review, we present here the current needs covering the range of end-users. We identified the increasing use of BA products since the year 2000 with an increasing use of MODIS as a reference dataset. Scientific topics using these BA products have increased in diversity and <span class="hlt">area</span> of application, from global fire emissions (for which BA products were initially developed) to regional studies with increasing use for ecosystem management planning. There is a significant need from the atmospheric science community for low spatial resolution (gridded, 1/2 degree cell) and long time series data characterized with supplementary information concerning the accuracy in timing of the fire and reductions of omission/commission errors. There is also a strong need for precisely characterizing the perimeter and contour of the fire scar for better assimilation with land cover maps and fire intensity. Computer and earth observation facilities remain a significant gap between ideal accuracies and the realistic ones, which must be fully quantified and comprehensive for an actual use in global fire emissions or regional land management studies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/803837','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/803837"><span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pits, and Storage <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, July 2002, Rev. No. 0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>NNSA /NV</p> <p>2002-07-18</p> <p>This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 140 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pit; 05-99-04, <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage <span class="hlt">Area</span>. All nine of these CASs are located within <span class="hlt">Areas</span> 5, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. This CAU is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The NTS has been used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. The CASs in CAU 140 were used for testing, material storage, waste storage, and waste disposal. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will determine if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels. This data will be evaluated at all CASs. Phase II will determine the extent of the contaminant(s) of concern (COCs). This data will only be evaluated for CASs with a COC identified during Phase I. Based on process knowledge, the COPCs for CAU 140 include volatile organics, semivolatile organics, petroleum hydrocarbons, explosive residues, herbicides, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and radionuclides. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4614606','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4614606"><span id="translatedtitle">Independent Predictive Factors of Hospitalization in a North-West <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center of Iran; an Epidemiologic Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shams Vahdati, Samad; Hazhir Karzar, Bita; Momen, Negar</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: A high-grade <span class="hlt">burn</span> is one of the most devastating injuries with several medical, social, economic, and psychological effects. These injuries are the most common cause of accidental deaths after traffic injuries in both the developed and developing countries. Therefore, this research was aimed to determine demographic characteristics of patients with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury admitted to the emergency department and identify predictive factors of hospitalization. Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive study, which is done in 20 March up to 20 September 2011 in emergency department of Sina Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Patients’ information including demographic characteristic, cause of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, place of accident, anatomical <span class="hlt">areas</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>, grading and percent of <span class="hlt">burning</span> and disposition were gathered and analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 statistical software. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis was used for recognition of independent predictive factors of hospitalization in <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients. Results: One hundred and sixty patients were enrolled (54.4% female). The <span class="hlt">average</span> age of those was 20.47±13.5 years. The prevalence of <span class="hlt">burn</span> was significantly higher in ages under 20 years (p<0.001). Lower limb (37.5%), head and neck (21.25%) and upper limb (17.5%) were three frequent site of <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The most common cause of <span class="hlt">burns</span> was boiling water scalding (34.4%). Home related <span class="hlt">burn</span> was significantly higher than other place (p<0.001). The most frequent percent of <span class="hlt">burn</span> was <5% (46.25%). Finally, 50 (31.25%) cases hospitalized. Univariate analysis demonstrated that age under 20 years old (p=0.02) female gender (p=0.02), <span class="hlt">burning</span> site (p=0.002), cause (p=0.005), place (p<0.001), grade (p<0.001), and percent (p<0.001) was related to disposition of patients. Stepwise multiple logistic regression showed female gender (OR=3.52; 95% CI: 1.57-7.88; p=0.002), work related <span class="hlt">burning</span> (OR=1.78; 95% CI: 1.26-2.52; p=0.001), and <span class="hlt">burning</span> over 5 percent (OR=2.15; 95% CI: 1.35-3.41; p=0.001) as independent predictive factors of hospitalization. Conclusion: The results of present study showed that <span class="hlt">burns</span> injury are most frequent in age under 20 year old, lower limbs, with boiling water, and at home. In addition, the most frequent type and percentage of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> were second degree and <5% of total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, respectively. Among age under 20 years old, female gender, <span class="hlt">burning</span> site, cause, place, grade, and percent only female gender, work related <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and <span class="hlt">burning</span> over 5% were detected as independent predictive factors of hospitalization. PMID:26512368</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GMD.....7.2747Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GMD.....7.2747Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling the role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE - Part 1: simulating historical global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and fire regimes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Cadule, P.; Thonicke, K.; Archibald, S.; Poulter, B.; Hao, W. M.; Hantson, S.; Mouillot, F.; Friedlingstein, P.; Maignan, F.; Viovy, N.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Fire is an important global ecological process that influences the distribution of biomes, with consequences for carbon, water, and energy budgets. Therefore it is impossible to appropriately model the history and future of the terrestrial ecosystems and the climate system without including fire. This study incorporates the process-based prognostic fire module SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE, which was then used to simulate <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> over the 20th century. Special attention was paid to the evaluation of other fire regime indicators such as seasonality, fire size and fire length, next to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. For 2001-2006, the simulated global spatial extent of fire agrees well with that given by satellite-derived <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data sets (L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, GFED3.1), and 76-92% of the global <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is simulated as collocated between the model and observation, depending on which data set is used for comparison. The simulated global mean annual <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> is 346 Mha yr-1, which falls within the range of 287-384 Mha yr-1 as given by the three observation data sets; and is close to the 344 Mha yr-1 by the GFED3.1 data when crop fires are excluded. The simulated long-term trend and variation of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> agree best with the observation data in regions where fire is mainly driven by climate variation, such as boreal Russia (1930-2009), along with Canada and US Alaska (1950-2009). At the global scale, the simulated decadal fire variation over the 20th century is only in moderate agreement with the historical reconstruction, possibly because of the uncertainties of past estimates, and because land-use change fires and fire suppression are not explicitly included in the model. Over the globe, the size of large fires (the 95th quantile fire size) is underestimated by the model for the regions of high fire frequency, compared with fire patch data as reconstructed from MODIS 500 m <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> data. Two case studies of fire size distribution in Canada and US Alaska, and southern Africa indicate that both number and size of large fires are underestimated, which could be related with short fire patch length and low daily fire size. Future efforts should be directed towards building consistent spatial observation data sets for key parameters of the model in order to constrain the model error at each key step of the fire modelling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..77..959S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..77..959S"><span id="translatedtitle">Particle-induced oxidative damage of indoor PM10 from coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> homes in the lung cancer <span class="hlt">area</span> of Xuan Wei, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shao, Longyi; Hu, Ying; Wang, Jing; Hou, Cong; Yang, Yuanyuan; Wu, Mingyuan</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The lung cancer mortality rate in the rural <span class="hlt">area</span> of the Xuan Wei, Yunnan, is among the highest in China, especially in women. In this paper, the coal-<span class="hlt">burning</span> indoor and corresponding outdoor PM10 samples were collected at the Hutou village, representing the case of high lung cancer rate, and the Xize village, representing the case of low lung cancer rate. Plasmid scission assay was used to investigate the bioreactivity of the PM10. The inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was employed to investigate the trace element compositions of the PM10. The results showed that the oxidative damage caused by both indoor and outdoor PM10 at the Hutou village was obviously higher than that at the Xize village, with the indoor PM10 having higher oxidative damage than corresponding outdoors. Among all analyzed samples, the indoor night PM10 samples from the Hutou village have the highest oxidative capacity. The levels of total water-soluble elements had a higher level in the PM10 of the Hutou village than that of the Xize village. It is interesting that the levels of water-soluble As, Cd, Cs, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn in PM10 had better positive correlation with DNA damage rates, implying that these elements in their water-soluble state should be one of the main factors responsible for the high oxidative capacity of PM10, thus possibly the higher lung cancer rates, at the Hutou village.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B53D0424M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B53D0424M"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon and Air Quality Emissions from Crop Residue <span class="hlt">Burning</span> in the Contiguous United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCarty, J. L.; Korontzi, S.; Justice, C. O.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> is a global agricultural activity that is a source of carbon and air quality emissions. Carbon and air quality emissions from crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the contiguous U.S. (CONUS) were estimated for a five-year period, 2003 through 2007, using multispectral remote sensing-derived products. The atmospheric species that comprise the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were selected as air quality emissions. CO2 emissions were also calculated due to its importance to global climate change. This analysis utilized multiple remote sensing data sets and products to quantify crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in CONUS, including multi-year crop type maps, an 8-day difference Normalized <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Ratio product, and calibrated <span class="hlt">area</span> estimates of cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> from 1 km MODIS Active Fire Points. Remote sensing products were combined in a GIS to quantify the location of cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span>, <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> size, and associated crop type. A crop-specific emission factor database was compiled from the scientific literature. Fuel loads and combustion efficiency estimates were derived from the literature as well as from in-field collaborators. These data were combined to estimate crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions using the bottom-up methodology developed by Seiler and Crutzen (1980). This analysis found that an <span class="hlt">average</span> of 1,239,000 ha of croplands <span class="hlt">burn</span> each year in the CONUS. Florida, Arizona, Idaho, Utah, Washington, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oregon, California, and Colorado accounted for approximately 61% of the total crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> is a significant fire activity in the CONUS, <span class="hlt">averaging</span> 43% of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> reported for wildland fires in the U.S. (including Alaska and Hawaii). Crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> was also found to be a significant source of emissions that negatively impacted air quality. Crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions occurred most often in summer and fall, with the exception of winter and early spring emission peaks in sugarcane growing <span class="hlt">areas</span>. On <span class="hlt">average</span>, crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the CONUS emitted 6.1 Tg of CO2, 8.9 Gg of CH4, 232.4 Gg of CO, 28.5 Gg of PM10, 20.9 Gg of PM2.5, 10.6 Gg of NO2, and 4.4 Gg of SO2 annually. Lead emissions were negligible (< 0.3 Gg), which warrants further investigation due to the lack of emission factors for lead. On <span class="hlt">average</span>, air quality and carbon emissions from crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the CONUS varied less than 10% interannually. The majority of emissions from crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> originated in six states: Arkansas, California, Florida, Idaho, Texas, and Washington. Overlaying population data with <span class="hlt">average</span> annual emissions by county showed that approximately 13.8%, 17.3%, 17.5%, 17.9%, 25%, and 46.6% of the total population of Texas, California, Washington, Florida, Arkansas, and Idaho, respectively, lives in counties with the highest emissions from crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The results of this analysis are important for the refinement of the National Emissions Inventory and the Inventory of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks as well as for national and state policy makers concerned with rural air quality and agricultural carbon management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B41C0066T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B41C0066T"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of residual biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> on CO2 flux at a paddy field in Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taniguchi, Y.; Iwata, T.; Nakaya, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Paddy field is one of the most important ecosystem in monsoon Asia, and takes a great important role in CO2 uptake. Carbon budget in agricultural fields is largely influenced by some artificial managements. After the harvest of crops, residual biomass is <span class="hlt">burned</span> on fields, brought out from fields, or left and plowed into paddy soils. If the open <span class="hlt">burning</span> is conducted on fields, one part of biomass carbon would be emitted to atmosphere as CO2, and the other part would be plowed into soils. In this study, an experimental paddy field was divided into two <span class="hlt">areas</span> to investigate what impact is brought on the annual CO2 flux by the difference of disposal management of residual biomass after the harvest. At the one <span class="hlt">area</span>, residual biomass was <span class="hlt">burned</span> and plowed into soils after the harvest in late November 2011, 2012, and 2013. At the other <span class="hlt">area</span>, residue was not <span class="hlt">burned</span> and plowed into soils as usual. From three-years <span class="hlt">average</span> of sampling surveys, carbon content of residue plowed into soils after the harvest was estimated 2931 and 22036 g C m-2 at no-<span class="hlt">burned</span> and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, respectively. Continuous eddy-covariance measurements of CO2 fluxes at each <span class="hlt">area</span> were conducted for three years. A little bit of difference in CO2 flux between two <span class="hlt">areas</span> was shown during rice season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3905467','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3905467"><span id="translatedtitle">THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC RESPONSE TO SEVERE <span class="hlt">BURN</span> INJURY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jeschke, Marc G; Chinkes, David L; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kulp, Gabriela; Suman, Oscar E; Norbury, William B; Branski, Ludwik K; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Mlcak, Ronald P; Herndon, David N</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective To improve clinical outcome and to determine new treatment options, we studied the pathophysiologic response postburn in a large prospective, single center, clinical trial. Summary Background Data A severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury leads to marked hypermetabolism and catabolism, which are associated with morbidity and mortality. The underlying pathophysiology and the correlations between humoral changes and organ function have not been well delineated. Methods Two hundred forty-two severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> pediatric patients [>30% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA)], who received no anabolic drugs, were enrolled in this study. Demographics, clinical data, serum hormones, serum cytokine expression profile, organ function, hypermetabolism, muscle protein synthesis, incidence of wound infection sepsis, and body composition were obtained throughout acute hospital course. Results <span class="hlt">Average</span> age was 8 0.2 years, and <span class="hlt">average</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span> size was 56 1% TBSA with 43 1% third-degree TBSA. All patients were markedly hypermetabolic throughout acute hospital stay and had significant muscle protein loss as demonstrated by a negative muscle protein net balance (?0.05% 0.007 nmol/100 mL leg/min) and loss of lean body mass (LBM) (?4.1% 1.9%); P < 0.05. Patients lost 3% 1% of their bone mineral content (BMC) and 2 1% of their bone mineral density (BMD). Serum proteome analysis demonstrated profound alterations immediately postburn, which remained abnormal throughout acute hospital stay; P < 0.05. Cardiac function was compromised immediately after <span class="hlt">burn</span> and remained abnormal up to discharge; P < 0.05. Insulin resistance appeared during the first week postburn and persisted until discharge. Patients were hyperinflammatory with marked changes in IL-8, MCP-1, and IL-6, which were associated with 2.5 0.2 infections and 17% sepsis. Conclusions In this large prospective clinical trial, we delineated the complexity of the postburn pathophysiologic response and conclude that the postburn response is profound, occurring in a timely manner, with derangements that are greater and more protracted than previously thought. PMID:18791359</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26813057','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26813057"><span id="translatedtitle">[The Treatment of Major <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Injuries].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Yu-Hsun; Lin, Hsiu-Hua; Shi, Li-Ping; Yeong, Eng-Kean</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Major <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries constitute a systemic disease. In addition to completely understanding the mechanisms of wound healing, precise <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth and <span class="hlt">area</span> assessment is critical to the successful management of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. The recent advancements in post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> fluid resuscitation, tangential <span class="hlt">burn</span> excision and grafting, effective enteral tube feeding, and aggressive sepsis treatment have helped greatly increase the survival rates for major <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. However, the restricted joint motion that results from hypertrophic scar contracture remains the main challenge facing <span class="hlt">burn</span> survivors. In conclusion, as the course of the treatment and rehabilitation is prolonged and multifaceted, a complete treatment plan is always necessary in addition to teamwork among physicians, nurses, social workers, physical therapists, and psychologists. Finally, social return is the final goal of treatment and may be achieved only through mutual support and understanding among the members of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> treatment and rehabilitation team. PMID:26813057</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21422938','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21422938"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of U.K. military <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Foster, Mark Anthony; Moledina, Jamil; Jeffery, Steve L A</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The authors review the etiology of U.K. military <span class="hlt">burns</span> in light of increasing hybrid warfare. Analysis of the nature of these injured personnel will provide commanders with the evidence to plan for on-going and future operations. Case notes of all U.K. Armed Forces <span class="hlt">burn</span> injured patients who were evacuated to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine were reviewed. Demographics, <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity, pattern, and mortality details were included. There were 134 U.K. military personnel with <span class="hlt">burns</span> requiring return to the United Kingdom during 2001-2007. The median age was 27 (20-62) years. Overall, 60% of <span class="hlt">burns</span> seen were "accidental." <span class="hlt">Burning</span> waste, misuse or disrespect of fuel, and scalds were the most prevalent noncombat <span class="hlt">burns</span>. <span class="hlt">Areas</span> commonly <span class="hlt">burned</span> were the face, legs, and hands. During 2006-2007 in the two major conflicts, more than 59% (n = 36) of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients evacuated to the United Kingdom were injured during combat. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> sustained in combat represent 5.8% of all combat casualties and were commonly associated with other injuries. Improvised explosive device, minestrike, and rocket-propelled grenade were common causes. The mean TBSA affected for both groups was 5% (1-70). The majority of combat <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries have been small in size. Greater provision of flame retardant equipment and clothing may reduce the extent and number of combat <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the future. The numbers of noncombat <span class="hlt">burns</span> are being reduced by good military discipline. PMID:21422938</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996WRR....32.2775P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996WRR....32.2775P"><span id="translatedtitle">An Intercomparison of Techniques to Determine the <span class="hlt">Area-Averaged</span> Latent Heat Flux from Individual in Situ Observations: A remote Sensing Approach Using the European Field Experiment in a Desertification-Threatened <span class="hlt">Area</span> Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pelgrum, H.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.</p> <p>1996-04-01</p> <p>A knowledge of the <span class="hlt">area-averaged</span> latent heat flux <λE> is necessary to validate large-scale model predictions of heat fluxes over heterogeneous land surfaces. This paper describes different procedures to obtain <λE> as a weighted <span class="hlt">average</span> of ground-based observations. The weighting coefficients are obtained from remote sensing measurements. The remote sensing data used in this study consist of a Landsat thematic mapper image of the European Field Experiment in a Desertification-Threatened <span class="hlt">Area</span> (EFEDA) grid box in central Spain, acquired on June 12, 1991. A newly developed remote sensing algorithm, the surface energy balance for land algorithm (SEBAL), solves the energy budget on a pixel-by-pixel basis. From the resulting frequency distribution of the latent heat flux, the <span class="hlt">area-averaged</span> latent heat flux was calculated as <λE> = 164 W m-2. This method was validated with field measurements of latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, and soil moisture. In general, the SEBAL-derived output compared well with field measurements. Two other methods for retrieval of weighting coefficients were tested against SEBAL. The second method combines satellite images of surface temperature, surface albedo, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) into an index on a pixel-by-pixel basis. After inclusion of ground-based measurements of the latent heat flux, a linear relationship between the index and the latent heat flux was established. This relationship was used to map the latent heat flux on a pixel-by-pixel basis, resulting in <λE> = 194 W m-2. The third method makes use of a supervised classification of the thematic mapper image into eight land use classes. An <span class="hlt">average</span> latent heat flux was assigned to each class by using field measurements of the latent heat flux. According to the percentage of occurrence of each class in the image, <λE> was calculated as 110 W m-2. A weighting scheme was produced to make an estimation of <λE> possible from in situ observations. The weighting scheme contained a multiplication factor for each measurement site in order to compensate for the relative contribution of that site to <λE>. It was shown that <λE> derived as the arithmetic mean of 13 individual in situ observations leads to a difference of 34% (<λE> = 104 W m-2), which emphasizes the need for improved weighting procedures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..TSF.H1023D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..TSF.H1023D"><span id="translatedtitle">Polarized Reflectance Measurement of <span class="hlt">Burned</span> Skin Tissues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Pedro, Hector Michael; Chang, Chuan-I.; Zarnani, Faranak; Glosser, Robert; Maas, D.; Idris, A.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>In the US, there are over 400,000 <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims with 3,500 deaths in 2010. Recent evidence suggests that early removal of <span class="hlt">burn</span> tissues can significantly increase the success of their recovery, since <span class="hlt">burns</span> continue to spread and damage surrounding tissues after hours of injury. The rationale behind this procedure is that <span class="hlt">burns</span> trigger the body's immune system to overreact, causing additional damage. Therefore, it is important to distinguish <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> so that it can be removed. The problem with this is that it is difficult to recognize the margins of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. In our project, we use polarized reflectance as a tool to identify the <span class="hlt">burned</span> tissues from unburned ones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25459217','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25459217"><span id="translatedtitle">Development and evaluation of a novel smart device-based application for <span class="hlt">burn</span> assessment and management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Godwin, Zachary; Tan, James; Bockhold, Jennifer; Ma, Jason; Tran, Nam K</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We have developed a novel software application that provides a simple and interactive Lund-Browder diagram for automatic calculation of total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) <span class="hlt">burned</span>, fluid formula recommendations, and serial wound photography on a smart device platform. The software was developed for the iPad (Apple, Cupertino, CA) smart device platforms. Ten <span class="hlt">burns</span> ranging from 5 to 95% TBSA were computer generated on a patient care simulator using Adobe Photoshop CS6 (Adobe, San Jose, CA). <span class="hlt">Burn</span> clinicians calculated the TBSA first using a paper-based Lund-Browder diagram. Following a one-week "washout period", the same clinicians calculated TBSA using the smart device application. Simulated <span class="hlt">burns</span> were presented in a random fashion and clinicians were timed. Percent TBSA <span class="hlt">burned</span> calculated by Peregrine vs. the paper-based Lund-Browder were similar (29.53 [25.57] vs. 28.99 [25.01], p=0.22, n=7). On <span class="hlt">average</span>, Peregrine allowed users to calculate <span class="hlt">burn</span> size significantly faster than the paper form (58.18 [31.46] vs. 90.22 [60.60]s, p<0.001, n=7). The smart device application also provided 5 megapixel photography capabilities, and acute <span class="hlt">burn</span> resuscitation fluid calculator. We developed an innovative smart device application that enables accurate and rapid <span class="hlt">burn</span> size assessment to be cost-effective and widely accessible. PMID:25459217</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17967624','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17967624"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> surgery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tenenhaus, Mayer; Rennekampff, Hans Oliver</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>The challenges posed by thermal injury often are daunting emotionally and physically for the survivor, family, and staff. Morbidity and mortality have improved with advances in emergent and multidisciplinary care; the establishment of dedicated <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers; and increased education, prevention, and experience. The role of surgery in the treatment of these complex injury patterns continues to evolve, incorporating refined concepts of tissue preservation, wound bed preparation, and early attention to functional and esthetic parameters. Societal reintegration, psychosocial support, and new pain control strategies have dramatically improved the quality of life for our patients during and after the acute course of care. With improved survivability and a changing demographic, fundamental reconstructive surgical principles have found increased applicability and are instituted at the time of admission whenever possible. PMID:17967624</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED425175.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED425175.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating <span class="hlt">Average</span> Domain Scores.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pommerich, Mary; Nicewander, W. Alan</p> <p></p> <p>A simulation study was performed to determine whether a group's <span class="hlt">average</span> percent correct in a content domain could be accurately estimated for groups taking a single test form and not the entire domain of items. Six Item Response Theory (IRT) -based domain score estimation methods were evaluated, under conditions of few items per content <span class="hlt">area</span> per</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15455863','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15455863"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling human <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in a three-dimensional virtual environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dirnberger, J; Giretzlehner, M; Ruhmer, M; Haller, H; Rodemund, C</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This paper gives a work-in-progress report on our research project <span class="hlt">Burn</span>Case, a virtual environment for modelling human <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. The goal of the project is to simplify and improve the diagnosis and medical treatment of <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Due to the lack of electronic and computational support for current diagnosis methods, enormous variations regarding the approximated size of <span class="hlt">burned</span> skin regions exist. And although Simplifications like the Rule-Of-Nines-Method ([Weidringer, 2002]), Lund and Browder ([LundBrowder, 1944]) and others try to compensate for these errors, the fact remains that different physicians overestimate the BSA (Body Surface <span class="hlt">Area</span>) by 20% up to 50%, depending on the different experience and subjectivity of the approximation process. Nevertheless, different supporting mechanisms have been developed to assist the process of <span class="hlt">burn</span> region transfer so that after transferring all <span class="hlt">burned</span> regions on the virtual human body, calculations can be applied in order to evaluate standard indices like the ABSI (Abbreviated <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity Index), and Baux ([Baux, 1989]) as well as ICD10 (International Classification of Diseases) diagnosis encoding. The virtual body simulation is based on state-of-the-art 3D computer graphics (OpenGL). Thus a simulation system, providing a graphical user interface, allows surgeons to transfer a patient's <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury regions onto an appropriate 3-dimensional model. As such, the <span class="hlt">Burn</span>Case system improves surface determination by calculating region surfaces up to a precision of one cm2. This improves the <span class="hlt">average</span> variation to less than 5%, limited by the precision of the surface transfer onto the virtual model. The system already allows the transfer of <span class="hlt">burned</span> regions by using standard input devices. For this purpose different reference models of human bodies have been created in order to receive appropriate results based on measured physical data of different patients. Moreover, an underlying database stores all entered case studies so that it is possible to perform comparisons of <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases and animation sequences of the healing process of single wounds or whole bodies. When used as centralized <span class="hlt">burn</span> accident registration service, a huge knowledge base of <span class="hlt">burn</span> diagnoses and consequent medical treatment will emerge. This knowledge base will allow medical advices and diagnosis support for any kind of <span class="hlt">burn</span> accidents, and it will consequently improve and support the primary diagnosis process of <span class="hlt">burn</span> accidents. Thus, an enormous reduction of time and costs of medical <span class="hlt">burn</span> treatment will be reached. PMID:15455863</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.102..290Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.102..290Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics and applications of size-segregated biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> tracers in China's Pearl River Delta region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zhisheng; Gao, Jian; Engling, Guenter; Tao, Jun; Chai, Fahe; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Renjian; Sang, Xuefang; Chan, Chuen-yu; Lin, Zejian; Cao, Junji</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> activities in China are ubiquitous and the resulting smoke emissions may pose considerable threats to human health and the environment. In the present study, size-segregated biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> tracers, including anhydrosugars (levoglucosan (LG) and mannosan (MN)) and non-sea-salt potassium (nss-K+), were determined at an urban and a suburban site in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. The size distributions of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> tracers were generally characterized by a unimodal pattern peaking in the particle size range of 0.44-1.0 ?m, except for MN during the wet season, for which a bimodal pattern (one in fine and one in coarse mode) was observed. These observed biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> tracers in the PRD region shifted towards larger particle sizes compared to the typical size distributions of fresh biomass smoke particles. Elevated biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> tracers were observed during the dry season when biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> activities were intensive and meteorological conditions favored the transport of biomass smoke particles from the rural <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the PRD and neighboring <span class="hlt">areas</span> to the sampling sites. The fine mode biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> tracers significantly correlated with each other, confirming their common sources. Rather high ?LG/?MN ratios were observed at both sites, indicating limited influence from softwood combustion. High ?nss-K+/?LG ratios further suggested that biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols in the PRD were predominately associated with <span class="hlt">burning</span> of crop residues. Using a simplified receptor-oriented approach with an emission factor of 0.075 (LG/TC) obtained from several chamber studies, <span class="hlt">average</span> contributions of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions to total carbon in fine particles were estimated to be 23% and 16% at the urban and suburban site, respectively, during the dry season. In contrast, the relative contributions to total carbon were lower than 8% at both sites during the wet season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/injuries-emergencies/Pages/Treating-and-Preventing-Burns.aspx','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/injuries-emergencies/Pages/Treating-and-Preventing-Burns.aspx"><span id="translatedtitle">Treating and Preventing <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Text Size Email Print Share Treating and Preventing <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Page Content Article Body <span class="hlt">Burns</span> are divided into three categories , according to their severity. First-degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> are the mildest and cause redness and perhaps ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030011413&hterms=RAMS&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DRAMS','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030011413&hterms=RAMS&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DRAMS"><span id="translatedtitle">Ram <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Observations (RAMBO)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Ram <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Observations (RAMBO) is a Department of Defense experiment that observes shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System engine <span class="hlt">burns</span> for the purpose of improving plume models. On STS-107 the appropriate sensors will observe selected rendezvous and orbit adjust <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/focus/feb_2013_burns.pdf','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/focus/feb_2013_burns.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> and Scald Prevention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Burn</span> and Scald Prevention Approximately 450,000 <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries medical require treatment each year. NAamtieornicaalnBBurunrnRAepsososictioartyion (2011 report) Prevent <span class="hlt">burns</span> and scalds in the kitchen: Place objects so that they cannot be pulled ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3038404','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3038404"><span id="translatedtitle">Rehabilitation of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> patient</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Procter, Fiona</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of <span class="hlt">burn</span> treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Rehabilitation incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these <span class="hlt">areas</span> following a <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of <span class="hlt">burn</span> rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration PMID:21321643</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9677031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9677031"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical experience of postage stamp autograft with porcine skin onlay dressing in extensive <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chang, L Y; Yang, J Y</p> <p>1998-05-01</p> <p>Fifteen patients with extensive <span class="hlt">burns</span> (deep second-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> > 50%, or third-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> > 30% of total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>) were treated with postage stamp autograft and meshed porcine skin onlay dressing from 1992 to 1996. All patients received the procedure within 10 days of sustaining the <span class="hlt">burn</span>, with an <span class="hlt">average</span> of 6.3 days. The <span class="hlt">areas</span> chosen for postage stamp autograft were the anterior chest, abdomen, back, buttocks and the proximal part of the extremities. The scalp was the donor site of choice when available. The harvested skin was cut into 0.5-1.0 cm postage-stamp-like squares and applied to the recipient sites separated by a distance of 0.5-2.0 cm. The expansion ratio was from 1:4 to 1:9. Meshed porcine skin was then used for onlay dressing. The <span class="hlt">average</span> graft <span class="hlt">area</span> was 26% of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. The success rate of the skin grafts was nearly 100% in 14 patients. One patient had a 40% loss due to contamination from adjacent wounds. In conclusion, the postage stamp autograft with porcine skin overlay is an effective way to treat extensive <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds in the early stages. PMID:9677031</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16382924','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16382924"><span id="translatedtitle">Gaseous and particulate emissions from prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Georgia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Sangil; Baumann, Karsten; Schauer, James J; Sheesley, Rebecca J; Naeher, Luke P; Meinardi, Simone; Blake, Donald R; Edgerton, Eric S; Russell, Armistead G; Clements, Mark</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span> is a significant source of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the southeastern United States. However, limited data exist on the emission characteristics from this source. Various organic and inorganic compounds both in the gas and particle phase were measured in the emissions of prescribed <span class="hlt">burnings</span> conducted at two pine-dominated forest <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Georgia. The measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PM2.5 allowed the determination of emission factors for the flaming and smoldering stages of prescribed <span class="hlt">burnings</span>. The VOC emission factors from smoldering were distinctly higher than those from flaming except for ethene, ethyne, and organic nitrate compounds. VOC emission factors show that emissions of certain aromatic compounds and terpenes such as alpha and beta-pinenes, which are important precursors for secondary organic aerosol (SOA), are much higher from active prescribed <span class="hlt">burnings</span> than from fireplace wood and laboratory open <span class="hlt">burning</span> studies. Levoglucosan is the major particulate organic compound (POC) emitted for all these studies, though its emission relative to total organic carbon (mg/g OC) differs significantly. Furthermore, cholesterol, an important fingerprint for meat cooking, was observed only in our in situ study indicating a significant release from the soil and soil organisms during open <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Source apportionment of ambient primary fine particulate OC measured at two urban receptor locations 20-25 km downwind yields 74 +/- 11% during and immediately after the <span class="hlt">burns</span> using our new in situ profile. In comparison with the previous source profile from laboratory simulations, however, this OC contribution is on <span class="hlt">average</span> 27 +/- 5% lower. PMID:16382924</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24577227','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24577227"><span id="translatedtitle">Vacuum-assisted closure device as a split-thickness skin graft bolster in the <span class="hlt">burn</span> population.