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Sample records for average interplanetary magnetic

  1. Interplanetary magnetic field data book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    An interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data set is presented that is uniform with respect to inclusion of cislunar IMF data only, and which has as complete time coverage as presently possible over a full solar cycle. Macroscale phenomena in the interplanetary medium (sector structure, heliolatitude variations, solar cycle variations, etc.) and other phenomena (e.g., ground level cosmic-ray events) for which knowledge of the IMF with hourly resolution is necessary, are discussed. Listings and plots of cislunar hourly averaged IMP parameters over the period November 27, 1963, to May 17, 1974, are presented along with discussion of the mutual consistency of the IMF data used herein. The magnetic tape from which the plots and listings were generated, which is available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), is also discussed.

  2. Evolution of the interplanetary magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.

    1993-05-01

    Remote observations of magnetic field topologies in the solar corona and in situ observations of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in interplanetary space are used to examine the temporal evolution of the spatial distribution of open and closed field regions emanating from the Sun. The simple ``open`` configuration of inward and outward pointing sectors in the IMF is periodically disrupted by magnetically distinct coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which erupt from previously closed magnetic field regions in the corona into interplanetary space. At 1 AU, CMEs contain counterstreaming halo electrons which indicate their distinct magnetic topologies. This topology is generally thought to be: plasmoids that are completely disconnected from the Sun; magnetic ``bottles,`` still tied to the corona at both ends; or flux ropes which are only partially disconnected. Fully disconnected plasmoids would have no long term effect on the amount of open flux; however, both in situ observations of details of the halo electron distributions and remote coronagraph observations of radial fields following CMEs indicate that CMEs generally do retain at least partial attached to the Sun. Both the magnetic-bottle and flux rope geometries require some mitigating process to close off previously open fields in order to avoid a flux catastrophe. In addition, the average amount of magnetic flux observed in interplanetary space varies over the solar cycle, also indicating that there must be ways in which new flux is opened and previously open flux is closed off. The most likely scenario for closing off open magnetic fields is for reconnection to occurs above helmet streamers, where oppositely directed field regions are juxtaposed in the corona. These events would serve to return closed field arches to the Sun and release open, U-shaped structures into the solar wind.

  3. Evolution of the interplanetary magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Remote observations of magnetic field topologies in the solar corona and in situ observations of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in interplanetary space are used to examine the temporal evolution of the spatial distribution of open and closed field regions emanating from the Sun. The simple open'' configuration of inward and outward pointing sectors in the IMF is periodically disrupted by magnetically distinct coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which erupt from previously closed magnetic field regions in the corona into interplanetary space. At 1 AU, CMEs contain counterstreaming halo electrons which indicate their distinct magnetic topologies. This topology is generally thought to be: plasmoids that are completely disconnected from the Sun; magnetic bottles,'' still tied to the corona at both ends; or flux ropes which are only partially disconnected. Fully disconnected plasmoids would have no long term effect on the amount of open flux; however, both in situ observations of details of the halo electron distributions and remote coronagraph observations of radial fields following CMEs indicate that CMEs generally do retain at least partial attached to the Sun. Both the magnetic-bottle and flux rope geometries require some mitigating process to close off previously open fields in order to avoid a flux catastrophe. In addition, the average amount of magnetic flux observed in interplanetary space varies over the solar cycle, also indicating that there must be ways in which new flux is opened and previously open flux is closed off. The most likely scenario for closing off open magnetic fields is for reconnection to occurs above helmet streamers, where oppositely directed field regions are juxtaposed in the corona. These events would serve to return closed field arches to the Sun and release open, U-shaped structures into the solar wind.

  4. Magnetic Storms and Associated Interplanetary Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Gonzalez, W. D.

    1996-01-01

    The physical mechanism for energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere is magnetic reconnection between the interplanetary field and the Earth's field. From Intro: It is the purpose of this paper to review the sources of such interplanetary magnetic fields distinguishing between the solar maximum and the declining phases of the solar cycle.

  5. Magnetic sails and interplanetary travel

    SciTech Connect

    Zubrin, R.M.; Andrews, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    A new concept, the magnetic sail, or 'magsail' is proposed which propels spacecraft by using the magnetic field generated by a loop of superconducting cable to deflect interplanetary or interstellar plasma winds. The performance of such a device is evaluated using both a plasma particle model and a fluid model, and the results of a series of investigations are presented. It is found that a magsail sailing on the solar wind at a radius of one astronautical unit can attain accelerations on the order of 0.01 m/sec squared, much greater than that available from a conventional solar lightsail, and also greater than the acceleration due to the sun's gravitational attraction. A net tangential force, or 'lift' can also be generated. Lift to drag ratios of about 0.3 appear attainable. Equations are derived whereby orbital transfers using magsail propulsion can be calculated analytically.

  6. Interplanetary stream magnetism - Kinematic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Barouch, E.

    1976-01-01

    The particle density and the magnetic-field intensity and direction are calculated for volume elements of the solar wind as a function of the initial magnetic-field direction and the initial speed gradient. It is assumed that the velocity is constant and radial. These assumptions are approximately valid between about 0.1 and 1.0 AU for many streams. Time profiles of the particle density, field intensity, and velocity are calculated for corotating streams, neglecting effects of pressure gradients. The compression and rarefaction of the magnetic field depend sensitively on the initial field direction. By averaging over a typical stream, it is found that the average radial field intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the heliocentric distance, whereas the average intensity in the direction of the planets' motion does not vary in a simple way, consistent with deep space observations. Changes of field direction may be very large, depending on the initial angle; but when the initial angle at 0.1 AU is such that the base of the field line corotates with the sun, the spiral angle is the preferred direction at 1 AU. The theory is also applicable to nonstationary flows.

  7. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Guiding Relativistic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, S.; Demoulin, P.; Dasso, S.; Klein, K. L.

    2011-01-01

    The origin and the propagation of relativistic solar particles (0.5 to few Ge V) in the interplanetary medium remains a debated topic. These relativistic particles, detected at the Earth by neutron monitors have been previously accelerated close to the Sun and are guided by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) lines, connecting the acceleration site and the Earth. Usually, the nominal Parker spiral is considered for ensuring the magnetic connection to the Earth. However, in most GLEs the IMF is highly disturbed, and the active regions associated to the GLEs are not always located close to the solar footprint of the nominal Parker spiral. A possible explanation is that relativistic particles are propagating in transient magnetic structures, such as Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). In order to check this interpretation, we studied in detail the interplanetary medium where the particles propagate for 10 GLEs of the last solar cycle. Using the magnetic field and the plasma parameter measurements (ACE/MAG and ACE/SWEPAM), we found widely different IMF configurations. In an independent approach we develop and apply an improved method of the velocity dispersion analysis to energetic protons measured by SoHO/ERNE. We determined the effective path length and the solar release time of protons from these data and also combined them with the neutron monitor data. We found that in most of the GLEs, protons propagate in transient magnetic structures. Moreover, the comparison between the interplanetary magnetic structure and the interplanetary length suggest that the timing of particle arrival at Earth is dominantly determined by the type of IMF in which high energetic particles are propagating. Finally we find that these energetic protons are not significantly scattered during their transport to Earth.

  8. Geometry of interplanetary magnetic clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cargill, P. J.; Chen, J.; Spicer, D. S.; Zalesak, S. T.

    1995-01-01

    Two dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations are presented of the distortion of a magnetic flux rope that is being accelerated through ambient solar wind plasma. The flux rope magnetic field has an axial component parallel to the solar wind field and an azimuthal component, which lies in the simulation plane. As the flux rope moves through the solar wind plasma, vortices form on its trailing edge and couple strongly to its interior. If the flux rope azimuthal field is weak, it deforms into an elongated banana-like shape a few Alfven transit times. A strong azimuthal field component tends to inhibit this distortion. If the flux rope is taken to model a magnetic cloud, it is suggested that the shape of the cloud at 1 AU is determined by its distortion in the inner solar wind. Distortion timescales beyond 1 AU are estimated as many days. It is estimated that effective drag coefficients somewhat greater than unity are appropriate for modelling flux rope propagation.

  9. An interplanetary magnetic field ensemble at 1 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Goldstein, M. L.; King, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    A method for calculation ensemble averages from magnetic field data is described. A data set comprising approximately 16 months of nearly continuous ISEE-3 magnetic field data is used in this study. Individual subintervals of this data, ranging from 15 hours to 15.6 days comprise the ensemble. The sole condition for including each subinterval in the averages is the degree to which it represents a weakly time-stationary process. Averages obtained by this method are appropriate for a turbulence description of the interplanetary medium. The ensemble average correlation length obtained from all subintervals is found to be 4.9 x 10 to the 11th cm. The average value of the variances of the magnetic field components are in the approximate ratio 8:9:10, where the third component is the local mean field direction. The correlation lengths and variances are found to have a systematic variation with subinterval duration, reflecting the important role of low-frequency fluctuations in the interplanetary medium.

  10. Large-scale properties of the interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, K. H.

    1972-01-01

    Early theoretical work of Parker is presented along with the observational evidence supporting his Archimedes spiral model. Variations present in the interplanetary magnetic field from the spiral angle are related to structures in the solar wind. The causes of these structures are found to be either nonuniform radial solar wind flow or the time evolution of the photospheric field. Coronal magnetic models are related to the connection between the solar magnetic field and the interplanetary magnetic field. Direct extension of the solar field-magnetic nozzle controversy is discussed along with the coronal magnetic models. Effects of active regions on the interplanetary magnetic field is discussed with particular reference to the evolution of interplanetary sectors. Interplanetary magnetic field magnitude variations are shown throughout the solar cycle. The percentage of time the field magnitude is greater than 10 gamma is shown to closely parallel sunspot number. The sun's polar field influence on the interplanetary field and alternative views of the magnetic field structure out of the ecliptic plane are presented. In addition, a variety of significantly different interplanetary field structures are discussed.

  11. Magnetic holes in the solar wind. [(interplanetary magnetic fields)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, J. M.; Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.; Lemaire, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis is presented of high resolution interplanetary magnetic field measurements from the magnetometer on Explorer 43 which showed that low magnetic field intensities in the solar wind at 1 AU occur as distinct depressions or 'holes'. These magnetic holes are new kinetic-scale phenomena, having a characteristic dimension on the order of 20,000 km. They occurred at a rate of 1.5/day in the 18-day time span (March 18 to April 6, 1971) that was analyzed. Most of the magnetic holes are characterized by both a depression in the absolute value of the magnetic field, and a change in the magnetic field direction; some of these are possibly the result of magnetic merging. However, in other cases the magnetic field direction does not change; such holes are not due to magnetic merging, but might be a diamagnetic effect due to localized plasma inhomogeneities.

  12. Solar sources of the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, R. H.; Altschuler, M. D.; Harvey, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Open magnetic field lines, those which extend from the solar photosphere to interplanetary space, are traced in the current-free (potential field) approximation using measured photospheric fields as a boundary condition. It is found that (1) only a relatively small fraction of the photospheric area connects via open field lines to the interplanetary magnetic field; (2) those photospheric areas which do contribute open field lines lie beneath coronal holes and within the boundaries of the holes as projected onto the photosphere or else between loop systems of an active region; (3) the interplanetary magnetic field in the plane of the sun's equator, essentially the field in the ecliptic plane, may connect to photospheric regions of high latitude; and (4) the fastest solar wind streams are correlated with those magnetic flux tubes which expand least in cross-sectional area over the distance between the photosphere and the coronal height where the solar wind begins.

  13. Interplanetary magnetic field effects on high latitude ionospheric convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heelis, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Relations between the electric field and the electric current in the ionosphere can be established on the basis of a system of mathematical and physical equations provided by the equations of current continuity and Ohm's law. For this reason, much of the synthesis of electric field and plasma velocity data in the F-region is made with the aid of similar data sets derived from field-aligned current and horizontal current measurements. During the past decade, the development of a self-consistent picture of the distribution and behavior of these measurements has proceeded almost in parallel. The present paper is concerned with the picture as it applies to the electric field and plasma drift velocity and its dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. Attention is given to the southward interplanetary magnetic field and the northward interplanetary magnetic field.

  14. How are Forbush decreases related with interplanetary magnetic field enhancements ?

    E-print Network

    Arunbabu, K P; Dugad, S R; Gupta, S K; Hayashi, Y; Kawakami, S; Mohanty, P K; Oshima, A; Subramanian, P

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Forbush decrease (FD) is a transient decrease followed by a gradual recovery in the observed galactic cosmic ray intensity. We seek to understand the relationship between the FDs and near-Earth interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) enhancements associated with solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Methods. We use muon data at cutoff rigidities ranging from 14 to 24 GV from the GRAPES-3 tracking muon telescope to identify FD events. We select those FD events that have a reasonably clean profile, and magnitude > 0.25%. We use IMF data from ACE/WIND spacecrafts. We look for correlations between the FD profile and that of the one hour averaged IMF. We ask if the diffusion of high energy protons into the large scale magnetic field is the cause of the lag observed between the FD and the IMF. Results. The enhancement of the IMF associated with FDs occurs mainly in the shock-sheath region, and the turbulence level in the magnetic field is also enhanced in this region. The observed FD profiles look remarkably simil...

  15. How are Forbush decreases related to interplanetary magnetic field enhancements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunbabu, K. P.; Antia, H. M.; Dugad, S. R.; Gupta, S. K.; Hayashi, Y.; Kawakami, S.; Mohanty, P. K.; Oshima, A.; Subramanian, P.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: A Forbush decrease (FD) is a transient decrease followed by a gradual recovery in the observed galactic cosmic ray intensity. We seek to understand the relationship between the FDs and near-Earth interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) enhancements associated with solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Methods: We used muon data at cutoff rigidities ranging from 14 to 24 GV from the GRAPES-3 tracking muon telescope to identify FD events. We selected those FD events that have a reasonably clean profile, and magnitude >0.25%. We used IMF data from ACE/WIND spacecrafts. We looked for correlations between the FD profile and that of the one-hour averaged IMF. We wanted to find out whether if the diffusion of high-energy protons into the large scale magnetic field is the cause of the lag observed between the FD and the IMF. Results: The enhancement of the IMF associated with FDs occurs mainly in the shock-sheath region, and the turbulence level in the magnetic field is also enhanced in this region. The observed FD profiles look remarkably similar to the IMF enhancement profiles. The FDs typically lag behind the IMF enhancement by a few hours. The lag corresponds to the time taken by high-energy protons to diffuse into the magnetic field enhancement via cross-field diffusion. Conclusions: Our findings show that high-rigidity FDs associated with CMEs are caused primarily by the cumulative diffusion of protons across the magnetic field enhancement in the turbulent sheath region between the shock and the CME. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. SIGNATURES OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION AT BOUNDARIES OF INTERPLANETARY SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC FLUX ROPES

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Hui; Yao Shuo; Zong Qiugang; Qi Yu; He Jiansen

    2010-09-01

    The interaction between interplanetary small-scale magnetic flux ropes and the magnetic field in the ambient solar wind is an important topic in the understanding of the evolution of magnetic structures in the heliosphere. Through a survey of 125 previously reported small flux ropes from 1995 to 2005, we find that 44 of them reveal clear signatures of Alfvenic fluctuations and thus classify them as Alfven wave trains rather than flux ropes. Signatures of magnetic reconnection, generally including a plasma jet of {approx}30 km s{sup -1} within a magnetic field rotational region, are clearly present at boundaries of about 42% of the flux ropes and 14% of the wave trains. The reconnection exhausts are often observed to show a local increase in the proton temperature, density, and plasma beta. About 66% of the reconnection events at flux rope boundaries are associated with a magnetic field shear angle larger than 90{sup 0} and 73% of them reveal a decrease of 20% or more in the magnetic field magnitude, suggesting a dominance of anti-parallel reconnection at flux rope boundaries. The occurrence rate of magnetic reconnection at flux rope boundaries through the years 1995-2005 is also investigated and we find that it is relatively low around the solar maximum and much higher when approaching solar minima. The average magnetic field depression and shear angle for reconnection events at flux rope boundaries also reveal a similar trend from 1995 to 2005. Our results demonstrate for the first time that boundaries of a substantial fraction of small-scale flux ropes have properties similar to those of magnetic clouds, in the sense that both of them exhibit signatures of magnetic reconnection. The observed reconnection signatures could be related either to the formation of small flux ropes or to the interaction between flux ropes and the interplanetary magnetic fields.

  17. INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FLUX DEPLETION DURING PROTRACTED SOLAR MINIMA

    SciTech Connect

    Connick, David E.; Smith, Charles W.; Schwadron, Nathan A. E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu

    2011-01-20

    We examine near-Earth solar wind observations as assembled within the Omni data set over the past 15 years that constitute the latest solar cycle. We show that the interplanetary magnetic field continues to be depleted at low latitudes throughout the protracted solar minimum reaching levels below previously predicted minima. We obtain a rate of flux removal resulting in magnetic field reduction by 0.5 nT yr{sup -1} at 1 AU when averaged over the years 2005-2009 that reduces to 0.3 nT yr{sup -1} for 2007-2009. We show that the flux removal operates on field lines that follow the nominal Parker spiral orientation predicted for open field lines and are largely unassociated with recent ejecta. We argue that the field line reduction can only be accomplished by ongoing reconnection of nominally open field lines or very old closed field lines and we contend that these two interpretations are observationally equivalent and indistinguishable.

  18. Magnetic field modulated dust streams from Jupiter in Interplanetary space

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    Magnetic field modulated dust streams from Jupiter in Interplanetary space Alberto Flandes Ciencias´isica, UNAM, M´exico. Abstract High speed dust streams emanating from near Jupiter were first discovered, 2010 #12;simultaneous dust, IMF and solar wind data for all dust streams from the two Ulysses Jupiter

  19. Polytropic relationship in interplanetary magnetic clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osherovich, V. A.; Farrugia, C. J.; Burlaga, L. F.; Lepping, R. P.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    High time-resolution data from the ISEE 3 and IMP 8 spacecraft are presented for the magnetic field and the proton and electron populations of a number of magnetic clouds, in order to investigate such clouds' thermodynamics and the relationship between their magnetic and thermodynamic structures. It is judged on the basis of these data that while the magnetic flield of the cloud expands, the ions are cooled. Hot electrons are trapped by the magnetic field in the magnetic cloud's core. These conditions are favorable for the generation of ion-acoustic waves.

  20. Interplanetary magnetic field orientation for transient events in the outer magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Sibeck, D.G.; Newell, P.T.

    1995-01-01

    It is generally believed that flux transfer events (FTEs) in the outer dayside magnetosphere, usually by transient bipolar magnetic field perturbations in the direction normal to the nominal magnetopause, occur when the magnetosheath magnetic field has a southward component. The authors compare the results of three methods for determining the magnetosheath magnetic field orientation at the times of previously identified UKS/IRM events: (1) the average magnetosheath magnetic field orientation in the 30-min period adjacent to the nearest magnetopause crossing, (2) the magnetosheath magnetic field orientation observed just outside the magnetopause, and (3) the lagged interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation at the time of the transient events. Whereas the results of method 2 indicate that the events tend to occur for a southward magnetosheath magnetic field, the results of methods 1 and 3 show no such tendency. The fact that the three methods yield significantly different results emphasizes the need for caution in future studies. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. CME and Reconnection Contributions to the Interplanetary Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connick, D.; Schwadron, N. A.; Smith, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    Examination of L1 magnetic field data from the recent solar minimum reveals evidence for ongoing magnetic reconnection below the Alfven critical point and throughout the recent protracted solar minimum. This ongoing reconnection permits both the ejection of open field lines from the heliosphere and the creation of new magnetic loops that are capable of subduction below the photosphere. At the same time, a theory can be developed based on related published ideas wherein CMEs contribute magnetic field to interplanetary space that, in time, become part of the observed open field line population. What seems most interesting is that (1) throughout the recent protracted solar minimum the IMF flux drops steadily and the apparent reconnection continues at a very steady rate, and (2) the field model can account for this observation by using reasonable parameters for ICME flux content and reconnection rates. We will also show our efforts to account for the interplanetary magnetic field during the rising phase of the solar cycle as CME flux injection is balanced against reduction by field line reconnection.

  2. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Power Spectrum Variations: A VHO Enabled Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, A.; Koval, A.; Merka, J.; Narock, T.

    2011-01-01

    The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission interplanetary magnetic field data and the solar wind key parameter search capability of the Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO) affords an opportunity to study magnetic field power spectral density variations as a function of solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the 2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The power spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions. The time periods of fixed solar wind conditions are obtained from VHO searches that greatly simplify the process. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions will be discussed

  3. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Power Spectrum Variations: A VHO Enabled Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, A.; Koval, A.; Merka, J.; Narock, T.

    2010-01-01

    The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission interplanetary magnetic field data and the solar wind key parameter search capability of the Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO) affords an opportunity to study magnetic field power spectral density variations as a function of solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the approx.2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The power spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions . The time periods of fixed solar wind conditions are obtained from VHO searches that greatly simplify the process. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions will be discussed

  4. Interplanetary magnetic field orientation for transient events in the outer magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Newell, P. T.

    1995-01-01

    It is generally believed that flux transfer events (FTEs) in the outer dayside magneosphere, usually identified by transient (approximately 1 min) bipolar magneitc field perturbations in the direction normal to the nominal magnetopause, occur when the magnetosheath magetic field has a southward component. We compare the results of three methods for determining the magnetosheath magnetic field orientationat the times of previously identified UKS/IRM events: (1) the average magnetosheath magnetic field orientation in the 30-min period adjacent to the nearest magnetopause crossing, (2) the magnetosheath magnetic field orientation observed just outside the magnetopause, and (3) the lagged interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation at the time of the transient events. Whereas the results of method 2 indicate that the events tend to occur for a southward magnetosheath magnetic field, the results of methods 1 and 3 show no such tnedency. The fact that the three methods yield significantly diffeent results emphasizes the need for caution in future studies.

  5. Seasonal and interplanetary magnetic fielddependent polar cap contraction during substorm expansion phase

    E-print Network

    Østgaard, Nikolai

    Seasonal and interplanetary magnetic field­dependent polar cap contraction during substorm substorm expansion phase onset, the polar cap boundary location depends on seasons, interplanetary magnetic/closed field line boundary (OCB) is correct, the seasonal differences in OCB locations imply seasonal

  6. Three-dimensional interplanetary stream magnetism and energetic particle motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barouch, E.; Burlaga, L. F.

    1976-01-01

    Cosmic rays interact with mesoscale configurations of the interplanetary magnetic field. A technique is presented for calculating such configurations in the inner solar system, which are due to streams and source conditions near the sun, and maps of magnetic field are constructed for some plausible stream and source conditions. One effect of these mesoscale configurations on galactic cosmic rays is shown to be an out-of-the-ecliptic gradient drift sufficient to explain Forbush decreases. The effects on solar energetic particles include small polar drifts due to the field gradients and a possibly large modification of the time-intensity profiles and anisotropy characteristics due to the formation of mirror configurations in space. If a diffusion model is applicable to solar particles, the true diffusion coefficient will be masked by the effects of streams. A conceptual model which incorporates these ideas and those of several other models is presented.

  7. Pioneer Solar Plasma and Magnetic Field Measurements in Interplanetary Space During August 2-17, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihalov, J. D.; Colburn, D. S.; Collard, H. R.; Smith, B. F.; Sonett, C. P.; Wolfe, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Solar wind plasma and magnetic field measurements from Pioneers 9 and 10 during August 2-17, 1972, reveal complex and large-amplitude variations on a one-hour time scale and numerous discontinuities. During this time period an approximate radial alignment of the two spacecraft as seen from the Sun occurred with heliocentric distances of 0.8 AU for Pioneer 9 and 2.2 AU for Pioneer 10, both at 45 deg east of the Earth's solar longitude. The peak hourly average solar wind proton bulk velocity measured at Pioneer 9 was 990 km sec (exp -1) during hour 0 UT of August 5. The peak hourly average proton number density was 62 cm (exp -3) during hour 11 UT of August 3. The peak solar wind speeds are generally much reduced at Pioneer 10 compared with those observes at Pioneer 9. The peak 30 minute average magnetic field magnitude was 85 gamma during 1245 - 1315 UT of August 3. The Pioneer 9 data indicate passage of four fast forward interplanetary shocks, and one slow forward interplanetary shock.

  8. Helioseismology with Seismometers: II Coherence with the Interplanetary Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, David J.; Vernon, Frank L.

    2015-04-01

    Since the discovery of seismic "hum'' in 1998 unexpected lines have been observed in terrestrial seismology.In this talk we give further evidence that these lines originate as normal modes of the Sun. Frequencies observed in terrestrial seismic and geomagnetic data are often split by multiples of a cycle/day and, unexpectedly, by multiples of one-half cycle per sidereal day.There is coherence between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at ACE (located at L_1) and terrestrial geomagnetic and seismic data. There are slight frequency offsets between colocated geomagnetic and seismic data similar to those observed in normal modes excited by earthquakes. These have been attributed to dispersion from large-scale structure in the Earth.Both the splitting and coherence with the IMF give further confirmation that solar modes propagatethrough interplanetary space and are sufficiently strong to literally shake the Earth. This gives another method to detect and possibly identify solar gravity and low--frequency P-modes.

  9. High latitude electric fields an the modulations related to interplanetary magnetic field parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The meaning and characteristics of basic and average convection (i.e., electric field) patterns are described. The continuous existence of the basic convection pattern argues against treating magnetic field merging mechanisms as the fundamental cause of magnetospheric convection. However, whether related to merging or some other mechanism, interplanetary (IP) magnetic field conditions significantly modulate the distribution, magnitudes, and boundaries of the convection pattern. A previous correlation between azimuthal angles of the IP magnetic field and asymmetries in polar cap electric field distributions as seen by OGO-6 was reviewed. A new approach was taken to reveal correlations with the north-south angle and magnitude of the IP field as well as additional features which correlate with the azimuthal angle. Both significant correlations and conditions which show a lack of correlation were found. Several aspects of the correlations appear to be particularly important.

  10. Magnetic shielding of interplanetary spacecraft against solar flare radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocks, Franklin H.; Watkins, Seth

    1993-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this work is to design, build, and fly a dual-purpose, piggyback payload whose function is to produce a large volume, low intensity magnetic field and to test the concept of using such a magnetic field (1) to protect spacecraft against solar flare protons, (2) to produce a thrust of sufficient magnitude to stabilize low satellite orbits against orbital decay from atmospheric drag, and (3) to test the magsail concept. These all appear to be capable of being tested using the same deployed high temperature superconducting coil. In certain orbits, high temperature superconducting wire, which has now been developed to the point where silver-sheathed high T sub c wires one mm in diameter are commercially available, can be used to produce the magnetic moments required for shielding without requiring any mechanical cooling system. The potential benefits of this concept apply directly to both earth-orbital and interplanetary missions. The usefulness of a protective shield for manned missions needs scarcely to be emphasized. Similarly, the usefulness of increasing orbit perigee without expenditure of propellant is obvious. This payload would be a first step in assessing the true potential of large volume magnetic fields in the US space program. The objective of this design research is to develop an innovative, prototype deployed high temperature superconducting coil (DHTSC) system.

  11. Advanced Propulsion for Interplanetary Flights using Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thio, Y. C. F.; Freeze, B.; Gerrish, H.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Landrum, D. B.; Schmidt, G. R.

    1998-11-01

    Magnetized target fusion is an approach in which a magnetized target plasma is compressed inertially by an imploding material wall. The use of a high energy plasma liner to provide the required implosion was recently proposed by Thio, et al. The plasma liner is formed by the merging of a number (nominally 60) of high momentum plasma jets converging towards the center of a sphere where two compact toroids have been introduced. Preliminary 3-D hydrodynamics modeling results using the SPHINX code of LANL have been very encouraging and confirm earlier theoretical expectations. The concept appears ready for experimental exploration, and plans for doing so are being pursued. In this talk, we explore conceptually how this innovative fusion approach could be packaged for space propulsion for interplanetary travel. We discuss the critical componenets of a baseline propulsion concept including the fusion engine, high velocity plasma accelerators, generators of compact toroids using conical theta pinches, magnetic nozzle, neutron absorption blanket, tritium reprocessing system, shock absorber, MHD generator, capacitor pulsed power system, thermal management system, and micrometeorite shields.

  12. Tongues, bottles, and disconnected loops: The opening and closing of the interplanetary magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.

    1994-06-01

    For years the field of Space Physics has had a problem, a really big problem for it occurs on the largest spatial scales in Space physics -- across the entire region under the Sun`s influence, the heliosphere. The problem is that the Sun appears to keep opening new magnetic flux into interplanetary space with no obvious way for this flux to close back off again. This state of affairs, without some previously unknown method for closing the open interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), leads to an ever growing amount of magnetic flux in interplanetary space: the magnetic flux catastrophe. Recently, considerable progress has been made in understanding why this catastrophic state is not the observed state of the heliosphere. This brief article paints the newly emerging picture of the opening and closing of the IMF and how these processes may account for the observed variation in the amount of magnetic flux in interplanetary space over the solar cycle.

  13. The Bastille Day Magnetic Clouds and Upstream Shocks: Near Earth Interplanetary Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Berdichevsky, D. B.; Burlaga, L. F.; Lazarus, A. J.; Kasper, J.; Desch, M. D.; Wu, C.-C.; Reames, D. V.; Singer, H. J.; Singer, H. J.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The energetic charged particle, interplanetary magnetic field, and plasma characteristics of the 'Bastille Day' shock and ejecta/magnetic cloud events at 1 AU occurring over the days 14-16 July 2000 are described. Profiles of MeV (WIND/LEMT) energetic ions help to organize the overall sequence of events from the solar source to 1 AU. Stressed are analyses of an outstanding magnetic cloud (MC2) starting late on 15 July and its upstream shock about 4 hours earlier in WIND magnetic field and plasma data. Also analyzed is a less certain, but likely, magnetic cloud (MC1) occurring early on 15 July; this was separated from MC2 by its upstream shock and many heliospheric current sheet (HCS) crossings. Other HCS crossings occurred throughout the 3-day period. Overall this dramatic series of interplanetary events caused a large multi-phase magnetic storm with min Dst lower than -300 nT. The very fast solar wind speed (greater than or equal to 1100 km/s) in and around the front of MC2 (for near average densities) was responsible for a very high solar wind ram pressure driving in the front of the magnetosphere to geocentric distances estimated to be as low as approx. 5 R(sub E), much lower than the geosynchronous orbit radius. This was consistent with magnetic field observations from two GOES satellites which indicated they were in the magnetosheath for extended times. A static force free field model is used to fit the two magnetic cloud profiles providing estimates of the clouds' physical and geometrical properties. MC2 was much larger than MCI, but their axes were nearly antiparallel, and their magnetic fields had the same left-handed helicity. MC2's axis and its upstream shock normal were very close to being perpendicular to each other, as might be expected if the cloud were driving the shock at the time of observation. The estimated axial magnetic flux carried by MC2 was 52 x 10(exp 20) Mx, which is about 5 times the typical magnetic flux estimated for other magnetic clouds in the WIND data over its first 4 years and is 17 times the flux of MC1. This large flux is due to both the strong axially-directed field of MC2 (46.8 nT on the axis) and the large radius (R(sub 0) = 0.189 AU) of the flux tube. MC2's average speed is consistent with the expected transit time from a halo-CME to which it is apparently related.

  14. Interplanetary stream magnetism: Kinematic effects. [solar magnetic fields and wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Barouch, E.

    1974-01-01

    The particle density, and the magnetic field intensity and direction are calculated in corotating streams of the solar wind, assuming that the solar wind velocity is constant and radial and that its azimuthal variations are not two rapid. The effects of the radial velocity profile in corotating streams on the magnetic fields were examined using kinematic approximation and a variety of field configurations on the inner boundary. Kinematic and dynamic effects are discussed.

  15. Three Dimensional Probability Distributions of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podesta, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Empirical probability density functions (PDFs) of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have been derived from spacecraft data since the early years of the space age. A survey of the literature shows that past studies have investigated the separate Cartesian components of the magnetic field, the vector magnitude, and the direction of the IMF by means of one-dimensional or two-dimensional PDFs. But, to my knowledge, there exist no studies which investigate the three dimensional nature of the IMF by means of three dimensional PDFs, either in (Bx,By,Bz)(B_x,B_y,B_z)-coordinates or (BR,BT,BN)(B_R,B_T,B_N)-coordinates or some other appropriate system of coordinates. Likewise, there exist no studies which investigate three dimensional PDFs of magnetic field fluctuations, that is, vector differences bmB(t+?)-bmB(t)bm{B}(t+tau)-bm{B}(t). In this talk, I shall present examples of three dimensional PDFs obtained from spacecraft data that demonstrate the solar wind magnetic field possesses a very interesting spatial structure that, to my knowledge, has not previously been identified. Perhaps because of the well known model of Barnes (1981) in which the magnitude of the IMF remains constant, it may be commonly believed that there is nothing new to learn from a full three dimensional PDF. To the contrary, there is much to learn from the investigation of three dimensional PDFs of the solar wind plasma velocity and the magnetic field, as well as three dimensional PDFs of their fluctuations. Knowledge of these PDFs will not only improve understanding of solar wind physics, it is an essential prerequisite for the construction of realistic models of the stochastic time series measured by a single spacecraft, one of the longstanding goals of space physics research. In addition, three dimensional PDFs contain valuable information about the anisotropy of solar wind fluctuations in three dimensional physical space, information that may help identify the reason why the three dimensional wave vector spectrum of magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind is not axisymmetric about the direction of the mean magnetic field as recent observations in the ecliptic plane at 1 AU have shown.

  16. Relationships Among Geomagnetic Storms, Interplanetary Shocks, Magnetic Clouds, and Sunspot Number During 1995 - 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chin-Chun; Lepping, Ronald P.

    2015-11-01

    During 1995 - 2012, the Wind spacecraft has recorded 168 magnetic clouds (MCs), 197 magnetic cloud-like structures (MCLs), and 358 interplanetary (IP) shocks. Ninety-four MCs and 56 MCLs had upstream shock waves. The following features are found: i) The averages of the solar wind speed, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), duration ( < ? t rangle), the minimum of B_{min}, and intensity of the associated geomagnetic storm/activity ( Dst_{min}) for MCs with upstream shock waves ( MC_{shock}) are higher (or stronger) than those averages for the MCs without upstream shock waves ( MC_{no-shock}). ii) The average < ? t rangle of MC_{shock} events ( {?} 19.8 h) is 9 % longer than that for MC_{no-hock} events ( {?} 17.6 h). iii) For the MC_{shock} events, the average duration of the sheath ( average. iv) The occurrence frequency of IP shocks is well associated with sunspot number (SSN). The average intensity of geomagnetic storms measured by < Dst_{min}rangle for MC_{shock} and MC_{no-shock} events is -102 and -31 nT, respectively. The average values < Dst_{min} rangle are -78, -70, and -35 nT for the 358 IP shocks, 168 MCs, and 197 MCLs, respectively. These results imply that IP shocks, when they occur with MCs/MCLs, must play an important role in the strength of geomagnetic storms. We speculate about the reason for this. Yearly occurrence frequencies of MC_{shock} and IP shocks are well correlated with solar activity (e.g., SSN). Choosing the correct Dst_{min} estimating formula for predicting the intensity of MC-associated geomagnetic storms is crucial for space weather predictions.

  17. PUZZLES OF THE INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE INNER HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Khabarova, Olga; Obridko, Vladimir

    2012-12-20

    Deviations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) from Parker's model are frequently observed in the heliosphere at different distances r from the Sun. Usually, it is supposed that the IMF behavior corresponds to Parker's model overall, but there is some turbulent component that impacts and disrupts the full picture of the IMF spatial and temporal distribution. However, the analysis of multi-spacecraft in-ecliptic IMF measurements from 0.29 AU to 5 AU shows that the IMF radial evolution is rather far from expected. The radial IMF component decreases with the adiabatic power index (|B{sub r} | {proportional_to} r {sup -5/3}), the tangential component |B{sub r}| {proportional_to} r {sup -1}, and the IMF strength B {proportional_to} r {sup -1.4}. This means that the IMF is not completely frozen in the solar wind. It is possible that turbulent processes in the inner heliosphere significantly influence the IMF expansion. This is confirmed by the analysis of the B{sub r} distribution's radial evolution. B{sub r} has a well-known bimodal histogram only at 0.7-2.0 AU. The bimodality effect gradually disappears from 1 AU to 4 AU, and B{sub r} becomes quasi-normally distributed at 3-4 AU (which is a sign of rapid vanishing of the stable sector structure with heliocentric distance). We consider a quasi-continuous magnetic reconnection, occurring both at the heliospheric current sheet and at local current sheets inside the IMF sectors, to be a key process responsible for the solar wind turbulization with heliocentric distance as well as for the breakdown of the ''frozen-in IMF'' law.

  18. Influence of interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind on auroral brightness in different regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. F.; Lu, J. Y.; Wang, J.-S.; Peng, Z.; Zhou, L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<p label="1">By integrating and <span class="hlt">averaging</span> the auroral brightness from Polar Ultraviolet Imager auroral images, which have the whole auroral ovals, and combining the observation data of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) and solar wind from NASA Operating Missions as a Node on the Internet (OMNI), we investigate the influence of IMF and solar wind on auroral activities, and analyze the separate roles of the solar wind dynamic pressure, density, and velocity on aurora, respectively. We statistically analyze the relations between the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> conditions and the auroral brightness in dawnside, dayside, duskside, and nightside. It is found that the three components of the IMF have different effects on the auroral brightness in the different regions. Different from the nightside auroral brightness, the dawnside, dayside, and duskside auroral brightness are affected by the IMF Bx, and By components more significantly. The IMF Bx and By components have different effects on these three regional auroral brightness under the opposite polarities of the IMF Bz. As expected, the nightside aurora is mainly affected by the IMF Bz, and under southward IMF, the larger the |Bz|, the brighter the nightside aurora. The IMF Bx and By components have no visible effects. On the other hand, it is also found that the aurora is not intensified singly with the increase of the solar wind dynamic pressure: when only the dynamic pressure is high, but the solar wind velocity is not very fast, the aurora will not necessarily be intensified significantly. These results can be used to qualitatively predict the auroral activities in different regions for various <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770027122','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770027122"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> medium data book, appendix</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>King, J. H.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Computer generated listings of hourly <span class="hlt">average</span> <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> plasma and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field parameters are given. Parameters include proton temperature, proton density, bulk speed, an identifier of the source of the plasma data for the hour, <span class="hlt">average</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field magnitude and cartesian components of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. Also included are longitude and latitude angles of the vector made up of the <span class="hlt">average</span> field components, a vector standard deviation, and an identifier of the source of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..263...10H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..263...10H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field structure at Saturn inferred from nanodust measurements during the 2013 aurora campaign</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hsu, H.-W.; Kempf, S.; Badman, S. V.; Kurth, W. S.; Postberg, F.; Srama, R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Interactions between the solar wind and planetary magnetospheres provide important diagnostic information about the magnetospheric dynamics. The lack of monitoring of upstream solar wind conditions at the outer planets, however, restrains the overall scientific output. Here we apply a new method, using Cassini nanodust stream measurements, to derive the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field structure during the 2013 Saturn aurora campaign. Due to the complex dynamical interactions with the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, a fraction of fast nanodust particles emerging from the Saturnian system is sent back into the magnetosphere and can be detected by a spacecraft located within. The time-dependent directionality caused by the variable <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field enable these particles to probe the solar wind structure remotely. Information about the arrival time of solar wind compression regions (coupled with the heliospheric current sheet crossings) as well as the field direction associated with the solar wind sector structure can be inferred. Here we present a tentative identification of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field sector structure based on Cassini nanodust and radio emission measurements during the 2013 Saturn aurora campaign. Our results show that, the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field near Saturn during 2013-080 to 176 was consistent with a two-sector structure. The intensifications of aurora and the radio emission on 2013-095, 112 and 140 coincide with the IMF sector boundaries, indicating that the encounter of the compressed solar wind is the main cause of the observed activities.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://sprg.ssl.berkeley.edu/adminstuff/webpubs/2012_jgr_A04218.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://sprg.ssl.berkeley.edu/adminstuff/webpubs/2012_jgr_A04218.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Substorm-like magnetospheric response to a discontinuity in the Bx component of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Carlson, Charles W.</p> <p></p> <p>History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS), Cluster, and GOES to investigate, and on the ground as well. A global computer simulation also enables us to reproduce the mag- netospheric responses-scale <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field IMF-Bz and solar wind plasma parameter variations associated with <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22270946','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22270946"><span id="translatedtitle">DECLINE AND RECOVERY OF THE <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> <span class="hlt">MAGNETIC</span> FIELD DURING THE PROTRACTED SOLAR MINIMUM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, Charles W.; Schwadron, Nathan A.; DeForest, Craig E. E-mail: N.Schwadron@unh.edu</p> <p>2013-09-20</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) is determined by the amount of solar <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux that passes through the top of the solar corona into the heliosphere, and by the dynamical evolution of that flux. Recently, it has been argued that the total flux of the IMF evolves over the solar cycle due to a combination of flux that extends well outside of 1 AU and is associated with the solar wind, and additionally, transient flux associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In addition to the CME eruption rate, there are three fundamental processes involving conversion of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux (from transient to wind-associated), disconnection, and interchange reconnection that control the levels of each form of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium. This is distinct from some earlier models in which the wind-associated component remains steady across the solar cycle. We apply the model of Schwadron et al. that quantifies the sources, interchange, and losses of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux to 50 yr of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> data as represented by the Omni2 data set using the sunspot number as a proxy for the CME eruption rate. We do justify the use of that proxy substitution. We find very good agreement between the predicted and observed <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux. In the absence of sufficient CME eruptions, the IMF falls on the timescale of ?6 yr. A key result is that rising toroidal flux resulting from CME eruption predates the increase in wind-associated IMF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770027121','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770027121"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> medium data book</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>King, J. H.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Unresolved questions on the physics of solar wind and its effects on magnetospheric processes and cosmic ray propagation were addressed with hourly <span class="hlt">averaged</span> <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> plasma and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field data. This composite data set is described with its content and extent, sources, limits of validity, and the mutual consistency studies and normalizations to which the input data were subjected. Hourly <span class="hlt">averaged</span> parameters were presented in the form of digital listings and 27-day plots. The listings are contained in a separately bound appendix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www-ssc.igpp.ucla.edu/personnel/russell/papers/solwind_magsphere_tutorial.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www-ssc.igpp.ucla.edu/personnel/russell/papers/solwind_magsphere_tutorial.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar Wind and <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field: A Tutorial C. T. Russell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Russell, Christopher T.</p> <p></p> <p>Solar Wind and <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field: A Tutorial C. T. Russell Institute of Geophysics at the center of the sun to its radiation into space by the photosphere, but most importantly for the solar wind controls the properties of the solar wind. In this tutorial review we examine the properties of the fields</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://sprg.ssl.berkeley.edu/adminstuff/webpubs/2002_jgr_1153.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://sprg.ssl.berkeley.edu/adminstuff/webpubs/2002_jgr_1153.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Ionospheric response to the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field southward turning: Fast onset and slow reconfiguration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>California at Berkeley, University of</p> <p></p> <p>Ionospheric response to the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field southward turning: Fast onset and slow November 2001; published 1 August 2002. [1] This paper presents a case study of ionospheric response. There is a clear evidence for a two-stage ionospheric response to the IMF southward turning, namely, fast initial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('ftp://space.mit.edu/pub/plasma/publications/jdr_cw_nightside/jdr_cw_nightside.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="ftp://space.mit.edu/pub/plasma/publications/jdr_cw_nightside/jdr_cw_nightside.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Case study of nightside magnetospheric <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field response to <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Richardson, John</p> <p></p> <p>typical cases. Citation: Wang, C., T. R. Sun, X. C. Guo, and J. D. Richardson (2010), Case studyCase study of nightside magnetospheric <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field response to <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks C. Wang,1 T. R. Sun,1,2 X. C. Guo,1 and J. D. Richardson3 Received 11 March 2010; revised 23 June 2010; accepted</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://lasp.colorado.edu/~eriksson/2003JA010346_eriksson.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://lasp.colorado.edu/~eriksson/2003JA010346_eriksson.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Global control of merging by the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field: Cluster observations of dawnside</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Eriksson, Stefan</p> <p></p> <p>Global control of merging by the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field: Cluster observations of dawnside the Cluster spacecraft 1 position and the predicted magnetospheric sash where antiparallel merging is expected between 171° and 177° for the 30 June event in good agreement with antiparallel merging at the MHD sash</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720015727','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720015727"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field azimuth on auroral zone and polar cap <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burch, J. L.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>During relatively quiet times in the period 1964-1968, AE is found to be greater when the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (b sub IMF) is directed toward the sun in Jan., Feb., and Apr., and when B sub IMF is directed away from the sun in Oct. to Dec. Using Murmansk hourly H values and the AE components, AU and AL, it is shown that this sector dependence is present only in the negative H deviations. This observation supports the idea that negative bay magnitudes are determined chiefly by particle-produced ionization, while positive bay magnitudes are rather insensitive to increases in particle precipitation. The ratio of DP2-type <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> activity in the southern polar cap to that in the northern polar cap is found to be greater by a factor of about 1.75 for B sub IMF toward the sun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008573','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008573"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Flux Circulation During Dawn-Dusk Oriented <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mitchell, E. J.; Lopez, R. E.; Fok, M.-C.; Deng, Y.; Wiltberger, M.; Lyon, J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> flux circulation is a primary mode of energy transfer from the solar wind into the ionosphere and inner magnetosphere. For southward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF), <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux circulation is described by the Dungey cycle (dayside merging, night side reconnection, and magnetospheric convection), and both the ionosphere and inner magnetosphere receive energy. For dawn-dusk oriented IMF, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux circulation is not well understood, and the inner magnetosphere does not receive energy. Several models have been suggested for possible reconnection patterns; the general pattern is: dayside merging; reconnection on the dayside or along the dawn/dusk regions; and, return flow on dayside only. These models are consistent with the lack of energy in the inner magnetosphere. We will present evidence that the Dungey cycle does not explain the energy transfer during dawn-dusk oriented IMF. We will also present evidence of how <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux does circulate during dawn-dusk oriented IMF, specifically how the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux reconnects and circulates back.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Ge%26Ae..54..920V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Ge%26Ae..54..920V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> fields of photosphere and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space: Imbalance between positive and negative polarities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vernova, E. S.; Tyasto, M. I.; Baranov, D. G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Photospheric <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields are studied in this work on the basis of synoptic maps from the Kitt Peak Observatory (1976-2003) and WSO (1976-2012). The imbalance between positive and negative fluxes is considered for strong <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields in the sunspot zone. The imbalance sign coincides with the polar field sign in the Northern hemisphere; it depends on both the phase of the 11-year cycle and the solar cycle parity. These features of variation in the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field can be explained by a strong quadrupole moment of the photospheric <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, which is also seen in a change of the polarity of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.astro.umd.edu/~hamilton/research/reprints/FlaKruHam11.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.astro.umd.edu/~hamilton/research/reprints/FlaKruHam11.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> field modulated dust streams from Jupiter in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space Alberto Flandes a,, Harald Kr uger b,c</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Hamilton, Douglas P.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> field modulated dust streams from Jupiter in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space Alberto Flandes a Accepted 25 May 2011 Available online 16 June 2011 Keywords: <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> dust Solar wind Jupiter Io a b s t r a c t High speed dust streams emanating from near Jupiter were first discovered by the Ulysses</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://sprg.ssl.berkeley.edu/adminstuff/webpubs/2008_mst_055104.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://sprg.ssl.berkeley.edu/adminstuff/webpubs/2008_mst_055104.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">An advanced approach to finding magnetometer zero levels in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>California at Berkeley, University of</p> <p></p> <p>An advanced approach to finding magnetometer zero levels in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field magnetometer zero levels in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field H K Leinweber1, C T Russell1, K Torkar2, T L For a magnetometer that measures weak <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> fields, the in-flight determination of zero levels is a crucial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/166713','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/166713"><span id="translatedtitle">Digisonde measurements of polar cap convection for northward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cannon, P.S.; Crowley, G.; Reinisch, B.W.; Buchau, J.</p> <p>1992-11-01</p> <p>Controversy still exists regarding even the <span class="hlt">average</span> convection pattern when the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) has a northward component. Using two years of convection data from a Digisonde located at Qaanaaq only 3{degrees} from the corrected geomagnetic pole the authors have examined the diurnal convection flow direction variation in the central polar cap when the IMF is particularly stable. They find that when B{sub z} is positive, and when B{sub y} positive and B{sub y} negative data are treated independently, each exhibits a clear diurnal pattern. The patterns are most nearly consistent with a multicell convection model, e.g., Potemra et al.; there are, however, two anomalies. These synthesized polar cap convection patterns exhibit a polar cap cell centered on 10 corrected geomagnetic local time (CGLT) when B{sub y}>1 nT and 13 CGLT when B{sub y}<{minus}1 nT in contrast to 06 and 18 CGLT predicted by the multicell models. Furthermore, in contrast to the simple multicell models the convection flow patterns for opposite B{sub y} polarities are not simple mirror images of each other. When B{sub y}<{minus}1 nT the convection is directed across the central polar cap toward 02 CGLT for much of the day but when B{sub y}> 1 nT the flow is tangential to the Qaanaaq geomagnetic latitude for much of the day. 18 refs., 11 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMSH41A..04B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMSH41A..04B"><span id="translatedtitle">SEPs Dropout Events Associated with Advected <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bruno, R.; Trenchi, L.; Telloni, D.; D'Amicis, R.; Marcucci, F.; Zurbuchen, T.; Weberg, M. J.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The intensity profile of energetic particles from impulsive solar flares (SEP) often shows abrupt dropouts affecting all energies simultaneously, without time-dispersion. Part of the community thinks that these modulations are directly related to the presence of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> structures with a different <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> topology advected by the wind, a sort of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux tubes. During the expansion, following the dynamical interaction between plasma regions travelling at different speed, these structures would be partially tangled up in a sort of spaghetti-like bundle. These flux tubes would be alternatively connected or not connected with the flare site and, consequently, they would be filled or devoid of SEPs. When the observer passes through them, he would observe clear particles dropout signatures. We will report about results from a detailed analysis of SEP events which showed several signatures in the local <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and/or plasma parameters associated with SEP modulations. These findings corroborate the idea of a possible link between these particles events observed at the Earth's orbit and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> connection or disconnection of the ambient <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field with the flare region at the Sun. We will also discuss the advantages represented by future Solar Orbiter in-situ observations. As a matter of fact, Solar Orbiter, from its orbital vantage point during the quasi corotation phase, will be a priviledged observer of this kind of phenomenon since it will observe the advected structure of the solar wind not yet reprocessed by dynamical interaction due to wind expansion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...809..112F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...809..112F"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of Several Unusual Plasma Compositional Signatures within Small <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Flux Ropes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, H. Q.; Wang, J. M.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) often show unusual plasma compositional signatures (high He/P ratio, high {{{O}}}7+/{{{O}}}6+ ratio, and high Fe charge states), and their enhanced charge states of oxygen and iron are caused by flare-related heating in the corona. We investigated the abnormal plasma composition of small <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux ropes (IMFRs) in terms of He/P ratio, {{{O}}}7+/{{{O}}}6+ ratio, and mean Fe charge state. We discover that 18 of the 24 small IMFRs showed high He/P ratios. In addition, 12 and 8 of the 24 events showed high Fe charge states and {{{O}}}7+/{{{O}}}6+ ratios, respectively. This observation implies that these small IMFRs and ICMEs may be caused by the same coronal eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21460088','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21460088"><span id="translatedtitle">EFFECT OF FINITE LARMOR RADIUS ON COSMIC-RAY PENETRATION INTO AN <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> <span class="hlt">MAGNETIC</span> FLUX ROPE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kubo, Yuki; Shimazu, Hironori</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>We discuss a mechanism for cosmic-ray penetration into an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux rope, particularly the effect of the finite Larmor radius and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field irregularities. First, we derive analytical solutions for cosmic-ray behavior inside a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux rope, on the basis of the Newton-Lorentz equation of a particle, to investigate how cosmic rays penetrate <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux ropes under an assumption of there being no scattering by small-scale <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field irregularities. The results show that the behavior of a particle is determined by only one parameter f{sub 0}, that is, the ratio of the Larmor radius at the flux rope axis to the flux rope radius. The analytical solutions show that cosmic rays cannot penetrate into the inner region of a flux rope by only gyration and gradient-curvature drift in the case of small f{sub 0}. Next, we perform a numerical simulation of a cosmic-ray penetration into an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux rope by adding small-scale <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field irregularities. The results show that cosmic rays can penetrate into a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux rope even in the case of small f{sub 0} because of the effect of small-scale <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field irregularities. This simulation also shows that a cosmic-ray density distribution is greatly different from that deduced from a guiding center approximation because of the effect of the finite Larmor radius and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field irregularities for the case of a moderate to large Larmor radius compared to the flux rope radius.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790012789','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790012789"><span id="translatedtitle">Contributions to the Fourth Solar Wind Conference. [<span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields and medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Acuna, M. H.; Behannon, K. W.; Burlaga, L. F.; Lepping, R.; Ness, N.; Ogilvie, K.; Pizzo, J.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Recent results in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> physics are examined. These include observations of shock waves and post-shock <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields made by Voyager 1, 2; observations of the electron temperature as a function of distance between 1.36 AU and 2.25 AU; and observations of the structure of sector boundaries observed by Helios 1. A theory of electron energy transport in the collisionless solar wind is presented, and compared with observations. Alfven waves and Alvenic fluctuations in the solar wind are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364987','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364987"><span id="translatedtitle">Structures of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux ropes and comparison with their solar sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hu, Qiang; Dasgupta, B.; Khare, A.; Webb, G. M. E-mail: qiu@physics.montana.edu</p> <p>2014-09-20</p> <p>Whether a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux rope is pre-existing or formed in situ in the Sun's atmosphere, there is little doubt that <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> reconnection is essential to release the flux rope during its ejection. During this process, the question remains: how does <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> reconnection change the flux-rope structure? In this work, we continue with the original study of Qiu et al. by using a larger sample of flare-coronal mass ejection (CME)-<span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> CME (ICME) events to compare properties of ICME/<span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud (MC) flux ropes measured at 1 AU and properties of associated solar progenitors including flares, filaments, and CMEs. In particular, the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field-line twist distribution within <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux ropes is systematically derived and examined. Our analysis shows that, similar to what was found before, for most of these events, the amount of twisted flux per AU in MCs is comparable with the total reconnection flux on the Sun, and the sign of the MC helicity is consistent with the sign of the helicity of the solar source region judged from the geometry of post-flare loops. Remarkably, we find that about half of the 18 <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux ropes, most of them associated with erupting filaments, have a nearly uniform and relatively low twist distribution from the axis to the edge, and the majority of the other flux ropes exhibit very high twist near the axis, up to ? 5 turns per AU, which decreases toward the edge. The flux ropes are therefore not linearly force-free. We also conduct detailed case studies showing the contrast of two events with distinct twist distribution in MCs as well as different flare and dimming characteristics in solar source regions, and discuss how reconnection geometry reflected in flare morphology may be related to the structure of the flux rope formed on the Sun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411927T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411927T"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of Solar energetic particles dropouts associated with <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field modulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trenchi, L.; Bruno, R.; D'Amicis, R.; Telloni, D.; Marcucci, M. F.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> field fluctuations are ubiquitous in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space and extend over several frequency decades. Among these fluctuations, which have typical turbulence features, it is possible to localize coherent structures at different scales throughout the inertial range. We suggest that these <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> structures might play a role during impulsive Solar Energetic Particles dropouts. The intensity of these particle events often has relatively short-timescale variations, occurring simultaneously across all energies and, most of the time, we found that they are associated with these <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> events. The mechanism at the basis of SEP dropouts is not clear yet and different models in literature try to explain this phenomenon invoking also an active role of MHD turbulence. In this paper we report about the state of the art about this intriguing problem and show interesting results of our analysis which might suggest a possible alternative physical explanation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020088125','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020088125"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term Trends in <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field Strength and Solar Wind Structure during the 20th Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Richardson, I. G.; Cliver, E. W.; Cane, H. V.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Lockwood et al have recently reported an approximately 40% increase in the radial component of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) at Earth between 1964 and 1996. We argue that this increase does not constitute a secular trend but is largely the consequence of lower than <span class="hlt">average</span> fields during solar cycle 20 (1964-1976) in comparison with surrounding cycles. For times after 1976 the <span class="hlt">average</span> IMF strength has actually decreased slightly. Examination of the cosmic ray intensity, an indirect measure of the IMF strength, over the last five solar cycles (19-23) also indicates that cycle <span class="hlt">averages</span> of the IMF strength have been relatively constant since approximately 1954. We also consider the origin of the well-documented increase in the geomagnetic alphaalpha index that occurred primarily during the first half of the twentieth century. We surmise that the coronal mass ejection (CME) rate for recent solar cycles was approximately twice as high as that for solar cycles 100 years ago. However, this change in the CME rate and the accompanying increase in 27-day recurrent storm activity reported by others are unable to account completely for the increase in alphaalpha. Rather, the CMEs and recurrent high-speed streams at the beginning of the twentieth century must have been embedded in a background of slow solar wind that was less geoeffective (having, for example, lower IMF strength and/or flow speed) than its modern counterpart.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6720643','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6720643"><span id="translatedtitle">Sudden impulses at low-latitude stations: Steady state response for northward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Russell, C.T.; Ginskey, M.; Petrinec, S.M. )</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>An examination of the response of the low-latitude H component of the Earth's <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field during the passage of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks when the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field is northward reveals that this response can be understood quantitatively in terms of the compression of a simple vacuum magnetospheric model. The compression at the surface of the Earth at 20[degrees] latitude at noon in the absence of equatorial electrojet effects is found to be 18.4 nT/(nPa)[sup 1/2]. Stations below 15[degrees] latitude and above 40[degrees] appear to have additional but variable sources of current which magnify this effect. The diurnal variation of the compression is larger than expected from the simple vacuum magnetosphere, [+-]20% about the mean instead of [+-]10%. The authors interpret this difference to indicate that tail currents, not in the vacuum model, are as important as the magnetopause currents in determining the diurnal variation of the field at the surface of the Earth. 21 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6315K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6315K"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field observations at different heliocentric distances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khabarova, Olga</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Multi-spacecraft measurements of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) from 0.29 AU to 5 AU along the ecliptic plane have demonstrated systematic deviations of the observed IMF strength from the values predicted on the basis of the Parker-like radial extension models (Khabarova, Obridko, 2012). In particular, it was found that the radial IMF component |Br| decreases with a heliocentric distance r with a slope of -5/3 (instead of r-2 expansion law). The current investigation of multi-point observations continues the analysis of the IMF (and, especially, Br) large-scale behaviour, including its latitudinal distribution. Additionally, examples of the mismatches between the expected IMF characteristics and observations at smaller scales are discussed. It is shown that the observed effects may be explained by not complete IMF freezing-in to the solar wind plasma. This research was supported by the Russian Fund of Basic Researches' grants Nos.11-02-00259-a, and 12-02-10008-K. Khabarova Olga, and Obridko Vladimir, Puzzles of the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field in the Inner Heliosphere, 2012, Astrophysical Journal, 761, 2, 82, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/761/2/82, http://arxiv.org/pdf/1204.6672v2.pdf</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810029040&hterms=lorentz&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dlorentz','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810029040&hterms=lorentz&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dlorentz"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field on cometary and primordial dust orbits - Applications of Lorentz Scattering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Consolmagno, G. J.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The equations describing the change in orbital elements of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust due to Lorentz-force accelerations are presented in a simplified form. Such accelerations depend on the charge state of the dust; results of theoretical calculations for five possible dust materials are presented. Under present-day conditions, it is possible that semiconducting material such as graphite might carry a net voltage near zero, compared with a roughly 10-V charge expected for other grains. The scattering of dust by a randomly changing <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field can be viewed analogously to the dust diffusing in space; the equations presented thus can be used to interpret observations of the present distribution of dust in terms of its possible sources and sinks. The stronger <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields of the early solar system would have led to more vigorous scattering of the dust; particles as large as 1 mm could have been significantly transported by Lorentz scattering during this time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSA41A2104M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSA41A2104M"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Cleft-Region Particle Precipitation Using the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field and Generalized Auroral Electrojet Indices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mitchell, E. J.; Newell, P. T.; Ridley, A. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Cleft-region particle precipitation affects several ionospheric processes including ionospheric outflow and ionospheric plasma formations. Cleft-region particle precipitation has been shown to be dependent on the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) clock angle, the dayside-merging rate/local <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field changes, and the characteristic energy of the particles. The OVATION-SM particle precipitation model between 0800 and 1600 MLT is modified to include IMF clock angle effects and model individual characteristic energies. The resulting cleft-region particle precipitation model will be shown as well as data-model comparisons with Polar UVI dayside data. The inclusion of characteristic energy dependence and IMF clock angle effects is expected to provide better dayside auroral power predictions and better spatial-temporal location of the cleft-region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22304094','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22304094"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field B{sub y} penetration into the magnetotail</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Guo, Jiuling; Shen, Chao; Liu, Zhenxing</p> <p>2014-07-15</p> <p>Based on our global 3D magnetospheric MHD simulation model, we investigate the phenomena and physical mechanism of the B{sub y} component of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) penetrating into the magnetotail. We find that the dayside reconnected <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field lines move to the magnetotail, get added to the lobe fields, and are dragged in the IMF direction. However, the B{sub y} component in the plasma sheet mainly originates from the tilt and relative slippage of the south and north lobes caused by plasma convection, which results in the original B{sub z} component in the plasma sheet rotating into a B{sub y} component. Our research also shows that the penetration effect of plasma sheet B{sub y} from the IMF B{sub y} during periods of northward IMF is larger than that during periods of southward IMF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015P%26SS..119..264V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015P%26SS..119..264V"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field orientation on the solar wind flux impacting Mercury's surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Varela, J.; Pantellini, F.; Moncuquet, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to study the plasma flows on the Mercury surface for different <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field orientations on the day side of the planet. We use a single fluid MHD model in spherical coordinates to simulate the interaction of the solar wind with the Hermean magnetosphere for six solar wind realistic configurations with different <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field orientations: Mercury-Sun, Sun-Mercury, aligned with the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> axis of Mercury (Northward and Southward) and with the orbital plane perpendicular to the previous cases. In the Mercury-Sun (Sun-Mercury) simulation the Hermean <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field is weakened in the South-East (North-East) of the magnetosphere leading to an enhancement of the flows on the South (North) hemisphere. For a Northward (Southward) orientation there is an enhancement (weakening) of the Hermean <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field in the nose of the bow shock so the fluxes are reduced and drifted to the poles (enhanced and drifted to the equator). If the solar wind <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field is in the orbital plane the magnetosphere is tilted to the West (East) and weakened at the nose of the shock, so the flows are enhanced and drifted to the East (West) in the Northern hemisphere and to the West (East) in the Southern hemisphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSpR..55..401K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AdSpR..55..401K"><span id="translatedtitle">Variations of solar, <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span>, and geomagnetic parameters with solar <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> multipole fields during Solar Cycles 21-24</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Bogyeong; Lee, Jeongwoo; Yi, Yu; Oh, Suyeon</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this study we compare the temporal variations of the solar, <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span>, and geomagnetic (SIG) parameters with that of open solar <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux from 1976 to 2012 (from Solar Cycle 21 to the early phase of Cycle 24) for a purpose of identifying their possible relationships. By the open flux, we mean the <span class="hlt">average</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field over the source surface (2.5 solar radii) times the source area as defined by the potential field source surface (PFSS) model of the Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO). In our result, most SIG parameters except the solar wind dynamic pressure show rather poor correlations with the open solar <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. Good correlations are recovered when the contributions from individual multipole components are counted separately. As expected, solar activity indices such as sunspot number, total solar irradiance, 10.7 cm radio flux, and solar flare occurrence are highly correlated with the flux of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> quadrupole component. The dynamic pressure of solar wind is strongly correlated with the dipole flux, which is in anti-phase with Solar Cycle (SC). The geomagnetic activity represented by the Ap index is correlated with higher order multipole components, which show relatively a slow time variation with SC. We also found that the unusually low geomagnetic activity during SC 23 is accompanied by the weak open solar fields compared with those in other SCs. It is argued that such dependences of the SIG parameters on the individual multipole components of the open solar <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux may clarify why some SIG parameters vary in phase with SC and others show seemingly delayed responses to SC variation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.1994M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.1994M"><span id="translatedtitle">Saturn's dayside ultraviolet auroras: Evidence for morphological dependence on the direction of the upstream <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meredith, C. J.; Alexeev, I. I.; Badman, S. V.; Belenkaya, E. S.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Dougherty, M. K.; Kalegaev, V. V.; Lewis, G. R.; Nichols, J. D.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>We examine a unique data set from seven Hubble Space Telescope (HST) "visits" that imaged Saturn's northern dayside ultraviolet emissions exhibiting usual circumpolar "auroral oval" morphologies, during which Cassini measured the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) upstream of Saturn's bow shock over intervals of several hours. The auroras generally consist of a dawn arc extending toward noon centered near ~15° colatitude, together with intermittent patchy forms at ~10° colatitude and poleward thereof, located between noon and dusk. The dawn arc is a persistent feature, but exhibits variations in position, width, and intensity, which have no clear relationship with the concurrent IMF. However, the patchy postnoon auroras are found to relate to the (suitably lagged and <span class="hlt">averaged</span>) IMF Bz, being present during all four visits with positive Bz and absent during all three visits with negative Bz. The most continuous such forms occur in the case of strongest positive Bz. These results suggest that the postnoon forms are associated with reconnection and open flux production at Saturn's magnetopause, related to the similarly interpreted bifurcated auroral arc structures previously observed in this local time sector in Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph data, whose details remain unresolved in these HST images. One of the intervals with negative IMF Bz however exhibits a prenoon patch of very high latitude emission extending poleward of the dawn arc to the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span>/spin pole, suggestive of the occurrence of lobe reconnection. Overall, these data provide evidence of significant IMF dependence in the morphology of Saturn's dayside auroras.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://sprg.ssl.berkeley.edu/adminstuff/webpubs/2002_jgr_1477.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://sprg.ssl.berkeley.edu/adminstuff/webpubs/2002_jgr_1477.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Strong <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field By-related plasma convection in the ionosphere and cusp field-aligned currents under northward</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>California at Berkeley, University of</p> <p></p> <p>Strong <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field By-related plasma convection in the ionosphere and cusp field and the assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) model during a prolonged interval with large procedure provides a reasonably good description of plasma circulations in the ionosphere during</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22039339','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22039339"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAGNETIC</span> VARIANCES AND PITCH-ANGLE SCATTERING TIMES UPSTREAM OF <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> SHOCKS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Perri, Silvia; Zimbardo, Gaetano E-mail: gaetano.zimbardo@fis.unical.it</p> <p>2012-07-20</p> <p>Recent observations of power-law time profiles of energetic particles accelerated at <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks have shown the possibility of anomalous, superdiffusive transport for energetic particles throughout the heliosphere. Those findings call for an accurate investigation of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field fluctuation properties at the resonance frequencies upstream of the shock's fronts. Normalized <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field variances, indeed, play a crucial role in the determination of the pitch-angle scattering times and then of the transport regime. The present analysis investigates the time behavior of the normalized variances of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field fluctuations, measured by the Ulysses spacecraft upstream of corotating interaction region (CIR) shocks, for those events which exhibit superdiffusion for energetic electrons. We find a quasi-constant value for the normalized <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field variances from about 10 hr to 100 hr from the shock front. This rules out the presence of a varying diffusion coefficient and confirms the possibility of superdiffusion for energetic electrons. A statistical analysis of the scattering times obtained from the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fluctuations upstream of the CIR events has also been performed; the resulting power-law distributions of scattering times imply long range correlations and weak pitch-angle scattering, and the power-law slopes are in qualitative agreement with superdiffusive processes described by a Levy random walk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023374','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023374"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field Power Spectrum Variations in the Inner Heliosphere: A Wind and MESSENGER Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Szabo, Adam; Koval, A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field data and the similar observations made by the MESSENGER spacecraft in the inner heliosphere affords an opportunity to compare <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field power spectral density variations as a function of radial distance from the Sun under different solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the approx.2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The powe'r spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions. Wind and MESSENGER <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fluctuations are compared for times when the two spacecraft are close to radial and Parker field alignment. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field conditions will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21562438','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21562438"><span id="translatedtitle">ON THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE <span class="hlt">MAGNETIC</span> FIELD IN <span class="hlt">MAGNETIC</span> CLOUDS AND <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS: WRITHE VERSUS TWIST</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Al-Haddad, N.; Roussev, I. I.; Lugaz, N.; Moestl, C.; Jacobs, C.; Poedts, S.; Farrugia, C. J. E-mail: nlugaz@ifa.hawaii.edu</p> <p>2011-09-10</p> <p>In this study, we test the flux rope paradigm by performing a 'blind' reconstruction of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field structure of a simulated <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejection (ICME). The ICME is the result of a magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulation and does not exhibit much <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> twist, but appears to have some characteristics of a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud, due to a writhe in the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field lines. We use the Grad-Shafranov technique with simulated spacecraft measurements at two different distances and compare the reconstructed <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field with that of the ICME in the simulation. While the reconstructed <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field is similar to the simulated one as seen in two dimensions, it yields a helically twisted <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field in three dimensions. To further verify the results, we perform the reconstruction at three different position angles at every distance point, and all results are found to be in agreement. This work demonstrates that the current paradigm of associating <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds with flux ropes may have to be revised.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Ge%26Ae..55..938V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Ge%26Ae..55..938V"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiocarbon version of 11-year variations in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field since 1250</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Volobuev, D. M.; Makarenko, N. G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>It is known that the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF), which is controlled by solar activity, modulates the flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). Because GCRs are the only source of the 14C isotope in the atmosphere before the era of atmospheric nuclear tests, the formation rate of this isotope in the atmosphere is one of the few reliable sources of information on solar activity before the initiation of regular telescopic observations. In this study, we solve the inverse problem for the equation of radiocarbon diffusion from the atmosphere into the ocean by calibrating the radiocarbon content in tree rings from 1510 to 1950. We obtain an approximation of 11-year IMF cycles represented by the IDV index from 1872 to 1950. The model extrapolation to the calibration curve for the Korean Peninsula over the time period from 1250 to 1650 makes it possible to calculate the sequence of minima of quasi-11-year cycles since 1250.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...812..152Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...812..152Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Strong Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Pulses: <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Sources and Their Impacts on Geosynchronous <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zuo, Pingbing; Feng, Xueshang; Xie, Yanqiong; Wang, Yi; Xu, Xiaojun</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In this investigation, we first present a statistical result of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> sources of very strong solar wind dynamic pressure pulses (DPPs) detected by WIND during solar cycle 23. It is found that the vast majority of strong DPPs reside within solar wind disturbances. Although the variabilities of geosynchronous <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields (GMFs) due to the impact of positive DPPs have been well established, there appears to be no systematic investigations on the response of GMFs to negative DPPs. Here, we study both the decompression effects of very strong negative DPPs and the compression from strong positive DPPs on GMFs at different <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> local time sectors. In response to the decompression of strong negative DPPs, GMFs on the dayside near dawn and near dusk on the nightside, are generally depressed. But near the midnight region, the responses of GMF are very diverse, being either positive or negative. For part of the events when GOES is located at the midnight sector, the GMF is found to abnormally increase as the result of magnetospheric decompression caused by negative DPPs. It is known that under certain conditions <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> depression of nightside GMFs can be caused by the impact of positive DPPs. Here, we find that a stronger pressure enhancement may have a higher probability of producing the exceptional depression of GMF at the midnight region. Statistically, both the decompression effect of strong negative DPPs and the compression effect of strong positive DPPs depend on the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> local time, which are stronger at the noon sector.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.3328J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.3328J"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparing generic models for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds axis configurations at 1 AU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Janvier, M.; Dasso, S.; Démoulin, P.; Masías-Meza, J. J.; Lugaz, N.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are the manifestation of solar transient eruptions, which can significantly modify the plasma and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> conditions in the heliosphere. They are often preceded by a shock, and a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux rope is detected in situ in a third to half of them. The main aim of this study is to obtain the best quantitative shape for the flux rope axis and for the shock surface from in situ data obtained during spacecraft crossings of these structures. We first compare the orientation of the flux rope axes and shock normals obtained from independent data analyses of the same events, observed in situ at 1 AU from the Sun. Then we carry out an original statistical analysis of axes/shock normals by deriving the statistical distributions of their orientations. We fit the observed distributions using the distributions derived from several synthetic models describing these shapes. We show that the distributions of axis/shock orientations are very sensitive to their respective shape. One classical model, used to analyze <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> imager data, is incompatible with the in situ data. Two other models are introduced, for which the results for axis and shock normals lead to very similar shapes; the fact that the data for MCs and shocks are independent strengthens this result. The model which best fits all the data sets has an ellipsoidal shape with similar aspect ratio values for all the data sets. These derived shapes for the flux rope axis and shock surface have several potential applications. First, these shapes can be used to construct a consistent ICME model. Second, these generic shapes can be used to develop a quantitative model to analyze imager data, as well as constraining the output of numerical simulations of ICMEs. Finally, they will have implications for space weather forecasting, in particular, for forecasting the time arrival of ICMEs at the Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SoPh..290..553L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SoPh..290..553L"><span id="translatedtitle">Yearly Comparison of <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Cloud Parameters, Sunspot Number, and <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Quantities for the First 18 Years of the Wind Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lepping, R. P.; Wu, C.-C.; Berdichevsky, D. B.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>In the scalar part of this study, we determine various statistical relationships between estimated <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud (MC) model fit-parameters and sunspot number (SSN) for the interval defined by the Wind mission, i.e., early 1995 until the end of 2012, all in terms of yearly <span class="hlt">averages</span>. The MC-fitting model used is that of Lepping, Jones, and Burlaga ( J. Geophys. Res. 95, 11957 - 11965, <CitationRef CitationID="CR19">1990). We also statistically compare the MC fit-parameters and other derived MC quantities [ e.g., axial <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux (?O) and total axial current density ( J O)] with some associated ambient <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> quantities (including the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field ( B IMF), proton number density ( N P), and others). Some of the main findings are that the minimum SSN is nearly simultaneous with the minimum in the number of MCs per year ( N MC), which occurs in 2008. There are various fluctuations in N MC and the MC model-fit quality ( Q') throughout the mission, but the last four years (2009 - 2012) are markedly different from the others; Q' is low and N MC is large over these four years. N MC is especially large for 2012. The linear correlation coefficient (c.c.?0.75) between the SSN and each of the three quantities J O, MC diameter (2 R O), and B IMF, is moderately high, but none of the MC parameters track the SSN well in the sense defined in this article. However, there is good statistical tracking among the following: MC axial field, B IMF, 2 R O, <span class="hlt">average</span> MC speed ( V MC), and yearly <span class="hlt">average</span> solar wind speed ( V SW) with relatively high c.c.s among most of these. From the start of the mission until late 2005, J O gradually increases, with a slight violation in 2003, but then a dramatic decrease (by more than a factor of five) occurs to an almost steady and low value of ? 3 ?A km-2 until the end of the interval of interest, i.e., lasting for at least seven years. This tends to split the overall 18-year interval into two phases with a separator at the end of 2005. There is good tracking between 2 R O and the total axial current density, as expected. The MC duration is also correlated well with these two quantities. ?O shows marked variations throughout the mission, but has no obvious trend. N P, B IMF, V MC, Q', and V SW are all quite steady over the full 18 years and have markedly low relative variation. Concerning vector quantities, we examine the distribution of MC type for the 18 years, where type refers to the field directional change through a given MC starting at first encounter ( i.e., North-to-South, or South-to-North, All South, All North, etc.). Combining all 18 years of MC types shows that the occurrence rate varies strongly across the various MC types, with N-to-S being most prevalent, with a 27 % occurrence rate (of all MCs), and S-to-N being second, with a 23 % occurrence. Then All N and All S come next at 16 % and 10 % occurrence rate, respectively. All others are at 7 % or lower. For the variation of MC types with time, the southern types ( i.e., those that start with a southern <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, a negative B Z in geocentric-solar-ecliptic coordinates) decrease, as the northern types ( i.e., those that start with a northern field) increase, apparently consistent with the specific timing of the polarity change of the solar <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, as predicted by Bothmer and Rust (in Crooker, N., Joselyn, J., Feynman J. (eds), Geophys. Monogr., 139 - 146, <CitationRef CitationID="CR3">1997).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......161W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......161W"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical analysis and theory of oblique alfvenic solitons observed in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wheeler, Harry Raphael, IV</p> <p></p> <p>Recently, there have been reports of small <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> pulses or bumps in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field observed by various spacecraft. Most of these reports claim that these localized pulses or bumps are solitons. Solitons are weakly nonlinear localized waves that tend to retain their form as they propagate and can be observed in various media which exhibit nonlinear steepening and dispersive eects. This thesis expands the claim that these pulses or bumps are nonlinear oblique Alfven waves with soliton components, through the application of analytical techniques used in the inverse scattering transform in a numerical context and numerical integration of nonlinear partial dierential equations. One event, which was observed by the Ulysses spacecraft on February 21st, 2001, is extensively scrutinized through comparison with soliton solutions that emerge from the Derivative Nonlinear Schrodinger (DNLS) equation. The direct scattering transform of a wave prole that has corresponding morphology to the selected <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> bump leads to the implication of a soliton component. Numerical integration of the scaled prole matching the event in the context of the DNLS leads to generation of dispersive waves and a one parameter dark soliton.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990056482&hterms=Ulysses&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DUlysses','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990056482&hterms=Ulysses&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DUlysses"><span id="translatedtitle">Self-similar evolution of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds and Ulysses measurements of the polytropic index inside the cloud</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Osherovich, Vladimir A.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Berdichevsky, D.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>A self similar model for the expanding flux rope is developed for a magnetohydrodynamic model of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds. It is suggested that the dependence of the maximum <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field on the distance from the sun and the polytropic index gamma has the form B = r exp (-1/gamma), and that the ratio of the electron temperature to the proton temperature increases with distance from the sun. It is deduced that ion acoustic waves should be observed in the cloud. Both predictions were confirmed by Ulysses observations of a 1993 <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud. Measurements of gamma inside the cloud demonstrate sensitivity to the internal topology of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field in the cloud.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820005721','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820005721"><span id="translatedtitle">Large-scale variations of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field: Voyager 1 and 2 observations between 1-5 AU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burlaga, L. F.; Lepping, R. P.; Behannon, K. W.; Klein, L. W.; Neubauer, F. M.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Observations by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field between 1 and 5 AU were used to investigate the large scale structure of the IMF in a period of increasing solar activity. The Voyager spacecraft found notable deviations from the Parker axial model. These deviations are attributed both to temporal variations associated with increasing solar activity, and to the effects of fluctuations of the field in the radial direction. The amplitude of the latter fluctuations were found to be large relative to the magnitude of the radial field component itself beyond approximately 3 AU. Both Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 observed decreases with increasing heliocentric distance in the amplitude of transverse fluctuations in the <span class="hlt">averaged</span> field strength (B) which are consistent with the presence of predominantly undamped Alfven waves in the solar wind, although and necessarily implying the presence of them. Fluctuations in the strength of B (relative to mean field strength) were found to be small in amplitude, with a RMS which is approximately one third of that for the transverse fluctuations and they are essentially independent of distance from the Sun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AnGeo..31.1251K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AnGeo..31.1251K"><span id="translatedtitle">On the relationship between <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kilpua, E. K. J.; Isavnin, A.; Vourlidas, A.; Koskinen, H. E. J.; Rodriguez, L.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>The relationship of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds (MCs) to <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) is still an open issue in space research. The view that all ICMEs would originate as <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux ropes has received increasing attention, although near the orbit of the Earth only about one-third of ICMEs show clear MC signatures and often the MC occupies only a portion of the more extended region showing ICME signatures. In this work we analyze 79 events between 1996 and 2009 reported in existing ICME/MC catalogs (Wind <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud list and the Richardson and Cane ICME list) using near-Earth observations by ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) and Wind. We perform a systematic comparison of cases where ICME and MC signatures coincided and where ICME signatures extended significantly beyond the MC boundaries. We find clear differences in the characteristics of these two event types. In particular, the events where ICME signatures continued more than 6 h past the MC rear boundary had 2.7 times larger speed difference between the ICME's leading edge and the preceding solar wind, 1.4 times higher <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields, 2.1 times larger widths and they experienced three times more often strong expansion than the events for which the rear boundaries coincided. The events with significant mismatch in MC and ICME boundary times were also embedded in a faster solar wind and the majority of them were observed close to the solar maximum. Our analysis shows that the sheath, the MC and the regions of ICME-related plasma in front and behind the MC have different <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, plasma and charge state characteristics, thus suggesting that these regions separate already close to the Sun. Our study shows that the geometrical effect (the encounter through the CME leg and/or far from the flux rope center) does not contribute much to the observed mismatch in the MC and ICME boundary times.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT........13T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT........13T"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving the predictions of solar wind speed and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field at the Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tran, Tham</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model, an advanced version of the potential field source surface (PFSS) model, is widely used to predict the solar wind speed (SWS) and the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) polarities at the Earth. The results, however, do not always match the observations. To improve the predictive capability of this model we made the following changes: (1) We used the high resolution magnetograms produced by the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observer (SOHO) spacecraft. We properly calibrated the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field strength of the MDI observations using the Mt. Wilson (MWO) FeI magnetograms so that each MDI level 1.8 magnetogram can be converted to the same basis as the saturation-corrected long-duration MWO Fel magnetogram. (2) The WSA model requires a map of full solar surface <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, and traditionally a synoptic chart is used. However, the synoptic chart does not represent the full solar surface at a particular time. Therefore, we suggest to use a new format called heliospheric (or snapshot) map in the model. (3) We implement a better estimate of the polar field that is not observable during some part of the year due to the solar tilted angle B0. The <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field near the solar poles is very important because it may be the dominant part of the solar <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field far away from the Sun, especially during the period of solar minimum. (4) The WSA model assumes that the solar photospheric <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field is nearly radial, so that its radial component can be obtained directly from the line-of-sight (LOS) of the observed field. This approach produces very strong radial <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field near the solar poles. We solve this problem by first obtaining the spherical harmonic coefficients directly from the LOS <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> data and then reconstructing the radial <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> chart. (5) Finally, changing the radius of the source surface, rss, in the PFSS analysis strongly affects the predicted SWS and IMF at the Earth. Our results show that the smaller the value of rss, the stronger the IMF is computed at 1 AU, and also rss may be a function of the solar cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970026617','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970026617"><span id="translatedtitle">Penetration of the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field B(sub y) into Earth's Plasma Sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hau, L.-N.; Erickson, G. M.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>There has been considerable recent interest in the relationship between the cross-tail <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field component B(sub y) and tail dynamics. The purpose of this paper is to give an overall description of the penetration of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) B(sub y) into the near-Earth plasma sheet. We show that plasma sheet B(sub y) may be generated by the differential shear motion of field lines and enhanced by flux tube compression. The latter mechanism leads to a B(sub y) analogue of the pressure-balance inconsistency as flux tubes move from the far tail toward the Earth. The growth of B(sub y), however, may be limited by the dawn-dusk asymmetry in the shear velocity as a result of plasma sheet tilting. B(sub y) penetration into the plasma sheet implies field-aligned currents flowing between hemispheres. These currents together with the IMF B(sub y) related mantle field-aligned currents effectively shield the lobe from the IMF B(sub y).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140016484','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140016484"><span id="translatedtitle">The B-dot Earth <span class="hlt">Average</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Capo-Lugo, Pedro A.; Rakoczy, John; Sanders, Devon</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">average</span> Earth's <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field is solved with complex mathematical models based on mean square integral. Depending on the selection of the Earth <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> model, the <span class="hlt">average</span> Earth's <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field can have different solutions. This paper presents a simple technique that takes advantage of the damping effects of the b-dot controller and is not dependent of the Earth <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> model; but it is dependent on the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> torquers of the satellite which is not taken into consideration in the known mathematical models. Also the solution of this new technique can be implemented so easily that the flight software can be updated during flight, and the control system can have current gains for the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> torquers. Finally, this technique is verified and validated using flight data from a satellite that it has been in orbit for three years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TESS....140503K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TESS....140503K"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux excess effect as a consequence of non-Parker radial evolution of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khabarova, Olga</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The “<span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux excess” effect is exceeding of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux Fs=4?|Br|r2 measured by distant spacecraft over the values obtained through measurements at the Earth’s orbit (Owens et al., JGR, 2008). Theoretically, its conservation should take place at any heliocentric distance r further than 10 solar radii, which means that the difference between the flux measured at 1 AU and Fs observed in another point in the heliosphere should be zero. However, the difference is negative closer to the Sun and increasingly positive at larger heliocentric distances. Possible explanations of this effect are continuously discussed, but the consensus is yet not reached.It is shown that a possible source of this effect is the solar wind expansion not accordingly with the Parker solution at least at low heliolatitudes. The difference between the experimentally found (r-5/3) and commonly used (r-2) radial dependence of the radial component of the IMF Br may lead to mistakes in the IMF point-to-point recalculations (Khabarova & Obridko, ApJ, 2012; Khabarova, Astronomy Reports, 2013). Using the observed Br (r) dependence, it is easy to find the variation of difference between the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux Fs(r) at certain heliocentric distance r and Fs_1AU at 1 AU, which can be calculated as Fs(r)-Fs_1AU =4?·(B1AU /[1AU]-5/3) (r2-5/3 -[1AU]2-5/3) (Khabarova, Astronomy Reports, 2013).The possible influence of presence of the heliospheric current sheet near the ecliptic plane on the picture of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field lines and consequent deviation from the Parker's model is discussed.- Khabarova Olga, and Obridko Vladimir, Puzzles of the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field in the Inner Heliosphere, 2012, Astrophysical Journal, 761, 2, 82, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/761/2/82, http://arxiv.org/pdf/1204.6672v2.pdf- Olga V. Khabarova, The <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field: radial and latitudinal dependences. Astronomy Reports, 2013, Vol. 57, No. 11, pp. 844-859, http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1305/1305.1204.pdf</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4497471','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4497471"><span id="translatedtitle">Saturn's dayside ultraviolet auroras: Evidence for morphological dependence on the direction of the upstream <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Meredith, C J; Alexeev, I I; Badman, S V; Belenkaya, E S; Cowley, S W H; Dougherty, M K; Kalegaev, V V; Lewis, G R; Nichols, J D</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We examine a unique data set from seven Hubble Space Telescope (HST) “visits” that imaged Saturn's northern dayside ultraviolet emissions exhibiting usual circumpolar “auroral oval” morphologies, during which Cassini measured the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) upstream of Saturn's bow shock over intervals of several hours. The auroras generally consist of a dawn arc extending toward noon centered near ?15° colatitude, together with intermittent patchy forms at ?10° colatitude and poleward thereof, located between noon and dusk. The dawn arc is a persistent feature, but exhibits variations in position, width, and intensity, which have no clear relationship with the concurrent IMF. However, the patchy postnoon auroras are found to relate to the (suitably lagged and <span class="hlt">averaged</span>) IMF Bz, being present during all four visits with positive Bz and absent during all three visits with negative Bz. The most continuous such forms occur in the case of strongest positive Bz. These results suggest that the postnoon forms are associated with reconnection and open flux production at Saturn's magnetopause, related to the similarly interpreted bifurcated auroral arc structures previously observed in this local time sector in Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph data, whose details remain unresolved in these HST images. One of the intervals with negative IMF Bz however exhibits a prenoon patch of very high latitude emission extending poleward of the dawn arc to the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span>/spin pole, suggestive of the occurrence of lobe reconnection. Overall, these data provide evidence of significant IMF dependence in the morphology of Saturn's dayside auroras. Key Points We examine seven cases of joint HST Saturn auroral images and Cassini IMF data The persistent but variable dawn arc shows no obvious IMF dependence Patchy postnoon auroras are present for northward IMF but not for southward IMF PMID:26167441</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720018182','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720018182"><span id="translatedtitle">Precipitation of low energy electrons at high latitudes: Effects of substorms, <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and dipole tilt angle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burch, J. L.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Data from the auroral particles experiment on OGO-4 were used to study effects of substorm activity, <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field latitutde, and dipole tilt angle on high-latitude precipitation of 700 eV electrons. It was found that: (1) The high-latitude zone of 700 eV electron precipitation in late evening and early morning hours moves equatorward by 5 to 10 deg during substorms. (2) The low-latitude boundary of polar cusp electron precipitation at 9 to 15 hours MLT also moves equatorward by several degrees during substorms and, in the absence of significant substorm activity, after a period of southward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. (3) With times containing substorm activity or a southward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field eliminated, the low-latitude boundary of polar cusp electron precipitation is found to move by approximately 4 deg over the total yearly range of tilt angles. At maximum winter and summer conditions the invariant latitude of the boundary is shown to shift by approximately -3 deg and +1 deg respectively from its equinox location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730018611','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730018611"><span id="translatedtitle">The relation between the azimuthal component of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and the geomagnetic field in the polar caps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Svalgaard, L.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The recently discovered relation between the azimuthal component of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> variations in the earth's polar caps is reviewed. When the IMF azimuthal component is positive (typical of an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> sector with <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field directed away from the sun) geomagnetic perturbations directed away from the earth are observed within 8 deg from the corrected geomagnetic pole. When the IMF azimuthal component is negative (typically within toward sectors) the geomagnetic perturbations are directed towards the earth at both poles. These perturbations can also be described by an equivalent current flowing at a constant <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> latitude of 80 - 82 deg clockwise around the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> poles during toward sectors and counterclockwise during away sectors. This current fluctuates in magnitude and direction with the azimuthal component of the IMF, with a delay time of the order of 20 minutes. The importance of this effect for understanding of both solar <span class="hlt">magnetism</span> and magnetospheric physics is stressed in view of the possibility for investigating the solar sector structure during the last five sunspot cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21578263','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21578263"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">MAGNETIC</span> FIELD-LINE LENGTHS IN <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS INFERRED FROM ENERGETIC ELECTRON EVENTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kahler, S. W.; Haggerty, D. K.; Richardson, I. G.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>About one quarter of the observed <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are characterized by enhanced <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields that smoothly rotate in direction over timescales of about 10-50 hr. These ICMEs have the appearance of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux ropes and are known as '<span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds' (MCs). The total lengths of MC field lines can be determined using solar energetic particles of known speeds when the solar release times and the 1 AU onset times of the particles are known. A recent examination of about 30 near-relativistic (NR) electron events in and near 8 MCs showed no obvious indication that the field-line lengths were longest near the MC boundaries and shortest at the MC axes or outside the MCs, contrary to the expectations for a flux rope. Here we use the impulsive beamed NR electron events observed with the Electron Proton and Alpha Monitor instrument on the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft and type III radio bursts observed on the Wind spacecraft to determine the field-line lengths inside ICMEs included in the catalog of Richardson and Cane. In particular, we extend this technique to ICMEs that are not MCs and compare the field-line lengths inside MCs and non-MC ICMEs with those in the ambient solar wind outside the ICMEs. No significant differences of field-line lengths are found among MCs, ICMEs, and the ambient solar wind. The estimated number of ICME field-line turns is generally smaller than those deduced for flux-rope model fits to MCs. We also find cases in which the electron injections occur in solar active regions (ARs) distant from the source ARs of the ICMEs, supporting CME models that require extensive coronal <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> reconnection with surrounding fields. The field-line lengths are found to be statistically longer for the NR electron events classified as ramps and interpreted as shock injections somewhat delayed from the type III bursts. The path lengths of the remaining spike and pulse electron events are compared with model calculations of solar wind field-line lengths resulting from turbulence and found to be in good agreement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37.2948S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37.2948S"><span id="translatedtitle">MESSENGER observations of the response of Mercury's magnetosphere to northward and southward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Slavin, James</p> <p></p> <p>M. H. Ac?a (2), B. J. Anderson (3), D. N. Baker (4), M. Benna (2), S. A. Boardsen (1), G. n Gloeckler (5), R. E. Gold (3), G. C. Ho (3), H. Korth (3), S. M. Krimigis (3), S. A. Livi (6), R. L. McNutt Jr. (3), J. M. Raines (5), M. Sarantos (1), D. Schriver (7), S. C. Solomon (8), P. Travnicek (9), and T. H. Zurbuchen (5) (1) Heliophysics Science Division, NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA, (2) Solar System Exploration Division, NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA, (3) The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723, USA, (4) Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303, USA, (5) Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA (6) Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 28510, USA, (7) Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA, (8) Department of Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Magnetism</span>, Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC 20015, USA, and (9) Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Prague, Czech Republic, 14131 MESSENGER's 14 January 2008 encounter with Mercury has provided new observations of the solar wind interaction with this planet. Here we report initial results concerning this miniature magnetosphere's response to the north-south component of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF). This is the component of the IMF that is expected to exert the greatest influence over the structure of the magnetopause and the processes responsible for energy transfer into the magnetosphere. The IMF was northward immediately prior to and following the passage of the MESSENGER spacecraft through this small magnetosphere. However, several-minute episodes of southward IMF were observed in the magnetosheath during the inbound portion of the encounter. Evidence for reconnection at the dayside magnetopause in the form of welldeveloped flux transfer events (FTEs) was observed in the magnetosheath following some of these southward-Bz intervals. The inbound magnetopause crossing in the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field measurements is consistent with a transition from the magnetosheath into the plasma sheet. Immediately following MESSENGER's entry into the magnetosphere, rotational perturbations in the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field similar to those seen at the Earth in association with large-scale plasma sheet vortices driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz waves along the magnetotail boundary at the Earth are observed. The outbound magnetopause occurred during northward IMF Bz and had the characteristics of a tangential discontinuity. These new observations have important implications for our understanding of energy transfer into Mercury's magnetosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110023536&hterms=electron&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Delectron','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110023536&hterms=electron&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Delectron"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field-Line Lengths in <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Coronal Mass Ejections Inferred from Energetic Electron Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kahler, S. W.; Haggerty, D. K.; Richardson, I. G.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>About one quarter of the observed <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are characterized by enhanced <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields that smoothly rotate in direction over timescales of about 10-50 hr. These ICMEs have the appearance of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux ropes and are known as "<span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds" (MCs). The total lengths of MC field lines can be determined using solar energetic particles of known speeds when the solar release times and the I AU onset times of the particles are known. A recent examination of about 30 near-relativistic (NR) electron events in and near 8 MCs showed no obvious indication that the field-line lengths were longest near the MC boundaries and shortest at the MC axes or outside the MCs, contrary to the expectations for a flux rope. Here we use the impulsive beamed NR electron events observed with the Electron Proton and Alpha Monitor instrument on the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft and type III radio bursts observed on the Wind spacecraft to determine the field-line lengths inside ICMEs included in the catalog of Richardson & Cane. In particular, we extend this technique to ICMEs that are not MCs and compare the field-line lengths inside MCs and non-MC ICMEs with those in the ambient solar wind outside the ICMEs. No significant differences of field-line lengths are found among MCs, ICMEs, and the ambient solar wind. The estimated number of ICME field-line turns is generally smaller than those deduced for flux-rope model fits to MCs. We also find cases in which the electron injections occur in solar active regions CARs) distant from the source ARs of the ICMEs, supporting CME models that require extensive coronal <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> reconnection with surrounding fields. The field-line lengths are found to be statistically longer for the NR electron events classified as ramps and interpreted as shock injections somewhat delayed from the type III bursts. The path lengths of the remaining spike and pulse electron events are compared with model calculations of solar wind field-line lengths resulting from turbulence and found to be in good agreement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110007245&hterms=Butterfly&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DButterfly','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110007245&hterms=Butterfly&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DButterfly"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar Sources and Geospace Consequences of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Clouds Observed During Solar Cycle 23</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gopalswamy, N.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Michalek, G.; Lepping, R. P.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>We present results of a statistical investigation of 99 <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds (MCs) observed during 1995-2005. The MC-associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are faster and wider on the <span class="hlt">average</span> and originate within +/-30deg from the solar disk center. The solar sources of MCs also followed the butterfly diagram. The correlation between the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field strength and speed of MCs was found to be valid over a much wider range of speeds. The number of south-north (SN) MCs was dominant and decreased with solar cycle, while the number of north-south (NS) MCs increased confirming the odd-cycle behavior. Two-thirds of MCs were geoeffective; the Dst index was highly correlated with speed and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field in MCs as well as their product. Many (55%) fully northward (FN) MCs were geoeffective solely due to their sheaths. The non-geoeffective MCs were slower (<span class="hlt">average</span> speed approx. 382 km/s), had a weaker southward <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (<span class="hlt">average</span> approx. -5.2nT), and occurred mostly during the rise phase of the solar activity cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSpR..52.2112A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSpR..52.2112A"><span id="translatedtitle">Sunspot numbers, <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, and cosmic ray intensity at earth: Nexus for the twentieth century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahluwalia, H. S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The pivotal role played by the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (B) in modulating galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity in the heliosphere is described. We show that the inverse correlation observed by Forbush (1958) between GCRs and sunspot numbers (SSNs) is reflected in high correlation between SSNs and B (cc = 0.94). The SSN data are available since 1700 and the derived B data since 1835. The paleo-cosmic ray data are available for several millennia in the form of 10Be radionuclide sequestered in polar ice. The data of the ion chambers (ICs) at the Cheltenham-Fredericksburg-Yakutsk (CFY) sites are combined to create a data string for 1937-1988. In turn, these data are used to extend the measurements of the low energy GCR ions (>0.1 GeV) at balloon altitudes at high latitudes in Russia to 1937. These data are then correlated to B and the fit parameters are used to extend the low energy ion data to 1900, creating the instrumental era GCR time series for the twentieth century. The derived GCR time series is compared to 10Be measured at two sites in Greenland, namely Dye 3 and NGRIP for 1900-2000 to check the internal consistency of datasets for the long-term trend. We find that the annual mean rate (%) for 1965 at NGRIP is an outlier. We replace it with the mean of 1964 and 1965 rates and construct a new re-normalized time series at NGIP, improving the agreement with the derived instrumental era GCR time series for the twentieth century as well. This should encourage its use by heliophysics community for varied applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800011715','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800011715"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> medium data book, supplement, 1975 - 1978</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>King, J. H.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Since the issurance of the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Medium Data Book (NSSDC/WDC-A-R&S 77-04, 1977) which contains plots and listings of hourly <span class="hlt">average</span> <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> field and plasma parameters covering the period November 27, 1963 through December 30, 1975, additional data are available which fill some 1975 data gaps and which extend the data coverage well into 1978. This supplement contains all the presently available data for the years 1975-1978, <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) data are from the IMP 8 triaxial fluxgate magnetometer experiment. Derived plasma parameters are form the IMP 7 and IMP 8 instruments. Some of the early 1975 IMF data are from a HEOS 1 experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760009906','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760009906"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field between 0.46 and 1 A.U. by the Mariner 10 spacecraft. Ph.D. Thesis - Catholic Univ. of Am.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Behannon, K. W.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Almost continuous measurement of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) at a sampling rate of 25 vectors/sec was performed by the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field experiment onboard the Mariner 10 spacecraft during the period November 3, 1973 to April 14, 1974, comprising approximately 5-2/3 solar rotations and extending in radial distance from the sun from 1 to 0.46 AU. A clearly discernible two-sector pattern of field polarity was observed during the last 3-1/2 months of the period, with the dominant polarity toward the sun below the solar equatorial plane. Two compound high-speed solar wind streams were also present during this period, one in each <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field sector. Relative fluctuations of the field in magnitude and direction were found to have large time variations, but on <span class="hlt">average</span> the relative magnitude fluctuations were approximately constant over the range of heliocentric distance covered while the relative directional fluctuations showed a slight decrease on <span class="hlt">average</span> with increasing distance. The occurrence rate of directional discontinuities was also found to decrease with increasing radial distance from the sun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JGR...10629419S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JGR...10629419S"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulations of the magnetosphere for zero <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field: The ground state</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sonnerup, Bengt U. Ö.; Siebert, Keith D.; White, Willard W.; Weimer, Daniel R.; Maynard, Nelson C.; Schoendorf, Jacqueline A.; Wilson, Gordon R.; Siscoe, George L.; Erickson, Gary M.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>A global MHD simulation code, the Integrated Space Weather Prediction Model, is used to examine the steady state properties of the magnetosphere for zero <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. In this ``ground state'' of the system, reconnection at the magnetopause is absent. Topics reported here include (1) qualitative description of global <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, plasma flow, and current systems (Chapman-Ferraro, geotail, Region 1 and Region 2 currents); (2) quantitative parametric studies of shock jump conditions, magnetopause and shock standoff distance, polar cap voltage, and total Region 1 current for different solar wind speeds and ionospheric Pedersen conductances; and (3) quantitative analysis of the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) and its coupling to the ionosphere. The central part of the geomagnetic tail is found to be very long, extending beyond the downstream end of the simulation box at X=-300 RE. Along each flank a ``wing-like'' region containing closed, albeit strongly stretched, field lines is present. Each such region contains a narrow convection cell, consisting of the tailward flowing LLBL and an adjoining narrow channel of sunward return flow. These cells are the result of viscous-like interaction along the magnetospheric flanks, with an effective kinematic viscosity, entirely of numerical origin, estimated to be ?=1.8×108m2s-1. Except in certain regions near the magnetopause, the magnetosheath flow is steady and laminar while the internal motion in the tail displays turbulent vortical motion in the plasma sheet. Plasma transport in the tail occurs as a result of this turbulence, and substantial turbulent plasma entry across the equatorial magnetopause is seen in the region -10RE<X<0 RE behind the torus of dipolar field lines. The polar cap potential ??PC is 29.9+/-1.4kV for VSW=400kms-1 and ?P=6mho, which is in reasonable agreement with results inferred from satellite observations. About half of ??PC can be attributed to the LLBLs with the remainder coming from a dawn-to-dusk potential drop along the dayside magnetopause, caused by nonlinearly switched resistivity, added explicitly to the MHD equations, and/or by numerical diffusion. The magnetospheric voltage-current relation at VSW=400kms-1 has a constant negative slope with an open circuit voltage of ??PC=38.5kV. The total Region 1 current (into the northern dawn hemisphere) is 0.66 MA (at VSW=400kms-1 and ?P=6mho). It maximizes at about 2.83 MA during short-circuit conditions (?P=? ??PC=0).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/121258','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/121258"><span id="translatedtitle">Polar cap field-aligned currents for southward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xu, D.; Kivelson, M.G.</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>It has been common to suppose that polar region field-aligned currents for southward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields (IMF) consist of two parts: region 1 and region 2 currents. It is often suggested that both of these current systems flow on closed field lines. In this pilot study the limited data available from the ISIS 2 satellite are used to examine region 1 currents with the objective of establishing whether or not they can exist partially on open field lines (i.e., inside the polar caps) for southward IMF. <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> field perturbations were used to identify the field-aligned currents (FACs). The absence of {ge}keV electrons but the presence of {le}200 eV electrons in the polar cap or background polar rain is considered as the signature of open field lines. On some passes, region 1 sense FACs appear to be composed of two parts. The poleward part of the current signature is accompanied by electron fluxes at energies {le}200 eV or occasionally by fluxes at background levels while the equatorward part of the interval is accompanied by electron fluxes at energies both {le}200 eV and {ge}keV. On other passes, region 1 sense currents are accompanied by both {le}200 eV and {ge}keV electron fluxes during the entire pass. The authors propose that region 1 sense FACs flow on both closed and open field lines for the first situation and on closed field lines for the second situation. In seeking to understand why region 1 currents sometimes flow only on closed field lines and sometimes flow on open as well as closed field lines, the authors suggest a control by the IMF B{sub y}. The IMF B{sub y} may also shift the region 1 currents on open field lines to one side (dawn or dusk) of the polar cap like the convection cells. Such a shift provides a consistent model of the data taken on the dayside and the authors discuss why night side observations may be different. 47 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/166283','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/166283"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of sudden impulses on currents in the auroral ionosphere under northward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field conditions: A case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Russell, C.T.; Ginskey, M.; Angelopoulos, V.</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>The authors examine the response of auroral <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> records to the passage of an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock at a time when the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field was northward. They restrict their attention solely to the sector within 3 hours of local <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> midnight for a single case selected when a bursty bulk flow event was recorded in the near tail by ISEE 2. Over most of the nightside at high latitudes only a weak disturbance if any is seen. At lower latitudes a plateau is seen in the H component, coincident with the bursty bulk flow event. At 65{degrees} latitude from about midnight to 3:00 LT a weak pair of negative bays is observed, also coincident with the bursty bulk flow event. The authors conclude that the tail and the auroral ionosphere were closely coupled during this sudden impulse, but the auroral zone disturbance appears to be mainly the brief activation of a section of the auroral electrojet rather than a classic substorm. No expansion or motion of the electrojet was observed, and the activation was no longer than that of the bursty bulk flow in the tail. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JASTP.115....7M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JASTP.115....7M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field By control of prompt total electron content increases during superstorms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mannucci, A. J.; Crowley, G.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Komjathy, A.; Stephens, P.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Large magnitude increases in ionospheric total electron content (TEC) that occur over 1-3 h on the dayside are a significant manifestation of the main phases of superstorms. For the largest superstorms of solar cycle 23 (based on the Dst index), ground networks of GPS receivers measured peak total electron content increases greater than a factor of 2 relative to quiet time TEC <span class="hlt">averaged</span> over the broad latitude band ±40° for local times 1200-1600 LT. Near 30° latitude, the Halloween storms of October 29-30, 2003 appeared to produce storm-time TEC exceeding quiet time values by a factor of 5 within 2-3 h of storm onset, at 1300 LT. The physical cause of these large positive phase ionospheric storms is usually attributed to prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs) initiated by Region 1 current closure through the ionosphere (Nopper and Carovillano, 1978 mechanism). An unresolved question is what determines variation of the TEC response for different superstorms. It has been suggested that the cross polar cap potential and Region 1 currents are significant factors in determining PPEF in the equatorial ionosphere, which are related to the solar wind reconnection electric field estimated by Kan-Lee and others. In this paper, we show evidence that suggests By may be a significant factor controlling the TEC response during the main phase of superstorms. We analyzed the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> conditions during the period that TEC was increasing for eight superstorms. We find that increasing daytime TEC during superstorms only occurs for large reconnection electric fields when By magnitude is less than Bz. The data suggest that Bz is a far more important factor in the TEC response than the reconnection electric field. We also find that TEC decreases following its peak storm-time value for two superstorms, even though Bz remains large and By magnitudes are less than Bz. Such decreases during the geomagnetic disturbance may indicate the role of magnetospheric shielding currents, or of changes in the thermosphere that have developed over the prolonged period of large solar wind electric field. Further analysis is warranted covering a wider range of storm intensities on the role of By in affecting the daytime TEC response for a range of storm intensities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM33A2155A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM33A2155A"><span id="translatedtitle">Using ACE Observations of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Particles and <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Fields as Possible Contributors to Variations Observed at Van Allen Probes during Major events in 2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Armstrong, T. P.; Manweiler, J. W.; Gerrard, A. J.; Gkioulidou, M.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Patterson, J. D.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Observations from ACE EPAM including energy spectra of protons, helium, and oxygen will be prepared for coordinated use in estimating the direct and indirect access of energetic particles to inner and outer geomagnetic trapping zones. Complete temporal coverage from ACE at 12 seconds, 5 minutes, 17 minutes, hourly and daily cadences will be used to catalog <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> events arriving at Earth including <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field sector boundaries, <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks, and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections, ICMEs. The first 6 months of 2013 have included both highly disturbed times, March 17 and May 22, and extended quiet periods of little or no variations. Among the specific questions that ACE and Van Allen Probes coordinated observations may aid in resolving are: 1. How much, if any, direct capture of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> energetic particles occurs and what conditions account for it? 2. How much influence do <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> field and particle variations have on energization and/or loss of geomagnetically trapped populations? The poster will also present important links and describe methods and important details of access to numerically expressed ACE EPAM and Van Allen Probes RBSPICE observations that can be flexibly and easily accessed via the internet for student and senior researcher use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/183248','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/183248"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetopause shape as a bivariate function of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field B{sub z} and solar wind dynamic pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roelof, E.C.; Sibeck, D.G.</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>The authors present a new method for determining the shape of the magnetopause as a bivariate function of the hourly <span class="hlt">averaged</span> solar wind dynamic pressure (p) and the north-south component of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) B{sub z}. They represent the magnetopause (for X{sub GSE}>{minus}40R{sub E}) as an ellipsoid of revolution in solar-wind-aberrated coordinates and express the (p, B{sub z}) dependence of each of the three ellipsoid parameters as a second-order (6-term) bivariate expansion in lnp and B{sub z}. The authors define 12 overlapping bins in a normalized dimensionless (p,B{sub z}) {open_quotes}control space{close_quotes} and fit an ellipsoid to those magnetopause crossings having (p,B{sub z}) values within each bin. They also calculate the bivariate (lnp, B{sub z}) moments to second order over each bin in control space. They can then calculate the six control-space expansion coefficients for each of the three ellipsoid parameters in configuration space. From these coefficients they can derive useful diagnostics of the magnetopause shape as joint functions of p and B{sub z}: the aspect ratio of the ellipsoid`s minor-to-major axes the flank distance radius of curvature, and flaring angle (at X{sub GSE}=0); and the subsolar distance and radius of curvature. The authors confirm and quantify previous results that during periods of southward B{sub z} the subsolar magnetopause moves inward, while at X{sub GSE}=0 the flank magnetopause moves outward and the flaring angle increases. These changes are most pronounced during periods of low pressure, wherein all have a dependence on B{sub z} that is stronger and functionally different for B{sub z} southward as compared to B{sub z} northward. In contrast, all these changes are much less sensitive to IMF B{sub z} at the highest pressures. 44 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JGR....99.6067X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JGR....99.6067X"><span id="translatedtitle">Polar cap field-aligned currents for southward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Dingan; Kivelson, Margaret G.