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Waltzman, Joshua T; Bell, Derek E</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The vacuum-assisted closure device (VAC) is associated with improved wound healing outcomes. Its use as a bolster device to secure a split-thickness skin graft has been previously demonstrated; however, there is little published evidence demonstrating its benefits specifically in the <span class="hlt">burn</span> population. With use of the VAC becoming more commonplace, its effect on skin graft take and overall time to healing in <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients deserves further investigation. Retrospective review of <span class="hlt">burn</span> registry database at a high-volume level I trauma center and regional <span class="hlt">burn</span> center during a 16-month period was performed. Patients who had a third-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury requiring a split-thickness skin graft and who received a VAC bolster were included. Data points included age, sex, <span class="hlt">burn</span> mechanism, <span class="hlt">burn</span> location, grafted <span class="hlt">area</span> in square centimeters, need for repeat grafting, percent graft take, and time to complete reepithelialization. Sixty-seven patients were included in the study with a total of 88 skin graft sites secured with a VAC. Age ranged from <1 year to 84 years (<span class="hlt">average</span> 41 years). The <span class="hlt">average</span> grafted <span class="hlt">area</span> was 367 545 cm. The three most common were the leg, thigh, and arm (28, 15, and 12%, respectively). <span class="hlt">Average</span> percent graft take was 99.5 1.5%. Notably, no patients returned to the operating room for repeat grafting. The <span class="hlt">average</span> time to complete reepithelialization was 16 7 days. The VAC is a highly reliable and reproducible method to bolster a split-thickness skin graft in the <span class="hlt">burn</span> population. The observed rate of zero returns to the operating room for repeat grafting was especially encouraging. Its ability to conform to contours of the body and cover large surface <span class="hlt">areas</span> makes it especially useful in securing a graft. This method of bolstering results in decreased repeat grafting and minimal graft loss, thus decreasing morbidity compared with conventional bolster dressings. PMID:24577227</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11020046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11020046"><span id="translatedtitle">Lawn mower-related <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Still, J; Orlet, H; Law, E; Gertler, C</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Lawn mower-related injuries are fairly common and are usually caused by the mower blades. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> may also be associated with the use of power lawn mowers. We describe 27 lawn mower-related <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries of 24 male patients and 3 female patients. Three of the patients with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries were children. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> sizes ranged from 1% to 99% of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (mean, 18.1%). Two of the patients died. The hospital stay ranged from 1 day to 45 days. Twenty-six injuries involved gasoline, which is frequently associated with refueling accidents. Safety measures should involve keeping children away from lawn mowers that are being used. The proper use and storage of gasoline is stressed. PMID:11020046</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20843540','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20843540"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of anthropogenic and biogenic compounds on atmospheric aerosol collected in urban, biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> and forest <span class="hlt">areas</span> in So Paulo, Brazil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vasconcellos, Prola C; Souza, Davi Z; Sanchez-Ccoyllo, Odon; Bustillos, Jos Oscar V; Lee, Helena; Santos, Fernando C; Nascimento, Katia H; Arajo, Maria P; Saarnio, Karri; Teinil, Kimmo; Hillamo, Risto</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>This study was conducted at three sites of different characteristics in So Paulo State: So Paulo (SPA), Piracicaba (PRB) and Mata Atlntica Forest (MAT). PM(10), n-alkanes, pristane and phytane, PAHs, water-soluble ions and biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> tracers like levoglucosan and retene, were determined in quartz fiber filters. Samplings occurred on May 8th to August 8th, 2007 at the MAT site; on August 15th to 29th in 2007 and November 10th to 29th in 2008 at the PRB site and, March 13th to April 4th in 2007 and August 7th to 29th in 2008 at the SPA site. Aliphatic compounds emitted biogenically were less abundant at the urban sites than at the forest site, and its distribution showed the influence of tropical vascular plants. Air mass transport from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> regions is likely to impact the sites with specific molecular markers. The concentrations of all species were variable and dependent of seasonal changes. In the most dry and polluted seasons, n-alkane and cation total concentrations were similar between the megacity and the biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> site. PAHs and inorganic ion abundances were higher at So Paulo than Piracicaba, yet, the site influenced by biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> seems to be the most impacted by the organic anion abundance in the atmosphere. Pristane and phytane confirm the contamination by petroleum residues at urban sites; at the MAT site, biological activity and long range transport of pollutants might influence the levels of pristane. PMID:20843540</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013WRR....49.6450F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013WRR....49.6450F"><span id="translatedtitle">An assessment of the effect of horizontal soil moisture heterogeneity on the <span class="hlt">area-average</span> measurement of cosmic-ray neutrons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Franz, Trenton E.; Zreda, M.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Rosolem, R.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The cosmic-ray neutron probe measures soil moisture over tens of hectares, thus <span class="hlt">averaging</span> spatially variable soil moisture fields. A previous paper described how variable soil moisture profiles affect the integrated cosmic-ray neutron signal from which depth-<span class="hlt">average</span> soil moisture is computed. Here, we investigate the effect of horizontal heterogeneity on the relationship between neutron counts and <span class="hlt">average</span> soil moisture. Observations from a distributed sensor network at a site in southern Arizona indicate that the horizontal component of the total variance of the soil moisture field is less variably in time than the vertical component. Using results from neutron particle transport simulations we show that 1-D binary distributions of soil moisture may affect both the mean and variance of neutron counts of a cosmic-ray neutron detector placed arbitrarily in a soil moisture field, potentially giving rise to an underestimate of the footprint <span class="hlt">average</span> soil moisture. Similar simulations that used 1-D and 2-D Gaussian soil moisture fields indicate consistent mean and variances of a randomly placed detector if the correlation length scales are short (less than 30 m) and/or the soil moisture field variance is small (<0.032 m6 m-6). Taken together, these soil moisture observations and neutron transport simulations show that horizontal heterogeneity likely has a small effect on the relationship between mean neutron counts and <span class="hlt">average</span> soil moisture for soils under natural conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25055004','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25055004"><span id="translatedtitle">Outcomes of outpatient management of pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, Matthew; Coffee, Tammy; Adenuga, Paul; Yowler, Charles J</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The literature surrounding pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> has focused on inpatient management. The goal of this study is to characterize the population of <span class="hlt">burned</span> children treated as outpatients and assess outcomes validating this method of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care. A retrospective review of 953 patients treated the <span class="hlt">burn</span> clinic and <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit of a tertiary care center. Patient age, <span class="hlt">burn</span> etiology, <span class="hlt">burn</span> characteristics, <span class="hlt">burn</span> mechanism, and referral pattern were recorded. The type of wound care and incidence of outcomes including subsequent hospital admission, infection, scarring, and surgery served as the primary outcome data. Eight hundred and thirty children were treated as outpatients with a mean time of 1.8 days for the evaluation of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury in our clinic. Scalds accounted for 53% of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> mechanism, with <span class="hlt">burns</span> to the hand/wrist being the most frequent <span class="hlt">area</span> involved. The mean percentage of TBSA was 1.4% for the outpatient cohort and 8% for the inpatient cohort. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> in the outpatient cohort healed with a mean time of 13.4 days. In the outpatient cohort, nine (1%) patients had subsequent admissions and three (0.4%) patients had concern for infection. Eight patients from the outpatient cohort were treated with excision and grafting. The vast majority of pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> are small, although they may often involve more critical <span class="hlt">areas</span> such as the face and hand. Outpatient wound care is an effective treatment strategy which results in low rates of complications and should become the standard of care for children with appropriate <span class="hlt">burn</span> size and home support. PMID:25055004</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000436','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000436"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking runoff response to <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity after a wildfire</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Moody, J.A.; Martin, D.A.; Haire, S.L.; Kinner, D.A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Extreme floods often follow wildfire in mountainous watersheds. However, a quantitative relation between the runoff response and <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity at the watershed scale has not been established. Runoff response was measured as the runoff coefficient C, which is equal to the peak discharge per unit drainage <span class="hlt">area</span> divided by the <span class="hlt">average</span> maximum 30 min rainfall intensity during each rain storm. The magnitude of the bum severity was expressed as the change in the normalized <span class="hlt">burn</span> ratio. A new <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity variable, hydraulic functional connectivity ?? was developed and incorporates both the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity and the spatial sequence of the bum severity along hillslope flow paths. The runoff response and the <span class="hlt">burn</span> severity were measured in seven subwatersheds (0.24 to 0.85 km2) in the upper part of Rendija Canyon <span class="hlt">burned</span> by the 2000 Cerro Grande Fire Dear Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA. A rainfall-discharge relation was determined for four of the subwatersheds with nearly the same bum severity. The peak discharge per unit drainage <span class="hlt">area</span> Qupeak was a linear function of the maximum 30 min rainfall intensity I30. This function predicted a rainfall intensity threshold of 8.5 mm h-1 below which no runoff was generated. The runoff coefficient C = Qupeak/I30 was a linear function of the mean hydraulic functional connectivity of the subwatersheds. Moreover, the variability of the mean hydraulic functional connectivity was related to the variability of the mean runoff coefficient, and this relation provides physical insight into why the runoff response from the same subwatershed can vary for different rainstorms with the same rainfall intensity. Published in 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PEPI..253....1R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PEPI..253....1R"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Berdichevsky <span class="hlt">average</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rung-Arunwan, Tawat; Siripunvaraporn, Weerachai; Utada, Hisashi</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Through a large number of magnetotelluric (MT) observations conducted in a study <span class="hlt">area</span>, one can obtain regional one-dimensional (1-D) features of the subsurface electrical conductivity structure simply by taking the geometric <span class="hlt">average</span> of determinant invariants of observed impedances. This method was proposed by Berdichevsky and coworkers, which is based on the expectation that distortion effects due to near-surface electrical heterogeneities will be statistically smoothed out. A good estimation of a regional mean 1-D model is useful, especially in recent years, to be used as a priori (or a starting) model in 3-D inversion. However, the original theory was derived before the establishment of the present knowledge on galvanic distortion. This paper, therefore, reexamines the meaning of the Berdichevsky <span class="hlt">average</span> by using the conventional formulation of galvanic distortion. A simple derivation shows that the determinant invariant of distorted impedance and its Berdichevsky <span class="hlt">average</span> is always downward biased by the distortion parameters of shear and splitting. This means that the regional mean 1-D model obtained from the Berdichevsky <span class="hlt">average</span> tends to be more conductive. As an alternative rotational invariant, the sum of the squared elements (ssq) invariant is found to be less affected by bias from distortion parameters; thus, we conclude that its geometric <span class="hlt">average</span> would be more suitable for estimating the regional structure. We find that the combination of determinant and ssq invariants provides parameters useful in dealing with a set of distorted MT impedances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25085088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25085088"><span id="translatedtitle">Special problems in <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sheridan, Robert L; Greenhalgh, David</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burn</span> units provide a unique set of resources to patients with complex wounds, sepsis, and organ failures. This resource set is useful in a number of traumatic, infectious, and medical conditions as well. Further, many <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients have sustained simultaneous non-<span class="hlt">burn</span> trauma which will be managed in <span class="hlt">burn</span> programs. PMID:25085088</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16566547','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16566547"><span id="translatedtitle">Coin and currency <span class="hlt">burn</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bhatti, Asif Zubair; Chapman, William Thomas; Naveed, Masroor; McDiarmid, James R</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>We describe a case of <span class="hlt">burns</span> purposefully sustained in a patient performing a bizarre pub game while under the influence of alcohol. Full-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> were sustained through contact with a 50-p UK currency coin essentially heated with <span class="hlt">burning</span> paper. We discuss the nature and ease by which such <span class="hlt">burns</span> can be sustained in the community and the increasing awareness of alcohol abuse as a factor in a significant proportion of such self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:16566547</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21350781','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21350781"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of size and mass distribution of particulate matter due to crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> with seasonal variation in rural <span class="hlt">area</span> of Punjab, India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Awasthi, Amit; Agarwal, Ravinder; Mittal, Susheel K; Singh, Nirankar; Singh, Khem; Gupta, Prabhat K</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Emission from field <span class="hlt">burning</span> of agricultural crop residue is a common environmental hazard observed in northern India. It has a significant potential health risk for the rural population due to respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM). A study on eight stage size segregated mass distribution of RSPM was done for 2 wheat and 3 rice crop seasons. The study was undertaken at rural and agricultural sites of Patiala (India) where the RSPM levels remained close to the National Ambient Air quality standards (NAAQS). Fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) contributed almost 55% to 64% of the RSPM, showing that, in general, the smaller particles dominated during the whole study period with more contribution during the rice crop as compared to that of wheat crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Fine particulate matter content in the total RSPM increased with decrease in temperature. Concentration levels of PM(10) and PM(2.5) were higher during the winter months as compared to that in the summer months. Background concentration levels of PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(10-2.5) were found to be around 97 21, 57 15 and 40 6 ?g m(-3), respectively. The levels increased up to 66, 78 and 71% during rice season and 51, 43 and 61% during wheat crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>, respectively. Extensive statistical analysis of the data was done by using pair t-test. Overall results show that the concentration levels of different size particulate matter are greatly affected by agricultural crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> but the total distribution of the particulate matter remains almost constant. PMID:21350781</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3733043','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3733043"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiologic Characteristics of Occupational <span class="hlt">Burns</span> in Yazd, Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Kazemeini, Kazem; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objective: Occupational <span class="hlt">burns</span> are among the important causes of work-related fatalities and absenteeism. Epidemiologic assessment of these injuries is important to define high-risk jobs. We designed this study to evaluate the epidemiology of occupational <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Yazd, an industrial province in Iran. Methods: This is a prospective study on work-related <span class="hlt">burns</span> in a 1-year period (2008-2009). A questionnaire was completed for them about the characteristics of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Results: Three Hundred and Thirty Eight patients with occupational <span class="hlt">burns</span> were identified. Their mean age was 29.64 years. Most <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims were male workers in the metal industry. The most common job was smelting. Most <span class="hlt">burns</span> were happened in the morning. Thermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> were observed more than chemical and electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Mean total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> was 6.5%. The most common cause of <span class="hlt">burn</span> was hot fluid, followed by hot object and flame. There was no any significant relationship between <span class="hlt">burn</span> type, and <span class="hlt">burn</span> degree or <span class="hlt">burned</span> body surface. Conclusions: The highest incidence of occupational <span class="hlt">burns</span> was in 21-30 year-old workers. There was a male preponderance in work-related <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Metal industry had the most injured workers and among them, smelters were more frequently injured. PMID:23930193</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23466950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23466950"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Iran.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karimi, H; Montevalian, A; Motabar, A R; Safari, R; Parvas, M S; Vasigh, M</p> <p>2012-09-30</p> <p>We surveyed the epidemiology of the patients in a tertiary <span class="hlt">burn</span> care centre (the Motahari <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Hospital) in Tehran in the 4-yr period 2005-2009. Scalding was the major cause of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury for patients under the age of 6, while there were many more flame and electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> in late childhood. Males were mainly affected (male to female ratio, 1.7:1). Most <span class="hlt">burns</span> occurred in the summer, probably due to older children's increased outdoor activities during school vacations. Most of the injuries took place in the kitchen. Age was directly related to the higher total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> and mortality rate. Explosion of propane gas at home had a high incidence. Length of hospital stay increased in relation to the <span class="hlt">burn</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. Infants were found to be at greatest risk for <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries, while older children were at higher risk for severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Before arriving at the hospital, 22 patients had received traditional therapy in the home which was not effective and caused some problems. Pre-hospital care by emergency medicine service personnel was complete and effective. 374 patients had positive results for wound culture (42.9%). The most frequent bacteria found in <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound cultures was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (66.8%). Blood culture was positive in 12% of the patients with positive <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound culture and the most frequent bacteria in blood culture was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The overall mortality rate was 10.6%. Treatment and prevention programmes should target high risk groups. Important criteria include older age, flame <span class="hlt">burn</span>, presence of inhalation injury, total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> above 40%, and sepsis. PMID:23466950</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575143','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575143"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Karimi, H.; Montevalian, A.; Motabar, A.R.; Safari, R.; Parvas, M.S.; Vasigh, M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Summary We surveyed the epidemiology of the patients in a tertiary <span class="hlt">burn</span> care centre (the Motahari <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Hospital) in Tehran in the 4-yr period 2005-2009. Scalding was the major cause of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury for patients under the age of 6, while there were many more flame and electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> in late childhood. Males were mainly affected (male to female ratio, 1.7:1). Most <span class="hlt">burns</span> occurred in the summer, probably due to older children’s increased outdoor activities during school vacations. Most of the injuries took place in the kitchen. Age was directly related to the higher total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> and mortality rate. Explosion of propane gas at home had a high incidence. Length of hospital stay increased in relation to the <span class="hlt">burn</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. Infants were found to be at greatest risk for <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries, while older children were at higher risk for severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Before arriving at the hospital, 22 patients had received traditional therapy in the home which was not effective and caused some problems. Pre-hospital care by emergency medicine service personnel was complete and effective. 374 patients had positive results for wound culture (42.9%). The most frequent bacteria found in <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound cultures was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (66.8%). Blood culture was positive in 12% of the patients with positive <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound culture and the most frequent bacteria in blood culture was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The overall mortality rate was 10.6%. Treatment and prevention programmes should target high risk groups. Important criteria include older age, flame <span class="hlt">burn</span>, presence of inhalation injury, total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> above 40%, and sepsis. PMID:23466950</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26154516','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26154516"><span id="translatedtitle">Rural and Metropolitan Pediatric <span class="hlt">Burns</span> in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory: Does Distance Make a Difference?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hyland, Ela J; Zeni, Geoffrey; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>To determine if differences exist between children who sustain <span class="hlt">burns</span> in rural <span class="hlt">areas</span> and in metropolitan <span class="hlt">areas</span>, an analysis of children presenting to the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit at The Children's Hospital at Westmead, from the January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012 was performed. In all, 4326 children met the inclusion criteria, of which 21.2% came from rural regions. Just more than a quarter (26.0%) of rural children and 11.6% from metropolitan <span class="hlt">areas</span> were Indigenous Australian (P < 0.0001). The <span class="hlt">average</span> age of rural child was 4.5 years; metropolitan child was 3.9 years (P = 0.0001). Boys were more likely to sustain <span class="hlt">burns</span> in both populations. Of the rural children, 40.8% sustained contact <span class="hlt">burns</span>, 37.7% scald, and 12.5% flame. In contrast, 58.8% metropolitan children sustained scalds, 27.4% contact, and 4.5% flame. The home was the most common place for all <span class="hlt">burns</span> to occur, but rural injuries commonly occurred outdoors. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> were associated with risk-taking behavior in 15.3% rural and 8.7% metropolitan children (P < 0.0001). Nearly two thirds (65.9%) of children in both groups received adequate first aid (20 minutes of cool running water). Major <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries (?10% Total BSA) occurred in 3.4% of rural and 2.1% metropolitan children (P = 0.02). Skin grafting was required in 28.3% rural and 16.3% metropolitan children (P = 0.0001). Nearly 32% of rural children required admission to the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit for >24 hours (15.9% metropolitan; P = 0.0001). Significant differences exist between <span class="hlt">burns</span> sustained by rural and metropolitan children. This should be accounted for in <span class="hlt">burns</span> prevention campaigns and the education of local health practitioners. PMID:26154516</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17618054','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17618054"><span id="translatedtitle">A survey on 30 months electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Hospital.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Amini, Masoud; Mehrabani, Davood; Kiani, Zohreh; Seddigh, Azam</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Electrical <span class="hlt">burn</span> is less common nowadays but still has complications and requires therapeutic interventions especially in developing countries. It occurs more in males and in industrial sites. The importance of electrical <span class="hlt">burn</span> led us to study a 30 months history of electrical <span class="hlt">burn</span> in Shiraz, Southern Iran. In a cross-sectional retrospective study, 1352 patients were surveyed for 30 months in relation to the cause, time, demographic information, therapeutic measures and prognosis of the electrical <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Among <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients, 4.73% were due to electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> (mean age, 30.5 years) and 95.3% were male. The mean hospitalization period was 11.5 days and the mean <span class="hlt">burn</span> extent was 27.5%. Half of the victims were employees and 59.3% of the electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> occurred at their work site. 67.2% of <span class="hlt">burns</span> were due to high voltage electrical current (more than 1000 V) and 4.6% of the patients died due to the direct cause of electrical <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The high prevalence of electrical <span class="hlt">burn</span> in males and workers emphasizes on the essence of standardization of occupational <span class="hlt">areas</span> and use of trained workers to prevent electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:17618054</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1001500','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1001500"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of <span class="hlt">burn</span> season effects on nesting birds in North Dakota mixed-grass prairie</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Higgins, K.F.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>During 1982-1985, the effects of single spring and fall <span class="hlt">burn</span> treatments on ground nesting birds and residual cover were studied on five paired <span class="hlt">areas</span> of native mixed-grass prairie in northwestern Stutsman County, ND. Annually, visual obstruction readings to index the height-density of residual cover were taken once and nest searches were made four times on each <span class="hlt">area</span>. Residual nesting cover on fall <span class="hlt">burn</span> plots <span class="hlt">averaged</span> taller and denser than on spring <span class="hlt">burn</span> plots during post-fire growing years 2-4. A total of 259 duck nests and 63 nests of non-passerine birds were found during the four years. Duck nesting success was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in fall <span class="hlt">burn</span> plots than in spring <span class="hlt">burn</span> plots for all species and years combined. Too few nests of other bird species were found for valid comparisons. Results suggest that vegetation structure and duck nesting response to spring and fall <span class="hlt">burns</span> became similar again by the third post-fire growing season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120008046','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120008046"><span id="translatedtitle">Marginally Stable Nuclear <span class="hlt">Burning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear <span class="hlt">burning</span> of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory <span class="hlt">burning</span> can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The <span class="hlt">average</span> fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear <span class="hlt">burning</span>. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26808770','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26808770"><span id="translatedtitle">Intracompartmental Sepsis With <span class="hlt">Burn</span>: A Case Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chou, Chieh; Lee, Su-Shin; Wang, Hui-Min; Hsieh, Tung-Ying; Lee, Hsiao-Chen; Chang, Chih-Hau; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Chang, Kao-Ping; Lin, Sin-Daw; Huang, Shu-Hung</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Intracompartmental sepsis (IS) is a rare complication in patients with <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Intracompartmental sepsis presents in patients with inadequate perfusion of intracompartmental tissues and subsequent ischemic necrosis and infection. Contributing factors include high-volume resuscitation, delayed escharotomies, and previous bacteremia. We describe a case of massive <span class="hlt">burns</span> from a gas explosion and the subsequent development of IS in our intensive care <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit. The patient presented with a 75% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span> on admission, with 39% superficial, deep partial-thickness and 26% full-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Intracompartmental sepsis was diagnosed 45 days after admission. Anterior compartment muscles, including the tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, and extensor digitorum longus, were necrotic with relatively fair nerve and vascular structures. Intracompartmental sepsis is an overwhelming, infectious complication that appears late and can occur easily in patients with major <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Early diagnosis and management are a must for improving outcomes. PMID:26808770</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....11.8115V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....11.8115V"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Leeuwen, T. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Hoffmann, A. A.; Detmers, R. G.; Rücker, G.; French, N. H. F.; Archibald, S.; Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Cook, G. D.; de Groot, W. J.; Hély, C.; Kasischke, E. S.; Kloster, S.; McCarty, J. L.; Pettinari, M. L.; Savadogo, P.; Alvarado, E. C.; Boschetti, L.; Manuri, S.; Meyer, C. P.; Siegert, F.; Trollope, L. A.; Trollope, W. S. W.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. These fuel consumption (FC) rates depend on the biomass available to <span class="hlt">burn</span> and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> to assess emissions. While <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> can be detected from space and estimates are becoming more reliable due to improved algorithms and sensors, FC rates are either modeled or taken selectively from the literature. We compiled the peer-reviewed literature on FC rates for various biomes and fuel categories to better understand FC rates and variability, and to provide a~database that can be used to constrain biogeochemical models with fire modules. We compiled in total 76 studies covering 10 biomes including savanna (15 studies, <span class="hlt">average</span> FC of 4.6 t DM (dry matter) ha-1), tropical forest (n = 19, FC = 126), temperate forest (n = 11, FC = 93), boreal forest (n = 16, FC = 39), pasture (n = 6, FC = 28), crop residue (n = 4, FC = 6.5), chaparral (n = 2, FC = 32), tropical peatland (n = 4, FC = 314), boreal peatland (n = 2, FC = 42), and tundra (n = 1, FC = 40). Within biomes the regional variability in the number of measurements was sometimes large, with e.g. only 3 measurement locations in boreal Russia and 35 sites in North America. Substantial regional differences were found within the defined biomes: for example FC rates of temperate pine forests in the USA were 38% higher than Australian forests dominated by eucalypt trees. Besides showing the differences between biomes, FC estimates were also grouped into different fuel classes. Our results highlight the large variability in FC rates, not only between biomes but also within biomes and fuel classes. This implies that care should be taken with using <span class="hlt">averaged</span> values, and our comparison with FC rates from GFED3 indicates that also modeling studies have difficulty in representing the dynamics governing FC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17197946','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17197946"><span id="translatedtitle">Sprayed cultured epithelial autografts for deep dermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> of the face and neck.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hartmann, Bernd; Ekkernkamp, Aline; Johnen, Christa; Gerlach, Jrg C; Belfekroun, Claudia; Kntscher, Markus V</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was the assessment of clinical results after sprayed application of cultured epithelial autograft (CEA) suspensions onto deep dermal <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds of the face and neck. Nineteen patients with deep dermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> of the face and neck were included into a prospective study. The <span class="hlt">average</span> total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span> was 15.1% (7%-46%; median: 13%). The <span class="hlt">average</span> Abbreviated <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Severity Index (ABSI) was 6.7 points (4-12 points; median: 7 points). The application of sprayed CEA suspension was performed onto an <span class="hlt">average</span> body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of 2% (0.5-5%; median: 2%). Thirteen patients were recruited for clinical follow-up after an <span class="hlt">average</span> of 10 months (3-18 months). The <span class="hlt">average</span> Vancouver Scar Scale score at follow-up was 2.4 +/- 2.2 points (range, 0-8 points), and the <span class="hlt">average</span> Donnersmarck and Hrbrand score was 9.3 +/- 6.8 points (range, 0-22). Four patients had less than 9 months' follow-up. Excluding these patients from the analysis resulted in an <span class="hlt">average</span> Vancouver Scar Scale score of 1.3 +/- 0.9 points (range, 0-3 points) and an <span class="hlt">average</span> Donnersmarck and Hrbrand score of 8.0 +/- 7.4 points (range 0-22) for the remaining 9 patients.Our data show that enzymatic and careful surgical debridement and consecutive application of CEA suspensions using a spray technique results in excellent cosmetic outcomes compared with any other method. PMID:17197946</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC23A0981K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC23A0981K"><span id="translatedtitle">Coupling Satellite and Ground-Based Snow Data With Snow Cover Model for Estimating the <span class="hlt">Area-Averaged</span> Snow Water Equivalent Over Large River Basins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuchment, L.; Romanov, P.; Gelfan, A.; Demidov, V.; Tarpley, D.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Improvement of long-range forecasts of snowmelt flood volume is one of key hydrological problems in Northern Russia. Accurate quantitative characterization of snow cover properties required in snowmelt runoff models is challenging in this region since the existing network of hydrometeorological stations is sparse. Application of satellite data for snow monitoring is hampered by large <span class="hlt">areas</span> of coniferous forests masking the snow pack and by persistent cloudiness in the fall and winter season. In order to enhance quantitative characterization of snowpack properties we have developed a new technique where satellite data are coupled with a snow cover model. The physically-based snowpack model uses interpolated data from ground-based meteorological stations and incorporates a number of products derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Terra and Aqua satellites. The input satellite data include albedo, land surface temperature, leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> index and the canopy coverage. The outputs of the model are the snow depth, snow density, ice and liquid water content of snow and the snow grain size. The model was tested over a region with a size of ~240 000 km2 (56°N to 60°N, and 48°E to 54°E) located within the NEESPI <span class="hlt">area</span>. This region includes the Vyatka River basin with the catchment <span class="hlt">area</span> of about 120 000 km2. Snow pack simulations were conducted for 1 x 1 km grid cells for the spring season of 2002 and 2003. Spatial correlation between the modeled snow extent and the MODIS-derived snow cover distribution over the study <span class="hlt">area</span> ranged from 0.9-1.0 in the beginning and in the end of the melt season to 0.5-0.6 during the period of intensive snow melt. The analysis of MODIS snow retrievals over the study <span class="hlt">area</span> demonstrated their good agreement with surface observations. Satellite information on snow cover was not used in the current version of the model, however high accuracy of satellite snow retrievals makes their incorporation in the next version of the model very attractive. In the presentation we will discuss ways to incorporate satellite snow retrievals in the snowpack model and advantages of the use of improved estimates of SWE in runoff hydrograph calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JHyd..382...88C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JHyd..382...88C"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental validation of two-dimensional depth-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> models for forecasting rainfall-runoff from precipitation data in urban <span class="hlt">areas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cea, L.; Garrido, M.; Puertas, J.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>SummaryThis paper presents an experimental validation of two widely used numerical models in urban flood inundation studies, the two-dimensional dynamic and diffusive wave models. Instead of using the common approach in flood inundation modelling, which consists of computing the water depth and velocity fields for a given water discharge, in this study the rainfall intensity is imposed directly in the model, the surface runoff being generated automatically. Both the dynamic and diffusive wave models are implemented in the same unstructured finite volume code, removing in such a way any differences in the numerical discretisation other than the wave approximation used to compute the water velocity. Two different methods for representing buildings are used and compared, the so-called building-block and building-hole approaches. Experimental validation of the models is presented in several simplified laboratory configurations of urban catchments, in which the surface runoff has been measured for different hyetographs. For this purpose, 72 experiments were undertaken in a rainfall simulator, including eight catchment configurations and nine hyetographs. Numerical results show that the dynamic wave model is able to predict the peak discharge and its arrival time, as well as the shape of the outlet hydrograph, while the diffusive wave model gives less accurate results. The experimental validation confirms that, when the geometry of the problem is well defined, depth-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> dynamic wave models may be used to predict rainfall-runoff from direct precipitation data in urban environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ameriburn.org/','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.ameriburn.org/"><span id="translatedtitle">American <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Association</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... and Activities Educational Resources Prevention Posters Awards FAQs <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Awareness Week About IAC Accomplishments IAC Members Membership ... About Verification Verification Step by Step ACS Resources <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Chapter Verification Criteria - Effective 1/1/2015 New! ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6472E..0ND','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6472E..0ND"><span id="translatedtitle">Terahertz imaging of <span class="hlt">burned</span> tissue</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dougherty, Joseph P.; Jubic, Gregory D.; Kiser, William L., Jr.</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>There are over 2 million reported <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries each year in the United States with 75,000 of these incidents resulting in hospitalization. Current medical imaging modalities have limited capabilities to assess initial <span class="hlt">burn</span> damage and monitor healing progress. Some of these limitations can be attributed to modality occlusion from bandages, dried tissue and/or blood and inflammation. Since terahertz radiation can see through textiles and bandages1, previous studies 2,3 suggested that terahertz radiation, in a reflectance configuration, could be used for non-invasive analysis of tissue thermal damage and healing status. In this study, we perform an analysis of the terahertz absorption and reflection properties of the tissue constituents comprising a wound <span class="hlt">area</span>, and provide a feasibility assessment of the capabilities of terahertz imaging to provide a clinical tool for initial <span class="hlt">burn</span> analysis and healing progress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1548928','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1548928"><span id="translatedtitle">Cardowan coal mine explosion: experience of a mass <span class="hlt">burns</span> incident.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Allister, C; Hamilton, G M</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A coal mine explosion 1700 feet (516 m) underground and two miles (3.2 km) from the pit head resulted in 40 casualties. Two hours elapsed between the explosion and the arrival of patients at hospital. Six patients suffered mechanical injuries, only one of which was life threatening. Thirty six suffered <span class="hlt">burns</span>; in 18 over 15% of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> was affected. Nineteen patients had a mild respiratory upset requiring oxygen treatment. The <span class="hlt">average</span> length of inpatient stay in those admitted was 24 days. Early assessment and treatment in the accident and emergency department was relatively simple because of the large proportion of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Lack of communication between site and hospital made administration of the disaster difficult. PMID:6409324</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3270007','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3270007"><span id="translatedtitle">Pattern of childhood <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries and their management outcome at Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries constitute a major public health problem and are the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is paucity of published data on childhood <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in Tanzania, particularly the study <span class="hlt">area</span>. This study was conducted to describe the pattern of childhood <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in our local setting and to evaluate their management outcome. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre (in Northwestern Tanzania) over a 3-year period from January 2008 to December 2010. Data was collected using a pre-tested coded questionnaire and statistical analyses performed using SPSS software version 15.0. Results A total of 342 <span class="hlt">burned</span> children were studied. Males were mainly affected. Children aged = 2 were the majority accounting for 45.9% of cases. Intentional <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries due to child abuse were reported in 2.9% of cases. Scald was the most common type of <span class="hlt">burns</span> (56.1%). The trunk was the most commonly involved body region (57.3%). Majority of patients (48.0%) sustained superficial <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Eight (2.3%) patients were HIV positive. Most patients (89.8%) presented to the hospital later than 24 h. The rate of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound infection on admission and on 10th day were 32.4% and 39.8% respectively.Staphylococcus aureus were more common on admission wound swabs, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa becoming more evident after 10th day. MRSA was detected in 19.2% of Staphylococcus aureus. Conservative treatment was performed in 87.1% of cases. Surgical treatment mainly skin grafting (65.9%) was performed in 44 (12.9%) of patients. The overall <span class="hlt">average</span> of the length of hospital stay (LOS) was 22.12 ± 16.62 days. Mortality rate was 11.7%. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis; age of the patient, type of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, delayed presentation, clothing ignition, %TBSA and severity of <span class="hlt">burn</span> were found to be significantly associated with LOS (P < 0.001), whereas mortality rate was found to be independently and significantly related to the age of the patient, type of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, HIV positive with stigmata of AIDS, CD4 count, inhalation injury, %TBSA and severity of <span class="hlt">burn</span> (P < 0.001). Conclusion Childhood <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries still remain a menace in our environment with virtually unacceptable high morbidity and mortality. There is need for critical appraisal of the preventive measures and management principles currently being practiced. PMID:22070934</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715290F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715290F"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends of some high quantiles of <span class="hlt">average</span> and extremes inter-arrival times and rainfall depths at daily scale for an Italian Sub-Alpine <span class="hlt">area</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ferraris, Stefano; Agnese, Carmelo; Baiamonte, Giorgio; Canone, Davide; Previati, Maurizio; Cat Berro, Daniele; Mercalli, Luca</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Modeling of rainfall statistical structure represents an important research <span class="hlt">area</span> in hydrology, meteorology, atmospheric physics and climatology, because of the several theoretical and practical implications. The statistical inference of the alternation of wet periods (WP) and dry periods (DP) in daily rainfall records can be achieved through the modelling of inter-arrival time-series (IT), defined as the succession of times elapsed from a rainy day and the one immediately preceding it. It has been shown previously that the statistical structure of IT can be well described by the 3-parameter Lerch distribution (Lch). In this work, Lch was successfully applied to IT data belonging to a sub-alpine <span class="hlt">area</span> (Piemonte and Valle d'Aosta, NW Italy); furthermore the same statistical procedure was applied to daily rainfall records to ITs associated. The analysis has been carried out for 26 daily rainfall long-series (? 90 yr of observations). The main objective of this work was to detect temporal trends of some features describing the statistical structure of both inter-arrival time-series (IT) and associated rainfall depth (H). Each time-series was divided on subsets of five years long and for each of them the estimation of the Lch parameter was performed, so to extend the trend analysis to some high quantiles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1659790','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1659790"><span id="translatedtitle">The endocrine response after <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matsui, M; Kudo, T; Kudo, M; Ishihara, H; Matsuki, A</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>To identify the dynamic response of hormones after <span class="hlt">burns</span> with special reference to ANP during shock and the subsequent period, plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), aldosterone, cortisol, arginine vasopressin (AVP), corticotropin, (ACTH), plasma renin activities (PRA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) were measured from the day of ICU admission and for 7 days following <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Plasma AVP levels were highest on ICU admission and correlated with size of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury ranged from 20-60 percent of the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. Between the 5th and 6th postburn day plasma ANP levels elevated while plasma AVP levels returned to normal. Urine sodium concentrations decreased from the 3rd day. Plasma aldosterone levels declined after the 2nd day. Mean epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) levels elevated on admission and remained elevated throughout the study. These results suggest that ANP plays important role for restoring fluid homeostasis by improving edema in <span class="hlt">burned</span> tissues during refilling periods in <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:1659790</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2050719','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2050719"><span id="translatedtitle">Preventing postoperative <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound aspergillosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Levenson, C; Wohlford, P; Djou, J; Evans, S; Zawacki, B</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Between January 1, 1984, and December 31, 1988, 35 patients at the Los Angeles County + University of Southern California <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center had postoperative cultures from their <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds that grew Aspergillus species; clinical <span class="hlt">burn</span>-wound aspergillosis occurred in 66% of these cases and death occurred in 53% of these cases. Beginning in November 1984, several modifications in the air-conditioning system and topical antimicrobial wound therapy were undertaken. Cleaning and 8Cu-quinolinolate treatment of air ducts every 2 months did not reliably clear Aspergillus species from the air in patient care <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Several changes in topical therapeutic regimen failed to prevent both <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound culture positivity and clinical aspergillosis. Finally, installation of high-efficiency particulate air filters, installation of new air ducts, and inception of wound irrigation with a solution of mafenide hydrochloride plus nystatin both during and after operation were associated with a reduction in wound culture positivity rate to one occurrence in 1988 (Poisson probability less than 0.01 versus the rate in 1984) and no occurrences during the 18 months after the false ceiling of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> ward was sealed. PMID:2050719</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25412052','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25412052"><span id="translatedtitle">The rapidly increasing trend of cannabis use in <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jehle, Charles Christopher; Nazir, Niaman; Bhavsar, Dhaval</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The use of cannabis is currently increasing according to U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Surprisingly, cannabis use among <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients is poorly reported in literature. In this study, rates of cannabis use in <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients are compared with general population. Data from the National <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Repository (NBR) were used to investigate incidence, demographics, and outcomes in relation to use of cannabis as evidenced by urine drug screen (UDS). Thousands of patients from the NBR from 2002 to 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Inclusion criteria were patients older than 12 years of age who received a drug screen. Data points analyzed were patients' age, sex, UDS status, mechanism of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, length of stay, ICU days, and insurance characteristics. Incidence of cannabis use in <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients from the NBR was compared against national general population rates (gathered by Health and Human Services) using chi-square tests. Additionally, the <span class="hlt">burn</span> patient population was analyzed using bivariate analysis and t-tests to find differences in the characteristics of these patients as well as differences in outcomes. Seventeen thousand eighty out of over 112,000 patients from NBR had information available for UDS. The incidence of cannabis use is increasing among the general population, but the rate is increasing more quickly among patients in the <span class="hlt">burn</span> patient population (P = .0022). In 2002, 6.0% of patients in <span class="hlt">burn</span> units had cannabis+ UDS, which was comparable with national incidence of 6.2%. By 2011, 27.0% of <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients tested cannabis+ while national incidence of cannabis use was 7.0%. Patients who test cannabis+ are generally men (80.1%, P < .0001) and are younger on <span class="hlt">average</span> (35 years old vs 42, P < .0001). The most common mechanisms of injury among patients who test cannabis+ or cannabis- are similar. Flame injury makes up >60% of injuries, followed by scalds that are >15%. In comparing cannabis+/- patients, cannabis+ patients are more likely to be uninsured (25.2% vs 17.26%, P < .0001). Finally, patients who test cannabis+ have larger <span class="hlt">burns</span> (TBSA% of 12.94 vs 10.98, P < .0001), have a longer length of stay (13.31 days vs 12.6, P = .16), spend more days in the ICU (7.84 vs 6.39, P = .0006), and have more operations (2.78 vs 2.05, P < .0001). The rate patients testing positive for cannabis in <span class="hlt">burn</span> units is growing quickly. These patients are younger and are less likely to be insured. These patients also have larger <span class="hlt">burns</span>, spend more time in ICUs, and have a greater number of operations. The increasing use of cannabis, as expected from legalization of cannabis in multiple states, among <span class="hlt">burn</span> patient population may lead to increased burden on already tenuous health care resources. PMID:25412052</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fire+AND+child+AND+education&pg=4&id=EJ556002','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fire+AND+child+AND+education&pg=4&id=EJ556002"><span id="translatedtitle">Learn Not To <span class="hlt">Burn</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>English, Nancy; Hendricks, Charlotte M.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Describes the "Learn Not to <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Preschool Program," a low-cost fire safety awareness and <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention curriculum for young children. The program promotes eight <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention methods--including practicing an escape plan--using developmentally appropriate learning objectives to increase children's fire safety knowledge, skill, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7671090','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7671090"><span id="translatedtitle">[Multiple trauma and <span class="hlt">burns</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carsin, H; Dutertre, G; Le Bever, H; Ainaud, P; Le Rveill, R; Rives, J M</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>In peace time, <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury combined with traumatic, chemical or radioactive casualties is rarely encountered and often unrecognized; during disasters, <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury is unlikely the only trauma. The authors try to bring out the main pathophysiological, diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics of changes induced by combined lesions on <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury and vice-versa. PMID:7671090</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://kidshealth.org/parent/firstaid_safe/sheets/burns_sheet.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://kidshealth.org/parent/firstaid_safe/sheets/burns_sheet.html"><span id="translatedtitle">First Aid: <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... clothing stuck to the skin. Run cool (not cold) water over the <span class="hlt">burn</span> until the pain eases. Lightly apply a gauze bandage. If your child is awake and alert, offer ibuprofen or acetaminophen for pain. Do not put any ointments, butter, or other remedies on the <span class="hlt">burn</span> these can make the <span class="hlt">burn</span> ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3187994','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3187994"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> in Epileptics: Experience from Enugu, Nigeria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jiburum, B.C.; Olaitan, P.B.; Otene, C.I.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Summary We present <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries sustained by epileptics and managed in our <span class="hlt">burns</span> centre over a period of 10 years. There were a total of 18 patients who sustained <span class="hlt">burns</span> as a result of epileptic attacks during the study period. This constituted 3.7% of the 485 <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients seen during the period. There were 10 males and 8 females. Sixteen of them (88.9%) were known epileptics, while two had their first seizures when they sustained the <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Only seven of the patients (38.9%) had attempted any form of treatment for epilepsy prior to the <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries - four of these were on native herbal medications while three had seen orthodox medical practitioners but did not comply with their medications. Sixteen of the patients (88.9%) had flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> and two (11.1%) had scald injuries. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> surface <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged between 5 and 80%, with a mean of 21.0%. Most of the injuries were full thickness, necessitating wound cover. One patient had amputation of the right hand digits, while another had an above-elbow amputation. We submit that sociocultural beliefs about epileptics and epilepsy constitute a significant problem in this group of patients in our environment. Education of the people will reduce <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in such patients. PMID:21990997</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26170779','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26170779"><span id="translatedtitle">Pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Mosul: an epidemiological study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Al-Zacko, S M; Zubeer, H G; Mohammad, A S</p> <p>2014-06-30</p> <p>A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the characteristics and case fatality rate of pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Mosul, Iraq. The study group was <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients aged 14 years and under who were admitted to the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit in Al-Jamhoori Teaching Hospital from the 1(st) of March 2011 to the 1(st) of March 2012. Of the 459 emergency <span class="hlt">burn</span> admissions, 209 (45.53%) were pediatric patients up to 14 years of age, with a mean age of 4.733.61 years. Scald was the most common type of <span class="hlt">burn</span> and occurred mainly in domestic settings. The mean total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) <span class="hlt">burned</span> was 19.7317.15%. Thirty-five patients died during the study period, giving a case fatality rate of 16.75%. The maximum number of deaths occurred in the 2-4 years age group. The case fatality rate was high in patients having more than 40% TBSA involvement. Flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> were significantly more fatal than scalds, with a fatality rate of 35.35% and 12.05% respectively; (p=0.0001). In conclusion, given that most pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> accidents occur at home, <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention should be focused on improving living conditions and on providing an educational program for parents. PMID:26170779</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4396798','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4396798"><span id="translatedtitle">Pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Mosul: an epidemiological study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Al-Zacko, S.M.; Zubeer, H.G.; Mohammad, A.S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Summary A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the characteristics and case fatality rate of pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Mosul, Iraq. The study group was <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients aged 14 years and under who were admitted to the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit in Al-Jamhoori Teaching Hospital from the 1st of March 2011 to the 1st of March 2012. Of the 459 emergency <span class="hlt">burn</span> admissions, 209 (45.53%) were pediatric patients up to 14 years of age, with a mean age of 4.73±3.61 years. Scald was the most common type of <span class="hlt">burn</span> and occurred mainly in domestic settings. The mean total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) <span class="hlt">burned</span> was 19.73±17.15%. Thirty-five patients died during the study period, giving a case fatality rate of 16.75%. The maximum number of deaths occurred in the 2-4 years age group. The case fatality rate was high in patients having more than 40% TBSA involvement. Flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> were significantly more fatal than scalds, with a fatality rate of 35.35% and 12.05% respectively; (p=0.0001). In conclusion, given that most pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> accidents occur at home, <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention should be focused on improving living conditions and on providing an educational program for parents. PMID:26170779</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575146','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575146"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> from assault: a review of seven cases seen in a Nigerian tertiary institution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tahir, C.; Ibrahim, B.M.; Terna-Yawe, E.H.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Summary Chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> represent a major challenge for reconstructive surgeons. They are caused by exposure to acids, alkalis or other corrosive substances which result in various degrees of injury. This report highlights the challenges faced in managing such patients in a Nigerian teaching hospital. The medical records of seven patients (four females and three males) treated for chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> injury from January 2001 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were younger than 30, with a mean age of 23.3. Most of them (85.7%) had sustained full thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> ranging from 8% to 33% of their body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. All cases were result of assaults. The male to female ratio was 1:1.3, and the <span class="hlt">average</span> duration of hospital stay was 7.5 months. The face was affected in all patients. Patients presented with multiple deformities, like ectropion of eyelids, keratopathies, blindness, nasal deformities, microstomia, loss or deformities of the pinna, mentosternal contractures, and severe scarring of the face. Twenty-nine surgical procedures were performed, which included nasal and lip reconstruction, ectropion release, commissuroplasty, contracture release, and wound resurfacing. Management of chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span>, especially in a developing country lacking specialised <span class="hlt">burn</span> centres with appropriate facilities, is challenging. Prevention through public awareness campaigns, legislation for control of corrosive substances, and severe punishment for perpetrators of assaults using these substances will go a long way in reducing the incidence of chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:23467188</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2935806','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2935806"><span id="translatedtitle">Topical Antimicrobials for <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Wound Infections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hashmi, Javad T.; Kurup, Divya B.; Hamblin, Michael R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Throughout most of history, serious <span class="hlt">burns</span> occupying a large percentage of body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the <span class="hlt">burn</span> milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the <span class="hlt">burned</span> skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make <span class="hlt">burns</span> particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active <span class="hlt">area</span> of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for <span class="hlt">burns</span> that will battle against growing multi-drug resistance. PMID:20429870</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4620122','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4620122"><span id="translatedtitle">Shivlilik <span class="hlt">burns</span>: injuries resulting from traditional celebrations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gündüz, Metin; Çiftçi, İlhan; Sekmenli, Tamer</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: In Konya, Turkey, the community celebrates the traditional ceremony of Shivlilik, which occurs on the first day of the seventh month in the lunar-based Hijri calendar. In the evening, people light bonfires of tires in the streets, and children and young people attempt to jump over the flames. Flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> regularly occur due to falling. Attention should be given to preventing injuries such as these that are caused by social and regional customs. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out using data from the Konya Education and Research Hospital <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Unit. Patients admitted to our hospital between June, 2009, and May, 2012, was evaluated. Results: Eleven patients were admitted to hospital with flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> caused by jumping over fires on the days when the traditional Shivlilik ceremony was celebrated. The clinical data evaluated included the patient’s age and sex, the depth of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, the total <span class="hlt">burned</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA), and the distribution of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Conclusions: Serious flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> occur because of the traditional Shivlilik ceremony. We must promote some changes in this ceremony in order to prevent these <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:26550532</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.122..705C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.122..705C"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial estimation of PM2.5 emissions from straw open <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Tianjin from 2001 to 2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Guanyi; Guan, Yanan; Tong, Ling; Yan, Beibei; Hou, Li'an</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Straw open <span class="hlt">burning</span> in suburban <span class="hlt">areas</span> contributes to an important proportion of air pollution threatening air quality of neighbouring highways and airports. This paper presents the characteristics of straw open <span class="hlt">burning</span>-derived air pollution to understand its impact mechanism and take effective control measurements. In this study, PM2.5 emissions inventory from straw open <span class="hlt">burning</span> was established at a high spatial resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° in Tianjin using geographic information systems (GIS) for the period of 2001-2012. PM2.5 emissions increased by 209.15% in the past nine years at an annual <span class="hlt">average</span> rate of 23.24% from 2.95 Gg in 2002 to 6.17 Gg in 2010. WuQing District covering 13.17% of Tianjin land contributed to PM2.5 emission of 28.21% of total PM2.5 emissions from straw open <span class="hlt">burning</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3655731','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3655731"><span id="translatedtitle">Facial <span class="hlt">Burns</span> - Our Experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zatriqi, Violeta; Arifi, Hysni; Zatriqi, Skender; Duci, Shkelzen; Rrecaj, Sh.; Martinaj, M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> are generally considered severe. This is due to the possibility of respiratory complications. First responders check the nostrils for singed hairs. In severe cases there may be soot around the nose and mouth and coughing may produce phlegm that includes ash. Facial and inhalational <span class="hlt">burns</span> compromise airways. They pose difficulties in pre-hospital resuscitation and are challenge to clinicians managing surviving <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims in the intensive care setting. Management problems – resuscitation, airway maintenance and clinical treatment of facial injuries are compounded if the victim is child. Inhalational <span class="hlt">burns</span> reduce survivability, certainly in adult victim. In our retrospective study we found that facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> dominated in male gender, liquids and scalds are the most common causes of facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> in children whereas the flame and electricity were the most common causes of facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> in adults. We came to the conclusion in our study that surgical treatment minimizes complications and duration of recovery. PMID:23687458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......333M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.......333M"><span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate solid composite propellants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manship, Timothy D.</p> <p></p> <p>High <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate propellants help maintain high levels of thrust without requiring complex, high surface <span class="hlt">area</span> grain geometries. Utilizing high <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate propellants allows for simplified grain geometries that not only make production of the grains easier, but the simplified grains tend to have better mechanical strength, which is important in missiles undergoing high-g accelerations. Additionally, high <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate propellants allow for a higher volumetric loading which reduces the overall missile's size and weight. The purpose of this study is to present methods of achieving a high <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate propellant and to develop a composite propellant formulation that <span class="hlt">burns</span> at 1.5 inches per second at 1000 psia. In this study, several means of achieving a high <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate propellant were presented. In addition, several candidate approaches were evaluated using the Kepner-Tregoe method with hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based propellants using <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate modifiers and dicyclopentadiene (DCPD)-based propellants being selected for further evaluation. Propellants with varying levels of nano-aluminum, nano-iron oxide, FeBTA, and overall solids loading were produced using the HTPB binder and evaluated in order to determine the effect the various ingredients have on the <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate and to find a formulation that provides the <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate desired. Experiments were conducted to compare the <span class="hlt">burn</span> rates of propellants using the binders HTPB and DCPD. The DCPD formulation matched that of the baseline HTPB mix. Finally, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstock dogbones were attempted to be made for mechanical evaluation. Results from the study show that nano-additives have a substantial effect on propellant <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate with nano-iron oxide having the largest influence. Of the formulations tested, the highest <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate was a 84% solids loading mix using nano-aluminum nano-iron oxide, and ammonium perchlorate in a 3:1(20 micron: 200 micron) ratio which achieved a <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate of 1.2 inches per second at 1000 psia. In addition, DCPD propellant was shown to <span class="hlt">burn</span> at twice the rate of HTPB propellant, most likely a result of its lower decomposition temperature. A high <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate DCPD propellant was developed, but due to poor wetting, the resulting propellant was brittle and fragmented during strand <span class="hlt">burn</span> testing. Lastly, GAP-plasticized DCPD gumstocks were not able to be produced most likely due to an interaction between GAP and the cure catalyst for DCPD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7775S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7775S"><span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution mapping of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in tropical regions across three continents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shi, Yusheng; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Saito, Makoto</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions from open vegetation fires (forest fires, savanna fires, agricultural waste <span class="hlt">burning</span>), human waste and biofuel combustion contain large amounts of trace gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O) and aerosols (BC and OC), which significantly impact ecosystem productivity, global atmospheric chemistry, and climate . With the help of recently released satellite products, biomass density based on satellite and ground-based observation data, and spatial variable combustion factors, this study developed a new high-resolution emissions inventory for biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in tropical regions across three continents in 2010. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols from open vegetation <span class="hlt">burning</span> are estimated from <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span>, fuel loads, combustion factors, and emission factors. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> were derived from MODIS MCD64A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> product, fuel loads were mapped from biomass density data sets for herbaceous and tree-covered land based on satellite and ground-based observation data. To account for spatial heterogeneity in combustion factors, global fractional tree cover (MOD44B) and vegetation cover maps (MCD12Q1) were introduced to estimate the combustion factors in different regions by using their relationship with tree cover under less than 40%, between 40-60% and above 60% conditions. For emission factors, the <span class="hlt">average</span> values for each fuel type from field measurements are used. In addition to biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> from open vegetation fires, the emissions from human waste (residential and dump) <span class="hlt">burning</span> and biofuel <span class="hlt">burning</span> in 2010 were also estimated for 76 countries in tropical regions across the three continents and then allocated into each pixel with 1 km grid based on the population density (Gridded Population of the World v3). Our total estimates for the tropical regions across the three continents in 2010 were 17744.5 Tg CO2, 730.3 Tg CO, 32.0 Tg CH4, 31.6 Tg NOx, 119.2 Tg NMOC, 6.3 Tg SO2, 9.8 NH3 Tg, 81.8 Tg PM2.5, 48.0 Tg OC, and 5.7 Tg BC, respectively. Open vegetation <span class="hlt">burning</span> is the largest contributor to the total amount of emissions, followed by biofuel and human waste <span class="hlt">burnings</span>. Spatial distribution of open vegetation <span class="hlt">burning</span> showed extensive emissions in Southern and Central Africa, Amazon of South America, and Southeast Asia with high probability of fire occurrences. Human waste <span class="hlt">burning</span> presented high emissions in India, Central Africa, and Mexico. Biofuel <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions also recorded that large amounts were released from India, Central Africa and Mexico. Our estimates for all trace gases and aerosols emissions from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> combined with estimates of those from biofuel <span class="hlt">burning</span> are in the range of the estimates constrained by chemical transport models andand other bottom-up methods. Our high resolution CO2 emission estimates will contribute to regional top-down CO2 flux estimates using data from current satellites such as GOSAT and OCO-2 and future satellites such as TanSat, GOSAT-2, and Carbonsat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25383980','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25383980"><span id="translatedtitle">A noninvasive computational method for fluid resuscitation monitoring in pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span>: a preliminary report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stewart, Camille L; Mulligan, Jane; Grudic, Greg Z; Pyle, Laura; Moulton, Steven L</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The fluid resuscitation needs of children with small <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burns</span> are difficult to predict. The authors hypothesized that a novel computational algorithm called the compensatory reserve index (CRI), calculated from the photoplethysmogram waveform, would correlate with percent total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (%TBSA) and fluid administration in children presenting with ?20% TBSA <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The authors recorded photoplethysmogram waveforms from <span class="hlt">burn</span>-injured children that were later processed by the CRI algorithm. A CRI of 1 represents supine normovolemia; a CRI of 0 represents the point at which a subject is predicted to experience hemodynamic decompensation. CRI values from the first 10 minutes of monitoring were compared to clinical data. Waveform data were available for 27 children with small to moderate sized <span class="hlt">burns</span> (4-20 %TBSA). The <span class="hlt">average</span> age was 6.3 1.1 years, the <span class="hlt">average</span> %TBSA was 10.4 0.8%, and the <span class="hlt">average</span> CRI was 0.36 0.03. CRI inversely correlated with the %TBSA (P < .001). Twenty children were transferred with an <span class="hlt">average</span> reported %TBSA of 16.5 1.4%, which was significantly higher than the actual %TBSA (P < .001). CRI correlated better with actual %TBSA compared to reported %TBSA (P = .02). CRI correlated with the amount of fluid resuscitation given at the time of CRI measurement (P = .02) and was inversely related to total fluids given per 24 hours for children with adequate urine output (>0.5 ml/kg/hr) (P < .001). The CRI is decreased in children with small to moderate size <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and correlates with %TBSA and fluid administration. This suggests that the CRI may be useful for fluid resuscitation guidance, warranting further study. PMID:25383980</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9750581','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9750581"><span id="translatedtitle">[Management of severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> during the 1st 72 hours].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gueugniaud, P Y</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Early and efficient management of severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients facilitates outcome improvement. Pre-hospital care includes fluid loading with 2 mL.kg-1/% <span class="hlt">burn</span> over the first six hours, sedation and analgesia, prevention of hypothermia and ventilatory support for either critically <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients or facial, cervical or pulmonary <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. The transient stay in a general hospital before transfer to a <span class="hlt">burn</span> centre allows extension of initial care, the critical investigation for associated injuries (intoxication, multiple trauma) and to perform initial local treatment with sterile coverage or vaseline gauze after a revised assessment of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> skin <span class="hlt">area</span>, and possibly escharotomies. The main aim of care in the <span class="hlt">burn</span> centre is to control hypovolaemia and to obtain maximal tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery to <span class="hlt">burned</span> tissues, as well as to healthy organs. To manage the <span class="hlt">burn</span> shock (initially hypovolemic and later on hyperdynamic) catecholamines are often indicated when appropriate fluid loading remains insufficient. Mechanical ventilation is indicated in case of either a deep extensive <span class="hlt">burn</span> over 60% of total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, or facial and cervical <span class="hlt">burns</span> or severe pulmonary <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury from smoke inhalation, carbon monoxide intoxication, tracheobronchial thermal injury and blast injury. Because of the severity of <span class="hlt">burn</span>-related pain, and the stimulus linked to intensive care, continuous sedation is usually required. Early surgical treatment such as escharotomies, excision and grafting, which cause significant pain as well as blood loss, and hydrotherapy, often require general anaesthesia. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injury can modify the volume of distribution and the pharmacokinetics of anaesthetic agents. Finally, chemical or electrical <span class="hlt">burn</span>, radiation, associated CO intoxication or multiple trauma, as well as <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury in infants, raise specific problems. With improvement in early intensive care, the survival rate of the most severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients is obviously improving. New techniques in skin substitution will probably further improve the final outcome. PMID:9750581</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1649807','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1649807"><span id="translatedtitle">Project <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Prevention: outcome and implications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McLoughlin, E; Vince, C J; Lee, A M; Crawford, J D</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Project <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Prevention was designed and implemented to determine the ability of a public education program to increase awareness about <span class="hlt">burn</span> hazards and reduce the incidence and severity of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Media messages were transmitted to residents of a large metropolitan <span class="hlt">area</span>; separate school and community interventions were implemented in two demographically similar communities within the Standard Metropolitan Statistical <span class="hlt">Area</span> (SMSA). A second metropolitan <span class="hlt">area</span> and two of its communities served as control sites. Messages for specific, high-risk age groups emphasized flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> because of their severity and scalds because of their frequency. Knowledge gains were demonstrable only as a result of the school program. Neither the school program nor the media campaign reduced <span class="hlt">burn</span> incidence or severity; the community intervention may have brought about a moderate, temporary reduction in injuries. Multiplicity of messages, brevity of the campaign, and separation of the interventions are among possible reasons for the program's failure to significantly reduce <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Education for personal responsibility is not sufficient. Product modification and environmental redesign must be instituted through education and legislation for successful control of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. PMID:7058963</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050179329&hterms=biomass&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dbiomass','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050179329&hterms=biomass&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dbiomass"><span id="translatedtitle">Transport of Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Emissions from Southern Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sinha, Parikhit; Jaegle,Lyatt; Hobbs, Peter V.; Liang, Qing</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The transport of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions from southern Africa to the neighboring Atlantic and Indian Oceans during the dry season (May-October) of 2000 is characterized using ground, ozonesonde, and aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) in and around southern Africa, together with the GEOS-CHEM global model of tropospheric chemistry. The model shows a positive bias of approximately 20% for CO and a negative bias of approximately 10-25% for O3 at oceanic sites downwind of fire emissions. Near <span class="hlt">areas</span> of active fire emissions the model shows a negative bias of approximately 60% and approximately 30% for CO and O3, respectively, likely due to the coarse spatial (2 deg. x 2.5 deg.) and temporal (monthly) resolution of the model compared to that of active fires. On <span class="hlt">average</span>, from 1994 to 2000, approximately 60 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO) from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in southern Africa was transported eastward to the Indian Ocean across the latitude band 0 deg. -60 S during the 6 months of the dry season. Over the same time period, approximately 40 Tg of CO from southern African biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> was transported westward to the Atlantic Ocean over the latitudes 0 deg. -20 S during the 6-month dry season, but most of that amount was transported back eastward over higher latitudes to the south (21 deg. -60 S). Eastward transport of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions from southern Africa enhances CO concentrations by approximately 4- 13 ppbv per month over the southern subtropical Indian Ocean during the dry season, with peak enhancements in September. Carbon monoxide from southern African and South American biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is seen in the model simulations as far away as Australia, contributing approximately 8 ppbv and approximately 12-15 ppbv CO, respectively, and thus explaining the approximately 20- 25 ppbv observed enhancement of CO over Melbourne in mid-September 2000.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10812279','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10812279"><span id="translatedtitle">Bizarre paediatric facial <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ho, W S; Ying, S Y; Wong, T W</p> <p>2000-08-01</p> <p>Child abuse and neglect account for a significant number of paediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. It is of great importance because of the high mortality, high frequency of repeated abuse, as well as the physical, psychological and social sequelae that it causes. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> abuse is often under-recognized and under-reported because it is difficult to define non-accidental injury. On the other hand, false accusation of <span class="hlt">burn</span> abuse is extremely damaging to the family. Bizarre and unusual <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries can be caused by accident and should not automatically be assumed to be deliberate injury. Three boys of age 1-7 years with bizarre facial <span class="hlt">burns</span> were admitted to the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit at the Prince of Wales Hospital between February 1995 and July 1999. One was <span class="hlt">burned</span> by his baby-sitter with hot water steam and the other two were <span class="hlt">burned</span> by their mothers with hot boiled eggs. The unusual causes of their <span class="hlt">burns</span> raised the suspicion of child abuse and formal investigations were carried out by the Social Services Department. Detail assessment including a developmental history of the child and the psychosocial assessment of the family revealed that these three boys were <span class="hlt">burned</span> because of poor medical advice and innocent cultural belief. PMID:10812279</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3387177','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3387177"><span id="translatedtitle">Myocardial Autophagy after Severe <span class="hlt">Burn</span> in Rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Qiong; Shi, Xiao-hua; Huang, Yue-sheng</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Autophagy plays a major role in myocardial ischemia and hypoxia injury. The present study investigated the effects of autophagy on cardiac dysfunction in rats after severe <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Methods Protein expression of the autophagy markers LC3 and Beclin 1 were determined at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> in Sprague Dawley rats subjected to 30% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> 3rd degree <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Autophagic, apoptotic, and oncotic cell death were evaluated in the myocardium at each time point by immunofluorescence. Changes of cardiac function were measured in a Langendorff model of isolated heart at 6 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>, and the autophagic response was measured following activation by Rapamycin and inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA). The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat, the angiotensin receptor I blocker losartan, and the reactive oxygen species inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) were also applied to the ex vivo heart model to examine the roles of these factors in post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> cardiac function. Results Autophagic cell death was first observed in the myocardium at 3 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>, occurring in 0.008 0.001% of total cardiomyocytes, and continued to increase to a level of 0.022 0.005% by 12 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>. No autophagic cell death was observed in control hearts. Compared with apoptosis, autophagic cell death occurred earlier and in larger quantities. Rapamycin enhanced autophagy and decreased cardiac function in isolated hearts 6 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>, while 3-MA exerted the opposite response. Enalaprilat, losartan, and DPI all inhibited autophagy and enhanced heart function. Conclusion Myocardial autophagy is enhanced in severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> and autophagic cell death occurred early at 3 h post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>, which may contribute to post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> cardiac dysfunction. Angiotensin II and reactive oxygen species may play important roles in this process by regulating cell signaling transduction. PMID:22768082</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A13C0329H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A13C0329H"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving the simulation of organic aerosols from anthropogenic and <span class="hlt">burning</span> sources: a simplified SOA formation mechanism and the impact of trash <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hodzic, A.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Jimenez, J. L.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Organic aerosols (OA) are an major component of fine aerosols, but their sources are poorly understood. We present results of two methods to improve OA predictions in anthropogenic pollution and biomass-<span class="hlt">burning</span> impacted regions. (1) An empirical parameterization for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in polluted air and biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> smoke is implemented into community chemistry-transport models (WRF/Chem and CHIMERE) and tested in this work, towards the goal of a computationally inexpensive method to calculate pollution and biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> SOA. This approach is based on the observed proportionality of SOA concentrations to excess CO and photochemical age of the airmass, as described in Hodzic and Jimenez (GMDD, 2011). The oxygen to carbon ratio in organic aerosols is also parameterizated vs. photochemical aged based on the ambient observations, and is used to estimate the aerosol hygroscopicity and CCN activity. The predicted SOA is assessed against observations from the Mexico City metropolitan <span class="hlt">area</span> during the MILAGRO 2006 field experiment, and compared to previous model results using the more complex volatility basis approach (VBS) of Robinson et al.. The results suggest that the simplified approach reproduces the observed <span class="hlt">average</span> SOA mass within 30% in the urban <span class="hlt">area</span> and downwind, and gives better results than the original VBS. In addition to being much less computationally expensive than VBS-type methods, the empirical approach can also be used in regions where the emissions of SOA precursors are not yet available. (2) The contribution of trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions to primary and secondary organic aerosols in Mexico City are estimated, using a recently-developed emission inventory. Submicron antimony (Sb) is used as a garbage-<span class="hlt">burning</span> tracer following the results of Christian et al. (ACP 2010), which allows evaluation of the emissions inventory. Results suggests that trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> may be an appreciable source of organic aerosols in the Mexico City metropolitan <span class="hlt">area</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24823328','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24823328"><span id="translatedtitle">Honey oil <span class="hlt">burns</span>: a growing problem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jensen, Guy; Bertelotti, Robert; Greenhalgh, David; Palmieri, Tina; Maguina, Pirko</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>There is an emerging mechanism of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury as a result of the ignition of butane, during the manufacture of a tetrahydrocannabinol concentrate known as butane honey oil. The authors report of a series of patients who presented with this mechanism of injury and a description of the process that causes these <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Patient data were gathered from the medical records of eight patients treated at the University of California Davis Medical Center and Shriners Hospital of Northern California. Information on the manufacturing process of butane honey oil was gathered from Internet searches and published literature on the topic. The <span class="hlt">burns</span> witnessed at the abovementioned institutions ranged from 16 to 95% TBSA, with an <span class="hlt">average</span> of 49.9%. The <span class="hlt">average</span> length of stay for the patients was 118.3 hospital days and 114.4 intensive care unit days, with an <span class="hlt">average</span> of 43.8 days spent on mechanical ventilation. The <span class="hlt">average</span> age of patients was 22 years, with only one patient above the age of 30 years. Accidents during honey oil production have resulted in a surge of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in our community during the past year. The manufacture of this product, which involves the use of volatile butane gas, is gaining in popularity. Although considered to be safer than previous methods, multiple casualties with extensive <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries have resulted from this process. Associated injuries from blast trauma or chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> are not likely to occur in these types of explosions and have not been observed in the series reported in this article. In light of the increasing popularity of honey oil, it is important for <span class="hlt">burn</span> care providers to gain awareness and understanding of this problem and its growing presence in the community. PMID:24823328</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/JFO/v070n03/p0414-p0424.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/JFO/v070n03/p0414-p0424.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Abundance and reproduction of songbirds in <span class="hlt">burned</span> and unburned pine forests of the Georgia Piedmont</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>White, D.H.; Chapman, B.R.; Brunjes, J.H., IV; Raftovich, R.V., Jr.; Seginak, J.T.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>We studied the abundance and productivity of songbirds in prescribed <span class="hlt">burned</span> and unburned mature (>60 yr) pine forests at Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, Georgia, during 1993-1995. We estimated species abundance, richness, and evenness using data from 312 point counts in 18 <span class="hlt">burned</span> sites and six unburned sites. We measured gross habitat features in 0.04-ha circles centered on each point count station. We calculated productivity estimates at nests of seven of the most common nesting species. Habitat components we measured in 1-, 2-, and 3-yr post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> sites were similar, but most components differed between <span class="hlt">burned</span> and unburned sites. Although 98 species were detected during point counts, we report only on the 46 species that nested in the <span class="hlt">area</span> and were detected >10% of the counts in either habitat class. Twenty-one species preferred <span class="hlt">burned</span> sites and six preferred unburned sites. Avian species richness and evenness were similar for <span class="hlt">burned</span> and unburned sites. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> sites were preferred for nesting over unburned sites. Only nine nests of six species were found in unburned sites. Productivity estimates were low in <span class="hlt">burned</span> sites. One or more eggs hatched in only 59 of 187 nests monitored, and an <span class="hlt">average</span> of only 0.82 chicks per nest were estimated to have fledged. Predation was the most common probable cause for nest failure, ranging from 45% in the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) to 64% in the Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra). Because the sources of predation at the refuge are unknown, future research should address this issue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11827368','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11827368"><span id="translatedtitle">Skin resurfacing for the <span class="hlt">burned</span> patient.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stanton, Ryan A; Billmire, David A</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>It has been estimated that 2 million people per year have <span class="hlt">burns</span> requiring medical attention in the United States. The available and expert clinicians in dedicated <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers around the country have cared successfully for these patients and given them a second chance at a functional life. It still behooves current-day plastic surgeons to be knowledgeable and adept in their care, not only because they may be called upon at times to manage some of the smaller acute <span class="hlt">burns</span>, but also because many of the general principles of <span class="hlt">burn</span> reconstruction and wound management are relevant to other <span class="hlt">areas</span> of general plastic surgery. Acute <span class="hlt">burns</span> should be dealt with like any other major trauma with the ABCs of aggressive resuscitation and airway management. Like any other wound, debridement and nutrition are important (i.e., early escharectomy of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound and enteral nutrition during the hypermetabolic state). Early coverage of the open wound is essential to limit bacterial colonization and prevent infection and to reduce fluid and electrolyte and heat loss. If autografts are not available immediately, temporary coverage with one of the above-mentioned barrier materials should be used. Still, autografts, when available, should be the <span class="hlt">burn</span> surgeon's first choice. Donor sites may be reharvested to provide more autograft than was anticipated with large-percentage TBSA <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Physicians should keep in mind the advantages (and disadvantages) of using the scalp and back. As far as research and technological advances in the <span class="hlt">area</span> of plastic surgery, <span class="hlt">burn</span> surgery may be the most progressive, with the evolution of biologic tissue-engineered skin substitutes and the research of growth factors in healing. Further improvements in tissue engineering and technology should result in even more effective skin substitutes and hence better functional and aesthetic outcomes with economic efficiency in large <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:11827368</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3576016','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3576016"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span>: an update on current pharmacotherapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rojas, Yesinia; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi S.; Herndon, David N.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Introduction The world-wide occurrence of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries remains high despite efforts to reduce injury incidence through public awareness campaigns and improvements in living conditions. In 2004, almost 11 million people experienced <span class="hlt">burns</span> severe enough to warrant medical treatment. Advances over the past several decades in aggressive resuscitation, nutrition, excision, and grafting have reduced morbidity and mortality. Incorporation of pharmacotherapeutics into treatment regimens may further reduce complications of severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. <span class="hlt">Areas</span> covered Severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries, as well as other forms of stress and trauma, trigger a hypermetabolic response that, if left untreated, impedes recovery. In the past two decades, use of anabolic agents, beta adrenergic receptor antagonists, and anti-hyperglycemic agents has successfully counteracted post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> morbidities including catabolism, the catecholamine-mediated response, and insulin resistance. Here we review the most up-to-date information on currently used pharmacotherapies in the treatment of these sequelae of severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> and the insights that have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Expert opinion Existing drugs offer promising advances in the care of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Continued gains in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving the hypermetabolic response will enable the application of additional existing drugs to be broadened to further attenuate the hypermetabolic response. PMID:23121414</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..71..158S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..71..158S"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial variation of chemical constituents from the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of commonly used biomass fuels in rural <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saud, T.; Saxena, M.; Singh, D. P.; Saraswati; Dahiya, Manisha; Sharma, S. K.; Datta, A.; Gadi, Ranu; Mandal, T. K.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>In the present paper, we have determined emission factor of chemical composition of the emission from the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of biomass (e.g. Dung cake, Acacia, Neem, Mulberry, Indian Rosewood, Pigeon pea etc.) commonly used as a residential fuel in the rural sector of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) (Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal), India. For comparison, we have selected only those biomass fuels, which are used in at least three of the above mentioned states. Dung cake from all the states reports highest emission of particulate matter (PM) (15.68 g kg-1), Organic Carbon (OC) (4.32 g kg-1) and Elemental Carbon (EC) (0.51 g kg-1). Among all biomass fuels studied, agricultural residue reports substantial amount of emission of Na+ (104 mg kg-1), K+ (331 mg kg-1) and Cl- (447 mg kg-1) particularly in Pigeon pea and Mustard stem. Eucalyptus (fuel wood) emits large amounts of Ca2+ (21.47 mg kg-1) and NO3- (614 mg kg-1). The emission of PM from dung cake is higher in Delhi (19.31 g kg-1) and followed by Uttar Pradesh (17.58 g kg-1) > Haryana (15.46 g kg-1) > Bihar (14.99 g kg-1) > Punjab (12.06 g kg-1) > West Bengal (5.90 g kg-1). Carbonaceous aerosols (OC and EC) and dominant Ionic species (Cl-, K+, SO42-, NO3- and PO43-) are altogether contributing 40-70% of total emissions. Characteristics and ratios of chemical species of emissions may help to develop a methodology of discriminating the sources of ambient particulate matter. Using a laboratory determined emission factor of chemical species, we have determined the emission budget over IGP, India.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25085094','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25085094"><span id="translatedtitle">Outpatient <span class="hlt">burn</span> management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Warner, Petra M; Coffee, Tammy L; Yowler, Charles J</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Most <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients have injuries that may be treated on an outpatient basis. Newer silver-based dressings and improved medications for the treatment of pain and pruritus have led to further growth of outpatient care. The final barrier of distance from the <span class="hlt">burn</span> center will decrease with the growth of telemedicine. It is incumbent for <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers to develop outpatient guidelines to facilitate this growth of outpatient care. PMID:25085094</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1471990','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1471990"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Wound Infections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Church, Deirdre; Elsayed, Sameer; Reid, Owen; Winston, Brent; Lindsay, Robert</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burns</span> are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients to infectious complications. A current summary of the classifications of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound infections, including their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, is given. Early excision of the eschar has substantially decreased the incidence of invasive <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound infection and secondary sepsis, but most deaths in severely <span class="hlt">burn</span>-injured patients are still due to <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound sepsis or complications due to inhalation injury. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> patients are also at risk for developing sepsis secondary to pneumonia, catheter-related infections, and suppurative thrombophlebitis. The introduction of silver-impregnated devices (e.g., central lines and Foley urinary catheters) may reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections due to prolonged placement of these devices. Improved outcomes for severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients have been attributed to medical advances in fluid resuscitation, nutritional support, pulmonary and <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound care, and infection control practices. PMID:16614255</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21107271','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21107271"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep partial scald <span class="hlt">burn</span> in a neonate: a case report of the first documented domestic neonatal <span class="hlt">burn</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Al-Ahdab, Maher; Al-Omawi, Maimouna</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>No previous publication about domestic neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span> exists in the literature. The authors have treated a 16-day-old baby boy for deep partial-thickness scalds that happened at home. The case report is followed by a literature review and discussion of the data previously published on neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Special considerations to domestic neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span> are highlighted. A 16-day-old baby boy presented to our emergency room secondary to an 18% TBSA scald <span class="hlt">burn</span> by hot tea. The patient was resuscitated and admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Topical wound care, although started with fusidic acid ointment, was changed to Aquacel Ag Hydrofiber dressing once the final depth assessment was performed. The child's wounds, although deep at some <span class="hlt">areas</span>, healed by day 11 without the need for skin grafting. Neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span> have been previously described as iatrogenic injuries caused by various thermal sources. Part of the challenge in managing <span class="hlt">burns</span> is their extremely thin skin. Possibility of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> being inflicted should always be raised for such young victims. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> wounds are tetanus-prone wounds; however, no previous recommendation regarding tetanus immunoglobulin administration exists for neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Aquacel Ag's efficacy in the management of pediatric partial-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> has been documented extensively and from our limited experience, it seems appropriate for managing neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Although neonatal <span class="hlt">burns</span> need some special considerations during treatment, the cornerstones of pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> management still apply. The role of tetanus immunoglobulin still needs to be studied. PMID:21107271</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.2335C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.2335C"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in tropical Asia based on satellite-derived data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, D.; Song, Y.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in tropical Asia emits large amounts of trace gases and particulate matter into the atmosphere, which has significant implications for atmospheric chemistry and climatic change. In this study, emissions from open biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> over tropical Asia were evaluated during seven fire years from 2000 to 2006 (1 March 2000-31 February 2007). The size of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> was estimated from newly published 1-km L3JRC and 500-m MODIS <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products (MCD45A1). Available fuel loads and emission factors were assigned to each vegetation type in a GlobCover characterisation map, and fuel moisture content was taken into account when calculating combustion factors. Over the whole period, both <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> and fire emissions showed clear spatial and seasonal variations. The size of the L3JRC <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 36 031 km2 in fire year 2005 to 52 303 km2 in 2001, and the MCD45A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> ranged from 54 790 km2 in fire year 2001 to 148 967 km2 in 2004. Comparisons of L3JRC and MCD45A1 <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> using ground-based measurements and other satellite data were made in several major <span class="hlt">burning</span> regions, and the results suggest that MCD45A1 generally performed better than L3JRC, although with a certain degree of underestimation in forest <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The <span class="hlt">average</span> annual L3JRC-based emissions were 123 (102-152), 12 (9-15), 1.0 (0.7-1.3), 1.9 (1.4-2.6), 0.11 (0.09-0.12), 0.89 (0.63-1.21), 0.043 (0.036-0.053), 0.021 (0.021-0.023), 0.41 (0.34-0.52), 3.4 (2.6-4.3), and 3.6 (2.8-4.7) Tg yr-1 for CO2, CO, CH4, NMHCs, NOx, NH3, SO2, BC, OC, PM2.5, and PM10, respectively, whereas MCD45A1-based emissions were 122 (108-144), 9.3 (7.7-11.7), 0.63 (0.46-0.86), 1.1 (0.8-1.6), 0.11 (0.10-0.13), 0.54 (0.38-0.76), 0.043 (0.038-0.051), 0.033 (0.032-0.037), 0.39 (0.34-0.47), 3.0 (2.6-3.7), and 3.3 (2.8-4.0) Tg yr-1. Forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> was identified as the major source of the fire emissions due to its high carbon density. Although agricultural <span class="hlt">burning</span> was the second highest contributor, it is possible that some crop residue combustion was missed by satellite observations. This possibility is supported by comparisons with previously published data, and this result may be due to the small size of the field crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Fire emissions were mainly concentrated in Indonesia, India, Myanmar, and Cambodia. Furthermore, the peak in the size of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> was generally found in the early fire season, whereas the maximum fire emissions often occurred in the late fire season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=probability+AND+paradox&pg=2&id=EJ392658','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=probability+AND+paradox&pg=2&id=EJ392658"><span id="translatedtitle">Paradoxes in <span class="hlt">Averages</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mitchem, John</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Examples used to illustrate Simpson's paradox for secondary students include probabilities, university admissions, batting <span class="hlt">averages</span>, student-faculty ratios, and <span class="hlt">average</span> and expected class sizes. Each result is explained. (DC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH23C1543W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH23C1543W"><span id="translatedtitle">RECOVER - An Automated <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">Area</span> Emergency Response Decision Support System for Post-fire Rehabilitation Management of Savanna Ecosystems in the Western US</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weber, K.; Schnase, J. L.; Carroll, M.; Brown, M. E.; Gill, R.; Haskett, G.; Gardner, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In partnership with the Department of Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Idaho Department of Lands (IDL), we are building and evaluating the RECOVER decision support system. RECOVER - which stands for Rehabilitation Capability Convergence for Ecosystem Recovery - is an automatically deployable, context-aware decision support system for savanna wildfires that brings together in a single application the information necessary for post-fire rehabilitation decision-making and long-term ecosystem monitoring. RECOVER uses state-of-the-art cloud-based data management technologies to improve performance, reduce cost, and provide site-specific flexibility for each fire. The RECOVER Server uses Integrated Rule-Oriented Data System (iRODS) data grid technology deployed in the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). The RECOVER Client is an Adobe Flex web map application that is able to provide a suite of convenient GIS analytical capabilities. In a typical use scenario, the RECOVER Server is provided a wildfire name and geospatial extent. The Server then automatically gathers Earth observational data and other relevant products from various geographically distributed data sources. The Server creates a database in the cloud where all relevant information about the wildfire is stored. This information is made available to the RECOVER Client and ultimately to fire managers through their choice of web browser. The Server refreshes the data throughout the <span class="hlt">burn</span> and subsequent recovery period (3-5 years) with each refresh requiring two minutes to complete. Since remediation plans must be completed within 14 days of a fire's containment, RECOVER has the potential to significantly improve the decision-making process. RECOVER adds an important new dimension to post-fire decision-making by focusing on ecosystem rehabilitation in semiarid savannas. A novel aspect of RECOVER's approach involves the use of soil moisture estimates, which are an important but difficult-to-obtain element of post-fire rehabilitation planning. We will use downscaled soil moisture data from three primary observational sources to begin evaluation of soil moisture products and build the technology needed for RECOVER to use future SMAP products. As a result, RECOVER, BLM, and the fire applications community will be ready customers for data flowing out of new NASA missions, such as NPP, LDCM, and SMAP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7034807','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7034807"><span id="translatedtitle">Getting beyond <span class="hlt">burning</span> dirt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mahoney, R.J. )</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>To fix and make the nation's Superfund law work, two related questions must be answered. First, where will the innovative technology come from the clean up Superfund and other waste sites <span class="hlt">Burning</span> dirt--the best technology currently available--is an expensive nonsolution. Second, can man muster the political will to make Superfund a waste cleanup law instead of an expanding welfare program for lawyers Under the sponsorship of EPA, a number of companies and other groups are participating in the Remediation Technology Development Forum, focusing on the <span class="hlt">areas</span> where the real breakthroughs might occur and the most promising collaborations. Currently, this effort is focused on bioremediation, the lasagna process, soil flushing, and characterization. Another <span class="hlt">area</span> of investigation is stabilization technology--stabilizing a site to keep contaminants from flowing away. Some scientists, for example, are looking at vitrification technology, which fuses contaminated soil into a glass-like brick. And still other technology efforts include air flushing of contaminated sites and vapor extraction and heating processes. A number of groups and consortia have been working on waste remediation technologies. For the first time since 1980, when Superfund became law, one can give positive answers to the two critical questions. Groups are finding innovative technologies to clean up Superfund and other waste sites. And, as a nation, Americans are exercising the political will to create a Superfund law that will work effectively and fairly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3793881','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3793881"><span id="translatedtitle">Possible risk factors associated with <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound colonization in <span class="hlt">burn</span> units of Gaza strip hospitals, Palestine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Al Laham, N.A.; Elmanama, A.A.; Tayh, G.A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Summary The epidemiological pattern and risk factors of <span class="hlt">burns</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections varies widely in different parts of the world. This study aims to determine the epidemiologic pattern of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries and possible risk factors associated with <span class="hlt">burn</span> infections in <span class="hlt">burn</span> units of Gaza strip hospitals. A total of 118 patients were included in the study. The data collected included: patient age and gender, the causes, site, degree, and TBSA of the <span class="hlt">burns</span>, as well as surgical operations, length of hospital stay, and microbiological profile of samples collected from patients, the environment, and from health care staff. Pediatric and adult patients accounted for 72% and 28% respectively. 58.5% of all patients were male and 41.5% were female. The most common etiological factors in children were scalding, while in adults these were open fire and flammable liquids. The mean TBSA was 12% with a range from 190%. Second and third degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> accounted for 78% and 22% respectively. The <span class="hlt">area</span> of the body most often affected was the torso (39%), followed by the lower limb (29.7%), and upper limb (17.8%). The predominant microorganisms isolated from <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp. and Staphylococcus spp. The study showed the highest risk groups to be children and males, and enabled us to identify possible risk factors that can help in future efforts toward prevention and minimizing nosocomial infections in <span class="hlt">burn</span> units of Gaza strip hospitals. PMID:24133399</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18036975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18036975"><span id="translatedtitle">The NIDRR <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury rehabilitation model system program: selected findings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patterson, David R</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The NIDRR <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury rehabilitation model system program: selected findings. The quality of <span class="hlt">burn</span> care has improved over the past few decades, and consequently many more survivors with large-<span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries have long-term rehabilitation needs. The National Institute on Disability Rehabilitation Research recognized that the rehabilitation of people with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries has been underaddressed and established model systems of care for this population in 1994. This special supplement to the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation reports on some of the research that has been generated by the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Rehabilitation Model Systems over the past 13 years. PMID:18036975</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://kidshealth.org/parent/firstaid_safe/emergencies/burns.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://kidshealth.org/parent/firstaid_safe/emergencies/burns.html"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> (For Parents)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... fluid can be used) or hold a clean, cold compress on the <span class="hlt">burn</span> for approximately 3-5 minutes ( do not use ice, as it may cause more destruction to the injured skin ). Do not apply butter, grease, powder, or any other remedies to the <span class="hlt">burn</span>, as these can make the ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24360792','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24360792"><span id="translatedtitle">A clinico-epidemiological study of rescuer <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Basra, Baljeet Kumar; Suri, Manav P; Patil, Nilesh; Atha, Ravish; Patel, Natvar; Sachde, Jayesh P; Shaikh, M F</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Rescuer <span class="hlt">burn</span> is a relatively newer terminology introduced to define the <span class="hlt">burns</span> sustained by a person attempting to rescue a primary <span class="hlt">burn</span> victim. Few studies have been published thus far on this peculiar type of <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Due to the general neglect of the rescuer <span class="hlt">burns</span> victim and discontinuation of treatment in most cases, once the primary victim dies, the rescuer often ends up in badly infected wounds and has a delayed return to work. A prospective study was conducted at the B J Medical College and Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad from January 2009 to December 2012 on the rescuer <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients treated in its <span class="hlt">burns</span> and plastic surgery department. 3074 patients of <span class="hlt">burns</span> received treatment during the period of study. Of these, 48 patients gave the history of sustaining <span class="hlt">burns</span> while trying to rescue a <span class="hlt">burns</span> victim. Male to female ratio of rescuers was approximately 7:1. It was significantly higher as compared to the ratio of 1:0.8 of females to male <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims observed at our centre (p?0.01). <span class="hlt">Average</span> age of the rescuers was higher in males as compared to females but the difference was not significant (p?0.05). Of the 45 cases of female primary <span class="hlt">burns</span> victims, male rescuer was husband of the primary victim in 41/45 cases (91.1%), mother was rescuer in three cases (6.6% cases) and sister was rescuer in one case. Though multiple people came to rescue a <span class="hlt">burns</span> victim, in all cases, it was seen that it was the first rescuer who sustained <span class="hlt">burns</span> himself or herself. None of the rescuers had any knowledge of the techniques and precautions to be taken while performing a rescue operation irrespective of their education status, indirectly pointing to the lack of any teaching on <span class="hlt">burns</span> rescue in the school education curriculum. PMID:24360792</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18950947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18950947"><span id="translatedtitle">"Understanding <span class="hlt">burns</span>": research project <span class="hlt">Burn</span>Case 3D--overcome the limits of existing methods in <span class="hlt">burns</span> documentation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haller, H L; Dirnberger, J; Giretzlehner, M; Rodemund, C; Kamolz, L</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Understanding <span class="hlt">burns</span> means knowing what is necessary for the successful treatment of <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Nobody in science, economics, or quality control can comprehend this issue's complexity without thorough documentation of the work involved. <span class="hlt">Burn</span>Case 3D is a non-profit research project whose aim, achieved through software of the same name, is a thorough and accurate <span class="hlt">burn</span>-treatment documentation schema, facilitated by three-dimensional digital models tracked over time. Adapting these models on the basis of gender, height, weight, and body shape avoids systemic errors. Superimposing photos of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> on the model prevents individual error and can be combined with methods of <span class="hlt">burn</span>-depth evaluation. The program includes automatic encoding of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Model resolution is 1cm(2) and finer, so that even small scars' locations and extents can be documented, thus enabling registration of long-term results. The program's status as a multilingual data-collection tool brings together multiple international efforts in data collection, and makes it suitable for e-medicine and disaster relief. In its basic form, it provides essential functions in <span class="hlt">burn</span> documentation, photo documentation, and reporting. The four-dimensional database allows registration of interactions over time and can demonstrate the influence of location, timing, and intervention on outcome. PMID:18950947</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25653184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25653184"><span id="translatedtitle">Hand chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Robinson, Elliot P; Chhabra, A Bobby</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>There is a vast and ever-expanding variety of potentially harmful chemicals in the military, industrial, and domestic landscape. Chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> make up a small proportion of all skin <span class="hlt">burns</span>, yet they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the hand and upper extremity are the most frequently involved parts of the body in chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and therefore these injuries may lead to severe temporary or permanent loss of function. Despite this fact, discussion of the care of these injuries is sparse in the hand surgery literature. Although most chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> require only first response and wound care, some require the attention of a specialist for surgical debridement and, occasionally, skin coverage and reconstruction. Exposure to certain chemicals carries the risk of substantial systemic toxicity and even mortality. Understanding the difference between thermal and chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span>, as well as special considerations for specific compounds, will improve patient treatment outcomes. PMID:25653184</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4768453','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4768453"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Mouth Syndrome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kamala, KA; Sankethguddad, S; Sujith, SG; Tantradi, Praveena</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by <span class="hlt">burning</span> and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral <span class="hlt">burning</span> is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral <span class="hlt">burning</span> and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral <span class="hlt">burning</span> associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS. PMID:26962284</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/359257','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/359257"><span id="translatedtitle">Care of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yarborough, M F</p> <p>1978-10-01</p> <p>The initial therapy of thermal injuries is directed at removal of loose debris and necrotic epidermis, alleviation of pain, and prevention of infection. Following initial wound debridement, bacterial growth in the wound itself is controlled primarily through the use of tropical antibiotic agents and daily hydrotherapy to clean the wounds and remove any loose eschar. Effectiveness of topical therapy is monitored by quantitative <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound biopsy cultures; growth of greater than 10(4) micro-organisms per gram of tissue indicates invasive <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound sepsis. Such bacterial invasion may be further controlled through the adjunctive use of antibiotics administered into the sub-eschar space. Once eschar separation has exposed healthy granulation tissue, the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound must be covered with suitable biologic dressings prior to autografting. All open wounds may then be autografted with sheet grafts to the face, neck, and <span class="hlt">areas</span> exposed to trauma or by expansion mesh grafts to cover large <span class="hlt">areas</span> from limited donor sites. Upon completion of autografting, a vigorous physical therapy program is necessary to rehabilitate victims of massive thermal injury to a functional existence. PMID:359257</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4537605','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4537605"><span id="translatedtitle">The Healing Effect of Arnebia Euchroma Ointment versus Silver Sulfadiazine on <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Wounds in Rat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nasiri, Ebrahim; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Azadbakht, Mohammad; Akbari, Jafar; Enayati-Fard, Reza; Azizi, Sohail; Azadbakht, Masoud</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND <span class="hlt">Burn</span> is still a majordevastating condition in emergency medicine departments among both genders and all age groups in all developed and developing countries, leading to physical, psychological scars and economical burden. The present study aimed to determine the healing effect of topical treatment with Arnebia euchroma on second-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound in rats. METHODS Fifty rats were divided into 4 equal groups receiving the ointment base, normal saline (NS), standard 1% silver sulfadiazine (SSD), and 5% and 10% Arnebia euchroma ointments (AEO). The mean of <span class="hlt">burn</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, percentage of wound contraction, histopathological and bacteriological assessments in the injured <span class="hlt">area</span> were dtermined during the study. RESULTS <span class="hlt">Average</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> of wound on the 10th day was 10.22.3, 8.42.6, 12.42.5, 5.92.2 and 5.72 cm2 for ointment base, NS, 1% SSD, and 5% and 10% AEO, respectively. Wound size was significantly lower in 10% AEO than 1% SSD and control groups on the 10th day post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. On day 11, the percentage of wound contraction in 5% and 10% AEO was 53.9%14.7% and 55.910.5% which was more than 1% SSD (15.310.8%). The collagen fibers were well formed and horizontally-oriented in 5% and 10% AEO groups when compared with other groups. CONCLUSION Arnebia euchroma ointment was an effective treatment for healing of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds in comparison with SSD and can be regarded as an alternative topical treatment for <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds. PMID:26284182</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.phoenix-society.org/','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.phoenix-society.org/"><span id="translatedtitle">Phoenix Society for <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Survivors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Our Programs Phoenix SOAR Phoenix Online Community Phoenix World <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Congress Phoenix Kids & Teens Online Learning Phoenix ... Phoenix Education Grant <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Support Magazine Collaborators Phoenix World <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Congress Location & Registration Attendee Scholarships Youth and ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9568331','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9568331"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> during pregnancy: a gloomy outcome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mabrouk, A R; el-Feky, A E</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">burns</span> on fetal and maternal survival is known to be detrimental. This prospective study describes the performance of pregnant <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients who were managed and followed up for fetal and maternal outcomes at Ain Shams University's <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit and Maternity Hospital during the period from October 1995 to September 1996. During the 12-month period, 27 pregnant <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients were managed. Fetal and maternal mortality correlated with the total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) <span class="hlt">burned</span>, the mortality rate being 63 per cent for both mothers and fetuses in the 25-50 per cent TBSA group. A fetal loss of 56 per cent with no maternal loss were recorded in the 15-25 per cent TBSA group. Experience in dealing with pregnant <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients proves that early surgical excision and skin grafting, with timely termination of pregnancy are the best lines of treatment. Prevention or minimizing the effects of the <span class="hlt">burns</span> may be achieved by proper education and guidance of the pregnant woman. PMID:9568331</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11194805','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11194805"><span id="translatedtitle">The efficacy and safety of fentanyl for the management of severe procedural pain in patients with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Linneman, P K; Terry, B E; Burd, R S</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Fentanyl has been shown to be effective for the management of intense pain of short duration. We have recently used intravenous fentanyl for <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound procedures because of its rapid onset, high potency, and short duration. In this report, we reviewed our experience with fentanyl in a variety of procedural <span class="hlt">burn</span> pain settings to develop specific recommendations about its effectiveness and safety for the treatment of pain in patients with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. The medical records of patients with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries who received fentanyl for wound procedures over a 2-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, the amount of fentanyl administered, the level of analgesia achieved, and the incidence of adverse effects were analyzed. Fifty-five patients who were 9 months to 75 years old with <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds (range, 1%-90% of total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>) received 148 doses of fentanyl for the treatment of procedural pain. An <span class="hlt">average</span> of 8.0 +/- 7.0 microg/kg of fentanyl (range, 0.7 to 38.0 microg/kg) was required for the first wound procedure with fentanyl. No correlation between dosage of fentanyl given and either age or percentage of total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> was observed. Transient respiratory depression was observed in 17 patients (31%). No patient required intubation or additional supplemental oxygen after the conclusion of the procedure. High doses of fentanyl are required to achieve adequate analgesia during some <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound procedures. Respiratory depression associated with fentanyl use is transient but requires adequate preparation and trained personnel. Fentanyl may be effectively integrated into the pain control strategy for patients with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. PMID:11194805</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED400764.