</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>It has been common to suppose that polar region filed-aligned currents for southward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields (IMF) consist of two parts: region 1 and region 2 currents. It is often suggested that both of these current systems flow on closed field lines. In this pilot study the limited data available from the International Satellites for Ionospheric Study (ISIS) 2 satellite are used to examine region 1 currents with the objective of establishing whether or not they can exist partially on open field lines (i.e., inside the polar caps) for southward IMF. <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> field perturbations were used to identify the field-aligned currents (FACs). Particle measurements from both the energetic particle detector and the soft particle detector on board the ISIS 2 satellite were used to distinguish between what we suggest are open and closed field lines. Although the identification is not unambiguous, less than or approximately keV electrons are found principally on closed field lines. The absence of less than or approximately keV electrons but the presence of less than or approximately 200 eV electrons in the polar cap or background polar rain is considered as the signature of open filed lines. On some passes, region 1 sense FACs appear to be composed of two parts. The poleward part of the current signature is accompanied by electron fluxes at energies less than or approximately eV or occasionally by fluxes at background levels while the equatorward part of the interval is accompanied by electron fluxes at energies both less th an or approximately 200 eV and less than or approximately keV. On other passes, region 1 sense currents are accompanied by both less than or approximately 200 eV and less than or approximately keV electrons fluxes during the entire pass. We propose that region 1 sense FACs flow on both closed and open field lines for the first situation and on closed field lines for the second situation. In seeking to understand why region 1 currents sometimes flow only on closed field lines and sometimes flow on open as well as closed field lines, we suggest a control by the IMF B(sub y). The IMF B(sub y) may also shift the region 1 currents on open field lines to one side (dawn or dusk) of the polar cap like the convection cells. Such a shift provides a consistent model of the data taken on the dayside and we discuss why nightside observations may be different. We suggest that in the presence of southward IMF, region 1 currents can be composed of two parts, one flowing on closed filed lines and one flowing on open field lines. Because the portion of the region 1 currents inside the polar caps may be generated by different processes from the portion on closed field lines, we refer to the region 1 currents on open field lines as R1O currents. The region 1 currents on closed field lines may be called R1C currents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040171393','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040171393"><span id="translatedtitle">The Fraction of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Coronal Mass Ejections That Are <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Clouds: Evidence for a Solar Cycle Variation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>"<span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> clouds" (MCs) are a subset of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) characterized by enhanced <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields with an organized rotation in direction, and low plasma beta. Though intensely studied, MCs only constitute a fraction of all the ICMEs that are detected in the solar wind. A comprehensive survey of ICMEs in the near- Earth solar wind during the ascending, maximum and early declining phases of solar cycle 23 in 1996 - 2003 shows that the MC fraction varies with the phase of the solar cycle, from approximately 100% (though with low statistics) at solar minimum to approximately 15% at solar maximum. A similar trend is evident in near-Earth observations during solar cycles 20 - 21, while Helios 1/2 spacecraft observations at 0.3 - 1.0 AU show a weaker trend and larger MC fraction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830030751&hterms=1061&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231061','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830030751&hterms=1061&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231061"><span id="translatedtitle">Dawn-dusk asymmetry of the tail region of the magnetosphere of Saturn and the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Akasofu, S.-I.; Roederer, M.; Krimigis, S. M.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>In connection with the findings of the Voyager 1 mission, it appears that the tail lobe of Saturn is very different from that of earth and Jupiter, in that the latter are devoid of energetic particles, and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field lines in this region are thought to be open and interconnecting with the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field at large distances in the antisolar direction. The present investigation is concerned with a possible explanation of these observations, taking into account a model of Saturn's magnetosphere. It is shown that the Voyager 1 spacecraft remained in the closed region of the magnetotail during its entire tail traversal and did not have an opportunity to penetrate into the high latitude lobe. It is concluded that Saturn probably has a tail lobe just like earth and Jupiter. However, this tail lobe was not traversed by Voyager.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950048767&hterms=1575&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231575','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950048767&hterms=1575&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231575"><span id="translatedtitle">The determination of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field polarities around sector boundaries using E greater than 2 keV electrons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kahler, S.; Lin, R. P.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The determination of the polarities of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields (whether the field direction is outward from or inward toward the sun) has been based on a comparison of observed field directions with the nominal Parker spiral angle. These polarities can be mapped back to the solar source field polarities. This technique fails when field directions deviate substantially from the Parker angle or when fields are substantially kinked. We introduce a simple new technique to determine the polarities of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> fields using E greater than 2 keV <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> electrons which stream along field lines away from the sun. Those electrons usually show distinct unidirectional pitch-angle anisotropies either parallel or anti-parallel to the field. Since the electron flow direction is known to be outward from the sun, the anisotropies parallel to the field indicate outward-pointing, positive-polarity fields, and those anti-parallel indicate inward-pointing, negative-polarity fields. We use data from the UC Berkeley electron experiment on the International Sun Earth Explorer 3 (ISSE-3) spacecraft to compare the field polarities deduced from the electron data, Pe (outward or inward), with the polarities inferred from field directions, Pd, around two sector boundaries in 1979. We show examples of large (greater than 100 deg) changes in azimuthal field direction Phi over short (less than 1 hr) time scales, some with and some without reversals in Pe. The latter cases indicate that such large directional changes can occur in unipolar structures. On the other hand, we found an example of a change in Pe during which the rotation in Phi was less than 30 deg, indicating polarity changes in nearly unidirectional structures. The field directions are poor guides to the polarities in these cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JGRA..11111102X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JGRA..11111102X"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the interaction between <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> strong shock and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud and its consequent geoeffectiveness: 2. Oblique collision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiong, Ming; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>Numerical studies of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> "shock overtaking <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud (MC)" event are continued by a 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model in heliospheric meridional plane. <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> direct collision (DC)/oblique collision (OC) between an MC and a shock results from their same/different initial propagation orientations. For radially erupted MC and shock in solar corona, the orientations are only determined respectively by their heliographic locations. OC is investigated in contrast with the results in DC (Xiong, 2006). The shock front behaves as a smooth arc. The cannibalized part of MC is highly compressed by the shock front along its normal. As the shock propagates gradually into the preceding MC body, the most violent interaction is transferred sideways with an accompanying significant narrowing of the MC's angular width. The opposite deflections of MC body and shock aphelion in OC occur simultaneously through the process of the shock penetrating the MC. After the shock's passage, the MC is restored to its oblate morphology. With the decrease of MC-shock commencement interval, the shock front at 1 AU traverses MC body and is responsible for the same change trend of the latitude of the greatest geoeffectiveness of MC-shock compound. Regardless of shock orientation, shock penetration location regarding the maximum geoeffectiveness is right at MC core on the condition of very strong shock intensity. An appropriate angular difference between the initial eruption of an MC and an overtaking shock leads to the maximum deflection of the MC body. The larger the shock intensity is, the greater is the deflection angle. The interaction of MCs with other disturbances could be a cause of deflected propagation of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejection (ICME).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4750503L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4750503L"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of an <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Coronal Mass Ejection and the Crustal <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Fields to the Martian hot O corona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Yuni; Combi, Michael; Tenishev, Valeriy; Bougher, Stephen</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejection (ICME) is a large amount of mass entrained in the heliospheric <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and propagating outward from the Sun into the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium. Upon arrival at Mars, ICMEs interact with its upper atmosphere and ionosphere, causing important impacts in the planetary environment. In March 2015, a strong solar event was observed and associated with a major ICME. The major ICME events aroused a chain of events on Mars, which were detected by the instruments onboard Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN). The consequences in the upper atmosphere are directly related to the important processes that lead to the atmospheric escape. We report here our examinations of the impacts of the March 8th ICME event on the Martian hot O corona by using our 3D framework, which couples the Mars application of the Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator (M-AMPS), the Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (M-GITM), and the Mars multi-fluid MHD (MF-MHD) model. Also, we present the effects of the crustal <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields on the structure of the hot O corona to study the interesting signatures of the crustal <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields. Due to the minimal impacts of the ICME deep in the thermosphere and ionosphere, where the maximum production of hot O occurs, our model results showed a stable hot O corona during and after the peak ICME event. However, the structure of the corona was affected by the existence of the crustal <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields with a decrease in escape rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740020146','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740020146"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> shock waves associated with solar flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chao, J. K.; Sakurai, K.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The interaction of the earth's <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field with the solar wind is discussed with emphasis on the influence of solar flares. The geomagnetic storms are considerered to be the result of the arrival of shock wave generated by solar flares in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space. Basic processes in the solar atmosphere and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space, and hydromagnetic disturbances associated with the solar flares are discussed along with observational and theoretical problems of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock waves. The origin of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock waves is also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.632a2083W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.632a2083W"><span id="translatedtitle">The connection of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field turbulence and rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease of the galactic cosmic ray intensity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wawrzynczak, A.; Alania, M. V.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We analyze the temporal changes in the rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease (Fd) of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity observed in November 2004. We compute the rigidity spectrum in two energy ranges based on the daily data from the worldwide network of neutron monitors and Nagoya ground muon telescope. We demonstrate that the changes in the rigidity spectrum of Fd are linked to the evolution/decay of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) turbulence during various phases of the Fd. We analyze the time-evolution of the state of the turbulence of the IMF in various frequency ranges during the Fd. Performed analysis show that the decrease of the exponent ? of the Power Spectral Density (PSD ? f-?, where f is frequency) of the IMF turbulence with decreasing frequency lead to the soft rigidity spectrum of Fd for GCR particles with relatively higher energies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110023418&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcane','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110023418&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcane"><span id="translatedtitle">Galactic Cosmic Ray Intensity Response to <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Coronal Mass Ejections/<span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Clouds in 1995-2009</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We summarize the response of the galactic cosmic ray (CGR) intensity to the passage of the more than 300 <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and their associated shocks that passed the Earth during 1995-2009, a period that encompasses the whole of Solar Cycle 23. In approx.80% of cases, the GCR intensity decreased during the passage of these structures, i.e., a "Forbush decrease" occurred, while in approx.10% there was no significant change. In the remaining cases, the GCR intensity increased. Where there was an intensity decrease, minimum intensity was observed inside the ICME in approx.90% of these events. The observations confirm the role of both post-shock regions and ICMEs in the generation of these decreases, consistent with many previous studies, but contrary to the conclusion of Reames, Kahler, and Tylka (Astrophys. 1. Lett. 700, L199, 2009) who, from examining a subset of ICMEs with flux-rope-like <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields (<span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds) argued that these are "open structures" that allow free access of particles including GCRs to their interior. In fact, we find that <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds are more likely to participate in the deepest GCR decreases than ICMEs that are not <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSM23B2306K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSM23B2306K"><span id="translatedtitle">Geoeffectiveness of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Coronal Mass Ejections as Drivers of Ground Level <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field Fluctuations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kidd, R.; Wild, J. A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Global geomagnetic indices have proven to be invaluable tools for the investigation of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> drivers of geomagnetic disturbances. Mature global geomagnetic indices, such as Dst, yield multi-decadal time-series of geomagnetic activity levels. The geoeffectiveness of space weather drivers is commonly assessed using these global indices, yet they are not designed to capture the rapid and possibly localised geomagnetic disturbances thought to be responsible for unwanted effects on ground-based technologies (e.g. geomagnetically induced currents in power grids). Using data from the SuperMAG project (a collaboration of organisations and agencies operating over 300 ground-based magnetometers) we have explored indices that capture geomagnetic variations over spatially limited regions and derived from parameters not used in traditional indices (e.g. dB/dt). The geoeffectiveness of ICMEs is investigated, particularly in relation to the disturbances likely to result in geomagnetically induced currents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920059359&hterms=dropout&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Ddropout','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920059359&hterms=dropout&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Ddropout"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field connection to the sun during electron heat flux dropouts in the solar wind</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lin, R. P.; Kahler, S. W.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The paper discusses observations of 2- to 8.5-keV electrons, made by measurements aboard the ISEE 3 spacecraft during the periods of heat flux decreases (HFDs) reported by McComas et al. (1989). In at least eight of the total of 25 HFDs observed, strong streaming of electrons that were equal to or greater than 2 keV outward from the sun was recorded. In one HFD, an impulsive solar electron event was observed with an associated type III radio burst, which could be tracked from the sun to about 1 AU. It is concluded that, in many HFDs, the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> field is still connected to the sun and that some energy-dependent process may produce HFDs without significantly perturbing electrons of higher energies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2256637B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2256637B"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> signatures of declining of solar <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields: Implications to the next solar cycle 25</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bisoi, Susanta Kumar; Janardhan, P.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Tokumaru, M.; Fujiki, K.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Our detailed study of solar surface <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields at high-latitudes, using <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> synoptic magnetograms of NSO/Kitt Peak observatory from 1975-2014, has shown a steady decline of the field strength since mid-1990's until mid-2014, i.e. the solar maximum of cycle 24. We also found that <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field strength at high-latitudes declines after each solar cycle maximum, and since cycle 24 is already past its peak implies that solar surface <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields will be continuing to decline until solar minimum of cycle 24. In addition, <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> scintillation (IPS) measurements of solar wind micro-turbulence levels, from Solar and Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STEL), Japan, have also shown a steady decline in sync with the declining surface fields. Even the heliospheric <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields (HMF) at 1 AU have been declined much below the previously proposed floor level of HMF of ~4.6 nT. From study of a correlation between the high-latitude surface fields and the HMF at the last four solar minima we found a floor value of HMF of ~3.2 nT. Using the above correlation and the fact that the high-latitude surface fields is expected to decline until the minimum of cycle 24, we estimate the value of the HMF at the minimum of cycle 24 will be 3.8 ± 0.2 nT and the peak sunspot number for solar cycle 25 will be 56±12 suggesting a weak sunspot activity to be continued in cycle 25 too.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950059014&hterms=CNRS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DCNRS','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950059014&hterms=CNRS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DCNRS"><span id="translatedtitle">Ionospheric convection response to slow, strong variations in a Northward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field: A case study for January 14, 1988</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Knipp, D. J.; Emery, B. A.; Richmond, A. D.; Crooker, N. U.; Hairston, M. R.; Cumnock, J. A.; Denig, W. F.; Rich, F. J.; De La Beaujardiere, O.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>We analyze ionospheric convection patterns over the polar regions during the passage of an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud on January 14, 1988, when the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) rotated slowly in direction and had a large amplitude. Using the assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure, we combine simultaneous observations of ionspheric drifts and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> perturbations from many different instruments into consistent patterns of high-latitude electrodynamics, focusing on the period of northward IMF. By combining satellite data with ground-based observations, we have generated one of the most comprehensive data sets yet assembled and used it to produce convection maps for both hemispheres. We present evidence that a lobe convection cell was embedded within normal merging convection during a period when the IMF B(sub y) and B(sub z) components were large and positive. As the IMF became predominantly northward, a strong reversed convection pattern (afternoon-to-morning potential drop of around 100 kV) appeared in the southern (summer) polar cap, while convection in the northern (winter) hemisphere became weak and disordered with a dawn-to-dust potential drop of the order of 30 kV. These patterns persisted for about 3 hours, until the IMF rotated significantly toward the west. We interpret this behavior in terms of a recently proposed merging model for northward IMF under solstice conditions, for which lobe field lines from the hemisphere tilted toward the Sun (summer hemisphere) drape over the dayside magnetosphere, producing reverse convection in the summer hemisphere and impeding direct contact between the solar wind and field lines connected to the winter polar cap. The positive IMF B(sub x) component present at this time could have contributed to the observed hemispheric asymmetry. Reverse convection in the summer hemisphere broke down rapidly after the ratio absolute value of B(sub y)/B(sub z) exceeded unity, while convection in the winter hemisphere strengthened. A dominant dawn-to-dusk potential drop was established in both hemispheres when the magnitude of B(sub y) exceeded that of B(sub z) with potential drops of the order of 100 kV, even while B(sub z) remained northward. The latter transition to southward B(sub z) produced a gradual intensification of the convection, but a greater qualitative change occurred at the transition through absolute value of B(sub y)/B(sub z) = 1 than at at the transition through B(sub z) = 0. The various convection patterns we derive under northward IMF conditions illustrate all possibilities previously discussed in the literature: nearly single-cell and multicell, distorted and symmetric, ordered and unordered, and sunward and antisunward.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11776989','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11776989"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiation shielding of astronauts in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> flights: the CREAM surveyor to Mars and the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> lens system for a spaceship.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spillantini, P; Taccetti, F; Papini, P; Rossi, L; Casolino, M</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The radiation absorbed by astronauts during <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> flights is mainly due to cosmic rays of solar origin (SCR). In the most powerful solar flares the dose absorbed in few hours can exceed that cumulated in one year of exposition to the galactic component of cosmic rays (GCR). At energies above the minimum one needed to cross the walls of the spaceship there are extrapolations and guesses, but no data, on the angular distribution of SCR's, an information that is necessary for establishing whatever defence strategy. It was therefore proposed of sending to Mars a measurement device, that should continuously collect data during the travel, and possibly also in the orbit around Mars and on the Mars surface. The device should identify the particle and privilege the completeness in the measurement of its parameters. In fact the high energy electrons travel at speed of the light and could be used in the and future dangerous proton component. Also the much less abundant but individually more dangerous ions should be identified. The device should indeed include a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> spectrometer and a high granularity range telescope, and a good time of flight measurement. ASI is supporting an assessment study of a possible mission of such a device on board of the 2005 probe to Mars. A parallel technical study is also in progress to define the workable techniques and the possible configurations of a system of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> lenses for protecting the crew of a spaceship. PMID:11776989</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730016110','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730016110"><span id="translatedtitle">Rate of erosion of dayside <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux based on a quantitative study of the dependence of polar cusp latitude on the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burch, J. L.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>In a consideration of only those periods when the delay time from the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> observing position to the magnetosphere is less than 5 minutes, it is found that, irrespective of substorm activity: (1) The 45 minute <span class="hlt">average</span> value of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> B(z) predicts the latitudes of the poleward and equatorward boundaries of polar cusp electron precipitation with rms errors of 1.34 deg and 1.16 deg respectively; (2) Both boundaries more equatorward by about 5 deg as B(z) varies from 1 to -6 gammas, the cusp remaining about 40 deg wide; (3) The amount of flux added to the polar cap is about 9.2 percent of the total southward flux impingent on the magnetosphere in the previous 45 minutes; (4) As B(z) becomes more positive, the equatorward boundary moves only slightly more poleward (1/2 deg between B(z) = 2 gammas and B(z) = 6 gammas, while the poleward boundary moves significantly toward higher latitudes, resulting in a cusp approximately 7 deg wide for B(z) = 6 gammas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910042730&hterms=superconducting+materials+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsuperconducting%2Bmaterials%2Bspace','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910042730&hterms=superconducting+materials+space&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dsuperconducting%2Bmaterials%2Bspace"><span id="translatedtitle">A deployable high temperature superconducting coil (DHTSC) - A novel concept for producing <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> shields against both solar flare and Galactic radiation during manned <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> missions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cocks, F. Hadley</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The discovery of materials which are superconducting above 100 K makes possible the use of superconducting coils deployed beyong the hull of an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> spacecraft to produce a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> shield capable of giving protection not only against solar flare radiation, but also even against Galactic radiation. Such deployed coils can be of very large size and can thus achieve the great <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> moments required using only relatively low currents. Deployable high-temperature-superconducting coil <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> shields appear to offer very substantial reductions in mass and energy compared to other concepts and could readily provide the radiation protection needed for a Mars mission or space colonies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5257942','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5257942"><span id="translatedtitle">Response of the polar cap F region convection direction to changes in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field: Digisonde measurements in northern Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cannon, P.S.; Reinisch, B.W.; Bullett, T.W. ); Buchau, J. )</p> <p>1991-02-01</p> <p>Results of ionospheric drift measurements with a Digisonde 256 digital ionospheric sounder located at Qaanaaq, Greenland (87{degree}N, corrected geomagnetic latitude), are presented. Digisonde drift data have been related to the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) measured by the IMP 8 satellite for 32 days during 1986, 1987, and 1988. Extremely good statistical agreement between these measurements and convection directions derived from satellite instrumentation is demonstrated when the IMF {sub z} component is negative. The excellent agreement between the Digisonde measurements and models derived from satellite measurements demonstrates the utility of the Digisonde for making ground-based measurements of the convection direction in the polar cap F region when B{sub z} is south. The convection directions under conditions of positive B{sub z} have also been examined, and the authors have measured three types of temporal variation in azimuth, namely, an ordered and slowly (OS) varying change in direction, an ordered and quickly (OQ) varying change in direction, and disordered (D) variations in direction. The latter are believed to result from a breakdown of the analysis technique due to velocity shears in the vicinity of polar caps arcs, and the authors estimate that they account for {approximately}25% of the measurements when B{sub z} > 0. When B{sub z} is positive and B{sub y} is negative, their small subset of OS measurements supports the distorted two-cell model of Heppner and Maynard (1987). The remainder of the measurements show no well-defined daily <span class="hlt">average</span> convection direction or diurnal variation. Likewise for B{sub z} positive and B{sub y} positive, no well-defined convection direction can be discerned, nor can any diurnal variation. The existence of OQ variations when B{sub z}> 0 suggests that meaningful <span class="hlt">average</span> statistical convection patterns may be much harder to synthesize than similar patterns when B{sub z}< 0.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GeoRL..30.1798F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GeoRL..30.1798F"><span id="translatedtitle">Weighted <span class="hlt">averages</span> of <span class="hlt">magnetization</span> from <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field measurements: A fast interpretation tool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fedi, Maurizio</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> anomalies may be interpreted in terms of weighted <span class="hlt">averages</span> of <span class="hlt">magnetization</span> (WAM) by a simple transformation. The WAM transformation consists of dividing at each measurement point the experimental <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field by a normalizing field, computed from a source volume with a homogeneous unit-<span class="hlt">magnetization</span>. The transformation yields a straightforward link among source and field position vectors. A main WAM outcome is that sources at different depths appear well discriminated. Due to the symmetry of the problem, the higher the considered field altitude, the deeper the sources outlined by the transformation. This is shown for single and multi-source synthetic cases as well as for real data. We analyze the real case of Mt. Vulture volcano (Southern Italy), where the related anomaly strongly interferes with that from deep intrusive sources. The volcanic edifice is well identified. The deep source is estimated at about 9 km depth, in agreement with other results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.4519Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.4519Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Direct observations of the full Dungey convection cycle in the polar ionosphere for southward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Q.-H.; Lockwood, M.; Foster, J. C.; Zhang, S.-R.; Zhang, B.-C.; McCrea, I. W.; Moen, J.; Lester, M.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Tracking the formation and full evolution of polar cap ionization patches in the polar ionosphere, we directly observe the full Dungey convection cycle for southward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) conditions. This enables us to study how the Dungey cycle influences the patches' evolution. The patches were initially segmented from the dayside storm enhanced density plume at the equatorward edge of the cusp, by the expansion and contraction of the polar cap boundary due to pulsed dayside magnetopause reconnection, as indicated by in situ Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) observations. Convection led to the patches entering the polar cap and being transported antisunward, while being continuously monitored by the globally distributed arrays of GPS receivers and Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radars. Changes in convection over time resulted in the patches following a range of trajectories, each of which differed somewhat from the classical twin-cell convection streamlines. Pulsed nightside reconnection, occurring as part of the magnetospheric substorm cycle, modulated the exit of the patches from the polar cap, as confirmed by coordinated observations of the magnetometer at Tromsø and European Incoherent Scatter Tromsø UHF radar. After exiting the polar cap, the patches broke up into a number of plasma blobs and returned sunward in the auroral return flow of the dawn and/or dusk convection cell. The full circulation time was about 3 h.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015P%26SS..117...15L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015P%26SS..117...15L"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar wind interaction effects on the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields around Mars: Consequences for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> and crustal field measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luhmann, J. G.; Ma, Y.-J.; Brain, D. A.; Ulusen, D.; Lillis, R. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Espley, J. R.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The first unambiguous detections of the crustal remanent <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields of Mars were obtained by Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) during its initial orbits around Mars, which probed altitudes to within ?110 km of the surface. However, the majority of its measurements were carried out around 400 km altitude, fixed 2 a.m. to 2 p.m. local time, mapping orbit. While the general character and planetary origins of the localized crustal fields were clearly revealed by the mapping survey data, their effects on the solar wind interaction could not be investigated in much detail because of the limited mapping orbit sampling. Previous analyses (Brain et al., 2006) of the field measurements on the dayside nevertheless provided an idea of the extent to which the interaction of the solar wind and planetary fields leads to non-ideal field draping at the mapping altitude. In this study we use numerical simulations of the global solar wind interaction with Mars as an aid to interpreting that observed non-ideal behavior. In addition, motivated by models for different <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> field orientations, we investigate the effects of induced and reconnected (planetary and external) fields on the Martian field's properties derived at the MGS mapping orbit altitude. The results suggest that inference of the planetary low order moments is compromised by their influence. In particular, the intrinsic dipole contribution may differ from that in the current models because the induced component is so dominant.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.2489W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.2489W"><span id="translatedtitle">Field-aligned current reconfiguration and magnetospheric response to an impulse in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field BY component</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilder, F. D.; Eriksson, S.; Korth, H.; Baker, J. B. H.; Hairston, M. R.; Heinselman, C.; Anderson, B. J.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) is dawnward or duskward, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> merging between the IMF and the geomagnetic field occurs near the cusp on the dayside flanks of the magnetosphere. During these intervals, flow channels in the ionosphere with velocities in excess of 2 km/s have been observed, which can deposit large amounts of energy into the high-latitude thermosphere. In this study, we analyze an interval on 5 April 2010 where there was a strong dawnward impulse in the IMF, followed by a gradual decay in IMF magnitude at constant clock angle. Data from the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program spacecraft were used to investigate ionospheric convection during this interval, and data from the Active Magnetospheric and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) were used to investigate the associated Field-Aligned Current (FAC) system. Additionally, data from AMPERE were used to investigate the time response of the dawnside FAC pair. We find there is a delay of approximately 1.25 h between the arrival of the dawnward IMF impulse at the magnetopause and strength of the dawnward FAC pair, which is comparable to substorm growth and expansion time scales under southward IMF. Additionally, we find at the time of the peak FAC, there is evidence of a reconfiguring four-sheet FAC system in the morning local time sector of the ionosphere. Additionally, we find an inverse correlation between the dawn FAC strength and both the solar wind Alfvénic Mach number and the SYM-H index. No statistically significant correlation between the FAC strength and the solar wind dynamic pressure was found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM41B2238W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM41B2238W"><span id="translatedtitle">Field-Aligned Current Reconfiguration and Magnetospheric Response to an Impulse in the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field BY Component</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilder, F. D.; Eriksson, S.; Korth, H.; Hairston, M. R.; Baker, J. B.; Heinselman, C. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>When the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) is dawnward or duskward, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> merging between the IMF and the geomagnetic field occurs near the cusp on the dayside flanks of the magnetosphere. During these intervals, flow channels in the ionosphere with velocities in excess of 2 km/s have been observed, which can deposit large amounts of energy into the high-latitude thermosphere. In this study, we analyze an interval on 5 April 2010 where there was a strong dawnward impulse in the IMF, followed by a gradual decay in IMF magnitude at constant clock angle. Data from the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar and the DMSP spacecraft were used to investigate ionospheric convection during this interval, and data from the Active Magnetospheric and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) were used to investigate the associated Field-Aligned Current (FAC) system. Additionally, data from AMPERE were used to investigate the time response of the dawn-side FAC pair. We find there is a delay of approximately 1.25 hours between the arrival of the dawnward IMF impulse at the magnetopause and strength of the dawnward FAC pair, which is comparable to substorm growth and expansion time scales under southward IMF. Additionally, we find at the time of the peak FAC, there is evidence of a reconfiguring four-sheet FAC system in the morning local time sector of the ionosphere. Additionally, we find an inverse correlation between the dawn FAC strength and both the solar wind Alfvénic Mach number and the SYM-H index. No statistically significant correlation between the FAC strength and the solar wind dynamic pressure was found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMSM33A..02W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMSM33A..02W"><span id="translatedtitle">The Ionospheric Convection and Birkeland Current Response to an Impulse in the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field BY Component</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilder, F. D.; Eriksson, S.; Korth, H.; Baker, J. B.; Hairston, M. R.; Heinselman, C. J.; Anderson, B. J.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>When the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) is dawnward or duskward, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> merging between the IMF and the geomagnetic field occurs near the cusp on the dayside flanks of the magnetosphere. During these intervals, sunward flow channels on open field lines with velocities in excess of 2 km/s are generated in the polar ionosphere, which can deposit large amounts of energy into the cusp-region thermosphere. In this study, we analyze an interval on 5 April 2010 where there was a strong dawnward impulse in the IMF, followed by a gradual decay in IMF magnitude at constant clock angle. Data from ground based radars and the DMSP spacecraft were assimilated to investigate the global convection pattern during this interval, and data from the Active Magnetospheric and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) were used to investigate the associated Field-Aligned Current (FAC) system. Additionally, data from AMPERE and the Sondrestrom Incoherent Scatter Radar were used to investigate the time response of the flow channel and its associated FAC pair. We find that there is a delay of approximately 1.25 hours between the arrival of the dawnward IMF impulse at the magnetopause and the speed of the flow channel and strength of the FACs flanking it. In addition to correlation between the dawnward component of the IMF and the flanking FAC strength, we also find that there is inverse correlation between the flanking FAC strength and both the SYM-H index and Solar Wind Alfvenic Mach Number. No statistically significant correlation is found between the flanking FAC strength and solar wind dynamic pressure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009617','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009617"><span id="translatedtitle">Turbulence in a Global Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of the Earth's Magnetosphere during Northward and Southward <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>El-Alaoui, M.; Richard, R. L.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Walker, R. J.; Goldstein, M. L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We report the results of MHD simulations of Earth's magnetosphere for idealized steady solar wind plasma and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) conditions. The simulations feature purely northward and southward <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields and were designed to study turbulence in the magnetotail plasma sheet. We found that the power spectral densities (PSDs) for both northward and southward IMF had the characteristics of turbulent flow. In both cases, the PSDs showed the three scale ranges expected from theory: the energy-containing scale, the inertial range, and the dissipative range. The results were generally consistent with in-situ observations and theoretical predictions. While the two cases studied, northward and southward IMF, had some similar characteristics, there were significant differences as well. For southward IMF, localized reconnection was the main energy source for the turbulence. For northward IMF, remnant reconnection contributed to driving the turbulence. Boundary waves may also have contributed. In both cases, the PSD slopes had spatial distributions in the dissipative range that reflected the pattern of resistive dissipation. For southward IMF there was a trend toward steeper slopes in the dissipative range with distance down the tail. For northward IMF there was a marked dusk-dawn asymmetry with steeper slopes on the dusk side of the tail. The inertial scale PSDs had a dusk-dawn symmetry during the northward IMF interval with steeper slopes on the dawn side. This asymmetry was not found in the distribution of inertial range slopes for southward IMF. The inertial range PSD slopes were clustered around values close to the theoretical expectation for both northward and southward IMF. In the dissipative range, however, the slopes were broadly distributed and the median values were significantly different, consistent with a different distribution of resistivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890056315&hterms=dropout&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Ddropout','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890056315&hterms=dropout&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Ddropout"><span id="translatedtitle">Electron heat flux dropouts in the solar wind - Evidence for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field reconnection?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mccomas, D. J.; Gosling, J. T.; Phillips, J. L.; Bame, S. J.; Luhmann, J. G.; Smith, E. J.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>An examination of ISEE-3 data from 1978 reveal 25 electron heat flux dropout events ranging in duration from 20 min to over 11 hours. The heat flux dropouts are found to occur in association with high plasma densities, low plasma velocities, low ion and electron temperatures, and low <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field magnitudes. It is suggested that the heat flux dropout intervals may indicate that the spacecraft is sampling plasma regimes which are <span class="hlt">magnetically</span> disconnected from the sun and instead are connected to the outer heliosphere at both ends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040031460&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcane','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040031460&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcane"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial Relationship of Signatures of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Coronal Mass Ejections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Gosling, J. T.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are characterized by a number of signatures. In particular, we examine the relationship between Fe charge states and other signatures during ICMEs in solar cycle 23. Though enhanced Fe charge states characterize many ICMEs, <span class="hlt">average</span> charge states vary from event to event, are more likely to be enhanced in faster or flare-related ICMEs, and do not appear to depend on whether the ICME is a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001307','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001307"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> medium data book: Supplement 3A, 1977-1985</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Couzens, David A.; King, Joseph H.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Supplement 3 of the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Medium Data Book contains a detailed discussion of a data set compilation of hourly <span class="hlt">averaged</span> <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> plasma and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field parameters. The discussion addresses data sources, systematic and random differences, time shifting of ISEE 3 data, and plasma normalizations. Supplement 3 also contains solar rotation plots of field and plasma parameters. Supplement 3A contains computer-generated listings of selected parameters from the composite data set. These parameters are bulk speed (km/sec), density (per cu cm), temperature (in units of 1000 K) and the IMF parameters: <span class="hlt">average</span> magnitude, latitude and longitude angles of the vector made up of the <span class="hlt">average</span> GSE components, GSM Cartesian components, and the vector standard deviation. The units of field magnitude, components, and standard deviation are gammas, while the units of field direction angles and degrees.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/869326','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/869326"><span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">average</span> power <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> modulator for metal vapor lasers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA)</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A three-stage <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> modulator utilizing <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> pulse compression designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper vapor laser at a 4.5 kHz repetition rate is disclosed. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power. The circuit includes a step up auto transformer and utilizes a rod and plate stack construction technique to achieve a high packing factor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890024130&hterms=solar+term&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bterm','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890024130&hterms=solar+term&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bterm"><span id="translatedtitle">The solar origin of long-term variations of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field strength</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Y.-M.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Using simple models for the coronal field structure, the spacecraft observations of the photospheric field during sunspot cycle 21 were extrapolated for the purpose of modeling quantitatively the long-term behavior of the IMF during the sunspot cycle 21. Results were compared with the measurements of the radial component of the IMF at earth. The results indicate that the solar source of the IMF can be represented to a first approximation by the dipole component of the photospheric field, whose axis is nearly perpendicular to the ecliptic plane around sunspot minimum, but tilts more strongly toward it around sunspot maximum. It was also found that the <span class="hlt">average</span> radial IMF strength varies with heliographic latitude; around sunspot minimum, the radial IMF is expected to be roughly twice as strong above the sun's poles as near the ecliptic plane. The <span class="hlt">average</span> strength of the photospheric field above latitude 55 deg is about 10 G around sunspot minimum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010294','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010294"><span id="translatedtitle">Source Regions of the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field and Variability in Heavy-Ion Elemental Composition in Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Tylka, Allan J.; Ng, Chee K.; Wang, Yi-Ming; Dietrich, William F.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events are those in which ions are accelerated to their observed energies by interactions with a shock driven by a fast coronal mass-ejection (CME). Previous studies have shown that much of the observed event-to-event variability can be understood in terms of shock speed and evolution in the shock-normal angle. But an equally important factor, particularly for the elemental composition, is the origin of the suprathermal seed particles upon which the shock acts. To tackle this issue, we (1) use observed solar-wind speed, magnetograms, and the PFSS model to map the Sun-L1 <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) line back to its source region on the Sun at the time of the SEP observations; and (2) then look for correlation between SEP composition (as measured by Wind and ACE at approx. 2-30 MeV/nucleon) and characteristics of the identified IMF-source regions. The study is based on 24 SEP events, identified as a statistically-significant increase in approx. 20 MeV protons and occurring in 1998 and 2003-2006, when the rate of newly-emergent solar <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux and CMEs was lower than in solar-maximum years and the field-line tracing is therefore more likely to be successful. We find that the gradual SEP Fe/O is correlated with the field strength at the IMF-source, with the largest enhancements occurring when the footpoint field is strong, due to the nearby presence of an active region. In these cases, other elemental ratios show a strong charge-to-mass (q/M) ordering, at least on <span class="hlt">average</span>, similar to that found in impulsive events. These results lead us to suggest that <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> reconnection in footpoint regions near active regions bias the heavy-ion composition of suprathermal seed ions by processes qualitatively similar to those that produce larger heavy-ion enhancements in impulsive SEP events. To address potential technical concerns about our analysis, we also discuss efforts to exclude impulsive SEP events from our event sample.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120016557&hterms=logistic+regression&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dlogistic%2Bregression','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120016557&hterms=logistic+regression&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dlogistic%2Bregression"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Statistical Multivariable Models to Understand the Relationship Between <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Coronal Mass Ejecta and <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Flux Ropes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Riley, P.; Richardson, I. G.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In-situ measurements of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) display a wide range of properties. A distinct subset, "<span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds" (MCs), are readily identifiable by a smooth rotation in an enhanced <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, together with an unusually low solar wind proton temperature. In this study, we analyze Ulysses spacecraft measurements to systematically investigate five possible explanations for why some ICMEs are observed to be MCs and others are not: i) An observational selection effect; that is, all ICMEs do in fact contain MCs, but the trajectory of the spacecraft through the ICME determines whether the MC is actually encountered; ii) interactions of an erupting flux rope (PR) with itself or between neighboring FRs, which produce complex structures in which the coherent <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> structure has been destroyed; iii) an evolutionary process, such as relaxation to a low plasma-beta state that leads to the formation of an MC; iv) the existence of two (or more) intrinsic initiation mechanisms, some of which produce MCs and some that do not; or v) MCs are just an easily identifiable limit in an otherwise corntinuous spectrum of structures. We apply quantitative statistical models to assess these ideas. In particular, we use the Akaike information criterion (AIC) to rank the candidate models and a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to uncover any intrinsic clustering of the data. Using a logistic regression, we find that plasma-beta, CME width, and the ratio O(sup 7) / O(sup 6) are the most significant predictor variables for the presence of an MC. Moreover, the propensity for an event to be identified as an MC decreases with heliocentric distance. These results tend to refute ideas ii) and iii). GMM clustering analysis further identifies three distinct groups of ICMEs; two of which match (at the 86% level) with events independently identified as MCs, and a third that matches with non-MCs (68 % overlap), Thus, idea v) is not supported. Choosing between ideas i) and iv) is more challenging, since they may effectively be indistinguishable from one another by a single in-situ spacecraft. We offer some suggestions on how future studies may address this.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22133988','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22133988"><span id="translatedtitle">INTERVALS OF RADIAL <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> <span class="hlt">MAGNETIC</span> FIELDS AT 1 AU, THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH RAREFACTION REGIONS, AND THEIR APPARENT <span class="hlt">MAGNETIC</span> FOOT POINTS AT THE SUN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Orlove, Steven T.; Smith, Charles W.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Zhao Liang E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu E-mail: N.Schwadron@unh.edu E-mail: thomasz@umich.edu</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>We have examined 226 intervals of nearly radial <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field orientations at 1 AU lasting in excess of 6 hr. They are found within rarefaction regions as are the previously reported high-latitude observations. We show that these rarefactions typically do not involve high-speed wind such as that seen by Ulysses at high latitudes during solar minimum. We have examined both the wind speeds and the thermal ion composition before, during and after the rarefaction in an effort to establish the source of the flow that leads to the formation of the rarefaction. We find that the bulk of the measurements, both fast- and slow-wind intervals, possess both wind speeds and thermal ion compositions that suggest they come from typical low-latitude sources that are nominally considered slow-wind sources. In other words, we find relatively little evidence of polar coronal hole sources even when we examine the faster wind ahead of the rarefaction regions. While this is in contrast to high-latitude observations, we argue that this is to be expected of low-latitude observations where polar coronal hole sources are less prevalent. As with the previous high-latitude observations, we contend that the best explanation for these periods of radial <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field is interchange reconnection between two sources of different wind speed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950029559&hterms=Taguchi&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTaguchi','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950029559&hterms=Taguchi&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTaguchi"><span id="translatedtitle">By-controlled convection and field-aligned currents near midnight auroral oval for northward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Taguchi, S.; Sugiura, M.; Iyemori, T.; Winningham, J. D.; Slavin, J. A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Using the Dynamics Explorer (DE) 2 <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> and electric field and plasma data, B(sub y)- controlled convection and field-aligned currents in the midnight sector for northward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) are examined. The results of an analysis of the electric field data show that when IMF is stable and when its magnitude is large, a coherent B(sub y)-controlled convection exists near the midnight auroral oval in the ionosphere having adequate conductivities. When B(sub y) is negative, the convection consists of a westward (eastward) plasma flow at the lower latitudes and an eastward (westward) plasma flow at the higher latitudes in the midnight sector in the northern (southern) ionosphere. When B(sub y) is positive, the flow directions are reversed. The distribution of the field-aligned currents associated with the B(sub y)-controlled convection, in most cases, shows a three-sheet structure. In accordance with the convection the directions of the three sheets are dependent on the sign of B(sub y). The location of disappearance of the precipitating intense electrons having energies of a few keV is close to the convection reversal surface. However, the more detailed relationship between the electron precipitation boundary and the convection reversal surface depends on the case. In some cases the precipitating electrons extend beyond the convection reversal surface, and in others the poleward boundary terminates at a latitude lower than the reversal surface. Previous studies suggest that the poleward boundary of the electrons having energies of a few keV is not necessarily coincident with an open/closed bounary. Thus the open/closed boundary may be at a latitude higher than the poleward boundary of the electron precipitation, or it may be at a latitude lower than the poleward boundary of the electron precipitation. We discuss relationships between the open/closed boundary and the convection reversal surface. When as a possible choice we adopt a view that the open/closed boundary agrees with the convection reversal surface, we can explain qualitatively the configuration of the B(sub y)-controlled convection on the open and close field line regions by proposing a mapping modified in accordance with IMF B(sub y).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC23C1102L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC23C1102L"><span id="translatedtitle">New evidence of the influence of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field on middle-latitude surface atmospheric pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lam, M.; Chisham, G.; Freeman, M. P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>For the polar regions, results have been published over several decades that indicate a meteorological response to the east-west component of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF), By. Here we present evidence of a previously unrecognised influence of IMF on mid-latitude surface pressure. We examine the difference, ?p(By), between the mean surface pressure for high and low values of IMF By (e.g., By > 3nT and By < -3nT) using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data in a 50 year interval (1963-2012) for the whole surface of the Earth at a resolution of 2.5 deg. in latitude and longitude. Similarly we find the difference, ?p(Bz), between the mean surface pressures for high and low values of the north-south component of the IMF, Bz. The Student t-test is used to assess the statistical significance of the results. Both ?p(By) and ?p(Bz) possess a significant mid-latitude wave structure. This structure circles the Earth with a wave number of about 4-5, and is similar in location and structure to the cyclones and anti-cyclones produced by the action of atmospheric Rossby waves on the jet stream. Our results indicate that the mechanism that produces atmospheric responses to IMF in the polar regions is also able to modulate pre-existing weather patterns at mid-latitudes. Our results also confirm those published by Burns et al. in 2008 (J. Geophys. Res. 113 - hereafter B08) who found a statistically-significant dependence of surface pressure variations on IMF By at Antarctic stations for 1995-2005, and at Arctic stations for 1999-2002 (around solar maximum). We extend this work to test whether ?p(By) is consistently positive in the Antarctic and negative in the Arctic over the interval 1963-2012. Lastly, we find a significant correlation of surface pressure with IMF Bz at middle to high latitudes, in contrast to a previous study in J. Geophys. Res. 112, in 2007, by Burns et al. (B07). This may be reconciled by recognising that the amplitude of ?p(Bz) is spatially dependent and that the largest values may not be expected to occur at Vostok, where the results of B07 were obtained. It has been proposed that the observed effect of IMF on the atmosphere occurs as a result of modulation of the current density of the atmospheric circuit via the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> electric field, with subsequent changes in cloud dynamics. An investigation of the effect of (i) a time lag between the IMF and the surface pressure and of (ii) the spatial variation of ?p(By) and ?p(Bz) will be used to consider possible mechanisms that can account for our results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900035884&hterms=1087&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231087','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900035884&hterms=1087&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231087"><span id="translatedtitle">Heliocentric distance and temporal dependence of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> density-<span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field magnitude correlation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Roberts, D. A.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The Helios, IMP 8, ISEE 3, ad Voyager 2 spacecraft are used to examine the solar cycle and heliocentric distance dependence of the correlation between density n and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field magnitude B in the solar wind. Previous work had suggested that this correlation becomes progressively more negative with heliocentric distance out to 9.5 AU. Here it is shown that this evolution is not a solar cycle effect, and that the correlations become even more strongly negative at heliocentric distance larger than 9.5 AU. There is considerable variability in the distributions of the correlations at a given heliocentric distance, but this is not simply related to the solar cycle. Examination of the evolution of correlations between density and speed suggest that most of the structures responsible for evolution in the anticorrelation between n and B are not slow-mode waves, but rather pressure balance structures. The latter consist of both coherent structures such as tangential discontinuities and the more generally pervasive 'pseudosound' which may include the coherent structures as a subset.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AnGeo..25.2641L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AnGeo..25.2641L"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field observations of an <span class="hlt">average</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud with a simple force free model: the importance of field compression and expansion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lepping, R. P.; Narock, T. W.; Chen, H.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>We investigate the ability of the cylindrically symmetric force-free <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud (MC) fitting model of Lepping et al. (1990) to faithfully reproduce actual <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field observations by examining two quantities: (1) a difference angle, called ?, i.e., the angle between the direction of the observed <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (Bobs) and the derived force free model field (Bmod) and (2) the difference in magnitudes between the observed and modeled fields, i.e., ?B(=|Bobs|-|Bmod|), and a normalized ?B (i.e., ?B/) is also examined, all for a judiciously chosen set of 50 WIND <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> MCs, based on quality considerations. These three quantities are developed as a percent of MC duration and <span class="hlt">averaged</span> over this set of MCs to obtain <span class="hlt">average</span> profiles. It is found that, although <?B> and its normalize version are significantly enhanced (from a broad central <span class="hlt">average</span> value) early in an <span class="hlt">average</span> MC (and to a lesser extent also late in the MC), the angle <?> is small (less than 8°) and approximately constant all throughout the MC. The field intensity enhancements are due mainly to interaction of the MC with the surrounding solar wind plasma causing field compression at front and rear. For example, for a typical MC, ?B/ is: 0.21±0.27 very early in the MC, -0.11±0.10 at the center (and -0.085±0.12 <span class="hlt">averaged</span> over the full "central region," i.e., for 30% to 80% of duration), and 0.05±0.29 very late in the MC, showing a double sign change as we travel from front to center to back, in the MC. When individual MCs are examined we find that over 80% of them possess field enhancements within several to many hours of the front boundary, but only about 30% show such enhancements at their rear portions. The enhancement of the MC's front field is also due to MC expansion, but this is usually a lesser effect compared to compression. It is expected that this compression is manifested as significant distortion to the MC's cross-section from the ideal circle, first suggested by Crooker et al. (1990), into a more elliptical/oval shape, as some global MC studies seem to confirm (e.g., Riley and Crooker, 2004) and apparently also as confirmed for local studies of MCs (e.g., Hidalgo et al., 2002; Nieves-Chinchilla et al., 2005).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920045478&hterms=source+driver&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsource%2Bdriver','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920045478&hterms=source+driver&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsource%2Bdriver"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> orientation in driver gas associated -Bz events. [in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium observed at earth when solar source is identified</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hoeksema, J. T.; Zhao, Xuepu</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The source regions of five strong -Bz events detected at 1 AU for which solar sources were identified by Tang et al. (1989) and Tsurutani et al. (1992) are investigated in order to determine whether the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> orientation of driver gas in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium observed at the earth can be predicted when its solar source is identified. Three -Bz events were traced to flare-associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs), one to an eruptive prominence associated CME, and one to three possible solar sources. The computed <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> orientations at the candidate 'release height' (the height where the front of a CME ceases to accelerate) above the flare sites associated with CMEs show the existence of the expected southward field component. It is concluded that the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> orientation in flare-associated CME generated driver gas may be predictable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015A%26A...579L...7L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015A%26A...579L...7L"><span id="translatedtitle">Anisotropy of the solar network <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field around the <span class="hlt">average</span> supergranule</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Langfellner, J.; Gizon, L.; Birch, A. C.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Supergranules in the quiet Sun are outlined by a web-like structure of enhanced <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field strength, the so-called <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> network. We aim to map the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> network field around the <span class="hlt">average</span> supergranule near disk center. We use observations of the line-of-sight component of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field from the Helioseismic and <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The <span class="hlt">average</span> supergranule is constructed by coaligning and <span class="hlt">averaging</span> over 3000 individual supergranules. We determine the positions of the supergranules with an image segmentation algorithm that we apply to maps of the horizontal flow divergence measured using time-distance helioseismology. In the center of the <span class="hlt">average</span> supergranule, the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> (intranetwork) field is weaker by about 2.2 Gauss than the background value (3.5 Gauss), whereas it is enhanced in the surrounding ring of horizontal inflows (by about 0.6 Gauss on <span class="hlt">average</span>). We find that this network field is significantly stronger west (prograde) of the <span class="hlt">average</span> supergranule than in the east (by about 0.3 Gauss). With time-distance helioseismology, we find a similar anisotropy. The observed anisotropy of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field adds to the mysterious dynamical properties of solar supergranulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970026618','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970026618"><span id="translatedtitle">Upper Thermosphere Winds and Temperatures in the Geomagnetic Polar Cap: Solar Cycle, Geomagnetic Activity, and <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field Dependencies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Killeen, T. L.; Won, Y.-I.; Niciejewski, R. J.; Burns, A. G.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers located at Thule, Greenland (76.5 deg. N, 69.0 deg. W, lambda = 86 deg.) and at Sondre Stromfjord, Greenland (67.0 deg. N, 50.9 deg. W, lambda = 74 deg.) have monitored the upper thermospheric (approx. 240-km altitude) neutral wind and temperature over the northern hemisphere geomagnetic polar cap since 1983 and 1985, respectively. The thermospheric observations are obtained by determining the Doppler characteristics of the (OI) 15,867-K (630.0-nm) emission of atomic oxygen. The instruments operate on a routine, automatic, (mostly) untended basis during the winter observing seasons, with data coverage limited only by cloud cover and (occasional) instrument failures. This unique database of geomagnetic polar cap measurements now extends over the complete range of solar activity. We present an analysis of the measurements made between 1985 (near solar minimum) and 1991 (near solar maximum), as part of a long-term study of geomagnetic polar cap thermospheric climatology. The measurements from a total of 902 nights of observations are compared with the predictions of two semiempirical models: the Vector Spherical Harmonic (VSH) model of Killeen et al. (1987) and the Horizontal Wind Model (HWM) of Hedin et al. (1991). The results are also analyzed using calculations of thermospheric momentum forcing terms from the Thermosphere-ionosphere General Circulation Model TGCM) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The experimental results show that upper thermospheric winds in the geomagnetic polar cap have a fundamental diurnal character, with typical wind speeds of about 200 m/s at solar minimum, rising to up to about 800 m/s at solar maximum, depending on geomagnetic activity level. These winds generally blow in the antisunward direction, but are interrupted by episodes of modified wind velocity and altered direction often associated with changes in the orientation of the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field (IMF). The central polar cap (greater than approx. 80 <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> latitude) antisunward wind speed is found to be a strong function of both solar and geomagnetic activity. The polar cap temperatures show variations in both solar and geomagnetic activity, with temperatures near 800 K for low K(sub p) and F(sub 10.7) and greater than about 2000 K for high K(sub p) and F(sub 10.7). The observed temperatures are significantly greater than those predicted by the mass spectrometer/incoherent scatter model for high activity conditions. Theoretical analysis based on the NCAR TIGCM indicates that the antisunward upper thermospheric winds, driven by upstream ion drag, basically 'coast' across the polar cap. The relatively small changes in wind velocity and direction within the polar cap are induced by a combination of forcing terms of commensurate magnitude, including the nonlinear advection term, the Coriolis term, and the pressure gradient force term. The polar cap thennospheric thermal balance is dominated by horizontal advection, and adiabatic and thermal conduction terms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.01427.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.01427.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Anisotropy of the solar network <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field around the <span class="hlt">average</span> supergranule</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Langfellner, J; Birch, A C</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Supergranules in the quiet Sun are outlined by a web-like structure of enhanced <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field strength, the so-called <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> network. We aim to map the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> network field around the <span class="hlt">average</span> supergranule near disk center. We use observations of the line-of-sight component of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field from the Helioseismic and <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The <span class="hlt">average</span> supergranule is constructed by coaligning and <span class="hlt">averaging</span> over 3000 individual supergranules. We determine the positions of the supergranules with an image segmentation algorithm that we apply on maps of the horizontal flow divergence measured using time-distance helioseismology. In the center of the <span class="hlt">average</span> supergranule the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> (intranetwork) field is weaker by about 2.2 Gauss than the background value (3.5 Gauss), whereas it is enhanced in the surrounding ring of horizontal inflows (by about 0.6 Gauss on <span class="hlt">average</span>). We find that this network field is significantly stronger west (prograde) of the <span class="hlt">average</span> sup...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRA..11310102Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRA..11310102Q"><span id="translatedtitle">Local and nonlocal geometry of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections: Galactic cosmic ray (GCR) short-period variations and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quenby, J. J.; Mulligan, T.; Blake, J. B.; Mazur, J. E.; Shaul, D.</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Energetic galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles, arriving within the solar system, are modulated by the overall <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> field carried in the solar wind. Localized disturbances related to solar activity cause further reduction in intensity, the largest being Forbush decreases in which fluxes can fall ˜20% over a few days. Understanding Forbush decreases leads to a better understanding of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field structure related to shock waves and fast streams originating at the Sun since the propagation characteristics of the GCR probe much larger regions of space than do individual spacecraft instruments. We examined the temporal history of the integral GCR fluence (?100 MeV) measured by the high-sensitivity telescope (HIST) aboard the Polar spacecraft, along with the solar wind <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and plasma data from the ACE spacecraft during a 40-day period encompassing the 25 September 1998 Forbush decrease. We also examined the Forbush and (energetic storm particles) ESP event on 28 October 2003. It is the use of HIST in a high-counting-rate integral mode that allows previously poorly seen, short-scale depressions in the GCR fluxes to be observed, adding crucial information on the origin of GCR modulation. Variability on time scales within the frequency range 0.001-1.0 mHz is detected. This paper concentrates on investigating four simple models for explaining short-term reductions in the GCR intensity of both small and large amplitude. Specifically, these models are a local increase in <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> scattering power, the passage of a shock discontinuity, and the passage of a tangential discontinuity or <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> rope in the solar wind plasma. Analysis of the short-scale GCR depressions during a test period in September through October 1998 shows that they are not correlated with changes in <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> scattering power or fluctuations in solar wind speed or plasma density. However, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and plasma data during the test period of Forbush decrease strongly suggest the presence of an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejection (ICME). Use of a non-force-free <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> rope model in conjunction with the energetic particle data allows modeling of the geometry of the ICME in terms of a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud topology. It is only this cloud configuration that allows a satisfactory explanation of the magnitude of the Forbush event of 25 September 1998. Calculations made during the test period point to short-scale GCR depressions being caused by either small-scale <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux rope structures or possibly tangential discontinuities in the solar wind.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSM11B2290V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSM11B2290V"><span id="translatedtitle">Sector structure of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field in the second half of the 19th century inferred from ground-based magnetometers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vokhmyanin, M.; Ponyavin, D. I.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) polarities can be inferred in the pre-satellite era using Svalgaard-Mansurov effect, according to which different IMF directions lead to different geomagnetic variations at polar stations. Basing on this effect we propose a method to derive a sector structure of the IMF when only ground based data are available. Details of the method and results have been presented in our recent paper: Vokhmyanin, M. V., and D. I. Ponyavin (2012), Inferring <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field polarities from geomagnetic variations, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A06102, doi:10.1029/2011JA017060. Using data from eight stations: Sitka, Sodankyla, Godhavn, Lerwick, Thule, Baker Lake, Vostok and Mirny, we reconstructed sector structure back to 1905. The quality of inferring from 1965 to 2005 ranges between 78% and 90% depending on the used set of stations. Our results show both high success rate and good agreement with the well-known Russell-McPherron and Rosenberg-Coleman effects. In the current study we applied the technique to historical data of Helsinki observatory where digital versions of hourly geomagnetic components are available from 1844 to 1897. Helsinki station stopped operates at the beginning of 20th century. Thus, to create a model describing the local Svalgaard-Mansurov effect we analyzed data from Nurmijarvi station located near the same region. The success rate of reconstruction from 1965 to 2005 is around 82%. So we assume that the IMF polarities obtained for the period 1869-1889 have sufficient quality. Inferred sector structure at this time consists of two sectors typically for all declining phases of solar activity cycle. Catalogue of IMF proxies seem to be important in analyzing structure and dynamics of solar <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields in the past.; Left: Bartels diagram of IMF sector structure inferred from Helsinki data. Right: sunspot number indicating solar cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.3045D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.3045D"><span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> ejecta arrival at 1 AU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>dal Lago, A.; Vieira, L. E.; Echer, E.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Clua de Gonzalez, A. L.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Santos, J.; Schwenn, R.; Schuch, N. J.</p> <p></p> <p>A big challenge in space weather forecasting is the prediction of arrival of an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> disturbance at earth. Many attempts have been done, and some forecasting models have been proposed. We focus on the subset of solar-<span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> events which have shown <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> ejecta at 1 AU. To identify <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> ejecta at 1 AU we use visual inspection of the cases, based on the criterion of intense and smooth <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, observed by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE). For forecasting the arrival of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> ejecta at 1 AU we used the lateral expansion speed of the coronal mass ejection, measured approximately perpendicular to the single plane-of-sky CME speed, as defined by Schwenn et al (2001), using observations from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO), aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The data set is from January 1997 to mid April 2001, and a number of 38 LASCO CMEs were identified to be correlated with <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> ejecta at 1 AU. Results indicate that forecasting the arrival at 1 AU of the sub set of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> ejecta is very well done by LASCO CME speed observations, being much better than the predictions for the complete set of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> disturbances, like shocks/sheath structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM33A2168L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM33A2168L"><span id="translatedtitle">Adiabatic and nonadiabatic responses of the radiation belt relativistic electrons to the external changes in solar wind dynamic pressure and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, L.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>By removing the influences of 'magnetopause shadowing' (r0>6.6RE) and geomagnetic activities, we investigated statistically the responses of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and relativistic (>0.5MeV) electrons at geosynchronous orbit to 201 <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> perturbations during 6 years from 2003 (solar maximum) to 2008 (solar minimum). The statistical results indicate that during geomagnetically quiet times (HSYM ?-30nT, and AE<200nT), ~47.3% changes in the geosynchronous <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and relativistic electron fluxes are caused by the combined actions of the enhancement of solar wind dynamic pressure (Pd) and the southward turning of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) (?Pd>0.4 nPa, and IMF Bz<0 nT), and only ~18.4% changes are due to single dynamic pressure increase (?Pd >0.4 nPa, but IMF Bz>0 nT), and ~34.3% changes are due to single southward turning of IMF (IMF Bz<0 nT, but |?Pd|<0.4 nPa). Although the responses of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and relativistic electrons to the southward turning of IMF are weaker than their responses to the dynamic pressure increase, the southward turning of IMF can cause the dawn-dusk asymmetric perturbations that the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and the relativistic electrons tend to increase on the dawnside (LT~00:00-12:00) but decrease on the duskside (LT~13:00-23:00). Furthermore, the variation of relativistic electron fluxes is adiabatically controlled by the magnitude and elevation angle changes of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field during the single IMF southward turnings. However, the variation of relativistic electron fluxes is independent of the change in <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field in some compression regions during the enhancement of solar wind dynamic pressure (including the single pressure increases and the combined external perturbations), indicating that nonadiabatic dynamic processes of relativistic electrons occur there. Acknowledgments. This work is supported by NSFC (grants 41074119 and 40604018). Liuyuan Li is grateful to the staffs working for the data from GOES 8-12 satellites and OMNI database in CDAWeb.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070023320&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcane','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070023320&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcane"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Coronal Mass Ejections During 1996 - 2007</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections, the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> counterparts of coronal mass ejections at the Sun, are the major drivers of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks in the heliosphere, and are associated with modulations of the galactic cosmic ray intensity, both short term (Forbush decreases caused by the passage of the shock, post-shock sheath, and ICME), and possibly with longer term modulation. Using several in-situ signatures of ICMEs, including plasma temperature, and composition, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields, and cosmic ray modulations, made by near-Earth spacecraft, we have compiled a "comprehensive" list of ICMEs passing the Earth since 1996, encompassing solar cycle 23. We summarize the properties of these ICMEs, such as their occurrence rate, speeds and other parameters, the fraction of ICMEs that are classic <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds, and their association with solar energetic particle events, halo CMEs, <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks, geomagnetic storms, shocks and cosmic ray decreases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMMM..394..195S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMMM..394..195S"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of stress and incentive <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field on the <span class="hlt">average</span> volume of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> Barkhausen jump in iron</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shu, Di; Guo, Lei; Yin, Liang; Chen, Zhaoyang; Chen, Juan; Qi, Xin</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">average</span> volume of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> Barkhausen jump (AVMBJ) v bar generated by <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> domain wall irreversible displacement under the effect of the incentive <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field H for ferromagnetic materials and the relationship between irreversible <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> susceptibility ?irr and stress ? are adopted in this paper to study the theoretical relationship among AVMBJ v bar(magneto-elasticity noise) and the incentive <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field H. Then the numerical relationship among AVMBJ v bar, stress ? and the incentive <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field H is deduced. Utilizing this numerical relationship, the displacement process of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> domain wall for single crystal is analyzed and the effect of the incentive <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field H and the stress ? on the AVMBJ v bar (magneto-elasticity noise) is explained from experimental and theoretical perspectives. The saturation velocity of Barkhausen jump characteristic value curve is different when tensile or compressive stress is applied on ferromagnetic materials, because the resistance of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> domain wall displacement is different. The idea of critical <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field in the process of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> domain wall displacement is introduced in this paper, which solves the supersaturated calibration problem of AVMBJ - ? calibration curve.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110007246&hterms=sol&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsol','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110007246&hterms=sol&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsol"><span id="translatedtitle">Erratum to "Solar Sources and Geospace Consequences of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Clouds Observed During Solar Cycle 23-Paper 1" [J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 70(2-4) (2008) 245-253</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gopalswamy, N.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Michalek, G.; Lepping, R. P.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>One of the figures (Fig. 4) in "Solar sources and geospace consequences of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> Clouds observed during solar cycle 23 -- Paper 1" by Gopalswamy et al. (2008, JASTP, Vol. 70, Issues 2-4, February 2008, pp. 245-253) is incorrect because of a software error in t he routine that was used to make the plot. The source positions of various <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud (MC) types are therefore not plotted correctly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRA..11410101B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRA..11410101B"><span id="translatedtitle">Space environment of Mercury at the time of the first MESSENGER flyby: Solar wind and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field modeling of upstream conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, Daniel N.; Odstrcil, Dusan; Anderson, Brian J.; Arge, C. Nick; Benna, Mehdi; Gloeckler, George; Raines, Jim M.; Schriver, David; Slavin, James A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>The first flyby of Mercury by the Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft occurred on 14 January 2008. In order to provide contextual information about the solar wind (SW) properties and the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field near the planet, we have used an empirical modeling technique combined with a numerical physics-based SW model. The Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) method uses solar photospheric <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field observations (from Earth-based instruments) in order to estimate inner heliospheric conditions out to 21.5 solar radii from the Sun. This information is then used as input to the global numerical magnetohydrodynamic model, ENLIL, which calculates SW velocity, density, temperature, and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field strength and polarity throughout the inner heliosphere. The present paper shows WSA-ENLIL conditions computed for the several week period encompassing the first flyby. This information is used in conjunction with MESSENGER magnetometer data (and the only limited available MESSENGER SW plasma data) to help understand the Mercury flyby results. The in situ spacecraft data, in turn, can also be used iteratively to improve the model accuracy for inner heliospheric “space weather” purposes. Looking to the future, we discuss how with such modeling we can estimate relatively continuously the SW properties near Mercury and at the cruise location of MESSENGER now, for upcoming flybys, and toward the time of spacecraft orbit insertion in 2011.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950047166&hterms=Earth+layers&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DEarth%2527s%2Blayers','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950047166&hterms=Earth+layers&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DEarth%2527s%2Blayers"><span id="translatedtitle">The Earth's magnetosphere is 165 R(sub E) long: Self-consistent currents, convection, magnetospheric structure, and processes for northward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fedder, J. A.; Lyon, J. G.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The subject of this paper is a self-consistent, magnetohydrodynamic numerical realization for the Earth's magnetosphere which is in a quasi-steady dynamic equilibrium for a due northward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF). Although a few hours of steady northward IMF are required for this asymptotic state to be set up, it should still be of considerable theoretical interest because it constitutes a 'ground state' for the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. Moreover, particular features of this ground state magnetosphere should be observable even under less extreme solar wind conditions. Certain characteristics of this magnetosphere, namely, NBZ Birkeland currents, four-cell ionospheric convection, a relatively weak cross-polar potential, and a prominent flow boundary layer, are widely expected. Other characteristics, such as no open tail lobes, no Earth-connected <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux beyond 155 R(sub E) downstream, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> merging in a closed topology at the cusps, and a 'tadpole' shaped magnetospheric boundary, might not be expected. In this paper, we will present the evidence for this unusual but interesting magnetospheric equilibrium. We will also discuss our present understanding of this singular state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/85412','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/85412"><span id="translatedtitle">The Earth`s magnetosphere is 165 R{sub E} long: Self-consistent currents, convection, magnetospheric structure, and processes for northward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fedder, J.A.; Lyon, J.G.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>The subject of this paper is a self-consistent, magnetohydrodynamic numerical realization for the Earth`s magnetosphere which is in a quasi-steady dynamic equilibrium for a due northward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF). Although a few hours of steady northward IMF are required for this asymptotic state to be set up, it should still be of considerable theoretical interest because it constitutes a `ground state` for the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. Moreover, particular features of this ground state magnetosphere should be observable even under less extreme solar wind conditions. Certain characteristics of this magnetosphere, namely, NBZ Birkeland currents, four-cell ionospheric convection, a relatively weak cross-polar potential, and a prominent flow boundary layer, are widely expected. Other characteristics, such as no open tail lobes, no Earth-connected <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux beyond 155 R(sub E) downstream, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> merging in a closed topology at the cusps, and a `tadpole` shaped magnetospheric boundary, might not be expected. In this paper, we will present the evidence for this unusual but interesting magnetospheric equilibrium. We will also discuss our present understanding of this singular state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0902.0037v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0902.0037v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Spherical volume <span class="hlt">averages</span> of static electric and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields using Coulomb and Biot-Savart laws</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Ben Yu-Kuang Hu</p> <p>2009-01-31</p> <p>We present derivations of the expressions for the spherical volume <span class="hlt">averages</span> of static electric and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields that are virtually identical. These derivations utilize the Coulomb and Biot-Savart laws, and make no use of vector calculus identities or potentials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP51B3724E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP51B3724E"><span id="translatedtitle">Implications of Depth Determination from Second Moving <span class="hlt">Average</span> Residual <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Anomalies on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Essa, K. S.; Kletetschka, G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Mars total <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> data obtained by Mars Global Surveyor mission from 400 km altitude were processed using a second moving <span class="hlt">average</span> method (SMAM) to estimate the depth of the buried sources. Five profiles were chosen across major <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> areas. Each profile was subjected to a separation technique using the SMAM. Second moving <span class="hlt">average</span> residual anomalies (SMARA) were obtained from <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> data using filters of successive spacing. The depth estimate is monitored by the standard deviation of the depths determined from all SMARA for various value of the shape factor (SF) that includes dike, cylinder, and sphere. The standard deviation along with depth estimate is considered to be a new criterion for determining the correct depth and shape of the buried structures on Mars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37.1624K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37.1624K"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of influence of hypomagnetic conditions closely similar to <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> filed on behavioral and vegetative reactions of higher mammals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krivova, Natalie; Trukhanov, Kiril; Zamotshina, Tatyana; Zaeva, Olga; Khodanovich, Marina; Misina, Tatyana; Tukhvatulin, Ravil; Suhko, Valery</p> <p></p> <p>To study the influence of long being under reduced <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field on behavioral and vegetative reactions of higher mammals the white rat males were put into the 700-1000 times reduced geomagnetic field (50-70 nT) for 25 days. Such field was obtained by using automatic compensation of the horizontal and vertical components of the GMF at a frequencies up to 10 Hz by means of solenoids of the experimental <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> system. Control animals were located in the same room under usual laboratory GMF conditions (52 uT). Two days before the experiment the behavioral reactions were studied in the "open field" by means of a set of tests, characterizing the level of emotionality, moving and orientational-investigative activities of the animals under conditions of unimpeded behavior. 60 white underbred rat males with the initial body mass of 200 g were divided into three clusters. Animals with <span class="hlt">average</span> indices were selected for the experiment. We have judged behavioral reaction disturbances of the rats under hypomagnetic conditions using videotape recordings carried out in the entire course of the chronic experiment. According to the obtained results during the period of maximum activity (from 230 to 330 a.m.) the number of interrelations between the individuals increased appreciably for experimental rats including interrelations with aggressive character. This was real during all 25 days of observation. We observed a certain dynamics of this index differed from that of the control group. We have also analyzed the final period of observation from the 21th to the 25th days. In this period we studied the 24 hours' dynamics of interrelations which were noted during 5 minutes in every hour around the clock. In the control group the number of interrelation was at a constantly low level. For experimental animals the number of interrelations was higher in the night hours than in the day ones. Moreover it exceeded the similar indexes observed from the 1st to the 20th day. For example from 300 to 305 a.m. on the 23th day we recorded 27 contacts of aggressive character between the individuals. So, in hypomagnetic field conditions the irritability of the animals' central nervous system grows, that expresses itself in the increase of contacts of aggressive and non-aggressive character between the individuals. Also we have carried out the Spirman correlation analysis between studied indices of moving activity and chemiluminescence of blood plasma and urine, electrolytic composition of urine and muscles. For control animals the quantity of correlation connections between electrolyte concentrations in studied substrata was higher than for experimental animals. The physiological sense of these correlation connections is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820036543&hterms=nonlocal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dnonlocal','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820036543&hterms=nonlocal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dnonlocal"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlocal plasma turbulence associated with <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.; Scarf, F. L.; Smith, E. J.; Gurnett, D. A.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Regions of plasma turbulence extending several tenths of an astronomical unit upstream or downstream of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks have been detected by the plasma wave instrument on ISEE 3. Highly impulsive electric field bursts at 1-10 kHz were found (hours upstream of quasi-parallel <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks) whose <span class="hlt">average</span> and peak amplitudes occasionally increased until the shock crossing, when they were suppressed. A 0.1-1 kHz electric field component was enhanced at nearly all shocks, and persisted downstream. A smooth, high-frequency continuum near and above the local electron plasma frequency was enhanced at, and persisted downstream of, every <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock studied. While no single <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock showed every effect, the ensemble of shocks contained at least one example of each type of plasma wave found upstream of the earth's bow shock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950053481&hterms=swimming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dswimming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950053481&hterms=swimming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dswimming"><span id="translatedtitle">Penetration of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field B(sub y) magnetosheath plasma into the magnetosphere: Implications for the predominant magnetopause merging site</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Newell, Patrick T.; Sibeck, David G.; Meng, Ching-I</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Magnetosheath plasma peertated into the magnetospere creating the particle cusp, and similarly the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) B(sub y) component penetrates the magnetopause. We reexamine the phenomenology of such penetration to investigate implications for the magnetopause merging site. Three models are popular: (1) the 'antiparallel' model, in which merging occurs where the local <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> shear is largest (usually high <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> latitude); (2) a tilted merging line passing through the subsolar point but extending to very high latitudes; or (3) a tilted merging line passing through the subsolar point in which most merging occurs within a few Earth radii of the equatorial plane and local noon (subsolar merging). It is difficult to distinguish between the first two models, but the third implies some very different predictions. We show that properties of the particle cusp imply that plasma injection into the magnetosphere occurs most often at high <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> latitudes. In particular, we note the following: (1) The altitude of the merging site inferred from midaltitude cusp ion pitch angle dispersion is typically 8-12 R(sub E). (2) The highest ion energy observable when moving poleward through the cusp drops long before the bulk of the cusp plasma is reached, implying that ions are swimming upstream against the sheath flow shortly after merging. (3) Low-energy ions are less able to enter the winter cusp than the summer cusp. (4) The local time behavior of the cusp as a function of B(sub y) and B(sub z) corroborates predictions of the high-latitude merging models. We also reconsider the penetration of the IMF B(sub y) component onto closed dayside field lines. Our approach, in which closed field lines ove to fill in flux voids created by asymmetric magnetopause flux erosion, shows that strich subsolar merging cannot account for the observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6416734','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6416734"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of induction linacs with nonlinear <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> drive as high <span class="hlt">average</span> power accelerators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Birx, D.L.; Cook, E.G.; Hawkins, S.A.; Newton, M.A.; Poor, S.E.; Reginato, L.L.; Schmidt, J.A.; Smith, M.W.</p> <p>1984-08-20</p> <p>The marriage of induction linac technology with Nonlinear <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It appears possible to produce electron beams with <span class="hlt">average</span> currents measured in amperes, at gradients exceeding 1 Mev/meter, and with power efficiencies approaching 50%. A 2 MeV, 5 kA electron accelerator is under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to allow us to demonstrate some of these concepts. Progress on this project is reported here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.df.uba.ar/users/dasso/publications/papers_df/_2011_weygand_anisot_from_msc_fast_slow.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.df.uba.ar/users/dasso/publications/papers_df/_2011_weygand_anisot_from_msc_fast_slow.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlation and Taylor scale variability in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field fluctuations as a function of solar wind speed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Dasso, Sergio</p> <p></p> <p>as a function of solar wind speed James M. Weygand,1 W. H. Matthaeus,2 S. Dasso,3 and M. G. Kivelson4,5 Received the correlation scale and the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> Taylor microscale of the solar wind as functions of the mean <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field direction and solar wind speed. We find that the Taylor scale is independent of direction relative</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009615','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009615"><span id="translatedtitle">The First in situ Observation of Kelvin-Helmholtz Waves at High-Latitude Magnetopause during Strongly Dawnward <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hwang, K.-J.; Goldstein, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Wang, Y.; Vinas, A. F.; Sibeck, D. G.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We report the first in situ observation of high-latitude magnetopause (near the northern duskward cusp) Kelvin-Helmholtz waves (KHW) by Cluster on January 12, 2003, under strongly dawnward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) conditions. The fluctuations unstable to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) are found to propagate mostly tailward, i.e., along the direction almost 90 deg. to both the magnetosheath and geomagnetic fields, which lowers the threshold of the KHI. The <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> configuration across the boundary layer near the northern duskward cusp region during dawnward IMF is similar to that in the low-latitude boundary layer under northward IMF, in that (1) both magnetosheath and magnetospheric fields across the local boundary layer constitute the lowest <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> shear and (2) the tailward propagation of the KHW is perpendicular to both fields. Approximately 3-hour-long periods of the KHW during dawnward IMF are followed by the rapid expansion of the dayside magnetosphere associated with the passage of an IMF discontinuity that characterizes an abrupt change in IMF cone angle, Phi = acos (B(sub x) / absolute value of Beta), from approx. 90 to approx. 10. Cluster, which was on its outbound trajectory, continued observing the boundary waves at the northern evening-side magnetopause during sunward IMF conditions following the passage of the IMF discontinuity. By comparing the signatures of boundary fluctuations before and after the IMF discontinuity, we report that the frequencies of the most unstable KH modes increased after the discontinuity passed. This result demonstrates that differences in IMF orientations (especially in f) are associated with the properties of KHW at the high-latitude magnetopause due to variations in thickness of the boundary layer, and/or width of the KH-unstable band on the surface of the dayside magnetopause.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://personal.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Personal/L.Wood/publications/lloyd-wood-implementing-interplanetary-internet-surrey-feb-2009.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://personal.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Personal/L.Wood/publications/lloyd-wood-implementing-interplanetary-internet-surrey-feb-2009.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Implementing the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Internet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Wood, Lloyd</p> <p></p> <p>Implementing the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Internet differing approaches Lloyd Wood Surrey Space Centre guest lecture Tuesday 17 February 2009. #12;22<span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Internet ­ Lloyd Wood How did it all begin?How did Internet ­ Lloyd Wood VintVintVintVint sets up an Internet Society SIGsets up an Internet Society SIGsets</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080014138&hterms=Weber&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DWeber','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080014138&hterms=Weber&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DWeber"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Network Directorate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weber, William J.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Network Directorate at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The attributes of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> network are reviewed, and the expansion of the current Deep Space Network for future mission support is described. Points of interest to the industry are emphasized.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMSH23B..02O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMSH23B..02O"><span id="translatedtitle">Update from the BU-CME Group: Accurate Prediction of CME Deflection and <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> reconnection in the interior of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> CMEs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Opher, M.; Kay, C.; Fermo, R. L.; Drake, J. F.; Evans, R. M.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The accurate prediction of the path of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) plays an important role in space weather forecasting, and knowing the source location of the CME does not always suffice. During solar minimum, for example, polar coronal holes (CHs) can deflect high latitude CMEs toward the ecliptic plane and when CHs extend to lower latitudes deflections in other directions can occur. To predict whether a CME will impact Earth the effects of the solar background on the CME's trajectory must be taken into account. Here we develop a model (Kay et al. 2013), called ForeCAT (Forecasting a CME's Altered Trajectory), of CME deflection close to the Sun where <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> forces dominate. Given the background solar wind conditions, the launch site of the CME, and the properties of the CME (such as its mass and size), ForeCAT predicts the deflection of the CME as well as the full trajectory as the CME propagates away from the Sun. For a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> background where the CME is launched from an active region located in between a CH and streamer region the strong <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> gradients cause a deflection of 39.0o in latitude and 21.9o in longitude. Varying the CME's input parameters within observed ranges leads to deflections predominantly between 36.2o and 44.5o in latitude and between 19.5o and 27.9 in longitude. For all cases, the majority of the deflection occurs before the CME reaches a radial distance of 3 R?. Recent in situ observations of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> mass ejections (ICMEs) found signatures of reconnection exhausts in their interior or trailing edge. This result suggests that the internal <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field reconnects with itself. To this end, we propose an approach (Fermo et al. 2013) borrowed from the fusion plasma community. Taylor (1974) showed that the lowest energy state corresponds to one in which \\grad × B = ? B. Variations from this state will result in the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field trying to re-orient itself into the Taylor state solution, subject to the constraints that the toroidal flux and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> helicity are invariant. In tokamaks, the result is a sawtooth crash. In an ICME, if we likewise treat the flux rope as a toroidal flux tube, any variation from the Taylor state will result in reconnection within the interior of the flux tube, in accord with the observations by Gosling et al. (2007). We present MHD and PIC simulations that shows that indeed this is the case and discuss the implications for ICMEs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983JGR....88.2289B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983JGR....88.2289B"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical <span class="hlt">averaging</span> of marine <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> anomalies and the aging of oceanic crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blakely, Richard J.</p> <p>1983-03-01</p> <p>Visual comparison of Mesozoic and Cenozoic <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> anomalies in the North Pacific suggests that older anomalies contain less short-wavelength information than younger anomalies in this area. To test this observation, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> profiles from the North Pacific are examined from crust of three ages: 0-2.1, 29.3-33.1, and 64.9-70.3 m.y, B.P. For each time period, at least nine profiles were analyzed by (1) calculating the power density spectrum of each profile, (2) <span class="hlt">averaging</span> the spectra together, and (3) computing a `recording filter' for each time period by assuming a hypothetical seafloor model. The model assumes that the top of the source is acoustic basement, the source thickness is 0.5 km, and the time scale of geomagnetic reversals is according to Ness et al. (1980). The calculated power density spectra of the three recording filters are complex in shape but show an increase of attenuation of short-wavelength information as the crust ages. These results are interpreted using a multilayer model for marine <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> anomalies in which the upper layer, corresponding to pillow basalt of seismic layer 2A, acts as a source of noise to the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> anomalies. As the ocean crust ages, this noisy contribution by the pillow basalts becomes less significant to the anomalies. Consequently, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> sources below layer 2A must be faithful recorders of geomagnetic reversals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910052371&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcane','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910052371&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcane"><span id="translatedtitle">Prompt arrival of solar energetic particles from far eastern events - The role of large-scale <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Intensity-time profiles of solar energetic particle enhancements generally show an asymmetry with respect to the heliolongitude of the associated solar event. Particles arrive promptly from events to the west of an observer because of good <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> connection, whereas particle enhancements from poorly connected eastern source regions usually show much slower onsets. However, some 15 percent of eastern events do show prompt onsets. Two prompt particle enhancements associated with eastern solar events are studied using data from the Goddard Space Flight Center instruments on the ISEE 3 and IMP 8 spacecraft. In both events the prompt particle onset was observed when the spacecraft were in a postshock plasma region, apparently within a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> bottle. It is suggested that the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> bottle extended back to the sun and served as a channel for fast particle propagation to the spacecraft. Particles accelerated at an expanding coronal shock initiated by the eastern event could be injected onto field lines in the foot of the bottle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.bbso.njit.edu/~vayur/SpWeather2005.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.bbso.njit.edu/~vayur/SpWeather2005.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields in NOAA active regions 0486 and 0501 and in the associated <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> ejecta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Yurchyshyn, Vasyl</p> <p></p> <p>and electric power grids. Thus auroras, associated with the October-November period of activity on the Sun and it greatly deceases the earth's <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field near-equatorial zones, which results in a significant electric (see Barbieri and Mahmot [2004] for more details on space weather during October ­ November 2003</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://mist.engin.umich.edu/VPubl/199912_18_JASTP_Frank_Kamenetsky_etal.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://mist.engin.umich.edu/VPubl/199912_18_JASTP_Frank_Kamenetsky_etal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The geoelectric eld at Vostok, Antarctica: its relation to the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> eld and the cross polar cap</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Michigan, University of</p> <p></p> <p>is yet to be con®rmed. # 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Thunderstorm thunderstorm activity on time-scales of less than an hour. Geoelectric ®eld measurements of global signi). <span class="hlt">Averaging</span> to remove the day-to- day variability in global thunderstorm activity results in a diurnal curve</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6062150','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6062150"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimal transformation for correcting partial volume <span class="hlt">averaging</span> effects in <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> resonance imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Soltanian-Zadeh, H. Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI ); Windham, J.P. ); Yagle, A.E. )</p> <p>1993-08-01</p> <p>Segmentation of a feature of interest while correcting for partial volume <span class="hlt">averaging</span> effects is a major tool for identification of hidden abnormalities, fast and accurate volume calculation, and three-dimensional visualization in the field of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> resonance imaging (MRI). The authors present the optimal transformation for simultaneous segmentation of a desired feature and correction of partial volume <span class="hlt">averaging</span> effects, while maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the desired feature. It is proved that correction of partial volume <span class="hlt">averaging</span> effects requires the removal of the interfering features from the scene. It is also proved that correction of partial volume <span class="hlt">averaging</span> effects can be achieved merely by a linear transformation. It is finally shown that the optimal transformation matrix is easily obtained using the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure, which is numerically stable. Applications of the technique to MRI simulation, phantom, and brain images are shown. They show that in all cases the desired feature is segmented from the interfering features and partial volume information is visualized in the resulting transformed images.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyE...71...39S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyE...71...39S"><span id="translatedtitle">A structurally-controllable spin filter in a ?-doped <span class="hlt">magnetically</span> modulated semiconductor nanostructure with zero <span class="hlt">average</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, Li-Hua; Ma, Wen-Yue; Zhang, Gui-Lian; Yang, Shi-Peng</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We report on a theoretical investigation of spin-polarized transport in a ?-doped <span class="hlt">magnetically</span> modulated semiconductor nanostructure, which can be experimentally realized by depositing a ferromagnetic stripe on the top of a semiconductor heterostructure and by using the atomic layer doping technique such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). It is shown that although such a nanostructure has a zero <span class="hlt">average</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> filed, a sizable spin polarization exists due to the Zeeman splitting mechanism. It is also shown that the degree of spin polarization varies sensitively with the weight and/or position of the ?-doping. Therefore, one can conveniently tailor the behaviour of the spin-polarized electron by tuning the ? -doping, and such a device can be employed as a controllable spin filter for spintronics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930039184&hterms=wave+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930039184&hterms=wave+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy"><span id="translatedtitle">Wave properties near the subsolar magnetopause - Pc 3-4 energy coupling for northward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Song, P.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Wygant, J. R.; Cattell, C. A.; Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Anderson, R. R.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Strong slow mode waves in the Pc 3-4 frequency range are found in the magnetosheath close to the magnetopause. We have studied these waves at one of the ISEE subsolar magnetopause crossings using the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, electric field, and plasma measurements. We use the pressure balance at the magnetopause to calibrate the Fast Plasma Experiment data versus the magnetometer data. When we perform such a calibration and renormalization, we find that the slow mode structures are not in pressure balance and small scale fluctuations in the total pressure still remain in the Pc 3-4 range. Energy in the total pressure fluctuations can be transmitted through the magnetopause by boundary motions. The Poynting flux calculated from the electric and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field measurements suggests that a net Poynting flux is transmitted into the magnetopause. The two independent measurements show a similar energy transmission coefficient. The transmitted energy flux is about 18 percent of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> energy flux of the waves in the magnetosheath. Part of this transmitted energy is lost in the sheath transition layer before it enters the closed field line region. The waves reaching the boundary layer decay rapidly. Little wave power is transmitted into the magnetosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760016026','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760016026"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary investigation of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock structure: Quasi-parallel shocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Greenstadt, E. W.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Pioneer 9's <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and plasma data were studied to develop arguments for or against the observation of oblique <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks. Structural classifications are defined, and the justification for seeking these classifications in the solar wind are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39.1247M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39.1247M"><span id="translatedtitle">High Amplitude Events in relation to <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> disturbances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mishra, Rajesh Kumar; Agarwal Mishra, Rekha</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The Sun emits the variable solar wind which interacts with the very local interstellar medium to form the heliosphere. Hence variations in solar activity strongly influence <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space, from the Sun's surface out to the edge of the heliosphere. Superimposed on the solar wind are mass ejections from the Sun and/or its corona which, disturb the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium - hence the name "<span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> disturbances". <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> disturbances are the sources of large-scale particle acceleration, of disturbances in the Earth's magnetosphere, of modulations of galactic cosmic rays in short, they are the prime focus for space weather studies. The investigation deals with the study of cosmic ray intensity, solar wind plasma and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field parameters variation due to <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> disturbances (<span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds) during an unusual class of days i.e. high amplitude anisotropic wave train events. The high amplitude anisotropic wave train events in cosmic ray intensity has been identified using the data of ground based Goose Bay neutron monitor and studied during the period 1981-94. Even though, the occurrence of high amplitude anisotropic wave trains does not depend on the onset of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds. But the possibility of occurrence of these events cannot be overlooked during the periods of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud events. It is observed that solar wind velocity remains higher (> 300) than normal and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field B remains lower than normal on the onset of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud during the passage of these events. It is also noted from the superposed epoch analysis of cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic activity for high amplitude anisotropic wave train events during the onset of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds that the increase in cosmic ray intensity and decrease in geomagnetic activity start not at the onset of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds but after few days. The north south component of IMF (Bz), IMF (B), proton density (N), proton temperature (T) and latitude angle reaches to their maximum, whereas solar wind velocity (V) and longitude angle reaches to their minimum on the day of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud event during the passage of high amplitude anisotropic wave trains. The cosmic ray intensity and Dst index both are found to decrease with the increase of solar wind velocity and reaches to their minimum on the days of high-speed solar wind streams during HAEs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820012231','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820012231"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> field measurements at Jupiter by Voyagers 1 and 2: Daily plots of 48 second <span class="hlt">averages</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lepping, R. P.; Silverstein, M. J.; Ness, N. F.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A series of 24 hour summary plots of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, in 48-s <span class="hlt">average</span> form, measured in the vicinity of Jupiter by the magnetometers onboard Voyagers 1 and 2 are presented. The Voyager 1 data cover the period from 27 February 1979 (day = 58) to 23 March (day = 82) inclusive, and the Voyager 2 data cover the period from 2 July 1979 (day = 183) to 14 August (day = 226) inclusive. Closest approach to the planet occurred on days 64 (AT 1205 UT) and 190 (AT 2230 UT) for Voyagers 1 and 2, respectively. Also included are: a description of the characteristics of the magnetometers, a brief description of the near-planet trajectories of the two spacecraft, a listing of the bow shock and magnetopause crossing times, and a bibliography containing Voyager-Jupiter related papers and reports.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0711.0663v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0711.0663v1"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Averaging</span> out <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> forces with fast rf-sweeps in an optical trap for metastable chromium atoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Q. Beaufils; R. Chicireanu; A. Pouderous; W. de Souza Melo; B. Laburthe-Tolra; E. Maréchal; L. Vernac; J. C. Keller; O. Gorceix</p> <p>2007-11-05</p> <p>We introduce a novel type of time-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> trap, in which the internal state of the atoms is rapidly modulated to modify <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> trapping potentials. In our experiment, fast radiofrequency (rf) linear sweeps flip the spin of atoms at a fast rate, which <span class="hlt">averages</span> out <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> forces. We use this procedure to optimize the accumulation of metastable chomium atoms into an optical dipole trap from a magneto-optical trap. The potential experienced by the metastable atoms is identical to the bare optical dipole potential, so that this procedure allows for trapping all <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> sublevels, hence increasing by up to 80 percent the final number of accumulated atoms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..85t5419T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..85t5419T"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of size and shape dispersion on the <span class="hlt">averaged</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> response of ensembles of semiconductor quantum rings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thu, L. M.; Chiu, W. T.; Voskoboynikov, O.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>In this paper a theoretical study was made of the conditional <span class="hlt">averages</span> of the <span class="hlt">magnetization</span> and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> susceptibility of dispersive ensembles of nano-objects with a very complex geometry—self-assembled wobbled semiconductor quantum rings. Using the multivariate statistics approach and previously proposed mapping method the impact of the dispersion of the ring geometry parameters on the static <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> response of the ensembles has been investigated near the first Aharonov-Bohm oscillation. The description is suited to clarify the important question of which geometrical parameters’ dispersions are crucial for the formation and properties of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> response of ensembles. We theoretically show that for the dispersive ensembles of InGaAs/GaAs capped wobbled quantum rings the actual value and temperature dependence of the differential <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> susceptibility can be optimized by an appropriate control of the conditional parameters of the ensembles. The ring rim radius variations play a crucial role in this dependence. We have managed to simulate in detail the temperature behavior of the meaningful <span class="hlt">averages</span> of the <span class="hlt">magnetization</span> and positive peak of the differential <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> susceptibility for ensembles of the rings known from the experiment. The simulated temperature dependence, position, and magnitude of the positive peak in the differential <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> susceptibility are in a good agreement with the experimental observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021484&hterms=Solar+activity+solar+cycle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSolar%2Bactivity%2Bsolar%2Bcycle','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021484&hterms=Solar+activity+solar+cycle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSolar%2Bactivity%2Bsolar%2Bcycle"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical analysis of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock waves observed during a complete solar activity cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Khalisi, E.; Schwenn, R.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>During the Helios mission a total of 391 fast forward non-corotating <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock waves was identified. For most of the 12 years between 1974 and 1986 unique shock detection was possible for more than 80 % of the time. The occurrence rate (in shocks per day) varied from 0.02 at activity minimum in 1976 to 0.17 in 1979 and 0.22 in 1982 with a significant drop to 0.13 in 1980, i.e. right at activity maximum. The <span class="hlt">average</span> properties of all events as functions of solar distance. phase in the solar cycle, heliographic and -<span class="hlt">magnetic</span> latitude and others are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740008403','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740008403"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of interactions between <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> and geomagnetic fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burch, J. L.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Magnetospheric effects associated with variations of the north-south component of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field are examined in light of recent recent experimental and theoretical results. Although the occurrence of magnetospheric substorms is statistically related to periods of southward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, the details of the interaction are not understood. In particular, attempts to separate effects resulting directly from the interaction between the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> and geomagnetic fields from those associated with substorms have produced conflicting results. The transfer of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux from the dayside to the nightside magnetosphere is evidenced by equatorward motion of the polar cusp and increases of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> energy density in the lobes of the geomagnetic tail. The formation of a macroscopic X-type neutral line at tail distances less than 35 R sub E appears to be a substorm phenomenon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050070873','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050070873"><span id="translatedtitle">The "Approximate 150 Day Quasi-Periodicity" in <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> and Solar Phenomena During Cycle 23</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>A"quasi-periodicity" of approx. 150 days in various solar and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> phenomena has been reported in earlier solar cycles. We suggest that variations in the occurrence of solar energetic particle events, <span class="hlt">inter-planetary</span> coronal mass ejections, and geomagnetic storm sudden commenceents during solar cycle 23 show evidence of this quasi-periodicity, which is also present in the sunspot number, in particular in the northern solar hemisphere. It is not, however, prominent in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field strength.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhFl...27i3101M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhFl...27i3101M"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">average</span> stress in a suspension of cube-shaped <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> particles subject to shear and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mallavajula, Rajesh K.; Archer, Lynden A.; Koch, Donald L.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The effect of a homogeneous <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (H) on the bulk stress in a dilute suspension of weakly Brownian, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cubes suspended in a Newtonian fluid subjected to a linear shear flow is studied. The stresslet on each cube is anisotropic and depends on its orientation. Application of a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field results in anisotropy in the orientation distribution. The steady-state orientation distribution is derived as a function of the angle between the directions of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and the fluid vorticity vector and the ratio of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> torque to the viscous torque. Knowledge of the distribution function is used to derive a general expression for the bulk stress in a general linear flow field and a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. Specific numerical results are obtained for the intrinsic viscosity in a simple shear flow when the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field is either parallel or perpendicular to the vorticity. When the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field is perpendicular to vorticity, we find that the intrinsic viscosity increases at first with increasing shear rate passes through a maximum and then shear thins. The intrinsic viscosity can vary from 3.25 to 5.5 in response to changes in the relative strengths of the shear and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields. The maximum value of 5.5 is obtained when the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> moment of the cube, which is assumed to be parallel to the normal of one of the faces, lies in the flow gradient plane at an angle of ?/4 from the flow direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASS...32..181P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASS...32..181P"><span id="translatedtitle">Storm Sudden Commencements Without <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Wooyeon; Lee, Jeongwoo; Yi, Yu; Ssessanga, Nicholas; Oh, Suyeon</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Storm sudden commencements (SSCs) occur due to a rapid compression of the Earth's <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. This is generally believed to be caused by <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) shocks, but with exceptions. In this paper we explore possible causes of SSCs other than IP shocks through a statistical study of geomagnetic storms using SYM-H data provided by the World Data Center for Geomagnetism ? Kyoto and by applying a superposed epoch analysis to simultaneous solar wind parameters obtained with the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite. We select a total of 274 geomagnetic storms with minimum SYM-H of less than ?30nT during 1998-2008 and regard them as SSCs if SYM-H increases by more than 10 nT over 10 minutes. Under this criterion, we found 103 geomagnetic storms with both SSC and IP shocks and 28 storms with SSC not associated with IP shocks. Storms in the former group share the property that the strength of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF), proton density and proton velocity increase together with SYM-H, implying the action of IP shocks. During the storms in the latter group, only the proton density rises with SYM-H. We find that the density increase is associated with either high speed streams (HSSs) or <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), and suggest that HSSs and ICMEs may be alternative contributors to SSCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000032153&hterms=shock+hugoniot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dshock%2Bhugoniot','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000032153&hterms=shock+hugoniot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dshock%2Bhugoniot"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-Spacecraft Observations of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, C. W.; Tokar, R. L.; Skoug, R. M.; Szabo, A.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Using multi-spacecraft observations primarily from ACE and WIND and from IMP 8 and Geotail when available, the 3-dimensional structure of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks on the hundred Earth radii scale will be discussed. The complete <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, and solar wind ion and electron data sets were used to fit the shocks with a full non-linear least squares fitting "Rankine-Hugoniot" technique yielding the local shock surface normals and speeds with associated uncertainties. Multi-spacecraft results reveal that on the distance scale of ACE's L1 halo orbit the shocks deviate from a simple planar geometry. This result has important consequences for the prediction of the exact arrival times of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks at the Earth's magnetosphere, and hence, on the reliability of space weather predictions. It also has implications on the coherence scale of solar wind structures and their evolution from the Sun to Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990079403&hterms=shock+hugoniot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dshock%2Bhugoniot','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990079403&hterms=shock+hugoniot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dshock%2Bhugoniot"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-Spacecraft Observations of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Szabo, A.; Smith, C. W.; Tokar, R. L.; Skoug, R. M.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Using multi-spacecraft observations primarily from ACE and WIND, and from IMP 8 and Geotail when available, the 3-dimensional structure of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks on the hundred Earth radii scale will be discussed. The complete <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, and solar wind ion and electron data sets were used to fit the shocks with a full non-linear least squares fit "Rankine-Hugoniot" technique yielding the local shock surface normals and speeds with associated uncertainties. Multi-spacecraft results reveal that on the distance scale of ACE's L1 halo orbit the shocks deviate significantly from a simple planar geometry. This result has important consequences for the prediction of the exact arrival times of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks at the Earth's magnetosphere, and hence, on the reliability of space weather predictions. It also has implications on the coherence scale of solar wind structures and their evolution from the Sun to Earth.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.795E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.795E"><span id="translatedtitle">The investigation of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) sector structure's influence on a upper mesosphere - lower thermosphere (80 — 110 km) neutral wind during Earth's passing through the sector boundary of the IMF</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elakhov, Max; Fahrutdinova, Antonina; Maksyutin, Sergey</p> <p></p> <p>As part of determining the possible mechanism of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) relationship with neutral wind, lower atmosphere and the upper mesosphere - lower termosphere (MLT, 80 — 110 km) neutral wind velocities data analysis is carried out during the IMF changing events. The prevailing zonal and meridional wind data was obtained by the radiometeoric measurements in Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, at Kazan (55 N, 49 E) during 1986-1990, 1993-1995, 1998-2002. The analysis revealed the correlation between the responses of the prevailing neutral wind within the altitude interval of the lower atmosphere and of the MLT region to the Earth's passing through the IMF sector boundary. Effects have a seasonal variation and depend on IMF direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MARL16005M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MARL16005M"><span id="translatedtitle">Ensemble <span class="hlt">average</span> of nanoscale <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> configurations measured with off-specular polarized neutron scattering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maranville, B.; Borchers, J.; Krycka, K.; Ross, C.; Nam, C.; Adeyeye, A.; Metting, C.; Wright, N.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Ordered arrays of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> elements are at the heart of many emergent technologies, including patterned <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storage media and MRAM. Microscopy techniques provide detailed analysis of individual devices with high resolution but have an inherently limited field-of-view.In contrast, off-specular neutron scattering with polarization analysis provides <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> characterization with nanoscale resolution for the arrays extending over large areas.Off-specular data were obtained on an array of permalloy rings using the MAGIK instrument at NIST equipped with a position sensitive detector.The data can be collated into a 2-d map of out-of-plane and in-plane scattering.We model the data using a detailed calculation of the local (<span class="hlt">magnetic</span>) form factor for an array element multiplied by the structure factor of the array, determined by convoluting the Fourier-transformed element-repeat lattice with a gaussian coherence function.As the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> configuration of each element is complex, we consider <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> configurations that result from the micromagnetic OOMMF model of the elements with a set of variable parameters including <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> moment and exchange strength. Measurements of the spin-asymmetry at Bragg peak positions allows us to distinguish between degenerate domain states of the individual elements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ASPC..309..245G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ASPC..309..245G"><span id="translatedtitle">Dust in <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Space and in the Local Galactic Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grün, E.; Dikarev, V.; Frisch, P. C.; Graps, A.; Kempf, S.; Krüger, H.; Landgraf, M.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Srama, R.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>The solar system is a natural laboratory, accessible by a variety of methods, for studying the astrophysics of dust. Astronomical measurements mostly at visible and infrared wavelengths, yield the large-scale distribution of dust and its <span class="hlt">average</span> composition. Examining natural surfaces deployed to the space environment, and assessing those surfaces' micro-crater distributions, reveals the size distribution of dust. Meteor observations and their corresponding measurements provide orbital information of dust grains and their genetic interrelation to the larger bodies in our solar system: comets and asteroids. From analyses of meteorites and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles collected in the stratosphere, we have a comprehensive understanding of the isotopic, elemental, and mineralogical composition of this primordial material. Finally, in situ dust analysis via dust detectors located in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space, the most versatile method, have been providing data to determine the dust particles' mass, speed, trajectory, and chemical composition. An assortment of dust exhibiting a variety of dynamical processes has been identified in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space. In Jupiter's proximity, intense streams have been observed of nanometer-sized ash particles, which are emitted from the volcanoes of Jupiter's moon Io. These particles are accelerated by the powerful Jovian <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field to speeds of several 100 km/s, and are propelled further into <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> and interstellar space by the solar wind <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. In <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space, concentrations of collisional debris in the asteroid belt have been identified by infrared observations. The Poynting-Robertson effect drags these particles in towards the Earth and the Sun, where they sublimate. If the giant planets did not block their inward drift, a similar fate is expected for the dust assortment that is generated by collisions in the Kuiper belt. Another dust population is the mostly sub-micron-sized dust from comets, released while the comets traverse the inner parts of our solar system. These comet particles are shed from the comet's coma and consequently, quickly driven out of the solar system by radiation pressure forces. Larger particles form trails along the orbit of the parent comet, which result in a meteor storm as the Earth crosses the trail. Furthermore, the dust of comet trails can disperse via planetary perturbations into the background zodiacal cloud. Last, but not least, an important dust population identified by in situ dust instruments is the micron-sized interstellar grains flowing through the planetary system with the interstellar gas flow being part of the local interstellar cloud. This cloud is at the edge of the local bubble of hot tenuous gas which was excavated by supernova explosions in the near-by Scorpius-Centaurus and Orion Associations. These dust populations are the target of future dust observatory missions in space. Such a dust observatory satellite carries a dust telescope, which is a combination of a dust trajectory sensor together with an analyzer for the particles' chemical composition. With accurate dust trajectory measurements, we can identify its place of origin: for example, comets, asteroids, or interstellar space. From the particles' bulk properties and their chemical composition, we can infer properties of the environments out of which the particles were formed, and in which they were subsequently altered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980svom.nasa..897R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980svom.nasa..897R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> orbit control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roth, E. A.</p> <p></p> <p>In the context of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> navigation, spacecraft position determination and the necessary correction maneuvers are described mathematically. Position measurements and sources of errors are discussed briefly, leading to a dynamic model of random accelerations which influence spacecraft trajectory. The dynamic system is determined by a stochastic differential equation. A linearized equation of observation is also introduced. The transition matrix is evolved in Jacobi matrix form. Correction maneuvers are then evaluated for the deviation of the observed state vector of the reference orbit at a given time. Both a fixed time of arrival and a variable time of arrival are considered. Finally, computer programming which handles orbit calculation and position determination is treated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5289366','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5289366"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationships between <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> quantities and the global auroral electrojet index</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Meloni, A.; Wolfe, A.; Lanzerotti, L.J.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>We have studied, using linear cross correlation and multilinear regression analyses, statistical relations between the magnetospheric auroral electrojet intensity index AE and various parameters characterizing the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> plasma and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. We also consider the recently proposed epsilon parameter as an independent variable. The analyses were carried out separately for twenty-eight days in mid 1975 and for each of five individual <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storm intervals that have been previously discussed extensively in the literature. We find that when the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> data set is not distinguished as to the direction of the north-south component B/sub z/, the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> electric field -VB/sub z/ carried to the front of the magnetosphere correlates with AE substantially better than does epsilon. Considering only data during which B/sub z/ is negative gives a slightly better correlation of epsilon with AE than of the electric field with AE. The correlations are valid for the specific storm periods as well as for the unrestricted twenty-eight days of data. Our results suggest that the physical processes involved in energy transfer to the nightside magnetosphere depend upon the direction of the north-south component of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field: the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> electric field plays an important role during northward B/sub z/ and the epsilon parameter and the electric field both provide an indication of energy transfer and substorm activity during southward B/sub z/.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://epact2.gsfc.nasa.gov/don/03Chee.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://epact2.gsfc.nasa.gov/don/03Chee.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">MODELING SHOCK-ACCELERATED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES COUPLED TO <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> ALFVE N WAVES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Christian, Eric</p> <p></p> <p>MODELING SHOCK-ACCELERATED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES COUPLED TO <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> ALFVE´ N WAVES C. K physical processes: for SEPs, particle motion, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> focusing, scattering by Alfve´n waves, solar wind: acceleration of particles -- <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium -- solar wind -- Sun: particle emission -- waves 1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140006630','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140006630"><span id="translatedtitle">Whistler Waves Associated with Weak <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Velez, J. C. Ramirez; Blanco-Cano, X.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Kajdic, P.; Jian,, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We analyze the properties of 98 weak <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks measured by the dual STEREO spacecraft over approximately 3 years during the past solar minimum. We study the occurrence of whistler waves associated with these shocks, which on <span class="hlt">average</span> are high beta shocks (0.2 < Beta < 10). We have compared the waves properties upstream and downstream of the shocks. In the upstream region the waves are mainly circularly polarized, and in most of the cases (approx. 75%) they propagate almost parallel to the ambient <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (<30 deg.). In contrast, the propagation angle with respect to the shock normal varies in a broad range of values (20 deg. to 90 deg.), suggesting that they are not phase standing. We find that the whistler waves can extend up to 100,000 km in the upstream region but in most cases (88%) are contained in a distance within 30,000 km from the shock. This corresponds to a larger region with upstream whistlers associated with IP shocks than previously reported in the literature. The maximum amplitudes of the waves are observed next to the shock interface, and they decrease as the distance to the shock increases. In most cases the wave propagation direction becomes more aligned with the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field as the distance to the shock increases. These two facts suggest that most of the waves in the upstream region are Landau damping as they move away from the shock. From the analysis we also conclude that it is likely that the generation mechanism of the upstream whistler waves is taking place at the shock interface. In the downstream region, the waves are irregularly polarized, and the fluctuations are very compressive; that is, the compressive component of the wave clearly dominates over the transverse one. The majority of waves in the downstream region (95%) propagate at oblique angles with respect to the ambient <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (>60 deg.). The wave propagation with respect to the shock-normal direction has no preferred direction and varies similarly to the upstream case. It is possible that downstream fluctuations are generated by ion relaxation as suggested in previous hybrid simulation shocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7764K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7764K"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks with multiple spacecraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kajdi?, Primož; Blanco-Cano, Xochitl; Lavraud, Benoit</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> (IP) shocks in the heliosphere are often driven by Coronal Mass Ejections and Stream Interaction Regions. They are one of the main accelerators of suprathermal and energetic particles in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space. The acceleration mechanisms of these collisionless shocks depend on their Mach numbers and also on the angle between the upstream <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and the local normal to the shock. It has been recognized in the past that the latter varies along the shock surface. Observations with multiple spacecraft have shown that the local shock normal is oriented differently at different points in space. However this has been done for spacecraft separations of at least several Earth radii. Here we present observations of IP shocks with multiple spacecraft and missions for much smaller inter-spacecraft separations. In the case of observations with Cluster mission, these separations can be as small as 40 km. Even on these scales we find that the observed shock profiles may be slightly different. We have elaborated a catalog of ~80 shocks observed with two or more spacecraft in orbit around Earth. Here we present this catalog as well as some of the most interesting case events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1082462','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1082462"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of the <span class="hlt">Average</span> Aromatic Cluster Size of Fossil Fuels by Solid-State NMR at High <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mao, Kanmi; Kennedy, Gordon J.; Althaus, Stacey M.; Pruski, Marek</p> <p>2013-01-07</p> <p>We show that the <span class="hlt">average</span> aromatic cluster size in complex carbonaceous materials can be accurately determined using fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR at a high <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. To accurately quantify the nonprotonated aromatic carbon, we edited the 13C spectra using the recently reported MAS-synchronized spin–echo, which alleviated the problem of rotational recoupling of 1H-13C dipolar interactions associated with traditional dipolar dephasing experiments. The dependability of this approach was demonstrated on selected Argonne Premium coal standards, for which full sets of basic structural parameters were determined with high accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5619090','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5619090"><span id="translatedtitle">Laser-fusion rocket for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> propulsion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hyde, R.A.</p> <p>1983-09-27</p> <p>A rocket powered by fusion microexplosions is well suited for quick <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> travel. Fusion pellets are sequentially injected into a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> thrust chamber. There, focused energy from a fusion Driver is used to implode and ignite them. Upon exploding, the plasma debris expands into the surrounding <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and is redirected by it, producing thrust. This paper discusses the desired features and operation of the fusion pellet, its Driver, and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> thrust chamber. A rocket design is presented which uses slightly tritium-enriched deuterium as the fusion fuel, a high temperature KrF laser as the Driver, and a thrust chamber consisting of a single superconducting current loop protected from the pellet by a radiation shield. This rocket can be operated with a power-to-mass ratio of 110 W gm/sup -1/, which permits missions ranging from occasional 9 day VIP service to Mars, to routine 1 year, 1500 ton, Plutonian cargo runs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009632','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009632"><span id="translatedtitle">Search Coil vs. Fluxgate Magnetometer Measurements at <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, L.B., III</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We present <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field observations at <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks comparing two different sample rates showing significantly different results. Fluxgate magnetometer measurements show relatively laminar supercritical shock transitions at roughly 11 samples/s. Search coil magnetometer measurements at 1875 samples/s, however, show large amplitude (dB/B as large as 2) fluctuations that are not resolved by the fluxgate magnetometer. We show that these fluctuations, identified as whistler mode waves, would produce a significant perturbation to the shock transition region changing the interpretation from laminar to turbulent. Thus, previous observations of supercritical <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks classified as laminar may have been under sampled.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......113C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......113C"><span id="translatedtitle">Autonomous <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> constellation design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chow, Cornelius Channing, II</p> <p></p> <p>According to NASA's integrated space technology roadmaps, space-based infrastructures are envisioned as necessary ingredients to a sustained effort in continuing space exploration. Whether it be for extra-terrestrial habitats, roving/cargo vehicles, or space tourism, autonomous space networks will provide a vital communications lifeline for both future robotic and human missions alike. Projecting that the Moon will be a bustling hub of activity within a few decades, a near-term opportunity for in-situ infrastructure development is within reach. This dissertation addresses the anticipated need for in-space infrastructure by investigating a general design methodology for autonomous <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> constellations; to illustrate the theory, this manuscript presents results from an application to the Earth-Moon neighborhood. The constellation design methodology is formulated as an optimization problem, involving a trajectory design step followed by a spacecraft placement sequence. Modeling the dynamics as a restricted 3-body problem, the investigated design space consists of families of periodic orbits which play host to the constellations, punctuated by arrangements of spacecraft autonomously guided by a navigation strategy called LiAISON (Linked Autonomous <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Satellite Orbit Navigation). Instead of more traditional exhaustive search methods, a numerical continuation approach is implemented to map the admissible configuration space. In particular, Keller's pseudo-arclength technique is used to follow folding/bifurcating solution manifolds, which are otherwise inaccessible with other parameter continuation schemes. A succinct characterization of the underlying structure of the local, as well as global, extrema is thus achievable with little a priori intuition of the solution space. Furthermore, the proposed design methodology offers benefits in computation speed plus the ability to handle mildly stochastic systems. An application of the constellation design methodology to the restricted Earth-Moon system, reveals optimal pairwise configurations for various L1, L2, and L5 (halo, axial, and vertical) periodic orbit families. Navigation accuracies, ranging from O (10+/-1) meters in position space, are obtained for the optimal Earth-Moon constellations, given measurement noise on the order of 1 meter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760017031','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760017031"><span id="translatedtitle">Proceedings of the Symposium on the Study of the Sun and <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Medium in Three Dimensions. [space mission planning and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> trajectories by NASA and ESA to better observe the sun and solar system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fisk, L. A. (editor); Axford, W. I. (editor)</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>A series of papers are presented from a symposium attended by over 200 European and American scientists to examine the importance of exploring the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium and the sun by out-of-the-ecliptic space missions. The likely scientific returns of these missions in the areas of solar, <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span>, and cosmic ray physics is examined. Theoretical models of the solar wind and its interaction with <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070023318&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcane','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070023318&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcane"><span id="translatedtitle">A Survey of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Coronal Mass Ejections During 1996 - 2007</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Richardson, Ian; Cane, Hilary</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections, the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> counterparts of coronal mass ejections at the Sun, are the major drivers of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks in the heliosphere, and are associated with modulations of the galactic cosmic ray intensity, both short term (Forbush decreases caused by the passage of the shock, post-shock sheath, and ICME) and possibly with longer term modulation. Using several in-situ signatures of ICMEs, including plasma temperature, and composition, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields, and cosmic ray modulations, made by near-Earth spacecraft, we have compiled a "comprehensive" list of ICMEs passing the Earth since 1996, encompassing solar cycle 23. We summarize the properties of these ICMEs, such as their occurrence rate, speeds, association with solar energetic particle events, shocks and cosmic ray decreases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.7307K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.7307K"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> electric field conditions for historical geomagnetic storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kumar, Sandeep; Veenadhari, B.; Tulasi Ram, S.; Selvakumaran, R.; Mukherjee, Shyamoli; Singh, Rajesh; Kadam, B. D.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Ground <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> measurements provide a unique database in understanding space weather. The continuous geomagnetic records from Colaba-Alibag observatories in India contain historically longest and continuous observations from 1847 to present date. Some of the super intense geomagnetic storms that occurred prior to 1900 have been revisited and investigated in order to understand the probable <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> conditions associated with intense storms. Following Burton et al. (1975), an empirical relationship is derived for estimation of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> electric field (IEFy) from the variations of Dst index and ?H at Colaba-Alibag observatories. The estimated IEFy values using Dst and ?HABG variations agree well with the observed IEFy, calculated using Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite observations for intense geomagnetic storms in solar cycle 23. This study will provide the uniqueness of each event and provide important insights into possible <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> conditions for intense geomagnetic storms and probable frequency of their occurrence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070016645&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcane','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070016645&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcane"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shocks and "Suprathermal" Flare Particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cane, H. V.; Richardson, I. G.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>We use ion-composition data from ACE/ULEIS, low energy electrons from ACE/EPAM, high energy protons from SoHO/ERNE, radio data from Wind/WAVES, and solar wind data from ACE/SWEPAM and ACE/MAG to investigate the solar and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> circumstances near the times of passage of near-Earth shocks. We are particularly interested in claims that local acceleration by some <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks produces Fe/O > 0.3 ('Fe-rich' shocks). The choice of the specific interval used to calculate the Fe/O ratio is extremely important because shock-accelerated particles can be masked by particles from flare events, related or unrelated to the shock, that have Fe/O > 0.3. We conclude that shock- accelerated populations have Fe/0<0.3. We illustrate 5 events which have been reported to be Fe-rich and for which Fe/O increases with energy in the 0.5-2 MeV/nuc range. We find that in each case there are direct flare particles included in the <span class="hlt">averaging</span> time interval. We also demonstrate that the Fe/O ratio increases as a result of the <span class="hlt">averaging</span> time interval being too large.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009629','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009629"><span id="translatedtitle">Electromagnetic Whistler Precursors at Supercritical <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, L. B., III</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We present observations of electromagnetic precursor waves, identified as whistler mode waves, at supercritical <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks using the Wind search coil magnetometer. The precursors propagate obliquely with respect to the local <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, shock normal vector, solar wind velocity, and they are not phase standing structures. All are right-hand polarized with respect to the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (spacecraft frame), and all but one are right-hand polarized with respect to the shock normal vector in the normal incidence frame. Particle distributions show signatures of specularly reflected gyrating ions, which may be a source of free energy for the observed modes. In one event, we simultaneously observe perpendicular ion heating and parallel electron acceleration, consistent with wave heating/acceleration due to these waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050131826&hterms=shock+hugoniot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dshock%2Bhugoniot','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050131826&hterms=shock+hugoniot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dshock%2Bhugoniot"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-Spacecraft Observations of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Szabo, Adam</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Multi-spacecraft solar wind observations reveal that many <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks deviate significantly from exact planarity on scale length of the magnetospheric cross section. A number of different IP shock observations with four spacecraft will be presented to demonstrate quantitatively the angular deviations between shock normals obtained from 4-spacecraft methods, using only the time and position information of shock observations but assuming a exactly planar geometry, and those obtained from a non-linear least squares fitting of the "Rankine-Hugoniot" conservation equations at each spacecraft. Moreover, the curvature of the shock fronts is strongly related to its driver, typically <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds. It will be demonstrated that small and slower moving <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds drive shocks with significantly more irregular surface geometries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810012468','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810012468"><span id="translatedtitle">Fine-scale characteristics of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> sector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Behannon, K. W.; Neubauer, F. M.; Barnstoff, H.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The structure of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> sector boundaries observed by Helios 1 within sector transition regions was studied. Such regions consist of intermediate (nonspiral) <span class="hlt">average</span> field orientations in some cases, as well as a number of large angle directional discontinuities (DD's) on the fine scale (time scales 1 hour). Such DD's are found to be more similar to tangential than rotational discontinuities, to be oriented on <span class="hlt">average</span> more nearly perpendicular than parallel to the ecliptic plane to be accompanied usually by a large dip ( 80%) in B and, with a most probable thickness of 3 x 10 to the 4th power km, significantly thicker previously studied. It is hypothesized that the observed structures represent multiple traversals of the global heliospheric current sheet due to local fluctuations in the position of the sheet. There is evidence that such fluctuations are sometimes produced by wavelike motions or surface corrugations of scale length 0.05 - 0.1 AU superimposed on the large scale structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeoRL..3214106H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeoRL..3214106H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> shocks unconnected with earthbound coronal mass ejections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Howard, T. A.; Tappin, S. J.</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>An associated study by Howard and Tappin (2005) identified 7 Earthbound forward shocks (of which 3 were geoeffective) which were not connected with any detectable coronal mass ejection activity along the Sun-Earth line. This largely unexplored result lends evidence to the fact that some large <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> transients are not detected by coronagraphs. This letter explores two possibilities for the formation of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> foreward shock, namely Corotating Interaction Regions (CIR) or Erupting <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Structures (EMS). Data from EPAM, SWEPAM and MAG on board ACE provided details of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock and associated energetic ions along the Sun-Earth line, while evidence of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field reorientation at the Sun was investigated using EIT on board SOHO, the GOES network and ground-based H? and radio telescopes. No evidence was found to associate 6 of the shocks with CIRs, although we were uncertain about one event, and in each case evidence of chromospheric activity at the Sun was detected between the estimated onset time of the transient and the arrival of the shock at ACE. The nature of this surface activity included X-Ray (>=C5.0) and H? flares, associated Type III and Type II radio bursts and disappearing filaments. These results lead to the proposal that EMS are the likely source of some <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> transients.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970021679','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970021679"><span id="translatedtitle">Latitudinal Dependence of the Radial IMF Component - <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Imprint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Suess, S. T.; Smith, E. J.; Phillips, J.; Goldstein, B. E.; Nerney, S.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Ulysses measurements have confirmed that there is no significant gradient with respect to heliomagnetic latitude in the radial component, B(sub r,), of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. There are two processes responsible for this observation. In the corona, the plasma beta is much less than 1, except directly above streamers, so both longitudinal and latitudinal (meridional) gradients in field strength will relax, due to the transverse <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> pressure gradient force, as the solar wind carries <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux away from the Sun. This happens so quickly that the field is essentially uniform by 5 solar radius. Beyond 10 solar radius, beta is greater than 1 and it is possible for a meridional thermal pressure gradient to redistribute <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux - an effect apparently absent in Ulysses and earlier ICE and <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Physics (IMP) data. We discuss this second effect here, showing that its absence is mainly due to the perpendicular part of the anisotropic thermal pressure gradient in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium being too small to drive significant meridional transport between the Sun and approx. 4 AU. This is done using a linear analytic estimate of meridional transport. The first effect was discussed in an earlier paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920050960&hterms=solar+intensity+variation&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bintensity%2Bvariation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920050960&hterms=solar+intensity+variation&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Bintensity%2Bvariation"><span id="translatedtitle">Intensity variations in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field measured by Voyager 2 and the 11-year solar cycle modulation of galactic cosmic rays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Perko, J. S.; Burlaga, L. F.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>New evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that the 11-yr solar cycle modulation of galactic cosmic rays is caused by strong diffusion inside long-lived merged interaction regions. To test this hypothesis, the 1D force-field approximation of the cosmic ray modulation equation is solved. It is assumed that a constant solar wind speed convects <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field compressions and rarefactions unchanged through a model heliosphere. The result is a reasonable simulation of the integrated high-energy cosmic ray intensity profile from about 1982 to mid-1989. This period encompasses both the full recovery portion of the last profile from about 1982 to mid-1989. This model responds to the Voyager 2 <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field data by correctly timing the beginning of the new modulation cycle in late 1987. It is concluded that the present hypothesis is consistent with the results of this simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21300682','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21300682"><span id="translatedtitle">THREE-DIMENSIONAL FEATURES OF THE OUTER HELIOSPHERE DUE TO COUPLING BETWEEN THE INTERSTELLAR AND <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> <span class="hlt">MAGNETIC</span> FIELDS. III. THE EFFECTS OF SOLAR ROTATION AND ACTIVITY CYCLE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Borovikov, Sergey N.; Zank, Gary P.; Ogino, Tatsuki E-mail: snb0003@uah.edu E-mail: ogino@stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp</p> <p>2009-05-10</p> <p>We investigate the effects of the 11 year solar cycle and 25 day rotation period of the Sun on the interaction of the solar wind (SW) with the local interstellar medium (LISM). Our models take into account the partially ionized character of the LISM and include momentum and energy transfer between the ionized and neutral components. We assume that the interstellar <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field vector belongs to the hydrogen deflection plane as discovered in the SOHO SWAN experiment. This plane is inclined at an angle of about 60 deg. toward the ecliptic plane of the Sun, as suggested in recent publications relating the local interstellar cloud properties to the radio emission observed by Voyager 1. It is assumed that the latitudinal extent of the boundary between the slow and fast SW regions, as well as the angle between the Sun's rotation and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span>-dipole axes, are periodic functions of time, while the polarity of the interstellar <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field changes sign every 11 years at the solar maximum. The global variation of the SW-LISM interaction pattern, the excursions of the termination shock and the heliopause, and parameter distributions in certain directions are investigated. The analysis of the behavior of the wavy heliospheric current sheet in the supersonic SW region shows the importance of neutral atoms on its dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850026534','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850026534"><span id="translatedtitle">Differential measurement of cosmic-ray gradient with respect to <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> current sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Christon, S. P.; Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.; Behannon, K. W.; Burlaga, L. F.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Simultaneous <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and charged particle measurements from the Voyager spacecraft at heliographic latitude separations from 10 deg. to 21 deg. are used to determine the latitude gradient of the galactic cosmic ray flux with respect to the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> current sheet. By comparing the ratio of cosmic ray flux at Voyager 1 to that a Voyager 2 during periods when both spacecraft are first nort and then south of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> current sheet, we find an estimate of the latitudinal gradient with respect to the current sheet of approximately -0.15 + or 0.05% deg under restricted <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720000603','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720000603"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Trajectories, Encke Method (ITEM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Whitlock, F. H.; Wolfe, H.; Lefton, L.; Levine, N.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Modified program has been developed using improved variation of Encke method which avoids accumulation of round-off errors and avoids numerical ambiguities arising from near-circular orbits of low inclination. Variety of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> trajectory problems can be computed with maximum accuracy and efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://strategic.mit.edu/spacelogistics/pdf/NASA%20Lessons%20Learned.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://strategic.mit.edu/spacelogistics/pdf/NASA%20Lessons%20Learned.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span>Supply Chain Management &</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>de Weck, Olivier L.</p> <p></p> <p>of a logistics architecture, as well as in the design of space systems. This study may also be appropriately logistics system, shared by multiple organizations, to decrease the problem of differing values for like<span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span>Supply Chain Management & LogisticsArchitectures 2005-2007 MIT JPL USA PSI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.2616Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.2616Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Bounce- and MLT-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> diffusion coefficients in a physics-based <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the 17 March 2013 storm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyroresonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field configurations related to the 17 March 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> dipole field as a reference and compare the results against nondipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (RAM-SCB), a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Local Time (MLT)-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> electron pitch angle, mixed-term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field configuration. For radiation belt (˜1 MeV) and ring current (˜100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyroresonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT <span class="hlt">average</span> is performed at drift shell L=4.25 (a good approximation to drift <span class="hlt">average</span>), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the 17 March 2013 storm and for L?4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850026461','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850026461"><span id="translatedtitle">Particle acceleration due to shocks in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> field: High time resolution data and simulation results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kessel, R. L.; Armstrong, T. P.; Nuber, R.; Bandle, J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Data were examined from two experiments aboard the Explorer 50 (IMP 8) spacecraft. The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Lab Charged Particle Measurement Experiment (CPME) provides 10.12 second resolution ion and electron count rates as well as 5.5 minute or longer <span class="hlt">averages</span> of the same, with data sampled in the ecliptic plane. The high time resolution of the data allows for an explicit, point by point, merging of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and particle data and thus a close examination of the pre- and post-shock conditions and particle fluxes associated with large angle oblique shocks in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> field. A computer simulation has been developed wherein sample particle trajectories, taken from observed fluxes, are allowed to interact with a planar shock either forward or backward in time. One event, the 1974 Day 312 shock, is examined in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110015529&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcane','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110015529&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcane"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Circumstances of Quasi-Perpendicular <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shocks in 1996-2005</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The angle (theta(sub Bn)) between the normal to an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock front and the upstream <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field direction, though often thought of as a property "of the shock," is also determined by the configuration of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field immediately upstream of the shock. We investigate the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> circumstances of 105 near-Earth quasi-perpendicular shocks during 1996-2005 identified by theta(sub Bn) greater than or equal to 80 degrees and/or by evidence of shock drift particle acceleration. Around 87% of these shocks were driven by <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections (ICMEs); the remainder were probably the forward shocks of corotating interaction regions. For around half of the shocks, the upstream field was approximately perpendicular to the radial direction, either east-west or west-east or highly inclined to the ecliptic. Such field directions will give quasi-perpendicular configurations for radially propagating shocks. Around 30% of the shocks were propagating through, or closely followed, ICMEs at the time of observation. Another quarter were propagating through the heliospheric plasma sheet (HPS), and a further quarter occurred in slow solar wind that did not have characteristics of the HPS. Around 11% were observed in high-speed streams, and 7% in the sheaths following other shocks. The fraction of shocks found in high-speed streams is around a third of that expected based on the fraction of the time when such streams were observed at Earth. Quasi-perpendicular shocks are found traveling through ICMEs around 2-3 times more frequently than expected. In addition, shocks propagating through ICMEs are more likely to have larger values of theta(sub Bn) than shocks outside ICMEs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22270645','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22270645"><span id="translatedtitle">MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lionello, Roberto; Downs, Cooper; Linker, Jon A.; Török, Tibor; Riley, Pete; Miki?, Zoran E-mail: cdowns@predsci.com E-mail: tibor@predsci.com E-mail: mikic@predsci.com</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>We describe a new MHD model for the propagation of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) in the solar wind. Accurately following the propagation of ICMEs is important for determining space weather conditions. Our model solves the MHD equations in spherical coordinates from a lower boundary above the critical point to Earth and beyond. On this spherical surface, we prescribe the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, velocity, density, and temperature calculated typically directly from a coronal MHD model as time-dependent boundary conditions. However, any model that can provide such quantities either in the inertial or rotating frame of the Sun is suitable. We present two validations of the technique employed in our new model and a more realistic simulation of the propagation of an ICME from the Sun to Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840053292&hterms=association+analysis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dassociation%2Banalysis','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840053292&hterms=association+analysis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dassociation%2Banalysis"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectral analysis of magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations near <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vinas, A. F.; Goldstein, M. L.; Acuna, M. H.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Preliminary results of an investigation of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fluctuations seen upstream of two <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks are presented. The spectral analysis includes calculation of the normalized reduced <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> helicity spectrum, the normalized reduced cross-helicity spectrum, and the Alfven ratio as discussed by Matthaeus and Goldstein (1982). Minimum variance methods are used to compute wave polarization as a function of frequency. The Taylor 'frozen in flow' hypothesis is assumed to convert frequencies to wave vectors. Some of the basic properties of the waves, including the probable mode of propagation in association with both quasi-parallel forward and reverse shocks, are described. A comparison with previous results on the generation of waves at <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> and planetary shocks is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1200613-bounce-mlt-averaged-diffusion-coefficients-physics-based-magnetic-field-geometry-obtained-from-ram-scb-march-storm','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1200613-bounce-mlt-averaged-diffusion-coefficients-physics-based-magnetic-field-geometry-obtained-from-ram-scb-march-storm"><span id="translatedtitle">Bounce- and MLT-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> diffusion coefficients in a physics-based <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the March 17 2013 storm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyro-resonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field configurations related to the March 17 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> dipole field as a reference and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field.more »By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and MLT-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> electron pitch angle, mixed term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field configuration. For radiation belt (~1 MeV) and ring current (~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyro-resonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT <span class="hlt">average</span> is performed at drift shell L = 4.25 (a good approximation to drift <span class="hlt">average</span>), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the March 17 2013 storm and for L ? 4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1200613','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1200613"><span id="translatedtitle">Bounce- and MLT-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> diffusion coefficients in a physics-based <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the March 17 2013 storm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyro-resonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field configurations related to the March 17 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> dipole field as a reference and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and MLT-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> electron pitch angle, mixed term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field configuration. For radiation belt (~1 MeV) and ring current (~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyro-resonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT <span class="hlt">average</span> is performed at drift shell L = 4.25 (a good approximation to drift <span class="hlt">average</span>), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the March 17 2013 storm and for L ? 4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1308.3376.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1308.3376.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Coordinated Observations in Polarised White Light and Faraday Rotation to Probe the Spatial Position and <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field of an <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Sheath</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Xiong, Ming; Feng, Xueshang; Owens, Mathew J; Harrison, Richard A; Davis, Chris J; Liu, Ying D</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can be continuously tracked through a large portion of the inner heliosphere by direct imaging in visible and radio wavebands. White-light (WL) signatures of solar wind transients, such as CMEs, result from Thomson scattering of sunlight by free electrons, and therefore depend on both the viewing geometry and the electron density. The Faraday rotation (FR) of radio waves from extragalactic pulsars and quasars, which arises due to the presence of such solar wind features, depends on the line-of-sight <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field component $B_\\parallel$, and the electron density. To understand coordinated WL and FR observations of CMEs, we perform forward magnetohydrodynamic modelling of an Earth-directed shock and synthesise the signatures that would be remotely sensed at a number of widely distributed vantage points in the inner heliosphere. Removal of the background solar wind contribution reveals the shock-associated enhancements in WL and FR. While the efficiency of Thomson scattering depen...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22270672','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22270672"><span id="translatedtitle">USING COORDINATED OBSERVATIONS IN POLARIZED WHITE LIGHT AND FARADAY ROTATION TO PROBE THE SPATIAL POSITION AND <span class="hlt">MAGNETIC</span> FIELD OF AN <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> SHEATH</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xiong, Ming; Feng, Xueshang; Liu, Ying D.; Davies, Jackie A.; Harrison, Richard A.; Owens, Mathew J.; Davis, Chris J.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can be continuously tracked through a large portion of the inner heliosphere by direct imaging in visible and radio wavebands. White light (WL) signatures of solar wind transients, such as CMEs, result from Thomson scattering of sunlight by free electrons and therefore depend on both viewing geometry and electron density. The Faraday rotation (FR) of radio waves from extragalactic pulsars and quasars, which arises due to the presence of such solar wind features, depends on the line-of-sight <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field component B{sub ?} and the electron density. To understand coordinated WL and FR observations of CMEs, we perform forward magnetohydrodynamic modeling of an Earth-directed shock and synthesize the signatures that would be remotely sensed at a number of widely distributed vantage points in the inner heliosphere. Removal of the background solar wind contribution reveals the shock-associated enhancements in WL and FR. While the efficiency of Thomson scattering depends on scattering angle, WL radiance I decreases with heliocentric distance r roughly according to the expression I?r {sup –3}. The sheath region downstream of the Earth-directed shock is well viewed from the L4 and L5 Lagrangian points, demonstrating the benefits of these points in terms of space weather forecasting. The spatial position of the main scattering site r{sub sheath} and the mass of plasma at that position M{sub sheath} can be inferred from the polarization of the shock-associated enhancement in WL radiance. From the FR measurements, the local B{sub ?sheath} at r{sub sheath} can then be estimated. Simultaneous observations in polarized WL and FR can not only be used to detect CMEs, but also to diagnose their plasma and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IAUS..286..168L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IAUS..286..168L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> conditions: lessons from this minimum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luhmann, J.; Lee, C. O.; Riley, P.; Jian, L. K.; Russell, C. T.; Petrie, G.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> conditions during the Cycle 23-24 minimum have attracted attention because they are noticeably different than those during other minima of the space age, exhibiting more solar wind stream interaction structures in addition to reduced mass fluxes and low <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field strengths. In this study we consider the differences in the solar wind source regions by applying Potential Field Source Surface models of the coronal <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. In particular, we consider the large scale coronal field geometry that organizes the open field region locations and sizes, and the appearance of the helmet streamer structure that is another determiner of solar wind properties. The recent cycle minimum had an extraordinarily long entry phase (the decline of Cycle 23) that made it difficult to identify when the actual miminum arrived. In particular, the late 23 rd cycle was characterized by diminishing photospheric fields and complex coronal structures that took several extra years to simplify to its traditional dipolar solar minimum state. The nearly dipolar phase, when it arrived, had a duration somewhat shorter than those of the previous cycles. The fact that the corona maintained an appearance more like a solar maximum corona through most of the quiet transitional phase between Cycles 23 and 24 gave the impression of a much more complicated solar minimum solar wind structure in spite of the weaknesses of the mass flux and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> field. The extent to which the Cycle 23-24 transition will affect Cycle 24, and/or represents what happens during weak cycles in general, remains to be seen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003TrGeo...1..689B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003TrGeo...1..689B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Dust Particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bradley, J. P.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>One of the fundamental goals of the study of meteorites is to understand how the solar system and planetary systems around other stars formed. It is known that the solar system formed from pre-existing (presolar) interstellar dust grains and gas. The grains originally formed in the circumstellar outflows of other stars. They were modified to various degrees, ranging from negligible modification to complete destruction and reformation during their ˜108 yr lifetimes in the interstellar medium (ISM) (Seab, 1987; Mathis, 1993). Finally, they were incorporated into the solar system. Submicrometer-sized silicates and carbonaceous material are believed to be the most common grains in the ISM ( Mathis, 1993; Sandford, 1996), but it is not known how much of this presolar particulate matter was incorporated into the solar system, to what extent it has survived, and how it might be distinguished from solar system grains. In order to better understand the process of solar system formation, it is important to identify and analyze these solid grains. Since all of the alteration processes that modified solids in the solar nebula presumably had strong radial gradients, the logical place to find presolar grains is in small primitive bodies like comets and asteroids that have undergone little, if any, parent-body alteration.Trace quantities of refractory presolar grains (e.g., SiC and Al2O3) survive in the matrices of the most primitive carbon-rich chondritic meteorites (Anders and Zinner, 1993; Bernatowicz and Zinner, 1996; Bernatowicz and Walker, 1997; Hoppe and Zinner, 2000; see Chapter 1.02). Chondritic meteorites are believed to be from the asteroid belt, a narrow region between 2.5 and 3.5 astronomical units (AU) that marks the transition from the terrestrial planets to the giant gas-rich planets. The spectral properties of the asteroids suggest a gradation in properties with some inner and main belt C and S asteroids (the source region of most meteorites and polar micrometeorites) containing layer silicates indicative of parent-body aqueous alteration and the more distant anhydrous P and D asteroids exhibiting no evidence of (aqueous) alteration (Gradie and Tedesco, 1982). This gradation in spectral properties presumably extends several hundred AU out to the Kuiper belt, the source region of most short-period comets, where the distinction between comets and outer asteroids may simply be one of the orbital parameters ( Luu, 1993; Brownlee, 1994; Jessberger et al., 2001). The mineralogy and petrography of meteorites provides direct confirmation of aqueous alteration, melting, fractionation, and thermal metamorphism among the inner asteroids ( Zolensky and McSween, 1988; Farinella et al., 1993; Brearley and Jones, 1998). Because the most common grains in the ISM (silicates and carbonaceous matter) are not as refractory as those found in meteorites, it is unlikely that they have survived in significant quantities in meteorites. Despite a prolonged search, not a single presolar silicate grain has yet been identified in any meteorite.<span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> dust particles (IDPs) are the smallest and most fine-grained meteoritic objects available for laboratory investigation (Figure 1). In contrast to meteorites, IDPs are derived from a broad range of dust-producing bodies extending from the inner main belt of the asteroids to the Kuiper belt (Flynn, 1996, 1990; Dermott et al., 1994; Liou et al., 1996). After release from their asteroidal or cometary parent bodies the orbits of IDPs evolve by Poynting-Robertson (PR) drag (the combined influence of light pressure and radiation drag) ( Dermott et al., 2001). Irrespective of the location of their parent bodies nearly all IDPs under the influence of PR drag can eventually reach Earth-crossing orbits. IDPs are collected in the stratosphere at 20-25 km altitude using NASA ER2 aircraft ( Sandford, 1987; Warren and Zolensky, 1994). Laboratory measurements of implanted rare gases, solar flare tracks ( Figure 2), and isotope abundances have confirmed that the collected particles are indeed extraterrestrial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22140113','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22140113"><span id="translatedtitle">THREE-DIMENSIONAL FEATURES OF THE OUTER HELIOSPHERE DUE TO COUPLING BETWEEN THE INTERSTELLAR AND <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> <span class="hlt">MAGNETIC</span> FIELDS. IV. SOLAR CYCLE MODEL BASED ON ULYSSES OBSERVATIONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pogorelov, N. V.; Zank, G. P.; Suess, S. T.; Borovikov, S. N.; Ebert, R. W.; McComas, D. J.</p> <p>2013-07-20</p> <p>The solar cycle has a profound influence on the solar wind (SW) interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) on more than one timescales. Also, there are substantial differences in individual solar cycle lengths and SW behavior within them. The presence of a slow SW belt, with a variable latitudinal extent changing within each solar cycle from rather small angles to 90 Degree-Sign , separated from the fast wind that originates at coronal holes substantially affects plasma in the inner heliosheath (IHS)-the SW region between the termination shock (TS) and the heliopause (HP). The solar cycle may be the reason why the complicated flow structure is observed in the IHS by Voyager 1. In this paper, we show that a substantial decrease in the SW ram pressure observed by Ulysses between the TS crossings by Voyager 1 and 2 contributes significantly to the difference in the heliocentric distances at which these crossings occurred. The Ulysses spacecraft is the source of valuable information about the three-dimensional and time-dependent properties of the SW. Its unique fast latitudinal scans of the SW regions make it possible to create a solar cycle model based on the spacecraft in situ measurements. On the basis of our analysis of the Ulysses data over the entire life of the mission, we generated time-dependent boundary conditions at 10 AU from the Sun and applied our MHD-neutral model to perform a numerical simulation of the SW-LISM interaction. We analyzed the global variations in the interaction pattern, the excursions of the TS and the HP, and the details of the plasma and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field distributions in the IHS. Numerical results are compared with Voyager data as functions of time in the spacecraft frame. We discuss solar cycle effects which may be reasons for the recent decrease in the TS particles (ions accelerated to anomalous cosmic-ray energies) flux observed by Voyager 1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940016180&hterms=1076&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231076','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940016180&hterms=1076&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231076"><span id="translatedtitle">Helium in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Helium and neon were extracted from fragments of individual stratosphere-collected <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles (IDP's) by subjecting them to increasing temperature by applying short-duration pulses of power in increasing amounts to the ovens containing the fragments. The experiment was designed to see whether differences in release temperatures could be observed which might provide clues as to the asteroidal or cometary origin of the particles. Variations were observed which show promise for elucidating the problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1924W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1924W"><span id="translatedtitle">Imaging <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> CMEs at Radio Frequency From Solar Polar Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Ji; Sun, Weiying; Zheng, Jianhua; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Chi; Wang, C. B.; Wang, S.</p> <p></p> <p>Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are violent discharges of plasma and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields from the Sun's corona. They have come to be recognized as the major driver of physical conditions in the Sun-Earth system. Consequently, the detection of CMEs is important for un-derstanding and ultimately predicting space weather conditions. The Solar Polar Orbit Radio Telescope (SPORT) is a proposed mission to observe the propagation of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> CMEs from solar polar orbit. The main payload (radio telescope) on board SPORT will be an in-terferometric imaging radiometer working at the meter wavelength band, which will follow the propagation of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> CMEs from a distance of a few solar radii to near 1 AU from solar polar orbit. The SPORT spacecraft will also be equipped with a set of optical and in situ measurement instruments such as a EUV solar telescope, a solar wind plasma experiment, a solar wind ion composition instrument, an energetic particle detector, a wave detector, a mag-netometer and an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> radio burst tracker. In this paper, we first describe the current shortage of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> CME observations. Next, the scientific motivation and objectives of SPORT are introduced. We discuss the basic specifications of the main radio telescope of SPORT with reference to the radio emission mechanisms and the radio frequency band to be observed. Finally, we discuss the key technologies of the SPORT mission, including the con-ceptual design of the main telescope, the image retrieval algorithm and the solar polar orbit injection. Other payloads and their respective observation objectives are also briefly discussed. Key words: <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> CMEs; Interferometric imaging; Solar polar orbit; Radiometer.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJ...734....7R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJ...734....7R"><span id="translatedtitle">The Solar Origin of Small <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Transients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rouillard, A. P.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.; Cooper, T. J.; Davies, J. A.; Lavraud, B.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Skoug, R. M.; Steinberg, J. T.; Szabo, A.; Opitz, A.; Sauvaud, J.-A.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present evidence for <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> transients with small radial extents ranging from 0.025 to 0.118 AU measured in situ by the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and the near-Earth Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) and Wind spacecraft. The transients considered in this study are much smaller (<0.12 AU) than the typical sizes of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds measured near 1 AU (~0.23 AU). They are marked by low plasma beta values, generally lower <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field variance, short timescale <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field rotations, and are all entrained by high-speed streams by the time they reach 1 AU. We use this entrainment to trace the origin of these small <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> transients in coronagraph images. We demonstrate that these <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field structures originate as either small or large mass ejecta. The small mass ejecta often appear from the tip of helmet streamers as arch-like structures and other poorly defined white-light features (the so-called blobs). However, we have found a case of a small <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> transient tracing back to a small and narrow mass ejection erupting from below helmet streamers. Surprisingly, one of the small <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> structures traces back to a large mass ejection; in this case, we show that the central axis of the coronal mass ejection is along a different latitude and longitude to that of the in situ spacecraft. The small size of the transient is related to the in situ measurements being taken on the edges or periphery of a larger <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> structure. In the last part of the paper, an ejection with an arch-like aspect is tracked continuously to 1 AU in the STEREO images. The associated in situ signature is not that of a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field rotation but rather of a temporary reversal of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field direction. Due to its "open-field topology," we speculate that this structure is partly formed near helmet streamers due to reconnection between closed and open <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field lines. The implications of these observations for our understanding of the variability of the slow solar wind are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060037611&hterms=Solar+activity+solar+cycle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSolar%2Bactivity%2Bsolar%2Bcycle','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060037611&hterms=Solar+activity+solar+cycle&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSolar%2Bactivity%2Bsolar%2Bcycle"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Origin of Geomagnetic Activity in the Declining Phase of the Solar Cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tsurutani, B. T.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Gonzalez, A. L. C.; Tang, F.; Arballo, J. K.; Okada, M.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and plasma data are compared with ground-based geomagnetic Dst and AE indices to determine the causes of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storms, substorms, and quiet during the descending phase of the solar cycle. The primary focus is on 1974 data characterized by the presence of two long-lasting corotating streams associated with coronal holes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021314&hterms=conservation+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dconservation%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021314&hterms=conservation+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dconservation%2Benergy"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> clouds, helicity conservation, and intrinsic scale flux ropes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kumar, A.; Rust, D. M.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>An intrinsic-scale flux-rope model for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds, incorporating conservation of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> helicity, flux and mass is found to adequately explain clouds' <span class="hlt">average</span> thermodynamic and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> properties. In spite their continuous expansion as they balloon into <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds maintain high temperatures. This is shown to be due to <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> energy dissipation. The temperature of an expanding cloud is shown to pass through a maximum above its starting temperature if the initial plasma beta in the cloud is less than 2/3. Excess <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> pressure inside the cloud is not an important driver of the expansion as it is almost balanced by the tension in the helical field lines. It is conservation of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> helicity and flux that requires that clouds expand radially as they move away from the Sun. Comparison with published data shows good agreement between measured cloud properties and theory. Parameters determined from theoretical fits to the data, when extended back to the Sun, are consistent with the origin of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds in solar filament eruptions. A possible extension of the heating mechanism discussed here to heating of the solar corona is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5257231','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5257231"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> control of the location of the Venus bow shock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Russell, C.T.; Chou, E.; Luhmann, J.G. ); Gazis, P. ); Brace, L.H.; Hoegy, W.R. )</p> <p>1988-06-01</p> <p>The Venus box shock location has been measured at nearly 2,000 shock crossings, and its dependence on solar EUV, solar wind conditions, and the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field determined. The shock position at the terminator varies from about 2.14 Venus radii at solar minimum to 2.40 Venus radii at solar maximum.The location of the shock varies little with solar wind dynamic pressure but strongly with solar wind Mach number. The shock is farthest from Venus on the side of the planet in which newly created ions gyrate away from the ionosphere. When the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field is perpendicular to the flow, the cross section of the shock is quite elliptical. This effect appears to be due to the anisotropic propagation of the fast magnetosonic wave. When the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field is aligned with the flow, the box shock cross section is circular and only weakly sensitive to changing EUV flux.