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED400764.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">States' <span class="hlt">Average</span> College Tuition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Eglin, Joseph J., Jr.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>This report presents statistical data on trends in tuition costs from 1980-81 through 1995-96. The <span class="hlt">average</span> tuition for in-state undergraduate students of 4-year public colleges and universities for academic year 1995-96 was approximately 8.9 percent of median household income. This figure was obtained by dividing the students' <span class="hlt">average</span> annual…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22867734','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22867734"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology and outcome of <span class="hlt">burns</span>: early experience at the country's first national <span class="hlt">burns</span> centre.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iqbal, Tariq; Saaiq, Muhammad; Ali, Zahid</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>This study aims to document the epidemiologic pattern and outcome of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in the country's first national <span class="hlt">burn</span> centre. This case series study was conducted over a 2-year period at <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Care Centre (BCC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad. The study included all <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury patients who primarily presented to and were managed at the centre. Those patients who presented more than 24 h after injury or those who were initially managed at some other hospital were excluded from the study. Initial assessment and diagnosis was made by thorough history, physical examination and necessary investigations. Patients with major <span class="hlt">burns</span>, high voltage electric <span class="hlt">burns</span> and those needing any surgical interventions were admitted for indoor management. Patients with minor <span class="hlt">burns</span> were discharged home after necessary emergency management, home medication and follow-up advice. The sociodemographic profile of the patients, site of sustaining <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, type and extent (total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA), skin thickness involved and associated inhalational injury) of <span class="hlt">burn</span> and outcome in terms of survival or mortality, etc., were all recorded on a proforma. The data were subjected to statistical analysis. Out of a total of 13,295 patients, there were 7503 (56.43%) males and 5792 (43.56%) females. The mean age for adults was 33.6310.76 years and for children it was 6.713.47 years. The household environment constituted the commonest site of <span class="hlt">burns</span> (68%). Among all age groups and both genders, scalds were the commonest <span class="hlt">burns</span> (42.48%), followed by flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> (39%) and electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> (9.96%). The affected mean TBSA was 10.6411.45% overall, while for the hospitalised subset of patients the mean TBSA was 38.0415.18%. Most of the <span class="hlt">burns</span> were partial thickness (67%). Inhalation injury was found among 149 (1.12%) patients. Most of the <span class="hlt">burns</span> were non-intentional and only 96 (0.72%) were intentional. A total of 1405 patients (10.58%) were admitted while the remainder 11890 patients (89.43%) were managed on an outdoor basis. The mean hospital stay was 12.166.07 days (range 2-73 days). There were 197 deaths among the hospitalised patients constituting a 14% mortality rate for the hospitalised subset of patients, while there was an overall mortality rate of 1.48% for the entire study population. PMID:22867734</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25440847','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25440847"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> in patients over 90: a fifteen-year series from a regional <span class="hlt">burns</span> centre.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shariff, Zakir; Rodrigues, Jeremy N; Anwar, Umair; Austin, Orla; Phipps, Alan</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The elderly constitute an expanding subgroup within society, and may have differences in health needs compared to younger patients. The specific needs and outcomes of elderly patients with <span class="hlt">burns</span> have been widely studied. However, the definition of elderly often used in previous studies is a cut off of 65 years old. Within this broadly defined group, the very elderly may have distinct health care needs and issues. This study investigated aetiology, management and outcome of <span class="hlt">burns</span> in those over 90 years treated at a single UK <span class="hlt">burns</span> service over a period of 15 years between 1998 and 2013, and compares these data to published data describing 'younger' elderly <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients. Twenty two patients were included, with a 2:1 female:male ration, and a mean 9%TBSA <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Six of the 22 died during their admission, and those who survived <span class="hlt">averaged</span> 8 days inpatient stay per %TBSA. The very elderly with <span class="hlt">burns</span> may fare worse than younger elderly patients. Although <span class="hlt">burns</span> in the very elderly are relatively infrequent events, they require significant resource. Further work to optimise their outcome is required. PMID:25440847</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22ray+bradbury%22&id=EJ540630','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22ray+bradbury%22&id=EJ540630"><span id="translatedtitle">New Fashioned Book <span class="hlt">Burning</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gardner, Robert</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book <span class="hlt">burning</span> as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/patientinstructions/000662.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/patientinstructions/000662.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Minor <span class="hlt">burns</span> - aftercare</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... put a thin layer of ointment, such as petroleum jelly or aloe vera, on the <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The ointment ... and pressure with a sterile non-stick gauze (petrolatum or Adaptic-type) lightly taped or wrapped over ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05869&hterms=Burns&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBurns','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05869&hterms=Burns&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBurns"><span id="translatedtitle">'<span class="hlt">Burns</span> Cliff' Beckons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><p/> This approximate true-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity highlights a feature called '<span class="hlt">Burns</span> Cliff' within the impact crater known as 'Endurance.' Scientists are eager to explore this layered ridge for clues to the red planet's past. The only problem is its location: <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Cliff is a vertical drop, which poses an interesting challenge for rover planners. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Cliff was named after the late scientist Roger <span class="hlt">Burns</span>, who was one of the first to correctly propose the importance of sulfate and jarosite to the study of Mars' geologic history. <p/> This image is a portion of a larger mosaic taken with the panoramic camera's 480-, 530- and 750-nanometer filters on sols 97 and 98.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGeo...11.7305V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGeo...11.7305V"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Leeuwen, T. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Hoffmann, A. A.; Detmers, R. G.; Rücker, G.; French, N. H. F.; Archibald, S.; Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Cook, G. D.; de Groot, W. J.; Hély, C.; Kasischke, E. S.; Kloster, S.; McCarty, J. L.; Pettinari, M. L.; Savadogo, P.; Alvarado, E. C.; Boschetti, L.; Manuri, S.; Meyer, C. P.; Siegert, F.; Trollope, L. A.; Trollope, W. S. W.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span>. Fuel consumption (FC) depends on the biomass available to <span class="hlt">burn</span> and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> to assess emissions. While <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> can be detected from space and estimates are becoming more reliable due to improved algorithms and sensors, FC is usually modeled or taken selectively from the literature. We compiled the peer-reviewed literature on FC for various biomes and fuel categories to understand FC and its variability better, and to provide a database that can be used to constrain biogeochemical models with fire modules. We compiled in total 77 studies covering 11 biomes including savanna (15 studies, <span class="hlt">average</span> FC of 4.6 t DM (dry matter) ha-1 with a standard deviation of 2.2), tropical forest (n = 19, FC = 126 ± 77), temperate forest (n = 12, FC = 58 ± 72), boreal forest (n = 16, FC = 35 ± 24), pasture (n = 4, FC = 28 ± 9.3), shifting cultivation (n = 2, FC = 23, with a range of 4.0-43), crop residue (n = 4, FC = 6.5 ± 9.0), chaparral (n = 3, FC = 27 ± 19), tropical peatland (n = 4, FC = 314 ± 196), boreal peatland (n = 2, FC = 42 [42-43]), and tundra (n = 1, FC = 40). Within biomes the regional variability in the number of measurements was sometimes large, with e.g. only three measurement locations in boreal Russia and 35 sites in North America. Substantial regional differences in FC were found within the defined biomes: for example, FC of temperate pine forests in the USA was 37% lower than Australian forests dominated by eucalypt trees. Besides showing the differences between biomes, FC estimates were also grouped into different fuel classes. Our results highlight the large variability in FC, not only between biomes but also within biomes and fuel classes. This implies that substantial uncertainties are associated with using biome-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> values to represent FC for whole biomes. Comparing the compiled FC values with co-located Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) FC indicates that modeling studies that aim to represent variability in FC also within biomes, still require improvements as they have difficulty in representing the dynamics governing FC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4587603','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4587603"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of Malva sylvestris cream on <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury and wounds in rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nasiri, Ebrahim; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Azadbakht, Mohammad; Akbari, Jafar; Enayati-fard, Reza; Azizi, Sohail</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injury is one of the most health-threatening problems in the world. Malva sylvestris (M. sylvestris) flowers have a high mucilage content and are used as a remedy for cut wound and dermal infected wounds in Iranian folklore Medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of M. sylvestris cream on the second degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury in rats. Materials and Methods: Five groups of 10 rats per group were <span class="hlt">burned</span> with hot metal plate. Animals were administrated divided as control, normal saline, standard silver sulfadiazine 1% (SSD), 5% M. sylvestris, and 10% M. sylvestris into separate groups. Wound <span class="hlt">area</span>, percentage of wound contraction, and histological and bacteriological assessments were evaluated. Results: Wound sizes were not significantly different among groups on 1st and 3rd days after <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury, while they were significantly different among groups after 7th day post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. The <span class="hlt">average</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> of wounds on the 15th day were 7.5±2.9, 6.7±2, 10.5±1.6, 4.7±2, and 4.5±2 cm2 for base cream, normal saline, SSD, 5% M. sylvestris, and 10% M. sylvestris, respectively. The results of histology exhibited well-formed horizontally-oriented collagen fibers in MS topical treatment groups. Microorganisms existed in the SSD group were most probably Staphilococcus epidermitis and for NS group were staphylococcus saprophiteccus. Conclusion: M. sylvestris cream improved histological changes of tissue components in the process of healing when compared with SSD cream. Therefore, it can be used as a topical treatment agent for <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound. PMID:26909337</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16053','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16053"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> of the foot.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Achauer, B M; Bartlett, R H; Wilson, L F</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The most severe trauma a patient can sustain is a major <span class="hlt">burn</span>. When a person is seriously <span class="hlt">burned</span>, initial care begins with maintaining an adequate airway and adequate blood volume and urinary output by intravenous fluids. After the patient has been stabilized, the wound is of primary importance, and postage stamp split thickness grafts are used for skin coverage. When these are secure and a maximal range of motion has been obtained, reconstructive procedures should be started. PMID:16053</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-1996-00212&hterms=marketing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmarketing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-1996-00212&hterms=marketing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmarketing"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Depth Monitor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-1996-00210&hterms=marketing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmarketing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-1996-00210&hterms=marketing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmarketing"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Depth Monitor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the companyused technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-1996-00211&hterms=marketing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmarketing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-1996-00211&hterms=marketing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmarketing"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Depth Monitor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1619461','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1619461"><span id="translatedtitle">Preventing tap water <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baptiste, M S; Feck, G</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Based on a 1974-1975 survey of hospital records in upstate New York, we estimate that 347 tap water <span class="hlt">burns</span> will require inpatient treatment annually, with children and the elderly at increased risk. The number and severity of <span class="hlt">burns</span> from tap water makes them an important prevention priority. Reducing the temperature of household hot water supplies could be a practical and effective prevention measure. PMID:7386711</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BGeo....7.3459C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BGeo....7.3459C"><span id="translatedtitle">CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes from soil of a <span class="hlt">burned</span> grassland in Central Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Castaldi, S.; de Grandcourt, A.; Rasile, A.; Skiba, U.; Valentini, R.</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>The impact of fire on soil fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O was investigated in a tropical grassland in Congo Brazzaville during two field campaigns in 2007-2008. The first campaign was conducted in the middle of the dry season and the second at the end of the growing season, respectively one and eight months after <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Gas fluxes and several soil parameters were measured in each campaign from <span class="hlt">burned</span> plots and from a close-by control <span class="hlt">area</span> preserved from fire. Rain events were simulated at each campaign to evaluate the magnitude and duration of the generated gas flux pulses. In laboratory experiments, soil samples from field plots were analysed for microbial biomass, net N mineralization, net nitrification, N2O, NO and CO2 emissions under different water and temperature soil regimes. One month after <span class="hlt">burning</span>, field CO2 emissions were significantly lower in <span class="hlt">burned</span> plots than in the control plots, the <span class="hlt">average</span> daily CH4 flux shifted from net emission in the unburned <span class="hlt">area</span> to net consumption in <span class="hlt">burned</span> plots, no significant effect of fire was observed on soil N2O fluxes. Eight months after <span class="hlt">burning</span>, the <span class="hlt">average</span> daily fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O measured in control and <span class="hlt">burned</span> plots were not significantly different. In laboratory, N2O fluxes from soil of <span class="hlt">burned</span> plots were significantly higher than fluxes from soil of unburned plots only above 70% of maximum soil water holding capacity; this was never attained in the field even after rain simulation. Higher NO emissions were measured in the lab in soil from <span class="hlt">burned</span> plots at both 10% and 50% of maximum soil water holding capacity. Increasing the incubation temperature from 25 C to 37 C negatively affected microbial growth, mineralization and nitrification activities but enhanced N2O and CO2 production. Results indicate that fire did not increase post-<span class="hlt">burning</span> soil GHG emissions in this tropical grasslands characterized by acidic, well drained and nutrient-poor soil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3698..103H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3698..103H"><span id="translatedtitle">Infrared imaging of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds to determine <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hargroder, Andrew G.; Davidson, James E., Sr.; Luther, Donald G.; Head, Jonathan F.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>Determination of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound depth is at present left to the surgeons visual examination. Many <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds are obviously, by visual inspection, superficial 2 degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> or true 3 degree <span class="hlt">burns</span>. However, those <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds that fall between the obvious depth <span class="hlt">burns</span> are difficult to assess visually, and therefore wound depth determination often requires waiting 5 to 7 days postburn. Initially, 10 <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients underwent IR imaging at various times during the evaluation of their <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds. These patients were followed to either healing or skin grafting. The IR images were then reviewed to determine their accuracy in determining the depth of the wound. IR imaging of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds with focal plane staring array midrange IR systems appears promising in determination of <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth one to two days postburn. This will allow clinical decision regarding operative or nonoperative intervention to be made earlier, thus decreasing hospital stays and time to healing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3770758','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3770758"><span id="translatedtitle">Increased expression of atrogenes and TWEAK family members after severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury in non-<span class="hlt">burned</span> human skeletal muscle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Merritt, Edward K.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna; Cross, James M.; Windham, Samuel T.; Thomas, Steven J.; Bamman, Marcas M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> induces rapid skeletal muscle proteolysis after the injury that persists for up to one year and results in skeletal muscle atrophy despite dietary and rehabilitative interventions. The purpose of this research was to determine acute changes in gene expression of skeletal muscle mass regulators post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of a non-<span class="hlt">burned</span> leg of eight <span class="hlt">burned</span> subjects (6M, 2F: 34.8 ± 2.7 years: 29.9 ± 3.1% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span>) at 5.1 ± 1.1 days post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> injury and from matched controls. mRNA expression of cytokines and receptors in the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) families, and the ubiquitin proteasome E3 ligases, atrogin-1 and MuRF1, was determined. TNF receptor 1A was over 3.5 fold higher in <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Expression of TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis and its receptor were over 1.6 and 6.0-fold higher in <span class="hlt">burn</span>. IL-6, IL-6 receptor, and glycoprotein 130, were elevated in <span class="hlt">burned</span> subjects with IL-6 receptor over 13-fold higher. Suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 was also elevated in <span class="hlt">burn</span> nearly 6-fold. Atrogin-1 and MuRF1, were more than 4- and 3-fold higher in <span class="hlt">burn</span>. These results demonstrate for the first time that severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> in humans has a remarkable impact on gene expression in skeletal muscle of a non-<span class="hlt">burned</span> limb of genes that promote inflammation and proteolysis. Because these changes likely contribute to the acute skeletal muscle atrophy in <span class="hlt">areas</span> not directly affected by the <span class="hlt">burn</span>, in the future it will be important to determine the responsible systemic cues. PMID:23816995</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACP....12.8751L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACP....12.8751L"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of garbage <span class="hlt">burning</span> to chloride and PM2.5 in Mexico City</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, G.; Lei, W.; Bei, N.; Molina, L. T.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The contribution of garbage <span class="hlt">burning</span> (GB) emissions to chloride and PM2.5 in the Mexico City Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Area</span> (MCMA) has been investigated for the period of 24 to 29 March during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign using the WRF-CHEM model. When the MCMA 2006 official emission inventory without biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is used in the simulations, the WRF-CHEM model significantly underestimates the observed particulate chloride in the urban and the suburban <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The inclusion of GB emissions substantially improves the simulations of particulate chloride; GB contributes more than 60% of the observation, indicating that it is a major source of particulate chloride in Mexico City. GB yields up to 3 pbb HCl at the ground level in the city, which is mainly caused by the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in the garbage. GB is also an important source of PM2.5, contributing about 3-30% simulated PM2.5 mass on <span class="hlt">average</span>. More modeling work is needed to evaluate the GB contribution to hazardous air toxics, such as dioxin, which is found to be released at high level from PVC <span class="hlt">burning</span> in laboratory experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1213667L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...1213667L"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of garbage <span class="hlt">burning</span> to chloride and PM2.5 in Mexico City</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, G.; Lei, W.; Bei, N.; Molina, L. T.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>The contribution of garbage <span class="hlt">burning</span> (GB) emissions to chloride and PM2.5 in the Mexico City Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Area</span> (MCMA) is investigated for the period of 24 to 29 March during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign using the WRF-CHEM model. When the MCMA-2006 official emission inventory without biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is used in the simulations, the WRF-CHEM model significantly underestimates the observed particulate chloride in the urban and the suburban <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The inclusion of GB emissions substantially improves the simulations of particulate chloride; GB contributes more than 60 % of the observation, indicating it is a major source of particulate chloride in Mexico City. GB yields up to 3 pbb HCl at the ground level in the city, which is mainly caused by the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in the garbage. GB is also an important source of PM2.5, contributing about 3-30 % simulated PM2.5 mass on <span class="hlt">average</span>. More modeling work is needed to evaluate the GB contribution to hazardous air toxics, such as dioxin, which is found to be released at high level from PVC <span class="hlt">burning</span> in laboratory experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/945557','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/945557"><span id="translatedtitle">PBXN-110 <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Rate Estimate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Glascoe, E</p> <p>2008-08-11</p> <p>It is estimated that PBXN-110 will <span class="hlt">burn</span> laminarly with a <span class="hlt">burn</span> function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this <span class="hlt">burn</span> behavior was estimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12792237','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12792237"><span id="translatedtitle">The media glorifying <span class="hlt">burns</span>: a hindrance to <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with <span class="hlt">burns</span> and <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to <span class="hlt">burns</span>, risk of <span class="hlt">burning</span>, or disrespect for the consequences of <span class="hlt">burns</span> were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Most <span class="hlt">burn</span>-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or <span class="hlt">burns</span>. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The <span class="hlt">burn</span> community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:12792237</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26036205','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26036205"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating an outreach service for paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> follow up.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cubitt, Jonathan J; Chesney, Amy; Brown, Liz; Nguyen, Dai Q</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Complications following paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> are well documented and care needs to be taken to ensure the appropriate follow up of these patients. Historically this has meant follow up into adulthood however this is often not necessary. The centralisation of <span class="hlt">burns</span> services in the UK means that patients and their parents may have to travel significant distances to receive this follow up care. To optimise our <span class="hlt">burns</span> service we have introduced a <span class="hlt">burns</span> outreach service to enable the patients to be treated closer to home. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of the introduction of the <span class="hlt">burns</span> outreach service and within this environment define the optimum length of time needed to follow up these patients. A retrospective analysis was carried out of 100 consecutive paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients who underwent surgical management of their <span class="hlt">burn</span>. During the follow up period there were 43 complications in 32 patients (32%). These included adverse scarring (either hypertrophic or keloid), delayed healing (taking >1 month to heal) and contractures (utilising either splinting or surgical correction). Fifty-nine percent of these complications occurred within 6 months of injury and all occurred within 18 months. Size of <span class="hlt">burn</span> was directly correlated to the risk of developing a complication. The outreach service reduced the distance the patient needs to travel for follow up by more than 50%. There was also a significant financial benefit for the service as the follow up clinics were on <span class="hlt">average</span> 50% cheaper with <span class="hlt">burns</span> outreach than <span class="hlt">burns</span> physician. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> outreach is a feasible service that not only benefits the patients but also is cheaper for the <span class="hlt">burns</span> service. The optimum length of follow up for paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> in 18 months, after which if there have not been any complications they can be discharged. PMID:26036205</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ACPD....6.4689Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ACPD....6.4689Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Area</span> using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet <span class="hlt">average</span> measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zavala, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Slott, R. S.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L. C.; Shorter, J. H.; Zahniser, M.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Area</span> (MCMA). The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are presented for chase sampled vehicles and fleet <span class="hlt">averaged</span> emissions. Results indicate that colectivos, particularly CNG-powered colectivos, are potentially significant contributors of NOx and aldehydes in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in US cities. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban <span class="hlt">areas</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25198101','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25198101"><span id="translatedtitle">An expanded delivery model for outpatient <span class="hlt">burn</span> rehabilitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wiechman, Shelley A; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Esselman, Peter C; Klein, Matthew B; Martinez, Erin M; Engrav, Loren H; Gibran, Nicole S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Despite the numerous multidisciplinary services <span class="hlt">burn</span> centers provide, a number of challenges to obtaining optimal outcomes exist. The goal of this study was to overcome the barriers to effective <span class="hlt">burn</span> rehabilitation by utilizing an expanded care coordinator (ECC) to supplement the existing outpatient services. In this between-group, single-blind, randomized, controlled trial, the control group (n = 41) received standard outpatient care and the experimental group (n = 40) received additional services provided by the ECC, including telephone calls at set intervals (24 hours postdischarge, 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks postdischarge and 5, 7, 9 months postdischarge). The ECC was trained in motivational interviewing, crisis intervention, and solution-focused counseling. He assisted patients before and after each clinic visit, coordinated outpatient services in their geographic <span class="hlt">area</span> (physical and occupational therapy, counseling, primary care provider referrals, etc.), and helped develop problem-solving approaches to accomplish individualized goals. Outcome measures included patient identified goals utilizing the goal attainment scale, the urn-specific health scale-brief, the Short Form 12, a patient satisfaction survey, and a return to work survey. The <span class="hlt">average</span> subject age was 43 years (SD = 16.9) with a mean TBSA of 19% (SD = 18.8). The <span class="hlt">average</span> length of hospitalization was 36 days (SD = 42.9). The patient and injury characteristics were similar between the study groups. For the experimental group, 33% completed seven calls, with 23% completing all the eight calls. All were assessed using general linear models and were adjusted for sex, age, length of hospitalization, urban vs rural <span class="hlt">area</span> of residence, %TBSA <span class="hlt">burn</span>, and ethnicity. There was no difference between the control and experimental groups for any of the outcome measures at either 6 or 12 months postburn. No differences in outcomes between the groups were found. All participants appreciated the individualized goal setting process that was used as an outcome measure and this may have accounted for the similar outcomes in both the groups. (The measure may have been more of an intervention, thus contributing to the strength of the control group.) Although most patients with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries may not need an intervention that is this intensive, a subset of patients at higher risk or with more severe injuries may benefit from more intensive and personalized services. Future research should examine the benefits of individual goal setting processes for all the patients and also attempt to identify those patients most at risk for poorer outcomes and therefore, likely to benefit of more intensive personalized services. PMID:25198101</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26771933','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26771933"><span id="translatedtitle">RECENT ADVANCES IN BIOMARKERS IN SEVERE <span class="hlt">BURNS</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ruiz-Castilla, Mireia; Roca, Oriol; Masclans, Joan R; Barret, Joan P</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The pathophysiology of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries is tremendously complex. A thorough understanding is essential for correct treatment of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and also to limit the appearance of organ dysfunction, which, in fact, is a key determinant of morbidity and mortality. In this context, research into biomarkers may play a major role. Biomarkers have traditionally been considered an important <span class="hlt">area</span> of medical research: the measurement of certain biomarkers has led to a better understanding of pathophysiology, while others have been used either to assess the effectiveness of specific treatments or for prognostic purposes. Research into biomarkers may help to improve the prognosis of patients with severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. The aim of the present clinical review is to discuss new evidence of the value of biomarkers in this setting. PMID:26771933</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4665186','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4665186"><span id="translatedtitle">Saturday night <span class="hlt">burns</span>: an increasing problem?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bollero, D.; Malvasio, V.; Gangemi, E.N.; Giunta, G.; Collard, B.; Stella, M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Summary In Italy the economic crisis has caused changes in behavior in daily as well as leisure activities. For instance, night clubs have changed both their scenography and what they can offer. From simply providing a place to dance, they can now offer more complex scenography with spectacular fireworks and lit cocktails. While this can be amazing for all of us it can also be another cause of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. We conducted a retrospective study of all <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients admitted to the Accident and Emergency Department at CTO Hospital in Turin from 2009 to 2013, after a night clubbing. A total of five patients were identified with an <span class="hlt">average</span> age of 20 years old: four were <span class="hlt">burned</span> by flaming cocktails and one was <span class="hlt">burned</span> by a firework. Two received outpatient treatment, while orotracheal intubation and admission were needed for three, and two required surgical debridement and resurfacing with split skin graft. All patients had permanent sequelae caused by pathologic scarring and/or dyschromia. Our findings show that the risk of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries is higher at weekends, mainly in summer, if all correct safety procedures are not followed. Meanwhile it is important to highlight that the promotion of inappropriate behavior at night clubs during firework displays and the passing of flaming cocktails should be avoided. PMID:26668565</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26668565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26668565"><span id="translatedtitle">Saturday night <span class="hlt">burns</span>: an increasing problem?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bollero, D; Malvasio, V; Gangemi, E N; Giunta, G; Collard, B; Stella, M</p> <p>2015-03-31</p> <p>In Italy the economic crisis has caused changes in behavior in daily as well as leisure activities. For instance, night clubs have changed both their scenography and what they can offer. From simply providing a place to dance, they can now offer more complex scenography with spectacular fireworks and lit cocktails. While this can be amazing for all of us it can also be another cause of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. We conducted a retrospective study of all <span class="hlt">burns</span> patients admitted to the Accident and Emergency Department at CTO Hospital in Turin from 2009 to 2013, after a night clubbing. A total of five patients were identified with an <span class="hlt">average</span> age of 20 years old: four were <span class="hlt">burned</span> by flaming cocktails and one was <span class="hlt">burned</span> by a firework. Two received outpatient treatment, while orotracheal intubation and admission were needed for three, and two required surgical debridement and resurfacing with split skin graft. All patients had permanent sequelae caused by pathologic scarring and/or dyschromia. Our findings show that the risk of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries is higher at weekends, mainly in summer, if all correct safety procedures are not followed. Meanwhile it is important to highlight that the promotion of inappropriate behavior at night clubs during firework displays and the passing of flaming cocktails should be avoided. PMID:26668565</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3188053','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3188053"><span id="translatedtitle">Heparin Reduced Mortality and Sepsis in Severely <span class="hlt">Burned</span> Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zayas, G.J.; Bonilla, A.M.; Saliba, M.J</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Summary Objectives. In El Salvador, before 1999, morbidity and mortality in severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> children were high. In 1998, all children with <span class="hlt">burns</span> of 40% or larger size died and sepsis was found. With heparin use in 1999, some similarly <span class="hlt">burned</span> children survived, and sepsis, pain, procedures, and scars were noted to be less. This retrospective study presents the details. Methods. A study was conducted at the National Children's Hospital in El Salvador of all children with <span class="hlt">burns</span> over 20% size treated in 1998, when no heparin was used, and in 1999, when heparin was added to <span class="hlt">burns</span> treatment, using an ethics committee approved protocol in use in twelve other countries. Sodium aqueous heparin solution USP from an intestinal source was infused intravenously and applied topically onto <span class="hlt">burn</span> surfaces and within blisters for the first 1-3 days post-<span class="hlt">burn</span>. Then heparin, in diminishing doses, was continued only topically until healing. The treatments in 1998 and 1999 were otherwise the same, except that fewer procedures were needed in 1999. Results. There were no significant differences in gender, age, weight, <span class="hlt">burn</span> aetiology, or <span class="hlt">burn</span> size between the <span class="hlt">burned</span> children in 1998 and those in 1999. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> pain was relieved and pain medicine was not needed in children treated with heparin in 1999. In 1998, one child survived who had a 35% size <span class="hlt">burn</span>, and the eight children died who had <span class="hlt">burns</span> of 40% and over. The survival rate was one out of nine (11%). The <span class="hlt">average</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span> size was 51.7%. With heparin use in 1999, six of the ten children survived <span class="hlt">burns</span> of 50.7% <span class="hlt">average</span> size. The increase in survival with heparin from 11% to 60% and, therefore, the decrease in mortality from 89% to 40% were significant (p < 0.04). Clinical symptoms and positive blood cultures documented bacterial sepsis in the nine children in 1998. In 1999, the blood cultures for sepsis were positive in the four children who died and negative in the six who survived. The nine versus four differences in the incidence of sepsis between 1998 and 1999 was significant (p < 0.008). The survivors had notably smooth skin. Conclusions. The use of heparin in this study relieved <span class="hlt">burn</span> pain, significantly reduced mortality and sepsis with fewer procedures, and discernibly improved cosmetic results. PMID:21991064</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575151','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3575151"><span id="translatedtitle">Self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span> in Mosul: a cross-sectional study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Al-Zacko, S.M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Summary A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the different characteristics of attempted suicide by self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases compared with other accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases admitted to the <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit in Al-Jumhoori Teaching Hospital in Mosul over a one-year period from March 1, 2011 to March 1, 2012. Of 459 <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases, 103 (22.44%) had self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The mean total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of suicide attempters was 61%, markedly higher than in other cases (20%) (P= 0.0001). Among all self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases, <span class="hlt">burns</span> were caused by flame, while scald was the commonest cause (56.5%) in accidental <span class="hlt">burns</span>. There was a significant difference in the sex ratio between self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases (1:11.9) and accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases (1:1) (P = 0.0001). Case fatality rates for self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> and accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases were 80.6% and 14.9%, respectively. The overall mean ages for self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> and accidental <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases were 24.3 and 15.6 years, respectively. Compared to all other <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases, self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burn</span> cases had a significantly larger mean percentage of surface body <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> (61.0±28.2 versus 20.7±15.8; P = 0.0001). In conclusion, self-inflicted <span class="hlt">burns</span> remain a common cause of admission to our <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit. The extent of <span class="hlt">burns</span> is often large, since most suicide attempters use an accelerant that accounts for the high mortality in this group. PMID:23467337</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nigga&id=EJ728774','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nigga&id=EJ728774"><span id="translatedtitle">Your <span class="hlt">Average</span> Nigga</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Young, Vershawn Ashanti</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>"Your <span class="hlt">Average</span> Nigga" contends that just as exaggerating the differences between black and white language leaves some black speakers, especially those from the ghetto, at an impasse, so exaggerating and reifying the differences between the races leaves blacks in the impossible position of either having to try to be white or forever struggling to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A11B0025H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A11B0025H"><span id="translatedtitle">Sources of black carbon in aerosols: fossil fuel <span class="hlt">burning</span> vs. biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hsieh, Y.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The uncertainty in black carbon (BC) analysis and our inability to directly quantify the BC sources in the atmosphere has led to the uncertainty in compiling a regional or global BC emission inventory attributed to biomass <span class="hlt">burnings</span>. We initiate this study to demonstrate a new approach, which quantifies the source of BC in the atmosphere between biomass and fossil fuel <span class="hlt">burnings</span>. We applied the newly developed multi-element scanning thermal analysis (MESTA) technology to quantify BC and organic carbon (OC), respectively, in aerosol samples. MESTA can also separate BC from OC for subsequent radiocarbon analyses. Because fossil fuel has been depleted of radiocarbon and biomass has radiocarbon of the modern atmospheric level, we can quantify the sources of BC between fossil fuel and biomass <span class="hlt">burnings</span>. We sampled the PM2.5 in the ambient air of central Tallahassee and its rural <span class="hlt">areas</span> during the May-June (prescribed <span class="hlt">burning</span>) and Nov-Dec (non-<span class="hlt">burning</span>) periods. The results indicate that biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> contributed 891% and 672% of BC, respectively, during May-June and Nov.-Dec. periods. The rest of PM2.5 BC was contributed from fossil fuel <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The radiocarbon contents of the OC was 103.420.55 percent modern carbon (pmC), which is consistent with the current atmospheric level with a trace of the bomb radiocarbon remained from the open atmosphere nuclear testing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1545865','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1545865"><span id="translatedtitle">Severe <span class="hlt">burns</span> in children, 1964-1974.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cogswell, J J; Chu, A C</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>580 children were admitted to the paediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> unit of Guy's Hospital between 1964 and 1974, of which 97 had <span class="hlt">burns</span> exceeding 20% of the surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, and 33 died (34% mortality). 80% of those with <span class="hlt">burns</span> exceeding 50% of the surface <span class="hlt">area</span> died. Young children died after less extensive <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Respiratory failure, sepsis, and malnutrition were the most lethal complications. The prompt use and careful control of intravenous fluids had reduced the immediate complications associated with shock, and acute renal failure is now uncommon. Respiratory failure resulted in many deaths during the first week after injury. The need for intensive respiratory care involving paediatric, anaesthetic, and surgical staff is stressed. Sepsis and malnutrition remain major threats to survival. Improved methods of bacteriological control by laminar air flow units and topical antibacterial agents may help to reduce infection in the future. Reduction of energy expenditure by temporary skin coverings and a high environmental temperature, combined with a high calorie intake by oral and intravenous routes, may improve the outlook for severly <span class="hlt">burned</span> children in the next decade. PMID:942232</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960028142&hterms=Acid+rain&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%2528Acid%2Brain%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960028142&hterms=Acid+rain&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%2528Acid%2Brain%2529"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> trees and bridges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Levine, Joel S.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Most <span class="hlt">burning</span> of biomass is the result of human activity, and on a global scale it is increasing. Tropospheric concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and ozone are all increasing with time; global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> may make an important contribution to this increase and thus to potential global climate change. The nitrogen cycle also can have important climatic effects. Nitrous oxide put into the atmosphere by biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is a greenhouse gas 250 times more powerful (molecule for molecule) than carbon dioxide. Nitric oxide, as well as being a photochemical precursor of ozone, a major pollutant in the troposphere, produces nitric acid, the fastest-growing component of acid rain. Hence, the new bridge in the nitrogen cycle is of more than mere technical interest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11933837','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11933837"><span id="translatedtitle">[Prehospital management of <span class="hlt">burns</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marichy, J; Chahir, N; Peres-Tassart, C; Abeguile, R</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>The optimal assessment of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> victim in the prehospital setting needs a clear understanding of the pathophysiological changes occurring locally and systemically after injury. For the mobile emergency unit it is essential to dispose of an appropriate protocol for the prevention of hypovolemia, hypothermia, hypoxemia. In the immediate survey, immediate life-threatening conditions should be clearly identified and treated as well as a through head-to-toe evaluation should be undertaken. Two phases of transport can be identified: the first from the scene of accident to the proximal emergency unit, specialized or not in <span class="hlt">burn</span> care. The second is the transportation from the non-specialized proximal emergency unit to a <span class="hlt">burn</span> intensive care unit according to the decision of the dispatching Centre 15. PMID:11933837</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5331858','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5331858"><span id="translatedtitle">Ripple <span class="hlt">burn</span> control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bhadra, D.K.; Petrie, T.W.; Peuron, U.A.; Rawls, J.M.</p> <p>1980-05-01</p> <p>The ripple contribution to the ion thermal conductivity is ideally suited in magnitude, temperature dependence, and spatial dependence to serve as a <span class="hlt">burn</span> control mechanism. Furthermore, a considerable measure of automatic <span class="hlt">burn</span> control results because of the radial shift of the plasma to a region of higher ripple. Unfortunately, the window in ripple values consistent with both ignition and a <span class="hlt">burn</span> equilibrium is uncomfortably narrow, given the current lack of contact between the theoretical models of ripple transport and experimental observations. A survey is made of the techniques to vary the ripple and thus broaden the design window. One new technique is discussed in some detail: the use of ferromagnetic materials in the shield with magnetic properties which are sensitive functions of the operating temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..99..446F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..99..446F"><span id="translatedtitle">Pre-harvest sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> emission inventories based on remote sensing data in the state of São Paulo, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>França, Daniela; Longo, Karla; Rudorff, Bernardo; Aguiar, Daniel; Freitas, Saulo; Stockler, Rafael; Pereira, Gabriel</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The state of São Paulo is the largest sugarcane producer in Brazil, with a cultivated <span class="hlt">area</span> of about 5.4 Mha in 2011. Approximately 2 Mha were harvested annually from 2006 to 2011 with the pre-harvest straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice, which emits trace gases and particulate material to the atmosphere. The development of emission inventories for sugarcane straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> is crucial in order to assess its environmental impacts. This study aimed to estimate annual emissions associated with the pre-harvest sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice in the state of São Paulo based on remote sensing maps and emission and combustion factors for sugarcane straw <span class="hlt">burning</span>. <span class="hlt">Average</span> estimated emissions (Gg/year) were 1130 ± 152 for CO, 26 ± 4 for NOx, 16 ± 2 for CH4, 45 ± 6 for PM2.5, 120 ± 16 for PM10 and 154 ± 21 for NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons). An intercomparison among annual emissions from this study and annual emissions from four other different approaches indicated that the estimates obtained by satellite fire detection or low spatial resolution approaches tend to underestimate sugarcane <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, due to unique characteristics of this type of biomass fire. Overall, our results also indicated that government actions to reduce sugarcane straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions are becoming effective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3897111','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3897111"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span> of the abdomen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ritesh</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the <span class="hlt">burned</span> skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the <span class="hlt">area</span> was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor <span class="hlt">area</span> was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days. PMID:24459356</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4700878','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4700878"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center Volume on Mortality in a Pediatric Population: An Analysis of the National <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Repository</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hodgman, Erica I.; Saeman, Melody R.; Subramanian, Madhu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">burn</span> center volume on mortality has been demonstrated in adults. The authors sought to evaluate whether such a relationship existed in <span class="hlt">burned</span> children. The National <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Repository, a voluntary registry sponsored by the American <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Association, was queried for all data points on patients aged 18 years or less and treated from 2002 to 2011. Facilities were divided into quartiles based on <span class="hlt">average</span> annual <span class="hlt">burn</span> volume. Demographics and clinical characteristics were compared across groups, and univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to evaluate relationships between facility volume, patient characteristics, and mortality. The authors analyzed 38,234 patients admitted to 88 unique facilities. Children under age 4 years or with larger <span class="hlt">burns</span> were more likely to be managed at high-volume and very highvolume centers (57.12 and 53.41%, respectively). Overall mortality was low (0.85%). Comparing mortality across quartiles demonstrated improved unadjusted mortality rates at the low- and high-volume centers compared with the medium-volume and very highvolume centers although univariate logistic regression did not find a significant relationship. However, multivariate analysis identified <span class="hlt">burn</span> center volume as a significant predictor of decreased mortality after controlling for patient characteristics including age, mechanism of injury, <span class="hlt">burn</span> size, and presence of inhalation injury. Mortality among pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients is low and was primarily related to patient and injury characteristics, such as <span class="hlt">burn</span> size, inhalation injury, and <span class="hlt">burn</span> cause. <span class="hlt">Average</span> annual admission rate had a significant but small effect on mortality when injury characteristics were considered. PMID:26146907</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26146907','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26146907"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center Volume on Mortality in a Pediatric Population: An Analysis of the National <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Repository.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hodgman, Erica I; Saeman, Melody R; Subramanian, Madhu; Wolf, Steven E</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">burn</span> center volume on mortality has been demonstrated in adults. The authors sought to evaluate whether such a relationship existed in <span class="hlt">burned</span> children. The National <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Repository, a voluntary registry sponsored by the American <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Association, was queried for all data points on patients aged 18 years or less and treated from 2002 to 2011. Facilities were divided into quartiles based on <span class="hlt">average</span> annual <span class="hlt">burn</span> volume. Demographics and clinical characteristics were compared across groups, and univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to evaluate relationships between facility volume, patient characteristics, and mortality. The authors analyzed 38,234 patients admitted to 88 unique facilities. Children under age 4 years or with larger <span class="hlt">burns</span> were more likely to be managed at high-volume and very high-volume centers (57.12 and 53.41%, respectively). Overall mortality was low (0.85%). Comparing mortality across quartiles demonstrated improved unadjusted mortality rates at the low- and high-volume centers compared with the medium-volume and very high-volume centers although univariate logistic regression did not find a significant relationship. However, multivariate analysis identified <span class="hlt">burn</span> center volume as a significant predictor of decreased mortality after controlling for patient characteristics including age, mechanism of injury, <span class="hlt">burn</span> size, and presence of inhalation injury. Mortality among pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients is low and was primarily related to patient and injury characteristics, such as <span class="hlt">burn</span> size, inhalation injury, and <span class="hlt">burn</span> cause. <span class="hlt">Average</span> annual admission rate had a significant but small effect on mortality when injury characteristics were considered. PMID:26146907</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4439667','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4439667"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jimson, Sudha; Rajesh, E.; Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Kasthuri, M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome (BMS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or <span class="hlt">burning</span> sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms. PMID:26015707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26015707','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26015707"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jimson, Sudha; Rajesh, E; Krupaa, R Jayasri; Kasthuri, M</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burning</span> mouth syndrome (BMS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or <span class="hlt">burning</span> sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms. PMID:26015707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6224246','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6224246"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast <span class="hlt">burning</span> propellants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Colgate, S.A.; Roos, G.E.</p> <p>1987-07-21</p> <p>A solid or semisolid propellant is described comprising grains of propellant or propellant components bonded together to create voids within the propellant volume. The grains are of near-uniform size and have less than about a 20% size variation between the largest and smallest grains, the voids comprising from about 10% to about 50% of the propellant volume. The grains are bonded together with sufficient strength to substantially delay the fluidization of the propellant by the onset of Taylor unstable <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The propellant has a rapid <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate of from about 10 cm sec/sup -1/ to about 10/sup 4/cm sec/sup -1/.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20616648','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20616648"><span id="translatedtitle">Return to work after <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury: <span class="hlt">burn</span>-injured individuals' perception of barriers and facilitators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oster, Caisa; Kildal, Morten; Ekselius, Lisa</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to explore <span class="hlt">burn</span>-injured individuals' perception of factors seen as facilitators or barriers in the process of returning to work after a severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Semistructured interviews were prospectively conducted with 39 former <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury patients, admitted to the Uppsala <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center between March 2000 and March 2007. The participants were employed or studying at the time of injury and were interviewed on <span class="hlt">average</span> 4.6 years after the <span class="hlt">burn</span>. The interview data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Factors acknowledged by the participants as facilitators and barriers to return to work (RTW) were identified and sorted into five categories: the Individual, Social Life, Health Care and Rehabilitation, the Workplace, and Social Welfare Agencies. Facilitators were perceived to a great extent as individual characteristics, such as own ability to take action, setting up goals in rehabilitation, having willpower, being persistent, and learning to live with impairments. The possibility of getting modified work tasks or a change of workplace, when having physical or psychological impairments, was also seen as facilitating factors. Some barriers experienced as delaying RTW were difficulties when ceasing pain medication, limited knowledge of wound care at primary health care facilities, lack of individualized rehabilitation plans, and lack of psychological support during rehabilitation. Former <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury patients emphasized psychological resources and capabilities as facilitators in the RTW process. The need in rehabilitation for a coordinator and for assessment of work capacity, and not solely a focus on impairments, is discussed. PMID:20616648</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22274631','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22274631"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> sustained whilst priming the carburetor: an Australian perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suyapto, Dion Royce; Greenwood, John Edward; Rudd, Michael</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Priming the carburetor is a method that is still commonly practiced amongst trained, amateur, and backyard mechanics. This article aims to look at the data available between 1996 and 2004 in two <span class="hlt">burns</span> units in South Australia and Queensland. The authors were interested in the number of patients admitted with <span class="hlt">burns</span> related to the activity of priming the carburetor, the TBSA percentage of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, and <span class="hlt">areas</span> affected. It also gives numbers of intensive care unit admissions and the number who underwent surgery for the management of the <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The results showed that between the two centers, 48 patients were admitted following <span class="hlt">burns</span> as a result of priming the carburetor. The activity carried no mortality during the time period of study but caused significant morbidity. Through the media, the authors are embarking on an educational program to reduce the risk of such <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries from this dangerous practice. PMID:22274631</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12891499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12891499"><span id="translatedtitle">Colonic fistula complicating electric <span class="hlt">burns</span>--a case report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rijhwani, Ashok; Sunil, Indira</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>Intestinal fistula is an uncommon complication of electric <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The authors report the case of an 11-year-old child who sustained accidental <span class="hlt">burns</span> from a high-voltage electric current and was admitted to their hospital with full-thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span> of both the upper limbs and deep <span class="hlt">burns</span> of the anterior abdominal wall. Staged surgery was required, and the authors were involved in the management of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> of the anterior abdominal wall. Laparotomy was done because omentum was found prolapsing out of the abdominal wound. Three scattered <span class="hlt">areas</span> of subserosal <span class="hlt">burn</span> of the small bowel were noticed, which required no intervention. The rest of the viscera all were normal. During the course of his stay, he had a fecal fistula on the 19th postburn day, which was found to be from the transverse colon. Conservative management of the fistula with total parenteral nutrition for 23 days resulted in complete healing. PMID:12891499</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A41B0081D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A41B0081D"><span id="translatedtitle">Pre-Harvest Sugarcane <span class="hlt">Burning</span>: Determination of emission factors through laboratory measurements and quantification of emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Azeredo Franca, D.; Maria Longo, K.; Gomes Soares Neto, T.; Carlos dos Santos, J.; Rudorf, B. F.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Freitas, S.; Vieira Cortez, E.; Stockler S. Lima, R.; S. Gacita, M.; Anselmo, E.; A. Carvalho, J., Jr.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Sugarcane is a relevant crop to Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. So Paulo state is the largest producer of sugarcane in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production in a cultivated <span class="hlt">area</span> of 4.5 Mha in 2010. Sugarcane harvest practice can be performed either with green harvest or with pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span>. A "Green Ethanol" Protocol is underway to eliminate the pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice by 2014 in most of the sugarcane cultivated land in So Paulo state. During the last five years close to 2 Mha were annually harvested with the pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice. This practice emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice in the near future there is still a significant environmental damage due to the pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice of sugarcane. Thus the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due to this activity is crucial in order to assess the environmental impact. Presently the official Brazilian emissions inventories do not include the sugarcane pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> contribution. Therefore, this work aims to estimate the annual emissions (from 2006 to 2010) associated with pre-harvest sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice in So Paulo state, including the determination of emission factors for some trace gases and particulate material smaller than 2.5 ?m. Annual remote sensing based mappings of <span class="hlt">burned</span> sugarcane fields throughout the harvest season in each crop year made in the context of Canasat Project (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/) were added to the Brazilian Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Emission Model (3BEM) in order to estimate trace gases and aerosols emissions. Two laboratory combustion experiments were carried out to determine the emission factors estimation. Samples of different varieties of sugarcane were harvested in dry weather conditions and in distinct sites in the state of So Paulo to assure a good representativeness. In each experiment a fraction of a specific sample was put on a <span class="hlt">burning</span> tray with <span class="hlt">area</span> equal to 1 m2 inside a combustion chamber and <span class="hlt">burned</span> under controlled conditions. The bottom's tray was covered with a layer of soil with some branches aiming to reproduce the <span class="hlt">burning</span> condition in the field. The smoke emitted was conducted to trace gas and aerosol particles analyzers measuring the excess mixing ratios for CO2, CO, NOX, UHC (unburned hydrocarbons) and PM2.5, allowing the estimation of their respective emission factors. <span class="hlt">Average</span> values for emission factors estimated (g kg -1 of <span class="hlt">burned</span> dry biomass) were 1303 218 for CO2, 65 14 for CO, 1.5 0.4 for NOX, 16 6 for UHC, and 2.5 1.7 for PM2.5. These emission factors can be used to generate more realistic emission inventories and, therefore, to improve the results of quality air models. Currently, enhanced emission inventories of So Paulo state are obtained with the emission model 3BEM, available at CPTEC-INPE, by the inclusion of these improvements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21305885','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21305885"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote sensing-based estimates of annual and seasonal emissions from crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the contiguous United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McCarty, Jessica L</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> is an extensive agricultural practice in the contiguous United States (CONUS). This analysis presents the results of a remote sensing-based study of crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions in the CONUS for the time period 2003-2007 for the atmospheric species of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2), PM2.5 (particulate matter [PM] < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter), and PM10 (PM < or = 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter). Cropland <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and associated crop types were derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products. Emission factors, fuel load, and combustion completeness estimates were derived from the scientific literature, governmental reports, and expert knowledge. Emissions were calculated using the bottom-up approach in which emissions are the product of <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>, fuel load, and combustion completeness for each specific crop type. On <span class="hlt">average</span>, annual crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the CONUS emitted 6.1 Tg of CO2, 8.9 Gg of CH4, 232.4 Gg of CO, 10.6 Gg of NO2, 4.4 Gg of SO2, 20.9 Gg of PM2.5, and 28.5 Gg of PM10. These emissions remained fairly consistent, with an <span class="hlt">average</span> interannual variability of crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions of +/- 10%. The states with the highest emissions were Arkansas, California, Florida, Idaho, Texas, and Washington. Most emissions were clustered in the southeastern United States, the Great Plains, and the Pacific Northwest. Air quality and carbon emissions were concentrated in the spring, summer, and fall, with an exception because of winter harvesting of sugarcane in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. Sugarcane, wheat, and rice residues accounted for approximately 70% of all crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> and associated emissions. Estimates of CO and CH4 from agricultural waste <span class="hlt">burning</span> by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were 73 and 78% higher than the CO and CH4 emission estimates from this analysis, respectively. This analysis also showed that crop residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions are a minor source of CH4 emissions (< 1%) compared with the CH4 emissions from other agricultural sources, specifically enteric fermentation, manure management, and rice cultivation. PMID:21305885</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780003358','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780003358"><span id="translatedtitle">Instrument to <span class="hlt">average</span> 100 data sets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tuma, G. B.; Birchenough, A. G.; Rice, W. J.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>An instrumentation system is currently under development which will measure many of the important parameters associated with the operation of an internal combustion engine. Some of these parameters include mass-fraction <span class="hlt">burn</span> rate, ignition energy, and the indicated mean effective pressure. One of the characteristics of an internal combustion engine is the cycle-to-cycle variation of these parameters. A curve-<span class="hlt">averaging</span> instrument has been produced which will generate the <span class="hlt">average</span> curve, over 100 cycles, of any engine parameter. the <span class="hlt">average</span> curve is described by 2048 discrete points which are displayed on an oscilloscope screen to facilitate recording and is available in real time. Input can be any parameter which is expressed as a + or - 10-volt signal. Operation of the curve-<span class="hlt">averaging</span> instrument is defined between 100 and 6000 rpm. Provisions have also been made for <span class="hlt">averaging</span> as many as four parameters simultaneously, with a subsequent decrease in resolution. This provides the means to correlate and perhaps interrelate the phenomena occurring in an internal combustion engine. This instrument has been used successfully on a 1975 Chevrolet V8 engine, and on a Continental 6-cylinder aircraft engine. While this instrument was designed for use on an internal combustion engine, with some modification it can be used to <span class="hlt">average</span> any cyclically varying waveform.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2733368','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2733368"><span id="translatedtitle">[Treatment of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds with dibunol liniment].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shalonov, P M; Dadabaev, T D; Khalilov, Kh N</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>In 40 <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients with the <span class="hlt">area</span> of damage from 10 to 40% of the body surface in local treatment with dibunol against the background of active infusion-transfusion therapy, the accelerated rejection of the necrotic crust was noted, which permitted to reduce the period of preparation for autodermoplasty. The antiinflammatory effect of dibunol was established. PMID:2733368</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvD..91k4511S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvD..91k4511S"><span id="translatedtitle">Covariant approximation <span class="hlt">averaging</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shintani, Eigo; Arthur, Rudy; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation <span class="hlt">averaging</span> techniques, known as all-mode <span class="hlt">averaging</span> (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in Nf=2 +1 lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3961915','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3961915"><span id="translatedtitle">Decadorial of a <span class="hlt">burn</span> center in Central India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bain, Jayanta; Lal, Shyam; Baghel, Vijay Singh; Yedalwar, Vinod; Gupta, Rachna; Singh, Anil Kumar</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injuries are a serious public health problem. In our study we have identified different epidemiological factors based on 10 years of our experience at a <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit in central India and recommend some strategies to prevent <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis (2001-2010) of database from <span class="hlt">burn</span> unit of S.S. Medical College, Rewa, India. Results: 2499 patients with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury were analysed. 66.8% and 38.2% patients were females and males respectively, with a median age of 25 years. Flame (80.1%) was most common cause, home (96%) was most common place, traditional Indian stove (28.8%), kerosene lamp (26.7%), hot liquid (12.2%) and kerosene stove (10.4%) were common causes. Median Total Body Surface <span class="hlt">Area</span> (TBSA) <span class="hlt">burn</span> was 40.0%; females had significantly greater (P < 0.001) <span class="hlt">burn</span> than males (median 50% vs 26.0%). High mortality (40.3%) seen; female sex (OR 3.22, 95% CI 2.65-3.92); young age (15-29 year) (OR 3.48, 95% CI 2.45-4.94); flame <span class="hlt">burn</span> (OR 12.9, 95% CI 1.69-98.32); suicidal <span class="hlt">burn</span> OR 6.82 95%CI 4.44-10.48) and TBSA > 76% (OR 3099, 95%CI 1302-7380) were significant risk factors for death. Median hospital stays was 8 days; shorter hospital stays seen among TBSA <span class="hlt">burn</span> > 76% (2 days), suicidal intent (4 days), and those who expired (4 days). Septicemia (45.8%) and <span class="hlt">burn</span> shock (41%) were the major cause for death. Conclusions: Cooking and lighting equipments are major cause of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury among females and young age group. Equipment modification to improve safety features and public awareness programs are necessary to reduce <span class="hlt">burn</span> incidents. PMID:24678209</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ACP.....6.5129Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ACP.....6.5129Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Area</span> using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet <span class="hlt">average</span> measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zavala, M.; Herndon, S. C.; Slott, R. S.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L. C.; Shorter, J. H.; Zahniser, M.; Knighton, W. B.; Rogers, T. M.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Area</span> (MCMA). The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet <span class="hlt">averaged</span> emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA) indicate that - in a mole per mole basis - have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban <span class="hlt">areas</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3712406','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3712406"><span id="translatedtitle">Pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> mortality risk factors in a developing country’s tertiary <span class="hlt">burns</span> intensive care unit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Agbenorku, Pius; Agbenorku, Manolo; Fiifi-Yankson, Papa Kwesi</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Aim: This study aimed at identifying risk factors related to pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> mortality in a middle income country such as Ghana. Methods: The data for the three years retrospective study (May 2009 – April 2012) was obtained from the pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> admissions records and patients’ folders of the Reconstructive Plastic Surgery & <span class="hlt">Burns</span> Unit (RPSBU), Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. Data retrieved included: Demographic features, Total <span class="hlt">Burned</span> Surface <span class="hlt">Area</span> (TBSA) incurred; Aetiology of <span class="hlt">burns</span>; Duration of the admission; Outcome of admission; Part of the body affected and Cost incurred. Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the KNUST-SMS/KATH Committee on Human Research, Publications and Ethics. Data analyses were performed with SPSS 17.0 version. Results: Information on 197 patients was completely retrieved for the study. <span class="hlt">Burns</span> mortality rate for the study was identified to be 21.3% (N=42). The mean age of the 42 dead patients was 3.7±0.3 years, ranging from 0-13 years, while, males (54.8%, N= 23) outnumbered females (45.2%, N=19). The TBSA <span class="hlt">burned</span> interquartile range was 48%. In terms of etiology of <span class="hlt">burns</span> Scald (73.8%, N=31) was the commonest cause of injury. Mortality risk factors identified were Age <6 years (P=0.028); Scald especially hot water and soup (P=0.016); TBSA >36% (P=0.028) and Inhalation injury (P=0.040). Conclusion: Age, scald, TBSA and Inhalation Injury were identified as pediatric <span class="hlt">burns</span> mortality risk factors in a developing country such as Ghana’s RPSBU. These identified factors will serve as a guideline for plastic surgeons and other health professionals practicing in countries such as Ghana. PMID:23875121</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19506495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19506495"><span id="translatedtitle">Distally based venous flap for proximal phalangeal soft tissue <span class="hlt">burn</span> defect and web space <span class="hlt">burn</span> contracture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cil, Yakup; Yapici, Abdul Kerim; Kocman, Atacan Emre; Ozturk, Serdar</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Flap choices for the coverage of the proximal phalangeal soft tissue defects of the finger and web space <span class="hlt">burn</span> contractures are limited. A unipedicled distally based venous flap was raised from the third or fourth metacarpal <span class="hlt">area</span> of the hand for proximal phalangeal soft tissue defects of the finger and web space <span class="hlt">burn</span> contracture. For clinical use, we operated seven male patients using this venous flap. Superficial necrosis involving two flaps did not interfere with flap survival. Mild edema and venous congestion occurred in all flaps. All flaps survived completely. The mean follow-up period of the flaps was 6 months, ranging from 3 to 14 months. A well-planned distally based venous flap is an useful option for the coverage of the proximal phalangeal soft tissue <span class="hlt">burn</span> defects of the finger and web space <span class="hlt">burn</span> contracture of the hand. PMID:19506495</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26811412','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26811412"><span id="translatedtitle">Fat <span class="hlt">burn</span> X: <span class="hlt">burning</span> more than fat.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hannabass, Kyle; Olsen, Kevin Robert</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A 50-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of bilateral lower extremity cramping and dark urine. The patient was found to have a creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevated of up to 2306?U/L, a serum uric acid of 9.7?mg/dL and 101 red blood cell's per high-powered field on urinalysis. On questioning, the patient endorsed daily exercise with free weights. There were no changes in his regular exercise and medication regimen, no muscle trauma, no recent drug use and no illness. The patient did mention using a new fat burner known as 'Fat <span class="hlt">Burn</span> X', which he had begun taking 2?days prior to the onset of his muscle cramps. The patient was given normal saline intravenous fluid resuscitation for 48?h with resultant normalisation of his CPK and creatinine, and was discharged with primary care follow-up. PMID:26811412</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040111406&hterms=biomass&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dbiomass','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040111406&hterms=biomass&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dbiomass"><span id="translatedtitle">Interannual and Seasonal Variability of Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Emissions Constrained by Satellite Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Duncan, Bryan N.; Martin, Randall V.; Staudt, Amanda C.; Yevich, Rosemarie; Logan, Jennifer A.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We present a methodology for estimating the seasonal and interannual variation of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> designed for use in global chemical transport models. The <span class="hlt">average</span> seasonal variation is estimated from 4 years of fire-count data from the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) and 1-2 years of similar data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) World Fire Atlases. We use the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Aerosol Index (AI) data product as a surrogate to estimate interannual variability in biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> for six regions: Southeast Asia, Indonesia and Malaysia, Brazil, Central America and Mexico, Canada and Alaska, and Asiatic Russia. The AI data set is available from 1979 to the present with an interruption in satellite observations from mid-1993 to mid-1996; this data gap is filled where possible with estimates of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> from the literature for different regions. Between August 1996 and July 2000, the ATSR fire-counts are used to provide specific locations of emissions and a record of interannual variability throughout the world. We use our methodology to estimate mean seasonal and interannual variations for emissions of carbon monoxide from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and we find that no trend is apparent in these emissions over the last two decades, but that there is significant interannual variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JGRD..108.4100D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JGRD..108.4100D"><span id="translatedtitle">Interannual and seasonal variability of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions constrained by satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duncan, Bryan N.; Martin, Randall V.; Staudt, Amanda C.; Yevich, Rosemarie; Logan, Jennifer A.