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.642a2016M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.642a2016M"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling solar wind with boundary conditions from <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> scintillations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manoharan, P.; Kim, T.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Arge, C. N.; Manoharan, P. K.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> scintillations make it possible to create three-dimensional, time- dependent distributions of the solar wind velocity. Combined with the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field observations in the solar photosphere, they help perform solar wind simulations in a genuinely time-dependent way. <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> scintillation measurements from the Ooty Radio Astronomical Observatory in India provide directions to multiple stars and may assure better resolution of transient processes in the solar wind. In this paper, we present velocity distributions derived from Ooty observations and compare them with those obtained with the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model. We also present our simulations of the solar wind flow from 0.1 AU to 1 AU with the boundary conditions based on both Ooty and WSA data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110005580','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110005580"><span id="translatedtitle">Atypical Particle Heating at a Supercritical <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, Lynn B., III</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We present the first observations at an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock of large amplitude (> 100 mV/m pk-pk) solitary waves and large amplitude (approx.30 mV/m pk-pk) waves exhibiting characteristics consistent with electron Bernstein waves. The Bernstein-like waves show enhanced power at integer and half-integer harmonics of the cyclotron frequency with a broadened power spectrum at higher frequencies, consistent with the electron cyclotron drift instability. The Bernstein-like waves are obliquely polarized with respect to the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field but parallel to the shock normal direction. Strong particle heating is observed in both the electrons and ions. The observed heating and waveforms are likely due to instabilities driven by the free energy provided by reflected ions at this supercritical <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock. These results offer new insights into collisionless shock dissipation and wave-particle interactions in the solar wind.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSpR..52.1168M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSpR..52.1168M"><span id="translatedtitle">Propagation of normal and faster CMEs in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mujiber Rahman, A.; Shanmugaraju, A.; Umapathy, S.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>We have analyzed 101 Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) events and their associated <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> CMEs (ICMEs) and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) shocks observed during the period 1997-2005 from the list given by Mujiber Rahman et al. (2012). The aim of the present work is to correlate the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> parameters such as, the speeds of IP shocks and ICMEs, CME transit time and their relation with CME parameters near the Sun. Mainly, a group of 10 faster CME events (VINT > 2200 km/s) are compared with a list of 91 normal events of Manoharan et al. (2004). From the distribution diagrams of CME, ICME and IP shock speeds, we note that a large number of events tends to narrow towards the ambient (i.e., background) solar wind speed (?500 km/s) in agreement with the literature. Also, we found that the IP shock speed and the <span class="hlt">average</span> ICME speed measured at 1 AU are well correlated. In addition, the IP shock speed is found to be slightly higher than the ICME speed. While the normal events show CME travel time in the range of ?40-80 h with a mean value of 65 h, the faster events have lower transit time with a mean value of 40 h. The effect of solar wind drag is studied using the correlation of CME acceleration with <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) acceleration and with other parameters of ICMEs. While the mean acceleration values of normal and faster CMEs in the LASCO FOV are 1 m/s2, 18 m/s2, they are -1.5 m/s2 and -14 m/s2 in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium, respectively. The relation between CME speed and IP acceleration for normal and faster events are found to agree with that of Lindsay et al. (1999) and Gopalswamy et al. (2001) except slight deviations for the faster events. It is also seen that the faster events with less travel time face higher negative acceleration (>-10 m/s2) in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium up to 1 AU.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.P21C3927K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.P21C3927K"><span id="translatedtitle">Development with MESSENGER Data of a Model of Mercury's Magnetospheric <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field Confined within the <span class="hlt">Average</span> Observed Magnetopause</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Korth, H.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; Johnson, C. L.; Philpott, L. C.; Anderson, B. J.; Al Asad, M.; Solomon, S. C.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Accurate knowledge of Mercury's magnetospheric <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field is required to understand the sources of the planet's internal field. We present the first model of Mercury's magnetospheric <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field that is confined within a magnetopause shape derived from Magnetometer observations by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. The model consists of individual modules for <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields of internal origin, approximated by a dipole of magnitude 190 nT RM3, where RM is Mercury's radius, offset northward by 479 km along the spin axis, and of external origin resulting from currents flowing on the magnetopause boundary and in the cross-tail current sheet. The cross-tail current is prescribed having a disk shape near the planet and extending into a Harris sheet at larger distances. The magnitude of the tail current is fit to minimize the root mean square residual between the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field within the magnetosphere observed by MESSENGER and the model field. The <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field contribution from each module is shielded individually by a scalar potential function consisting of Cartesian harmonic expansions with linear and non-linear coefficients, which are fit to minimize the root-mean-square normal <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field component at the magnetopause. The resulting model resembles the observed <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field better than the previously developed paraboloid model in regions that are close to the magnetopause, i.e., at northern high latitudes and on the dayside. It will allow more accurate characterization of crustal <span class="hlt">magnetization</span>, which may be observed during low-altitude orbits in the final months of the MESSENGER mission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...803...96S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...803...96S"><span id="translatedtitle">First Taste of Hot Channel in <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Song, H. Q.; Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, X.; Li, G.; Wang, Y. M.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>A hot channel (HC) is a high temperature (˜10 MK) structure in the inner corona first revealed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Eruptions of HCs are often associated with flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Results of previous studies have suggested that an HC is a good proxy for a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux rope (MFR) in the inner corona as well as another well known MFR candidate, the prominence-cavity structure, which has a normal coronal temperature (˜1-2 MK). In this paper, we report a high temperature structure (HTS, ˜1.5 MK) contained in an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> CME induced by an HC eruption. According to the observations of bidirectional electrons, high temperature and density, strong <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, and its association with the shock, sheath, and plasma pile-up region, we suggest that the HTS is the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> counterpart of the HC. The scale of the measured HTS is around 14 R ? , and it maintained a much higher temperature than the background solar wind even at 1 AU. It is significantly different from the typical <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds, which usually have a much lower temperature. Our study suggests that the existence of a corotating interaction region ahead of the HC formed a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> container to inhibit expansion of the HC and cool it down to a low temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.6554C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.6554C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> shocks and the resulting geomagnetically induced currents at the equator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carter, B. A.; Yizengaw, E.; Pradipta, R.; Halford, A. J.; Norman, R.; Zhang, K.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) caused by <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks represent a serious space weather threat to modern technological infrastructure. The arrival of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks drives magnetosphere and ionosphere current systems, which then induce electric currents at ground level. The impact of these currents at high latitudes has been extensively researched, but the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> equator has been largely overlooked. In this paper, we investigate the potential effects of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks on the equatorial region and demonstrate that their <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> signature is amplified by the equatorial electrojet. This local amplification substantially increases the region's susceptibility to GICs. Importantly, this result applies to both geomagnetic storms and quiet periods and thus represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of adverse space weather impacts on technological infrastructure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.8188O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.8188O"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact angle control of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock geoeffectiveness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oliveira, D. M.; Raeder, J.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>We use Open Geospace General Circulation Model global MHD simulations to study the nightside magnetospheric, magnetotail, and ionospheric responses to <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) fast forward shocks. Three cases are presented in this study: two inclined oblique shocks, hereafter IOS-1 and IOS-2, where the latter has a Mach number twice stronger than the former. Both shocks have impact angles of 30° in relation to the Sun-Earth line. Lastly, we choose a frontal perpendicular shock, FPS, whose shock normal is along the Sun-Earth line, with the same Mach number as IOS-1. We find that, in the IOS-1 case, due to the north-south asymmetry, the magnetotail is deflected southward, leading to a mild compression. The geomagnetic activity observed in the nightside ionosphere is then weak. On the other hand, in the head-on case, the FPS compresses the magnetotail from both sides symmetrically. This compression triggers a substorm allowing a larger amount of stored energy in the magnetotail to be released to the nightside ionosphere, resulting in stronger geomagnetic activity. By comparing IOS-2 and FPS, we find that, despite the IOS-2 having a larger Mach number, the FPS leads to a larger geomagnetic response in the nightside ionosphere. As a result, we conclude that IP shocks with similar upstream conditions, such as <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, speed, density, and Mach number, can have different geoeffectiveness, depending on their shock normal orientation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSM31D4226O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSM31D4226O"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact Angle Control of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shock Geoeffectiveness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oliveira, D.; Raeder, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We use OpenGGCM global MHD simulations to study the nightside magnetospheric/ magnetotail/ ionospheric responses to <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) fast foward shocks. Three cases are presented in this study: two inclined oblique shocks, hereafter IOS-1 and IOS-2, where the latter has a Mach number twice stronger than the former. Both shocks have impact angles of 30o in relation to the Sun-Earth line. Lastly, we choose a frontal perpendicular shock, FPS, whose shock normal is along th Sun-Earth line, with the same Mach number as IOS-1. We find that, in the IOS-1 case, due to the north-south asymmetry, the magnetotail is deflected southward, leading to a mild compression. The geomagnetic activity observed in the nightside ionosphere is then weak. On the other hand, in the head-on case, the FPS compresses the magnetotail on both sides symmetrically. This compression triggers a substorm allowing a larger amount of stored energy in the magnetotail to be released to the nightside ionosphere, resulting in a larger geomagnetic activity there. By comparing IOS-2 and FPS, we find that, despite the IOS-2 having a larger Mach number, the FPS leads to larger geomagnetic responses in the ionosphere nightside. As a result, we conclude that IP shocks with similar upstream conditions, such as <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, speed, density, and even Mach number, can be differently geoeffective, depending on their shock normal orientation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110012255','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110012255"><span id="translatedtitle">CFDP for <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Overlay Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burleigh, Scott C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol for <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Overlay Network (CFDP-ION) is an implementation of CFDP that uses IO' s DTN (delay tolerant networking) implementation as its UT (unit-data transfer) layer. Because the DTN protocols effect automatic, reliable transmission via multiple relays, CFDP-ION need only satisfy the requirements for Class 1 ("unacknowledged") CFDP. This keeps the implementation small, but without loss of capability. This innovation minimizes processing resources by using zero-copy objects for file data transmission. It runs without modification in VxWorks, Linux, Solaris, and OS/X. As such, this innovation can be used without modification in both flight and ground systems. Integration with DTN enables the CFDP implementation itself to be very simple; therefore, very small. Use of ION infrastructure minimizes consumption of storage and processing resources while maximizing safety.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...813...85L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...813...85L"><span id="translatedtitle">Energetic Particle Pressure at <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shocks: STEREO-A Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lario, D.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Viñas, A.-F.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We study periods of elevated energetic particle intensities observed by STEREO-A when the partial pressure exerted by energetic (?83 keV) protons (PEP) is larger than the pressure exerted by the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (PB). In the majority of cases, these periods are associated with the passage of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks. Periods when PEP exceeds PB by more than one order of magnitude are observed in the upstream region of fast <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks where depressed <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field regions coincide with increases of energetic particle intensities. When solar wind parameters are available, PEP also exceeds the pressure exerted by the solar wind thermal population (PTH). Prolonged periods (>12 hr) with both PEP > PB and PEP > PTH may also occur when energetic particles accelerated by an approaching shock encounter a region well upstream of the shock characterized by low <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field magnitude and tenuous solar wind density. Quasi-exponential increases of the sum PSUM = PB + PTH + PEP are observed in the immediate upstream region of the shocks regardless of individual changes in PEP, PB, and PTH, indicating a coupling between PEP and the pressure of the background medium characterized by PB and PTH. The quasi-exponential increase of PSUM implies a radial gradient ?PSUM/?r > 0 that is quasi-stationary in the shock frame and results in an outward force applied to the plasma upstream of the shock. This force can be maintained by the mobile energetic particles streaming upstream of the shocks that, in the most intense events, drive electric currents able to generate diamagnetic cavities and depressed solar wind density regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39.1998T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39.1998T"><span id="translatedtitle">Shielding Structures for <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Human Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tracino, Emanuele; Lobascio, Cesare</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Since the end of Apollo missions, human spaceflight has been limited to the Low Earth Orbit (LEO), inside the protective <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field of the Earth, because astronauts are, to the largest degree, protected from the harsh radiation environment of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space. However, this situation will change when space exploration missions beyond LEO will become the real challenge of the human exploration program. The feasibility of these missions in the solar system is thus strongly connected to the capability to mitigate the radiation-induced biological effects on the crew during the journey and the permanence on the intended planet surface. Inside the International Space Station (ISS), the volumes in which the crew spends most of the time, namely the crew quarters are the only parts that implement dedicated additional radiation shielding made of polyethylene tiles designed for mitigating SPE effects. Furthermore, specific radiation shielding materials are often added to the described configuration to shield crew quarters or the entire habitat example of these materials are polyethylene, liquid hydrogen, etc. but, increasing the size of the exploration vehicles to bring humans beyond LEO, and without the magnetosphere protection, such approach is unsustainable because the mass involved is a huge limiting factor with the actual launcher engine technology. Moreover, shielding against GCR with materials that have a low probability of nuclear interactions and in parallel a high ionizing energy loss is not always the best solution. In particular there is the risk to increase the LET of ions arriving at the spacecraft shell, increasing their Radio-Biological Effectiveness. Besides, the production of secondary nuclei by projectile and target fragmentation is an important issue when performing an engineering assessment of materials to be used for radiation shielding. The goal of this work is to analyze different shielding solutions to increase as much as possible the radiation shielding power of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> habitat structures, like the spacecraft shell, minimizing the amount of mass used. From the radiation protection point of view the spacecraft shell is an interesting spacecraft system because it surrounds almost homogeneously all the habitat and it is typically composed by the Micrometeorites and Debris Protection Systems (MDPS), the Multilayer Insulation (MLI) for thermal control purposes, and the primary structure that offers the pressure containment functionality. Nevertheless, the spacecraft internal outfitting is important to evaluate the different shielded areas in the habitat. Using Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations toolkit through GRAS (Geant4 Radiation Analysis for Space) tool, different spacecraft structures will be analyzed for their shielding behavior in terms of fluxes, dose reduction and radiation quality, and for their implementation in a real pressurized module. Effects on astronauts and electronic equipments will be also assessed with respect to the standard aluminum structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880001358','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880001358"><span id="translatedtitle">Interaction of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks with nonuniform ambient solar wind</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chao, J. K.; Sheu, J. H.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Three <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock wave events are selected from the plasma and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field data of Helios 1 and 2, IMP-8, and Voyagers 1 and 2 for study of the interactions of a weak interplantary shock with a nonuniform ambient solar wind. These events occurred during the periods 22-26 November 1977, 1-7 January 1978, and 2-5 April 1979, respectively. It is found that the shock surfaces of these events are highly distorted. In addition, a portion of the shock surface may be degenerated into a disturbance which does not satisfy the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900020833','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900020833"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> medium data book, supplement 4, 1985-1988</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>King, Joseph H.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>An extension is presented of the series of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Medium Data Books and supplements which have been issued by the National Space Science Data Center since 1977. This volume contains solar wind <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) and plasma data from the IMP 8 spacecraft for 1985 to 1988, and 1985 IMF data from the Czechoslovakian Soviet Prognoz 10 spacecraft. The normalization of the MIT plasma density and temperature, which has been discussed at length in previous volumes, is implemented as before, using the same normalization constants for 1985 to 1988 data as for the earlier data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612048K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612048K"><span id="translatedtitle">Radial speeds of an extreme <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Coronal Mass Ejection and its shock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kajdic, Primoz; Gonzalez Esparza, Juan-Americo; Aguilar Rodriguez, Ernesto; Corona-Romero, Pedro</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>During the current solar cycle, our star has been less active when compared to the previous cycles. This is reflected in lower sunspot numbers but also in a lesser number of observed Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and their <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> counterparts (ICME). However, lower solar activity does not necessarily mean less powerful events. Here we study propagation of an ICME that was detected by the STEREO A spacecraft on July 23, 2012. This was the most extreme event observed since the beginning of the space era. The <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field inside this ICME reached maximum value of 109 nT. The <span class="hlt">average</span> ICME transit speed at 1 AU was 1910 kms-1, while its <span class="hlt">average</span> speed on the way to 1 AU was 2125 kms-1. The ICME drove a fast-mode shock that preceded it. At the shock the plasma speed rose to 2250 kms-1. We study the propagation of the shock and of the ICME itself by using the radio data from the STEREO WAVES (S/WAVES) onboard of the STEREO A spacecraft. Since the shock emitted Type II radio emission, we are able to reconstruct its speed at various heliocentric distances. We also compare the measured velocities and arrival times of the shock and of the ejecta with predictions from numerical models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060036609&hterms=Ulysses&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DUlysses','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060036609&hterms=Ulysses&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DUlysses"><span id="translatedtitle">(abstract) An Extensive Search for <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Slow-mode Shocks: Ulysses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sakurai, R.; Ho, C. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Goldstein, B. E.; Balogh, A.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Ulysses has accumulated five years of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> solar wind plasma and IMF measurements. These data cover from 1 to approximately 5 AU and all the heliographic latitudes. Based on these data, we perform an extensive search for the slow-mode shocks. We find a considerable number of discontinuities that have large <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field magnitude changes and also large field normal components.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060029807&hterms=Internet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DInternet','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060029807&hterms=Internet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DInternet"><span id="translatedtitle">Operating CFDP in the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Internet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burleigh, S.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines the design elements of CCSDS File Delivery Protocol and <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Internet technologies that will simplify their integration and discusses the resulting new capabilities, such as efficient transmission of large files via multiple relay satellites operating in parallel.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730002072&hterms=zero+conductivity&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dzero%2Bconductivity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730002072&hterms=zero+conductivity&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dzero%2Bconductivity"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> double-shock ensembles with anomalous electrical conductivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dryer, M.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Similarity theory is applied to the case of constant velocity, piston-driven, shock waves. This family of solutions, incorporating the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field for the case of infinite electric conductivity, represents one class of experimentally observed, flare-generated shock waves. This paper discusses the theoretical extension to flows with finite conductivity (presumably caused by unspecified modes of wave-particle interactions). Solutions, including reverse shocks, are found for a wide range of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> Reynolds numbers from one to infinity. Consideration of a zero and nonzero ambient flowing solar wind (together with removal of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> considerations) enables the recovery of earlier similarity solutions as well as numerical simulations. A limited comparison with observations suggests that flare energetics can be reasonably estimated once the shock velocity, ambient solar wind velocity and density, and ambient azimuthal Alfven Mach number are known.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042593','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042593"><span id="translatedtitle">TPS Ablator Technologies for <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Spacecraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Curry, Donald M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This slide presentation reviews the status of Thermal Protection System (TPS) Ablator technologies and the preparation for use in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> spacecraft. NASA does not have adequate TPS ablatives and sufficient selection for planned missions. It includes a comparison of shuttle and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> TPS requirements, the status of mainline TPS charring ablator materials, a summary of JSC SBIR accomplishments in developing advanced charring ablators and the benefits of SBIR Ablator/fabrication technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070017872','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070017872"><span id="translatedtitle">Quaternion <span class="hlt">Averaging</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Markley, F. Landis; Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Oshman, Yaakov</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Many applications require an algorithm that <span class="hlt">averages</span> quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly <span class="hlt">average</span> the quaternions without recomputing the attitude from the the raw star tracker data. Other applications requiring some sort of optimal quaternion <span class="hlt">averaging</span> include particle filtering and multiple-model adaptive estimation, where weighted quaternions are used to determine the quaternion estimate. For spacecraft attitude estimation applications, derives an optimal <span class="hlt">averaging</span> scheme to compute the <span class="hlt">average</span> of a set of weighted attitude matrices using the singular value decomposition method. Focusing on a 4-dimensional quaternion Gaussian distribution on the unit hypersphere, provides an approach to computing the <span class="hlt">average</span> quaternion by minimizing a quaternion cost function that is equivalent to the attitude matrix cost function Motivated by and extending its results, this Note derives an algorithm that deterniines an optimal <span class="hlt">average</span> quaternion from a set of scalar- or matrix-weighted quaternions. Rirthermore, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the <span class="hlt">average</span> quaternion, and the equivalence of the mininiization problem, stated herein, to maximum likelihood estimation, are shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..146L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..146L"><span id="translatedtitle">Mars' "Magnetospheric" Response to <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Field Orientation: Inferences from Models for MAVEN Investigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luhmann, J. G.; Dong, C.; Ma, Y.-J.; Curry, S. M.; Alvarez, K.; Hara, T.; Halekas, J.; Brain, D. A.; Bougher, S.; Espley, J.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Planetary space weather at Mars has attracted much interest, but the focus is usually on the response to solar activity and its related disturbances in the solar wind. While this aspect is important and may be key to understanding Mars' atmosphere evolution, an additional consideration is based on the sensitivity of Earth's magnetospheric solar wind interaction to southward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields. The study described here investigates whether Mars has its own specific <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> field orientation sensitivities that might be identified in the MAVEN data analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EP%26S...67...11I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EP%26S...67...11I"><span id="translatedtitle">A new leveling method without the direct use of crossover data and its application in marine <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> surveys: weighted spatial <span class="hlt">averaging</span> and temporal filtering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ishihara, Takemi</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The author has developed a new leveling method for use with <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> survey data, which consists of adjusting each measurement using the weighted spatial <span class="hlt">average</span> of its neighboring data and subsequent temporal filtering. There are two key parameters in the method: the `weight distance' represents the characteristic distance of the weight function and the `filtering width' represents the full width of the Gaussian filtering function on the time series. This new method was applied to three examples of actual marine survey data. Leveling using optimum values of these two parameters for each example was found to significantly reduce the standard deviations of crossover differences by one third to one fifth of the values before leveling. The obtained time series of correction values for each example had a good correlation with the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> observatory data obtained relatively close to the survey areas, thus validating this new leveling method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044310&hterms=protons&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dprotons','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044310&hterms=protons&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dprotons"><span id="translatedtitle">A study of spacecraft charging due to exposure to <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> protons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Green, Nelson W.; Frederickson, A. Robb</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space environment is composed mostly of plasma from the solar wind and high energy protons from solar events such as coronal mass ejections. Satellites orbiting Earth are shielded to some degree from these events by the Earth's <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field but spacecraft traveling between planets are exposed to these solar protons directly. A major concern for spacecraft is internal electrostatic discharge (IESD), a form of spacecraft charging. The majority of research regarding IESD has been concerned with the electrons in the space environment around the Earth and at Jupiter; little research has been done on the charging of spacecraft in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space due to solar event protons. This paper reviews the work done so far on IESD due to protons and provides a possible example of an anomaly due to a proton induced discharge in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space on the Galileo spacecraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMSH31A0232J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMSH31A0232J"><span id="translatedtitle">GCR Modulation by Small-Scale Features in the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jordan, A. P.; Spence, H. E.; Blake, J. B.; Mulligan, T. L.; Shaul, D. N.; Galametz, M.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>In an effort to uncover the properties of structures in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium (IPM) that modulate galactic cosmic rays (GCR) on short time-scales (from hours to days), we study periods of differing conditions in the IPM. We analyze GCR variations from spacecraft both inside and outside the magnetosphere, using the High Sensitivity Telescope (HIST) on Polar and the Spectrometer for INTEGRAL (SPI). We seek causal correlations between the observed GCR modulations and structures in the solar wind plasma and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, as measured concurrently with ACE and/or Wind. Our analysis spans time-/size-scale variations ranging from classic Forbush decreases (Fds), to substructure embedded within Fds, to much smaller amplitude and shorter duration variations observed during comparatively benign <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> conditions. We compare and contrast the conditions leading to the range of different GCR responses to modulating structures in the IPM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100026445&hterms=chinchilla&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dchinchilla','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100026445&hterms=chinchilla&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dchinchilla"><span id="translatedtitle">Propagation and Evolution of CMEs in the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Medium: Analysis of Remote Sensing and In situ Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Figueroa-Vinas, Adolfo; Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Vourlidas, Angelos; Gomez-Herrero, Raul; Malandraki, Olga; Szabo, Adam; Dresing, Nina; Davila, Joseph M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>EUV disk imagers and white light coronagraphs have provided for many years information on the early formation and evolution of corona) mass ejections (CMEs). More recently, the novel heliospheric imaging instruments aboard the STEREO mission are providing crucial remote sensing information on the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> evolution of these events while in situ instruments complete the overall characterization of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> CMEs. In this work, we present an analysis of CMEs from the Sun to the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium using combined data from THE SOHO, STEREO, WIND, and ACE spacecraft. The events were selected to cover the widest possible spectrum of different ambient solar wind, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field configurations, plasma parameters, etc. to allow uncovering those aspects that are important in understanding the propagation and evolution mechanisms of CMEs in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900060054&hterms=Chestnut&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DChestnut','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900060054&hterms=Chestnut&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DChestnut"><span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> proton fluence model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Feynman, Joan; Armstrong, T. P.; Dao-Gibner, L.; Silverman, S.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A new predictive engineering model for the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> fluence of protons with above 10 MeV and above 30 MeV is described. The data set used is a combination of observations made from the earth's surface and from above the atmosphere between 1956 and 1963 and observations made from spacecraft in the vicinity of earth between 1963 and 1985. The data cover a time period three times as long as the period used in earlier models. With the use of this data set the distinction between 'ordinary proton events' and 'anomalously large events' made in earlier work disappears. This permitted the use of statistical analysis methods developed for 'ordinary events' on the entire data set. The greater than 10 MeV fluences at 1 AU calculated with the new model are about twice those expected on the basis of models now in use. At energies above 30 MeV, the old and new models agree. In contrast to earlier models, the results do not depend critically on the fluence from any one event and are independent of sunspot number. Mission probability curves derived from the fluence distribution are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1008.1742.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1008.1742.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Dust in the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Mann, Ingrid; Meyer-Vernet, Nicole; Zaslavsky, Arnaud; Lamy, Herve</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The mass density of dust particles that form from asteroids and comets in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium of the solar system is, near 1 AU, comparable to the mass density of the solar wind. It is mainly contained in particles of micrometer size and larger. Dust and larger objects are destroyed by collisions and sublimation and hence feed heavy ions into the solar wind and the solar corona. Small dust particles are present in large number and as a result of their large charge to mass ratio deflected by electromagnetic forces in the solar wind. For nano dust particles of sizes 1 - 10 nm, recent calculations show trapping near the Sun and outside from about 0.15 AU ejection with velocities close to solar wind velocity. The fluxes of ejected nano dust are detected near 1AU with the plasma wave instrument onboard the STEREO spacecraft. Though such electric signals have been observed during dust impacts before, the interpretation depends on several different parameters and data analysis is still in progress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ICRC....6.3655P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ICRC....6.3655P"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar and <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Disturbances Causing Moderate Geomagnetic Storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pratap Yadav, Mahendra; Kumar, Santosh</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>The effect of solar and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> disturbances on geomagnetospheric conditions leading to one hundred twenty one moderate geomagnetic storms (MGSs) with planetary index, Ap ? 20 and horizontal component of earth's <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, H ? 250? have been investigated using solar geophysical data (SGD), solar wind plasma (SWP) and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) data during the period 1978-99. It is observed statistically that 64%, 36%, MGSs have occurred during maximum and minimum phase of solar cycle 21st and 22nd respectively. Further, it is observed that H?, X-ray solar flares and active prominences and disapp earing filaments (APDFs) have occurred within lower helio latitude region associated with larger number of MGSs. No significant correlation between the intensity of GMSs and importance of H?, X-ray solar flares have been observed. Maximum number of MGSs are associated with solar flares of lower importance of solar flare faint (SF). The lower importance in association with some specific characteristics i.e. location, region, duration of occurrence of event may also cause MGSs. The correlation coefficient between MGSs and sunspot numbers (SSNs) using Karl Pearson method, has been obtained 0.37 during 1978-99.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6435P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6435P"><span id="translatedtitle">Cause of the exceptionally high AE <span class="hlt">average</span> for 2003</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prestes, A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>In this work we focus on the year of 2003 when the AE index was extremely high (AE=341nT, with peak intensity more than 2200nT), this value is almost 100 nT higher when compared with others years of the cycle 23. <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) and plasma data are compared with geomagnetic AE and Dst indices to determine the causes of exceptionally high AE <span class="hlt">average</span> value. Analyzing the solar wind parameters we found that the annual <span class="hlt">average</span> speed value was extremely high, approximately 542 km/s (peak value ~1074 km/s). These values were due to recurrent high-speed solar streams from large coronal holes, which stretch to the solar equator, and low-latitude coronal holes, which exist for many solar rotations. AE was found to increase with increasing solar wind speed and decrease when solar wind speed decrease. The cause of the high AE activity during 2003 is the presence of the high-speed corotating streams that contain large-amplitude Alfvén waves throughout the streams, which resulted in a large number of HILDCAAs events. When plasma and field of solar wind impinge on Earth's magnetosphere, the southward field turnings associated with the wave fluctuations cause <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> reconnection and consequential high levels of AE activity and very long recovery phases on Dst, sometimes lasting until the next stream arrives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21394456','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21394456"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> SHOCKS LACKING TYPE II RADIO BURSTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Xie, H.; Maekelae, P.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Howard, R. A.; Bougeret, J.-L.</p> <p>2010-02-20</p> <p>We report on the radio-emission characteristics of 222 <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) shocks detected by spacecraft at Sun-Earth L1 during solar cycle 23 (1996 to 2006, inclusive). A surprisingly large fraction of the IP shocks ({approx}34%) was radio quiet (RQ; i.e., the shocks lacked type II radio bursts). We examined the properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and soft X-ray flares associated with such RQ shocks and compared them with those of the radio-loud (RL) shocks. The CMEs associated with the RQ shocks were generally slow (<span class="hlt">average</span> speed {approx}535 km s{sup -1}) and only {approx}40% of the CMEs were halos. The corresponding numbers for CMEs associated with RL shocks were 1237 km s{sup -1} and 72%, respectively. Thus, the CME kinetic energy seems to be the deciding factor in the radio-emission properties of shocks. The lower kinetic energy of CMEs associated with RQ shocks is also suggested by the lower peak soft X-ray flux of the associated flares (C3.4 versus M4.7 for RL shocks). CMEs associated with RQ CMEs were generally accelerating within the coronagraph field of view (<span class="hlt">average</span> acceleration {approx}+6.8 m s{sup -2}), while those associated with RL shocks were decelerating (<span class="hlt">average</span> acceleration {approx}-3.5 m s{sup -2}). This suggests that many of the RQ shocks formed at large distances from the Sun, typically beyond 10 Rs, consistent with the absence of metric and decameter-hectometric (DH) type II radio bursts. A small fraction of RL shocks had type II radio emission solely in the kilometric (km) wavelength domain. Interestingly, the kinematics of the CMEs associated with the km type II bursts is similar to those of RQ shocks, except that the former are slightly more energetic. Comparison of the shock Mach numbers at 1 AU shows that the RQ shocks are mostly subcritical, suggesting that they were not efficient in accelerating electrons. The Mach number values also indicate that most of these are quasi-perpendicular shocks. The radio-quietness is predominant in the rise phase and decreases through the maximum and declining phases of solar cycle 23. About 18% of the IP shocks do not have discernible ejecta behind them. These shocks are due to CMEs moving at large angles from the Sun-Earth line and hence are not blast waves. The solar sources of the shock-driving CMEs follow the sunspot butterfly diagram, consistent with the higher-energy requirement for driving shocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110013494&hterms=rl&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Drl','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110013494&hterms=rl&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Drl"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shocks Lacking Type 2 Radio Bursts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Maekela, P.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Kaiser, M. L.; Howard, R. A.; Bougeret, J.-L.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We report on the radio-emission characteristics of 222 <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) shocks detected by spacecraft at Sun-Earth L1 during solar cycle 23 (1996 to 2006, inclusive). A surprisingly large fraction of the IP shocks (approximately 34%) was radio quiet (RQ; i.e., the shocks lacked type II radio bursts). We examined the properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and soft X-ray flares associated with such RQ shocks and compared them with those of the radio-loud (RL) shocks. The CMEs associated with the RQ shocks were generally slow (<span class="hlt">average</span> speed approximately 535 km/s) and only approximately 40% of the CMEs were halos. The corresponding numbers for CMEs associated with RL shocks were 1237 km/s and 72%, respectively. Thus, the CME kinetic energy seems to be the deciding factor in the radio-emission properties of shocks. The lower kinetic energy of CMEs associated with RQ shocks is also suggested by the lower peak soft X-ray flux of the associated flares (C3.4 versus M4.7 for RL shocks). CMEs associated with RQ CMEs were generally accelerating within the coronagraph field of view (<span class="hlt">average</span> acceleration approximately +6.8 m/s (exp 2)), while those associated with RL shocks were decelerating (<span class="hlt">average</span> acceleration approximately 3.5 m/s (exp 2)). This suggests that many of the RQ shocks formed at large distances from the Sun, typically beyond 10 Rs, consistent with the absence of metric and decameter-hectometric (DH) type II radio bursts. A small fraction of RL shocks had type II radio emission solely in the kilometric (km) wavelength domain. Interestingly, the kinematics of the CMEs associated with the km type II bursts is similar to those of RQ shocks, except that the former are slightly more energetic. Comparison of the shock Mach numbers at 1 AU shows that the RQ shocks are mostly subcritical, suggesting that they were not efficient in accelerating electrons. The Mach number values also indicate that most of these are quasi-perpendicular shocks. The radio-quietness is predominant in the rise phase and decreases through the maximum and declining phases of solar cycle 23. About 18% of the IP shocks do not have discernible ejecta behind them. These shocks are due to CMEs moving at large angles from the Sun-Earth line and hence are not blast waves. The solar sources of the shock-driving CMEs follow the sunspot butterfly diagram, consistent with the higher-energy requirement for driving shocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMagR.251...71G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMagR.251...71G"><span id="translatedtitle">Noise reduction of nuclear <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> resonance (NMR) transversal data using improved wavelet transform and exponentially weighted moving <span class="hlt">average</span> (EWMA)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ge, Xinmin; Fan, Yiren; Li, Jiangtao; Wang, Yang; Deng, Shaogui</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>NMR logging and core NMR signals acts as an effective way of pore structure evaluation and fluid discrimination, but it is greatly contaminated by noise for samples with low <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> resonance intensity. Transversal relaxation time (T2) spectrum obtained by inversion of decay signals intrigued by Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence may deviate from the truth if the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is imperfect. A method of combing the improved wavelet thresholding with the EWMA is proposed for noise reduction of decay data. The wavelet basis function and decomposition level are optimized in consideration of information entropy and white noise estimation firstly. Then a hybrid threshold function is developed to avoid drawbacks of hard and soft threshold functions. To achieve the best thresholding values of different levels, a nonlinear objective function based on SNR and mean square error (MSE) is constructed, transforming the problem to a task of finding optimal solutions. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to ensure the stability and global convergence. EWMA is carried out to eliminate unwanted peaks and sawtooths of the wavelet denoised signal. With validations of numerical simulations and experiments, it is demonstrated that the proposed approach can reduce the noise of T2 decay data perfectly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25574595','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25574595"><span id="translatedtitle">Noise reduction of nuclear <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> resonance (NMR) transversal data using improved wavelet transform and exponentially weighted moving <span class="hlt">average</span> (EWMA).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ge, Xinmin; Fan, Yiren; Li, Jiangtao; Wang, Yang; Deng, Shaogui</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>NMR logging and core NMR signals acts as an effective way of pore structure evaluation and fluid discrimination, but it is greatly contaminated by noise for samples with low <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> resonance intensity. Transversal relaxation time (T(2)) spectrum obtained by inversion of decay signals intrigued by Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence may deviate from the truth if the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is imperfect. A method of combing the improved wavelet thresholding with the EWMA is proposed for noise reduction of decay data. The wavelet basis function and decomposition level are optimized in consideration of information entropy and white noise estimation firstly. Then a hybrid threshold function is developed to avoid drawbacks of hard and soft threshold functions. To achieve the best thresholding values of different levels, a nonlinear objective function based on SNR and mean square error (MSE) is constructed, transforming the problem to a task of finding optimal solutions. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to ensure the stability and global convergence. EWMA is carried out to eliminate unwanted peaks and sawtooths of the wavelet denoised signal. With validations of numerical simulations and experiments, it is demonstrated that the proposed approach can reduce the noise of T(2) decay data perfectly. PMID:25574595</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1509.00974.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1509.00974.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Configuration-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> open shell ab initio method for crystal field levels and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> properties of lanthanide(III) complexes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Heuvel, Willem Van den; Soncini, Alessandro</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We present an ab initio methodology dedicated to the determination of the electronic structure and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> properties of ground and low-lying excited states, i.e., the crystal field levels, in lanthanide(III) complexes. Currently, the most popular and successful ab initio approach is the CASSCF/RASSI-SO method, consisting of the optimization of multiple complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) spin eigenfunctions, followed by full diagonalization of the spin--orbit coupling (SOC) Hamiltonian in the basis of the CASSCF spin states featuring spin-dependent orbitals. Based on two simple observations valid for Ln(III) complexes, namely: (i) CASSCF 4f atomic orbitals are expected to change very little when optimized for different multiconfigurational states belonging to the 4f-electronic configuration, (ii) due to strong SOC the total spin is not a good quantum number, we propose here an efficient ab initio strategy which completely avoids any multiconfigurational calculation, by optimizing a unique s...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1511.07749.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1511.07749.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Coronal Mass Ejections observed by MESSENGER and Venus Express</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Good, S W</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) observed by the MESSENGER (MES) and Venus Express (VEX) spacecraft have been catalogued and analysed. The ICMEs were identified by a relatively smooth rotation of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field direction consistent with a flux rope structure, coinciding with a relatively enhanced <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field strength. A total of 35 ICMEs were found in the surveyed MES data (primarily from March 2007 to April 2012), and 84 ICMEs in the surveyed VEX data (from May 2006 to December 2013). The ICME flux rope configurations have been determined. Ropes with northward leading edges were about four times more common than ropes with southward leading edges, in agreement with a previously established solar cycle dependence. Ropes with low inclinations to the solar equatorial plane were about four times more common than ropes with high inclinations, possibly an observational effect. Left and right-handed ropes were observed in almost equal numbers. In addition, data from MES, VEX, STEREO-A, STEREO-B ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SoPh..284....5Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SoPh..284....5Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Post-Eruption Arcades and <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Coronal Mass Ejections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yashiro, S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Mäkelä, P.; Akiyama, S.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>We compare the temporal and spatial properties of posteruption arcades (PEAs) associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the Sun that end up as <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud (MC) and non-MC events in the solar wind. We investigate the length, width, area, tilt angle, and formation time of the PEAs associated with 22 MC and 29 non-MC events and we find no difference between the two populations. According to current ideas on the relation between flares and CMEs, the PEA is formed together with the CME flux-rope structure by <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> reconnection. Our results indicate that at the Sun flux ropes form during CMEs in association with both MC and non-MC events; however, for non-MC events the flux-rope structure is not observed in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space because of the geometry of the observation, i.e. the location of the spacecraft when the structure passes through it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100011347','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100011347"><span id="translatedtitle">International Launch Vehicle Selection for <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Travel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ferrone, Kristine; Nguyen, Lori T.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In developing a mission strategy for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> travel, the first step is to consider launch capabilities which provide the basis for fundamental parameters of the mission. This investigation focuses on the numerous launch vehicles of various characteristics available and in development internationally with respect to upmass, launch site, payload shroud size, fuel type, cost, and launch frequency. This presentation will describe launch vehicles available and in development worldwide, then carefully detail a selection process for choosing appropriate vehicles for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> missions focusing on international collaboration, risk management, and minimization of cost. The vehicles that fit the established criteria will be discussed in detail with emphasis on the specifications and limitations related to <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> travel. The final menu of options will include recommendations for overall mission design and strategy.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810058178&hterms=electric+current&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528electric%2Bcurrent%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810058178&hterms=electric+current&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528electric%2Bcurrent%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">An electrodynamic model of electric currents and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields in the dayside ionosphere of Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cloutier, P. A.; Tascione, T. F.; Danieli, R. E., Jr.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The electric current configuration induced in the ionosphere of Venus by the interaction of the solar wind has been calculated in previous papers (Cloutier and Daniell, 1973; Daniell and Cloutier, 1977; Cloutier and Daniell, 1979) for <span class="hlt">average</span> steady-state solar wind conditions and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. This model is generalized to include the effects of (1) plasma depletion and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field enhancement near the ionopause, (2) velocity-shear-induced MHD instabilities of the Kelvin-Helmholtz type within the ionosphere, and (3) variations in solar wind parameters and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. It is shown that the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field configuration resulting from the model varies in response to changes in solar wind and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> field conditions, and that these variations produce <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field profiles in excellent agreement with those seen by the Pioneer-Venus Orbiter. The formation of flux-ropes by the Kelving-Helmholtz instability is shown to be a natural consequence of the model, with the spatial distribution and size of the flux-ropes determined by the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> Reynolds number.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Ge%26Ae..55..926G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Ge%26Ae..55..926G"><span id="translatedtitle">Features of the behavior of some magnetohydrodynamic structures in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grib, S. A.; Leora, S. N.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Constant pressure structures moving together with a solar wind flux are described based on magnetohydrodynamic representations. The action of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> hole type structures on the bow shock wave before the Earth's magnetosphere is thus considered. In the presence of a rotational discontinuity in the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud, it is shown that the decomposition of an arbitrary discontinuity generates a plateau with an increase in the density of charged particles and a decrease in the intensity of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, which is repeatedly observed on spacecrafts. The plateau coincides with the properties of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> hole to a large extent but is of another origin (in fact, local).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840033219&hterms=shock+hugoniot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dshock%2Bhugoniot','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840033219&hterms=shock+hugoniot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dshock%2Bhugoniot"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiple spacecraft observations of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks ISEE three-dimensional plasma measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Russell, C. T.; Gosling, J. T.; Zwickl, R. D.; Smith, E. J.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>ISEE 1 and ISEE 3 three-dimensional solar wind plasma measurements are used together with <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field measurements across five previously studied <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks to test the accuracy of the mixed-mode shock-normal determination technique and to test whether the shock properties are best approximated with a ratio of specific heats of 5/3 or 2. In the shocks examined, the assumption that the velocity jump was along the normal provided an estimate of the shock normal within 15 deg of the best fit normal 50 percent of the time and within 50 deg, 90 percent of the time. The mixed-mode normals lay within 12 deg of the best fit normal 50 percent of the time and within 36 deg, 90 percent of the time. Part of this deviation may be due to differences in the orientation of the local normal from that of the <span class="hlt">average</span> normal. Finally, the jump in plasma and field across the shock is better predicted from the Rankine-Hugoniot equations using a ratio of specific heats of 5/3 rather than 2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.4112K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.4112K"><span id="translatedtitle">Properties and drivers of fast <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks near the orbit of the Earth (1995-2013)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kilpua, E. K. J.; Lumme, E.; Andreeova, K.; Isavnin, A.; Koskinen, H. E. J.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We present a comprehensive statistical analysis spanning over a solar cycle of the properties and drivers of traveling fast forward and fast reverse <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks. We combine statistics of 679 shocks between 1995 and 2013 identified from the near-Earth (Wind and ACE) and STEREO-A observations. We find that fast forward shocks dominate over fast reverse shocks in all solar cycle phases except during solar minimum. Nearly all fast reverse shocks are driven by slow-fast stream interaction regions (SIRs), while coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the principal drivers of fast forward shocks in all phases except at solar minimum. The occurrence rate and median speeds of CME-driven fast forward shocks follow the sunspot cycle, while SIR-associated shocks do not show such correspondence. The strength of the shock (characterized by the magnetosonic Mach number and by the upstream to downstream <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and density ratio) shows relatively little variations over solar cycle. However, the shocks were slightly stronger during the ascending phase of a relatively weak solar cycle 24 than during the previous ascending phase. The CME- and SIR-driven fast forward shocks and fast reverse shocks have distinct upstream solar wind conditions, which reflect to their relative strengths. We found that CME-driven shocks are on <span class="hlt">average</span> stronger and faster, and they show broader distributions of shock parameters than the shocks driven by SIRs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021336&hterms=current+events&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcurrent%2Bevents','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021336&hterms=current+events&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcurrent%2Bevents"><span id="translatedtitle">The solar/<span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> event of 14 April 1994 observed by Yohkoh/SXT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Alexander, D.; Harvey, K. L.; Hudson, H. S.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Zhao, X.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The polar crown event of April 14 1994 is one of the largest scale eruptive events observed by the Yohkoh/SXT. Associated with the formation of an arcade of soft X-ray loops at the Sun was the detection of an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> forward/reverse shock event by the Ulysses spacecraft some 4-7 days later. The relationship between the coronal and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> signatures of these events is important if we are to address fully the initialization and consequent acceleration of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> phenomena, such as CMEs and counter-streaming electrons, originating at the Sun. From detailed analysis of the energetics of the arcade formed during the eruption of April 14 1994, we find peak temperatures and emission measures of approximately 5MK and approximately 10(exp 48)cm(exp -3) respectively. The total thermal content of the arcade loop structure observed in soft X-rays is calculated to be some 5 x 10(exp 29) ergs. The development of these parameters as the event proceeds and their relationship to the dynamics of the eruption are investigated. Although spanning a longitudinal range of some 150 degrees the April 14 event displayed the typical helmet streamer structure normally associated with coronal mass ejections These helmet streamers are thought to be related to the global solar <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field through the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). The arcade formation, together with the eruption of material into <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space, signifies a large-scale reconfiguration of the coronal <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. We examine the effects of the formation of such a coronal arcade structure on the HCS and discuss the dynamics involved with the passage of a large scale disturbance through the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008672&hterms=hit&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dhit','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150008672&hterms=hit&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dhit"><span id="translatedtitle">Mars Science Laboratory <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Navigation Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Wong, Mau</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft, carrying the Curiosity rover to Mars, hit the top of the Martian atmosphere just 200 meters from where it had been predicted more than six days earlier, and 2.6 million kilometers away. This un-expected level of accuracy was achieved by a combination of factors including: spacecraft performance, tracking data processing, dynamical modeling choices, and navigation filter setup. This paper will describe our best understanding of what were the factors that contributed to this excellent <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> trajectory prediction performance. The accurate <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> navigation contributed to the very precise landing performance, and to the overall success of the mission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850025738','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850025738"><span id="translatedtitle">On the possibility of the determining the <span class="hlt">average</span> mass composition near 10 to the 14th power eV through the solar <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lloyd-Evans, J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The discovery of primary ultrahigh energy (UHE) gamma-rays has spawned plans for a new generation of air shower experiments with unprecedented directional resolution. Such accuracy permits observation of a cosmic ray shadow due to the solar disc. Particle trajectory simulations through models of the large scale solar <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field were performed. The shadow is apparent above 10 to the 15th power eV for all cosmic ray charges /Z/ 26; at lower energies, trajectories close to the Sun are bent sufficiently for this shadow to be lost. The onset of the shadow is rigidity dependent, and occurs at an energy per nucleus of approx. Z x 10 to the 13th power eV. The possibility of determining the <span class="hlt">average</span> mass composition near 10 to the 14th power eV from 1 year's observation at a mountain altitude array is investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ccar.colorado.edu/geryon/papers/Conference/AAS-05-399.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://ccar.colorado.edu/geryon/papers/Conference/AAS-05-399.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Paper AAS 05-399 LINKED, AUTONOMOUS, <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Born, George</p> <p></p> <p>Paper AAS 05-399 LINKED, AUTONOMOUS, <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> SATELLITE ORBIT NAVIGATION (LiAISON) Keric Hill 05-399 LINKED, AUTONOMOUS, <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> SATELLITE ORBIT NAVIGATION (LiAISON) Keric Hill determination using SST data. We propose a new method of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> navigation called Linked, Autonomous</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740061138&hterms=streaming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dstreaming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740061138&hterms=streaming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dstreaming"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmic-ray streaming perpendicular to the mean <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Forman, M. A.; Jokipii, J. R.; Owens, A. J.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Starting from a quasi-linear approximation for the ensemble-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> particle distribution function in a random <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, the complete diffusion tensor is derived. This is done by assuming a simple form for the ensemble-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> distribution function, explicitly retaining all components of the streaming flux. This derivation obtains the antisymmetric terms in a natural manner. The necessary dropping of higher-order terms gives a criterion for the lower-energy limit of validity of the perpendicular and antisymmetric diffusion coefficients. The limit for the assumed distribution function is about 0.8 GV rigidity in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> field near 1 AU.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021319&hterms=dryer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Ddryer','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021319&hterms=dryer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Ddryer"><span id="translatedtitle">Interaction of an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock with the heliospheric plasma sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Odstrcil, D.; Dryer, M.; Smith, Z.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> shocks often propagate along the heliospheric plasma sheet (HPS) where the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) changes its polarity. This problem is investigated by the time-dependent 2.5-D MHD numerical model in the meridional plane. An example of computation is shown in the figure using density (log) contours and IMF vectors. Values of plasma parameters along the HPS fluctuate in time due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The HPS with its decreased intensity of the IMF as well as with its increased mass density causes a dimple in the shock structure (relatively weak for the forward shock, significant for the reverse shock, and very large for the contact discontinuity). Beyond the forward shock, the HPS is slightly compressed due to the post-shock increase of the azimuthal IMF component. Then follows expansion of the HPS surrounded by the highly-deformed contact discontinuity. A significant draping of IMF lines occurs around this structure that increases the meridional component of the IMF. This can cause a favorable condition for initiation of a geomagnetic storm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790055065&hterms=lorentz&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dlorentz','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790055065&hterms=lorentz&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dlorentz"><span id="translatedtitle">Lorentz scattering of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Consolmagno, G.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Charged dust grains in a turbulent <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field will see a Lorentz force due to the convection of the solar <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field past them at the solar wind velocity. Since the sign of this <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field is randomly varying, the direction of the force will be random, and the net effect will be to randomly scatter the orbital elements of these particles. The square roots of the mean square change in semimajor axis, inclination, and eccentricity are determined as a function of the particles' original orbital elements. Particles 3 microns in radius and smaller will have their motions strongly perturbed or dominated by Lorentz scattering. This scattering will have an effect comparable to, or greater than, the Poynting-Robertson effect on these particles for time scales comparable to their Poynting-Robertson lifetimes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790059028&hterms=wind+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwind%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790059028&hterms=wind+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dwind%2Benergy"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between the growth of the ring current and the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> quantity. [solar wind energy-magnetospheric coupling parameter correlation with substorm AE index</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Akasofu, S.-I.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Akasofu (1979) has reported that the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> parameter epsilon correlates reasonably well with the magnetospheric substorm index AE; in the first approximation, epsilon represents the solar wind coupled to the magnetosphere. The correlation between the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> parameter, the auroral electrojet index and the ring current index is examined for three <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storms. It is shown that when the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> parameter exceeds the amount that can be dissipated by the ionosphere in terms of the Joule heat production, the excess energy is absorbed by the ring current belt, producing an abnormal growth of the ring current index.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870039702&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcane','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870039702&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcane"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> shocks preceded by solar filament eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cane, H. V.; Kahler, S. W.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The solar and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> characteristics of six <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock and energetic particle events associated with the eruptions of solar filaments lying outside active regions are discussed. The events are characterized by the familiar double-ribbon H-alpha brightenings observed with large flares, but only very weak soft X-ray and microwave bursts. Both impulsive phases and metric type II bursts are absent in all six events. The energetic particles observed near the earth appear to be accelerated predominantly in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks. The <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock speeds are lower and the longitudinal extents considerably less than those of flare-associated shocks. Three of the events were associated with unusual enhancements of singly-ionized helium in the solar wind following the shocks. These enhancements appear to be direct detections of the cool filament material expelled from the corona. It is suggested that these events are part of a spectrum of solar eruptive events which include both weaker events and the large flares. Despite their unimpressive and unreported solar signatures, the quiescent filament eruptions can result in substantial space and geophysical disturbances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://atoc.colorado.edu/~dcn/ATOC6020/papers/Fourier1827Trans.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://atoc.colorado.edu/~dcn/ATOC6020/papers/Fourier1827Trans.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Temperatures of the Terrestrial Sphere <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Noone, David</p> <p></p> <p>On the Temperatures of the Terrestrial Sphere and <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Space Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier 1 #12;Translator's note. This is a translation of Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier's "M´emoire sur les de France (search catalogue.bnf.fr for author "Fourier, Jean-Baptiste-Joseph"). In the version</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730006137','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730006137"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> pioneers. Volume 1: Summary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Corliss, W. R.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The Pioneer Space Probe Project is explained to document the events which occurred during the project. The subjects discussed are: (1) origin and history of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> Pioneer program, (2) Pioneer system development and design, (3) Pioneer flight operations, and (4) Pioneer scientific results. Line drawings, circuit diagrams, illustrations, and photographs are included to augment the written material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800012928','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800012928"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> monitoring platform engineering history and achievements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Butler, P. M.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>In the fall of 1979, last of ten <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Monitoring Platform Satellite (IMP) missions ended a ten year series of flights dedicated to obtaining new knowledge of the radiation effects in outer space and of solar phenomena during a period of maximum solar flare activity. The technological achievements and scientific accomplishments from the IMP program are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gg.caltech.edu/~mwl/publications/papers/LSRviaIPS.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.gg.caltech.edu/~mwl/publications/papers/LSRviaIPS.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Lunar Sample Return via the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Superhighway</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Lo, Martin</p> <p></p> <p>1 Lunar Sample Return via the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Superhighway Martin W. Lo, Min-Kun J. Chung Navigation at the lunar south pole is the largest impact crater known in the Solar System, piercing the Moon's mantle. A National Research Council panel recently recommended that NASA consider a robotic Lunar Sample Return</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPICo1679.4146W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPICo1679.4146W"><span id="translatedtitle">Hummingbird: Dramatically Reducing <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Mission Cost</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wertz, J. R.; Van Allen, R. E.; Sarzi-Amade, N.; Shao, A.; Taylor, C.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>The Hummingbird <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> spacecraft has an available delta V of 2 to 4 km/sec and a recurring cost of 2 to 3 million, depending on the payload and configuration. The baseline telescope has a resolution of 30 cm at a distance of 100 km.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860034804&hterms=transportation+one+platform&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtransportation%2Bone%2Bplatform','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860034804&hterms=transportation+one+platform&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dtransportation%2Bone%2Bplatform"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical system design considerations for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> platforms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, E. A.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Considerations fundamental to the design of optical systems for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> platforms are discussed with regard to the degree that they require departures from ground-based optical technology. Spectral availability, radiation and thermal cycles, microgravity, and space transportation constraints are considered, and new optical technologies are reviewed for their potential impact on the planetary missions planned for the rest of this century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://personal.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Personal/L.Wood/publications/lloyd-wood-amsat-2011-ip-ip.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://personal.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Personal/L.Wood/publications/lloyd-wood-amsat-2011-ip-ip.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Internet bringing networking into space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Wood, Lloyd</p> <p></p> <p>disasters. www.dmcii.com #12;88<span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Internet ­ Lloyd Wood DMC in use: after Hurricane Katrina (UK-DMC) Government co-operation: Algeria, Nigeria, United Kingdom, Turkey and China. Also commercial. Each government finances a ground station in its country and a satellite. Ground stations networked</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930049649&hterms=CNRS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DCNRS','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930049649&hterms=CNRS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DCNRS"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> fast shock diagnosis with the radio receiver on Ulysses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hoang, S.; Pantellini, F.; Harvey, C. C.; Lacombe, C.; Mangeney, A.; Meuer-Vernet, N.; Perche, C.; Steinberg, J.-L.; Lengyel-Frey, D.; Macdowall, R. J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The radio receiver on Ulysses records the quasi-thermal noise which allows a determination of the density and temperature of the cold (core) electrons of the solar wind. Seven <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> fast forward or reverse shocks are identified from the density and temperature profiles, together with the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field profile from the Magnetometer experiment. Upstream of the three strongest shocks, bursts of nonthermal waves are observed at the electron plasma frequency f(peu). The more perpendicular the shock, the longer the time interval during which these upstream bursts are observed. For one of the strongest shocks we also observe two kinds of upstream electromagnetic radiation: radiation at 2 f(peu), and radiation at the downstream electron plasma frequency, which propagates into the less dense upstream regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890062608&hterms=CNRS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DCNRS','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890062608&hterms=CNRS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DCNRS"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks on kilometric type III radio bursts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Macdowall, R. J.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> (IP) type-III bursts that undergo sudden intensity changes when their electron beams traverse the vicinity of an IP shock are examined. Three types of intensity changes are discussed: cutoffs in which the type-III intensity is abruptly reduced and remains at the reduced level for all lower frequencies, narrow-band intensifications that frequently occur on the high-frequency edge of a cutoff, and narrow-band intensity reductions. Pitch angle scattering of the beam electrons in the enhanced <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> turbulence downstream of shocks is proposed as a principal cause of the intensity cutoffs and, possibly, the intensifications. These observations suggest that one type-III emission mode is frequently at least 10 times more intense than the other mode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987fuen.symp.....O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987fuen.symp.....O"><span id="translatedtitle">The VISTA spacecraft: Advantages of ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> fusions propulsion applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orth, Charles D.; Klein, Gail; Sercel, Joel; Hoffman, Nate; Murray, Kathy; Chang-Diaz, Franklin</p> <p>1987-10-01</p> <p>Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an attractive engine power source for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> manned spacecraft, especially for near-term missions requiring minimum flight duration, because ICF has inherent high power-to-mass ratios and high specific impulses. We have developed a new vehicle concept called VISTA that uses ICF and is capable of round-trip manned missions to Mars in 100 days using A.D. 2020 technology. We describe VISTA's engine operation, discuss associated plasma issues, and describe the advantages of DT fuel for near-term applications. Although ICF is potentially superior to non-fusion technologies for near-term <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> transport, the performance capabilities of VISTA cannot be meaningfully compared with those of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span>-fusion systems because of the lack of a comparable study of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span>-fusion systems. We urge that such a study be conducted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880003642','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880003642"><span id="translatedtitle">The VISTA spacecraft: Advantages of ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> fusions propulsion applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Orth, Charles D.; Klein, Gail; Sercel, Joel; Hoffman, Nate; Murray, Kathy; Chang-Diaz, Franklin</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an attractive engine power source for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> manned spacecraft, especially for near-term missions requiring minimum flight duration, because ICF has inherent high power-to-mass ratios and high specific impulses. We have developed a new vehicle concept called VISTA that uses ICF and is capable of round-trip manned missions to Mars in 100 days using A.D. 2020 technology. We describe VISTA's engine operation, discuss associated plasma issues, and describe the advantages of DT fuel for near-term applications. Although ICF is potentially superior to non-fusion technologies for near-term <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> transport, the performance capabilities of VISTA cannot be meaningfully compared with those of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span>-fusion systems because of the lack of a comparable study of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span>-fusion systems. We urge that such a study be conducted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120015887','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120015887"><span id="translatedtitle">Coronal Mass Ejections Near the Sun and in the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gopalswamy, Nat</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most energetic phenomenon in the heliosphere. During solar eruptions, the released energy flows out from the Sun in the form of <span class="hlt">magnetized</span> plasma and electromagnetic radiation. The electromagnetic radiation suddenly increases the ionization content of the ionosphere, thus impacting communication and navigation systems. The plasma clouds can drive shocks that accelerate charged particles to very high energies in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space, which pose radiation hazard to astronauts and space systems. The plasma clouds also arrive at Earth in about two days and impact Earth's magnetosphere, producing geomagnetic storms. The <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storms result in a number of effects including induced currents that can disrupt power grids, railroads, and underground pipelines. This lecture presents an overview of the origin, propagation, and geospace consequences of CMEs and their <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> counterparts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26729294','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26729294"><span id="translatedtitle">Alfvén waves as a solar-<span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> driver of the thermospheric disturbances.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Jianpeng; Wei, Fengsi; Feng, Xueshang; Liu, Huixin; Wan, Weixing; Yang, Zhiliang; Xu, Jiyao; Liu, Chaoxu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Alfvén waves have been proposed as an important mechanism for the heating of the Sun's outer atmosphere and the acceleration of solar wind, but they are generally believed to have no significant impact on the Earth's upper atmosphere under quiet geomagnetic conditions due to their highly fluctuating nature of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (i.e., intermittent southward <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field component). Here we report that a long-duration outward propagating Alfvén wave train carried by a high-speed stream produced continuous (~2 days) and strong (up to ±40%) density disturbances in the Earth's thermosphere in a way by exciting multiple large-scale gravity waves in auroral regions. The observed ability of Alfvén waves to excite large-scale gravity waves, together with their proved ubiquity in the solar atmosphere and solar wind, suggests that Alfvén waves could be an important solar-<span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> driver of the global thermospheric disturbances. PMID:26729294</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JASTP..73...30S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JASTP..73...30S"><span id="translatedtitle">Propagation of inclined <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock through the magnetosheath</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samsonov, A. A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Normals of most <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks are nearly aligned with the Sun-Earth line. But some shocks, especially those connected with corotating interaction regions, are sufficiently diverted from the typical orientation near 1 AU. We obtain that shocks with normal lying in the XY plane and inclined at an angle about 40° or more from the Sun-Earth line can result in sudden impulse variations of different magnitudes in the dawn and dusk magnetosphere. Using the Rankine-Hugoniot equations, we calculate the downstream velocity in dependence on the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock orientation. We find for given upstream parameters that the downstream velocity Vy?0.2Vx, when ny?nx and the upstream velocity is directed exactly along the Sun-Earth line. For more inclined shocks, the ratio Vy/Vx may exceed 30 percent. Numerical three-dimensional (3-D) MHD simulations predict a set of MHD discontinuities propagating through the magnetosheath after interaction between an inclined shock and the bow shock. It is shown a clear difference between variations in the dusk magnetosheath downstream of the quasi-perpendicular bow shock (the region passed first by the inclined <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock) and in the dawn magnetosheath downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock. In the dusk flank, the predicted variations are mainly similar to those obtained previously for a radially propagating shock at the Sun-Earth line. In the dawn flank, the forward fast shock with a small variation of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field magnitude is followed by another compound discontinuity bringing an increase of the density and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, but a decrease of the velocity and temperature. We suppose that this discontinuity consists of several basic MHD discontinuities moving with close velocities, therefore its composition cannot be determined exactly in 3-D simulations. Using an estimation of the Alfvén velocity in the magnetosphere, we find the transit time of the fast shock from the first impact at the bow shock to the ionosphere. This transit time is obtained to be 0.5-1 min longer for the inclined shock than for a radially propagating shock with a similar amplitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840010063','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840010063"><span id="translatedtitle">Power spectral signatures of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> corotating and transient flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldstein, M. L.; Burlaga, L. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Studies of the time behavior of the galactic cosmic ray intensity have concluded that long term decreases in the intensity are generally associated with systems of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> flows that contain flare generated shock waves, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds and other transient phenomena. The <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field power spectral signatures of such flow systems are compared to power spectra obtained during times when the solar wind is dominated by stable corotating streams that do not usually produce long-lived reduction in the cosmic ray intensity. The spectral signatures of these two types of regimes (transient and corotating) are distinct. However, the distinguishing features are not the same throughout the heliosphere. In data collected beyond 1 AU the primary differences are in the power spectra of the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field rather than in the power in the field components. Consequently, decreases in cosmic ray intensity are very likely due to <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> mirror forces and gradient drifts rather than to small angle scattering due to cyclotron wave-particle interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840053291&hterms=Power+Flow&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DPower%2BFlow','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840053291&hterms=Power+Flow&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DPower%2BFlow"><span id="translatedtitle">Power spectral signatures of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> corotating and transient flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldstein, M. L.; Burlaga, L. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Studies of the time behavior of the galactic cosmic ray intensity have concluded that long term decreases in the intensity are generally associated with systems of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> flows that contain flare generated shock waves, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds and other transient phenomena. The <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field power spectral signatures of such flow systems are compared to power spectra obtained during times when the solar wind is dominated by stable corotating streams that do not usually produce long-lived reduction in the cosmic ray intensity. The spectral signatures of these two types of regimes (transient and corotating) are distinct. However, the distinguishing features are not the same throughout the heliosphere. In data collected beyond 1 AU the primary differences are in the power spectra of the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field rather than in the power in the field components. Consequently, decreases in cosmic ray intensity are very likely due to <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> mirror forces and gradient drifts rather than to small angle scattering due to cyclotron wave-particle interactions. Previously announced in STAR as N84-18131</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSH43A4175K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSH43A4175K"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-Spacecraft Observations of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shocks Near Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kajdic, P.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Lavraud, B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Space missions around Earth have been continuously monitoring solar wind and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field for many years now. They have detected a large number of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) shocks. These have been observed with multiple spacecraft at separations ranging from 103 km to several 105. Comparing observations of IP shocks at different locations in space can provide us with important insights on micro-physical processes that take place near or within the shock transitions. We have compiled a database of about 50 IP shocks detected between 2001 and 2014 with several missions. In the first part of our research we calculated local normals of IP shocks by using different one-spacecraft methods and also the 4-spacecraft method, when possible. In some cases we were able to compare the results of the latter method for different inter-spacecraft separations. This is the first time that comparison of IP shock profiles is also performed systematically on small inter-spacecraft separations of several 100 km (Cluster and Themis observations). Shock normals obtained by using different spacecraft configurations may differ. We find that spacecraft observe different shock profiles even when the their separations are only ~1000 km and the detection times differ by less than a second. The four-spacecraft method is less reliable when the detection times are small, since the changing shock profiles and uncertainties related to timing of the shock arrivals may distort the calculations. We also study regions upstream and downstream of IP shocks - we analyze the properties of suprathermal particles and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> perturbations there.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015A%26A...582A..52A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015A%26A...582A..52A"><span id="translatedtitle">A tiny event producing an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> type III burst</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alissandrakis, C. E.; Nindos, A.; Patsourakos, S.; Kontogeorgos, A.; Tsitsipis, P.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Aims: We investigate the conditions under which small-scale energy release events in the low corona gave rise to strong <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) type III bursts. Methods: We analyzed observations of three tiny events, detected by the Nançay Radio Heliograph (NRH), two of which produced IP type III bursts. We took advantage of the NRH positioning information and of the high cadence of AIA/SDO data to identify the associated extreme-UV (EUV) emissions. We measured positions and time profiles of the metric and EUV sources. Results: We found that the EUV events that produced IP type III bursts were located near a coronal hole boundary, while the one that did not was located in a closed <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field region. In all three cases tiny flaring loops were involved, without any associated mass eruption. In the best observed case, the radio emission at the highest frequency (435 MHz) was displaced by ~55'' with respect to the small flaring loop. The metric type III emission shows a complex structure in space and in time, indicative of multiple electron beams, despite the low intensity of the events. From the combined analysis of dynamic spectra and NRH images, we derived the electron beam velocity as well as the height, ambient plasma temperature, and density at the level of formation of the 160 MHz emission. From the analysis of the differential emission measure derived from the AIA images, we found that the first evidence of energy release was at the footpoints, and this was followed by the development of flaring loops and subsequent cooling. Conclusions: Even small energy release events can accelerate enough electrons to give rise to powerful IP type III bursts. The proximity of the electron acceleration site to open <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field lines facilitates the escape of the electrons into the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space. The offset between the site of energy release and the metric type III location warrants further investigation. The movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040171195','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040171195"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Coronal Mass Ejections at 1 AU Using Multiple Solar Wind Plasma Composition Anomalies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>We investigate the use of multiple simultaneous solar wind plasma compositional anomalies, relative to the composition of the ambient solar wind, for identifying <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejection (ICME) plasma. We first summarize the characteristics of several solar wind plasma composition signatures (O(+7)/O(+6), Mg/O, Ne/O, Fe charge states, He/p) observed by the ACE and WIND spacecraft within the ICMEs during 1996 - 2002 identsed by Cane and Richardson. We then develop a set of simple criteria that may be used to identify such compositional anomalies, and hence potential ICMEs. To distinguish these anomalies from the normal variations seen in ambient solar wind composition, which depend on the wind speed, we compare observed compositional signatures with those 'expected' in ambient solar wind with the same solar wind speed. This method identifies anomalies more effectively than the use of fixed thresholds. The occurrence rates of individual composition anomalies within ICMEs range from approx. 70% for enhanced iron and oxygen charge states to approx. 30% for enhanced He/p (> 0.06) and Ne/O, and are generally higher in <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds than other ICMEs. Intervals of multiple anomalies are usually associated with ICMEs, and provide a basis for the identification of the majority of ICMEs. We estimate that Cane and Richardson, who did not refer to composition data, probably identitied approx. 90% of the ICMEs present. However, around 10% of their ICMEs have weak compositional anomalies, suggesting that the presence of such signatures does not provide a necessary requirement for an ICME. We note a remarkably similar correlation between the Mg/O and O(7)/O(6) ratios in hourly-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> data both within ICMEs and the ambient solar wind. This 'universal' relationship suggests that a similar process (such as minor ion heating by waves inside coronal <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field loops) produces the first-ionization potential bias and ion freezing-in temperatures in the source regions of both ICMEs and the ambient solar wind.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750016564','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750016564"><span id="translatedtitle">A New Look at Jupiter: Results at the Now Frontier. [Pioneer 10, <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space, and Jupiter atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Pioneer 10's encounter with Jupiter is discussed along with the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space beyond the orbit of Mars. Other topics discussed include the size of Jupiter, the Galilean satellites, the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field of Jupiter, radiation belts, Jupiter's weather and interior, and future exploration possibilities. Educational projects are also included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021482&hterms=streaming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dstreaming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021482&hterms=streaming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dstreaming"><span id="translatedtitle">Bi-directional streaming of halo electrons in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> plasma clouds observed between 0.3 and 1 AU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ivory, K.; Schwenn, R.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The solar wind data obtained from the two Helios solar probes in the years 1974 to 1986 were systematically searched for the occurrence of bi-directional electron events. Most often these events are found in conjunction with shock associated <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds. The implications of these observations for the topology of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> plasma clouds are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DPPUP8049I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..DPPUP8049I"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of line-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> electron density of pulsed plasmas using a He-Ne laser interferometer in a <span class="hlt">magnetized</span> coaxial plasma gun device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iwamoto, D.; Sakuma, I.; Kitagawa, Y.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>In next step of fusion devices such as ITER, lifetime of plasma-facing materials (PFMs) is strongly affected by transient heat and particle loads during type I edge localized modes (ELMs) and disruption. To clarify damage characteristics of the PFMs, transient heat and particle loads have been simulated by using a plasma gun device. We have performed simulation experiments by using a <span class="hlt">magnetized</span> coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) device at University of Hyogo. The line-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> electron density measured by a He-Ne interferometer is 2x10^21 m-3 in a drift tube. The plasma velocity measured by a time of flight technique and ion Doppler spectrometer was 70 km/s, corresponding to the ion energy of 100 eV for helium. Thus, the ion flux density is 1.4x10^26 m-2s-1. On the other hand, the MCPG is connected to a target chamber for material irradiation experiments. It is important to measure plasma parameters in front of target materials in the target chamber. In particular, a vapor cloud layer in front of the target material produced by the pulsed plasma irradiation has to be characterized in order to understand surface damage of PFMs under ELM-like plasma bombardment. In the conference, preliminary results of application of the He-Ne laser interferometer for the above experiment will be shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900043523&hterms=activity+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dactivity%2Btheory','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900043523&hterms=activity+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dactivity%2Btheory"><span id="translatedtitle">Do <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> Alfven waves cause auroral activity?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Roberts, D. Aaron; Goldstein, Melvyn L.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A recent theory holds that high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral activity (HILDCAA) is caused by <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> Alfven waves propagating outward from the sun. A survey of Alfvenic intervals in over a year of ISEE 3 data shows that while Alfvenic intervals often accompany HILDCAAs, the reverse is often not true. There are many Alfvenic intervals during which auroral activity (measured by high values of the AE index) is very low, as well as times of high auroral activity that are not highly Alfvenic. This analysis supports the common conclusion that large AE values are associated with a southward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> field of sufficient strength and duration. This field configuration is independent of the presence of Alfven waves (whether solar generated or not) and is expected to occur at random intervals in the large-amplitude stochastic fluctuations in the solar wind.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930027701&hterms=514&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D514','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930027701&hterms=514&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D514"><span id="translatedtitle">Raman spectra of seven <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Yin-Lin; Yu, Min; Fan, Chang-Yun</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The Raman shift spectra of seven <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles, U2034(F10), U2034(F8), U2022(B1), W7074 18, W7074 C15, W7074 C3 and W7074 A7, were measured with a Spex-1403 Raman spectrograph. The exciting radiations were the 488 nm and 514 nm line of a 5W argon ion laser. All seven spectra exhibit the 1350 and 1600 Delta/cm arbon bands, implying that the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> dust particles were coated with hydrocarbon and incompletely crystallized carbon, the part of which may be the residue of hydrocarbon contents in the particles after water loss by the heating during their entry into the earth's atmosphere. A weak band structure in the 520-610/cm range could be caused by cyclosilicates, and a weak band at 2900/cm is tentatively identified as due to hydrocarbon molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AN....336..749B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AN....336..749B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> GPS using pulsar signals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Becker, W.; Bernhardt, M. G.; Jessner, A.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>An external reference system suitable for deep space navigation can be defined by fast spinning and strongly <span class="hlt">magnetized</span> neutron stars, called pulsars. Their beamed periodic signals have timing stabilities comparable to atomic clocks and provide characteristic temporal signatures that can be used as natural navigation beacons, quite similar to the use of GPS satellites for navigation on Earth. By comparing pulse arrival times measured on-board a spacecraft with predicted pulse arrivals at a reference location, the spacecraft position can be determined autonomously and with high accuracy everywhere in the solar system and beyond. The unique properties of pulsars make clear already today that such a navigation system will have its application in future astronautics. In this paper we describe the basic principle of spacecraft navigation using pulsars and report on the current development status of this novel technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E1986M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E1986M"><span id="translatedtitle">Dusty Plasma Effects in the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Medium?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mann, Ingrid; Issautier, Karine; Meyer-Vernet, Nicole; Le Chat, Gaétan; Czechowski, Andrzej; Zaslavsky, Arnaud; Zouganelis, Yannis; Belheouane, Soraya</p> <p></p> <p>Cosmic dust particles exist in a variety of compositions and sizes in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium. There is little direct information on the composition, but those <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles that are collected in the upper Earth’s atmosphere and can be studied in the laboratory typically have an irregular, sometimes porous structure on scales <100 nm. They contain magnesium-rich silicates and silicon carbide, iron-nickel and iron-sulfur compounds, calcium- and aluminum oxides, and chemical compounds that contain a large mass fraction of carbon (e.g. carbonaceous species). A fraction of the dust originates from comets, but because of their bulk material temperature of about 280 K near 1 AU, most icy compounds have disappeared. The dust particles are embedded in the solar wind, a hot plasma with at 1 AU kinetic temperatures around 100 000 K and flow direction nearly radial outward from the Sun at supersonic bulk velocities around 400 km/s. Since the dust particles carry an electric surface charge they are subject to electromagnetic forces and the nanodust particles are efficiently accelerated to velocities of order of solar wind speed. The acceleration of the nanodust is similar, but not identical to the formation of pick-up ions. The S/WAVES radio wave instrument on STEREO measured a flux of nanodust at 1 AU [1]. The nanodust probably forms in the region inward of 1 AU and is accelerated by the solar wind as discussed. We also discuss the different paths of dust - plasma interactions in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium and their observations with space experiments. Comparing these interactions we show that the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium near 1 AU can in many cases be described as “dust in plasma" rather than "dusty plasma”. [1] S. Belheouane, N. Meyer-Vernet, K. Issautier, G. Le Chat, A. Zaslavsky, Y. Zouganelis, I. Mann, A. Czechowski: Dynamics of nanoparticles detected at 1 AU by S/WAVES onboard STEREO spacecraft, in this session.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11542693','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11542693"><span id="translatedtitle">Manned <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> missions: prospective medical problems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grigoriev, A I; Svetaylo, E N; Egorov, A D</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>The present review aimed to suggest approaches to prospective medical problems related to the health maintenance of space crews during future manned <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span>, particularly Martian, missions up to 2-3 years with a possible stay on a planet with gravity different from that on Earth. The approaches are based on knowledge so far obtained from our analysis of the medical support of long-term orbital flights up to one year, as well as on the consideration of specific conditions of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> missions. These specific conditions include not only long-term exposure to microgravity, but also a prolonged stay of unpredictable duration (2-3 years) on board a spacecraft or on a planet without direct contact with Earth, and living in a team with a risk of psychological incompatibility and the impossibility of an urgent return to Earth. These conditions necessitate a highly trained medical person in the crew, diagnostic tools and equipment, psychophysiological support, countermeasures, as well as the means for urgent, including surgical, treatment on board a spacecraft or on a planet. In this review, the discussion was focused on the following predictable medical problems during an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> mission; 1) unfavorable effects of prolonged exposure to microgravity, 2) specific problems related to Martian missions, 3) medical monitoring, 4) countermeasures, 5) psychophysiological support and 6) the medical care system. PMID:11542693</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TESS....111001R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TESS....111001R"><span id="translatedtitle">Inter-Relationship of Solar and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> Phenomena During Solar Cycles 23 and 24</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Richardson, Ian; von Rosenvinge, Tycho; Cane, Hilary</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We examine the variation of various phenomena, for example, the sunspot number and area, occurrence rate of solar energetic particle events, coronal mass ejections and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections, the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, solar <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (“Sun as a star”), geomagnetic activity and the cosmic ray intensity during solar cycles 23 to 24. As we have discussed for previous cycles, there is a close association between these phenomena. For example, the onset of long-term cosmic ray modulation in cycle 24 is closely associated with not only an increase in the tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet but also with abrupt increases in the solar and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field intensity at the Earth and the STEREO spacecraft, a temporary increase in the rate of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections, an increase in the occurrence of corotating streams and solar energetic particle events, including the first 25 MeV proton event observed at both STEREO spacecraft and at Earth, and increases in geomagnetic activity (e.g., Dst, Kp, aa). Subsequent “steps down” in the cosmic ray intensity are associated with increases in the IMF strength, as is typical for the rising phases of cycles when the global solar field has A< 0. We also note the remarkably different time development of activity in the northern and southern hemispheres during cycle 24 compared to cycle 23, and evidence of short term (?6 month) quasi-periodicities in several of these phenomena that appear to characterize the development of this solar cycle, with periods of enhanced activity separated by intervals of lower activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChA%26A..39...78W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ChA%26A..39...78W"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary Analysis on the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Cause of Geomagnetically Induced Current and Its Effect on Power Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Kai-Rang; Liu, Lian-Guang; Li, Yan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Using the detected events of geomagnetically induced current (GIC) in the Ling'ao nuclear power plant from 2004 to 2005, and focusing on the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> cause of GIC and its effect on power systems, we have analyzed the corresponding solar driving sources and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> solar wind structures, and performed spectral analysis on the most intense GIC event by means of wavelet transform. The results of this study show that: (1) Most GIC events were driven mainly by the halo coronal mass ejections, the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> cause of GIC events includes the shock sheath, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud, and multiplex <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> solar wind structure. (2) Based on the strongest GIC event on 2001 November 9, we find that the fluctuation of GIC in the earlier stage was related to the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud boundary layer, and the variation of GIC intensity in the later stage was caused by <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud itself. (3) Compared to the frequency of the power system (50 Hz), the GIC can be equivalent to a quasi direct current. The energy of the GIC is embodied in the two time intervals in the wavelet power spectrum: the first interval is shown as an impulsive type and with a weaker intensity, and the second one is stronger. Regarding to the cumulative time of the transformer temperature rise caused by GIC, the second interval has a longer duration than the first one. Hence, during the second interval, it is more harmful to the power systems and devices. (4) With a correlation analysis, the correlations of the SYM-H index and dBx/dt with the GIC are significantly stronger than those of other geomagnetic indices with the GIC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AcASn..55..381W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AcASn..55..381W"><span id="translatedtitle">Primary Analysis on the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Cause of Geomagnetically Induced Current and Its Effects on Power System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, K. R.; Liu, L. G.; Li, Y.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>In this paper, we use the measured data of geomagnetically induced current (GIC) in Ling'ao nuclear power plant from 2004 to 2005 to analyze its solar driving source and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> solar wind structure, focus on the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> cause and its effects on power system, and apply the wavelet analysis to the greatest GIC event. We conclude that: (1) Most GIC events were driven by halo coronal mass ejections, and the sheath, the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud, and the multiple <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> solar structure are the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> cause of GIC events. (2) Based on the strongest event on 2004 November 9, we find that the fluctuation of GIC in the earlier stage was related to the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud boundary layer, and the variation of GIC intensity in the later stage was caused by <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud itself. (3) Compared to the frequency of the power system (50 Hz), the GIC can be equivalent to the quasi direct current. The energy of the GIC is embodied in the two time intervals within the wavelet power spectrum: the first interval is shown as the pulse type and with a weaker intensity, and the second one is stronger. Regarding to the cumulative time of the transformer temperature rise caused by GIC, the second interval has a longer duration than the first one. So during the second interval, it is more harmful to the power system and the equipments. (4) The correlations of SYM-H, and dBx/dt to GIC are significantly closer than those of other geomagnetic indices to GIC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080036103&hterms=magnetic+properties+complexes+magnetic+properties&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%7CTitle%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%257Cmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmagnetic%2Bproperties%257Ccomplexes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080036103&hterms=magnetic+properties+complexes+magnetic+properties&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%7CTitle%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%257Cmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmagnetic%2Bproperties%257Ccomplexes"><span id="translatedtitle">CAWSES November 7-8, 2004, Superstorm: Complex Solar and <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Features in the Post-Solar Maximum Phase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Echer, Ezequiel; Guarnieri, Fernando L.; Kozyra, J. U.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The complex <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> structures during 7 to 8 Nov 2004 are analyzed to identify their properties as well as resultant geomagnetic effects and the solar origins. Three fast forward shocks, three directional discontinuities and two reverse waves were detected and analyzed in detail. The three fast forward shocks 'pump' up the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field from a value of approx.4 nT to 44 nT. However, the fields after the shocks were northward, and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storms did not result. The three ram pressure increases were associated with major sudden impulses (SI + s) at Earth. A <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud followed the third forward shock and the southward Bz associated with the latter was responsible for the superstorm. Two reverse waves were detected, one at the edge and one near the center of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud (MC). It is suspected that these 'waves' were once reverse shocks which were becoming evanescent when they propagated into the low plasma beta MC. The second reverse wave caused a decrease in the southward component of the IMF and initiated the storm recovery phase. It is determined that flares located at large longitudinal distances from the subsolar point were the most likely causes of the first two shocks without associated <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds. It is thus unlikely that the shocks were 'blast waves' or that <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> reconnection eroded away the two associated MCs. This <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span>/solar event is an example of the extremely complex <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storms which can occur in the post-solar maximum phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SoPh..238..377X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SoPh..238..377X"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of the Heliospheric Current Sheet on <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, Yanqiong; Wei, Fengsi; Xiang, Changqing; Feng, Xueshang</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>Using 180 <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) shock events associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) during 1997 - 2005, we investigate the influence of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) upon the propagation and geoeffectiveness of IP shocks. Our preliminary results are: (1) The majority of CME-driving IP shocks occurred near the HCS. (2) The numbers of shock events and related geomagnetic storms observed when the Earth and the solar source are located on the same side of the HCS, represented by f SS and f SG, respectively, are obviously higher than those when the Earth and the solar source are located on the opposite sides of the HCS, denoted by f OS and f OG, with f SS/ f OS=126/54, f SG/ f OG = 91/36. (3) Parameter jumps across the shock fronts for the same-side events are also higher than those for the opposite-side events, and the stronger shocks (? V ? 200 km s-1) are mainly attributed to be same-side events, with f SSh/ f OSh = 28/15, where f SSh and f OSh are numbers of stronger shocks which belong to same-side events and opposite-side events, respectively. (4) The level of the geomagnetic disturbances is higher for the same-side events than for the opposite-side events. The ratio of the number of intense <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storms (Dst < -100) triggered by same-side events to those triggered by opposite-side events is 25/10. (5) We propose an empirical model to predict the arrival time of the shock at the Earth, whose accuracy is comparable to that of other prevailing models. These results show that the HCS is an important physical structure, which probably plays an important role in the propagation of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks and their geoeffectiveness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19670033566&hterms=kirschner&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dkirschner','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19670033566&hterms=kirschner&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dkirschner"><span id="translatedtitle">Heat sterilizable solid propellant motor designs for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> missions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Andrews, W. G.; Kirschner, T. J.</p> <p>1966-01-01</p> <p>Heat sterilizable solid propellant motor designs for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> missions, considering case- bonded spherical, case-bonded cylindrical, free- standing, internal burning and free-standing end burning</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19670048104&hterms=kirschner&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dkirschner','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19670048104&hterms=kirschner&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dkirschner"><span id="translatedtitle">Heat-sterilizable solid propellant motor designs for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> missions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Andrews, W. G.; Kirschner, T. J.</p> <p>1967-01-01</p> <p>Heat sterilizable solid propellant motor designs for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> missions, considering case- bonded spherical, case-bonded cylindrical, free- standing, internal burning and free-standing end burning</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992ESASP.346..207H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992ESASP.346..207H"><span id="translatedtitle">Detecting and tracking changes in solar wind conditions using <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> scintillation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harrison, Richard A.; Hapgood, M. A.; Sime, D. G.</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>A scintillation activity index which provides an objective method for the identification of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> features such as discrete ejecta and corotating streams was developed. Its effectiveness in predicting several sudden impulse events and correlating with geomagnetic activity is demonstrated. Using the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Scintillation (IPS) activity index, I35, a data set during Feb. to Apr. 1992 was examined. A good correlation between the activity seen in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space and geomagnetic activity was found. Apparently, the onset of the most significant event in the geomagnetic index, Ap, is observed several days earlier using the IPS technique. Also, using a prediction technique developed for the IPS index, an 'event approaching' was predicted on six days, all of which occur on either the day of a sudden impulse or within the three days prior to a sudden impulse. One IPS event apparently unrelated to Ap or sudden impulse activity was found. This is proposed to be due to an event missing the Earth or to an event with a northward directed <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field which is unlikely to cause a significant impulse to the Earth's <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770044461&hterms=1086&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231086','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770044461&hterms=1086&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231086"><span id="translatedtitle">August 1972 solar-terrestrial events - Observations of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks at 2.2 AU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, E. J.; Davis, L., Jr.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Colburn, D. S.; Dyal, P.; Jones, D. E.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Simultaneous <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and plasma observations on Pioneer 10 were used to identify three shocks and a plasma driver (possible flare ejecta) at 2.2 AU caused by the four large solar flares of August 2-7, 1972. Two shocks, the first and third, were forward shocks, while the second was a reverse shock. The local inertial velocities of all three shocks were estimated under the assumption of quasi-perpendicularity, i.e., the shocks were assumed to be propagating principally across, rather than along, the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E2009M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E2009M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections and their geomagnetic consequences during solar cycle 24</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maris Muntean, Georgeta; Mierla, Marilena; Besliu-Ionescu, Diana; Lacatus, Dana; Razvan Paraschiv, Alin</p> <p></p> <p>Geomagnetic storms are known to be of great importance to life on Earth through their impact on telecommunications, electric power networks and much more. Our study will analyse in detail two months of solar and geomagnetic activity in March 2012 and, March 2013. There is an ICME (<span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Coronal Mass Ejection) recorded on March 9, 2012 listed in the Richardson and Cane catalogue, correlated with a Halo CME (Coronal Mass Ejection) from March 7. An intense geomagnetic storm (minimum Dst = -131 nT) was registered on March 9, 2012. Out of the two ICMEs recorded on the 17th and 20th March 2013, only the first was clearly associated with a Halo CME from March, 15. March, 17 is a day of intense geomagnetic storm (minimum Dst = -132 nT). We will focus on these events, such that the interaction between ICMEs and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field from the Sun to the Earth can be thoroughly described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1506.00825.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1506.00825.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> particle transport simulation for warning system for aviation exposure to solar energetic particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Kubo, Yûki; Sato, Tatsuhiko</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Solar energetic particles (SEPs) are one of the extreme space weather phenomena. A huge SEP event increases the radiation dose received by aircrews, who should be warned of such events as early as possible. We developed a warning system for aviation exposure to SEPs. This article describes one component of the system, which calculates the temporal evolution of the SEP intensity and the spectrum immediately outside the terrestrial magnetosphere. To achieve this, we performed numerical simulations of SEP transport in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space, in which <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> SEP transport is described by the focused transport equation. We developed a new simulation code to solve the equation using a set of stochastic differential equations. In the code, the focused transport equation is expressed in a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field line coordinate system, which is a non-orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. An inverse Gaussian distribution is employed as the injection profile of SEPs at an inner boundary located near the Sun. We applie...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/cond-mat/0408658v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/cond-mat/0408658v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical Studies of Zero-Field <span class="hlt">Magnetization</span> of CdMnTe Quantum Dots: Influence of <span class="hlt">Average</span> Size and Composition of Quantum Dots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>T. Gurung; S. Mackowski; H. E. Jackson; L. M. Smith; W. Heiss; J. Kossut; G. Karczewski</p> <p>2004-08-30</p> <p>We show that through the resonant optical excitation of spin-polarized excitons into CdMnTe <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> quantum dots, we can induce a macroscopic <span class="hlt">magnetization</span> of the Mn impurities. We observe very broad (4 meV linewidth) emission lines of single dots, which are consistent with the formation of strongly confined exciton <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> polarons. Therefore we attribute the optically induced <span class="hlt">magnetization</span> of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> dots results to the formation of spin-polarized exciton <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> polarons. We find that the photo-induced <span class="hlt">magnetization</span> of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> polarons is weaker for larger dots which emit at lower energies within the QD distribution. We also show that the photo-induced <span class="hlt">magnetization</span> is stronger for quantum dots with lower Mn concentration, which we ascribe to weaker Mn-Mn interaction between the nearest neighbors within the dots. Due to particular stability of the exciton <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> polarons in QDs, where the localization of the electrons and holes is comparable to the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> exchange interaction, this optically induced spin alignment persists to temperatures as high as 160 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011758','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011758"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of Electromagnetic Whistler Precursors at Supercritical <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, L. B., III; Koval, A.; Szabo, Adam; Breneman, A.; Cattell, C. A.; Goetz, K.; Kellogg, P. J.; Kersten, K.; Kasper, J. C.; Maruca, B. A.; Pulupa, M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We present observations of electromagnetic precursor waves, identified as whistler mode waves, at supercritical <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks using the Wind search coil magnetometer. The precursors propagate obliquely with respect to the local <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, shock normal vector, solar wind velocity, and they are not phase standing structures. All are right-hand polarized with respect to the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (spacecraft frame), and all but one are right-hand polarized with respect to the shock normal vector in the normal incidence frame. They have rest frame frequencies f(sub ci) < f much < f(sub ce) and wave numbers 0.02 approx < k rho (sub ce) approx <. 5.0. Particle distributions show signatures of specularly reflected gyrating ions, which may be a source of free energy for the observed modes. In one event, we simultaneously observe perpendicular ion heating and parallel electron acceleration, consistent with wave heating/acceleration due to these waves. Al though the precursors can have delta B/B(sub o) as large as 2, fluxgate magnetometer measurements show relatively laminar shock transitions in three of the four events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMSH42B..02J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMSH42B..02J"><span id="translatedtitle">Heliospheric Solar Wind Parameter Forecasting Using <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Scintillation (IPS) Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jackson, B. V.; Hick, P.; Buffington, A.; Yu, H.; Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.; Luckett, N.; Bisi, M. M.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>At the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), remote-sensing analyses of the inner heliosphere have been regularly carried out using radio <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> scintillation (IPS) data for almost two decades employing data from the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STELab), Japan, IPS arrays. More recently, several other world locations have planned to join in this effort in order to provide more complete coverage at times other than those above the celestial meridian of the observing station. These analyses have measured and reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) solar wind structure throughout the time period when data are available. This enables a real-time forecast of solar wind density and velocity outward from the observations that is nearly complete over the whole heliosphere with a time cadence of about one day. When using the IPS velocity analyses, we can accurately convect outwards the solar surface background <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields and thus can provide values of the field (radial and tangential components) throughout the global volume. In the inner heliosphere the results of these 3D analyses of density, velocity, and vector <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field have been forecast and compared successfully with in-situ measurements obtained near Earth, at STEREO, at Mars, at Venus, at MESSENGER, and at the Ulysses spacecraft. The resulting precise time-dependent results can also be used to provide an inner boundary of these parameters that can be further extrapolated outward to the edge of the heliosphere using current 3D-MHD modeling techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880050877&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcane','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880050877&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcane"><span id="translatedtitle">Radio emission from coronal and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cane, H. V.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Observational data on coronal and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) type II burst events associated with shock-wave propagation are reviewed, with a focus on the past and potential future contributions of space-based observatories. The evidence presented by Cane (1983 and 1984) in support of the hypothesis that the coronal (metric) and IP (kilometric) bursts are due to different shocks is summarized, and the fast-drift kilometric events seen at the same time as metric type II bursts (and designated shock-accelerated or shock-associated events) are characterized. The need for further observations at 0.5-20 MHz is indicated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880001349','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880001349"><span id="translatedtitle">Coronal and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> Type 2 radio emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cane, H. V.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Several observations suggest that the disturbances which generate coronal (meter wavelength) type II radio bursts are not driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). A new analysis using a large sample of metric radio bursts and associated soft X-ray events provides further support for the original hypothesis that type II-producing disturbances are blast waves generated at the time of impulsive energy release in flares. <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> (IP) shocks, however, are closely associated with CMEs. The shocks responsible for IP type II events (observed at kilometer wavelengths) are associated with the most energetic CMEs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850035588&hterms=monsanto&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmonsanto','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850035588&hterms=monsanto&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmonsanto"><span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of nuclear tracks in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bradley, J. P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Fraundorf, P.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Nuclear tracks have been identified in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles (IDP's) collected from the stratosphere. The presence of tracks unambiguously confirms the extraterrestrial nature of IDP's, and the high track densities (10 to the 10th to 10 to the 11th per square centimeter) suggest an exposure age of approximately 10,000 years within the inner solar system. Tracks also provide an upper temperature limit for the heating of IDP's during atmospheric entry, thereby making it possible to distinguish between pristine and thermally modified micrometeorites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860008391&hterms=photovoltaics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dphotovoltaics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860008391&hterms=photovoltaics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dphotovoltaics"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> exploration-A challenge for photovoltaics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stella, P. M.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Future U.S. <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> missions will be less complex and costly than past missions such as Voyager and the soon to be launched, Galileo. This is required to achieve a balanced exploration program that can be sustained within the context of a limited budget. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) have served as the power source for missions beyond the orbit of Mars. It is indicated that the cost to the user of these power sources will significantly increase. Solar arrays can provide a low cost alternative for a number of missions. Potential missions are identified along with concerns for implementation, and some array configurations under present investigation are reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ARep...59..888P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ARep...59..888P"><span id="translatedtitle">Acceleration of solar cosmic rays in a flare current sheet and their propagation in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Podgorny, A. I.; Podgorny, I. M.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Analyses of GOES spacecraft data show that the prompt component of high-energy protons arrive at the Earth after a time corresponding to their generation in flares in the western part of the solar disk, while the delayed component is detected several hours later. All protons in flares are accelerated by a single mechanism. The particles of the prompt component propagate along <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> lines of the Archimedean spiral connectng the flare with the Earth. The prompt component generated by flares in the eastern part of the solar disk is not observed at the Earth, since particles accelerated by these flares do not intersect <span class="hlt">magnetic</span>-field lines connecting the flare with the Earth. These particles arrive at the Earth via their motion across the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. These particles are trapped by the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and transported by the solar wind, since the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field is frozen in the wind plasma, and these particles also diffuse across the field. The duration of the delay reaches several days.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMSH13B1542L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMSH13B1542L"><span id="translatedtitle">The CME-ICME Connection and <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Structure During Solar Minimum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Y.; Lynch, B. J.; Luhmann, J. G.; Kilpua, E.; Toy, V.; Vourlidas, A.; Russell, C. T.; Galvin, A. B.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>When an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> transient (ICME) exhibits a large angle and smooth rotation in the IMF vector, it is classified as a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud (MC) and commonly interpreted as the signature of a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux rope. On the <span class="hlt">average</span> bout a third of ICME ejecta are MCs, although the fraction seems to be larger during the quiet phase of the solar cycle. Non-flux rope ICMEs are likely (1) distorted during the transit through heliosphere, (2) observed at an unfavorable crossing angle if the ICME structure has spatial variation, (3) or are simply have a more complex internal structure. Five <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Clouds (MC) have been found from a total of nine ICMEs observed during 2007 January 01 to 2008 August 31, when the separation of STEREO A (STA) and B (STB) spacecraft varied between 0.05 to 70.35 degrees heliolongitude. We investigate the four best MCs using observations from three spacecraft (STA, STB and ACE). The first MC seems to have been detected by all three spacecraft (STA and STB 40.4 degrees apart), while the latter three were detected by only one of the STEREO spacecraft and sometimes by ACE. From the inferred flux rope orientation at each crossing and the spatial variation of the ICME properties, we interpret how each MC flux rope was situated relative to the spacecraft, and its connection to the Sun from corresponding coronal and heliospheric modeling results. Each of the MCs can be associated at low confidence (in contrary to expectations for solar minimum time) with a CME observed by coronagraphs on board STEREO and/or SOHO. All potential parent CMEs were very slow in the 200 km/s range (plane-of-sky), but the speeds of the MCs were between ~390 and ~480 km/s, indicating acceleration in the heliosphere. Solar disk activities are minor around the four CMEs, with no GOES x-ray flares, and two possibly associated filament eruptions. Some CME structures appear to form in the coronagraph field of view rather than rising from below. Several low/mid- latitude coronal holes and a highly warped coronal streamer arcade and source surface neutral line dominate the coronal structure during the period of the study. Previous studies have shown that the MC fluxrope orientation may be aligned with the large-scale coronal streamer arcades. Estimated MC orientations are discussed and compared with events during the previous solar minimum, which exhibited a more dipolar coronal structure. This work was supported, in part, by NASA NNG06GE51G, NNX08AJ04G, and NAS5-03131.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E1276C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E1276C"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> gamma ray burst network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cline, T.</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Gamma-Ray Burst Network (IPN) is providing gamma-ray burst (GRB) alerts and localizations at the maximum rate anticipated before the launch of the Swift mission. The arc-minute source precision of the IPN is again permitting searches for GRB afterglows in the radio and optical regimes with delays of only hours up to 2 days. The successful addition of the Mars Odyssey mission has compensated for the loss of the asteroid mission NEAR, to reconstitute a fully long- baseline <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> network, with Ulysses at > 5 AU and Konus-Wind and HETE-2 near the Earth. In addition to making unassisted GRB localizations that enable a renewed supply of counterpart observations, the Mars/Ulysses/Wind IPN is confirming and reinforcing GRB source localizations with HETE-2. It has also confirmed and reinforced localizations with the BeppoSAX mission before the BeppoSAX termination in May and has detected and localized both SGRs and an unusual hard x-ray transient that is neither an SGR nor a GRB. This IPN is expected to operate until at least 2004.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011249','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011249"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gopalswamy, Nat</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Although more than ten thousand coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are produced during each solar cycle at the Sun, only a small fraction hits the Earth. Only a small fraction of the Earth-directed CMEs ultimately arrive at Earth depending on their interaction with the solar wind and other large-scale structures such as coronal holes and CMEs. The <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> propagation is essentially controlled by the drag force because the propelling force and the solar gravity are significant only near the Sun. Combined remote-sensing and in situ observations have helped us estimate the influence of the solar wind on the propagation of CMEs. However, these measurements have severe limitations because the remote-sensed and in-situ observations correspond to different portions of the CME. Attempts to overcome this problem are made in two ways: the first is to model the CME and get the space speed of the CME, which can be compared with the in situ speed. The second method is to use stereoscopic observation so that the remote-sensed and in-situ observations make measurements on the Earth-arriving part of CMEs. The Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission observed several such CMEs, which helped understand the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> evolution of these CMEs and to test earlier model results. This paper discusses some of these issues and updates the CME/shock travel time estimates for a number of CMEs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616847T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616847T"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar Protons above 500 MeV in the Sun's Atmosphere and in <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tylka, Allan J.; Share, Gerald H.; Dietrich, William F.; Murphy, Ronald J.; Keong Ng, Chee; Shea, Margaret A.; Smart, Don F.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>At least two distinct acceleration mechanisms produce energetic particles at or near the Sun: (1) acceleration at coronal sites of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> reconnection, generally associated with flares and (2) acceleration at shocks driven by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Both mechanisms can accelerate protons to well beyond 500 MeV. Moreover, when a very large solar energetic particle (SEP) event is observed in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space, both a large flare and the launch of a fast CME are observed nearly simultaneously (unless the flare occurs behind a limb). Numerous studies have tried to sort out how these two phenomena contribute to the energetic particle population. To date, there is no consensus on this issue, particularly at the highest energies, where the release of particles from the neighborhood of the Sun generally persists for only a short period of time. Although the maximum of Cycle 24 has been notably deficient in producing high-energy SEPs, new instrumentation has provided powerful new insights into these questions. Fermi provides routine measurements of solar gamma-rays above 100 MeV, from which the number of >500 MeV protons interacting in the solar-atmosphere can be deduced, separately in the impulsive phase of the flare (lasting minutes and coincident with hard x-ray emission) and in the frequently observed extended phase (which can persist for many hours and whose origin is under debate). Simultaneously, other satellites and ground-based neutron monitors provide measurements of these high-energy protons in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space, the modeling of which is greatly strengthened by the STEREO's observations of the large-scale heliospheric distribution of SEPs. We report results for seven events in which the time-integrated number of >500 MeV protons at the Sun and in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space have been independently extracted. We find that >500 MeV protons in the impulsive phase of the flare typically constitute a percent or less of the protons in IP space, without any clear correlation to the number of >500 MeV protons in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space. By contrast, the number of >500 MeV protons in the extended phase of the flare is typically ~5-10% of the number in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space and is well correlated with it. These results suggest that (1) the impulsive phase of the flare does not make a significant contribution to the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> population at these very high energies and (2) the extended-phase gamma-ray emissions are likely due to shock-accelerated protons precipitating down onto the solar atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMSH41A1626N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMSH41A1626N"><span id="translatedtitle">PROPAGATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE JUNE 1st 2008 CME IN THE <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> MEDIUM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Lamb, D. A.; Davila, J. M.; Vinas, A. F.; Moestl, C.; Hidalgo, M. A.; Farrugia, C. J.; Malandraki, O.; Dresing, N.; Gómez-Herrero, R.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>In this work we present a study of the coronal mass ejection (CME) of June 1st of 2008 in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium. This event has been extensively studied by others because of its favorable geometry and the possible consequences of its peculiar initiation for space weather forecasting. We show an analysis of the evolution of the CME in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium in order to shed some light on the propagation mechanism of the ICME. We have determined the typical shock associated characteristics of the ICME in order to understand the propagation properties. Using two different non force-free models of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud allows us to incorporate expansion of the cloud. We use in-situ measurements from STEREO B/IMPACT to characterize the ICME. In addition, we use images from STEREO A/SECCHI-HI to analyze the propagation and visual evolution of the associated flux rope in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium. We compare and contrast these observations with the results of the analytical models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850035908&hterms=electric+current&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2528electric%2Bcurrent%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850035908&hterms=electric+current&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2528electric%2Bcurrent%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> electric field, cleft currents and plasma convection in the polar caps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Banks, P. M.; Clauer, C. R.; Araki, T.; St. Maurice, J. P.; Foster, J. C.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The relationship between the pattern of plasma convection in the polar cleft and the dynamics of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> electric field (IEF) is examined theoretically. It is shown that owing to the geometrical properties of the magnetosphere, the East-West component of the IEF will drive field-aligned currents which connect to the ionosphere at points lying on either side of noon, while currents associated with the North-South component of the IEF will connect the two polar caps as sheet currents, also centered at 12 MLT. In order to describe the consequences of the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field (IMF) effects upon high-latitude electric fields and convection patterns, a series of numerical simulations was carried out. The simulations were based on a solution to the steady-state equation of current continuity in a height-integrated ionospheric current. The simulations demonstrate that a simple hydrodynamical model can account for the narrow 'throats' of strong dayside antisunward convection observed during periods of southward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> IMF drift, as well as the sunward convection observed during periods of strongly northward IMF drift.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-1994-00329&hterms=housekeeping&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dhousekeeping','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EL-1994-00329&hterms=housekeeping&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dhousekeeping"><span id="translatedtitle">LDEF (Prelaunch), AO201 : <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Dust Experiment, Tray B12</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>LDEF (Prelaunch), AO201 : <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Dust Experiment, Tray B12 The prelaunch photograph shows the six (6) inch deep <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Dust Experiment (IDE) master control tray. The tray has three (3) mounting/cover plates elevated on fiberglass stand-offs to provide clearance and protection for hardware and electronics located underneath. The stand-offs also raise the plates to a level that minimizes shading of detectors by the tray sidewalls. The mounting plate located at the left hand end of the tray is populated with eighty (80) metaloxide-silicon (MOS) capacitor-type impact sensors and one (1) solar sensor that is located approximately in the center of the mounting plate. The IDE sensors are two (2) inch diameter MOS capacitor structures approximately 250 um thick. The detectors are formed by growing either 0.4um or 1.0um thick silicon oxide, SiO2, layer on the 250um thick, B-doped polished silicon wafer. The top metal contact, the visible surface, was formed by vapor deposition of 1000A of aluminum on the SiO2 surface. Aluminum was also vapor deposited on the backside to form the contact with the silicon substrate. Gold wires are bonded to the front and back aluminum layers for use in connecting the detectors to the circuits. The complete wafers, IDE detectors, are mounted on chromic anodized aluminum frames by bonding the detector backside to the aluminum frame with a space qualified RTV silicon adhesive, de-volatized RTV-511. The difference in colors of the detectors is caused by reflections in the metallized surfaces. A reflection of one of the technicians is visible in the three (3) rows of detector on the left hand side of the mounting plate. The solar sensor, located at the mounting plate center, consist of four (4) silicon solar cells connected in series and associated circuity bonded to an aluminum baseplate. The solar sensor registered each orbital sunrise independant of LDEF orientation at the time of sunrise. When IDE solar sensor data from the six (6) orthogonal faces of the LDEF was correlated, the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Dust Experiment clock could be precisely calibrated. The center 1/3rd tray cover is a chromic anodized aluminum plate that protects the IDE data conditioning and control electronics mounted underneath. The cover plate also serves as a mounting platform for ten (10) individual specimen holders provided by one of the IDE investigators.The material specimen, consisting of germanium, sapphire and zinc sulfide of different sizes, shapes and colors, are bonded to the specimen holders with an RTV adhesive. The specimen holders are attached to the cover plate with stainless steel non-<span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fasteners. The 1/3rd tray cover plate in the right hand end of the experiment tray is an aluminum plate painted white with Chemglaze II A-276 paint and used as a thermal cover for the Experiment Power and Data System (EPDS). The EPDS is a system provided by the LDEF Project Office that processes and stores, on <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> tape, the orbital experiment and housekeeping data from six (6) experiment locations on the LDEF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920018015&hterms=Rare+earth+metals&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528Rare%2Bearth%2529%2Bmetals%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920018015&hterms=Rare+earth+metals&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528Rare%2Bearth%2529%2Bmetals%2529"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> meteoroid debris in LDEF metal craters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brownlee, D. E.; Horz, F.; Bradley, J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The extraterrestrial meteoroid residue found lining craters in the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) aluminum and gold targets is highly variable in both quantity and type. In typical craters only a minor amount of residue is found and for these craters it is evident that most of the impacting projectile was ejected during crater formation. Less than 10 percent of the craters greater than 100 microns contain abundant residue consistent with survival of a major fraction of the projectile. In these cases the residue can be seen optically as a dark liner and it can easily be analyzed by SEM-EDX techniques. Because they are rare, the craters with abundant residue must be a biased sampling of the meteoroids reaching the earth. Factors that favor residue retention are low impact velocity and material properties such as high melting point. In general, the SEM-EDX observations of crater residues are consistent with the properties of chondritic meteorites and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles collected in the stratosphere. Except for impacts by particles dominated by single minerals such as FeS and olivine, most of the residue compositions are in broad agreement with the major element compositions of chondrites. In most cases the residue is a thin liner on the crater floor and these craters are difficult to quantitatively analyze by EDX techniques because the electron beam excites both residue and underlying metal substrate. In favorable cases, the liner is thick and composed of vesicular glass with imbedded FeNi, sulfide and silicate grains. In the best cases of meteoroid preservation, the crater is lined with large numbers of unmelted mineral grains. The projectiles fragmented into micron sized pieces but the fragments survived without melting. In one case, the grains contain linear defects that appear to be solar flare tracks. Solar flare tracks are common properties of small <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> particles and their preservation during impact implies that the fragments were not heated above 600 C. We are investigating the meteoroid fragments in LDEF metal craters to determine the properties of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust and to determine if there are meteoroid types that are overlooked or otherwise undetected in cosmic dust collections obtained from the stratosphere and polar ice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3377503','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3377503"><span id="translatedtitle">Cancer Screening with Digital Mammography for Women at <span class="hlt">Average</span> Risk for Breast Cancer, <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Resonance Imaging (MRI) for Women at High Risk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Executive Summary Objective The purpose of this review is to determine the effectiveness of 2 separate modalities, digital mammography (DM) and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> resonance imaging (MRI), relative to film mammography (FM), in the screening of women asymptomatic for breast cancer. A third analysis assesses the effectiveness and safety of the combination of MRI plus mammography (MRI plus FM) in screening of women at high risk. An economic analysis was also conducted. Research Questions How does the sensitivity and specificity of DM compare to FM? How does the sensitivity and specificity of MRI compare to FM? How do the recall rates compare among these screening modalities, and what effect might this have on radiation exposure? What are the risks associated with radiation exposure? How does the sensitivity and specificity of the combination of MRI plus FM compare to either MRI or FM alone? What are the economic considerations? Clinical Need The effectiveness of FM with respect to breast cancer mortality in the screening of asymptomatic <span class="hlt">average</span>- risk women over the age of 50 has been established. However, based on a Medical Advisory Secretariat review completed in March 2006, screening is not recommended for women between the ages of 40 and 49 years. Guidelines published by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Care recommend mammography screening every 1 to 2 years for women aged 50 years and over, hence, the inclusion of such women in organized breast cancer screening programs. In addition to the uncertainty of the effectiveness of mammography screening from the age of 40 years, there is concern over the risks associated with mammographic screening for the 10 years between the ages of 40 and 49 years. The lack of effectiveness of mammography screening starting at the age of 40 years (with respect to breast cancer mortality) is based on the assumption that the ability to detect cancer decreases with increased breast tissue density. As breast density is highest in the premenopausal years (approximately 23% of postmenopausal and 53% of premenopausal women having at least 50% of the breast occupied by high density), mammography screening is not promoted in Canada nor in many other countries for women under the age of 50 at <span class="hlt">average</span> risk for breast cancer. It is important to note, however, that screening of premenopausal women (i.e., younger than 50 years of age) at high risk for breast cancer by virtue of a family history of cancer or a known genetic predisposition (e.g., having tested positive for the breast cancer genes BRCA1 and/or BRCA2) is appropriate. Thus, this review will assess the effectiveness of breast cancer screening with modalities other than film mammography, specifically DM and MRI, for both pre/perimenopausal and postmenopausal age groups. International estimates of the epidemiology of breast cancer show that the incidence of breast cancer is increasing for all ages combined whereas mortality is decreasing, though at a slower rate. The observed decreases in mortality rates may be attributable to screening, in addition to advances in breast cancer therapy over time. Decreases in mortality attributable to screening may be a result of the earlier detection and treatment of invasive cancers, in addition to the increased detection of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), of which certain subpathologies are less lethal. Evidence from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (better known as SEER) cancer registry in the United States, indicates that the age-adjusted incidence of DCIS has increased almost 10-fold over a 20 year period, from 2.7 to 25 per 100,000. There is a 4-fold lower incidence of breast cancer in the 40 to 49 year age group than in the 50 to 69 year age group (approximately 140 per 100,000 versus 500 per 100,000 women, respectively). The sensitivity of FM is also lower among younger women (approximately 75%) than for women aged over 50 years (approximately 85%). Specificity is approximately 80% for younger women versus 90% for women over 50 years. The increased density of breast tissue in younger women is l</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/117680','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/117680"><span id="translatedtitle">Coherent radar estimates of <span class="hlt">average</span> high-latitude ionospheric Joule heating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kosch, M.J.; Nielsen, E.</p> <p>1995-07-01</p> <p>The Scandinavian Twin Auroral Radar Experiment (STARE) and Sweden and Britain Radar Experiment (SABRE) bistatic coherent radar systems have been employed to estimate the spatial and temporal variation of the ionospheric Joule heating in the combined geographic latitude range 63.8 deg - 72.6 deg (corrected geomagnetic latitude 61.5 deg - 69.3 deg) over Scandinavia. The 173 days of good observations with all four radars have been analyzed during the period 1982 to 1986 to estimate the <span class="hlt">average</span> ionospheric electric field versus time and latitude. The AE dependent empirical model of ionospheric Pedersen conductivity of Spiro et al. (1982) has been used to calculate the Joule heating. The latitudinal and diurnal variation of Joule heating as well as the estimated mean hemispherical heating of 1.7 x 10(exp 11) W are in good agreement with earlier results. <span class="hlt">Average</span> Joule heating was found to vary linearly with the AE, AU, and AL indices and as a second-order power law with Kp. The <span class="hlt">average</span> Joule heating was also examined as a function of the direction and magnitude of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. It has been shown for the first time that the ionospheric electric field magnitude as well as the Joule heating increase with increasingly negative (southward) Bz.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.4313O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.4313O"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact angle control of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock geoeffectiveness: A statistical study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oliveira, Denny M.; Raeder, Joachim</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We present a survey of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) shocks using Wind and ACE satellite data from January 1995 to December 2013 to study how IP shock geoeffectiveness is controlled by IP shock impact angles. A shock list covering one and a half solar cycle is compiled. The yearly number of IP shocks is found to correlate well with the monthly sunspot number. We use data from SuperMAG, a large chain with more than 300 geomagnetic stations, to study geoeffectiveness triggered by IP shocks. The SuperMAG SML index, an enhanced version of the familiar AL index, is used in our statistical analysis. The jumps of the SML index triggered by IP shock impacts on the Earth's magnetosphere are investigated in terms of IP shock orientation and speed. We find that, in general, strong (high speed) and almost frontal (small impact angle) shocks are more geoeffective than inclined shocks with low speed. The strongest correlation (correlation coefficient R = 0.78) occurs for fixed IP shock speed and for varied IP shock impact angle. We attribute this result, predicted previously with simulations, to the fact that frontal shocks compress the magnetosphere symmetrically from all sides, which is a favorable condition for the release of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> energy stored in the magnetotail, which in turn can produce moderate to strong auroral substorms, which are then observed by ground-based magnetometers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140006922','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140006922"><span id="translatedtitle">The Radiation, <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) Toolset</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zank, G. P.; Spann, J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We outline a plan to develop a physics based predictive toolset RISCS to describe the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> energetic particle and radiation environment throughout the inner heliosphere, including at the Earth. To forecast and "nowcast" the radiation environment requires the fusing of three components: 1) the ability to provide probabilities for incipient solar activity; 2) the use of these probabilities and daily coronal and solar wind observations to model the 3D spatial and temporal heliosphere, including <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field structure and transients, within 10 AU; and 3) the ability to model the acceleration and transport of energetic particles based on current and anticipated coronal and heliospheric conditions. We describe how to address 1) - 3) based on our existing, well developed, and validated codes and models. The goal of RISCS toolset is to provide an operational forecast and "nowcast" capability that will a) predict solar energetic particle (SEP) intensities; b) spectra for protons and heavy ions; c) predict maximum energies and their duration; d) SEP composition; e) cosmic ray intensities, and f) plasma parameters, including shock arrival times, strength and obliquity at any given heliospheric location and time. The toolset would have a 72 hour predicative capability, with associated probabilistic bounds, that would be updated hourly thereafter to improve the predicted event(s) and reduce the associated probability bounds. The RISCS toolset would be highly adaptable and portable, capable of running on a variety of platforms to accommodate various operational needs and requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950007245','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950007245"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> medium data book, supplement 5, 1988-1993</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>King, Joseph H.; Papitashvili, Natalia E.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This publication represents an extension of the series of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Medium Data Books and supplements that have been issued by the National Space Science Data Center since 1977. This volume contains solar wind <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and plasma data from the IMP 8 spacecraft for 1988 through the end of 1993. The normalization of the MIT plasma density and temperature, which has been discussed at length in previous volumes, is implemented as before, using the same normalization constants for 1988-1993 data as for the earlier data. Owing to a combination of non-continuity of IMP 8 telemetry acquisition and IMP's being out of the solar wind for about 40 percent of its orbit, the annual solar wind coverage for 1988-1993 is 40 plus or minus 5 percent. The plots and listings of this supplement are in essentially the same format as in previous supplements. Days for which neither IMF nor plasma data were available for any hours are omitted from the listings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22092237','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22092237"><span id="translatedtitle">PARTICLE ENERGY SPECTRA AT TRAVELING <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> SHOCK WAVES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reames, Donald V.</p> <p>2012-09-20</p> <p>We have searched for evidence of significant shock acceleration of He ions of {approx}1-10 MeV amu{sup -1} in situ at 258 <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> traveling shock waves observed by the Wind spacecraft. We find that the probability of observing significant acceleration, and the particle intensity observed, depends strongly upon the shock speed and less strongly upon the shock compression ratio. For most of the 39 fast shocks with significant acceleration, the observed spectral index agrees with either that calculated from the shock compression ratio or with the spectral index of the upstream background, when the latter spectrum is harder, as expected from diffusive shock theory. In many events the spectra are observed to roll downward at higher energies, as expected from Ellison-Ramaty and from Lee shock-acceleration theories. The dearth of acceleration at {approx}85% of the shocks is explained by (1) a low shock speed, (2) a low shock compression ratio, and (3) a low value of the shock-normal angle with the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, which may cause the energy spectra that roll downward at energies below our observational threshold. Quasi-parallel shock waves are rarely able to produce measurable acceleration at 1 AU. The dependence of intensity on shock speed, seen here at local shocks, mirrors the dependence found previously for the peak intensities in large solar energetic-particle events upon speeds of the associated coronal mass ejections which drive the shocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780019213','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780019213"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> approach optical navigation with applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jerath, N.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The use of optical data from onboard television cameras for the navigation of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> spacecraft during the planet approach phase is investigated. Three optical data types were studied: the planet limb with auxiliary celestial references, the satellite-star, and the planet-star two-camera methods. Analysis and modelling issues related to the nature and information content of the optical methods were examined. Dynamic and measurement system modelling, data sequence design, measurement extraction, model estimation and orbit determination, as relating optical navigation, are discussed, and the various error sources were analyzed. The methodology developed was applied to the Mariner 9 and the Viking Mars missions. Navigation accuracies were evaluated at the control and knowledge points, with particular emphasis devoted to the combined use of radio and optical data. A parametric probability analysis technique was developed to evaluate navigation performance as a function of system reliabilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014mcp..book..287B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014mcp..book..287B"><span id="translatedtitle">Early Solar Nebula Grains - <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Dust Particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bradley, J. P.</p> <p></p> <p>This chapter examines the compositions, mineralogy, sources, and geochemical significance of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles (IDPs). Despite their micrometer-scale dimensions and nanogram masses, it is now possible, primarily as a result of advances in small particle handling techniques and analytical instrumentation, to examine IDPs at close to atomic-scale resolution. The most widely used instruments for IDP studies are presently the analytical electron microscope, synchrotron facilities, and the ion microprobe. These laboratory analytical techniques are providing fundamental insights about IDP origins, mechanisms of formation, and grain processing phenomena that were important in the early solar system and presolar environments. At the same time, laboratory data from IDPs are being compared with astronomical data from dust in comets, circumstellar disks, and the interstellar medium. The direct comparison of grains in the laboratory with grains in astronomical environments is known as "astromineralogy."</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030073596&hterms=organic+dust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dorganic%2Bdust','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030073596&hterms=organic+dust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dorganic%2Bdust"><span id="translatedtitle">Infrared Spectroscopy of Anhydrous <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Dust Particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keller, L. P.; Flynn, G. J.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is the primary means of mineralogical analysis of materials outside our solar system. The identity and properties of circumstellar grains are inferred from spectral comparisons between astronomical observations and laboratory data from natural and synthetic materials. These comparisons have been facilitated by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), which obtained IR spectra from numerous astrophysical objects over a wide spectral range (out to 50/cm) where crystalline silicates and other phases have distinct features. The anhydrous <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles (IDPs) are particularly important comparison materials because some IDPs contain carbonaceous material with non-solar D/H and N-15/N-14 ratios and amorphous and crystalline silicates with non-solar 0- isotopic ratios, demonstrating that these IDPs contain preserved interstellar material. Here, we report on micro- Fourier transform (FT) IR spectrometry of IDPs, focusing on the inorganic components of primitive IDPs (FTIR spectra from the organic/carbonacecous materials in IDPs are described elsewhere).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890019083','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890019083"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Particle Environment. Proceedings of a Conference</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Feynman, Joan (editor); Gabriel, Stephen (editor)</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A workshop entitled the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Charged Particle Environment was held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on March 16 and 17, 1987. The purpose of the Workshop was to define the environment that will be seen by spacecraft operating in the 1990s. It focused on those particles that are involved in single event upset, latch-up, total dose and displacement damage in spacecraft microelectronic parts. Several problems specific to Magellan were also discussed because of the sensitivity of some electronic parts to single-event phenomena. Scientists and engineers representing over a dozen institutions took part in the meeting. The workshop consisted of two major activities, reviews of the current state of knowledge and the formation of working groups and the drafting of their reports.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840058817&hterms=technologie&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dtechnologie','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840058817&hterms=technologie&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dtechnologie"><span id="translatedtitle">Suprathermal ions upstream from <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gosling, J. T.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Paschmann, G.; Sckopke, N.; Russell, C. T.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Low energy (10 eV-30 keV) observations of suprathermal ions ahead of outward propagating <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock waves (ISQ) are reported. The data were taken with the fast plasma experiment on ISEE 1 and 2 during 17 events. Structure was more evident in the suprathermal ion distribution in the earth bow shock region than in the upstream region. Isotropic distributions were only observed ahead of ISW, although field alignment, kidney-bean distributions, ion shells in velocity space and bunches of gyrating ions were not. The data suggest that the solar wind ions are accelerated to suprathermal energies in the vicinity of the shocks, which feature low and subcritical Mach numbers at 1 AU.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/324289','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/324289"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> space transport using inertial fusion propulsion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Orth, C.D.</p> <p>1998-04-20</p> <p>In this paper, we indicate how the great advantages that ICF offers for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> propulsion can be accomplished with the VISTA spacecraft concept. The performance of VISTA is expected to surpass that from other realistic technologies for Mars missions if the energy gain achievable for ICF targets is above several hundred. Based on the good performance expected from the U. S. National Ignition Facility (NIF), the requirements for VISTA should be well within the realm of possibility if creative target concepts such as the fast ignitor can be developed. We also indicate that a 6000-ton VISTA can visit any planet in the solar system and return to Earth in about 7 years or less without any significant physiological hazards to astronauts. In concept, VISTA provides such short-duration missions, especially to Mars, that the hazards from cosmic radiation and zero gravity can be reduced to insignificant levels. VISTA therefore represents a significant step forward for space-propulsion concepts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005EAS....16..129T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005EAS....16..129T"><span id="translatedtitle">The Spanish Fireball Network: Popularizing <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Llorca, J.; Fabregat, J.</p> <p></p> <p>In order to increase in Spain the social interest in the study of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> matter (asteroids, comets and meteoroids) we created the Spanish Photographic Meteor Network (SPMN) in 1997. This network has been dedicated to studying <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> matter with participation of researchers from three universities (Universitat Jaume I, Universitat de Barcelona and Universitat de València), the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía and it is also supported by the Atmospheric Sounding Station at El Arenosillo (INTA-CEDEA) and by the Experimental Station La Mayora (EELM-CSIC). In order to promote the participation of amateurs, our homepage (www.spmn.uji.es) presents public information about our research explains how amateur astronomers can participate in our network. In this paper we give some examples of the social role of a Fireball Network in order to give a coherent explanation to bright fireball events. Moreover, we also discuss the role of this kind of research project as a promoter of amateur participation and contribution to science. In fact, meteor astronomy can become an excellent area to form young researchers because systematic observation of meteors using photographic, video and CCD techniques has become one of the rare fields in astronomy in which amateurs can work together with professionals to make important contributions. We present here some results of the campaigns realized from the formation of the network. Finally, in a new step of development of our network, the all-sky CCD automatic cameras will be continuously detecting meteors and fireballs from four stations located in the Andalusia and Valencian communities by the end of 2005. Additionally, during important meteor showers we plan to develop fireball spectroscopy using medium field lenses.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5135325','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5135325"><span id="translatedtitle">Overview of cosmic rays, solar and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> physics research (1987-1990)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jokipii, J.R. )</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A brief survey of recent U.S. investigations in the field of heliospheric plasmas and their manifestations is presented, introducing the following collection of detailed reviews (accessions A91-46959 to A91-46964). Topics examined include the large-scale structure of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> plasmas, models of Galactic cosmic-ray production and propagation, solar-wind turbulence, long-period solar-terrestrial variability, the possible relation between solar-neutrino counts and the sunspot cycle, X-ray studies of solar flares and their implications for solar processes, and the near-sun <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730056702&hterms=wave+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730056702&hterms=wave+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for confinement of low-energy cosmic rays ahead of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock waves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Palmeira, R. A. R.; Allum, F. R.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Short-lived (about 15 min), low-energy proton increases associated with the passage of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock waves have been previously reported. In the present paper, we have examined in a fine time scale (about 1 min) the concurrent particle and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field data, taken by detectors on Explorer 34, for four of these events. Our results further support the view that these impulsive events are due to confinement of the solar cosmic-ray particles in the region just ahead (about 1,000,000 km) of the advancing shock front.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750004795','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750004795"><span id="translatedtitle">On the use of Godhavn H-component as an indicator of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> sector polarity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Svalgaard, L.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>An objective method of inferring the polarity of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field using the H-component at Godhavn is presented. The objectively inferred polarities are compared with a subjective index inferred earlier. It is concluded that no significant difference exists between the two methods. The inferred polarities derived from Godhavn H is biased by the (slp) sub q signature in the sense that during summer prolonged intervals of geomagnetic calm will result in inferred Away polarity regardless of the actual sector polarity. This bias does not significantly alter the large scale structure of the inferred sector structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987PhDT.........7K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987PhDT.........7K"><span id="translatedtitle">Gone with the solar wind: A study of protons accelerated by <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kessel, Ramona Louise</p> <p></p> <p>The availability of high time resolution spacecraft data has made possible in-situ and detailed study of plasma processes in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium. One important process that has received a lot of attention is the energization of charged particles due to the interaction with traveling <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock waves. The specific goal is to make use of observed <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields, plasma density and velocity, and initial particle trajectories calculated from real spacecraft orientations in a time-reversed computer simulation which follows particles through a single complete interaction with a shock in order to predict the angular distribution of energetic protons. The shock is considered to be a planar surface. Shock parameters used in the simulation are determined from plasma and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field observations fit to the Rankine-Hugoniot equations which conserve mass, momentum, and energy across the shock surface. Shock normals are determined from the single spacecraft method of Lepping and Argentiero (1971) and from the method of Vinas and Scudder (1986) using the Imp 8 <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field data and OMNI plasma data. Energy gains and losses are used to predict the amount of enhancement in each sector, assuming an isotropic ambient medium and a relationship between energy and particle number that is based on a power law.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012P%26SS...71...55D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012P%26SS...71...55D"><span id="translatedtitle">Comments on “<span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> and geomagnetic parameters during January 16-26, 2005” by R.P. Kane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Du, A. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Sun, W.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>We write this note of clarification to show that Kane (2012) has incorrectly interpreted the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field during the event by using low time-resolution data, and has thus misinterpreted the concluding comments of Du et al. (2008). Our recent paper (Du et al., 2011b) has shown that the solar wind energy input during northward IMF events is very low. Thus the interpretation of the Du et al. (2008) article given by the authors stand as was stated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830027718','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830027718"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar radio burst and in situ determination of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> electron density</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bougeret, J. L.; King, J. H.; Schwenn, R.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A few <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> electron density scales which were derived from the analysis of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> solar radio burst are discussed and compared to a model derived from 1974 to 1980 Helios 1 and 2 in situ density observations made in the 0.3 to 1.0 AU range. The Helios densities were normalized to 1976 with the aid of IMP and ISEE data at 1 AU, and were then sorted into 0.1 AU bins and logarithmically <span class="hlt">averaged</span> within each bin. The best fit to these 1976-normalized, bin <span class="hlt">averages</span> is N(R(AU)) = 6.1 R(-2.10)/cu cm. This model is in rather good agreement with the solar burst determination if the radiation is assumed to be on the second harmonic of the plasma frequency. This analysis also suggests that the radio emissions tend to be produced in regions denser than the <span class="hlt">average</span> where the density gradient decreases faster with distance than the observed R(-2.10).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007248','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007248"><span id="translatedtitle">CME Interaction with Coronal Holes and Their <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Consequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A significant number of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) shocks (-17%) during cycle 23 were not followed by drivers. The number of such "driverless" shocks steadily increased with the solar cycle with 15%, 33%, and 52% occurring in the rise, maximum, and declining phase of the solar cycle. The solar sources of 15% of the driverless shocks were very close the central meridian of the Sun (within approx.15deg), which is quite unexpected. More interestingly, all the driverless shocks with their solar sources near the solar disk center occurred during the declining phase of solar cycle 23. When we investigated the coronal environment of the source regions of driverless shocks, we found that in each case there was at least one coronal hole nearby suggesting that the coronal holes might have deflected the associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) away from the Sun-Earth line. The presence of abundant low-latitude coronal holes during the declining phase further explains why CMEs originating close to the disk center mimic the limb CMEs, which normally lead to driverless shocks due to purely geometrical reasons. We also examined the solar source regions of shocks with drivers. For these, the coronal holes were located such that they either had no influence on the CME trajectories. or they deflected the CMEs towards the Sun-Earth line. We also obtained the open <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field distribution on the Sun by performing a potential field source surface extrapolation to the corona. It was found that the CMEs generally move away from the open <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field regions. The CME-coronal hole interaction must be widespread in the declining phase, and may have a significant impact on the geoeffectiveness of CMEs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.6218Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.6218Z"><span id="translatedtitle">A statistical study of the low-altitude ionospheric <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields over the north pole of Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, T. L.; Baumjohann, W.; Russell, C. T.; Villarreal, M. N.; Luhmann, J. G.; Teh, W. L.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Examination of Venus Express (VEX) low-altitude ionospheric <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field measurements during solar minimum has revealed the presence of strong <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields at low altitudes over the north pole of Venus. A total of 77 events with strong <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields as VEX crossed the northern polar region were identified between July 2008 and October 2009. These events all have strong horizontal fields, slowly varying with position. Using the superposed epoch method, we find that the <span class="hlt">averaged</span> peak field is about 45 nT, which is well above the <span class="hlt">average</span> ambient ionospheric field of 20 nT, with a full width at half maximum duration of 32 s, equivalent to a width of about 300 km. Considering the field orientation preference and spacecraft trajectory geometry, we conclude that these strong fields are found over the northern hemisphere with an occurrence frequency of more than 33% during solar minimum. They do not show a preference for any particular <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) orientation. However, they are found over the geographic pole more often when the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> field is in the Venus orbital plane than when it is perpendicular to the orbital plane of Venus. The structures were found most frequently in the -E hemisphere, determined from the IMF orientation. The enhanced <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field is mainly quasi perpendicular to solar wind flow direction, and it is suggested that these structures form in the low-altitude collisional ionosphere where the diffusion and convection times are long.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...803L...6M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...803L...6M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Flux Conservation in the Heliosheath Including Solar Cycle Variations of <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Field Intensity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Michael, A. T.; Opher, M.; Provornikova, E.; Richardson, J. D.; Tóth, G.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In the heliosheath (HS), Voyager 2 has observed a flow with constant radial velocity and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux conservation. Voyager 1, however, has observed a decrease in the flow’s radial velocity and an order of magnitude decrease in <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux. We investigate the role of the 11 yr solar cycle variation of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field strength on the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux within the HS using a global 3D magnetohydrodynamic model of the heliosphere. We use time and latitude-dependent solar wind velocity and density inferred from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/SWAN and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> scintillations data and implemented solar cycle variations of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field derived from 27 day <span class="hlt">averages</span> of the field magnitude <span class="hlt">average</span> of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field at 1 AU from the OMNI database. With the inclusion of the solar cycle time-dependent <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field intensity, the model matches the observed intensity of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field in the HS along both Voyager 1 and 2. This is a significant improvement from the same model without <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field solar cycle variations, which was over a factor of two larger. The model accurately predicts the radial velocity observed by Voyager 2; however, the model predicts a flow speed ?100 km s?1 larger than that derived from LECP measurements at Voyager 1. In the model, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux is conserved along both Voyager trajectories, contrary to observations. This implies that the solar cycle variations in solar wind <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field observed at 1 AU does not cause the order of magnitude decrease in <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux observed in the Voyager 1 data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2002-THESIS-A75','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2002-THESIS-A75"><span id="translatedtitle">Hybrid methods for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> low-thrust trajectory optimization </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Aroonwilairut, Krisada</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Hybrid methods for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> low-thrust trajectory optimization are proposed. These methods are combinations of selected, existing methods for trajectory optimization. The focus of this thesis is to obtain solutions to a class of trajectories...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/90807','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/90807"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of ion electrospray propulsion to lunar and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> missions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Whitlock, Caleb W. (Caleb Wade)</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>High specific impulse electric propulsion systems enable ambitious lunar and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> missions that return a wealth of scientific data. Many of these technologies are difficult to scale down, meaning the spacecraft ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840058818&hterms=technologie&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dtechnologie','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840058818&hterms=technologie&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dtechnologie"><span id="translatedtitle">Plasma and energetic particle structure upstream of a quasi-parallel <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kennel, C. F.; Scarf, F. L.; Coroniti, F. V.; Russell, C. T.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Sanderson, T. R.; Van Nes, P.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Scudder, J. D.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>ISEE 1, 2 and 3 data from 1978 on <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields, shock waves and particle energetics are examined to characterize a quasi-parallel shock. The intense shock studied exhibited a 640 km/sec velocity. The data covered 1-147 keV protons and electrons and ions with energies exceeding 30 keV in regions both upstream and downstream of the shock, and also the magnitudes of ion-acoustic and MHD waves. The energetic particles and MHD waves began being detected 5 hr before the shock. Intense halo electron fluxes appeared ahead of the shock. A closed <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field structure was produced with a front end 700 earth radii from the shock. The energetic protons were cut off from the interior of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> bubble, which contained a markedly increased density of 2-6 keV protons as well as the shock itself.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840058819&hterms=shock+hugoniot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dshock%2Bhugoniot','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840058819&hterms=shock+hugoniot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dshock%2Bhugoniot"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure of the November 12, 1978, quasi-parallel <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kennel, C. F.; Edmiston, J. P.; Russell, C. T.; Scarf, F. L.; Coroniti, F. V.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Scudder, J. D.; Feldman, W. C.; Anderson, R. R.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The jump in plasma parameters exhibited by the intense <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock event of Nov. 12, 1978 is analyzed using ISEE 1, 2 and 3 data. <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> and electric field measurements indicated that the shock <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field profile was similar to the earth bow shock profile. Data on the electron and proton densities, temperatures, bulk velocities and alpha particles showed a steady electron temperature increase across the shock on a 12 earth radii scale. The upstream and downstream flow parameters are found to be within 10 percent of Rankin-Hugoniot jump conditions. The shock moved at 614 km/sec and had three dissipative scales, one a few Larmor radii determined by the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field jump, a second 10 earth radii correlated with the electron equilibrium and the other 30 earth radii connected to the energetic proton foreshock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110022647','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110022647"><span id="translatedtitle">Global Magnetospheric Response to an <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shock: THEMIS Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Hui; Sibeck, David G.; Zong, Q.-G.; McFadden, James P.; Larson, Davin; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Angelopoulos, V.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We investigate the global response of geospace plasma environment to an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock at approx. 0224 UT on May 28, 2008 from multiple THEMIS spacecraft observations in the magnetosheath (THEMIS B and C) and the mid-afternoon (THEMIS A) and dusk magnetosphere (THEMIS D and E). The interaction of the transmitted <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock with the magnetosphere has global effects. Consequently, it can affect geospace plasma significantly. After interacting with the bow shock, the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock transmitted a fast shock and a discontinuity which propagated through the magnetosheath toward the Earth at speeds of 300 km/s and 137 km/s respectively. THEMIS A observations indicate that the plasmaspheric plume changed significantly by the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock impact. The plasmaspheric plume density increased rapidly from 10 to 100/ cubic cm in 4 min and the ion distribution changed from isotropic to strongly anisotropic distribution. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves observed by THEMIS A are most likely excited by the anisotropic ion distributions caused by the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock impact. To our best knowledge, this is the first direct observation of the plasmaspheric plume response to an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock's impact. THEMIS A, but not D or E, observed a plasmaspheric plume in the dayside magnetosphere. Multiple spacecraft observations indicate that the dawn-side edge of the plasmaspheric plume was located between THEMIS A and D (or E).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0801.0288v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0801.0288v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on the <span class="hlt">average</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field strength of relic radio sources 0917+75 and 1401-33 from XMM-Newton observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>C. M. Hubert Chen; D. E. Harris; Fiona A. Harrison; Peter H. Mao</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We observed two relic radio sources, 0917+75 and 1401-33, with the XMM-Newton X-ray observatory. We did not detect any X-ray emission, thermal or non-thermal, in excess of the local background level from either target. This imposes new upper limits on the X-ray flux due to inverse Compton scattering of photons from the cosmic microwave background by relativistic electrons in the relic sources, and new lower limits on the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field strength from the relative strength of the radio and X-ray emission. The combination of radio and X-ray observations provides a measure of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field independent of equipartition or minimum energy assumptions. Due to increasing sensitivity of radio observations, the known population of cluster relics has been growing; however, studies of non-thermal X-ray emission from relics remain scarce. Our study adds to the small sample of relics studied in X-rays. In both relics, our field strength lower limits are slightly larger than estimates of the equipartition <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EOSTr..91T.368O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EOSTr..91T.368O"><span id="translatedtitle">Research Spotlight: <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field direction affects the ionosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ofori, Leslie; Tretkoff, Ernie</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Electron density variations in the ionosphere are important for understanding space weather because they affect the Global Positioning System and radio communications. Bahcivan et al. used some of the first measurements from the U.S. National Science Foundation's Resolute incoherent scatter radar in Resolute Bay, Canada (near the geomagnetic pole), to investigate the highly structured polar cap ionosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ESASP.542...65W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ESASP.542...65W"><span id="translatedtitle">SIMONE: <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> microsatellites for NEO rendezvous missions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wells, Nigel; Walker, Roger; Green, Simon; Ball, Andrew</p> <p>2003-11-01</p> <p>The paper summarises a novel mission concept called SIMONE (Smallsat Intercept Missions to Objects Near Earth), whereby a fleet of microsatellites may be deployed to individually rendezvous with a number of Near Earth Objects (NEOs), at very low cost. The mission enables, for the first time, the diverse properties of a range of spectral and physical type NEOs to be determined. Such data are invaluable to the scientific study, impact damage prediction, and impact countermeasure planning of NEOs. The five identical 120kg spacecraft are designed for low-cost piggyback launch on Ariane-5 into GTO, from where each uses a gridded-ion engine to escape the Earth and ultimately to rendezvous with a different NEO target. The primary challenge with such a mission is the ability to accommodate the necessary electric propulsion, power, payload and other onboard systems within the constraints of a microsatellite. The paper describes the way in which the latest technological advancements have been selected and applied to the mission design. The SIMONE design is feasible and clearly demonstrates that the concept of an "<span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> microsatellite" is now realisable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21163538','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21163538"><span id="translatedtitle">BACODINE/3rd <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Network burst localization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S.; Butterworth, P.; Cline, T.; Sommer, M.; Boer, M.; Niel, M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G.; Meegan, C.</p> <p>1996-08-01</p> <p>Even with only two widely separated spacecraft (Ulysses and GRO), 3rd <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Network (IPN) localizations can reduce the areas of BATSE error circles by two orders of magnitude. Therefore it is useful to disseminate them as quickly as possible following BATSE bursts. We have implemented a system which transmits the light curves of BACODINE/BATSE bursts directly by e-mail to UC Berkeley immediately after detection. An automatic e-mail parser at Berkeley watches for these notices, determines the Ulysses crossing time window, and initiates a search for the burst data on the JPL computer as they are received. In ideal cases, it is possible to retrieve the Ulysses data within a few hours of a burst, generate an annulus of arrival directions, and e-mail it out to the astronomical community by local nightfall. Human operators remain in this loop, but we are developing a fully automated routine which should remove them, at least for intense events, and reduce turn-around times to an absolute minimum. We explain the current operations, the data types used, and the speed/accuracy tradeoffs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993MsT..........9N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993MsT..........9N"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimizing <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> trajectories with deep space maneuvers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Navagh, John</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>Analysis of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> trajectories is a crucial area for both manned and unmanned missions of the Space Exploration Initiative. A deep space maneuver (DSM) can improve a trajectory in much the same way as a planetary swingby. However, instead of using a gravitational field to alter the trajectory, the on-board propulsion system of the spacecraft is used when the vehicle is not near a planet. The purpose is to develop an algorithm to determine where and when to use deep space maneuvers to reduce the cost of a trajectory. The approach taken to solve this problem uses primer vector theory in combination with a non-linear optimizing program to minimize Delta(V). A set of necessary conditions on the primer vector is shown to indicate whether a deep space maneuver will be beneficial. Deep space maneuvers are applied to a round trip mission to Mars to determine their effect on the launch opportunities. Other studies which were performed include cycler trajectories and Mars mission abort scenarios. It was found that the software developed was able to locate quickly DSM's which lower the total Delta(V) on these trajectories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1507.02237.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1507.02237.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact Angle Control of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shock Geoeffectiveness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Oliveira, D M</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We use OpenGGCM global MHD simulations to study the nightside magnetospheric, magnetotail, and ionospheric responses to <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) fa st forward shocks. Three cases are presented in this study: two inclined oblique shocks, here after IOS-1 and IOS-2, where the latter has a Mach number twice stronger than the former. Both shocks have impact angles of 30$^o$ in relation to the Sun-Earth line. Lastly, we choose a frontal perpendicular shock, FPS, whose shock normal is along the Sun-Earth line, with the same Mach number as IOS-1. We find that, in the IOS-1 case, due to the north-south asymmetry, the magnetotail is deflected southward, leading to a mild compression. The geomagnetic activity observed in the nightside ionosphere is then weak. On the other hand, in the head-on case, the FPS compresses the magnetotail from both sides symmetrically. This compression triggers a substorm allowing a larger amount of stored energy in the magnetotail to be released to the nightside ionosphere, resulting in stronger...