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We present a methodology for estimating the seasonal and interannual variation of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> designed for use in global chemical transport models. The <span class="hlt">average</span> seasonal variation is estimated from 4 years of fire-count data from the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) and 1-2 years of similar data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) World Fire Atlases. We use the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Aerosol Index (AI) data product as a surrogate to estimate interannual variability in biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> for six regions: Southeast Asia, Indonesia and Malaysia, Brazil, Central America and Mexico, Canada and Alaska, and Asiatic Russia. The AI data set is available from 1979 to the present with an interruption in satellite observations from mid-1993 to mid-1996; this data gap is filled where possible with estimates of <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> from the literature for different regions. Between August 1996 and July 2000, the ATSR fire-counts are used to provide specific locations of emissions and a record of interannual variability throughout the world. We use our methodology to estimate mean seasonal and interannual variations for emissions of carbon monoxide from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and we find that no trend is apparent in these emissions over the last two decades, but that there is significant interannual variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8634128','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8634128"><span id="translatedtitle">Hot spring <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baruchin, A M</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>This case report describes a woman who, while visiting a hot spring, received partial- and full-thickness immersion scald <span class="hlt">burns</span> of both ankles and heels. The prevention of such accidents is most important; efforts should be made to educate guides and tourists about the potential hazards inherent in these resorts. PMID:8634128</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ozone+AND+layer&pg=4&id=EJ264984','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ozone+AND+layer&pg=4&id=EJ264984"><span id="translatedtitle">The Earth Could <span class="hlt">Burn</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yarrow, Ruth</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Environmental educators are worried about the ultimate ecological threat--nuclear war, which could <span class="hlt">burn</span> thousands of square miles, sterilize the soil, destroy 70 percent of the ozone layer letting in lethal ultraviolet rays, and cause severe radiation sickness. Educators must inform themselves, teach others, contact government representatives, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/03_08_2013_fj0Meq5DCw_03_08_2013_1','SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS'); return false;" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/03_08_2013_fj0Meq5DCw_03_08_2013_1"><span id="translatedtitle">Gas Hydrates <span class="hlt">Burning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An image of gas hydrates <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=burner&pg=2&id=EJ633200','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=burner&pg=2&id=EJ633200"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Your Own CDs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ekhaml, Leticia</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the use of CDs (Compact Disks) for backing up data as an alternative to using floppy disks and explains how to <span class="hlt">burn</span>, or record, a CD. Topics include differences between CD-R (CD-Recordable) and CD-RW (CD-Rewritable); advantages of CD-R and CD-RW; selecting a CD burner; technology trends; and care of CDs. (LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3188084','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3188084"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Scar Neoplasm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kadir, A.R.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Summary Marjolin's ulcer is a rare and aggressive cutaneous malignancy that occurs in previously traumatized and chronically inflamed skin, especially after <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The majority of <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar carcinomas are seen after a lag period in <span class="hlt">burns</span> that were not grafted following injury. Between 2000 and 2006, 48 patients with Marjolin's ulcer were treated in our centre (Sulaimani Teaching Hospital and Emergency Hospital). All the lesions were secondary to <span class="hlt">burns</span> from various causes. The medical records of these 48 patients were reviewed prospectively. The mean age at tumour diagnosis was 40 yr and the ratio of male to female was 2:1 (67% males and 33% female). Upon histological examination, all the cases were diagnosed as well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The scalp was most frequently affected (16 patients = 33.3%), followed by the lower limb (14 patients = 29.1%). Treatment of the neoplasm consisted of excision and grafting in 36 patients (75.0%), excision and reconstruction with flaps in eight patients (16.6%), and amputation in three patients (6.2%). A chemotherapy combination of the above treatments was used in two patients (4.1%). Local recurrence was noted in 16 patients (33.3%) out of the 48, and all died from these recurrences. PMID:21991095</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=90469&keyword=Tire&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55625393&CFTOKEN=15241081','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=90469&keyword=Tire&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55625393&CFTOKEN=15241081"><span id="translatedtitle">TIRES, OPEN <span class="hlt">BURNING</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open <span class="hlt">burning</span> of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=42688&keyword=universe&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=61731195&CFTOKEN=11644361','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=42688&keyword=universe&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=61731195&CFTOKEN=11644361"><span id="translatedtitle">TRIAL <span class="hlt">BURNS</span>: METHODS PERSPECTIVE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>When conducting a trial <span class="hlt">burn</span>, it is necessary to make a number of measurements in order to adequately define the performance of the incinerator. n addition to flue gas emissions for particulate matter, HCl, and selected organics, it is also necessary to measure selected organics ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ozone+AND+layer&pg=4&id=EJ264984','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ozone+AND+layer&pg=4&id=EJ264984"><span id="translatedtitle">The Earth Could <span class="hlt">Burn</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yarrow, Ruth</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Environmental educators are worried about the ultimate ecological threat--nuclear war, which could <span class="hlt">burn</span> thousands of square miles, sterilize the soil, destroy 70 percent of the ozone layer letting in lethal ultraviolet rays, and cause severe radiation sickness. Educators must inform themselves, teach others, contact government representatives, and</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4779284','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4779284"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Wound Microenvironment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rose, Lloyd F.; Chan, Rodney K.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Significance: While the survival rate of the severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patient has improved significantly, relatively little progress has been made in treatment or prevention of <span class="hlt">burn</span>-induced long-term sequelae, such as contraction and fibrosis. Recent Advances: Our knowledge of the molecular pathways involved in <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds has increased dramatically, and technological advances now allow large-scale genomic studies, providing a global view of wound healing processes. Critical Issues: Translating findings from a large number of in vitro and preclinical animal studies into clinical practice represents a gap in our understanding, and the failures of a number of clinical trials suggest that targeting single pathways or cytokines may not be the best approach. Significant opportunities for improvement exist. Future Directions: Study of the underlying molecular influences of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound healing progression will undoubtedly continue as an active research focus. Increasing our knowledge of these processes will identify additional therapeutic targets, supporting informed clinical studies that translate into clinical relevance and practice. PMID:26989577</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/03_08_2013_fj0Meq5DCw_03_08_2013_0','SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS'); return false;" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/03_08_2013_fj0Meq5DCw_03_08_2013_0"><span id="translatedtitle">Gas Hydrates <span class="hlt">Burning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An image of gas hydrates <span class="hlt">burning</span>. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring ice-like combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the worlds oceans and polar regions....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/160394','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/160394"><span id="translatedtitle">Methane production from global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wei Min Hao; Ward, D.E.</p> <p>1993-11-20</p> <p>Emissions of methane from various sources of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> are determined quantitatively for tropical, temperate, and boreal regions. About 85% of the total CH{sub 4} is emitted in the tropical <span class="hlt">area</span>, which is mainly the result of shifting cultivation, fuelwood use, and deforestation. Methane emissions from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> may have increased by at least 9% during the last decade because of increases in tropical deforestation and the use of fuelwood. Changes in land use practices and population growth in the tropics are possible causes of the increase of atmospheric CH{sub 4} concentration. 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19165112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19165112"><span id="translatedtitle">Barriers impacting employment after <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schneider, Jeffrey C; Bassi, Sharon; Ryan, Colleen M</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates the barriers to return to work after <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. The electronic records of <span class="hlt">burn</span> survivors treated at a Regional <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center outpatient clinic from 2001 to 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria included employment at the time of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury and age 18 years or older. Documentation of barriers to return to work were reviewed and classified into eight categories. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictors of return to work at more than 1 year. Ordered logistic regression analysis was performed to determine barrier predictors of employment. The authors identified 197 patients for inclusion in the study. The age was 37 +/- 0.8 (mean +/- SEM) and total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burned</span> was 16 +/- 1.3%. Two thirds (n = 132) of subjects returned to work by 1 year. The most common barriers included pain (n = 79), neurologic problems (n = 69), impaired mobility (n = 58), and psychiatric issues (n = 51). Pain was the most frequent barrier to return to work at all time intervals. Significant predictors of return to work at more than 12 months included length of hospital stay, inpatient rehabilitation, electric etiology, and <span class="hlt">burn</span> at work (P < .05). Impaired mobility was a statistically significant (P < .05) barrier and other medical issues showed a trend toward statistical significance (P = .054) in predicting return to work at more than 12 months. There are many barriers that impede return to work in the <span class="hlt">burn</span> population, including pain, neurologic problems, impaired mobility, and psychiatric issues. Early identification of those at risk for prolonged unemployment should prompt expeditious referral to comprehensive rehabilitation services that include work hardening and vocational training programs. PMID:19165112</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24984658','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24984658"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Mouth Syndrome: update.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spanemberg, Juliana Cassol; Rodrguez de Rivera Campillo, Eugenia; Salas, Enric Jan; Lpez Lpez, Jos</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burning</span> Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic disorder that predominately affects middle-aged women in the postmenopausal period. The condition is distinguished by <span class="hlt">burning</span> symptoms of the oral mucosa and the absence of any clinical signs. The etiology of BMS is complex and it includes a variety of factors. Local, systemic and psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression are listed among the possible causes of BMS. BMS may sometimes be classified as BMS Type I, II or III. Although this syndrome is not accompanied by evident organic alterations and it does not present health risks, it can significantly reduce the patient's quality of life. This study analyzes the available literature related to BMS, and makes special reference to its therapeutic management. The pages that follow will also discuss the diagnostic criteria that should be respected, etiological factors, and clinical aspects. We used the PubMed database and searched it by using the keywords "<span class="hlt">burning</span> mouth syndrome", "BMS and review", and "<span class="hlt">burning</span> mouth and review", in the title or abstract of the publication. BMS treatment usually steers towards the management of the symptoms; however, the specific local factors that could play a significant role in worsening the oral <span class="hlt">burning</span> sensation should be eradicated. The most widely accepted treatment options that show variable results include tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines and antipsychotic drugs; nevertheless there are other therapies that can also be carried out. Professionals that work in the field of dentistry should formulate standardized symptomatic and diagnostic criteria in order to more easily identify the most effective and reliable strategies in BMS treatment through multidisciplinary research. PMID:24984658</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3078611','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3078611"><span id="translatedtitle">Current concepts in <span class="hlt">burn</span> care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wisnicki, J L; Sato, R M; Baxter, C R</p> <p>1986-03-01</p> <p>The understanding of and care for <span class="hlt">burn</span> trauma have become increasingly sophisticated. A review of important clinical and laboratory conditions over the past five years highlights current thought and future trends in <span class="hlt">burn</span> management. PMID:3078611</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16546791','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16546791"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary study to examine the utility of using foot <span class="hlt">burn</span> or hock <span class="hlt">burn</span> to assess aspects of housing conditions for broiler chicken.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haslam, S M; Brown, S N; Wilkins, L J; Kestin, S C; Warriss, P D; Nicol, C J</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>1. Eleven broiler chicken farms, representing 4 production system types, were visited during the last 5 d of the flock cycle: bird and flock details were recorded. Litter friability was assessed at 9 sites within the house, atmospheric ammonia was measured at three sites and bird cleanliness was assessed on a numerical rating scale. 2. For these flocks, hock <span class="hlt">burn</span>, foot <span class="hlt">burn</span> and breast <span class="hlt">burn</span> were measured at the processing plant by standardised assessors. 3. Significant correlations were identified between the percentage of birds with foot <span class="hlt">burn</span> and <span class="hlt">average</span> litter score, <span class="hlt">average</span> house ammonia concentrations and feather score. 4. No correlation was found between the percentage of birds with hock <span class="hlt">burn</span> or breast <span class="hlt">burn</span> and <span class="hlt">average</span> litter scores, <span class="hlt">average</span> ammonia concentrations or feather score. 5. No correlation was found between stocking density and foot <span class="hlt">burn</span>, hock <span class="hlt">burn</span> or breast <span class="hlt">burn</span>.6. If confirmed, these findings may have implications for the draft EU Broiler Directive, for which it is proposed that permitted stocking density on farm may be determined by the incidence and severity of contact dermatitis measured on plant. PMID:16546791</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14556720','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14556720"><span id="translatedtitle">Nitric oxide, inflammation and acute <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rawlingson, Andrew</p> <p>2003-11-01</p> <p>Nitric oxide (NOz.rad;) is a diatomic mediator liberated on oxidation of L-arginine by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family of enzymes. It has complex and wide ranging functions in vivo and has been implicated in the development of the profound inflammatory response that occurs as a result of cutaneous <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. In addition, dysregulation of NOS activity has been associated with multiple organ failure in human <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients and may therefore represent a novel therapeutic target in such circumstances. This review focuses on the role of NOz.rad; in inflammation, with particular emphasis on the acute post-<span class="hlt">burn</span> inflammatory response. Specific <span class="hlt">areas</span> of discussion include the maintenance of microvascular haemostasis, leukocyte recruitment and remote organ dysfunction following thermal injury. PMID:14556720</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3391843','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3391843"><span id="translatedtitle">Severe metabolic acidosis following assault chemical <span class="hlt">burn</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Roock, Sophie D; Deleuze, Jean-Paul; Rose, Thomas; Jennes, Serge; Hantson, Philippe</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Assault chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> are uncommon in northern Europe. Besides local toxicity, systemic manifestations are possible after strong acid exposure. A 40-year-old woman was admitted 1 h after a criminal assault with sulfuric acid. The total <span class="hlt">burned</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> was 35%, third degree. Injury was due to sulfuric acid (measured pH 0.9) obtained from a car battery. Immediate complications were obstructive dyspnea and metabolic acidosis. The admission arterial pH was 6.92, with total bicarbonate 8.6 mEq/l and base deficit 23.4 mEq/l. The correction of metabolic acidosis was achieved after several hours by the administration of bicarbonate and lactate buffers. The patient developed several <span class="hlt">burns</span>-related complications (sepsis and acute renal failure). Cutaneous projections of strong acids may cause severe metabolic acidosis, particularly when copious irrigation and clothes removal cannot be immediately performed at the scene. PMID:22787349</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B53E..07H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B53E..07H"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping and monitoring cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> in European Russia: a multi-sensor approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hall, J.; Loboda, T. V.; Mccarty, G.; McConnell, L.; Woldemariam, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Short lived aerosols and pollutants transported from high northern latitudes have amplified the short term warming in the Arctic region. Specifically, black carbon (BC) is recognized as the second most important human emission in regards to climate forcing, behind carbon dioxide with a total climate forcing of +1.1Wm-2. Early studies have suggested that cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> may be a high contributor to the BC emissions which are directly deposited above the Arctic Circle. However, accurate monitoring of cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> from existing active fire and <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> products is limited. Most existing algorithms are focused on mapping hotter and larger wildfire events. The timing of cropland <span class="hlt">burning</span> differs from wildfire events and their transient nature adds a further challenge to the product development. In addition, the analysis of multi-year cloud cover over Russian croplands, using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily surface reflectance data showed that on <span class="hlt">average</span> early afternoon observations from MODIS/ Aqua provided 68 clear views per growing period (defined 1st March 2003 - 30th November 2012) with a range from 30 to 101 clear views; whereas MODIS/Terra provided 75 clear views per growing period (defined 1st March 2001 - 30th November 2012) with a range from 37 to 113 clear views. Here we present a new approach to <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> mapping in croplands from satellite imagery. Our algorithm is designed to detect <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> only within croplands and does not have the requirements to perform well outside those. The algorithm focuses on tracking the natural intra-annual development curve specific for crops rather than natural vegetation and works by identifying the subtle spectral nuances between varieties of cropland field categories. Using a combination of the high visual accuracy from very high resolution (VHR, defined as spatial resolution < 5m) imagery and the temporal trend of MODIS data, we are able to differentiate between <span class="hlt">burned</span> and plowed cropland fields in European Russia. The VHR imagery allows for more accurate identification of field condition (<span class="hlt">burned</span>, bare, residue) through visual interpretation and by the incorporation of the 1km MODIS Active Fire (MCD14) dataset as a means of independent validation for the selection of <span class="hlt">burned</span> training and validation samples. Confirmed by active fire and visual assessment, these fields then serve as a subset of training data to extract a larger sample set of <span class="hlt">burned</span> fields from VHR imagery, using the Near Infrared (NIR) band (760-900 nm). NIR showed the largest statistical differences between the <span class="hlt">burned</span> and unburned field samples using ANOVA and post-hoc statistics with an f value (625.8) far exceeding the critical F-value of 2.665 at p < 0.05. Early-stage validation of the algorithm has shown notable improvement in accuracy over the existing MODIS-based global (MCD64 and MCD45) and regional approaches. Large confusion is found over the mollisol (dark-soil) regions compared to the lighter soil <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the north. Further algorithm improvements, which rely on in situ observations and other auxiliary sources of information, are underway. In the future, we plan to expand applications of this algorithm to cover all Russian croplands between 2001 and 2013.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25683513','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25683513"><span id="translatedtitle">Anti-HLA sensitization in extensively <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients: extent, associated factors, and reduction in potential access to vascularized composite allotransplantation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duhamel, Patrick; Suberbielle, Caroline; Grimbert, Philippe; Leclerc, Thomas; Jacquelinet, Christian; Audry, Benoit; Bargues, Laurent; Charron, Dominique; Bey, Eric; Lantieri, Laurent; Hivelin, Mikael</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Extensively <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients receive iterative blood transfusions and skin allografts that often lead to HLA sensitization, and potentially impede access to vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA). In this retrospective, single-center study, anti-HLA sensitization was measured by single-antigen-flow bead analysis in patients with deep, second- and third-degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> over ≥40% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA). Association of HLA sensitization with blood transfusions, skin allografts, and pregnancies was analyzed by bivariate analysis. The eligibility for transplantation was assessed using calculated panel reactive antibodies (cPRA). Twenty-nine patients aged 32 ± 14 years, including 11 women, presented with a mean <span class="hlt">burned</span> TBSA of 54 ± 11%. Fifteen patients received skin allografts, comprising those who received cryopreserved (n = 3) or glycerol-preserved (n = 7) allografts, or both (n = 5). An <span class="hlt">average</span> 36 ± 13 packed red blood cell (PRBC) units were transfused per patient. In sera samples collected 38 ± 13 months after the <span class="hlt">burns</span>, all patients except one presented with anti-HLA antibodies, of which 13 patients (45%) had complement-fixing antibodies. Eighteen patients (62%) were considered highly sensitized (cPRA≥85%). Cryopreserved, but not glycerol-preserved skin allografts, history of pregnancy, and number of PRBC units were associated with HLA sensitization. Extensively <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients may become highly HLA sensitized during acute care and hence not qualify for VCA. Alternatives to skin allografts might help preserve their later access to VCA. PMID:25683513</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9528178','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9528178"><span id="translatedtitle">[Objectives, results and future prospects of <span class="hlt">burn</span> treatment in 1997].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carsin, H; Ainaud, P; Le Bever, H; Rives, J M; Le Coadou, A; Stephanazzi, J</p> <p>1997-10-01</p> <p>When <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries to the skin are extensive, delays in wound closure contribute to multiple organ failure because the availability of donor sites does not allow early and permanent coverage of excised wounds. From 1991 to 1996, 30 patients with a mean <span class="hlt">burn</span> size of 78% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (65% full-thickness) underwent skin grafting with autologous cultured epidermis (AEC) performed in the labs of Genzyme Tissue Repair Company. Twenty three were adults and seven children under 15 (mean age 29, range 2.5 to 70); 27 suffered inhalation injury; 3 presented with multiple trauma and 2 with blast injury. As soon as possible wound beds were excised and temporarily covered with allografts or with sandwich or meshed autografts; the mean surface covered with autografts was 28 +/- 12%. Keratinocytes grafts were applied to a mean of 37 +/- 16.5%, an <span class="hlt">average</span> of 210 grafts of 25 to 30 cm2. Three patients died respectively at day 67, 81 and 90. At time of gaze backing removal, the mean percentage of culture engraftment was 69% (range 25 to 95); this engraftment was higher for children (74%) and very bad above 60 (25%). The mean length of hospitalisation was 114 +/- 30 days. The definitive coverage by AEC was evaluated through the percentage of secondary autografted <span class="hlt">area</span>: 10 +/- 9.5% (range 0 to 46). The <span class="hlt">average</span> cost by patient was 98,500$ or 16$ by cm2 of culture. The weakness of epithelialisation makes essential a dermal support to the keratinocytes cultures, allodermis is now currently used, perhaps the new skin substitutes will give the ideal missing piece. PMID:9528178</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26326088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26326088"><span id="translatedtitle">Perceiving the <span class="hlt">average</span> color.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Srivatsav, Siddhart; Webster, Jacquelyn; Webster, Michael</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">average</span> color in a scene is a potentially important cue to the illuminant and thus for color constancy, but it remains unknown how well and in what ways observers can estimate the mean chromaticity. We examined this by measuring the variability in "achromatic" settings for stimuli composed of different distributions of colors. The displays consisted of a 15 by 15 palette of colors shown on a gray background on a monitor, with each chip subtending 0.5 deg. Individual colors were randomly sampled from varying contrast ranges along the luminance, S and LM cardinal axes. Observers were instructed to adjust the chromaticity of the palette so that the mean was gray, with variability estimated from 20 or more repeated settings. This variability increased progressively with increasing contrast in the distributions, with large increases for chromatic contrast but also weak effects for added luminance contrast. Signals along the cardinal axes are relatively independent in many detection and discrimination tasks, but showed strong interference in the white estimates. Specifically, adding S contrast increased variability in the white settings along both the S and LM axes, and vice versa. This "cross-masking" and the effects of chromatic variance in general may occur because observers cannot explicitly perceive or represent the mean of a set of qualitatively different hues (e.g. that red and green hues <span class="hlt">average</span> to gray), and thus may infer the mean only indirectly (e.g. from the relative saturation of different hues). Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326088</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26360361','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26360361"><span id="translatedtitle">Care of the <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Casualty in the Prolonged Field Care Environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Studer, Nicholas M; Driscoll, Ian R; Daly, Ivonne M; Graybill, John C</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Burns</span> are frequently encountered on the modern battlefield, with 5% - 20% of combat casualties expected to sustain some <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. Addressing immediate life-threatening conditions in accordance with the MARCH protocol (massive hemorrhage, airway, respirations, circulation, hypothermia/head injury) remains the top priority for <span class="hlt">burn</span> casualties. Stopping the <span class="hlt">burning</span> process, total <span class="hlt">burn</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) calculation, fluid resuscitation, covering the wounds, and hypothermia management are the next steps. If transport to definitive care is delayed and the prolonged field care stage is entered, the provider must be prepared to provide for the complex resuscitation and wound care needs of a critically ill <span class="hlt">burn</span> casualty. PMID:26360361</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JBO....18f1204M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JBO....18f1204M"><span id="translatedtitle">Noninvasive determination of <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth in children by digital infrared thermal imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Medina-Preciado, Jose David; Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar Samuel; Velez-Gomez, Ezequiel; Miranda-Altamirano, Ariel; Gonzlez, Francisco Javier</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Digital infrared thermal imaging is used to assess noninvasively the severity of <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds in 13 pediatric patients. A delta-T (?T) parameter obtained by subtracting the temperature of a healthy contralateral region from the temperature of the <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound is compared with the <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth measured histopathologically. Thermal imaging results show that superficial dermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> (IIa) show increased temperature compared with their contralateral healthy region, while deep dermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> (IIb) show a lower temperature than their contralateral healthy region. This difference in temperature is statistically significant (p<0.0001) and provides a way of distinguishing deep dermal from superficial dermal <span class="hlt">burns</span>. These results show that digital infrared thermal imaging could be used as a noninvasive procedure to assess <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds. An additional advantage of using thermal imaging, which can image a large skin surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, is that it can be used to identify regions with different <span class="hlt">burn</span> depths and estimate the size of the grafts needed for deep dermal <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16229658','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16229658"><span id="translatedtitle">Segmentation and classification of <span class="hlt">burn</span> images by color and texture information.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Acha, Begoña; Serrano, Carmen; Acha, José I; Roa, Laura M</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, a <span class="hlt">burn</span> color image segmentation and classification system is proposed. The aim of the system is to separate <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds from healthy skin, and to distinguish among the different types of <span class="hlt">burns</span> (<span class="hlt">burn</span> depths). Digital color photographs are used as inputs to the system. The system is based on color and texture information, since these are the characteristics observed by physicians in order to form a diagnosis. A perceptually uniform color space (L*u*v*) was used, since Euclidean distances calculated in this space correspond to perceptual color differences. After the <span class="hlt">burn</span> is segmented, a set of color and texture features is calculated that serves as the input to a Fuzzy-ARTMAP neural network. The neural network classifies <span class="hlt">burns</span> into three types of <span class="hlt">burn</span> depths: superficial dermal, deep dermal, and full thickness. Clinical effectiveness of the method was demonstrated on 62 clinical <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound images, yielding an <span class="hlt">average</span> classification success rate of 82%. PMID:16229658</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4286513','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4286513"><span id="translatedtitle">Healthcare costs of <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients from homes without fire sprinklers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Banfield, Joanne; Rehou, Sarah; Gomez, Manuel; Redelmeier, Donald A.; Jeschke, Marc G.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The treatment of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries requires high-cost services for healthcare and society. Automatic fire sprinklers are a preventive measure that can decrease fire injuries, deaths, property damage and environmental toxins. This study’s aim was to conduct a cost-analysis of patients with <span class="hlt">burn</span> or inhalation injuries due to residential fires, and to compare this to the cost of implementing residential automatic fire sprinklers. We conducted a cohort analysis of adult <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients admitted to our provincial <span class="hlt">burn</span> center (1995–2012). Patient demographics and injury characteristics were collected from medical records, and clinical and coroner databases. Resource costs included <span class="hlt">average</span> cost per day at our intensive care and rehabilitation program, transportation, and property loss. During the study period there were 1,557 residential fire-related deaths province-wide and 1,139 patients were admitted to our provincial <span class="hlt">burn</span> center due to a flame injury occurring at home. At our <span class="hlt">burn</span> center, the <span class="hlt">average</span> cost was CAN$84,678 per patient with a total cost of CAN$96,448,194. All resources totaled CAN$3,605,775,200. This study shows the considerable healthcare costs of <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients from homes without fire sprinklers. PMID:25412056</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25412056','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25412056"><span id="translatedtitle">Healthcare costs of <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients from homes without fire sprinklers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Banfield, Joanne; Rehou, Sarah; Gomez, Manuel; Redelmeier, Donald A; Jeschke, Marc G</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The treatment of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries requires high-cost services for healthcare and society. Automatic fire sprinklers are a preventive measure that can decrease fire injuries, deaths, property damage, and environmental toxins. This study's aim was to conduct a cost analysis of patients with <span class="hlt">burn</span> or inhalation injuries caused by residential fires and to compare this with the cost of implementing residential automatic fire sprinklers. We conducted a cohort analysis of adult <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients admitted to our provincial <span class="hlt">burn</span> center (1995-2012). Patient demographics and injury characteristics were collected from medical records and clinical and coroner databases. Resource costs included <span class="hlt">average</span> cost per day at our intensive care and rehabilitation program, transportation, and property loss. During the study period, there were 1557 residential fire-related deaths province-wide and 1139 patients were admitted to our provincial <span class="hlt">burn</span> center as a result of a flame injury occurring at home. At our <span class="hlt">burn</span> center, the <span class="hlt">average</span> cost was CAN$84,678 per patient with a total cost of CAN$96,448,194. All resources totaled CAN$3,605,775,200. This study shows the considerable healthcare costs of <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients from homes without fire sprinklers. PMID:25412056</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=238241','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=238241"><span id="translatedtitle">PGN Prescribed <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Research Summary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Since 1997, we have been studying the effects of prescribed <span class="hlt">burns</span> conducted during late winter on shortgrass steppe on the Pawnee National Grassland. During 1997 – 2002, we studied <span class="hlt">burns</span> on the western (Crow Valley) portion of the Pawnee by comparing plant growth on <span class="hlt">burns</span> conducted by the Forest Ser...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/bio_burn/bio_burn_table','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/bio_burn/bio_burn_table"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Data and Information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-04-21</p> <p>Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Data and Information This data set represents ... geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span>. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ... models of the atmosphere. Project Title:  Biomass <span class="hlt">Burning</span> Discipline:  Tropospheric Chemistry ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3341877','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3341877"><span id="translatedtitle">The overall patterns of <span class="hlt">burns</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Almoghrabi, A.; Abu Shaban, N.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Summary <span class="hlt">Burn</span> patterns differ across the whole world and not only in relation to lack of education, overcrowding, and poverty. Cultures, habits, traditions, psychiatric illness, and epilepsy are strongly correlated to <span class="hlt">burn</span> patterns. However, <span class="hlt">burns</span> may also occur because of specific religious beliefs and activities, social events and festivals, traditional medical practices, occupational activities, and war. PMID:22639565</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=132467&keyword=bms&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=57460538&CFTOKEN=59066203','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=132467&keyword=bms&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=57460538&CFTOKEN=59066203"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">BURN</span> DATA COORDINATING CENTER (BDCC)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Data Coordinating Center (BDCC) began collecting data in 1994 and is currently the largest <span class="hlt">burn</span> database in the country. Pediatric <span class="hlt">burn</span> data was added in 1998. The BMS database contains over 2,800 cases supporting clinical research and research on outcomes including empl...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1344165','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1344165"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical Debridement of <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by <span class="hlt">burning</span>, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree <span class="hlt">burns</span> are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of <span class="hlt">burns</span>, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme21 and Travase.39,48 It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and contaminated types. ImagesFigs. 1a-c.Fig. 1b.Fig. 1c.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9a.Fig. 9B.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Figs. 12a-c.Fig. 12b.Fig. 12c.Figs. 14a-c.Fig. 14b.Fig. 14c.Figs. 15a-c.Fig. 15b.Fig. 15c. PMID:4606330</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3474405','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3474405"><span id="translatedtitle">Algorithm for Primary Full-thickness Skin Grafting in Pediatric Hand <span class="hlt">Burns</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Park, Yang Seo; Huh, Gi Yeun; Koh, Jang Hyu; Seo, Dong Kook; Choi, Jai Koo; Jang, Young Chul</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Pediatric hand <span class="hlt">burns</span> are a difficult problem because they lead to serious hand deformities with functional impairment due to rapid growth during childhood. Therefore, adequate management is required beginning in the acute stage. Our study aims to establish surgical guidelines for a primary full-thickness skin graft (FTSG) in pediatric hand <span class="hlt">burns</span>, based on long-term observation periods and existing studies. Methods From January 2000 to May 2011, 210 patients underwent primary FTSG. We retrospectively studied the clinical course and treatment outcomes based on the patients' medical records. The patients' demographics, age, sex, injury site of the fingers, presence of web space involvement, the incidence of postoperative late deformities, and the duration of revision were critically analyzed. Results The mean age of the patients was 24.4 months (range, 8 to 94 months), consisting of 141 males and 69 females. The overall observation period was 6.9 years (range, 1 to 11 years) on <span class="hlt">average</span>. At the time of the <span class="hlt">burn</span>, 56 cases were to a single finger, 73 to two fingers, 45 to three fingers, and 22 to more than three. Among these cases, 70 were <span class="hlt">burns</span> that included a web space (33.3%). During the observation, 25 cases underwent corrective operations with an <span class="hlt">average</span> period of 40.6 months. Conclusions In the volar <span class="hlt">area</span>, primary full-thickness skin grafting can be a good indication for an isolated injured finger, excluding the web spaces, and injuries of less than three fingers including the web spaces. Also, in the dorsal <span class="hlt">area</span>, full-thickness skin grafting can be a good indication. However, if the donor site is insufficient and the wound is large, split-thickness skin grafting can be considered. PMID:23094243</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1358391','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1358391"><span id="translatedtitle">Immediate enteral feeding in <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients is safe and effective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McDonald, W S; Sharp, C W; Deitch, E A</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Recent animal studies indicate that immediate enteral feeding may be beneficial in patients with major <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Yet, largely because of the fear of complications, immediate enteral feeding is not commonly performed in patients with major <span class="hlt">burns</span> until after the resuscitation period. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of immediate enteral tube feedings in patients with <span class="hlt">burns</span> larger than 20% of their body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. The daily intake of enteral feedings begun immediately (less than 6 hours) after <span class="hlt">burn</span> was measured during the first 7 days after <span class="hlt">burn</span> in 106 consecutive patients with a mean +/- SD <span class="hlt">burn</span> size of 40% +/- 21%. The incidence of complications related to enteral feeding was low; aspiration pneumonia did not occur. Vomiting was the major complication observed and occurred 21 times in 16 patients during the 745 study days (2.8% daily incidence). The mean number of calories absorbed enterally increased daily and met the patient's calculated resting energy expenditure (REE) on day 3 after <span class="hlt">burn</span> (99% +/- 7% REE). The results of this study indicate that immediate enteral feeding is a safe and effective method of delivering nutritional support to <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims with major <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:1899551</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4780278','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4780278"><span id="translatedtitle">Amputation Following Hand Escharotomy in Patients with <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Injury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schulze, Scott M.; Choo, Joshua; Cooney, Damon; Moore, Alyssa L.; Sebens, Matt; Neumeister, Michael W.; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective: Hand <span class="hlt">burns</span> are commonly seen in patients with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury. In the past, focus was on lifesaving measures, but with advances in <span class="hlt">burn</span> care during the last century, the paradigm shifted to digital salvage and eventually to functional digital salvage. Good outcomes are heavily dependent on the care that is rendered during the initial management of the <span class="hlt">burn</span>. Methods: A retrospective medical record review was conducted through the Central Illinois Regional <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Center Patient Registry. Patients with <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury treated with upper extremity and hand escharotomy between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2005, were included in the study. Results: We identified a total of 34 patients with 57 <span class="hlt">burned</span> hands. Six hands required delayed amputation of digits despite recognition of neurovascular compromise and escharotomy, yielding a 10% amputation rate. No correlation could be drawn with regard to total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, age, or sex. Conclusion: Important principles in the acute phase include early splinting, recognition of the need for escharotomy and complete escharotomy when necessary, early excision and grafting, and involvement of occupational therapy for splinting and to guide both active and passive exercises. Although uncommon, some extremity <span class="hlt">burns</span> may require subsequent amputation despite prompt attention and optimal treatment. In our case series, the need for amputation after successful escharotomies of salvageable digits was associated with full-thickness and electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:26977219</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3664525','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3664525"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology and outcome of <span class="hlt">burns</span> at the Saud Al Babtain <span class="hlt">Burns</span>, Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Center, Kuwait: our experience over five years (from 2006 to 2010)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Khashaba, H.A.; Al-Fadhli, A.N.; Al-Tarrah, K.S.; Wilson, Y.T.; Moiemen, N.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Summary Aim To determine the epidemiology and clinical presentation, and any contributing factors responsible for <span class="hlt">burns</span> and outcome of care in Kuwait over the 5-yr period January 2006 to December 2010. Patients and methods. The study reviewed 1702 <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients admitted over the study period to the Saud Al Babtain <span class="hlt">Burns</span>, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Center, Kuwait. Patient characteristics, including age, sex, type of <span class="hlt">burn</span>, nationality, total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) <span class="hlt">burn</span>, hospital stay in days, and mortality were recorded. Results. Seventy-one per cent of the 1702 <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients admitted were males; 540 were children. The majority of patients (64%) had less than 15% TBSA <span class="hlt">burns</span> and only 14% had more than 50% TBSA <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Flame <span class="hlt">burns</span> were the most common cause of <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries (60%), followed by scalds (29%). Scalds were most common in children. The mortality rate was 5.75%. Flame <span class="hlt">burn</span> was the leading cause of mortality. Lethal dose 50 (% TBSA at which a certain group has a 50% chance of survival) for adults (16-40 yr) and for the elderly (>65 yr) was 76.5% and 41.8% TBSA respectively. Conclusion. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> injury is an important public health concern and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Flame and scald <span class="hlt">burns</span> are commonly a result of domestic and occupational accidents and they are preventable. Effective initial resuscitation, infection control, and adequate surgical treatment improve outcomes. PMID:23766750</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870023591&hterms=alloy+718&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dalloy%2B718','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870023591&hterms=alloy+718&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dalloy%2B718"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> propagation rates of metals and alloys in gaseous oxygen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Benz, F. J.; Shaw, R. C.; Homa, J. M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">average</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span> rates of several metals and alloys were determined at oxygen pressures between 3.45 and 68.91 MPa (500 and 10,000 psig) and ambient temperature. Several materials were tested at elevated sample temperatures. The test materials were fabricated into solid cylindrical rods and mounted vertically in the test chamber. A magnesium igniter was positioned at the bottom end of each test specimen to promote upward <span class="hlt">burn</span> propagations. Nickel 200 and copper 102 could not be ignited at all oxygen pressures tested whereas Monel 400 appeared to ignite but quickly self-extinguished. The other materials tested <span class="hlt">burned</span> the entire length of the test sample. Aluminum 6061 exhibited the fastest <span class="hlt">burn</span> propagation rate. Inconel 718 <span class="hlt">burned</span> slower than aluminum but faster than the stainless steels (types 304 and 316). Increasing oxygen pressure generally increased the <span class="hlt">burn</span> propagation rate of the materials. Increasing the ambient temperature of the test specimens for several materials to approximately 850 K (1070 F) had little effect upon the ignition or <span class="hlt">burn</span> properties of nickel 200 or Monel 400. Type 316 stainless steel exhibited an increase in its <span class="hlt">burn</span> propagation rate at this higher temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19875347','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19875347"><span id="translatedtitle">The nitric acid <span class="hlt">burn</span> trauma of the skin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kolios, L; Striepling, E; Kolios, G; Rudolf, K-D; Dresing, K; Dörges, J; Stürmer, K M; Stürmer, E K</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Nitric acid <span class="hlt">burn</span> traumata often occur in the chemical industry. A few publications addressing this topic can be found in the medical database, and there are no reports about these traumata in children. A total of 24 patients, <span class="hlt">average</span> 16.6 years of age, suffering from nitric acid traumata were treated. Wound with I degrees <span class="hlt">burns</span> received open therapy with panthenol-containing creams. Wound of II degrees and higher were initially treated by irrigation with sterile isotonic saline solution and then by covering with silver-sulphadiazine dressing. Treatment was changed on the second day to fluid-absorbent foam bandages for superficial wounds (up to IIa degrees depth) and occlusive, antiseptic moist bandages in combination with enzymatic substances for IIb degrees -III degrees <span class="hlt">burns</span>. After the delayed demarcation, necrectomy and mesh-graft transplantation were performed. All wounds healed adequately. Chemical <span class="hlt">burn</span> traumata with nitric acid lead to specific yellow- to brown-stained wounds with slower accumulation of eschar and slower demarcation compared with thermal <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Remaining wound eschar induced no systemic inflammation reaction. After demarcation, skin transplantation can be performed on the wounds, as is commonly done. The distinguishing feature of nitric-acid-induced chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> is the difficulty in differentiation and classification of <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth. An immediate lavage should be followed by silver sulphadiazine treatment. Thereafter, fluid-absorbent foam bandages or occlusive, antiseptic moist bandages should be used according to the <span class="hlt">burn</span> depth. Slow demarcation caused a delay in performing surgical treatments. PMID:19875347</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/840668','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/840668"><span id="translatedtitle">Americans' <span class="hlt">Average</span> Radiation Exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>NA</p> <p>2000-08-11</p> <p>We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the <span class="hlt">average</span> dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860010109','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860010109"><span id="translatedtitle">Temperature <span class="hlt">averaging</span> thermal probe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kalil, L. F.; Reinhardt, V. (inventors)</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A thermal probe to <span class="hlt">average</span> temperature fluctuations over a prolonged period was formed with a temperature sensor embedded inside a solid object of a thermally conducting material. The solid object is held in a position equidistantly spaced apart from the interior surfaces of a closed housing by a mount made of a thermally insulating material. The housing is sealed to trap a vacuum or mass of air inside and thereby prevent transfer of heat directly between the environment outside of the housing and the solid object. Electrical leads couple the temperature sensor with a connector on the outside of the housing. Other solid objects of different sizes and materials may be substituted for the cylindrically-shaped object to vary the time constant of the probe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26871246','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26871246"><span id="translatedtitle">Amish Culture and Their Utilization of <span class="hlt">Burns</span> and Wounds Ointment for the Treatment of <span class="hlt">Burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trinkle, Krystal Melich</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>As indicated in the 2010 United States Religion Census, there are approximately 251 000 Amish people in the United States and Ontario. This census also demonstrated that a new Amish community is founded on <span class="hlt">average</span> about every three-and-a-half weeks, suggesting that this religious culture is the fastest-growing religion throughout the United States. Because of the rapid growth of the Amish population, it is essential for health care workers to understand their background, cultural, and health care beliefs, especially in the treatment of <span class="hlt">burns</span>. The purpose of this article is to examine the Amish background, cultural, and health care beliefs, specifically the utilization of <span class="hlt">burns</span> and wounds ointment and burdock leaves in the treatment of <span class="hlt">burns</span>. PMID:26871246</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B33E0214F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B33E0214F"><span id="translatedtitle">Using satellite image-based maps to improve sugarcane straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> emission estimates in the state of São Paulo, Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>França, D.; Longo, K.; Rudorff, B.; Aguiar, D.; Freitas, S. R.; Stockler, R.; Pereira, G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Since the last decade, the global demand for biofuel production has been increasing every year due to the growing need for energy supply security and mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHG). Currently, sugarcane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels and Brazil is already the world's largest sugarcane producer, devoting almost 50% of it to ethanol production. The state of São Paulo is the major sugarcane producer in this country, with a cultivated <span class="hlt">area</span> of about 5.4 Mha in 2011. Approximately 2 million hectares were harvested annually from 2006 to 2011 with the pre-harvest straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> practice, which emits trace gases and particulate material to the atmosphere. The assessment and monitoring of sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> impacts are fundamental in order to mitigate the negative impacts of pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> and consolidate the environmental benefits of sugarcane ethanol. Although some official inventories created by the Brazilian government have indicated the prevalence of emissions from sugarcane straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> in total agricultural residue emissions, specific information about emissions of gases and aerosols during pre-harvest <span class="hlt">burning</span> of sugarcane is still scarce in Brazil. This study aimed to contribute to the improvement of estimates of emissions from sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> through the use of specific parameters for sugarcane straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> and a method which has avoided underestimations resulting from the unique characteristics of this type of biomass fire. In this investigation, emissions of several air pollutants released by sugarcane <span class="hlt">burning</span> during the harvest season were estimated through the integrated use of remote sensing based maps of sugarcane <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> and a numerical tool for the state of São Paulo from 2006 to 2011. <span class="hlt">Average</span> estimated emissions (Gg/year) were 1,130 ± 152 for CO, 26 ± 4 for NOX, 16 ± 2 for CH4, 45 ± 6 for PM2.5, 120 ± 16 for PM10 and 154 ± 21 for NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons). An intercomparison among annual emissions from this study and annual emissions from four other different approaches indicated that the estimates obtained by satellite fire detection or low spatial resolution approaches tend to underestimate sugarcane <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Overall, our results also indicated that government actions to reduce sugarcane straw <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions are becoming effective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wa0562.photos.370802p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wa0562.photos.370802p/"><span id="translatedtitle">13. Southwest corner of <span class="hlt">burning</span> hood and incinerator. North wall ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>13. Southwest corner of <span class="hlt">burning</span> hood and incinerator. North wall of scrubber cell room. Looking southwest. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West <span class="hlt">Area</span>, Richland, Benton County, WA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920045037&hterms=1075&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231075','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920045037&hterms=1075&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231075"><span id="translatedtitle">Global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> - Atmospheric, climatic and biospheric implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Levine, Joel S.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Changes in the trace gas composition of the atmosphere due to global biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> are examined. The environmental consequences of those changes which have become <span class="hlt">areas</span> of international concern are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14559268','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14559268"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of aerosols from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span>--a case study from Mizoram (Northeast), India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Badarinath, K V S; Madhavi Latha, K; Kiran Chand, T R; Gupta, Prabhat K; Ghosh, A B; Jain, S L; Gera, B S; Singh, Risal; Sarkar, A K; Singh, Nahar; Parmar, R S; Koul, S; Kohli, R; Nath, Shambhu; Ojha, V K; Singh, Gurvir</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Physical and optical properties of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols in Northeastern region, India analyzed based on measurements made during February 2002. Large spatial extent of Northeastern Region moist tropical to moist sub-tropical forests in India have high frequency of <span class="hlt">burning</span> in annual dry seasons. Characterization of resultant trace gases and aerosols from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is important for the atmospheric radiative process. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) observed to be high during <span class="hlt">burning</span> period compared to pre- and post-<span class="hlt">burning</span> days. Peak period of biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> is highly correlated with measured AOD and total columnar water vapor. Size distribution of aerosols showed bimodal size distribution during <span class="hlt">burning</span> day and unimodal size distribution during pre- and post-<span class="hlt">burning</span> days. Size distribution retrievals from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols show dominance of accumulation mode particles. Weighted mean radius is high (0.22 microm) during <span class="hlt">burning</span> period. Columnar content of aerosols observed to be high during <span class="hlt">burning</span> period in addition to the drastic reduction of visibility. During the <span class="hlt">burning</span> day Anderson sampler measurements showed dominance of accumulation mode particles. The diurnal <span class="hlt">averaged</span> values of surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing af biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> aerosols varies from -59 to -87 Wm(-2) on different days. Measured and modeled solar irradiances are also discussed in the paper. PMID:14559268</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12621941','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12621941"><span id="translatedtitle">[Chemical and electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sanchez, Raymond</p> <p>2002-12-15</p> <p>Chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> are less frequent in routine practice, but could be very serious owing to the complexity and severity of their actions. Influx of casualty after a civil disaster (industrial explosion) or military (war or terrorism) is possible. The action of these agents could be prolonged and deep. In addition to the skin, respiratory lesions and general intoxication could be observed. The urgent local treatment rely essentially on prolonged washing. Prevention and adequate emergency care could limit the serious consequences of these accidents. Accidents (thermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> or electrisations) due to high or low voltage electricity are frequent. The severity is linked with the affected skin but especially with internal lesions, muscular, neurological or cardiac lesions. All cases of electrisation need hospital care. Locally, the lesions are often deep with difficult surgical repairs and often require amputation. Aesthetic and functional sequela are therefore frequent. Secondary complications could appear several months after the accident: cataract, dysesthesia and hypotonia. PMID:12621941</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=12621941&dopt=AbstractPlus','TOXNETTOXLINE'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=12621941&dopt=AbstractPlus"><span id="translatedtitle">[Chemical and electrical <span class="hlt">burns</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?TOXLINE">TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information</a></p> <p>Sanchez R</p> <p>2002-12-15</p> <p>Chemical <span class="hlt">burns</span> are less frequent in routine practice, but could be very serious owing to the complexity and severity of their actions. Influx of casualty after a civil disaster (industrial explosion) or military (war or terrorism) is possible. The action of these agents could be prolonged and deep. In addition to the skin, respiratory lesions and general intoxication could be observed. The urgent local treatment rely essentially on prolonged washing. Prevention and adequate emergency care could limit the serious consequences of these accidents. Accidents (thermal <span class="hlt">burns</span> or electrisations) due to high or low voltage electricity are frequent. The severity is linked with the affected skin but especially with internal lesions, muscular, neurological or cardiac lesions. All cases of electrisation need hospital care. Locally, the lesions are often deep with difficult surgical repairs and often require amputation. Aesthetic and functional sequela are therefore frequent. Secondary complications could appear several months after the accident: cataract, dysesthesia and hypotonia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3680280','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3680280"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burns</span> and beauty nails</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bélanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with <span class="hlt">burns</span> over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury. PMID:24421671</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA07110&hterms=Burns&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBurns','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA07110&hterms=Burns&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBurns"><span id="translatedtitle">'<span class="hlt">Burns</span> Cliff' Color Panorama</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><p/> [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for '<span class="hlt">Burns</span> Cliff' Color Panorama (QTVR) <p/> NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this view of '<span class="hlt">Burns</span> Cliff' after driving right to the base of this southeastern portion of the inner wall of 'Endurance Crater.' The view combines frames taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera between the rover's 287th and 294th martian days (Nov. 13 to 20, 2004). <p/> This is a composite of 46 different images, each acquired in seven different Pancam filters. It is an approximately true-color rendering generated from the panoramic camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters. The mosaic spans more than 180 degrees side to side. Because of this wide-angle view, the cliff walls appear to bulge out toward the camera. In reality the walls form a gently curving, continuous surface.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23891258','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23891258"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of PM10 and its ion composition emitted from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span> in the chamber for estimation of open <span class="hlt">burning</span> emissions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sillapapiromsuk, Sopittaporn; Chantara, Somporn; Tengjaroenkul, Urai; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon; Prapamontol, Tippawan</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Biomass samples including agricultural waste (rice straw and maize residue) and forest leaf litter were collected from Chiang Mai Province, Thailand for the <span class="hlt">burning</span> experiment in the self-designed stainless steel chamber to simulate the emissions of PM10. The <span class="hlt">burning</span> of leaf litter emitted the highest PM10 (1.520.65 g kg(-1)). The PM10-bound ions emitted from the <span class="hlt">burning</span> of rice straw and maize residue showed the same trend, which was K(+)>Cl(-)>SO4(2-)>NH4(+)>NO3(-). However, the emissions from maize residue <span class="hlt">burning</span> were ~1.5-2.0 times higher than those from the rice straw <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The ion content emitted from leaf litter <span class="hlt">burning</span> was almost the same for all ion species. Noticeably, K(+) and Cl(-) concentrations were ~2-4 times lower than those emitted from agricultural waste <span class="hlt">burning</span>. It can be deduced that K(+) and Cl(-) were highly emitted from agricultural waste <span class="hlt">burning</span> due to the use of fertilizer and herbicides in the field, respectively. Based on emission values obtained from the chamber, the pollutant emission rate from open <span class="hlt">burning</span> was calculated. <span class="hlt">Burned</span> <span class="hlt">areas</span> in Chiang Mai Province were 3510 and 866 km(2) in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> was 71-88%, while agricultural land <span class="hlt">burning</span> accounted for 12-29% (rice field: crop field=1:3) of total <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span>. Therefore, emissions of PM10 from open <span class="hlt">burning</span> in Chiang Mai were 3051 ton (2010) and 705 ton (2011). Major ions emitted from agricultural waste <span class="hlt">burning</span> were found to be K(+) and Cl(-), while those from forest <span class="hlt">burning</span> were SO4(2-) and K(+). PMID:23891258</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20171014','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20171014"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of minor and moderate <span class="hlt">burns</span> in rural Ardabil, Iran.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mohammadi, Reza; Svanstrom, Leif; Ekman, Robert; Arshi, Shahnam; Hekmat, Sharareh; Malekpour, Niloufar; Mashoufi, Mehrnaz</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Epidemiology of minor <span class="hlt">burns</span> is not well defined worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine epidemiological features of minor and moderate <span class="hlt">burn</span> events that could be beneficial for prevention purposes. The study was conducted in Ardabil province in north-west Iran in 2005-2006. A total of 1700 minor and moderate <span class="hlt">burns</span> were studied using a pretested questionnaire. Using the SAS 9.1 statistical program analyses were made. Females comprised the majority of cases (n=1000, 58.8%) and children, aged six and younger, made up 36.4% of <span class="hlt">burn</span> victims. The majority of <span class="hlt">burns</span> were caused by hot water and tea with the primary containers being kettles in 37.8%, cups or glasses in 24.2%, pots in 13.6% and samovars in 7.9%. Samovars, gas stoves, valors and picnic gas stoves were the primary heating devices involved in <span class="hlt">burns</span>. In 56% of the cases, overturning of liquid containers was the primary injury mechanism of scalds. 43% had a second-degree <span class="hlt">burn</span> with a mean total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of 1.3%. This study provides possible beneficial information for <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention in the Ardabil <span class="hlt">area</span> and other similar settings. PMID:20171014</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6139257','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6139257"><span id="translatedtitle">Coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> arrangement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wormser, A.F.</p> <p>1981-03-03</p> <p>Pyrolyzing pulverized coal to form char and volatiles, separating the char from the volatiles, <span class="hlt">burning</span> the char in heattransfer relationship with a stoichiometric excess of air, forming thereby ash and a mixture of gases, the excess of air being chosen to produce in the ash a temperature below the fusion temperature thereof, separating the mixture of gases from the ash , and thereafter <span class="hlt">burning</span> the volatiles in the mixture of gases. Also, coal <span class="hlt">burning</span> apparatus which comprises, in combination a spouted bed pyrolyzer, a fluidized bed combustor, a first cyclone , a second cyclone, and an afterburner, the pyrolyzer being connected to accept pulverized coal and to discharge char to the combustor and gaseous materials with entrained particulate material to the first cyclone, the first cyclone being connected to deliver gases to the afterburner, the combustor being connected to accept also a combustion supporting gas and to deliver to the second cyclone gaseous materials with entrained particulate material, and the second cyclone being connected to deliver gaseous material to the afterburner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22138811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22138811"><span id="translatedtitle">When a hero becomes a patient: firefighter <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in the National <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Repository.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matt, Sarah E; Shupp, Jeffery W; Carter, Elizabeth A; Flanagan, Katherine E; Jordan, Marion H</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Firefighters receive significant training and are outfitted with state-of-the-art protective equipment. However, given the unpredictable nature of their work environment, injuries still occur. The National <span class="hlt">Burn</span> Repository (NBR) was viewed as a resource for defining the epidemiology of these injuries on a national level and to identify predictive factors for outcomes in this population. The NBR was queried for the occupation of "firefighter" for the years 1990-2008. Records were screened for completeness, and 597 patients were identified for analysis. Data examined included demographics, %TBSA <span class="hlt">burn</span>, length of stay (LOS), injury circumstance, and disposition. Multiple linear regression models were created to determine factors related to outcome measures. The majority of patients were white (84%) and male (96%). The mean age was 35 years. Most injuries were caused by fire/flame (73%). Only six deaths (1%) were reported. Most injuries were work-related (86%), and most patients were discharged home (92%). Inhalation injury was documented in 9% of patients. The mean LOS was 6.5 11.3 days (median 2 days), and few patients had critical care requirements. The <span class="hlt">average</span> %TBSA was 6 11.7%. Patients with larger injuries had increased LOS. The presence of inhalation injury, elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels, and advancing age were significantly associated with larger <span class="hlt">burns</span>. From the NBR data, most firefighter <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries were small, and few firefighter <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients required critical care resources or had significant disability. Firefighters comprise a small number of <span class="hlt">burn</span> center admissions each year, yet they are an important population to consider for <span class="hlt">burn</span> prevention efforts. PMID:22138811</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001427&hterms=fire+home&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dfire%2Bhome','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001427&hterms=fire+home&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dfire%2Bhome"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Burn</span> Scar Near the Hanford Nuclear Reservation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) image pair shows 'before and after' views of the <span class="hlt">area</span> around the Hanford Nuclear Reservation near Richland, Washington. On June 27, 2000, a fire in the dry sagebrush was sparked by an automobile crash. The flames were fanned by hot summer winds. By the day after the accident, about 100,000 acres had <span class="hlt">burned</span>, and the fire's spread forced the closure of highways and loss of homes. These images were obtained by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Compare the <span class="hlt">area</span> just above and to the right of the line of cumulus clouds in the May 15 image with the same <span class="hlt">area</span> imaged on August 3. The darkened <span class="hlt">burn</span> scar measures approximately 35 kilometers across. The Columbia River is seen wending its way around Hanford. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Science Team</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4729060','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4729060"><span id="translatedtitle">Have we really decreased mortality due to severe <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury in children?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Holland, Andrew J. A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In developed countries, in the twenty-first century, severe, large total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> (TBSA) <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries in children are rare. Prevention campaigns, education and public health interventions have significantly decreased the number of children sustaining <span class="hlt">burn</span> injuries as well as the severity of such injuries. Many technological medical and surgical advances have been developed in <span class="hlt">burn</span> care over the past several decades, increasing survival. Despite these interventions, long-term survival post <span class="hlt">burn</span> injury may still be significantly reduced. PMID:26835374</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20006537','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20006537"><span id="translatedtitle">Open air refuse <span class="hlt">burning</span> video: Proton Dan the science man explores open air refuse <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eastburn, M.D.; Sipple, J.L.; Deramo, A.R.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>The goal of this video is to educate school children to the potential hazards of open air trash <span class="hlt">burning</span>; to demonstrate alternative ways to dispose of trash; and to motivate students to take action to change the behavior of their parents with regard to trash <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The <span class="hlt">burning</span> of household trash, although illegal, is still a common practice in rural <span class="hlt">areas</span> of Delaware. Enforcement has been difficult because the practice is often performed at night and is done across a wide rural <span class="hlt">area</span> that is difficult to patrol on a continuing basis. The prohibition on trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> (revised Regulation 13 of The Delaware Code of Regulations Governing The Control of Air Pollution) has been in effect since 1968, but the public has been slow to comply because trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> has been practiced for many generations and because much of the public is unaware of the environmental impacts and/or the human health risks. This video may be valuable for other States to use as a public outreach tool regarding their problems with open air refuse <span class="hlt">burning</span>. The focus of the video is a 7th grade science class is given various assignments relating to Earth Day and preservation of natural resources. Two children in particular are given the assignment to research and report on the hazards of open air trash <span class="hlt">burning</span> and are asked to investigate alternative ways to dispose of refuse. Upon brainstorming how to find information on the topic, the kids decide to contact the host of a popular children's science show on broadcast television named Proton Dan the Science Man (a fictitious character and show based on Bill Nye the Science Guy). The host then invites the kids to the studio where he films his show and takes them through the topic. The TV host character takes the children to several external locations like a landfill, recycling centers, etc..</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22027805','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22027805"><span id="translatedtitle">Emission factors from residential combustion appliances <span class="hlt">burning</span> Portuguese biomass fuels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fernandes, A P; Alves, C A; Gonalves, C; Tarelho, L; Pio, C; Schimdl, C; Bauer, H</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Smoke from residential wood <span class="hlt">burning</span> has been identified as a major contributor to air pollution, motivating detailed emission measurements under controlled conditions. A series of experiments were performed to compare the emission levels from two types of wood-stoves to those of fireplaces. Eight types of biomass were <span class="hlt">burned</span> in the laboratory: wood from seven species of trees grown in the Portuguese forest (Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus, Quercus suber, Acacia longifolia, Quercus faginea, Olea europaea and Quercus ilex rotundifolia) and briquettes produced from forest biomass waste. <span class="hlt">Average</span> emission factors were in the ranges 27.5-99.2 g CO kg(-1), 552-1660 g CO(2) kg(-1), 0.66-1.34 g NO kg(-1), and 0.82-4.94 g hydrocarbons kg(-1) of biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span> (dry basis). <span class="hlt">Average</span> particle emission factors varied between 1.12 and 20.06 g kg(-1) biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span> (dry basis), with higher <span class="hlt">burn</span> rates producing significantly less particle mass per kg wood <span class="hlt">burned</span> than the low <span class="hlt">burn</span> rates. Particle mass emission factors from wood-stoves were lower than those from the fireplace. The <span class="hlt">average</span> emission factors for organic and elemental carbon were in the intervals 0.24-10.1 and 0.18-0.68 g kg(-1) biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span> (dry basis), respectively. The elemental carbon content of particles emitted from the energy-efficient "chimney type" logwood stove was substantially higher than in the conventional cast iron stove and fireplace, whereas the opposite was observed for the organic carbon fraction. Pinus pinaster, the only softwood species among all, was the biofuel with the lowest emissions of particles, CO, NO and hydrocarbons. PMID:22027805</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16843945','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16843945"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of vitamin and trace element supplementation in severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients undergoing long-term parenteral and enteral nutrition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perro, G; Bourdarias, B; Cutillas, M; Higueret, D; Sanchez, R; Iron, A</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>The efficacy of an oral supplement of vitamins and trace elements during a longterm artificial parenteral and enteral nutrition was investigated for 3 months in patients with extensive <span class="hlt">burns</span>. Thirty severely <span class="hlt">burned</span> patients (22 male, 8 female, age 41 +/- 18 years, range 23-59 years, 33 +/- 12% total body surface <span class="hlt">area</span> <span class="hlt">burn</span>, 22% +/- 8 full thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span> surface <span class="hlt">area</span>) were included. Every 10 days, from day 10 until day 90, we determined serum levels of: *vitamins B1, B12, A, E, *folic acid, *copper, zinc, iron, *transferrin, albumin, prealbumin, total proteins, *fibronectin, retinol binding protein (RBP), *calcium, *phosphorus, *triglycerides, *total cholesterol, *C reactive protein (CRP), *erythrocyte folic acid. The mean daily nutritional support was 60 Kcals and 0.4 g N per kg of body weight, 70% enterally and 30% parenterally administered, with enteral vitamin and trace element supplementation. On day 10, there was a decrease of the serum level of 19/20 parameters. For 8 parameters (vitamin A, total cholesterol, iron, transferrin, fibronectin, phosphorus, RBP, total proteins), the level was lower than usual. Between day 10 and day 20, a significant normalization of 6 of them was noted, the <span class="hlt">average</span> levels of transferrin and iron remaining below normal values until day 50. There was a significant decrease in C-reactive protein levels, however above normal limits. No deficiency in vitamins or trace elements was found. Cyclic variations of serum levels occurred which may be more related to volemic, hydroelectrolytic, endocrine and inflammatory disorders than to nutritional problems. PMID:16843945</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1489500','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1489500"><span id="translatedtitle">Porcine dermal collagen as a wound dressing for skin donor sites and deep partial skin thickness <span class="hlt">burns</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Z R; Hao, Z Q; Li, Y; Im, M J; Spence, R J</p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>Collagen was extracted by pepsin digestion from porcine skin, and collagen membrane was prepared by salt precipitation. The porcine collagen membrane was evaluated as a <span class="hlt">burn</span> wound dressing in deep partial skin thickness <span class="hlt">burn</span> wounds in rats. <span class="hlt">Burn</span> wounds, 4 x 4 cm, were inflicted by exposure of skin to 75 degrees C for 15 s followed by de-epithelialization. Wound healing was assessed by planimetry of epithelialization on day 10 after injury. Open wounds exhibited 24 per cent of wound <span class="hlt">area</span> re-epithelialized. Collagen membrane dressing significantly improved the healing to 69 per cent of wound <span class="hlt">area</span> (P < 0.0001). In a completely separate experiment, the porcine collagen membrane was applied as a wound dressing to the donor sites of <span class="hlt">burn</span> patients, and its effect on wound healing was compared with that of a petroleum jelly gauze dressing. The donor sites covered with petroleum jelly gauze had re-epithelialized by an <span class="hlt">average</span> of 14.5 days (ranging from 13 to 16 days) after wounding. The wounds dressed with collagen membrane demonstrated a significant increase in the healing rate. Complete re-epithelialization was observed by 10.3 days (ranging from 10 to 12 days) after wounding (P < 0.0001). PMID:1489500</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1079317','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1079317"><span id="translatedtitle">Local <span class="hlt">Burn</span>-Up Effects in the NBSR Fuel Element</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brown N. R.; Hanson A.; Diamond, D.</p> <p>2013-01-31</p> <p>This study addresses the over-prediction of local power when the <span class="hlt">burn</span>-up distribution in each half-element of the NBSR is assumed to be uniform. A single-element model was utilized to quantify the impact of axial and plate-wise <span class="hlt">burn</span>-up on the power distribution within the NBSR fuel elements for both high-enriched uranium (HEU) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. To validate this approach, key parameters in the single-element model were compared to parameters from an equilibrium core model, including neutron energy spectrum, power distribution, and integral U-235 vector. The power distribution changes significantly when incorporating local <span class="hlt">burn</span>-up effects and has lower power peaking relative to the uniform <span class="hlt">burn</span>-up case. In the uniform <span class="hlt">burn</span>-up case, the axial relative power peaking is over-predicted by as much as 59% in the HEU single-element and 46% in the LEU single-element with uniform <span class="hlt">burn</span>-up. In the uniform <span class="hlt">burn</span>-up case, the plate-wise power peaking is over-predicted by as much as 23% in the HEU single-element and 18% in the LEU single-element. The degree of over-prediction increases as a function of <span class="hlt">burn</span>-up cycle, with the greatest over-prediction at the end of Cycle 8. The thermal flux peak is always in the mid-plane gap; this causes the local cumulative <span class="hlt">burn</span>-up near the mid-plane gap to be significantly higher than the fuel element <span class="hlt">average</span>. Uniform <span class="hlt">burn</span>-up distribution throughout a half-element also causes a bias in fuel element reactivity worth, due primarily to the neutronic importance of the fissile inventory in the mid-plane gap region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACPD...1023559V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACPD...1023559V"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and temporal variability in the ratio of trace gases emitted from biomass <span class="hlt">burning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Leeuwen, T. T.; van der Werf, G. R.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Fires are a major source of trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. Quantitative knowledge on biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span> is improving, most importantly due to new <span class="hlt">burned</span> <span class="hlt">area</span> datasets. The partitioning of biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span> into emitted trace gases and aerosols, however, has received relatively little attention. To convert estimates of biomass <span class="hlt">burned</span> to trace gas and aerosol emissions, most studies have used emission ratios (or emission factors (EFs)) based on the arithmetic mean of field measurement outcomes, stratified by biome. However, EFs vary substantially in time and space, even within a single biome. In addition, it is unknown whether the measurement locations provide a representative sample for the various biomes. Here we used the available body of EF literature in combination with satellite-derived inform