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110020645&hterms=wong&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwong','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110020645&hterms=wong&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwong"><span id="translatedtitle">Mars Science Laboratory <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Navigation Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Kruizinga, Gerard L.; Wong, Mau C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is a NASA rover mission that will be launched in late 2011 and will land on Mars in August of 2012. This paper describes the analyses performed to validate the navigation system for launch, <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> cruise, and approach. MSL will use guidance during its descent into Mars in order to minimize landing dispersions, and therefore will be able to use smaller landing zones that are closer to terrain of high scientific interest. This will require a more accurate delivery of the spacecraft to the atmospheric entry interface, and a late update of the state of the spacecraft at entry. During cruise and approach the spacecraft may perform up to six trajectory correction maneuvers (TCMs), to target to the desired landing site with the required flight path angle at entry. Approach orbit determination covariance analyses have been performed to evaluate the accuracy that can be achieved in delivering the spacecraft to the entry interface point, and to determine how accurately the state of the spacecraft can be predicted to initialize the guidance algorithm. In addition, a sensitivity analysis has been performed to evaluate which factors most contribute to the improvement or degradation of the navigation performance, for both entry flight path angle delivery and entry state knowledge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E2557P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E2557P"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of MHD turbulence through <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pitna, Alexander; Nemecek, Zdenek; Safrankova, Jana; Goncharov, Oleksandr; Nemec, Frantisek</p> <p></p> <p>It is well established that as the solar wind expands into outer parts of our planetary system, an additional heating is observed. Many mechanisms have been proposed to account, at least partially, for this phenomenon. One of them is a dissipation of large scale variations of all solar wind parameters into the thermal energy via turbulent cascades. Thus, a study of the frequency spectra of plasma parameters in the so-called kinetic range where the ion and electron kinetic effects dominate is of high importance. The BMSW instrument onboard the Spektr-R spacecraft provides a high-time resolution data (31 ms) of the ion flux, velocity, density, and temperature suitable for an analysis of the frequency spectra up to 10 Hz. The paper focuses on the statistical analysis of fast forward low-Mach number <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks. We discuss the upstream and downstream plasma parameters that encode the properties of the turbulence such as spectral slopes and breaks in the frequency spectra. We have found that the power of downstream fluctuations rises by an order of magnitude in a broad range of frequencies independently of its upstream value but the slope of the spectrum on the kinetic scale (?3-8 Hz) has been found to be statistically steeper downstream than upstream of the shock. The time needed to a full relaxation to the pre-shock spectral shape is as long as several hours.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/616141','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/616141"><span id="translatedtitle">Radioisotopic heater units warm an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> spacecraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Franco-Ferreira, E.A.; Rinehart, G.H.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The Cassini orbiter and Huygens probe, which were successfully launched on October 15, 1997, constitute NASA`s last grand-scale <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> mission of this century. The mission, which consists of a four-year, close-up study of Saturn and its moons, begins in July 2004 with Cassini`s 60 orbits of Saturn and about 33 fly-bys of the large moon Titan. The Huygens probe will descend and land on Titan. Investigations will include Saturn`s atmosphere, its rings and its magnetosphere. The atmosphere and surface of Titan and other icy moons also will be characterized. Because of the great distance of Saturn from the sun, some of the instruments and equipment on both the orbiter and the probe require external heaters to maintain their temperature within normal operating ranges. These requirements are met by Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) designed, fabricated and safety tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. An improved gas tungsten arc welding procedure lowered costs and decreased processing time for heat units for the Cassini spacecraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/39568','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/39568"><span id="translatedtitle">A scale-free analysis of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> holes in the solar wind</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Stevens, M. L. (Michael Louis)</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> holes are isolated intervals of depleted <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) strength on timescales of several seconds to several hours. These intervals have been seen as often as several times per day in the ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920038418&hterms=bruce+lee&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dbruce%2Blee','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920038418&hterms=bruce+lee&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dbruce%2Blee"><span id="translatedtitle">Great <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Lee, Yen T.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Tang, Frances</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The five largest <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storms that occurred between 1971 to 1986 are studied to determine their solar and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> causes. All of the events are found to be associated with high speed solar wind streams led by collisionless shocks. The high speed streams are clearly related to identifiable solar flares. It is found that: (1) it is the extreme values of the southward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields rather than solar wind speeds that are the primary causes of great <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storms, (2) shocked and draped sheath fields preceding the driver gas (<span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud) are at least as effective in causing the onset of great <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storms (3 of 5 events) as the strong fields within the driver gas itself, and (3) precursor southward fields ahead of the high speed streams allow the shock compression mechanism (item 2) to be particularly geoeffective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850026746','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850026746"><span id="translatedtitle">Longitudinal dependence of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> perturbation produced by energetic type 4 solar flares and of the associated cosmic ray modulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Iucci, N.; Parisi, M.; Storini, M.; Villoresi, G.; Pinter, S.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>One of the most significant features of the flare-associated Forbush decreases (Fds) in the galatctic cosmic ray (c.r.) is the so-called East-West asymmetry: the solar flares (Sfs) observed in the Eastern or central region of the solar disk exhibit a higher probability to cause large Fds than the Sfs occurring in the Western portion of the disk. In particular the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> perturbations generated by Type IV Sfs depress the c.r. intensity in a vast spiral cone-like region (modulated region) which extends along the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field from the neighborhood of the active region to the advancing perturbation, and that, immediately after the flare-generated perturbation, the maximum c.r. modulation is observed between 0 and 40 deg. W of the meridian plane crossings the flare site at time of flare (flare's meridian plane).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760050072&hterms=shock+hugoniot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dshock%2Bhugoniot','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760050072&hterms=shock+hugoniot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dshock%2Bhugoniot"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> shocks seen by Ames plasma probe on Pioneer 6 and 7</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Abraham-Shrauner, B.; Yun, S. H.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> shocks and discontinuities observed by the Ames Research Center plasma probe on Pioneer 6 and 7 are analyzed with Goddard Space Flight Center magnetometer data. Several shock normals are used for the MHD model of a shock where the mixed data shock normals, which use plasma and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span>-field data, give the best agreement with the theoretical requirements. The requirements are the satisfaction of the Rankine-Hugoniot conservation equations across the shock where angles (predicted theoretically from the conservation equations) between certain combinations of plasma and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span>-field data vectors in the shock normals are explicitly checked. The results for the August 29, 1966, shock are compared with previous results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120000489','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120000489"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burleigh, Scott C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JBIS...46R..21S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JBIS...46R..21S"><span id="translatedtitle">Medusa: Nuclear explosive propulsion for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> travel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Solem, Johndale C.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Because of the deleterious effects of galactic cosmic radiation, solar flares, zero gravity and psychological stress, there is strong motivation to develop high-specific-impulse and high-thrust spacecraft for rapid transport of astronauts between planets. A novel spacecraft design is presented using a large lightweight sail (spinnaker) driven by pressure pulses from a series of nuclear explosions. The spacecraft appears to be a singularly competent and economical vehicle for high-speed <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> travel. The mass of the spinnaker is theoretically independent of the size of its canopy or the length of its tethers. Consequently, the canopy can be made very large to minimize radiation damage from the nuclear explosions and the tethers can be made very long to mitigate radiation hazard to the crew. The pressure from the nuclear explosion imparts a large impulsive acceleration to the lightweight spinnaker, which must be translated to a small smooth acceleration of the space capsule either by using the elasticity of the tethers or a servo winch in the space capsule, or a combination of the two. If elasticity alone is used, the maximum acceleration suffered by the space capsule is inversely propotional to the tether length. The use of very long tethers allows the spacecraft to achieve high velocities without using an exceedingly large number of bombs, a feature unavailable to previous forms of nuclear-explosive propulsion. Should the political questions connected with an unconventional use of nuclear explosives be favorably resolved, the proposal will be a good candidate for propulsion in the Mars mission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22420353','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22420353"><span id="translatedtitle">Comprehensive Population-<span class="hlt">Averaged</span> Arterial Input Function for Dynamic Contrast–Enhanced v<span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Resonance Imaging of Head and Neck Cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Onxley, Jennifer D.; Yoo, David S.; Muradyan, Naira; MacFall, James R.; Brizel, David M.; Craciunescu, Oana I.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Purpose: To generate a population-<span class="hlt">averaged</span> arterial input function (PA-AIF) for quantitative analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI data in head and neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI during concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Imaging consisted of 2 baseline scans 1 week apart (B1/B2) and 1 scan after 1 week of chemoradiation therapy (Wk1). Regions of interest (ROIs) in the right and left carotid arteries were drawn on coronal images. Plasma concentration curves of all ROIs were <span class="hlt">averaged</span> and fit to a biexponential decay function to obtain the final PA-AIF (AvgAll). Right-sided and left-sided ROI plasma concentration curves were <span class="hlt">averaged</span> separately to obtain side-specific AIFs (AvgRight/AvgLeft). Regions of interest were divided by time point to obtain time-point-specific AIFs (AvgB1/AvgB2/AvgWk1). The vascular transfer constant (K{sub trans}) and the fractional extravascular, extracellular space volume (V{sub e}) for primaries and nodes were calculated using the AvgAll AIF, the appropriate side-specific AIF, and the appropriate time-point-specific AIF. Median K{sub trans} and V{sub e} values derived from AvgAll were compared with those obtained from the side-specific and time-point-specific AIFs. The effect of using individual AIFs was also investigated. Results: The plasma parameters for AvgAll were a{sub 1,2} = 27.11/17.65 kg/L, m{sub 1,2} = 11.75/0.21 min{sup ?1}. The coefficients of repeatability (CRs) for AvgAll versus AvgLeft were 0.04 min{sup ?1} for K{sub trans} and 0.02 for V{sub e}. For AvgAll versus AvgRight, the CRs were 0.08 min{sup ?1} for K{sub trans} and 0.02 for V{sub e}. When AvgAll was compared with AvgB1/AvgB2/AvgWk1, the CRs were slightly higher: 0.32/0.19/0.78 min{sup ?1}, respectively, for K{sub trans}; and 0.07/0.08/0.09 for V{sub e}. Use of a PA-AIF was not significantly different from use of individual AIFs. Conclusion: A PA-AIF for head and neck cancer was generated that accounts for differences in right carotid artery versus left carotid artery, day-to-day fluctuations, and early treatment-induced changes. The small CRs obtained for K{sub trans} and V{sub e} indicate that side-specific AIFs are not necessary. However, a time-point-specific AIF may improve pharmacokinetic accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020087567&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcane','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020087567&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcane"><span id="translatedtitle">Iron Charge Distribution as an Identifier of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Coronal Mass Ejections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A.; Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.; Gloeckler, G.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>We present solar wind Fe charge state data measured on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) from early 1998 to the middle of 2000. <span class="hlt">Average</span> Fe charge states in the solar wind are typically around 9 to 11. However, deviations from these <span class="hlt">average</span> charge states occur, including intervals with a large fraction of Fe(sup greater or = 16+) which are consistently associated with <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). By studying the Fe charge state distribution we are able to extract coronal electron temperatures often exceeding 2 x 10(exp 6) kelvins. We also discuss the temporal trends of these events, indicating the more frequent appearance of periods with high Fe charge states as solar activity increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970026865','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970026865"><span id="translatedtitle">Kuiper Belt Dust Grains as a Source of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Dust Particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liou, Jer-Chyi; Zook, Herbert A.; Dermott, Stanley F.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The recent discovery of the so-called Kuiper belt objects has prompted the idea that these objects produce dust grains that may contribute significantly to the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust population. In this paper, the orbital evolution of dust grains, of diameters 1 to 9 microns, that originate in the region of the Kuiper belt is studied by means of direct numerical integration. Gravitational forces of the Sun and planets, solar radiation pressure, as well as Poynting-Robertson drag and solar wind drag are included. The interactions between charged dust grains and solar <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field are not considered in the model. Because of the effects of drag forces, small dust grains will spiral toward the Sun once they are released from their large parent bodies. This motion leads dust grains to pass by planets as well as encounter numerous mean motion resonances associated with planets. Our results show that about 80% of the Kuiper belt grains are ejected from the Solar System by the giant planets, while the remaining 20% of the grains evolve all the way to the Sun. Surprisingly, the latter dust grains have small orbital eccentricities and inclinations when they cross the orbit of the Earth. This makes them behave more like asteroidal than cometary-type dust particles. This also enhances their chances of being captured by the Earth and makes them a possible source of the collected <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles; in particular, they represent a possible source that brings primitive/organic materials from the outer Solar System to the Earth. When collisions with interstellar dust grains are considered, however, Kuiper belt dust grains around 9 microns appear likely to be collisionally shattered before they can evolve toward the inner part of the Solar System. The collision destruction can be applied to Kuiper belt grains up to about 50 microns. Therefore, Kuiper belt dust grains within this range may not be a significant part of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust complex in the inner Solar System.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22139950','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22139950"><span id="translatedtitle">COMPOSITION STRUCTURE OF <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS FROM MULTISPACECRAFT OBSERVATIONS, MODELING, AND COMPARISON WITH NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reinard, Alysha A.; Mulligan, Tamitha E-mail: blynch@ssl.berkeley.edu</p> <p>2012-12-20</p> <p>We present an analysis of the ionic composition of iron for two <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) observed on 2007 May 21-23 by the ACE and STEREO spacecraft in the context of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> structure of the ejecta flux rope, sheath region, and surrounding solar wind flow. This analysis is made possible due to recent advances in multispacecraft data interpolation, reconstruction, and visualization as well as results from recent modeling of ionic charge states in MHD simulations of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> breakout and flux cancellation coronal mass ejection (CME) initiation. We use these advances to interpret specific features of the ICME plasma composition resulting from the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> topology and evolution of the CME. We find that, in both the data and our MHD simulations, the flux ropes centers are relatively cool, while charge state enhancements surround and trail the flux ropes. The <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> orientations of the ICMEs are suggestive of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> breakout-like reconnection during the eruption process, which could explain the spatial location of the observed iron enhancements just outside the traditional flux rope <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> signatures and between the two ICMEs. Detailed comparisons between the simulations and data were more complicated, but a sharp increase in high iron charge states in the ACE and STEREO-A data during the second flux rope corresponds well to similar features in the flux cancellation results. We discuss the prospects of this integrated in situ data analysis and modeling approach to advancing our understanding of the unified CME-to-ICME evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930005541','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930005541"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (IPOST). Volume 3: Programmer's manual</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hong, P. E.; Kent, P. D.; Olson, D. W.; Vallado, C. A.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Program to Optimize Space Trajectories (IPOST) is intended to support many analysis phases, from early <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> feasibility studies through spacecraft development and operations. Here, information is given on the IPOST code.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1530A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1530A"><span id="translatedtitle">Largest geomagnetic sudden commencement (SC) and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Araki, Tohru</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The long term variation of amplitude of geomagnetic sudden commencements (SCs) is examined by checking old magnetograms at Kakioka (27.5 deg. geomagnetic latitude) and Alibag (10.3 deg.) and SC lists prepared by both stations. We found that the SC occurred on March 24, 1940 was largest since 1868. The amplitude is 310 nT at Alibag and larger than 273 nT at Kakioka. The magnetogram of Cape Town (-33.3 deg) was also available for this event which shows 164 nT amplitude. This SC occurred during the main phase of a large <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storm which has been interested as one of space weather events. The statistical analysis shows that the occurrence probability is less than 5 % for SCs with amplitude larger than 50 nT and less than 1 % for SCs larger than 100 nT at both Kakioka and Alibag. Large amplitude SCs tend to occur in the declining phase of the sun spot cycle as is reported for <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storms. Siscoe et al. (1968) firstly proposed the relationship for the solar wind dynamic pressure P and SC amplitude, dH as dH = C*d(P^0.5) where d(P^0.5) shows a jump of the square root of P associated with <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks. If we take the proportionality constant C as 15 nT/(nPa)^0.5 and the 300 nT SC amplitude (dH) needs pressure jump from 2 nPa (assumed dynamic pressure in front of the shock) to 460 nPa. If the non-linear effect for magnetospheric compression is taken into account, a larger dynamic pressure will be needed for this large amplitude SC. On the other hand, the proportionality constant, C, might become larger for larger amplitude SC because C includes effects of electric currents induced in the earth. Larger amplitude SCs have larger time variation rate by which C becomes larger and the required dynamic pressure increase becomes smaller. We do not know which of the two competing processes is dominant but we consider that the linear estimation of the required dynamic pressure described above may be valid as the first order approximation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1509.07184.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1509.07184.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Origin of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Dust through Optical Properties of Zodiacal Light</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Yang, Hongu</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates the origin of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles (IDPs) through the optical properties, albedo and spectral gradient, of zodiacal light. The optical properties were compared with those of potential parent bodies in the solar system, which include D-type (as analogue of cometary nuclei), C-type, S-type, X-type, and B-type asteroids. We applied Bayesian inference on the mixture model made from the distribution of these sources, and found that >90% of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles originate from comets (or its spectral analogues, D-type asteroids). Although some classes of asteroids (C-type and X-type) may make a moderate contribution, ordinary chondrite-like particles from S-type asteroids occupy a negligible fraction of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust cloud complex. The overall optical properties of the zodiacal light were similar to those of chondritic porous IDPs, supporting the dominance of cometary particles in zodiacal cloud.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740020202','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740020202"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> MeV electrons of Jovian origin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Teegarden, B. J.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Trainor, J. H.; Webber, W. R.; Roelof, E. C.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Observations of low energy electron increases observed in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space on Pioneer 10 are reported as it approached Jupiter. These discrete bursts were several hundred times the normal quiet-time electron flux, and became more frequent as one approached Jupiter resulting in the quasi-continuous presence of large fluxes of these electrons in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space. It is noted that the integrated flux from quiet-time electrons is comparable to the integrated ambient electron flux itself. In addition, the spectrum of electrons observed in Jupiter's magnetosphere, on Pioneer 10 in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space near Jupiter, for the quiet-time increases near the earth, and for the ambient electron spectrum are all remarkably similar. These two lines of evidence suggest the possibility that Jupiter could be the source of most of the ambient electrons at low energies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910012840','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910012840"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> sails for advanced exploration missions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Andrews, Dana G.; Zubrin, Robert M.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> sail, or magsail, is a field effect device which interacts with the ambient solar wind or interstellar medium over a considerable volume of space to generate drag and lift forces. Two theories describing the method of thrust generation are analyzed and data results are presented. The techniques for maintaining superconductor temperatures in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space are analyzed and low risk options presented. Comparisons are presented showing mission performance differences between currently proposed spacecraft using chemical and electric propulsion systems, and a Magsail propelled spacecraft capable of generating an <span class="hlt">average</span> thrust of 250 Newtons at a radius of one A.U. The magsail also provides unique capabilities for interstellar missions, in that at relativistic speeds the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field would ionize and deflect the interstellar medium producing a large drag force. This would make it an ideal brake for decelerating a spacecraft from relativistic speeds and then maneuvering within the target star system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870067052&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcane','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870067052&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcane"><span id="translatedtitle">Energetic <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks, radio emission, and coronal mass ejections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cane, H. V.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.; Howard, R. A.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks which generate detectable low-frequency radio emission, represent as a group, the most energetic shocks produced by the sun. For all <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) shocks which generated so-called IP type II events, the associated solar events involved fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In comparison with the set of all CMEs detected by the Solwind coronagraph, the CMEs associated with IP type II events are the most massive and energetic. The majority belong to the structural classes described by the Solwind researchers as 'curved front' or 'halo'.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800063628&hterms=monsanto&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmonsanto','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800063628&hterms=monsanto&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmonsanto"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust collected in the earth's stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fraundorf, P.; Patel, R. I.; Shirck, J.; Walker, R. M.; Freeman, J. J.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Optical absorption spectra of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles 2-30 microns in size collected in the atmosphere at an altitude of 20 km by inertial impactors mounted on NASA U-2 aircraft are reported. Fourier transform absorption spectroscopy of crushed samples of the particles reveals a broad feature in the region 1300-800 kaysers which has also been found in meteorite and cometary dust spectra, and a weak iron crystal field absorption band at approximately 9800 kaysers, as is observed in meteorites. Work is currently in progress to separate the various components of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles in order to evaluate separately their contributions to the absorption.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010128','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010128"><span id="translatedtitle">The Radiation, <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) Toolset</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zank, G. P.; Spann, James F.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this project is to serve the needs of space system designers and operators by developing an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> radiation environment model within 10 AU:Radiation, <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) toolset: (1) The RISCS toolset will provide specific reference environments for space system designers and nowcasting and forecasting capabilities for space system operators; (2) We envision the RISCS toolset providing the spatial and temporal radiation environment external to the Earth's (and other planets') magnetosphere, as well as possessing the modularity to integrate separate applications (apps) that can map to specific magnetosphere locations and/or perform the subsequent radiation transport and dosimetry for a specific target.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130014120','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130014120"><span id="translatedtitle">Linked Autonomous <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Satellite Orbit Navigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Parker, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, Rodney L.; Born, George H.; Leonard, Jason M.; McGranaghan, Ryan M.; Fujimoto, Kohei</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A navigation technology known as LiAISON (Linked Autonomous <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Satellite Orbit Navigation) has been known to produce very impressive navigation results for scenarios involving two or more cooperative satellites near the Moon, such that at least one satellite must be in an orbit significantly perturbed by the Earth, such as a lunar halo orbit. The two (or more) satellites track each other using satellite-to-satellite range and/or range-rate measurements. These relative measurements yield absolute orbit navigation when one of the satellites is in a lunar halo orbit, or the like. The geometry between a lunar halo orbiter and a GEO satellite continuously changes, which dramatically improves the information content of a satellite-to-satellite tracking signal. The geometrical variations include significant out-of-plane shifts, as well as inplane shifts. Further, the GEO satellite is almost continuously in view of a lunar halo orbiter. High-fidelity simulations demonstrate that LiAISON technology improves the navigation of GEO orbiters by an order of magnitude, relative to standard ground tracking. If a GEO satellite is navigated using LiAISON- only tracking measurements, its position is typically known to better than 10 meters. If LiAISON measurements are combined with simple radiometric ground observations, then the satellite s position is typically known to better than 3 meters, which is substantially better than the current state of GEO navigation. There are two features of LiAISON that are novel and advantageous compared with conventional satellite navigation. First, ordinary satellite-to-satellite tracking data only provides relative navigation of each satellite. The novelty is the placement of one navigation satellite in an orbit that is significantly perturbed by both the Earth and the Moon. A navigation satellite can track other satellites elsewhere in the Earth-Moon system and acquire knowledge about both satellites absolute positions and velocities, as well as relative positions and velocities in space. The second novelty is that ordinarily one requires many satellites in order to achieve full navigation of any given customer s position and velocity over time. With LiAISON navigation, only a single navigation satellite is needed, provided that the satellite is significantly affected by the gravity of the Earth and the Moon. That single satellite can track another satellite elsewhere in the Earth- Moon system and obtain absolute knowledge of both satellites states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2256053B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2256053B"><span id="translatedtitle">Water and organics in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bradley, John P.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> dust particles (IDPs) and larger micrometeorites (MMs) impinge on the upper atmosphere where they decelerate at ~90 km altitude and settle to the Earth’s surface. Comets and asteroids are the major sources and the flux, 30,000-40,000 tons/yr, is comparable to the mass of larger meteorites impacting the Earth’s surface. The sedimentary record suggests that the flux was much higher on the early Earth. The chondritic porous (CP) subset of IDPs together with their larger counterparts, ultracarbonaceous micrometeorites (UCMMs), appear to be unique among known meteoritic materials in that they are composed almost exclusively of anhydrous minerals, some of them contain >> 50% organic carbon by volume as well as the highest abundances of presolar silicate grains including GEMS. D/H and 15N abundances implicate the Oort Cloud or presolar molecular cloud as likely sources of the organic carbon. Prior to atmospheric entry, IDPs and MMs spend ~104-105 year lifetimes in solar orbit where their surfaces develop amorphous space weathered rims from exposure to the solar wind (SW). Similar rims are observed on lunar soil grains and on asteroid Itokawa regolith grains. Using valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) we have detected radiolytic water in the rims on IDPs formed by the interaction of solar wind protons with oxygen in silicate minerals. Therefore, IDPs and MMs continuously deliver both water and organics to the earth and other terrestrial planets. The interaction of protons with oxygen-rich minerals to form water is a universal process.Affiliations:a University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, 1680 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.b National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.c Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.d Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.e Advanced Light Source Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EP%26S...67..117K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EP%26S...67..117K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> particle transport simulation for warning system for aviation exposure to solar energetic particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kubo, Yûki; Kataoka, Ryuho; Sato, Tatsuhiko</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Solar energetic particles (SEPs) are one of the extreme space weather phenomena. A huge SEP event increases the radiation dose received by aircrews, who should be warned of such events as early as possible. We developed a warning system for aviation exposure to SEPs. This article describes one component of the system, which calculates the temporal evolution of the SEP intensity and the spectrum immediately outside the terrestrial magnetosphere. To achieve this, we performed numerical simulations of SEP transport in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space, in which <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> SEP transport is described by the focused transport equation. We developed a new simulation code to solve the equation using a set of stochastic differential equations. In the code, the focused transport equation is expressed in a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field line coordinate system, which is a non-orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. An inverse Gaussian distribution is employed as the injection profile of SEPs at an inner boundary located near the Sun. We applied the simulation to observed SEP events as a validation test. The results show that our simulation can closely reproduce observational data for the temporal evolution of particle intensity. By employing the code, we developed the WArning System for AVIation Exposure to Solar energetic particles (WASAVIES).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P31C1905I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P31C1905I"><span id="translatedtitle">On the correlation between <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> nano dust particles and solar wind properties from STEREO/SWAVES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Issautier, K.; LE CHAT, G.; Meyer-Vernet, N.; Belheouane, S.; Zaslavsky, A.; Zouganelis, I.; Mann, I.; Maksimovic, M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Dust particles provide an important fraction of the matter composing the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium, their mass density at 1 AU being comparable to the one of the solar wind. Among them, dusts of nanometer size-scale can be detected using radio and plasma waves instruments because they move at roughly the solar wind speed. The high velocity impact of a dust particle generates a small crater on the spacecraft: the dust particle and the crater material are vaporized. This produces a plasma cloud whose associated electrical charge induces an electric pulse measured with radio and plasma instruments. Since their first detection in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium (Meyer-Vernet et al. 2009), nanodusts have been routinely measured using STEREO/WAVES instrument (Zaslavsky et al. 2012) We present the nanodust properties during the 2007-2012 period on STEREO. Since the maximum size of the plasma cloud is larger for smaller local solar wind density, we expect to observe an anticorrelation between the detected voltage amplitude and the ambient solar wind density, as suggested recently by Le Chat et al. (2012). Moreover, the variations in solar wind speed and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field are expected to affect the nano dust dynamics. Using STEREO/WAVES/Low Frequency Receiver (LFR) data, we study correlations of in situ solar wind properties and detection of nanodust impacts as well as some possible effects of Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) on nanodusts acceleration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21452644','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21452644"><span id="translatedtitle">SOLAR WIND DRAG AND THE KINEMATICS OF <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Maloney, Shane A.; Gallagher, Peter T.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large-scale ejections of plasma and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field from the solar corona, which propagate through <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space at velocities of {approx}100-2500 km s{sup -1}. Although plane-of-sky coronagraph measurements have provided some insight into their kinematics near the Sun (<32 R {sub sun}), it is still unclear what forces govern their evolution during both their early acceleration and later propagation. Here, we use the dual perspectives of the STEREO spacecraft to derive the three-dimensional kinematics of CMEs over a range of heliocentric distances ({approx}2-250 R {sub sun}). We find evidence for solar wind (SW) drag forces acting in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space, with a fast CME decelerated and a slow CME accelerated toward typical SW velocities. We also find that the fast CME showed linear ({delta} = 1) dependence on the velocity difference between the CME and the SW, while the slow CME showed a quadratic ({delta} = 2) dependence. The differing forms of drag for the two CMEs indicate the forces responsible for their acceleration may be different.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TESS....121107P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TESS....121107P"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of possible injection of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> oxygen into the inner magnetosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Patterson, James Douglas; Manweiler, Jerry Wayne; Gerrard, Andrew; Bonnell, John; Bounds, Scott; Gkioulidou, Matina; Mitchell, Donald G.; Lanzerotti, Louis J.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>With the Advanced Composition Explorer's (ACE) Electron Proton and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument being in a halo orbit about L1 and the Van Allen Probe's Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument being in an eccentric orbit through the inner magnetosphere, the two instruments are situated perfectly for observing the inner magnetospheric response to energetic <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> particle events. Both instruments are designed to measure electrons and ions with energies between tens of keV and a few MeV, depending upon particle species. Using a new data analysis technique we've developed, the EPAM instrument can provide high energy-resolution, species-resolved energy spectra for a number of ion species including helium and oxygen which RBSPICE is designed to observe. Between May 22nd and 26th of 2013, EPAM observed an energetic particle event with a nearly flat energy spectra and greatly enhanced helium and oxygen composition. RBSPICE measured a strong surge in oxygen flux, but saw no correspondingly strong increase in the helium flux. We present a detailed analysis and comparison of the energetic ion spectra, composition, and timing measured by the ACE and the Van Allen Probes instruments in conjunction with <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and energetic particle measurements from other spacecraft for this event, and provide a discussion on the injection of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> oxygen into the inner magnetosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.3489C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.3489C"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of a slow <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejection on Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Collinson, Glyn A.; Grebowsky, Joseph; Sibeck, David G.; Jian, Lan K.; Boardsen, Scott; Espley, Jared; Hartle, Dick; Zhang, Tielong L.; Barabash, Stas; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Kollmann, Peter</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>We present Venus Express observations of the impact of a slow <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejection (ICME), which struck Venus on 23 December 2006, creating unusual quasi steady state upstream conditions for the 2 h close to periapsis: an enhanced (˜ nT) <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF), radially aligned with the Sun-Venus line; and a dense (˜ cm-3) solar wind. Contrary to our current understanding and expectations, the ionosphere became partially demagnetized. We also find evidence for shocked sheathlike solar wind protons and electrons in the wake of Venus, and powerful (? nT2/Hz) foreshock whistler mode waves radiating from the bow shock at an unexpectedly low frequency (0.6 Hz). Given the abnormally high density of escaping heavy ions at the magnetopause boundary (295 cm-3, one of the highest of the whole mission) and the enhanced density of escaping heavy ions in the wake, we find that even weak ICMEs with no driving shocks can increase atmospheric loss rates at Venus and suggests that the Bx component of the IMF may be a factor in atmospheric escape rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364464','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364464"><span id="translatedtitle">DIFFUSIVE SHOCK ACCELERATION OF HIGH-ENERGY CHARGED PARTICLES AT FAST <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> SHOCKS: A PARAMETER SURVEY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Giacalone, Joe</p> <p>2015-01-20</p> <p>We present results from numerical simulations of the acceleration of solar energetic particles (SEPs) associated with strong, fast, and radially propagating <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks. We focus on the phase of the SEP event at the time of the shock passage at 1 AU, which is when the peak intensity at energies below a few MeV is the highest. The shocks in our study start between 2 and 10 solar radii and propagate beyond 1 AU. We study the effect of various shock and particle input parameters, such as the spatial diffusion coefficient, shock speed, solar wind speed, initial location of the shock, and shock deceleration rate, on the total integrated differential intensity, I, of SEPs with kinetic energies > 10 MeV. I is the integral over energy of the differential intensity spectrum at the time of the shock passage at 1 AU. We find that relatively small changes in the parameters can lead to significant event-to-event changes in I. For example, a factor of 2 increase in the diffusion coefficient at a given energy and spatial location, can lead to a decrease in I by as much as a factor of 50. This may help explain why there are fewer large SEP events seen during the current solar maximum compared to previous maxima. It is known that the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field is noticeably weaker this solar cycle than it was in the previous cycle and this will naturally lead to a somewhat larger diffusion coefficient of SEPs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015P%26SS..115....4G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015P%26SS..115....4G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> shock-bow shock interaction: Comparison of a global MHD model and observation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goncharov, O.; Šafránková, J.; N?me?ek, Z.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>A fast forward shock passing through the bow shock would generate a train of new discontinuities that differ with the distance from the Sun-Earth line. However, <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) shocks are often followed by a rotation of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) over a large angle and a presence of this rotation can modify the interaction process. The present paper analyzes in detail one IP shock where data measured by Wind are used as an input to a global BATS-R-US MHD model and the model prediction is compared with Geotail magnetosheath observations. The study is based on three runs of the global MHD model that use different modifications of upstream conditions. We have found that (1) about 45% of IP shocks is followed by a significant IMF rotation within 15 min after the shock ramp; (2) the IMF rotation modifies the dynamics of the magnetospheric response to the IP shock arrival; (3) a train of new discontinuities created by an interaction of the IP shock with bow shock can be identified in MHD simulations as well as in the experimental data; and (4) a new discontinuity is created by the interaction of the IMF rotation with the bow shock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011510','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011510"><span id="translatedtitle">Design of the VISITOR Tool: A Versatile ImpulSive <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Trajectory OptimizeR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Corpaccioli, Luca; Linskens, Harry; Komar, David R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The design of trajectories for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> missions represents one of the most complex and important problems to solve during conceptual space mission design. To facilitate conceptual mission sizing activities, it is essential to obtain sufficiently accurate trajectories in a fast and repeatable manner. To this end, the VISITOR tool was developed. This tool modularly augments a patched conic MGA-1DSM model with a mass model, launch window analysis, and the ability to simulate more realistic arrival and departure operations. This was implemented in MATLAB, exploiting the built-in optimization tools and vector analysis routines. The chosen optimization strategy uses a grid search and pattern search, an iterative variable grid method. A genetic algorithm can be selectively used to improve search space pruning, at the cost of losing the repeatability of the results and increased computation time. The tool was validated against seven flown missions: the <span class="hlt">average</span> total mission (Delta)V offset from the nominal trajectory was 9.1%, which was reduced to 7.3% when using the genetic algorithm at the cost of an increase in computation time by a factor 5.7. It was found that VISITOR was well-suited for the conceptual design of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> trajectories, while also facilitating future improvements due to its modular structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950028705&hterms=irm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dirm','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950028705&hterms=irm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dirm"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetosheath <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sibeck, D. G.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A case study using simulations IRM and CCE observations demonstrates that transient magnetospheric events correspond to pressure pulses in the magnetosheath, inward bow shock motion, and magnetopause compression. Statistical surveys indicate that the magnetosheath <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field orientation rarely remains constant during periods of magnetopause and bow shock motion (both characterized by periods of 1 to 10 min). There is no tendency for bow shock motion to occur for southward <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) orientations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810040378&hterms=streaming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dstreaming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810040378&hterms=streaming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dstreaming"><span id="translatedtitle">Bi-directional streaming of solar wind electrons greater than 80 eV - ISEE evidence for a closed-field structure within the driver gas of an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bame, S. J.; Asbridge, J. R.; Feldman, W. C.; Gosling, J. T.; Zwickl, R. D.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>In near time coincidence with the arrival of helium enriched plasma driving the shock wave disturbance of November 12-13, 1978, strong bi-directional streaming of solar wind electrons greater than about 80 eV was observed with Los Alamos instrumentation on ISEE 3. The streaming persisted for many hours simultaneously parallel and anti-parallel to the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field which was directed roughly perpendicular to the sun-satellite line. This example of bidirectional streaming cannot be explained by field line connection to the earth's bow shock or the outward propagating <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock which passed ISEE 3 approximately 16 hours earlier. The event is explained if the local <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> field was a part of a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> bottle rooted at the sun or a disconnected loop propagating outward.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007CQGra..24.1023B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007CQGra..24.1023B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Averaging</span> anisotropic cosmologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrow, John D.; Tsagas, Christos G.</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>We examine the effects of spatial inhomogeneities on irrotational anisotropic cosmologies by looking at the <span class="hlt">average</span> properties of anisotropic pressure-free models. Adopting the Buchert scheme, we recast the <span class="hlt">averaged</span> scalar equations in Bianchi-type form and close the standard system by introducing a propagation formula for the <span class="hlt">average</span> shear magnitude. We then investigate the evolution of anisotropic <span class="hlt">average</span> vacuum models and those filled with pressureless matter. In the latter case we show that the backreaction effects can modify the familiar Kasner-like singularity and potentially remove Mixmaster-type oscillations. The presence of nonzero <span class="hlt">average</span> shear in our equations also allows us to examine the constraints that a phase of backreaction-driven accelerated expansion might put on the anisotropy of the <span class="hlt">averaged</span> domain. We close by assessing the status of these and other attempts to define and calculate '<span class="hlt">average</span>' spacetime behaviour in general relativity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060029736&hterms=makes+ship+rock&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmakes%2Bship%2Brock','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060029736&hterms=makes+ship+rock&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmakes%2Bship%2Brock"><span id="translatedtitle">Lunar sample return via the <span class="hlt">interPlanetary</span> superhighway</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lo, M. W.; Chung, M. K.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The Lunar Sample Return mission consists of two spacecraft, a communications module, and a lander/sample return module carried to the Moon by another ship. Knowledge of the <span class="hlt">InterPlanetary</span> Superhighway tunnels and their dynamics provided a quick back-of-the-envelope estimation of the timing and costing of such libration missions which compared well with fully integrated solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://strategic.mit.edu/spacelogistics/pdf/Taylor_SpaceOps2006.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://strategic.mit.edu/spacelogistics/pdf/Taylor_SpaceOps2006.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Logistics: A Mathematical Model for Mission Planning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>de Weck, Olivier L.</p> <p></p> <p>Modeling <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Logistics: A Mathematical Model for Mission Planning Christine Taylor, Miao design is how to best design the logistics required to sustain the exploration initiative. Using terrestrial logistics modeling tools that have been extended to encompass the dynamics and requirements</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://spacelogistics.mit.edu/pdf/Taylor_SOLE2006new2.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://spacelogistics.mit.edu/pdf/Taylor_SOLE2006new2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Mathematical Model for <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Logistics Ms. Christine Taylor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>de Weck, Olivier L.</p> <p></p> <p>A Mathematical Model for <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Logistics Ms. Christine Taylor Research Assistant. A primary question for space exploration mission design is how to best design the logistics re- quired to sustain the exploration initiative. Using terrestrial logistics modeling tools that have been extended</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gg.caltech.edu/~mwl/publications/papers/IPSAndOrigins.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.gg.caltech.edu/~mwl/publications/papers/IPSAndOrigins.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">InterPlanetary</span> Superhighway and the Origins Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Lo, Martin</p> <p></p> <p>for detecting exo-planets, an important role in the development of life, and other scientific and engineering SYSTEM 6. IPS APPROACH TO PLANET DETECTION 7. IPS: THE RIVER OF LIFE 8. IPS AND SCIENCE & ENGINEERING 9.Lo@jpl.nasa.gov Figure 1. Artist's conception of portions of the <span class="hlt">InterPlanetary</span> Superhighway (IPS, tubes) of the Sun-Earth</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720006153&hterms=Theory+relativity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DTheory%2Brelativity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720006153&hterms=Theory+relativity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DTheory%2Brelativity"><span id="translatedtitle">Applications of presently planned <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> missions to testing gravitational theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Friedman, L. D.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>A summary of the probable <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> missions for the 1970's is presented, which may prove useful in testing the general theory of relativity. Mission characteristics are discussed, as well as instrumentation. This last includes a low-level accelerometer and S-/X-band transponders and antennas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060029791&hterms=Internet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DInternet','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060029791&hterms=Internet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DInternet"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> internet: a proposed strategy for standardization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hooke, A. J.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This paper reviews the current set of standard data communications capabilities that exist to support advanced missions, discusses the architectural concepts for the future <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Internet, and suggests how a standardized set of space communications protocols that can grow to support future scenarios where human intelligence is widely distributed across the Solar System.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUTB..28..112G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUTB..28..112G"><span id="translatedtitle">Division II: Commission 49: <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Plasma and the Heliosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk; Mann, Ingrid; Bougeret, Jean-Louis; Briand, Carine; Lallement, Rosine; Lario, David; Manoharan, P. K.; Shibata, Kazunari; Webb, David F.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The President of IAU Commission 49 (C49; <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Plasma and the Heliosphere), Nat Gopalswamy, chaired the business meeting of C10, which took place on August 23, 2012 in the venue of the IAU General Assembly in Beijing (2:00 - 3:30 PM, Room 405).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMSH23A1944B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMSH23A1944B"><span id="translatedtitle">3-D model of ICME in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borgazzi, A.; Lara, A.; Niembro, T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We developed a method that describes with simply geometry the coordinates of intersection between the leading edge of an ICME and the position of an arbitrary satellite. When a fast CME is ejected from the Sun to the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space in most of the cases drives a shock. As the CME moves in the corona and later in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space more material is stacking in the front and edges of the ejecta. In a first approximation, it is possible to assume the shape of these structures, the CME and the stacked material as a cone of revolution, (the ice-cream model [Schwenn et al., (2005)]). The interface may change due to the interaction of the structure and the non-shocked material in front of the ICME but the original shape of a cone of revolution is preserved. We assume, in a three dimensional geometry, an ice-cream cone shape for the ICME and apply an analytical model for its transport in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium. The goal of the present method is to give the time and the intersection coordinates between the leading edge of the ICME and any satellite that may be in the path of the ICME. With this information we can modelate the travel of the ICME in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space using STEREO data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..744G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..744G"><span id="translatedtitle">CLIpSAT for <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Missions: Common Low-cost <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Spacecraft with Autonomy Technologies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grasso, C.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Blue Sun Enterprises, Inc. is creating a common deep space bus capable of a wide variety of Mars, asteroid, and comet science missions, observational missions in and near GEO, and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> delivery missions. The spacecraft are modular and highly autonomous, featuring a common core and optional expansion for variable-sized science or commercial payloads. Initial spacecraft designs are targeted for Mars atmospheric science, a Phobos sample return mission, geosynchronous reconnaissance, and en-masse delivery of payloads using packetized propulsion modules. By combining design, build, and operations processes for these missions, the cost and effort for creating the bus is shared across a variety of initial missions, reducing overall costs. A CLIpSAT can be delivered to different orbits and still be able to reach <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> targets like Mars due to up to 14.5 km/sec of delta-V provided by its high-ISP Xenon ion thruster(s). A 6U version of the spacecraft form fits PPOD-standard deployment systems, with up to 9 km/s of delta-V. A larger 12-U (with the addition of an expansion module) enables higher overall delta-V, and has the ability to jettison the expansion module and return to the Earth-Moon system from Mars orbit with the main spacecraft. CLIpSAT utilizes radiation-hardened electronics and RF equipment, 140+ We of power at earth (60 We at Mars), a compact navigation camera that doubles as a science imager, and communications of 2000 bps from Mars to the DSN via X-band. This bus could form the cornerstone of a large number asteroid survey projects, comet intercept missions, and planetary observation missions. The TugBot architecture uses groups of CLIpSATs attached to payloads lacking innate high-delta-V propulsion. The TugBots use coordinated trajectory following by each individual spacecraft to move the payload to the desired orbit - for example, a defense asset might be moved from GEO to lunar transfer orbit in order to protect and hide it, then returned to a useful GEO orbit as a replacement for a failed GEO asset. <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> payload delivery can be undertaken by arraying these spacecraft buses, then staging each one. This approach is implemented by using CLIpSATs as propulsion "packets", delivered independently to low earth orbit and directed to rendezvous individually with a structure. Once all packets have attached themselves, the ensemble burns to follow a trajectory, delivering the payload to the desired planetary or heliocentric orbit. Autonomy technologies in CLIpSAT software include Virtual Machine Language 3 (VML 3) sequencing, JPL AutoNav software, optical navigation, ephemeris tracking, trajectory replanning, maneuver execution, advanced state-driven sequencing, expert systems, and fail-operational strategies. These technologies enable small teams to operate large numbers of spacecraft and lessen the need for the deep knowledge normally required. The consortium building CLIpSAT includes Blue Sun Enterprises, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Millennium Space Systems, the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, and the Southwest Research Institute.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSM22B..02Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSM22B..02Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast Acceleration of ``Killer'' Electrons and Energetic Ions by <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shock Stimulated ULF Waves in the Inner Magnetosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zong, Q.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Energetic electrons and ions in the Van Allen radiation belt are the number one space weather threat. How the energetic particles are accelerated in the Van Allen radiation belts is one of major problems in the space physics. Very Low Frequency (VLF) wave-particle interaction has been considered as one of primary electron acceleration mechanisms because electron cyclotron resonances can easily occur in the VLF frequency range. However, recently, by using four Cluster spacecraft observations, we have found that after <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks impact on the Earth’s magnetosphere, the acceleration of the energetic electrons in the radiation belt started nearly immediately and lasted for a few hours. The time scale (a few days) for traditional acceleration mechanism of VLF wave-particle interaction, as proposed by Horne et al. [1], to accelerate electrons to relativistic energies is too long to explain the observations. It is further found that <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks or solar wind pressure pulses with even small dynamic pressure change can play a non-negligible role in the radiation belt dynamics. <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> shocks interact with and the Earth’s magnetosphere manifests many fundamental important space physics phenomena including energetic particle acceleration. The mechanism of fast acceleration of energetic electrons in the radiation belt response to <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock impact contains three contributing parts: (1) the initial adiabatic acceleration due to the strong shock-related <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field compression; (2) then followed by the drift-resonant acceleration with poloidal ULF waves excited at different L-shells; and (3) particle acceleration due to fast damping electric fields associated with ULF waves. Particles will have a net acceleration since particles in the second half circle will not lose all of the energy gained in the first half cycle. The results reported in this paper cast new lights on understanding the acceleration of energetic particles in the Earth’s Van Allen radiation belt. The results of this study can be widely used in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock interacting with other planets such as Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, and other astrophysical objects with <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009DPS....41.1633E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009DPS....41.1633E"><span id="translatedtitle">Planetary Science Decadal Survey White Paper: <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Dust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Espy, Ashley J.; Graps, A.; Altobelli, N.; Blum, J.; Brownlee, D.; Campins, H.; Close, S.; Cooke, W.; Dermott, S.; Drolshagen, G.; Grün, E.; Hamilton, D.; Horányi, M.; Hedman, M.; Jenniskens, P.; Kehoe, T.; Kortenkamp, S.; Krüger, H.; Kuchner, M.; Liou, J.; Lisse, C.; Madsen, G.; Mann, I.; May, B.; Meyer-Vernet, N.; Nesvorny, D.; Palumbo, P.; Reach, W.; Russell, C.; Srama, R.; Sykes, M.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J.; Vaubaillon, J.; Weaver, H.; Zolensky, M.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The goal of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust decadal survey white paper is to define the main questions facing the field over the next 10 years and determine what focus of reasearch, technology, and mission resources will best address these questions. <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> dust particles (IDPs), largely collected near the Earth's orbit and on the Earth itself, represent the most inexpensive sample return mission from a diversity of targets. The work in this field will thus focus on the collection and analysis of these particles (which yield information on the sources producing them), and the use of observations and dynamically modeling of the dust cloud (which helps link the IDPs to their sources). The main science questions in the study of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust that will guide research efforts are as follows: What is the detailed composition of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust? How are <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles generated, how do they evolve dynamically, and what are the dominant loss mechanisms? What are the relative contributions of dust particles from each source to the zodiacal cloud as a whole? What is the global structure of the cloud and how does it compare to exo-zodiacal clouds? In order to address these main science questions, the community needs continued R&A support of investigations into the nature of dust in the solar system. Specific areas of focus for research and technology support are: continued collection and analysis IDPs, support for ground- and space-based observing facilities and instruments, support for dynamical modeling, and support for development of technologies for improvement in IDP collection and analysis. Mission emphasis over the next decade is on New Frontiers or Flagship-class missions to the outer solar system ? with instruments capable of studying the outer cloud and Discovery class near-Earth space facilities to take advantage of the full range of IDPs in the vicinity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1511.03123.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1511.03123.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Propagation of energetic electrons from the corona into <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space and type III radio emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Breitling, F; Vocks, C</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>During solar flares a large amount of electrons with energies greater than 20 keV is generated with a production rate of typically $10^{36}$ s$^{-1}$. A part of them is able to propagate along open <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field lines through the corona into <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space. During their travel they emit radio radiation which is observed as type III radio bursts in the frequency range from 100 MHz down to 10 kHz by the WAVES radio spectrometer aboard the spacecraft WIND, for instance. From the drift rates of these bursts in dynamic radio spectra the radial propagation velocity $V_r$ of the type III burst exciting electrons is derived by employing a newly developed density model of the heliosphere. Calculations show that the radio radiation is emitted by electrons with different $V_r$ and therefore by different electrons of the initially produced electron distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.443L.109C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.443L.109C"><span id="translatedtitle">A temporary earth co-orbital linked to <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> field enhancements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Connors, M.; Russell, C. T.; Lai, H. R.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Near-Earth asteroid 138175 (2000 EE104) will soon be temporarily resonant with Earth, but has a much longer residence in an orbit which features a trapping behaviour with frequent Earth and Venus encounters. The object has been identified as a possible source of material for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> field enhancements, a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> phenomenon in the solar wind inferred to be due to dust arising from secondary collisions with 10-m scale objects injected into its path. Its horseshoe libration will be reversed by a very close encounter with Venus in 2251 CE. We characterize the orbit of this asteroid, model the dispersion of the primary collision products along its path, and discuss the non-gravitational motion of secondary dust in the solar wind.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880037999&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcane','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880037999&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcane"><span id="translatedtitle">The large-scale structure of flare-associated <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cane, H. V.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The large-scale structure of flare-associated <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks is investigated by examining the properties of 116 shocks which originated in solar flare events during a 18.7-year period commencing mid-May 1967. The best <span class="hlt">average</span> representation of these shocks is an expansion which is uniform over about 100 deg. The highest compression ratio across the shock is about 15 deg west of the radial from the flare site. The loose coupling of shocks and their drivers is supported by the observation that drivers are generally only detected for shocks originating near central meridian. A comparison of the numbers of shocks per year with the numbers of sudden commencement geomagnetic storms indicates that the percentage of shocks at 1 AU which originate in flare events is less than 50 percent. Many shock-flare associations made in the past are probably in error.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900023755&hterms=seed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dseed','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900023755&hterms=seed&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dseed"><span id="translatedtitle">Seed population for about 1 MeV per nucleon heavy ions accelerated by <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Klecker, B.; Hovestadt, D.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Data obtained between 1977 and 1982 by the ISEE 1 and ISEE 3 satellites on the composition of heavy ions of about 1 MeV per nucleon, accelerated in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock events which followed solar flare events, are examined. It was found that the <span class="hlt">average</span> relative abundances for C, O, and Fe in the shock events were very close to those found for energetic ions in the solar flares, suggesting that, at these energies, the shock accelerated particles have the solar energetic particles as their seed population. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that the Fe/O ratio in the solar particle events is very strongly correlated with the Fe/O ratio in associated diffusive shock events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1436..273S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1436..273S"><span id="translatedtitle">Power-law spatial profile in an upstream region of CME-driven <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sugiyama, Tooru; Shiota, Daikou</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>We study the density decay profile of energetic particles in the upstream region of an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock on 14 Dec 2006 observed by the ACE spacecraft at 1 AU. The spatial decay profile of the energetic particle flux does not exhibit an exponential behavior as expected for the standard diffusive shock acceleration process but a power-law behavior in anomalous or superdiffusive transport. The power-law profiles are observed for not only the energetic ions reported in Sugiyama & Shiota (2011) but also heavier ions of He2+, CNO, and Fe. We observe the relation <?x2> ~ t? for ? ~ 1.24-1.72, where ?x is the particle displacement within the time scale t, and the bracket denotes an ensemble <span class="hlt">average</span>. This implies that particle propagation around a near-earth orbit can be intermediate between normal diffusion (? = 1) and ballistic motion (? equals 2).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21378345','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21378345"><span id="translatedtitle">THE IRRADIATION-INDUCED OLIVINE TO AMORPHOUS PYROXENE TRANSFORMATION PRESERVED IN AN <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> DUST PARTICLE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>Amorphization of crystalline olivine to glass with a pyroxene composition is well known from high-energy irradiation experiments. This report is on the first natural occurrence of this process preserved in a chondritic aggregate <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particle. The Fe-rich olivine grain textures and compositions and the glass grain compositions delineate this transformation that yielded glass with Fe-rich pyroxene compositions. The <span class="hlt">average</span> glass composition, (Mg, Fe){sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}, is a serpentine-dehydroxylate with O/Si = 3.56 +- 0.25, (Mg+Fe)/Si = 1.53 +- 0.24, and Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.74 +- 0.1. These measured atomic ratios match the ratios that have been proposed for amorphous interstellar silicate grains very well, albeit the measured Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratio is lower than was proposed for amorphous interstellar silicate grains, Mg/(Mg+Fe) > 0.9.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Ge%26Ae..48..175S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Ge%26Ae..48..175S"><span id="translatedtitle">Parameters of the near-earth <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium under quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shevnin, A. D.; Kharin, E. P.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>The distributions of the parameters of the solar wind, IMF, and physical fields ( E y component of the SW electric field, compression field DCF) and the rms errors (?) of measurements, depending on the daily characteristic of geomagnetic disturbance ( Cp), are considered. The scatter of parameters in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium (IM) is actually considerable even during a long interval of geomagnetic quiet. It has been indicated that an unambiguous correspondence between the IM parameters and the characteristic of geomagnetic activity on the Earth is absent, and we have only tendencies toward an increase (decrease) in the parameter of the near-Earth medium (physical quantity) with increasing geomagnetic activity. These tendencies are transformed into linear relationships only after the three-fold <span class="hlt">averaging</span> of values (hourly, daily, annual), which corresponds to numerous equations of relation between IM parameters and different geomagnetic indices, obtained by many researchers based on statistical analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770044460&hterms=1076&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231076','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770044460&hterms=1076&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231076"><span id="translatedtitle">Consequences of using nonlinear particle trajectories to compute spatial diffusion coefficients. [for cosmic ray propagation in interstellar and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldstein, M. L.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>In a study of cosmic ray propagation in interstellar and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space, a perturbed orbit resonant scattering theory for pitch angle diffusion in a slab model of magnetostatic turbulence is slightly generalized and used to compute the diffusion coefficient for spatial propagation parallel to the mean <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. This diffusion coefficient has been useful for describing the solar modulation of the galactic cosmic rays, and for explaining the diffusive phase in solar flares in which the initial anisotropy of the particle distribution decays to isotropy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790022947','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790022947"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> particles and fields, November 22 - December 6, 1977: Helios, Voyager, and IMP observations between 0.6 AU and 1.6 AU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burlaga, L. F.; Lepping, R. P.; Weber, R.; Armstrong, T.; Goodrich, C.; Sullivan, J.; Gurnett, D.; Kellogg, P.; Keppler, E.; Mariani, F.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The principal <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> events observed are described and analyzed. Three flow systems were observed: (1) a corotating stream and a stream interface associated with a coronal hole; (2) a shock wave and an energetic particle event associated with a 2-B flare; and (3) an isolated shock wave of uncertain origin. Data from 28 experiments and 6 spacecraft provide measurements of solar wind plasma, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields, plasma waves, radio waves, energetic electrons, and low energy protons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740027148','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740027148"><span id="translatedtitle">Rotational bursting of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Paddack, S. J.; Rhee, J. W.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Solar radiation pressure is discussed as a cause of rotational bursting, and of eventual elimination of asymmetric dust particles from the solar system, by a windmill effect. The predicted life span with this process for metallic particles with radii of 0.00001 to 0.01 cm ranges from 10 to 10,000 years. The effects of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> spin damping were considered. This depletion mechanism works faster than the traditional Poynting-Robertson effect by approximately one order of magnitude for metallic particles and about two orders of magnitude for nonmetallic particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://lasp.colorado.edu/cism/text/Vassiliadis_2002_Long_Term_SAMPEX.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://lasp.colorado.edu/cism/text/Vassiliadis_2002_Long_Term_SAMPEX.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term-<span class="hlt">average</span>, solar cycle, and seasonal response of magnetospheric energetic electrons to the solar wind speed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Long-term-<span class="hlt">average</span>, solar cycle, and seasonal response of magnetospheric energetic electrons to the solar wind speed D. Vassiliadis,1 A. J. Klimas,2 S. G. Kanekal,3 D. N. Baker,3 and R. S. Weigel4. [1] Among the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> activity parameters the solar wind speed is the one best correlated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080025046&hterms=tec&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dtec','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080025046&hterms=tec&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dtec"><span id="translatedtitle">Global Dayside Ionospheric Uplift and Enhancement Associated with <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Electric Fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tsurutani, Bruce; Mannucci, Anthony; Iijima, Byron; Abdu, Mangalathayil Ali; Sobral, Jose Humberto A.; Gonzalez, Walter; Guarnieri, Fernando; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Saito, Akinori; Yumoto, Kiyohumi; Fejer, Bela; Fuller-Rowell, Timothy J.; Kozyra, Janet; Foster, John C.; Coster, Anthea; Vasyliunas, Vytenis M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock/electric field event of 5-6 November 2001 is analyzed using ACE <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> data. The consequential ionospheric effects are studied using GPS receiver data from the CHAMP and SAC-C satellites and altimeter data from the TOPEX/ Poseidon satellite. Data from 100 ground-based GPS receivers as well as Brazilian Digisonde and Pacific sector magnetometer data are also used. The dawn-to-dusk <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> electric field was initially 33 mV/m just after the forward shock (IMF BZ = -48 nT) and later reached a peak value of 54 mV/m 1 hour and 40 min later (BZ = -78 nT). The electric field was 45 mV/m (BZ = -65 nT) 2 hours after the shock. This electric field generated a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storm of intensity DST = -275 nT. The dayside satellite GPS receiver data plus ground-based GPS data indicate that the entire equatorial and midlatitude (up to +/-50(deg) <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> latitude (MLAT)) dayside ionosphere was uplifted, significantly increasing the electron content (and densities) at altitudes greater than 430 km (CHAMP orbital altitude). This uplift peaked 2 1/2 hours after the shock passage. The effect of the uplift on the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) lasted for 4 to 5 hours. Our hypothesis is that the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> electric field ''promptly penetrated'' to the ionosphere, and the dayside plasma was convected (by E x B) to higher altitudes. Plasma upward transport/convergence led to a 55-60% increase in equatorial ionospheric TEC to values above 430 km (at 1930 LT). This transport/convergence plus photoionization of atmospheric neutrals at lower altitudes caused a 21% TEC increase in equatorial ionospheric TEC at 1400 LT (from ground-based measurements). During the intense electric field interval, there was a sharp plasma ''shoulder'' detected at midlatitudes by the GPS receiver and altimeter satellites. This shoulder moves equatorward from -54(deg) to -37(deg) MLAT during the development of the main phase of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storm. We presume this to be an ionospheric signature of the plasmapause and its motion. The total TEC increase of this shoulder is 80%. Part of this increase may be due to a "superfountain effect." The dayside ionospheric TEC above 430 km decreased to values 45% lower than quiet day values 7 to 9 hours after the beginning of the electric field event. The total equatorial ionospheric TEC decrease was 16%. This decrease occurred both at midlatitudes and at the equator. We presume that thermospheric winds and neutral composition changes produced by the storm-time Joule heating, disturbance dynamo electric fields, and electric fields at auroral and subauroral latitudes are responsible for these decreases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830009164','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830009164"><span id="translatedtitle">Type 2 radio bursts, <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks and energetic particle events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cane, H. V.; Stone, R. G.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Using the ISEE-3 radio astronomy experiment data 37 <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) type II bursts have been identified in the period September 1978 to December 1981. These events and the associated phenomena are listed. The events are preceded by intense, soft X ray events with long decay times (LDEs) and type II and/or type IV bursts at meter wavelengths. The meter wavelength type II bursts are usually intense and exhibit herringbone structure. The extension of the herringbone structure into the kilometer wavelength range results in the occurrence of a shock accelerated (SA) event. The majority of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> type II bursts are associated with energetic particle events. These results support other studies which indicate that energetic solar particles detected at 1 A.U. are generated by shock acceleration. From a preliminary analysis of the available data there appears to be a high correlation with white light coronal transients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/266939','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/266939"><span id="translatedtitle">The solar origins of two high-latitude <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> disturbances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hudson, H.S.; Acton, L.W.; Alexander, D.; Harvey, K.L.; Kurokawa, H.; Kahler, S.; Lemen, J.R.</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>Two extremely similar <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> forward/reverse shock events, with bidirectional electron streaming were detected by Ulysses in 1994. Ground-based and Yohkoh/SXT observations show two strikingly different solar events that could be associated with them: an LDE flare on 20 Feb. 1994, and a extremely large-scale eruptive event on 14 April 1994. Both events resulted in geomagnetic storms and presumably were associated with coronal mass ejections. The sharply contrasting nature of these solar events argues against an energetic causal relationship between them and the bidirectional streaming events observed by Ulysses during its S polar passage. The authors suggest instead that for each pair of events. a common solar trigger may have caused independent instabilities leading to the solar and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> phenomena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740060920&hterms=much+nanogram&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmuch%2Bnanogram','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740060920&hterms=much+nanogram&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmuch%2Bnanogram"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> and near-Jupiter meteoroid environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Humes, D. H.; Alvarez, J. M.; Oneal, R. L.; Kinard, W. H.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The meteoroid penetration detectors on the Pioneer 10 spacecraft recorded 67 meteoroid penetrations through the 25-micron stainless steel test material while the spacecraft was between 1.0 and 5.1 AU. Ten of these penetrations occurred during the encounter with Jupiter. The cumulative spatial density of meteoroids with masses greater than 2 nanograms has been calculated from these data for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space and for the near-Jupiter space. The spatial density is found to be essentially constant in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space between 1 and 5 AU, approximately 1 meteoroid per cubic km, and 1-2 orders of magnitude greater near Jupiter. There was no increase in the spatial density of meteoroids in the asteroid belt and hence no evidence that there is a significant asteroidal component of 2-nanogram meteoroids. It is uncertain whether the meteoroids detected near Jupiter were in orbit about Jupiter or were gravitationally focused toward the planet from solar orbits.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...813...87Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...813...87Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Origin of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Dust through Optical Properties of Zodiacal Light</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Hongu; Ishiguro, Masateru</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>This study investigates the origin of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles (IDPs) through the optical properties, albedo and spectral gradient, of zodiacal light. The optical properties were compared with those of potential parent bodies in the solar system, which include D-type (as analogs of cometary nuclei), C-type, S-type, X-type, and B-type asteroids. We applied Bayesian inference to the mixture model composed of the distribution of these sources, and found that >90% of the IDPs originate from comets (or their spectral analogs, D-type asteroids). Although some classes of asteroids (C-type, X-type, and B-type) may make a moderate contribution, ordinary chondrite-like particles from S-type asteroids occupy a negligible fraction of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust cloud complex. The overall optical properties of the zodiacal light were similar to those of chondritic porous IDPs, supporting the dominance of cometary particles in the zodiacal cloud.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820033674&hterms=monsanto&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmonsanto','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820033674&hterms=monsanto&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmonsanto"><span id="translatedtitle">Infrared spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust in the laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fraundorf, P.; Patel, R. I.; Freeman, J. J.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A mount containing three crushed chondritic <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles (IDPs) collected in the earth's stratosphere and subjected to infrared spectroscopic measurements shows features near 1000 and 500/cm, suggesting crystalline pyroxene rather than crystalline olivine, amorphous olivine, or meteoritic clay minerals. Chondritic IDP structural diversity and atmospheric heating effects must be considered when comparing this spectrum with <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> and cometary dust astrophysical spectra. TEM and infrared observations of one member of the rare subset of IDPs resembling hydrated carbonaceous chondrite matrix material shows a close infrared spectrum resemblance between 4000 and 400/cm to the C2 meteorite Murchison. TEM observations suggest that this class of particles may be used as an atmospheric entry heating-process thermometer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SCPMA..53..187L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SCPMA..53..187L"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> scintillation with SSSF and SSDF mode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Lijia; Peng, Bo</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The sun has the biggest effect on the Earth in many ways. Observing the solar wind is an important method to study the solar-earth environment. Ground-based <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> scintillation observations are an effective method of monitoring solar wind speed, studying the random fluctuations of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> plasma and the structures of radio sources. Two modes of single-station observations, namely, single station-single frequency (SSSF) and single station dual-frequency (SSDF), are briefly introduced and numerically simulated in this paper. The SSSF mode are easier to carry out and has been widely used. Although the observing system and data processing system of the SSDF mode are more complicated, it can measure the solar wind speed more accurately. A new SSDF system is under construction in Miyun, NAOC (the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences), with a 50 m telescope, which will serve the Meridian Project, and this paper is devoted to preparing for this new system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860012006','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860012006"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of Travelling <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Phenomena (STIP) workshop travel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wu, S. T.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Thirty six abstracts are provided from the SCOSTEP/STIP Symposium on Retrospective Analyses and Future Coordinated Intervals held in Switzerland on June 10 to 12, 1985. Six American scientists participated in the symposium and their abstracts are also included. The titles of their papers are: (1) An analysis of near surface and coronal activity during STIP interval 12, by T. E. Gergely; (2) Helios images of STIP intervals 6, B. V. Jackson; (3) Results from the analysis of solar and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> observations during STIP interval 7, S. R. Kane; (4) STIP interval 19, E. Cliver; (5) Hydrodynamic buoyancy force in the solar atmosphere, T. Yeh; and (6) A combined MHD modes for the energy and momentum transport from solar surface to <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space, S. T. Wu.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940039122&hterms=thyroid&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dthyroid','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940039122&hterms=thyroid&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dthyroid"><span id="translatedtitle">Galactic cosmic ray radiation levels in spacecraft on <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> missions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shinn, J. L.; Nealy, J. E.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Wood, J.S.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Using the Langley Research Center Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) transport computer code (HZETRN) and the Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model, crew radiation levels inside manned spacecraft on <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> missions are estimated. These radiation-level estimates include particle fluxes, LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectra, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent within various organs of interest in GCR protection studies. Changes in these radiation levels resulting from the use of various different types of shield materials are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950004531','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950004531"><span id="translatedtitle">Workshop on the Analysis of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Dust Particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zolensky, Michael E. (editor)</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Great progress has been made in the analysis of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles (IDP's) over the past few years. This workshop provided a forum for the discussion of the following topics: observation and modeling of dust in the solar system, mineralogy and petrography of IDP's, processing of IDP's in the solar system and terrestrial atmosphere, comparison of IDP's to meteorites and micrometeorites, composition of IDP's, classification, and collection of IDP's.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5822649','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5822649"><span id="translatedtitle">Ring torque of Saturn from <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> meteoroid impact</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ip, W.H.</p> <p>1984-12-01</p> <p>Reevaluation of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> meteoroid mass flux at 10 AU obtains a value of M of about 60,000 g/sec for the meteoroid mass loading rate to the rings of Saturn. This meteoroid impact flux suggests that a large change to the configuration of the ring system could occur in a relatively short time (less than about one million years). This new element thus should be taken into consideration in discussion of the dynamical evolution of the rings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010026435','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010026435"><span id="translatedtitle">Asynchronous Laser Transponders for Precise <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Ranging and Time Transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Degnan, John J.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The feasibility of a two-way asynchronous (i.e. independently firing) <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> laser transponder pair, capable of decimeter ranging and subnanosecond time transfer from Earth to a spacecraft anywhere within the inner Solar System, is discussed. In the Introduction, we briefly discuss the current state-of-the-art in Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) which use single-ended range measurements to a passive optical reflector, and the limitations of this approach in ranging beyond the Moon to the planets. In Section 2 of this paper, we describe two types of transponders (echo and asynchronous), introduce the transponder link equation and the concept of "balanced" transponders, describe how range and time can be transferred between terminals, and preview the potential advantages of photon counting asynchronous transponders for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> applications. In Section 3, we discuss and provide mathematical models for the various sources of noise in an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> transponder link including planetary albedo, solar or lunar illumination of the local atmosphere, and laser backscatter off the local atmosphere. In Section 4, we introduce the key engineering elements of an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> laser transponder and develop an operational scenario for the acquisition and tracking of the opposite terminal. In Section 5, we use the theoretical models of th previous sections to perform an Earth-Mars link analysis over a full synodic period of 780 days under the simplifying assumption of coaxial, coplanar, circular orbits. We demonstrate that, using slightly modified versions of existing space and ground based laser systems, an Earth-Mars transponder link is not only feasible but quite robust. We also demonstrate through analysis the advantages and feasibility of compact, low output power (<300 mW photon-counting transponders using NASA's developmental SLR2000 satellite laser ranging system as the Earth terminal. Section 6 provides a summary of the results and some concluding remarks regarding future applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0201374v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0201374v1"><span id="translatedtitle">The Current Performance of the Third <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>K. Hurley; T. Cline; I. Mitrofanov; E. Mazets; S. Golenetskii; F. Frontera; E. Montanari; C. Guidorzi; M. Feroci</p> <p>2002-01-22</p> <p>The 3rd <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Network (IPN) has been operating since April 2001 with two distant spacecraft, Ulysses and Mars Odyssey, and numerous near-Earth spacecraft, such as BeppoSAX, Wind, and HETE-II. Mars Odyssey is presently in orbit about Mars, and the network has detected approximately 30 cosmic, SGR, and solar bursts. We discuss the results obtained to date and use them to predict the future performance of the network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000KosNT...6a...3K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000KosNT...6a...3K"><span id="translatedtitle">Problems in the Optimization of Manned <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Expeditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kiforenko, B. N.; Vasil'Ev, I. Yu.</p> <p></p> <p>Within the scope of the unified variation problem the authors discuss the optimization of parameters, choosing flight trajectories and optimal flight control as well as control of life support systems in spacecraft in manned <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> expeditions. They examine the efficiency of ejecting the life support systems waste by jets from high-thrust rocket engines as compared to partial waste regeneration. They confirm the possibility of manned expeditions to Mars before efficient life support systems based on biological regeneration are developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150006655&hterms=Spacecraft+navigation+GPS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSpacecraft%2Bnavigation%2BGPS','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150006655&hterms=Spacecraft+navigation+GPS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSpacecraft%2Bnavigation%2BGPS"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of Reference Frames for <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Navigation at JPL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heflin, Michael; Jacobs, Chris; Sovers, Ojars; Moore, Angelyn; Owen, Sue</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Navigation of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> spacecraft is typically based on range, Doppler, and differential interferometric measurements made by ground-based telescopes. Acquisition and interpretation of these observations requires accurate knowledge of the terrestrial reference frame and its orientation with respect to the celestial frame. Work is underway at JPL to reprocess historical VLBI and GPS data to improve realizations of the terrestrial and celestial frames. Improvements include minimal constraint alignment, improved tropospheric modeling, better orbit determination, and corrections for antenna phase center patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010refa.confE...1H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010refa.confE...1H"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of Reference Frames for <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Navigation at JPL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heflin, M. B.; Jacobs, C. S.; Sovers, O. J.; Moore, A.; Owen, S.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Navigation of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> spacecraft is typically based on range, Doppler, and differential interferometric measurements made by ground-based telescopes. Acquisition and interpretation of these observations requires accurate knowledge of the terrestrial reference frame and its orientation with respect to the celestial frame. Work is underway at JPL to reprocess historical VLBI and GPS data to improve realizations of the terrestrial and celestial frames. Improvements include minimal constraint alignment, improved tropospheric modeling, better orbit determination, and corrections for antenna phase center patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.642a2020P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.642a2020P"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for superdiffusive shock acceleration at <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perri, S.; Zimbardo, G.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Recent analysis of time profiles of energetic particles accelerated at <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks has shown evidence for superdiffusive transport upstream of the shock fronts, namely for a transport characterized by a particle mean square displacement that grows faster than linearly in time. While for normal, diffusive transport exponential particle time profiles are predicted, a large number of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock events, included the termination shock of the solar wind, exhibits energetic particle time profiles that upstream decay as power laws. This power law trend has been derived in the framework of particle superdiffusion. The standard theory of diffusive shock acceleration has been further extended to the case of particle superdiffusive transport (superdiffusive shock acceleration), allowing for the derivation of harder energy spectral indices both for relativistic and non-relativistic particles. Here we test this theory for a couple of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock waves that accelerate protons and that have been observed by the ACE spacecraft. We show that power law particle time profiles upstream of the shocks are common and clearly indicate superdiffusive transport. The particle energy spectra in some events are in a very good agreement with the superdiffusive shock acceleration prediction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120018044','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120018044"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Electric Propulsion Uranus Mission Trades Supporting the Decadal Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dankanich, John W.; McAdams, James</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Decadal Survey Committee was tasked to develop a comprehensive science and mission strategy for planetary science that updates and extends the National Academies Space Studies Board s current solar system exploration decadal survey. A Uranus orbiter mission has been evaluated as a part of this 2013-2022 Planetary Science Decadal Survey. A comprehensive Uranus orbiter mission design was completed, including a broad search of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> electric propulsion transfer options. The scope of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> trades was limited to electric propulsion concepts, both solar and radioisotope powered. Solar electric propulsion offers significant payloads to Uranus. Inserted mass into the initial science orbit due is highly sensitive to transfer time due to arrival velocities. The recommended baseline trajectory is a 13 year transfer with an Atlas 551, a 1+1 NEXT stage with 15 kW of power using an EEJU trajectory and a 1,000km EGA flyby altitude constraint. This baseline delivers over 2,000kg into the initial science orbit. <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> trajectory trades and sensitivity analyses are presented herein.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0609341v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0609341v1"><span id="translatedtitle">GEO debris and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust: fluxes and charging behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Amara L. Graps; Simon F. Green; Neil McBride; J. A. M. McDonnell; Kalle Bunte; Hakan Svedhem; Gerhard Drolshagen</p> <p>2006-09-13</p> <p>In September 1996, a dust/debris detector: GORID was launched into the geostationary (GEO) region as a piggyback instrument on the Russian Express-2 telecommunications spacecraft. The instrument began its normal operation in April 1997 and ended its mission in July 2002. The goal of this work was to use GORID's particle data to identify and separate the space debris to <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles (IDPs) in GEO, to more finely determine the instrument's measurement characteristics and to derive impact fluxes. While the physical characteristics of the GORID impacts alone are insufficient for a reliable distinction between debris and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust, the temporal behavior of the impacts are strong enough indicators to separate the populations based on clustering. Non-cluster events are predominantly <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span>, while cluster events are debris. The GORID mean flux distributions (at mass thresholds which are impact speed dependent) for IDPs, corrected for dead time, are 1.35x10^{-4} m^{-2} s^{-1} using a mean detection rate: 0.54 d^{-1}, and for space debris are 6.1x10^{-4} m^{-2} s^{-1} using a mean detection rate: 2.5 d^{-1}. Beta-meteoroids were not detected. Clusters could be a closely-packed debris cloud or a particle breaking up due to electrostatic fragmentation after high charging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1536T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1536T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> propagation behavior of the fast coronal mass ejection from 23 July 2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Temmer, Manuela; Nitta, Nariaki</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The fast coronal mass ejection (CME) from July 23, 2012 raised special attention due to its extremely short propagation time of less than 21hrs from Sun to 1 AU. In-situ data from STEREO-A revealed the arrival of a fast forward shock having a velocity of more than 2200 km/s followed by a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> structure with a speed of almost 1900 km/s. We present a study about the evolution of the CME in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) space, separately for the shock and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> structure, using the drag based model to reproduce the short propagation time and high impact speed as derived from in-situ data. We find that due to an efficient <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> reconnection process in the long-duration flare associated to the CME, the event reached a very high speed. Furthermore, the ambient density must have been exceptionally low which reduced the drag force, such that the massive CME experienced almost no deceleration. The solar wind density is found to be rather low due to the weak solar activity and might have been additionally lowered by a previous CME event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990102891&hterms=FIND+URL&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DFIND%2BURL','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990102891&hterms=FIND+URL&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DFIND%2BURL"><span id="translatedtitle">Typical and Unusual Properties of <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Clouds during the WIND Era</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lepping, R. P.; Berdichevsky, D.; Szabo, A.; Burlaga, L. F.; Thompson, B. J.; Mariani, F.; Lazarus, A. J.; Steinberg, J. T.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A list of 33 <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds as identified in WIND <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and plasma data has been compiled. The intervals for these events are provided as part of NASA/GSFC, WIND-MFI's Website under the URL http://lepmfi.qsfc.nasa.gov/mfi/mag_cloud publ.html#table The period covered in this study is from early 1995 to November 1998 which primarily occurs in the quiet part of the solar cycle. A force free, cylindrically symmetric, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field model has been applied to the field data in 1-hour <span class="hlt">averaged</span> form for all of these events (except one small event where 10 min avg's were used) and the resulting fit-parameters examined. Each event was provided a semi-quantitatively determined quality factor (excellent, good or poor). A set of 28 good or better cases, spanning a surprisingly large range of values for its various properties, was used for further analysis. These properties are, for example, durations, attitudes, sizes, asymmetries, axial field strengths, speeds, and relative impact parameters. They will be displayed and analyzed, along with some related derived quantities, with emphasis on typical vs unusual properties and on the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds' relationships to the Sun and to upstream <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks, where possible. For example, it is remarkable how narrowly distributed the speeds of these clouds are, and the overall <span class="hlt">average</span> speed (390 techniques km/s) is less than that normally quoted for the <span class="hlt">average</span> solar wind speed (420 km/s) despite the fact that many of these clouds are d"drivers" of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks. On <span class="hlt">average</span>, a cloud appears to be a little less symmetric when the spacecraft is able to pass close to the cloud's axis as compared to a farther out passage. The <span class="hlt">average</span> longitude and latitude (in GSE) of the axes of the clouds are 85 degrees and 8 degrees, respectively, with standard deviations near 40 degrees. Also, the half=yearly <span class="hlt">averaged</span> axial <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux has approximately tripled. almost monotonically, from about 6 to 17 X 10(exp 29) Mx over the first 3.5 years of consideration, but with a large uncertainty on each of the half-year estimates, because of small sampling. If true,this finding implies an approximate tripling of the events' solar fluxes over this period as it goes into solar maximum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AnGeo..30...67A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AnGeo..30...67A"><span id="translatedtitle">Substorms and polar cap convection: the 10 January 2004 <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> CME case</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andalsvik, Y.; Sandholt, P. E.; Farrugia, C. J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The expansion-contraction model of Dungey cell plasma convection has two different convection sources, i.e. reconnections at the magnetopause and in the magnetotail. The spatial-temporal structure of the nightside source is not yet well understood. In this study we shall identify temporal variations in the winter polar cap convection structure during substorm activity under steady <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> conditions. Substorm activity (electrojets and particle precipitations) is monitored by excellent ground-satellite DMSP F15 conjunctions in the dusk-premidnight sector. We take advantage of the wide latitudinal coverage of the IMAGE chain of ground magnetometers in Svalbard - Scandinavia - Russia for the purpose of monitoring <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> deflections associated with polar cap convection and substorm electrojets. These are augmented by direct observations of polar cap convection derived from SuperDARN radars and cross-track ion drift observations during traversals of polar cap along the dusk-dawn meridian by spacecraft DMSP F13. The interval we study is characterized by moderate, stable forcing of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system (EKL = 4.0-4.5 mV m-1; cross polar cap potential (CPCP), ? (Boyle) = 115 kV) during Earth passage of an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> CME (ICME), choosing an 4-h interval where the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field pointed continuously south-west (Bz < 0; By < 0). The combination of continuous monitoring of ground <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> deflections and the F13 cross-track ion drift observations in the polar cap allows us to infer the temporal CPCP structure on time scales less than the ~10 min duration of F13 polar cap transits. We arrived at the following estimates of the dayside and nightside contributions to the CPCP (CPCP = CPCP/day + CPCP/night) under two intervals of substorm activity: CPCP/day ~110 kV; CPCP/night ~50 kV (45% CPCP increase during substorms). The temporal CPCP structure during one of the substorm cases resulted in a dawn-dusk convection asymmetry measured by DMSP F13 which is opposite to that expected from the prevailing negative By polarity of the ICME <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field, a clear indication of a nightside source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080008787','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080008787"><span id="translatedtitle">Threaded <span class="hlt">average</span> temperature thermocouple</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ward, Stanley W. (Inventor)</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A threaded <span class="hlt">average</span> temperature thermocouple 11 is provided to measure the <span class="hlt">average</span> temperature of a test situs of a test material 30. A ceramic insulator rod 15 with two parallel holes 17 and 18 through the length thereof is securely fitted in a cylinder 16, which is bored along the longitudinal axis of symmetry of threaded bolt 12. Threaded bolt 12 is composed of material having thermal properties similar to those of test material 30. Leads of a thermocouple wire 20 leading from a remotely situated temperature sensing device 35 are each fed through one of the holes 17 or 18, secured at head end 13 of ceramic insulator rod 15, and exit at tip end 14. Each lead of thermocouple wire 20 is bent into and secured in an opposite radial groove 25 in tip end 14 of threaded bolt 12. Resulting threaded <span class="hlt">average</span> temperature thermocouple 11 is ready to be inserted into cylindrical receptacle 32. The tip end 14 of the threaded <span class="hlt">average</span> temperature thermocouple 11 is in intimate contact with receptacle 32. A jam nut 36 secures the threaded <span class="hlt">average</span> temperature thermocouple 11 to test material 30.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21179650','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21179650"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> missions with the GDM propulsion system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kammash, T.; Emrich, W. Jr.</p> <p>1998-01-15</p> <p>The Gasdynamic Mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion system utilizes a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> mirror machine in which a hot dense plasma is confined long enough to produce fusion energy while allowing a fraction of its charged particle population to escape from one end to generate thrust. The particles escaping through the opposite end have their energy converted to electric power which can be used to sustain the system in a steady state operation. With the aid of a power flow diagram the minimum demands on energy production can be established and the propulsive capability of the system can be determined by solving an appropriate set of governing equations. We apply these results to several missions within the solar system and compute the trip time by invoking a continuous burn, acceleration/deceleration type of trajectory with constant thrust and specific impulse. Ignoring gravitational effects of the planets or the sun, and neglecting the change in the Earth's position during the flight we compute the round trip time for missions from Earth to Mars, Jupiter, and Pluto using linear distances and certain payload fractions. We find that a round trip to Mars with the GDM rocket takes about 170 days while those to Jupiter and Pluto take 494 and 1566 days respectively.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22004456','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22004456"><span id="translatedtitle">INFLUENCE OF THE AMBIENT SOLAR WIND FLOW ON THE PROPAGATION BEHAVIOR OF <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Temmer, Manuela; Rollett, Tanja; Moestl, Christian; Veronig, Astrid M.; Vrsnak, Bojan; Odstrcil, Dusan</p> <p>2011-12-20</p> <p>We study three coronal mass ejection (CME)/<span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejection (ICME) events (2008 June 1-6, 2009 February 13-18, and 2010 April 3-5) tracked from Sun to 1 AU in remote-sensing observations of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Heliospheric Imagers and in situ plasma and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field measurements. We focus on the ICME propagation in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) space that is governed by two forces: the propelling Lorentz force and the drag force. We address the question: which heliospheric distance range does the drag become dominant and the CME adjust to the solar wind flow. To this end, we analyze speed differences between ICMEs and the ambient solar wind flow as a function of distance. The evolution of the ambient solar wind flow is derived from ENLIL three-dimensional MHD model runs using different solar wind models, namely, Wang-Sheeley-Arge and MHD-Around-A-Sphere. Comparing the measured CME kinematics with the solar wind models, we find that the CME speed becomes adjusted to the solar wind speed at very different heliospheric distances in the three events under study: from below 30 R{sub Sun }, to beyond 1 AU, depending on the CME and ambient solar wind characteristics. ENLIL can be used to derive important information about the overall structure of the background solar wind, providing more reliable results during times of low solar activity than during times of high solar activity. The results from this study enable us to obtain greater insight into the forces acting on CMEs over the IP space distance range, which is an important prerequisite for predicting their 1 AU transit times.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJ...743..101T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJ...743..101T"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of the Ambient Solar Wind Flow on the Propagation Behavior of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Coronal Mass Ejections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Temmer, Manuela; Rollett, Tanja; Möstl, Christian; Veronig, Astrid M.; Vršnak, Bojan; Odstr?il, Dusan</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We study three coronal mass ejection (CME)/<span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejection (ICME) events (2008 June 1-6, 2009 February 13-18, and 2010 April 3-5) tracked from Sun to 1 AU in remote-sensing observations of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Heliospheric Imagers and in situ plasma and <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field measurements. We focus on the ICME propagation in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) space that is governed by two forces: the propelling Lorentz force and the drag force. We address the question: which heliospheric distance range does the drag become dominant and the CME adjust to the solar wind flow. To this end, we analyze speed differences between ICMEs and the ambient solar wind flow as a function of distance. The evolution of the ambient solar wind flow is derived from ENLIL three-dimensional MHD model runs using different solar wind models, namely, Wang-Sheeley-Arge and MHD-Around-A-Sphere. Comparing the measured CME kinematics with the solar wind models, we find that the CME speed becomes adjusted to the solar wind speed at very different heliospheric distances in the three events under study: from below 30 R ?, to beyond 1 AU, depending on the CME and ambient solar wind characteristics. ENLIL can be used to derive important information about the overall structure of the background solar wind, providing more reliable results during times of low solar activity than during times of high solar activity. The results from this study enable us to obtain greater insight into the forces acting on CMEs over the IP space distance range, which is an important prerequisite for predicting their 1 AU transit times.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002546','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002546"><span id="translatedtitle">Development and Transition of the Radiation, <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) Toolset</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Spann, James F.; Zank, G.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We outline a plan to develop and transition a physics based predictive toolset called The Radiation, <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) to describe the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> energetic particle and radiation environment throughout the inner heliosphere, including at the Earth. To forecast and "nowcast" the radiation environment requires the fusing of three components: 1) the ability to provide probabilities for incipient solar activity; 2) the use of these probabilities and daily coronal and solar wind observations to model the 3D spatial and temporal heliosphere, including <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field structure and transients, within 10 Astronomical Units; and 3) the ability to model the acceleration and transport of energetic particles based on current and anticipated coronal and heliospheric conditions. We describe how to address 1) - 3) based on our existing, well developed, and validated codes and models. The goal of RISCS toolset is to provide an operational forecast and "nowcast" capability that will a) predict solar energetic particle (SEP) intensities; b) spectra for protons and heavy ions; c) predict maximum energies and their duration; d) SEP composition; e) cosmic ray intensities, and f) plasma parameters, including shock arrival times, strength and obliquity at any given heliospheric location and time. The toolset would have a 72 hour predicative capability, with associated probabilistic bounds, that would be updated hourly thereafter to improve the predicted event(s) and reduce the associated probability bounds. The RISCS toolset would be highly adaptable and portable, capable of running on a variety of platforms to accommodate various operational needs and requirements. The described transition plan is based on a well established approach developed in the Earth Science discipline that ensures that the customer has a tool that meets their needs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.8848K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.8848K"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermospheric and geomagnetic responses to <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections observed by ACE and GRACE: Statistical results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krauss, S.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A.; Baur, O.; Lammer, H.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>For the period July 2003 to August 2010, the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejection (ICME) catalogue maintained by Richardson and Cane lists 106 Earth-directed events, which have been measured in situ by plasma and field instruments on board the ACE satellite. We present a statistical investigation of the Earth's thermospheric neutral density response by means of accelerometer measurements collected by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, which are available for 104 ICMEs in the data set, and its relation to various geomagnetic indices and characteristic ICME parameters such as the impact speed (vmax), southward <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field strength (Bz). The majority of ICMEs causes a distinct density enhancement in the thermosphere, with up to a factor of 8 compared to the preevent level. We find high correlations between ICME Bz and thermospheric density enhancements (?0.9), while the correlation with the ICME impact speed is somewhat smaller (?0.7). The geomagnetic indices revealing the highest correlations are Dst and SYM-H(?0.9); the lowest correlations are obtained for Kp and AE (?0.7), which show a nonlinear relation with the thermospheric density enhancements. Separating the response for the shock-sheath region and the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> structure of the ICME, we find that the Dst and SYM-H reveal a tighter relation to the Bz minimum in the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> structure of the ICME, whereas the polar cap indices show higher correlations with the Bz minimum in the shock-sheath region. Since the strength of the Bz component—either in the sheath or in the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> structure of the ICME—is highly correlated (?0.9) with the neutral density enhancement, we discuss the possibility of satellite orbital decay estimates based on <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field measurements at L1, i.e., before the ICME hits the Earth magnetosphere. These results are expected to further stimulate progress in space weather understanding and applications regarding satellite operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970026861','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970026861"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Relationship Between Transit Velocity of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shocks and Solar Active Processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilson, Robert M.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Recently, it was reported that preferential relationships exist between the transit velocity V(sub T) of earthward-directed <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks and solar active processes, in particular, eruptive filaments outside active regions (the size of the erupting filament L(sub f)) and solar flares (the value of the X-ray characteristic J). Unfortunately, statistical testing of the proposed associations was not accomplished, nor was the 'geo-effectiveness' of the events adequately described. Reported here are the results of a re-examination of the 21 eruptive filaments (SSC-EF events) and 26 X-ray flares (SSC-F events) that have been associated with storm sudden commencements (SSCs) at Earth. Simple statistical testing refutes the claim that a preferential relationship exists between V(sub T) and L(sub F), while it supports the claim that one exists between V(sub T) and J. More importantly, the inferred relationship between V(sub T) and J is found to be more complicated than previously thought. In particular, it now appears that SSC-F events may be separable into two groups, based on the value of J: a low-J group (J less than 56), in which V(sub T) varies directly with J, and a high-J group (J greater than 56), in which V(sub T) varies inversely with J. As a whole, high-J events are associated with shocks of higher <span class="hlt">average</span> transit velocity than those of low-J events, and SSC-F events with shocks of higher <span class="hlt">average</span> transit velocity than those of SSC-EF events. Further, high-J events tend to be of greater X-ray class ( greater than M3), longer duration (greater then 80 min), and are more likely to be associated with type II/IV radio emission (9 of 12) than low-J events. They also tend to occur in <span class="hlt">magnetically</span> complex (gamma/delta configuration) active regions (10 of 12) that are large in area extent (area greater than 445 millionths of a solar hemisphere) on the day of flaring (9 of 12). Of the 9 solar proton events that affected the Earth's environment that were found to be associated with SSC-F events, six were high-J events. Concerning 'geo-effectiveness', there appears to be no preferential relationship between the value of the J-parameter and the most negative value of the Dst geomagnetic index Dst(min) following the SSC, which is found to usually occur at 6-14 h after SSC onset (18 of 26) and which ranged in value from -1 to -249 (having a median value of about -75). Of the 26 SSC-F events, only 14 can be associated with a Dst(min) less than or equal to -75, and of these only 7 were high-J events. Of the 14 storm-related events (i.e. Dst(min) less than or equal to -75), three have previously been identified as being either '<span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds' or 'bidirectional flows', both manifestations of earthward-directed coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Superposed epoch analyses of selected solar wind parameters and Dst during the interval of storm-related SSC-F events demonstrate that geoeffective SSC-F events tend to be associated with solar wind flows that are faster, greater in <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field strength, and have a rotating field which has a strong southward component shortly after SSC onset, in comparison to SSC-F events that do not have Dst(min) less than or equal to 75. Therefore, it is inferred that geoeffective SSC-F events are probably fast earthward-directed CMEs. Although no single parameter is found that can serve as a predictor of high-skill level for determining the geoeffectiveness of an SSC-F event prior to its occurrence at Earth, one finds that knowledge of the flare's hemispheric location and appearance or lack of appearance of a two-ribbon structure is sufficient to correctly predict the geoeffectiveness of 20 out of 25 of the SSC-F events (80%). Surprisingly, the association or lack of association of metric type II/IV radio emission as a characteristic for determining the geoeffectiveness of the SSC-F events proved unfruitful, as did, to a lesser extent, the duration of the X-ray emission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/0803.3274v3','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/0803.3274v3"><span id="translatedtitle">Topological quantization of ensemble <span class="hlt">averages</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Emil Prodan</p> <p>2008-10-04</p> <p>We define the current of a quantum observable and, under well defined conditions, we connect its ensemble <span class="hlt">average</span> to the index of a Fredholm operator. The present work builds on a formalism developed by Kellendonk and Schulz-Baldes \\cite{Kellendonk:2004p597} to study the quantization of edge currents for continuous <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> Schroedinger operators. The generalization given here may be a useful tool to scientists looking for novel manifestations of the topological quantization. As a new application, we show that the differential conductance of atomic wires is given by the index of a certain operator. We also comment on how the formalism can be used to probe the existence of edge states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990102889&hterms=FIND+URL&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DFIND%2BURL','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990102889&hterms=FIND+URL&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DFIND%2BURL"><span id="translatedtitle">Some Peculiar Properties of <span class="hlt">Magnetic</span> Clouds as Observed by the WIND Spacecraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Berdichevsky, D.; Lepping, R. P.; Szabo, A.; Burlaga, L. F.; Thompson, B. J.; Lazarus, A. J.; Steinburg, J. T.; Mariani, F.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>We aimed at understanding the common characteristics of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds, relevant to solar-<span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> connections, but exceptional ones were noted and are stressed here through a short compendium. The study is based on analyses of 28 good or better events (Out of 33 candidates) as identified in WIND <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field and plasma data. These cloud intervals are provided by WIND-MFI's Website under the URL (http://lepmfi.gsfc.nasa.gov/mfi/mag_cloud_publ.html#table). The period covered is from early 1995 to November 1998. A force free, cylindrically symmetric, <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field model has been applied to the field data in usually 1-hour <span class="hlt">averaged</span> form for the cloud analyses. Some of the findings are: (1) one small duration event turned out to have an approximately normal size which was due to a distant almost "skimming" passage by the spacecraft; (2) One truly small event was observed, where 10 min <span class="hlt">averages</span> had to be used in the model fitting; it had an excellent model fit and the usual properties of a <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> cloud, except it possessed a small axial <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux; (3) One cloud ha a dual axial-field-polarity, in the sense that the "core" had one polarity and the annular region around it had an opposite polarity. This event also satisfied the model and with a ve3ry good chi-squared value. Some others show a hint of this dual polarity; (4) The temporal distribution of occurrence clouds over the 4 years show a dip in 1996; (5) About 50 % of the clouds had upstream shocks; any others had upstream pressure pulses; (6) The overall <span class="hlt">average</span> speed (390 km/s) of the best 28 events is less than the normally quoted for the <span class="hlt">average</span> solar wind speed (420 km/s) The <span class="hlt">average</span> of central cloud speed to the upstream solar wind speed was not much greater than one (1.08), even though many of these clouds were drivers of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks. Cloud expansion is partly the reason for the existence of upstream shocks; (7) The cloud axes often (about 50 % of the time) revealed reasonable attitudes with respect to the interpreted solar source, from simple geometry, but many bore no relationship, suggesting that their observations at 1 AU were probably those of the legs of the global cloud often having near-radial axes; (8) many clouds appear to have <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> holes at or their their boundaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880000336&hterms=slurry+pump&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dslurry%2Bpump','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880000336&hterms=slurry+pump&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dslurry%2Bpump"><span id="translatedtitle">Synchronous Boxcar <span class="hlt">Averager</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rogers, Thomas W.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Digital electronic filtering system produces series of moving-<span class="hlt">average</span> samples of fluctuating signal in manner resulting in removal of undesired periodic signal component of known frequency. Filter designed to pass steady or slowly varying components of fluctuating pressure, flow, pump speed, and pump torque in slurry-pumping system. Concept useful for monitoring or control in variety of applications including machinery, power supplies, and scientific instrumentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990100646','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990100646"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Fast Shocks and Associated Drivers Observed through the Twenty-Third Solar Minimum by WIND Over its First 2.5 Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mariani, F.; Berdichevsky, D.; Szabo, A.; Lepping, R. P.; Vinas, A. F.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A list of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) shocks observed by WIND from its launch (in November 1994) to May 1997 is presented. Forty two shocks were identified. The magnetohydrodynamic nature of the shocks is investigated, and the associated shock parameters and their uncertainties are accurately computed using a practical scheme which combines two techniques. These techniques are a combination of the "pre-<span class="hlt">averaged</span>" <span class="hlt">magnetic</span>-coplanarity, velocity-coplanarity, and the Abraham-Schrauner-mixed methods, on the one hand, and the Vinas and Scudder [1986] technique for solving the non-linear least-squares Rankine-Hugoniot shock equations, on the other. Within acceptable limits these two techniques generally gave the same results, with some exceptions. The reasons for the exceptions are discussed. It is found that the mean strength and rate of occurrence of the shocks appears to correlated with the solar cycle. Both showed a decrease in 1996 coincident with the time of the lowest ultraviolet solar radiance, indicative of solar minimum and start of solar cycle 23, which began around June 1996. Eighteen shocks appeared to be associated with corotating interaction regions (CIRs). The distribution of their shock normals showed a mean direction peaking in the ecliptic plane and with a longitude (phi(sub n)) in that plane between perpendicular to the Parker spiral and radial from the Sun. When grouped according to the sense of the direction of propagation of the shocks the mean azimuthal (longitude) angle in GSE coordinates was approximately 194 deg for the fast-forward and approximately 20 deg for the fast-reverse shocks. Another 16 shocks were determined to be driven by solar transients, including <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds. These shocks had a broader distribution of normal directions than those of the CIR cases with a mean direction close to the Sun-Earth line. Eight shocks of unknown origin had normal orientation well off the ecliptic plane. No shock propagated with longitude phi(sub n) >= 220 +/- 10 deg, this would suggest strong hindrance to the propagation of shocks contra a rather tightly winding Parker spiral. Examination of the obliquity angle theta(sub Bn) (that between the shock normal and the upstream <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field) for the full set of shocks revealed that about 58% was quasi-perpendicular, and some were very nearly perpendicular. About 32% of the shocks were oblique, and the rest (only 10%) were quasi-parallel, with one on Dec. 9, 1996 that showed field pulsations. Small uncertainty in the estimated angle theta(sub Bn) was obtained for about 10 shocks with magnetosonic Mach numbers between 1 and 2, hopefully significantly contributing to studies researching particle acceleration mechanisms at IP shocks, and to investigations where accurate values of theta(sub Bn) are crucial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22167782','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22167782"><span id="translatedtitle">THE SOLAR WIND AND <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> FIELD DURING VERY LOW AMPLITUDE SUNSPOT CYCLES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Y.-M.; Sheeley, N. R. Jr. E-mail: neil.sheeley@nrl.navy.mil</p> <p>2013-02-10</p> <p>Cosmogenic isotope records indicate that a solar-cycle modulation persists through extended periods of very low sunspot activity. One immediate implication is that the photospheric field during such grand minima did not consist entirely of ephemeral regions, which produce a negligible amount of open <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> flux, but continued to have a large-scale component originating from active regions. Present-day solar and heliospheric observations show that the solar wind mass flux and proton density at the coronal base scale almost linearly with the footpoint field strength, whereas the wind speed at Earth is uncorrelated with the latter. Thus a factor of {approx}4-7 reduction in the total open flux, as deduced from reconstructions of the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field (IMF) during the Maunder Minimum, would lead to a similar decrease in the solar wind densities, while leaving the wind speeds largely unchanged. We also demonstrate that a decrease in the strengths of the largest active regions during grand minima will reduce the amplitude of the Sun's equatorial dipole relative to the axial component, causing the IMF strength to peak near sunspot minimum rather than near sunspot maximum, a result that is consistent with the phase shift observed in the {sup 10}Be record during the Maunder Minimum. Finally, we discuss the origin of the 5 yr periodicity sometimes present in the cosmogenic isotope data during low and medium amplitude cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030022667','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030022667"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Coronal Mass Ejections in the Near-Earth Solar Wind During 1996-2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cane, H. V.; Richardson, I. G.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We summarize the occurrence of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass injections (ICMEs) in the near-Earth solar wind during 1996-2002, corresponding to the increasing and maximum phases of solar cycle 23. In particular, we give a detailed list of such events. This list, based on in-situ observations, is not confined to subsets of ICMEs, such as <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds or those preceded by halo CMEs observed by the SOHO/LASCO coronagraph, and provides an overview of 214 ICMEs in the near-Earth solar wind during this period. The ICME rate increases by about an order of magnitude from solar minimum to solar maximum (when the rate is approximately 3 ICMEs/solar rotation period). The rate also shows a temporary reduction during 1999, and another brief, deeper reduction in late 2000-early 2001, which only approximately track variations in the solar 10 cm flux. In addition, there are occasional periods of several rotations duration when the ICME rate is enhanced in association with high solar activity levels. We find an indication of a periodic variation in the ICME rate, with a prominent period of approximately 165 days similar to that previously reported in various solar phenomena. It is found that the fraction of ICMEs that are <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> clouds has a solar cycle variation, the fraction being larger near solar minimum. For the subset of events that we could associate with a CME at the Sun, the transit speeds from the Sun to the Earth were highest after solar maximum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRA..11212104T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRA..11212104T"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of waves in the vicinity of an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> directional discontinuity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tjulin, A.; Lucek, E. A.; Dandouras, I.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Directional discontinuities are frequently encountered in the solar wind. This study utilizes the possibility of simultaneous four-point measurements that the Cluster satellites provide for an investigation of the waves near one such <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> discontinuity event. In particular, the k-filtering technique has for the first time been applied for the wave characterization in terms of frequency, wave vector, wave power, and polarization at different distances from a discontinuity. The advantages of the k-filtering method are that these parameters can be transformed into the plasma frame of reference to allow comparison with theory and that it is possible to detect more than one wave mode at each frequency in the spacecraft frame of reference. The discontinuity event in this study was chosen because its wave activity had unusually high power and because it also contains signatures of large-scale <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> reconnection, such as a reconnection exhaust. Two wave modes are found: one which has the features of a shear Alfvén wave with propagation direction ordered by the background <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field direction and one which behaves like a compressional Alfvén wave and is ordered by the discontinuity normal. Both wave modes become weaker farther away from the discontinuity, but the compressional Alfvén mode is more suppressed. The shear mode dominates for long wavelengths at all distances from the discontinuity. The wave field is also found to be asymmetric on the two sides of the event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0605726v2','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0605726v2"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Network Supplement to the BATSE 5B Catalog of Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>K. Hurley; M. S. Briggs; R. M. Kippen; C. Kouveliotou; C. Meegan; G. Fishman; T. Cline; J. Trombka; T. McClanahan; W. Boynton; R. Starr; R. McNutt; M. Boer</p> <p>2011-08-18</p> <p>We present <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Network (IPN) localization information for 343 gamma-ray bursts observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) between the end of the 4th BATSE catalog and the end of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) mission, obtained by analyzing the arrival times of these bursts at the Ulysses, Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR), and CGRO spacecraft. For any given burst observed by CGRO and one other spacecraft, arrival time analysis (or "triangulation") results in an annulus of possible arrival directions whose half-width varies between 11 arcseconds and 21 degrees, depending on the intensity, time history, and arrival direction of the burst,as well as the distance between the spacecraft. This annulus generally intersects the BATSE error circle, resulting in an <span class="hlt">average</span> reduction of the area of a factor of 20. When all three spacecraft observe a burst, the result is an error box whose area varies between 1 and 48000 square arcminutes, resulting in an <span class="hlt">average</span> reduction of the BATSE error circle area of a factor of 87.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cds.cern.ch/record/954968/files/0605726.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://cds.cern.ch/record/954968/files/0605726.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Network Supplement to the BATSE 5B Catalog of Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Hurley, K; Kippen, R M; Kouveliotou, C; Meegan, C; Fishman, G; Cline, T; Trombka, J; McClanahan, T; Boynton, W; Starr, R; McNutt, R; Boër, M</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>We present <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Network (IPN) localization information for 343 gamma-ray bursts observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) between the end of the 4th BATSE catalog and the end of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) mission, obtained by analyzing the arrival times of these bursts at the Ulysses, Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR), and CGRO spacecraft. For any given burst observed by CGRO and one other spacecraft, arrival time analysis (or "triangulation") results in an annulus of possible arrival directions whose half-width varies between 11 arcseconds and 21 degrees, depending on the intensity, time history, and arrival direction of the burst,as well as the distance between the spacecraft. This annulus generally intersects the BATSE error circle, resulting in an <span class="hlt">average</span> reduction of the area of a factor of 20. When all three spacecraft observe a burst, the result is an error box whose area varies between 1 and 48000 square arcminutes, resulting in an <span class="hlt">average</span> reduction of t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AcAau..67.1391R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AcAau..67.1391R"><span id="translatedtitle">The pioneers of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> communication: From Gauss to Tesla</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raulin-Cerceau, Florence</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The present overview covers the period from 1820 to the beginning of the 20th century. Emphasis is laid on the latter half of the 19th century because many efforts have been done at that time to elaborate schemes for contacting our neighboring planets by <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> telegraphy. This period knew many advances not only in planetary studies but also in the nascent field of telecommunications. Such a context led astronomers who were also interested in the problem of planetary habitability, to envisage that other planets could be contacted, especially the planet Mars. <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> communication using a celestial telegraphy was planned during this period of great speculations about life on Mars. This paper focuses on four authors: the Frenchmen C. Flammarion, Ch. Cros, A. Mercier and the Serbian N. Tesla, who formulated early proposals to communicate with Mars or Venus. The first proposals (which remained only theoretical) showed that an initial reflection had started as early as the second part of the 19th century on the type of language that could be both universal and distinguishable from a natural signal. Literary history of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> communication preceded by far the scientific one. Authors of the 1900s were very prolific on this topic. French fictions are mentioned in this paper as examples of such a literature. This incursion into selected texts stresses the fact that the problem of techniques and messages employed to communicate with other planets goes beyond the strict scientific framework. Finally, this paper aims to highlight the similarities as well as the differences between the different proposals and to underline what that could possibly help present SETI research to define messages supposed to be sent to other planetary systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14649259','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14649259"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Internet: a communications infrastructure for Mars exploration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burleigh, Scott; Cerf, Vinton; Durst, Robert; Fall, Kevin; Hooke, Adrian; Scott, Keith; Weiss, Howard</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A strategy is being developed whereby the current set of internationally standardized space data communications protocols can be incrementally evolved so that a first version of an operational "<span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Internet" is feasible by the end of the decade. This paper describes its architectural concepts, discusses the current set of standard space data communications capabilities that exist to support Mars exploration and reviews proposed new developments. We also speculate that these current capabilities can grow to support future scenarios where human intelligence is widely distributed across the Solar System and day-to-day communications dialog between planets is routine. PMID:14649259</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22136583','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22136583"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> NETWORK LOCALIZATIONS OF KONUS SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pal'shin, V. D.; Svinkin, D. S.; Aptekar, R. L.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Frederiks, D. D.; Mazets, E. P.; Oleynik, P. P.; Ulanov, M. V.; Hurley, K.; Cline, T.; Trombka, J.; McClanahan, T.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Golovin, D. V.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B.; and others</p> <p>2013-08-15</p> <p>Between the launch of the Global Geospace Science Wind spacecraft in 1994 November and the end of 2010, the Konus-Wind experiment detected 296 short-duration gamma-ray bursts (including 23 bursts which can be classified as short bursts with extended emission). During this period, the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Network (IPN) consisted of up to 11 spacecraft, and using triangulation, the localizations of 271 bursts were obtained. We present the most comprehensive IPN localization data on these events. The short burst detection rate, {approx}18 yr{sup -1}, exceeds that of many individual experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850048835&hterms=Mica&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DMica','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850048835&hterms=Mica&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DMica"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrated <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particle linked with carbonaceous chondrites?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tomeoka, K.; Buseck, P. R.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The results of transmission electron microscope observations of a hydrated <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particle (IDP) containing Fe-, Mg-rich smectite or mica as a major phase are reported. The sheet silicate appears to have formed by alteration of anhydrous silicates. Fassaite, a Ca, Al clinopyroxene, also occurs in this particle, and one of the crystals exhibits solar-flare tracks, clearly indicating that it is extraterrestrial. Fassaite is a major constituent of the Ca-, Al-rich refractory inclusions found in the carbonaceous chondrites, so its presence in this particle suggests that there may be a link between hydrated IDPs and carbonaceous chondrites in the early history of the solar system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930001664','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930001664"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Dust Experiment Detectors and Other Witness Plates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Griffis, D. P.; Wortman, J. J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The development of analytical procedures for identifying the chemical composition of residue from impacts that occurred on the <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Dust Experiment (IDE) detectors during the flight of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and the carrying out of actual analysis on IDE detectors and other witness plates are discussed. Two papers on the following topics are presented: (1) experimental analysis of hypervelocity microparticle impact sites on IDE sensor surfaces; and (2) contaminant interfaces with secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS) analysis of microparticle impactor residues on LDEF surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/79453','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/79453"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiation protection for human <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> spaceflight and planetary surface operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clark, B.C.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>Radiation protection issues are reviewed for five categories of radiation exposure during human missions to the moon and Mars: trapped radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, solar flare particle events, planetary surface emissions, and on-board radiation sources. Relative hazards are dependent upon spacecraft and vehicle configurations, flight trajectories, human susceptibility, shielding effectiveness, monitoring and warning systems, and other factors. Crew cabins, <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> mission modules, surface habitats, planetary rovers, and extravehicular mobility units (spacesuits) provide various degrees of protection. Countermeasures that may be taken are reviewed relative to added complexity and risks that they could entail, with suggestions for future research and analysis.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740061831&hterms=Radiation+Electrons+Betatron&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DRadiation%2BElectrons%2BBetatron','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740061831&hterms=Radiation+Electrons+Betatron&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DRadiation%2BElectrons%2BBetatron"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar particles /observations, relationship to the sun acceleration, <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium/</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcdonald, F. B.; Fichtel, C. E.; Fisk, L. A.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The major features of the propagation of flare particles in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium are discussed in terms of the classic well-behaved flare having unique impulsive injection and a smooth time profile. Topics include flare events, their frequency of occurrence, development of a typical event, energy spectra, proton and electron types, charge and isotopic composition, solar flares and particle accelerations, radio and X-ray observations, the Fermi mechanism, the betatron mechanism, acceleration models, plasma instabilities, two-stage acceleration, propagation mechanisms, the anisotropic stage, the diffusive stage, and the convection and energy loss stage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760039140&hterms=radio+telescope&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528radio%2Btelescope%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760039140&hterms=radio+telescope&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528radio%2Btelescope%2529"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> scintillation observations with the Cocoa Cross radio telescope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cronyn, W. M.; Shawhan, S. D.; Erskine, F. T.; Huneke, A. H.; Mitchell, D. G.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Physical and electrical parameters for the 34.3-MHz Cocoa Cross radio telescope are given. The telescope is dedicated to the determination of solar-wind characteristics in and out of the ecliptic plane through measurement of electron-density irregularity structure as determined from IPS (<span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> scintillation) of natural radio sources. The collecting area (72,000 sq m), angular resolution (0.4 deg EW by 0.6 deg NS), and spatial extent (1.3 km EW by 0.8 km NS) make the telescope well suited for measurements of IPS index and frequency scale for hundreds of weak radio sources without serious confusion effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750019909','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750019909"><span id="translatedtitle">A decametric wavelength radio telescope for <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> scintillation observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cronyn, W. M.; Shawhan, S. D.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>A phased array, electrically steerable radio telescope (with a total collecting area of 18 acres), constructed for the purpose of remotely sensing electron density irregularity structure in the solar wind, is presented. The radio telescope is able to locate, map, and track large scale features of the solar wind, such as streams and blast waves, by monitoring a large grid of natural radio sources subject to rapid intensity fluctuation (<span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> scintillation) caused by the irregularity structure. Observations verify the performance of the array, the receiver, and the scintillation signal processing circuitry of the telescope.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890023531&hterms=electron+microscopy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Delectron%2Bmicroscopy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890023531&hterms=electron+microscopy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Delectron%2Bmicroscopy"><span id="translatedtitle">Analytical electron microscopy of a hydrated <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blake, David F.; Bunch, T. E.; Mardinly, A. J.; Echer, C. J.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Properties of a hydrated <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particle (IDP), Ames-Dec86-11, were investigated using TEM and analytical electron microscopy. The particle was found to have mineralogy and chondritic composition indicating an absence of direct kinship with known carbonaceous chondrites. The available data on the Ames-Dec86-11 suggest that at least one aqueous alteration event took place in this hydrated IDP, during which fine-grained material, possibly glass, was transformed to smectite. This event appears to be unique to hydrated IDPs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840005034&hterms=Sime&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSime','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840005034&hterms=Sime&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSime"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> scintillation observations of the solar wind close to the Sun and out of the ecliptic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sime, D. G.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A brief review is given of recent developments in the observation of the solar wind by the method of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> scintillation. The emphasis is on observations of the velocity structure, the electron density and the effect of propagating disturbances in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium as detected principally by intensity and phase scintillation and by spectral broadening.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.plasma.inpe.br/LAP_Publicacoes/LAP2003/EEcher_Proc_ESASP535_2003.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.plasma.inpe.br/LAP_Publicacoes/LAP2003/EEcher_Proc_ESASP535_2003.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">GEOMAGNETIC EFFECTS OF <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> SHOCK WAVES DURING SOLAR MINIMUM (1995-1996) AND SOLAR MAXIMUM (2000)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>GEOMAGNETIC EFFECTS OF <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> SHOCK WAVES DURING SOLAR MINIMUM (1995-1996) AND SOLAR, CRSPE/INPE ­ Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. ABSTRACT In this paper the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock wave effects during solar minimum (1995-1996) and solar maximum (2000) periods are obtained. It is observed that solar</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AstHe..95..529U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AstHe..95..529U"><span id="translatedtitle">Observing the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles by the wide-field CCD camera</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Usui, Fumihiko; Ishiguro, Masateru</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>Zodiacal light is a scattered sunlight by <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles. We have performed the zodiacal light observations outside the SUBARU dome by using the wide-field CCD camera. In this paper, we introduce the recent results of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles opened from the SUBARU site, together with the development of WIZARD, which is originally developed for zodiacal light observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800005289&hterms=electron&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Delectron','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800005289&hterms=electron&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Delectron"><span id="translatedtitle">Energetic electron bursts in the magnetopause electron layer and in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bieber, J. W.; Stone, S. C.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The magnetopause electron layer in the distant magnetotail is an annular region encircling the magnetopause in which bursts of tailward-streaming energetic (E 200 keV) electrons are almost continuously present. Sunward-streaming electron bursts with time scales and energy spectral indices similar to those of layer bursts are sometimes observed in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space upstream of the Earth. Evidence is presented to show that the layer bursts and the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> bursts have a common source. With the aid of a new coordinate system, geocentric <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium coordinates, appropriate for describing the access of energetic charged particles in the inner magnetosheath to a spacecraft located in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space, it is shown that the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> bursts occur predominantly on the sunward extension of the field lines associated with the magnetopause electron layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5126H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5126H"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical study of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> condition influence on the geomagnetic substorm onset location inferred from SuperMAG auroral electrojet indices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Sheng; Du, Aimin; Cao, Xin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>It is well known that the magnetospheric substorm occurs every few hours, in response with the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> condition variation and the increase of energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere. Since the substorm activity correlated well with the geomagnetic index, Newell and Gjerloev [2011] identified the substorm onset and its contributing station, using the SuperMag auroral electrojet indices. In this study, we investigate the distribution of these substorm onset locations and its response to the varied <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> condition. It is surprise that the substorm onset locations show double-peak structure with one peak around pre-midnight sector and the other at the dawn side. The substorm onset tends to occur in pre-midnight sector during non-storm time while it often takes place in late morning sector (~4 MLT) during storm time. Furthermore, substorms, appearing in <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storm main phase predominate in late morning. As the geomagnetic index Dst decreases, the substorm onset occurs in late morning more frequently. The substorm onset locations were also classified based on the solar wind parameters. It is shown that the peak number ratio of the substorm onset location in late morning over pre-midnight increases as IMF Bz decreases from positive to negative and the solar wind velocity Vsw enhances. The more intense <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> electric field E promotes the substorm onset occurring in late morning. It is widely accepted that both the directly driven (DD) and loading/unloading (LL/UL) processes play an essential role in the energy dispensation from the solar wind into the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. In general, the former one corresponds to the DP2 current system, which consists of the eastward electrojet centered near the dusk and the westward electrojet centered in the dawn, while the latter one corresponds to the DP1 current system, which is dominated by the westward electrojet in the midnight sector. Our statistical results of substorm onset locations imply that the energy from the solar wind tends to deplete in the directly driven process, as the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> electric field is stronger.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSH54C..08Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSH54C..08Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> dust fluxes measurements using the Waves instrument on STEREO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaslavsky, A.; Meyer-Vernet, N.; Mann, I.; Czechowski, A.; Issautier, K.; Le Chat, G.; Maksimovic, M.; Kasper, J. C.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Dust particles provide an important fraction of the matter composing the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium, their mass density at 1 A.U. being comparable to the one of the solar wind. The impact of a dust particle on a spacecraft produces a plasma cloud whose associated electric field is detected by the on-board electric antennas. The signal measured by the wave instruments thus reveals the dust properties. We analyse the dust particle impacts on the STEREO spacecraft during the 2007-2010 period. We use the TDS waveform sampler of the STEREO/WAVES instrument, which enables us to deduce considerably more informations than in a previous study based on the LFR spectral analyzer [Meyer-Vernet et al., 2009]. We observe two distinct populations of dust that we infer to be nano and micron sized dust particles and we derive their fluxes at 1 AU and the evolution of these fluxes with time (and solar longitude). The observations are also in accord with the dynamics of nanometer-sized and micrometer-sized dust particles in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AdSpR..48..943W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AdSpR..48..943W"><span id="translatedtitle">Imaging <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> CMEs at radio frequency from solar polar orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Ji; Sun, Weiying; Zheng, Jianhua; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Hao; Yan, Jingye; Wang, Chi; Wang, Chuanbing; Wang, Shui</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) represent a great concentration of mass and energy input into the lower corona. They have come to be recognized as the major driver of physical conditions change in the Sun-Earth system. Consequently, observations of CMEs are important for understanding and ultimately predicting space weather conditions. This paper discusses a proposed mission, the Solar Polar Orbit Radio Telescope (SPORT) mission, which will observe the propagation of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> CMEs to distances of near 0.35 AU from the Sun. The orbit of SPORT is an elliptical solar polar orbit. The inclination angle between the orbit and ecliptic plane should be about 90°. The main payload on board SPORT will be an imaging radiometer working at the meter wavelength band (radio telescope), which can follow the propagation of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> CMEs. The images that are obtained by the radio telescope embody the brightness temperature of the objectives. Due to the very large size required for the antenna aperture of the radio telescope, we adopt interferometric imaging technology to reduce it. Interferometric imaging technology is based on indirect spatial frequency domain measurements plus Fourier transformation. The SPORT spacecraft will also be equipped with a set of optical and in situ measurement instruments such as a EUV solar telescope, a solar wind ion instrument, an energetic particle detector, a magnetometer, a wave detector and a solar radio burst spectrometer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..246..352P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..246..352P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> dust influx to the Pluto-Charon system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poppe, Andrew R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The influx of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust grains (IDPs) to the Pluto-Charon system is expected to drive several physical processes, including the formation of tenuous dusty rings and/or exospheres, the deposition of neutral material in Pluto's atmosphere through ablation, the annealing of surface ices, and the exchange of ejecta between Pluto and its satellites. The characteristics of these physical mechanisms are dependent on the total incoming mass, velocity, variability, and composition of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust grains; however, our knowledge of the IDP environment in the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt has, until recently, remained rather limited. Newly-reported measurements by the New Horizons Student Dust Counter combined with previous Pioneer 10 meteoroid measurements and a dynamical IDP tracing model have improved the characterization of the IDP environment in the outer Solar System, including at Pluto-Charon. Here we report on this modeling and data comparison effort, including a discussion of the IDP influx to Pluto and its moons, and the implications thereof.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SSRv..161....1M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SSRv..161....1M"><span id="translatedtitle">Dusty Plasma Effects in Near Earth Space and <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mann, Ingrid; Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta; Murad, Edmond; Popova, Olga; Meyer-Vernet, Nicole; Rosenberg, Marlene; Mukai, Tadashi; Czechowski, Andrzej; Mukai, Sonoyo; Safrankova, Jana; Nemecek, Zdenek</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>We review dust and meteoroid fluxes and their dusty plasma effects in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium near Earth orbit and in the Earth's ionosphere. Aside from in-situ measurements from sounding rockets and spacecraft, experimental data cover radar and optical observations of meteors. Dust plasma interactions in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> medium are observed by the detection of charged dust particles, by the detection of dust that is accelerated in the solar wind and by the detection of ions and neutrals that are released from the dust. These interactions are not well understood and lack quantitative description. There is still a huge discrepancy in the estimates of meteoroid mass deposition into the atmosphere. The radar meteor observations are of particular interest for determining this number. Dust measurements from spacecraft require a better understanding of the dust impact ionization process, as well as of the dust charging processes. The latter are also important for further studying nanodust trajectories in the solar wind. Moreover understanding of the complex dependencies that cause the variation of nanodust fluxes is still a challenge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9610015v1','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9610015v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Acceleration of Solar Wind Ions by Nearby <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Shocks: Comparison of Monte Carlo Simulations with Ulysses Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Matthew G. Baring; Keith Ogilvie; Donald Ellison; Robert Forsyth</p> <p>1996-10-02</p> <p>The most stringent test of theoretical models of the first-order Fermi mechanism at collisionless astrophysical shocks is a comparison of the theoretical predictions with observational data on particle populations. Such comparisons have yielded good agreement between observations at the quasi-parallel portion of the Earth's bow shock and three theoretical approaches, including Monte Carlo kinetic simulations. This paper extends such model testing to the realm of oblique <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks: here observations of proton and alpha particle distributions made by the SWICS ion mass spectrometer on Ulysses at nearby <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks are compared with test particle Monte Carlo simulation predictions of accelerated populations. The plasma parameters used in the simulation are obtained from measurements of solar wind particles and the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field upstream of individual shocks. Good agreement between downstream spectral measurements and the simulation predictions are obtained for two shocks by allowing the the ratio of the mean-free scattering length to the ionic gyroradius, to vary in an optimization of the fit to the data. Generally small values of this ratio are obtained, corresponding to the case of strong scattering. The acceleration process appears to be roughly independent of the mass or charge of the species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880043690&hterms=Van+Allen&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DVan%2BAllen','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880043690&hterms=Van+Allen&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DVan%2BAllen"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> protons (Ep of about 1 MeV) 1973-1986 and out to 22.4 AU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Van Allen, J. A.; Decker, R. B.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>This paper uses annual mean counting rate data from detectors on two long-lived spacecraft, Pioneer 11 and IMP 8, to study the temporal and heliocentric radial distance variations of the intensity of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> protons (Ep of about 1 MeV) over solar activity cycle 21. The Pioneer 11 data cover the time period April 1973 through 1986 and the heliocentric radial distance range r of between 1.0 and 2.4 AU. IMP 8, in an approximately circular geocentric orbit of semimajor axis 35 earth radii, provides comparable data at 1 AU over the time period 1974-1986. The combination of the two bodies of data shows that the annual mean intensity of such protons varies as the inverse square of the distance from the sun, irrespective of solar activity as measured by the annual mean sunspot number S. Also it is found that the annual intensity at 1 AU is approximately proportional to S, except for anomalously low values in 1979 and 1980, and that the product of the annual mean intensity at Pioneer 11 by r-squared is also approximately proportional to S, except for anomalously low values in 1979, 1980 (in particular), and 1981. The common 1980 'anomaly' is attributed to gross changes in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> conditions associated with the reversal of the polarity of the sun's polar <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21562727','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21562727"><span id="translatedtitle">SIGN FOR SUPER-DIFFUSIVE TRANSPORT OF ENERGETIC IONS ASSOCIATED WITH A CORONAL-MASS-EJECTION-DRIVEN <span class="hlt">INTERPLANETARY</span> SHOCK</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sugiyama, T.; Shiota, D.</p> <p>2011-04-20</p> <p>We study the transport properties of energetic particles in the upstream region of an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock, considering the possibility of anomalous diffusion. We investigated the energetic storm particle event on 2006 December 14 observed by the ACE spacecraft at 1 AU. The spatial decay profile of the energetic particle flux does not exhibit an exponential behavior, as expected for the standard diffusive shock acceleration process, but a power-law behavior in anomalous or super-diffusive transport. The spatial profiles of the energetic ions with energy ranges of 0.546-0.761, 0.761-1.22, and 1.22-4.97 MeV are well fitted by a power-law distribution; we observe the relation ({Delta}x {sup 2}) {proportional_to} t {sup {alpha}} for {alpha}{approx} 1.28-1.33, where {Delta}x is the particle displacement within the timescale t, and the bracket denotes an ensemble <span class="hlt">average</span>. This implies that particle propagation around a near-Earth orbit can be intermediate between normal diffusion ({alpha} = 1) and ballistic motion ({alpha} = 2), even though the power of the electromagnetic wave is sufficiently large to scatter the particles, and that an entirely different wave-particle interaction process based on linear or quasi-linear theories is responsible for the ion motion upstream of an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock observed around the Earth's orbit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/840668','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/840668"><span id="translatedtitle">Americans' <span class="hlt">Average</span> Radiation Exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>NA</p> <p>2000-08-11</p> <p>We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the <span class="hlt">average</span> dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860010109','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860010109"><span id="translatedtitle">Temperature <span class="hlt">averaging</span> thermal probe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kalil, L. F.; Reinhardt, V. (inventors)</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A thermal probe to <span class="hlt">average</span> temperature fluctuations over a prolonged period was formed with a temperature sensor embedded inside a solid object of a thermally conducting material. The solid object is held in a position equidistantly spaced apart from the interior surfaces of a closed housing by a mount made of a thermally insulating material. The housing is sealed to trap a vacuum or mass of air inside and thereby prevent transfer of heat directly between the environment outside of the housing and the solid object. Electrical leads couple the temperature sensor with a connector on the outside of the housing. Other solid objects of different sizes and materials may be substituted for the cylindrically-shaped object to vary the time constant of the probe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP51B3721M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGP51B3721M"><span id="translatedtitle">Large-scale geometry and temporal variability of the Martian external <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mittelholz, A.; Johnson, C. L.; Langlais, B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The martian <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field is unique among the terrestrial planets, as it results from the interaction of fields caused by crustal remnant <span class="hlt">magnetization</span> and a planetary ionosphere with the solar wind and the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. Internal fields of crustal origin have been subject to extensive studies, whereas the focus of our work deals with <span class="hlt">average</span> spatial structure and time variability in the martian external <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. We use the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) vector <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field data to investigate the large-scale geometry and magnitude of such external fields. We analyze the day-time and night-time <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> signature for the duration of the MGS mission in mapping orbit (2000-2006). We use along-track vector field measurements to estimate the day-time and night-time external fields after the subtraction of predicted crustal <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields at spacecraft altitudes. We also examine day/night differences (i.e., the daily variation) in external fields; these are independent of crustal fields. Because the external fields are modified by the crustal fields, we investigate their structure as a function of latitude in the local time frame and as a function of both latitude and longitude in the body-fixed frame. In the body-fixed-frame B?is generally dominant in magnitude with a day/night variation described to first order by a zonal degree-2 spherical harmonic structure. Br is strongly correlated with the crustal <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field. B? shows variable spatial behaviour during both night and day. Seasonal variations are observed as stronger <span class="hlt">average</span> <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fields in the hemisphere pointing towards the sun. Additional shorter time scale variations in the global external field structure are observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSM11D2324Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSM11D2324Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Relativistic Electron Flux Dropout under Different <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Conditions in the Outer Radiation Belt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, C.; Zong, Q.; Fok, M. H.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The mechanisms of the intense dropout of the electron fluxes in the Earth's outer radiation belt during the main phase of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storms have long been open questions. Turner et al., 2012 found that during the main phase of a small CIR-driven storm, the dropout of electron fluxes mainly results from high solar wind dynamic pressure and subsequent outward transport. According to the data from SAMPEX satellite, we applied superposed epoch analysis to the 1.5-6.0MeV electron flux dropout events during <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storms related to CMEs associated with <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) shocks during 1998-2003. We found that, for storms with high solar wind dynamic pressure (Pdy ratio=Pdymax/mean(Pdy) is calculated. The Pdy ratios of all <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storms are sorted, so that they are in descending order. A <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storm is with low Pdy ratio if the ratio is below the first quartile. If a Pdy raito is above the second quartile, then it is considered high), the Radiation Belt Content (RBC) ratio (RBC ratio=RBCmin/mean(RBC)) is 0.20; Whereas for storms with low dynamic pressure, RBC ratio=0.52. This statistically supports the result of Turner et al., 2012 that high solar wind dynamic pressure is one of the reasons of electron flux dropout, and extends this result to CME-driven storms. Yue and Zong, 2011 pointed out that if both the ambient Bz in front of IP shocks and the Bz inside the sheath regions are southward, then these IP shocks and the CMEs will lead to more significant geomagnetic effect. We divided all the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> storms with high or low dynamic pressure according to whether the Bz component of the <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field is southward or northward when IP shocks arrive at geosynchronous orbit. Both case studies and statistical studies show that, on the premise that higher dynamic pressure causes more intense dropout during the main phase, southward Bz can result in more significant dropout, compared with northward Bz. To further understand the contribution of Bz to the electron flux dropout, we use the CIMI model developed by M. C. Fok to simulate the typical event with high or low dynamic pressure, and with southward or northward Bz.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.7038K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.7038K"><span id="translatedtitle">Ninety degrees pitch angle enhancements of suprathermal electrons associated with <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kajdi?, P.; Lavraud, B.; Zaslavsky, A.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Opitz, A.; Jian, L. K.; Maksimovic, M.; Luhmann, J. G.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>We report the results of the first systematic analysis of 90° pitch angle (PA) enhancements or the ring distributions of suprathermal (E ˜70 eV-2 keV) electrons at <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) shocks. We analyze 2 h time intervals around 232 IP shocks observed by the two STEREO spacecraft between 2007 and 2011. The ring distributions were detected downstream of 114 events (49%). In 52 (22.4%) cases they were detected at the shock ramp. We also found 90° enhancements upstream of 11 (4.7%) events. Statistical analysis of basic shock properties did not reveal substantial differences between the shocks that are associated with the enhancements and those that are not. The data from the STEREO/WAVES instruments revealed that the 90° PA enhancements tend to be associated with <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> and electric field fluctuations. Although at this point we do not have a satisfactory explanation for the mechanism that produces these distributions, our findings suggest that wave-particle interactions play a role, while pure focusing and mirroring effects due to adiabatic motion of electrons across the shock fronts cannot fully account for the observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810054119&hterms=electron+microscope&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Delectron%2Bmicroscope','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810054119&hterms=electron+microscope&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Delectron%2Bmicroscope"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> dust in the transmission electron microscope - Diverse materials from the early solar system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fraundorf, P.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>An analytical electron microscope study of dispersed <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust aggregates collected in the earth's stratosphere shows that, in spite of their similarities, the aggregates exhibit significant differences in composition, internal morphology, and mineralogy. Of 11 chondritic particles examined, two consist mostly of a noncrystalline chondritic material with an atomic S/Fe ratio equal to or greater than 2 in places, one consists of submicron metal and reduced silicate 'microchondrules' and sulfide grains embedded in a carbonaceous matrix, and another consists of submicron <span class="hlt">magnetic</span>-decorated unequilibrated silicate and sulfide grains with thick low-Z coatings. Although the particles are unmetamorphosed by criteria commonly applied for chondritic meteorites, the presence of reduced chemistries and the ubiquity of mafic, instead of hydrated, silicates confirm that they are not simply C1 or C2 chondrite matrix material. The observations indicate that portions of some particles have not been significantly altered by thermal or radiation processes since their assembly, and that the particles probably contain fine debris from diverse processes in the early solar system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070012358&hterms=thermodynamic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dthermodynamic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070012358&hterms=thermodynamic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dthermodynamic"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermodynamic Structure of Collision-Dominated Expanding Plasma: Heating of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Coronal Mass Injections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Y.; Richardson, J. D.; Belcher, J. W.; Kasper, J. C.; Elliott, H. A.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>We investigate the thermodynamic structure of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) using combined surveys of the ejecta between 0.3 and 20 AU. ICMEs are shown to have a moderate expansion in the solar wind compared with theoretical predictions. The expansion seems to be governed by a polytrope with gamma approx. 1.3 in this distance range. We find that Coulomb collisions are important contributors to the ion-ion equilibration process in the ICME plasma. The alpha-proton differential speed quickly drops to below 10 km/s due to strong Coulomb collisions. However, the two species of particles are far from thermal equilibrium with a temperature ratio T(sub alpha/T(sub p) = 4-6, suggestive of a preferential heating of alpha particles. The plasma heating rate as a function of heliocentric &stance required for the temperature profile is deduced by taking into account the expansion and energy transfer between protons and alphas via Coulomb collisions. The turbulence dissipation rate is also inferred from the inertial range power spectrum of <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> fluctuations within ICMEs. Comparison of the turbulence dissipation rate with the required heating rate shows that turbulence dissipation seems sufficient to explain the ICME heating. Sources powering the turbulence are also investigated by examining the instabilities induced by temperature anisotropies and energy deposition by pickup ions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1510.03549.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1510.03549.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermosphere and geomagnetic response to <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejections observed by ACE and GRACE: Statistical results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Krauss, S; Veronig, A M; Baur, O; Lammer, H</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>For the period July 2003 to August 2010, the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> coronal mass ejection (ICME) catalogue maintained by Richardson and Cane lists 106 Earth-directed events, which have been measured in-situ by plasma and field instruments onboard the ACE satellite. We present a statistical investigation of the Earth's thermospheric neutral density response by means of accelerometer measurements collected by the GRACE satellites, which are available for 104 ICMEs in the data set, and its relation to various geomagnetic indices and characteristic ICME parameters such as the impact speed, southward <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field strength (Bz). The majority of ICMEs causes a distinct density enhancement in the thermosphere, with up to a factor of eight compared to the pre-event level. We find high correlations between ICME Bz and thermospheric density enhancements (~0.9), while the correlation with the ICME impact speed is somewhat smaller (~0.7). The geomagnetic indices revealing the highest correlations are Dst and SYM-H (~0.9), the l...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1507.06874.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1507.06874.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">On the speed and acceleration of electron beams triggering <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> type III radio bursts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Krupar, Vratislav; Soucek, Jan; Santolik, Ondrej; Maksimovic, Milan; Kruparova, Oksana</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Type III radio bursts are intense radio emissions triggered by beams of energetic electrons often associated with solar flares. These exciter beams propagate outwards from the Sun along an open <span class="hlt">magnetic</span> field line in the corona and in the <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> (IP) medium. We performed a statistical survey of 29 simple and isolated IP type III bursts observed by STEREO/Waves instruments between January 2013 and September 2014. We investigated their time-frequency profiles in order to derive the speed and acceleration of exciter electron beams. We show these beams noticeably decelerate in the IP medium. Obtained speeds range from $\\sim$ 0.02c up to $\\sim$ 0.35c depending on initial assumptions. It corresponds to electron energies between tens of eV and hundreds of keV, and in order to explain the characteristic energies or speeds of type III electrons ($\\sim 0.1$c) observed simultaneously with Langmuir waves at 1 au, the emission of type III bursts near the peak should be predominately at double plasma frequency. Der...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002832','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002832"><span id="translatedtitle">Assemblage of Presolar Materials and Early Solar System Condensates in Chondritic Porous <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Dust Particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nguyen, A. N.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Kloeck, W.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Anhydrous chondritic porous <span class="hlt">inter-planetary</span> dust particles (CP IDPs) contain an assortment of highly primitive solar system components, molecular cloud matter, and presolar grains. These IDPs have largely escaped parent body processing that has affected meteorites, advocating cometary origins. Though the stardust abundance in CP IDPs is generally greater than in primitive meteorites, it can vary widely among individual CP IDPs. The <span class="hlt">average</span> abundance of silicate stardust among isotopically primitive IDPs is approx. 375 ppm while some have extreme abundances up to approx. 1.5%. H and N isotopic anomalies are common in CP IDPs and the carrier of these anomalies has been traced to organic matter that has experienced chemical reactions in cold molecular clouds or the outer protosolar disk. Significant variations in these anomalies may reflect different degrees of nebular processing. Refractory inclusions are commonly observed in carbonaceous chondrites. These inclusions are among the first solar system condensates and display 16O-rich isotopic compositions. Refractory grains have also been observed in the comet 81P/Wild-2 samples re-turned from the Stardust Mission and in CP IDPs, but they occur with much less frequency. Here we conduct coordinated mineralogical and isotopic analyses of CP IDPs that were characterized for their bulk chemistry by to study the distribution of primitive components and the degree of nebular alteration incurred.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/68629','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/68629"><span id="translatedtitle">An analysis of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space radiation exposure for various solar cycles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Badhwar, G.D.; O`Neill, P.M.; Cucinotta, F.A.</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>The radiation dose received by crew members in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space is influenced by the stage of the solar cycle. Using the recently developed models of the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) environment and the energy-dependent radiation transport code, we have calculated the dose at 0 and 5 cm water depth; using a computerized anatomical man (CAM) model, we have calculated the skin, eye and blood-forming organ (BFO) doses as a function of aluminum shielding for various solar minima and maxima between 1954 and 1989. These results show that the equivalent dose is within about 15% of the mean for the various solar minima (maxima). The maximum variation between solar minimum and maximum equivalent dose is about a factor of three. We have extended these calculations for the 1967-1977 solar minimum to five practical shielding geometries: Apollo Command Module, the least and most heavily shielded locations in the U.S. space shuttle mid-deck, center of the proposed Space Station Freedom cluster and sleeping compartment of the Skylab. These calculations, using the quality factor of ICRP 60, show that the <span class="hlt">average</span> CAM BFO equivalent dose is 0.46 Sv/year. Based on an approach that takes fragmentation into account, we estimate a calculation uncertainty of 15% if the uncertainty in the quality factor is neglected. 25 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8183990','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8183990"><span id="translatedtitle">An analysis of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space radiation exposure for various solar cycles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Badhwar, G D; Cucinotta, F A; O'Neill, P M</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>The radiation dose received by crew members in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> space is influenced by the stage of the solar cycle. Using the recently developed models of the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) environment and the energy-dependent radiation transport code, we have calculated the dose at 0 and 5 cm water depth; using a computerized anatomical man (CAM) model, we have calculated the skin, eye and blood-forming organ (BFO) doses as a function of aluminum shielding for various solar minima and maxima between 1954 and 1989. These results show that the equivalent dose is within about 15% of the mean for the various solar minima (maxima). The maximum variation between solar minimum and maximum equivalent dose is about a factor of three. We have extended these calculations for the 1976-1977 solar minimum to five practical shielding geometries: Apollo Command Module, the least and most heavily shielded locations in the U.S. space shuttle mid-deck, center of the proposed Space Station Freedom cluster and sleeping compartment of the Skylab. These calculations, using the quality factor of ICRP 60, show that the <span class="hlt">average</span> CAM BFO equivalent dose is 0.46 Sv/year. Based on an approach that takes fragmentation into account, we estimate a calculation uncertainty of 15% if the uncertainty in the quality factor is neglected. PMID:8183990</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021496&hterms=exchange+rate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dexchange%2Brate','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021496&hterms=exchange+rate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dexchange%2Brate"><span id="translatedtitle">Electron impact ionization rates for interstellar neutral H and He atoms near <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shocks: Ulysses observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Feldman, W. C.; Phillips, J. L.; Gosling, J. T.; Isenberg, P. A.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>During <span class="hlt">average</span> solar wind flow conditions at 1 AU, ionization rates of interstellar neutrals that penetrate into the inner heliosphere are dominated by charge exchange with solar wind protons for H atoms, and by photoionization for He atoms. During occurrences of strong, coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> shock waves near 1 AU, electron impact ionization can make substantial, if not dominating, contributions to interstellar neutral ionization rates in the regions downstream of the shocks. However, electron impact ionization is expected to be relatively less important with increasing heliocentric distance because of the decrease in electron temperature. Ulysses encountered many CME-driven shocks during its journey to and beyond Jupiter, and in addition, encountered a number of strong corotating interaction region (CIR) shocks. These shocks generally occur only beyond approximately 2 AU. Many of the CIR shocks were very strong rivalling the Earth's bow shock in electron heating. We have compared electron impact ionization rates calculated from electron velocity distributions measured downstream from CIR shocks using the Ulysses SWOOPS experiment to charge-exchange rates calculated from measured proton number fluxes and the photoionization rate estimated from an assumed solar photon spectrum typical of solar maximum conditions. We find that, although normally the ratio of electron-impact ionization rates to charge-exchange (for H) and to photoionization (for He) rates amounts to only about one and a few tens of percent, respectively, downstream of some of the stronger CIR shocks they amount to more than 10% and greater than 100%, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011740','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011740"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of a Compound Spinel and Silicate Presolar Grain in a Chondritic <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Dust Particle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nguyen, A. N.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Kloeck, W.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Anhydrous chondritic porous <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles (CP IDPs) have undergone minimal parent body alteration and contain an assemblage of highly primitive materials, including molecular cloud material, presolar grains, and material that formed in the early solar nebula [1-3]. The exact parent bodies of individual IDPs are not known, but IDPs that have extremely high abundances of presolar silicates (up to 1.5%) most likely have cometary origins [1, 4]. The presolar grain abundance among these minimally altered CP IDPs varies widely. "Isotopically primitive" IDPs distinguished by anomalous bulk N isotopic compositions, numerous 15N-rich hotspots, and some C isotopic anomalies have higher <span class="hlt">average</span> abundances of presolar grains (375 ppm) than IDPs with isotopically normal bulk N (<10 ppm) [5]. Some D and N isotopic anomalies have been linked to carbonaceous matter, though this material is only rarely isotopically anomalous in C [1, 5, 6]. Previous studies of the bulk chemistry and, in some samples, the mineralogy of select anhydrous CP IDPs indicate a link between high C abundance and pyroxene-dominated mineralogy [7]. In this study, we conduct coordinated mineralogical and isotopic analyses of samples that were analyzed by [7] to characterize isotopically anomalous materials and to establish possible correlations with C abundance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920075518&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcane','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920075518&hterms=cane&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dcane"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar flare nuclear gamma rays and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> proton events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cliver, E. W.; Forrest, D. J.; Mcguire, R. E.; Vonrosenvinge, T. T.; Reames, D. V.; Cane, H. V.; Kane, S. R.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>We compared flare gamma ray line (GRL) events and solar energetic proton (SEP) events for the period from Feb. 1980 - Jan. 1985 and substantiated earlier results showing a lack of correlation between gamma-ray-producing ions and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> protons. This poor correlation results primarily from several large SEP events that originated in flares without detectable gamma ray emission. The converse case of GRL events unassociated with SEP events is rare. We present evidence which suggests that the ratio of trapped to escaping protons in GRL/SEP flares depends on the spatial scale size of the flare. We affirm the result of Bai and Dennis (1985) that GRL flares are generally accompanied (75 percent) by metric Type 2 bursts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920001038&hterms=clay&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dclay','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920001038&hterms=clay&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dclay"><span id="translatedtitle">Clay minerals in primitive meteorites and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zolensky, M. E.; Keller, L. P.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Many meteorites and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles (IDPs) with primitive compositions contain significant amounts of phyllosilicate minerals, which are generally interpreted as evidence of protoplanetary aqueous alteration at an early period of the solar system. These meteorites are chondrites (near solar composition) of the carbonaceous and ordinary varieties. The former are subdivided (according to bulk composition and petrology) into CI, CM, CV, CO, CR, and ungrouped classes. IDPs are extraterrestrial particulates, collected in stratosphere, which have chemical compositions indicative of a primitive origin; they are typically distinct from the primitive meteorites. Characterization of phyllosilicates in these materials is a high priority because of the important physico-chemical information they hold. The most common phyllosilicates present in chondritic extraterrestrial materials are serpentine-group minerals, smectites, and micas. We discuss these phyllosilicates and describe the interpretation of their occurrence in meteorites and IDPs and what this indicates about history of their parent bodies, which are probably the hydrous asteroids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990018631&hterms=self+determination+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dself%2Bdetermination%2Btheory','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990018631&hterms=self+determination+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dself%2Bdetermination%2Btheory"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental Determination of Infrared Extinction Coefficients of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Dust Particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Spann, J. F., Jr.; Abbas, M. M.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>This technique is based on irradiating a single isolated charged dust particle suspended in balance by an electric field, and measuring the scattered radiation as a function of angle. The observed scattered intensity profile at a specific wavelength obtained for a dust particle of known composition is compared with Mie theory calculations, and the variable parameters relating to the particle size and complex refractive index are adjusted for a best fit between the two profiles. This leads to a simultaneous determination of the particle radius, the complex refractive index, and the scattering and extinction coefficients. The results of these experiments can be utilized to examine the IRAS and DIRBE (Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment) infrared data sets in order to determine the dust particle physical characteristics and distributions by using infrared models and inversion techniques. This technique may also be employed for investigation of the rotational bursting phenomena whereby large size cosmic and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> particles are believed to fragment into smaller dust particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050165559','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050165559"><span id="translatedtitle">The Nature and Origin of <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Dust: High Temperature Components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The specific parent bodies of individual <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles (IDPs) are un-known, but the anhydrous chondritic-porous (CP) sub-set has been linked directly to cometary sources [1]. The CP IDPs escaped the thermal processing and water-rock interactions that have severely modified or destroyed the original mineralogy of primitive meteorites. Their origin in the outer regions of the solar system suggests they should retain primitive chemical and physical characteristics from the earliest stages of solar system formation (including abundant presolar materials). Indeed, CP IDPs are the most primitive extraterrestrial materials available for laboratory studies based on their unequilibrated mineralogy [2], high concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and volatile trace elements relative to CI chondrites [3, 4, 5], presolar hydrogen and nitrogen isotopic signatures [6, 7] and abundant presolar silicates [8].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090020504','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090020504"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon Raman Spectroscopy of 36 <span class="hlt">Inter-Planetary</span> Dust Particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Busemann, H.; Nittler, L. R.; Davidson, J.; Franchi, I. A.; Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Palma, R. L.; Pepin, R. O.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Carbon Raman spectroscopy is a useful tool to determine the degree of order of organic material (OM) in extra-terrestrial matter. As shown for meteoritic OM [e.g., 2], peak parameters of D and G bands are a measure of thermal alteration, causing graphitization (order), and amorphization, e.g. during protoplanetary irradiation, causing disorder. Th e most pristine <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> dust particles (IDPs) may come from comets. However, their exact provenance is unknown. IDP collection during Earth?s passage through comet Grigg-Skjellerup?s dust stream ("GSC" collectors) may increase the probability of collecting fresh IDPs from a known, cometary source. We used Raman spectroscopy to compare 21 GSC-IDPs with 15 IDPs collected at different periods, and found that the variation among GSC-IDPs is larger than among non-GSC IDPs, with the most primitive IDPs being mostly GSC-IDPs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040087455&hterms=Internet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DInternet','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040087455&hterms=Internet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DInternet"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Internet: a communications infrastructure for Mars exploration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burleigh, Scott; Cerf, Vinton; Durst, Robert; Fall, Kevin; Hooke, Adrian; Scott, Keith; Weiss, Howard</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A strategy is being developed whereby the current set of internationally standardized space data communications protocols can be incrementally evolved so that a first version of an operational "<span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Internet" is feasible by the end of the decade. This paper describes its architectural concepts, discusses the current set of standard space data communications capabilities that exist to support Mars exploration and reviews proposed new developments. We also speculate that these current capabilities can grow to support future scenarios where human intelligence is widely distributed across the Solar System and day-to-day communications dialog between planets is routine. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39..227B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39..227B"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar and <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Data availability for space weather</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bothmer, Volker</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Multi-point space missions, such as STEREO, SDO, SOHO, ACE and Proba2, with dedicated instrumentations operating in the Sun-Earth system currently provide a huge amount of unprecedented solar and <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> observations. The data from these missions as well as unique other long-term datasets already established provide to date unique input resources for quantification of space weather processes and the development of reliable space weather models. In this presentation I will give an overview on the availability of these datasets to the scientific community, the tools required for access of these datasets, namely the VOs and website resources, and brief comments on their individual importance for the various fields of space weather research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050176000','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050176000"><span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen Isotopic Anomalies in a Hydrous <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Dust Particle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, J. B.; Dai, Z. R.; Weber, P. K.; Graham, G. A.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Bajt, S.; Ishii, H.; Bradley, J. P.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere are the fine-grained end member (5 - 50 microns in size) of the meteoritic material available for investigation in the laboratory. IDPs are derived from either cometary or asteroidal sources. Some IDPs contain cosmically primitive materials with isotopic signatures reflecting presolar origins. Recent detailed studies using the NanoSIMS have shown there is a wide variation of isotopic signatures within individual IDPs; grains with a presolar signature have been observed surrounded by material with a solar isotopic composition. The majority of IDPs studied have been anhydrous. We report here results from integrated NanoSIMS/FIB/TEM/Synchrotron IR studies of a hydrous IDP, focused on understanding the correlations between the isotopic, mineralogical and chemical compositions of IDPs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730007404','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730007404"><span id="translatedtitle">Doppler frequency in <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> radar and general relativity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcvittie, G. C.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The change of frequency of an <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> radar signal sent from the earth to another planet or to a space probe is worked out according to general relativity. The Schwarzschild spacetime is employed and its null geodesics control the motion of the signals. Exact Doppler frequency formulas are derived for one-way and two-way radar in terms of an arbitrary Schwarzschild radial coordinate. A reduction to the special relativity case is used to interpret the formulas in terms of the relative radial velocity of emitter and target. The general relativity corrections are worked out approximately for each of three possible Schwarzschild radial coordinates, and a numerical example is given. The amount of the correction is different according as one or the other of the Schwarzschild coordinates is identified with the radius vector deduced from classical celestial mechanics. The identification problem is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://arxiv.org/pdf/1511.00821.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://arxiv.org/pdf/1511.00821.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Designing Complex <span class="hlt">Interplanetary</span> Trajectories for the Global Trajectory Optimization Competitions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Izzo, Dario; Simões, Luís F; Märtens, Marcus</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The design of <span class="hlt">interplanetary</span> trajectories often involves a preliminary search for options that are later refined into one final selected trajectory. It is this broad search that, often being intractable, inspires the international event called Global Trajectory Optimization Competition. In the first part of this chapter, we introduce some fundamental problems of space flight mechanics, building blocks of any attempt to participate successfully in these competitions and we describe the use of the open source software PyKEP to assemble them into a final global solution strategy. In the second part, we formulate an instance of a multiple asteroid rendezvous problem, related to the 7th edition of the competition, and we show step by step how to build a possible solution strategy. We introduce two new techniques useful in the design of this particular mission type: the use of an asteroid phasing value and its surrogates and the efficient computation of asteroid clusters. We show how basic building blocks, sided to...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.osti.gov/nle"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/NLElogo31.png" alt="National Library of Energy" height="31" width="79"></a> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="http://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> </body> </html>